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Section 4.5

Section 4.5

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Published by Chang Broot

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Published by: Chang Broot on Feb 10, 2012
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252
CHAPTER 4
Commonly
Used
Distributions
Also,
oo
1
7
11
2
--e-
'
I
dz
=
1
J
00
../iii
sinceit
is
the integral
of
the
N
(0,
1)
probability density function overallits possiblevalues.Therefore
fJ-x
=
a(O)
+
fJ-(l)
=
Jk
To
showthat
al
=
a
2,
weuse Equation(2.36)(in Section 2.4):
1
a.~
=
;'00
(x
_
fJ-x)2
__
_
e
-(x-JJ.)'/2a
2
dx
-oc
a../iii
Make thesubstitution z
=
(x
-
fJ-)
/
a.
Recall that
fJ-x
=
fJ-.
Then
oo
?
?,
1
_,
x
=
a-z----ae-
<
/2
dz
.
-00
a../iii
Integrating by parts twiceshowsthat
J
o
1
?
-,
12
d
--z-e
-'
,
Z
=
1
-00
../iii
2
Therefore
a~
=
a
.
Exercises
for
Section 4.5
1. 
Find the
area
under
the
normalcurve
a. 
To the
right
of
z
=
-0.85.
b. 
Between
z
=
0.40
and;;:
=
1.30.
c.
Between
z
=
-0.30
and
z
=
0.90.
d. 
Outside
z
=
-1.50
to
z
=
-0.45.
2. 
Find
the
areaunder
the
normal curve
a. 
To the
left
of
z
=
0.56.
b.
Between
z
=
-2.93
and
z
=
-2.06.
c.
Between
z
= -
1.08
and
z
=
0.70.
d. 
Outside
z
=
0.96
to
z
=
1.62.
3.
Let
Z
~
N
(0,I).
Find
a
constant
cforwhich
a. 
P(Z~
c)
=0.1587
b. 
P(
c:::
Z
:::
0)
=
0.4772
c. 
P(-c:::.
Z
:::
c)
=
0.8664
d. 
P(O:::.
Z
:::
c)
=
0.29
67
e. 
P(IZI
~
c)
=
0.1470
4. 
If
X
~
N(2.
9), compute
a. 
P(X
~
2)
b. 
P(1
:::
X
<
7)c. 
P(-2.5:::X
<
-I)
d. 
P
(-
3
:::.
X-2
<
3)5.
The
lifetime
of
abattery ina certainapplication
I
normally
distributed with
mean
J.1.
=
16
hoursan
standard
deviation
a
=
2 hours.
a. 
What
is the probability thata batterywil11ast
mor
than 19 hours?
b. 
Find
the10th percentile
of
the lifetimes.c.
A
particular
batterylasts
14.5
hour
s.
What
per centileisits lifetime
on?
 
