Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Physicy Test X

Physicy Test X

Ratings: (0)|Views: 32|Likes:
Published by Merima

More info:

Published by: Merima on Jan 14, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/02/2012

pdf

text

original

 
1
THE FIRST BOSNIAK HIGH SCHOOL
PhysicsTestX
Alternatingcurrent;capacitors;electricity inthe home;magneticfields;electromagnets;electric motorsMerimaSabanovic
 
Alternating current
In an
alternating current
(
a.c.
) thedirection of thecurrent reversesregularly due toelectromotive force.Generators producea.c.Alternating currentmakes the pointer of an ammeter moveback and forth about the zero if thechanges are slow enough; otherwise thereis no deflection. It is visible on the graph(
sine curve
) that current oscillatesbetween maximum and minimum.
Oscillation
represents one complete circle.
Frequency
of a.c is the number ocomplete alternations or cycles in 1 second. The unit of frequency is the
hertz
(Hz). (
period of one oscillation)f= nt ; T=tn ; f=1T
Capacitors
A capacitor stores electric charge. In itssimplest form it consists of two parallelmetal plates separated by an insulator,called the
dielectric
.A symbol:When a cell is connected across thecapacitor plates, electric charge is forcedonto the plates. If the cell is disconnected,the capacitor plates remain charged untilthe capacitor is connected across theconductor. By storing charge, the capacitoris effectively storing energy.When one capacitor plate is chargedpositive and the other negative, there is anelectric field between the plates. In realcapacitors, the plates and insulator areoften rolled up together.Capacitors can be used in a circuit where acomponent is to be switched on or off aftera
time delay
.
Capacitance
Capacitance
(C) is the amount of chargestored in between the two plates. Thecapacitance is large when the plates have alarge area and are close together. It ismeasured in
farads
(F).
Types of capacitors
2
 
Practical capacitors
consist of two longstrips of metal foil separated by long stripsof dielectric, and rolled up. The
electrolytic type
has a very thin layerof aluminium oxide as the dielectricbetween two strips of aluminium foil, givinglarge capacitance. It is polarized (it has +and terminals and these must beconnected to the + and – of the voltagesupply).
Charging and discharging a capacitor 
a)Charging
A capacitor can be charged by connecting abattery across it. During the charging, thereis a brief flow of electrons that would bedetected by a sensitive ammeter. Chargingstops when the charges on both plates of the capacitor are equal; the electron flow isthe zero.
b)Discharging
When a conductor is connected across acharged capacitor, there is a brief flow of electrons from – plate to the + one. Thecharge stored falls to zero, as does thevoltage across it.
c)Demonstration
As the capacitor charges, the potentialdifference across its plates increases.Initially R1 gets a large share of the supplyPD but this share decreases as thecapacitor charges. When the PD across R1is low enough, the base current switches off the collector-emitter current. Initially thebulb lights. After a time delay, whichdepends on the size of the capacitor andthe resistance in the circuit, the bulb goesout.
Effect of capacitors ind.c. and a.c. circuits
a)d.c.
 The capacitor blocks d.c. (i.e. it acts like anopen switch).
b)a.c.
 The capacitor passes a.c. In fact, no currentpasses through the capacitor since itsplates are separated by an insulator. But asthe a.c. reverses direction, the capacitorcharges and discharges causing electronsto flow back and forth rapidly in the wires joining the plates. Thus effectively a.c.flows round the circuit.
Electricity in thehome
House circuits
Electricity usually comes into our homes byan underground cable containing two wires,the
live
(L) and the
neutral
(N). Theneutral is earthed at the local substationand so there is no p.d. between it and theearth. The supply is a.c. and the live wire isalternately positive and negative.
a)Circuits in parallel
Every circuit is connected in parallel withthe supply, i.e. across the live and neutral,and receives the full mains p.d. (230V inthe UK).
b)Switches and fuses
3

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->