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Content validity in Physiology exams

Content validity in Physiology exams

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Physiology by Dr Raghuveer on Mar 18, 2012
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07/16/2014

 
Jnpghc ne Rl}vmncnk} hgd Rhtlnrl}vmncnk} Unc' 6,8-# rr' <)88# Jhgph} ?28?Huhmchoc` ngcmg` ht lttr:..{{{'hfhd`imfjnpghcv'nk.JRHRDNM: 82'0<=;.JRHR88'2?5MVVG ?M48)?52\ ©?28? Hfhd`imf Jnpghcv'
 
Epcc C`gktl _`v`hfl Rhr` 
 
Fngt`gt uhcmdmt} ne emvt I'O'O'V rl}vmncnk}`|himghtmngv hgd mt”v fnirhmvng {mtl t`hflmgk lnpvd`unt`d en dmee``gt vpo)dmumvmngv ne rl}vmncnk}
_hklpu`` Flnpdlh}*# D Umgnd Apih Flh{ch# Ahich Flnpdlh}# Vngmah Flnpdlh} hgdPimch Flnpdlh}
D`rhti`gt ne Rl}vmncnk}# D V'G' I`dmfhc Fncc`k`# Jndlrp# _hjhvtlhg# Mgdmh'
Hff`rt`d 8? Gnu`io`# ?288
Vfm`gtmemf vtpdm`v fngemi tlht mt mv tl` `uhcphtmng v}vt`i htl` tlhg `dpfhtmnghc noj`ftmu`v# fpmfpcpin mgvtpftmnghc t`flgmxp`v tlht lhu` tl` invt rnenpgd mirhft ng vtpd`gtv c`hgmgk' Tl` r`v`gt vtpd}{hv dng` tn emgd npt tl` fnu`hk` ne dmee``gt vpo)dmumvmngv ne rl}vmncnk} mg {mtt`g `|himghtmng hgdmtv fnirhmvng {mtl tl` t`hflmgk lnpv d`unt`d tn tl` t`hflmgk ne `hfl tnrmf' En tl` hghc}v`v ne tl`{mtt`g xp`vtmng rhr`v# hcc tl` xp`vtmngv ne tl` emvt I'O'O'V `|himghtmng ne _hjhvtlhg Pgmu`vmt} neL`hctl Vfm`gf`v eni ?228 tn ?225 {`` `|himg`d hgd hghc}z`d en fngt`gt uhcmdmt}' Tl` `vpctv ne tlmvhghc}vmv {`` tl`g fnirh`d {mtl r`f`gthk` e`xp`gf} ne t`hflmgk lnpv d`unt`d tn `hfl tnrmf'Lmkl`vt r`f`gthk` e`xp`gf} ne fnu`hk` {hv {mtl fhdmnuhvfpch v}vt`i ,80'42%- {lmc` cn{`vt {hven `|`fmv` rl}vmncnk} ,8'?5%-' 40% fnu`hk` ne hcc tl` v`ki`gtv {hv hva`d eni FUV# ocnnd hgd FGVmgfcpdmgk vr`fmhc v`gv`v' Tl` r`f`gthk` e`xp`gf} ne fchvv`v en tl`v` tnrmfv {hv hghc}v`d npt ne htnthc ne ?22 l ne t`hflmgk' Mt {hv enpgd tn o` lmkl`vt en g`unpv v}vt`i ,8<%- {lmc` cn{`vt en`gumngi`gthc rl}vmncnk} hgd `|`fmv` rl}vmncnk} ,?'0% `hfl-' Mg tl` r`v`gt vtpd}# mt {hv nov`u`dtlht tl`` mv vni` dmeemfpct} mg v`ttmgk ne xp`vtmngv dp` tn tl` hov`gf` ne {`mklt en dmee``gt vpo)dmumvmngv' Vni` vpo)dmumvmng ne rl}vmncnk} `ihmgv pgfnu``d mg vni` xp`vtmng rhr`v' Fngt`gtuhcmdmt} mv tl` emvt rmnmt} ne hg} hvv`vvi`gt' Mt mv h i`hvp` ne tl` d`k`` tn {lmfl tl` hvv`vvi`gtfngthmgv h `r`v`gthtmu` vhirc` ne iht`mhc thpklt mg tl` fnpv` hgd vlnpcd fnu` mirnthgt vamccvhomcmtm`v' Mgf`hvmgk tl` vhirc` ne noj`ftmu`v hgd fngt`gtv h`hv mgfcpd`d mg hg} kmu`g t`vt {mcc mirnu`tl` uhcmdmt} ne t`vt hgd en eptl` mirnu`i`gt mg hvv`vvi`gt v}vt`i ne rl}vmncnk}1 fngt`gt uhcmdmt} mvg``d`d tn o` `vthocmvl`d'A`} {ndv:
Fngt`gt uhcmdmt}# rl}vmncnk} `|himghtmngv'
 MGT_NDPFTMNG
Tl` hvv`vvi`gt rnf`dp` pv`d lhv h rn{`epcmgecp`gf` nu` c`hgmgk' Vfm`gtmemf vtpdm`v fngemi tlht mt mvtl` `uhcphtmng v}vt`i htl` tlhg `dpfhtmnghc noj`ftmu`v#fpmfpcpi n mgvtpftmnghc t`flgmxp`v tlht lhu` tl` invtrnenpgd mirhft ng {lht tl` vtpd`gtv pctmiht`c} c`hg,Imcc`# 8=;6-' Vn# tl` `|himghtmng n hvv`vvi`gt mv hu`} mirnthgt fnirng`gt ne i`dmfhc `dpfhtmng hgdtl``en`# tl` hvv`vvi`gt mv hg mgt`khc rht ne tl`
*Fn`vrngdmgk hptln' @)ihmc: dhklp;4B}hlnn'fni' T`c:=8)=<?=?85546'
 fpmfpcpi ne h fnpv`' Tl`` h` tl`` onhd t}r`v nehvv`vvi`gt mgvtpi`gtv tlht h` pv`d mg hvv`vvmgkpgd`khdpht`”v i`dmfhc vtpd`gtv mg rl}vmncnk}: {mtt`g`|himghtmng# nhc hgd rhftmfhc `|himghtmng' Mg {mtt`g`|himghtmng# tl`` h` t{n dmumvmngv ne rhr`v: rhr`v Mhgd MM' Mg rhr` M# fngt`gtv mgfcpd` omnrl}vmfv# rl}vmncnk}ne ipvfc`# g`unpv v}vt`i# vr`fmhc v`gv`v# `gdnfmg`#`rndpftmng hgd l``dmt} hgd mg rhr` MM# tl` fngt`gtvh` rl}vmncnk} ne ocnnd# `vrmhtmng# fmfpchtmng# dmk`vtmnghgd hovnrtmng# `|f`tmng hgd t`ir`htp` `kpchtmng'@u`} }`h# t{n `|himghtmngv h` fngdpft`d ) ng` ihmg`|himghtmng hgd hgntl` en `ihgd`d vtpd`gtv ,vprrc`)i`gth} `|hi-' Tl` r`v`gt vtpd} {hv dng` tn v`` tl`
 
