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BEST Transformer Test Procedures En

BEST Transformer Test Procedures En

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Published by Ahmed Raafat
Transformer Tests
The methods used during tests and measurements of the Power Transformers, test and measurement circuits, calculations and evaluation criterias are included in this manual. At the end of this manual, BEST Balıkesir Transformer Factory laboratory hardware and measurement and test equipments are listed.
For insulation levels of transformers, electrical characteristics and evaluation, please refer to national and international standards and customer specifications.
Transformer Tests
The methods used during tests and measurements of the Power Transformers, test and measurement circuits, calculations and evaluation criterias are included in this manual. At the end of this manual, BEST Balıkesir Transformer Factory laboratory hardware and measurement and test equipments are listed.
For insulation levels of transformers, electrical characteristics and evaluation, please refer to national and international standards and customer specifications.

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Published by: Ahmed Raafat on Nov 13, 2011
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Transformer Tests
BEST
BALIKES
İ
R ELEKTROMEKAN
İ
K SANAY
İ
TES
İ
SLER
İ
A.
Ş
.Facility 1 : A
ğ
ı
r Sanayi Bölgesi No 149 10040Bal
ı
kesir / Türkiye
Tel. : + 90 266 241 82 00 Fax : + 90 266 241 52 36
Facility 2 : Organize Sanayi Bölgesi 198 Ada 2 ParselBal
ı
kesir / Türkiye
Tel. : + 90 266 281 10 70 Fax : + 90 266 281 10 69www.besttrafo.com.tr  best@besttransformer.com
 
 
Transformer Tests
Page :1
Introduction :
The methods used during tests and measurements of the Power Transformers, test and measurementcircuits, calculations and evaluation criterias are included in this manual. At the end of this manual,BEST Bal
ı
kesir Transformer Factory laboratory hardware and measurement and test equipments arelisted.For insulation levels of transformers, electrical characteristics and evaluation, please refer to nationaland international standards and customer specifications.Tests and evaluation definitons are listed below:
Routine Tests :
Page
Type Tests :
10. Temperature-rise test 2211. Lightning-Impulse tests 26
 
Special Tests :
12. Switching impulse voltage test 3013.Measurement of dissipation factor (tan
) and capacitance 3214.Measurement of zero sequence impedance(s) 3415. Determination of sound level 3616.Measurement of harmonics of the no-load current4017.Measurement of insulation resistance41List of tests and measuring equipment of the testinglaboratory 42Prepared by : Haluk Odo
ğ
lu June 2009 ( 3 th Edition )
This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.
Ş
. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. Thereshall be modifications to this document.
 
 
Transformer Tests
Page :2
This document is copyrighted by BEST Elektromekanik Sanayi Tesisleri. A.
Ş
. It can not be copied or duplicated without prior permission. Thereshall be modifications to this document.
Measurement is made to check transformer windings and terminal connections and also both to useas reference for future measurements and to calculate the load loss values at reference (e.g. 75
C)temperature. Measuring the winding resistance is done by using DC current and is very muchdependent on temperature. Temperature correction is made according to the equations below:
 RR
2121
235235
(for copper)
 RR
2121
225225
(for aluminium)R
2
: winding resistance at temperature t
2
, R
1
: winding resistance at temperature t
1
 Because of this, temperatures must be measured when measuring the winding resistances andtemperature during measurement should be recorded as well.Winding resistances are measured between all connection terminals of windings and at all tappositions. During this, winding temperature should also be appropriately measured and recorded.The measuring current can be obtained either from a battery or from a constant(stable) current source.The measuring current value should be high enough to obtain a correct and precise measurement andsmall enough not to change the winding temperature. In practice, this value should be larger than1,2xI
0
and smaller than 0,1xI
N,
if possible.A transformer consists of a resistance R and an inductance L connected in serial. If a voltage U isapplied to this circuit;The value of current measurement will be :
i Re
 R L
(1)
. Here, the time coefficient depends onL/R ratio.As the measurement current increases, the core will be saturated and inductance will decrease. In thisway, the current will reach the saturation value in a shorter time.After the current is applied to the circuit, it should be waited until the current becomes stationary(complete saturation) before taking measurements, otherwise, there will be measurement errors.
Measuring circuit and performing the measurement
The transformer winding resistances can be measured either by current-voltage method or bridgemethod. If digital measuring instruments are used, the measurement accuracy will be higher.Measuring by the current-voltage method is shown in figure 1.1In the current – voltage method, the measuring current passing through the winding also passesthrough a standard resistor with a known value and the voltage drop values on both resistors (windingresistance and standard resistance) are compared to find the unknown resistance (winding

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