1 
What
is
the
proba
bility th
at
thelifetime
of
abatteryis
betwee
n 14.5and17
h
ours~
Thet
em
perature re
corded
byacertainthe
rmometer
"henplacedinboiling
water
(
true temp
era
tu
re100'
C)
.
norm
a
ll
ydistribut
ed
withmean
fl
=
99.8'
C and
,w
ndard
deviation0.1 'C.
_,
What
is the
probability
that the thel
mometer
readingis
greater
than100°C0
Wh
at
is
the
prob
abilitythatthe
thermom
eter read ingis within ±O.
OYC
of the true
temperature
0-Scores
on
as
tandardized
testare
approxima
tely nor,
1
allydistributedwitha
mean
of
480anda
standard
deviation
of
90.
J. 
What
proportion
of
thescores are
abo
ve
700~
Wha
t
is
the 25thpercentile of the
scores?
c. 
Ifso
me
one's
score
is
600
,whatpercentile
is
she on')
tl. 
Wh
at proporti
on
of
thescoresare
between
420
and
520?
Weights
of
female
ca
ts
of
a
certa
in breedare
norm
allydistributed with
mean
4.1kg and
standarddeviation
0.6 kg. a. 
Wh
atproportion
of
female catshave
weights
be
tween
3.7and 4.4 kg? b. A
certain
female
cat
has a
weight
that is0.5stan dard deviations
above
the mean.
Whatproportion
of
female
cat
sareheavierthanthis
one?
.,
Howheavy is afemalecatwhose
weight
ison the 80
th
p
ercent
ile
0
d. Afemale
ca
tis
chosen
at random.
What
is
the
prob
abilitythatshewei
ghs
morethan4.5
kg?
e. Six female
cat
sare
chosen
atran
dom
,
What
isthe
probability
that
exactly one
of
them
weighsmore
th
an4.5kg0
The
lifetime
of
alightbulb inacertainapplication is nomlallydistributedwith
mean
fl
=
1400hoursand standard deviation
a
=
200hours
.a. 
Wh
at
is
theprobabilitythata
li
ghtbulbwilllast
more
than 1800
hour
s?
b. 
Find the 10thper
ce
ntile
of
the lifetimes.c. A
particular
li
ghtb
ulb lasts1645hours.
What
percentile
is it
s
lif
etimeon')
4.5
The
Normal
Distribution
253
d. 
What
is
theprobability
that
thelifetime ofalight bulbis
between
1350 and1550 hours?
10. 
Ina certainuniversity.
math
SATscores for theenter ingfres
hmanclass
averaged
650
and had a
standarddeviation
of
100.
Th
emaxi
mum
pos
sibles
core
is
800
.Isit
possible
that
th
escores
of
these
freshmenarenor mally
distribut
ed~
Explain.
11. 
Penicillin is
produced
bythe
Penicillium
fungus,
which
is
grow
n in a broth
who
sesu
ga
r
content
mustbe
caref
ully
co
ntrolled.
Th
e o
ptimum sngarconcen
tration is
4.9
mg/mL.
If
the
co
n
ce
ntration e
xceeds6.0mg/mL.
thefungusdiesandthe
process
mu
st
beshut
down
forthe day.a. 
If
sugarconcentration
inbatch
es
of
brothisnor ma
ll
ydistributedwith m
ean4.9
mg/mL
andstan dardd
eviat
ion 0.6 m
g/mL
,onwhat
proportion
of
day
swill the
process
shutd
ow
n0
b. 
The
supplieroffersto se
ll
brothwitha suga.r
content
that is
normally
distributedwith
mean5.2 mg
/mL
andstandard deviation0.4
mg/mL.
Willthis brothresult in fewerdays
of
production
los
t
~
Explain.
12. 
Specifi
ca
ti
ons
for anaircraftboltre
quire
thattheul
timate
tensilestren
gt
hbeat least
18
kN. It isk.nownthat 10%
of
theboltshave strengthslessthan18.3
kN
and that 5%
of
the bolts
have
strengthsgr
eate
r than19.76 kN.
It
isal
soknown that
thestreng
th
s
of
thesebo
lt
s are
nOJ111ally
distributed.
a, 
Findthe
mean
andstan
dard
deviation
of
thestrengths.
b. 
Wha
t
propor
tion
of
the bolts
meet
thestr
eng
thspecifi
ca
ti
on
')
13. 
Acylindricalholeisdrilledin ablock,andacylindri cal pistonisplacedin thehole.
Th
e
clearance
is
equal
to
one-half
the differen
ce
between
the
diam
eters
of
theh
ole
and the
pist
o
n.
Th
edia
meter
of
theholeis
normally
distJibutedwith
mean
IS
em
andstandard deviation 0.025
cm,
and the
diam
eter
of
the
pi
ston is
nonnally
di
stJibutedwith
mean
14.88 cmandstandard deviation
0.0
I5cm. a. 
Find
the
meanclearance.
b. Find the standard d
ev
ia
ti
on
of
the
clear
ance. c.
What
is
the
prob
ability
th
atthe
clearan
ceisless than
0.05
em?
 