Flnpdlh} `t hc' =
Thoc` 8'
E`xp`gf} ne fnu`hk` ne dmee``gt hvr`ftv ne rl}vmncnk} mg ,8?- xp`vtmng rhr`v ne emvt I'O'O'V `|hiv ne _hjhvtlhg Pgmu`vmt} neL`hctl Vfm`gf`v'
V}vt`iI`hg % ne v`ki`gtvfnu``d r` v`vvmng% E`xp`gf} ne fnu`hk` mgnu` hcc % ne v`ki`gtv ,nptne 4;4 v`ki`gtv-% e`xp`gf} ne fchvv`v entl`v` tnrmfv npt ne ?22 lfchvv`v
F`cc rl}vmncnk} hgd omnrl}vmfv 6'40 4'22 6Ocnnd 88';< 82'=; 8?G`u` hgd ipvfc` 6'05 6';= 4KMT ='46 ='2; ;FUV 80'84 80'42 8?*_`vrmhtmng ='=; 82'8? ;@|f`tmng ;'=; ;'8; ;@gdnfmg` ;'0? ;'<2 8?*_`rndpftmng ;'58 ;'<2 5G`unpv v}vt`i 88'=? 8?'?6 8<*Vr`fmhc v`gv`v 0';6 5'6? ;@gumngi`gthc rl}vmncnk} 4'04 4'22 ?'0@|`fmv` rl}vmncnk} 8'?< 8'?5 ?'0
R72'20 ng fnirhmgk % e`xp`gf} ne fnu`hk` mg nu`hcc v`ki`gtv {mtl % e`xp`gf} ne fchvv`v en tl`v` tnrmfv o} Ancinknnu) Vimgnu t{n vhirc`t`vt'
fnu`hk` ne dmee``gt vpo)dmumvmngv ne rl}vmncnk} mg{mtt`g `|himghtmng hgd mtv fnirhmvng {mtl tl` t`hflmgklnpv d`unt`d tn t`hflmgk `hfl tnrmf'
IHT@_MHCV HGD I@TLNDV
En tl` hghc}v`v ne tl` {mtt`g xp`vtmng rhr`v# hcc tl` xp`vtmng netl` emvt I'O'O'V `|himghtmng ne _hjhvtlhg Pgmu`vmt} ne L`hctlVfm`gf`v ,_PLV- eni ?228 tn ?225 {`` `|himg`d' Tlpv# tl`xp`vtmng rhr`v ne 5 }`hv {`` `|himg`d'T{n `|himghtmngv h` fngdpft`d `u`} }`h1 l`gf` tl` xp`vtmngrhr`v ne 8? `|hiv {`` hghc}z`d' Tl`` {`` t{n xp`vtmngrhr`v ,rhr`v M hgd MM- r` `|hi' Vn# h tnthc ne t{`gt} enp ,?4-xp`vtmng rhr`v {`` emghcc} hghc}z`d'Tl`` {`` enp vpo)dmumvmngv ,h# o# f# d- r` xp`vtmng rhr`' Vn#=5 vpo)dmumvmngv {hv hghc}z`d' @hfl vpo)dmumvmng lhv ng` n in`rht' Tlpv# h tnthc ne ?22 rhtv {hv hghc}z`d' @hfl rht hkhmgfnirmv`d ne ng` n in` v`ki`gtv' Tlpv# h tnthc ne 4;4 v`ki`gtv{`` hghc}z`d ,Thoc` 8-'4;4 v`ki`gtv mg `hfl v`ftmng ne tl` rhr` {`` hghc}z`d en tl`uhmhoc`v e`xp`gfm`v ne dmee``gt hvr`ftv fnu``d ,`|r`vv`d hvr`f`gthk` ne tnthc gpio` ne v`ki`gtv ne xp`vtmngv-' En tl`vthtmvtmfhc vmkgmemfhgf`# A)V t`vt ,Ancinknnu)Vimgnu t{n vhirc`t`vt- {hv hrrcm`d'Fngt`gt uhcmdmt}# o`mgk hg mirnthgt fngvmd`htmng mg`|himghtmngv mg `dpfhtmng ) {l`` {` {hgt tn fn`ftc} jpdk` tl`agn{c`dk` hgd vamcc ne tl` c`hg` hgd d`vm` tn lhu` h knndfnu`hk` fngt`gtv mg tl` t`vt ,Alhgvhi# 8==<- ) {hv fngvmd``d mgtl` fp`gt vtpd}'
 
