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Trainer- And Trainee-Centered Strategies

Trainer- And Trainee-Centered Strategies

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Published by Alwyn Lau

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Published by: Alwyn Lau on Dec 01, 2008
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05/09/2014

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Trainer–centred Methods & Trainee-centred Methods
MethodDescriptionBenefitsLimitationsKey Areas Of Use
Lectures
A presentation given to anaudience with little (if any)interaction or feed backSuitable for use withlarge groups of learners, whereparticipant is limitedbecause of numbers.The lecture can beplanned preciselyand used to convey alarge amount of information in a shortperiod of time.Potentially a verypassive learningexperience. Lack of learner participation,requires learners tofully understand andassimilate theinformation as it ispresented.- conveying largeamounts of informationin a limited time- encouraging and directingfurther private study
Formalteaching
A presentation incorporatinga variety of techniques andallowing for participation bythe learners in the form of questions and discussion.Suitable for conveyinginformation to groupsof learners.Participation by thelearners may keeptheir interest and leadto a degree of involvement.The learners havethe opportunity toparticipate but maynot wish to do so.The communicationwill then be all oneway and the sessionwill be little differentfrom a lecture.Any programme of learninginvolving group teaching.
Demonstrations
A session where a skill islearned following a formalprocedure such as:-description of skill;illustration of end-product;‘slow motion’ demonstrationmay be followed by one or more at normal speed-summary of main points of demonstration; re-emphasisof any health and safetyprocedures-performance of skill under supervision-feedback on performanceParticularly suitablefor teaching skills. Askill may be brokendown into smallstages which can bepracticed, enablingexpertise to bedeveloped in smallstages.Does not guaranteethat learning will takeplace. Must beconsolidated bypractice in order to beeffective as soon aspossible after thedemonstration. Workswell only if fullyvisible to all learnersand well performed.It may be too ‘slick’and , as a result, thelearners may not fullyappreciate thecomplexity of thetask; conversely itmay be bungled and/or poorly preparedand , as a result, thetutor may lose faceand the learners’confidence.The demonstrationmust be clearlyvisible to the wholegroup.Craft courses, laboratorywork, office skills, musicalskills.
Team teaching
The work of several classestaking the same course isclosely co-ordinated.Teachers taking thoseclasses work as a team,taking different roles withgroups of varying size.-economise onspecialist staff -enables staff toconcentrate on their particular specialinterests-frees staff for supporting activities; preparing material,-organisation maybecome too rigid-lectures to severalgroups gatheredtogether may beun-stimulating for learners and strainfor lecturers andmay provideCoursers which:-require elaboratedemonstration, films,outside speakers-have larger numbers of learners and few specialistlecturers-have well motivatedlearners.
 
Trainer–centred Methods & Trainee-centred Methods
MethodDescriptionBenefitsLimitationsKey Areas Of Use
marking , etc.-gives learnerscontact with severaltutors rather thanone-enables newlecturers to beinducted and thework of absentlecturers to beabsorbed-several groups maybe taught at thesame time by onetutor.problem of notemaking andparticipation-rooms of the rightsize may not beavailable
Search or discovery
Learners are placed insituations requiring self-directed learning under the tutor’s generalguidance. Exercise,tasks or games are used – enabling learners tomake their owndiscoveries.-allows learners todemonstrate anddevelop a widerange of skills andpersona; qualities.These include theability to showinitiative, to takeresponsibility andplan , to solveproblems, makedecisions andcommunicateeffectively.-is a highly activeand participativeform of learning.-opportunity for involvement mayencourage poorlymotivated learnersPoorly motivatedlearners mayregard the freedomof learner –centred strategiesas an opportunityto do very little.Particularly successfulwith more highlymotivated learners.Underpins the movetowards competence –based education andtraining with its highlyindividualized approachand emphasis on self-directed learning.
Discussion
Knowledge, ideas andopinions on particular subjects are freelyexchanged among thetutor and learners.Particularlysuitable where:-the contentinvolves matters of opinion-tutors aim tochange attitudes.Useful for obtainingfeedback about thelearnerslevel of understanding andability to applyknowledge.-learners may strayfrom the subject-matters or fail todiscuss it usefully-whole sessionmay be unfocusedand woolly-learners maybecomeentrenched in their attitudes rather than be preparedto change them-group leader maytalk too much,intervene tooreadily to fillsilences.To follow up a visit or atalk by a visiting speaker or the showing of a filmor video. Of coursemany of the bestdiscussions arespontaneous andunplanned.
 
Trainer–centred Methods & Trainee-centred Methods
MethodDescriptionBenefitsLimitationsKey Areas Of Use
Role play
Learners practice beingin particular roles byacting out a face-to-facesituation that representsreal life-work situationfor instance. Eachparticipant should havesufficient backgroundinformation to allow aproper understanding of the part to be played.-learners canpractice andreceive adviceand criticism in thesafety of a learningsituation-practice in roleplay providesguidelines for future behavior - learners gaininsight into themotives andattitude of other people- a highly activelearningexperience thatenables learnersto draw their ownconclusions andformulate their own needsLearners may:-be embarrassed-suffer loss of confidence-not take the roleplay seriouslyThe training of socialworkers, managers andothers involved inpersonal relationships;the training of tutors,through microteaching.
Case Studies
A history of an event or set of circumstanceswhere the relevantdetails are examined bythe learners. Casestudies fall into twobroad categories:-Those in which thelearners diagnose thecauses of a particular problem or drawconclusions about acertain situation-Those in which thelearners set out to solvea particular problem-particular suitablewhere a cool lookat a problem or setof circumstancesfree from thepressures of theactual event isbeneficial-useful opportunityto exchange ideasabout solutions tocommon workproblemsLearners may notrealize thatdecisions taken inthe trainingsituation aredifferent from thosewhich have to bemade ‘on the spot’in a life situation-courses focusing onhuman behaviour -training in decision-making (management)-diagnostic work in anysubject area
Simulation
Learners may be askedto undertake a particular task, such as solving aproblem using the sameprocedures as thosewhich operate in real lifesituation. Simulationoften involves a practicesession or a test of knowledge acquiredprior to the exercise-a highly activeform of learning-particularlysuitable for anysituation wherelearners need topractise makingchoices andfollowing throughthe implications of their choices-frequently usedinstead of formal-must be realisticand the expectedresult reasonablyattainable by alllearners-may be expensiveand time onsumingto prepare-teaching practicepersonnel selection-courses for armedforces and ‘emergency’services- police, first aid,fire-in-service trainingindustry and commercial/ public sector organisations

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