254
CHAPTER 4
Commonly Used Distributions
d. 
Find the 25th percentile
of
the clearance.
e. 
Specificationscall for the clearance to be between0.05 and 0.09cm.
What
isthe probability that theclearance meets thespecification')
f. 
It
is possible
to
adjust the mean hole diameter. Towhat value shouldit be adjusted so
as
to maximize
th
eprobability that theclearance will be between 0.05and0.09
cm?
14. 
Shafts manufactured for use
in
opticalstoragede vices have diameters thatare normally distributed with mean
/.l.
=
0.652
cmandstandard deviation
a
=
0.00
3cm.
The
specificationfor theshaft di ameter
is
0.650
±
0,005 cm.
a. 
What
proportion
of
theshaftsmanufactured by this processmeetthespecifications?
b. 
The processmean can be adjusted throughcalibra tion.
lfthe
mean is s
et
toO.650cm
,what proportion
of
the shaftswill
meet
specifications?c. 
If
themean
is
s
et
to
0.650
cm
,whatmust thestan dard deviation besothat99%
of
the shafts willmeet specifications?
15. 
The
fill
volume
of
cansfilled by acertainmachine
is
normally distributedwith mean12.05
oz
andstandarddeviation 0,03oz.
a. 
What
proportion
of
canscontainlessthan 12oz?
b. 
Theprocess
mean
canbe adjusted throughcalibration. Towhat valueshould the mean bes
et
sothat99%
of
the canswill contain 12
ozor
more?c. 
If
the
pro
cess mean remainsat12.05oz, whatmust thestandard
de
viation beso that
99%
of
thecanswill contain 12
oz
ormore?
16. 
Afilm-coating process
pr
oducesfilms whose thick nessesare normally distributedwith amean
of
110
micronsand astandarddeviation
of
10microns.Foracertainapplication, the
minimum
acceptable thickness is
90
microns.
a. 
What
proportion
of
filmswill be too thin?
b. 
To what
va
lue should the meanbeset so thatonly I%
of
the filmswillbe toothin? c. 
If
themeanremainsat110,whatmust
the
standard
de
viation besothat only I%
of
the filmswill betoo thin?
17. 
A fiber-spinning processcurrently produces a fiber
who
sestrengthis normally distributed with a mean
of
75
N/m
2
Theminimumacceptablestrengthis
65
Nlm
2
a. 
Ten percent
of
the fiber produced
by
the
CUiTent
methodfailsto meet the minimumspecification.
Wh
at is thestandard deviation
of
fiberstrengths
in
the current process?
b. 
If
the meanremainsat75
N/m
2,
whatmust the standardde
vi
ation beso thatonly1%
of
thefiberwillfailto meet thespecification? c. 
If
the standard
de
viationis5
N/m
2,
to
what
va
luemust the mean be setsothatonly
I
%
of
thefiberwillfail to meet the spec
ifi
cat
ion?
18. 
Cylindrical rods manufactured bya cel1ainprocess have lengthsthat arenormally distributed with mean
10cm
andstandard deviation
0.1
cm.Arodisat tachedtoa base
th
at is exactly3
cm
in length. Let
X
denote the length
of
theentireassembly, measured
incm,
a. Find
/.l.x.
b. 
Find
a;.
c. 
What
isthedistribution
of
X?
2
19. 
Let
X
~
N
(/.l.
,a
),
and letZ
=
(X
-
/.l.)/a.
UseEquation(4.25) toshow thatZ
~
N(
O,1).
20. 
Th
equality-assuranceprogram fora
ce
rtainadhesiveformulationprocessinvolvesmeasuring howwell the adhesive sti
ck
sapiece
of
plastic toa glasssUiface. Whentheprocess
is
functioningcorrectly,
th
eadhesivestrength
X
isnormallydistributedwith a mean
of
200
Nandastandard deviation
of
IO
N.Eachhour,you
make
one
mea
s
urement
of
the adhesivestrength,
You
aresupposed to
inf
ormyoursupervisor
if
yourmeasurementindicates thatthe pro
ce
ss hasstrayed from itstarg
et
di
str
ibution,
a. 
Find
P(X
::0
160),underthe assumptionthat the processisfunctioningcOITectly.
b. 
Ba
sedon youranswer to part
(a
),if the processis functioningcorrectly,woulda strength
of
160 Nbe unusuallysmall?Explain. c, 
If
you
ob
served an adhesivestrength
of
160N,wouldthis beconvincingevidence thatthe
pr
oc
es
swasno longerfunctioning correctly? Explain.d. Find
P(X
:::
20
3), under theassumptionthat the processisfunctioning
cO
lTe
ctly.

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