_@VPCTV
 ?4 xp`vtmng rhr`v ne 8? emvt I'O'O'V rl}vmncnk}`|himghtmngv fngthmgmgk 4;4 v`ki`gtv ne xp`vtmngv {``hghc}z`d' Thoc` 8 vln{v tl` e`xp`gfm`v ne tl` fnu`hk`ne dmee``gt hvr`ftv ne rl}vmncnk} mg ?4 xp`vtmng rhr`v netl` emvt I'O'O'V `|himghtmngv' Lmkl`vt r`f`gthk`e`xp`gf} ne fnu`hk` {hv {mtl fhdmnuhvfpch v}vt`i,80'42%- {lmc` cn{`vt {hv en `|`fmv` rl}vmncnk},8'?5%-' 40% fnu`hk` ne hcc tl` v`ki`gtv {hv hva`deni FUV# ocnnd hgd FGV mgfcpdmgk vr`fmhc v`gv`v'Me {` nov`u` tl` r`f`gthk` e`xp`gf} ne fchvv`v entl`v` tnrmfv npt ne ?22 l t`hflmgk# mt {hv lmkl`vt eng`unpv v}vt`i ,8<%- hgd cn{`vt en `gumngi`gthcrl}vmncnk} hgd `|`fmv` rl}vmncnk} ,?'0% `hfl-'Mg FUV# 8?% tmi` {hv kmu`g en t`hflmgk {lmc` 80'42%{hv tl` e`xp`gf} fnu`hk` mg `|hi' [lmc` en FGV#8<% tmi` {hv kmu`g en t`hflmgk {lmc` 8?'?6% {hv tl`e`xp`gf} fnu`hk` mg `|hi# mg `gdnfmgncnk}# 8?% tmi`{hv kmu`g en t`hflmgk {lmc` ;'<2% {hv tl` e`xp`gf} nefnu`hk` mg `|hi'Hv r` vthtmvtmfhc fhcfpchtmngv# gn vmkgmemfhgt dmee``gf`{hv nov`u`d o`t{``g tl` r`f`gthk` e`xp`gf} nefchvv`v npt ne ?22 l t`hflmgk ,fchvv`v- hgd r`f`gthk`e`xp`gf} ne fnu`hk` mg nu`hcc r`f`gthk` ne v`ki`gtv,npt ne 4;4 v`ki`gtv-# R72'20' Tlmv i`hgv np fpm)fpcpi ne t`hflmgk hgd hvv`vvi`gt rhtt`g# ihtfl`v {mtl`hfl ntl`' Mg ntl` {ndv# mt i`hgv tnrmfv t`hflmgke`xp`gf} hgd tl`m fnu`hk` mg `|hi mv hcinvt vhi`'Thoc` ? vln{v tl` e`xp`gf} ne fnu`hk` ne dmee``gthvr`ftv ne rl}vmncnk} mg xp`vtmng rhr`v' Mt vln{v tlht mg}`h ?228# xp`vtmngv {`` gnt mgfcpd`d mg `|hiv enitnrmfv ne `rndpftmng# g`unpv v}vt`i# vr`fmhc v`gv`vhgd g`u` hgd ipvfc` {lmc` `|`fmv` rl}vmncnk} {hv gntmgfcpd`d mg }`hv ?22?# ?226 hgd ?225 rhr`v' Tlmvvln{v tlht rnr` fnu`hk` ne tnrmfv mg `|himghtmngv{hv gnt enccn{`d `kpchc}' @u`} }`h# mt ecpftpht`vhffndmgk tn rhr`v v`tt`' Vn# vni` vpo)dmumvmngv ne
 
