used crude tools made of flakes. They had no knowledge of cultivation and house building. Goat, sheep & other cattle were used. They lived on roots & fruits. By the end of the Paleolithic Age, the flint industry came up. The important development of this age was the emergence of Homo-Sapiens.
axes. Parashurama became an important axe-wielding hero. Dwelling pits, ceramics, a variety of stone & bone tools & a complete absence of microliths marked this age. Cattle, sheep & goat were domesticated.
The most important event of ancient Indian history was the development of Indus Valley Civilization. This Civilization prospered on the Banks of river Indus. It extended from Jammu in the North to Ahmednagar in the South, and covered various regions of Gujarat. The main sites which have been found in the excavation are:
\u2022 Kalibangan in Rajasthan
\u2022 Lothal in Gujarat
\u2022 Banwali in Haryana and
The Indus Valley Civilization existed between2350 BC and 1750 BC. The main cities associated with the civilization wereHarappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal. The main feature of this civilization was Town Planning. They had great buildings, well-planned roads, cities and drainage systems. Trade and agriculture were the main sources of livelihood for the people. People of the Indus Valley were the first to produce cotton. Mother Goddess was the most important deity of worship.
This period is marked by the entry of the Aryans, who were originally inhabitants of Central Asia around the Caspian Sea and probably came through the Hindukush Mountains. The period in which they existed was between1500-600 BC.
be known asBuddha) around 6th century BC. Siddhartha was born in 567 BC atLumbini in Kapilavastu (present day Nepal). He was the son of king Shuddhodhana. He went in search of truth and attained enlightenment under a pipal tree atBodh Gaya, and delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in U.P. He died at Kushinagar in U.P.
The main Buddhist teachings of the eight\u2013fold path of right faith, thought, action, livelihood, efforts, speech, remembrance and concentration, belief in nirvana (freedom from the cycle of birth and death), ahimsa and law of karma were recorded in Triptikas, the religious book of Buddhists.
Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara). Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC at Bihar, and attained perfect knowledge \u2018Kaivalya\u2019 after he became an ascetic at the age of 30. He became a \u2018Jina\u2019 (one who has conquered happiness and misery) and died at Pavapuri (present day Bihar).
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