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Boko Haram Report

Boko Haram Report

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Published by Andrea Stone

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Published by: Andrea Stone on Nov 30, 2011
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07/10/2013

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BOKO HARAMEmerging Threat to the U.S. Homeland
U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Homeland SecuritySubcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence
Rep. Patrick Meehan, Chairman Rep. Jackie Speier, Ranking Member
November 30, 2011
 
 
T
ABLE OF
C
ONTENTS
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
2
 F
INDINGS
4
 R
ECOMMENDATIONS
 
5
 O
RIGINS
A
ND
H
ISTORY
 
Uprising 6  Radical Reemergence
F
ROM
“A
SPIRATION
 
T
O
T
HE
U.S.
 
H
OMELAND
 
8 Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) 8Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) 10
E
VOLUTION
A
ND
C
OLLABORATION
 
13
 
Changing Tactics and Targets: Suicide Bombers and Western Targets 13Collaboration with AQIM and al Shabaab 14 A General’s Warning 16 Potential Future Targets: Energy and Aviation Sectors 17 
C
OMMUNICATIONS AND
M
EDIA
 
20
 
 Martyrdom Videos 20 Internet Forums 20
O
PTIONS FOR
U.S.
 
E
NGAGEMENT
 
23
 
 Military and Intelligence Support 23 Diplomatic Engagement 25Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) Designation 26 
C
ONCLUSION
 
28
 
 
 2
I
NTRODUCTION
 
On August 26, 2011, a suicide bomber drove a vehicle borne improvisedexplosive device (VBIED) into the United Nations (U.N.) headquarters in Abuja, Nigeria,killing 23 people and injuring more than 80 others.
1
Responsibility for the bombing, oneof the deadliest in the United Nations’ history, was claimed by Boko Haram, an Islamistreligious sect turned insurgent group based in the predominantly Muslim northernNigeria. While this attack occurred inside Nigerian borders, it was the first time BokoHaram had targeted an international, non-Nigerian entity.The attack marked a significant shift in the targeting and goals of the group,largely unknown to the U.S. Intelligence Community, and capped off an evolution in thecapabilities of Boko Haram, beginning in the mid-2000s, from attacks with poisonedarrows and machetes to sophisticated car bombings.
2
In a video that surfaced in Nigeriain the weeks following the U.N. bombing, the perpetrator of the attack described the U.N.as a forum for “all global evil” and stated the attacks were designed to “send a message tothe U.S. President and ‘other infidels.’”
3
 According to Ambassador Anthony Holmes, Deputy to the Commander for Civil-Military Activities (DCMA) of United States Africa Command (AFRICOM), members of Boko Haram are being trained by Al Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb(AQIM).
4
They are also believed to have ties to the Somalian militant group al Shabaab.
5
 This cooperation, combined with the increased sophistication of attacks executed byBoko Haram, have led to concerns from the U.S. Intelligence Community over the sect’sintent and capability to strike Western targets in Nigeria, throughout Africa, and mostimportantly, the U.S. Homeland.Historically, Boko Haram has been focused on Nigerian government targets.Until recently, Western intelligence services did not widely view Boko Haram as apotential threat. Even after the U.N. attack, Nigerian experts remain skeptical aboutBoko Haram’s intent and capability to strike U.S. interests and the homeland.However, in the recent past, the U.S. Intelligence Community has underestimatedthe intent and capability of other terrorist groups to launch attacks against the U.S.Homeland. The most notable recent examples include al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula(AQAP), and Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), also known as the Pakistani Taliban. TheU.S. Intelligence Community and outside counterterrorism and intelligence expertsassessed that AQAP and TTP were regionally based groups with a target set limited toWestern supported governments or, at worst, American interests in the Middle East andSouth Asia. These assessments and general assumptions nearly proved fatal when aseries of attempted attacks planned, directed, and executed by these two groups werethwarted on Christmas Day 2009 on Northwest Airlines Flight 253 over Detroit, and in
1
“Nigeria UN bomb: Video of ‘Boko Haram’ bomber released,” BBC News, September 18, 2011.Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14964554.
2
“Islamist attacks in Nigeria: A taste of the Taliban,”
The Economist 
, July 31, 2009. Available at:http://www.economist.com/node/14156107?story_id=14156107.
3
BBC News, s
upra
note 1.
4
Al Qaeda-linked group finds fertile territory in Nigeria as killings escalate,” Paul Cruickshank and TomLister, CNN, November 18, 2011, pg. 2. Available at: http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-18/africa/world_africa_nigeria-militants_1_boko-haram-maiduguri-nigerian-state/2?_s=PM:AFRICA.
5
Ibid., 3.

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