82 J' Rl}vmnc' Rhtlnrl}vmnc'
Thoc` ?'
Tl` e`xp`gf} ne fnu`hk` ne dmee``gt hvr`ftv ne rl}vmncnk} mg xp`vtmng rhr`v ne mgdmumdphc `|himghtmngv'
Hvr`ftXp`vtmng rhr`v }`h){mv`TnthcqGn',%-y?228 ?22? ?226 ?224 ?220 ?225
F`cc rl}vmncnk} hgd omnrl}vmfv 2 ? 5 5 4 8 8= ,4-Ocnnd 88 0 = < 86 5 0? ,82'=;-G`u` hgd ipvfc` 2 5 ? 4 0 8 < ,6';=-KMT < 4 5 8? < 0 46 ,='2;-FUV 82 8? ?2 8= < 4 ;6 ,80'42-_`vrmhtmng ; 6 88 88 8? 4 4< ,82'8?-@|f`tmng = 6 < 0 0 4 64 ,;'8;-@gdnfmg` 8 < 5 = = 4 6; ,;'<2-_`rndpftmng 2 = 4 < 88 0 6; ,;'<2-G`unpv v}vt`i 2 < 84 84 8? 82 0< ,8?'?6-Vr`fmhc v`gv`v 2 ; 0 82 5 ? 62 ,5'6?-@gumngi`gthc rl}vmncnk} 4 4 6 4 8 6 8= ,4'22-@|`fmv` rl}vmncnk} ? 2 2 ? ? 2 5 ,8'?5-
T{n `|hiv {`` l`cd `hfl }`h' Tnthc gpio` ne v`ki`gtv `|himg`d {hv 4;4'
rl}vmncnk} `ihmg pgfnu``d mg vni` xp`vtmng rhr`v'
 DMVFPVVMNG
Mt mv `umd`gt eni tl` xp`vtmng rhr`v hghc}vmv tlhtdmee``gt vpo)dmumvmngv ne rl}vmncnk} h` vni`tmi`v gntkmu`g rnr` {`mklthk` mg tl` `|himghtmngv' Vni` vpo)dmumvmngv ne rl}vmncnk} cma`# `gumngi`gthc rl}vmncnk} hgd`|`fmv` rl}vmncnk} h` pvphcc} fnu``d c`vv tlhg`xpm`d' Mg _PLV# tl`` h` gn neemfmhc kpmd`cmg`v `kh)dmgk tl` {`mklthk` tn o` kmu`g tn dmee``gt vpo)dmumvmngvne rl}vmncnk}' Vn# t`hfl`v v`c`ft xp`vtmngv enidmee``gt vpo)dmumvmngv ne rl}vmncnk} hffndmgk tn tl`mn{g jpdki`gt'Dhumv ,?228- vtht`d tlht tl` `|himghtmng vlnpcd o`d`vmkg`d tn hvv`vv tl` mgdmumdphc fhgdmdht`v” homcmt} tni``t tl` fnpv` noj`ftmu`v n fpmfpcpi nptfni`v hgdvlnpcd fnu` tl` ihmg fngt`gtv ne tl` fnpv`' O`kpivtht`d tlht hd`xpht` fnu`hk` ne fnpv` fngt`gt mvg`f`vvh} en tl` uhcmdmt} ne hvv`vvi`gt
 
,O`kpi# ?228-'Mg tl` r`v`gt vtpd}# mt {hv nov`u`d tlht tl`` mv vni`dmeemfpct} mg v`ttmgk ne xp`vtmngv dp` tn tl` hov`gf` ne{`mklthk` en dmee``gt vpo)dmumvmngv' Vni` vpo)dmumvmngne rl}vmncnk} `ihmgv pgfnu``d mg vni` xp`vtmngrhr`v ,Thoc` ?-'Hdancm ,8==0- vtht`d tlht {`mklthk` tn tl` fngt`gth`hv mv h d`cmfht` mvvp` ng {lmfl `u`g tl` `|r`tv net`gdmee` mg nrmgmng' L` hcvn gntmf`# ht tlht tmi`# tl`{`mklthk` ne uhmnpv tnrmfv d`r`gd`d ihmgc} ng`|himg`v n{g jpdki`gt' Tlmv {hv invtc} v``g mg tl`Mgdmhg vf`ghmn'Fn{c ,8==;- hcvn vtht`d tlht –mg d`t`imgmgk ne fngt`gtne hg mgvtpftmnghc pgmt# hva }npv`ce gnt ngc} {lht tnrmfv}np lhu` fnu``d opt hcvn {lht rnrntmng ne tl` tnthcfngt`gt `hfl tnrmf `r`v`gtv' [lht rnrntmng ne tl`fchvv tmi` hgd t`|t onna {hv d`unt`d tn `hfltnrmf>''''{l`g fngvtpftmgk }np pgmt hflm`u`i`gt t`vt#iha` tl` rnrntmng ne tl` tnthc gpio` ne t`vt mt`ivd`hcmgk {mtl `hfl tnrmf fn`vrngd tn tl` rnrntmng netl` tnthc fngt`gt d`hcmgk {mtl tlht tnrmf' Tl` `vpctmgk t`vt{mcc lhu` fngt`gt uhcmdmt} o`fhpv` tl` t`vt mt`iv `r`v`gthg hffpht` vhirc` ne iht`mhc fnu``d'Fngt`gt uhcmdmt} mv ng` ne tl` ihjn t}r`v ne uhcmdmt}'IfHc`` ,?228- vtht`d tlht –tl` fngt`gt uhcmdmt} `e`v tntl` `|t`gt tn {lmfl h t`vt n `|himghtmng hftphcc}i`hvp`v tl` mgt`gd`d h`h' En hg `|himghtmng tn lhu`fngt`gt uhcmdmt}# mt ipvt lhu` mt`i uhcmdmt} hgd vhircmgkuhcmdmt}' Tl`v` t`iv h` o`vt `|rchmg`d mg tl` enccn{mgk`|hirc`' Me h t`vt mv d`vmkg`d tn i`hvp` agn{c`dk` netl` lpihg rl}vmncnk} tl`g knnd mt`i uhcmdmt} mv r`v`gt1me hcc tl` xp`vtmngv d`hc {mtl ehftv r`thmgmgk tn tl` lpihgond} v}vt`iv' Ln{`u`# rnn vhircmgk uhcmdmt} {mcc o`hrrh`gt me hcc tl` xp`vtmngv enfpv ng tl` cmimt`d ond}v}vt`iv' Fngt`gt uhcmdmt} mv ohv`d ng `|r`t jpdki`gthgd tl` hvv`vvn vlnpcd fnirh` {lht mv thpklt {mtl{lht mv i`hvp`d o} tl` `|himghtmng' Me }np h` t`vtmgken hflm`u`i`gt# }np ipvt `gvp` fngt`gt uhcmdmt}'Fngt`gt uhcmdmt} mv tl` emvt rmnmt} ne hg} hvv`vvi`gt' Mtmv h i`hvp` ne tl` d`k`` tn {lmfl tl` hvv`vvi`gtfngthmgv h `r`v`gthtmu` vhirc` ne iht`mhc thpklt mg tl`fnpv`
 
,G`{oc`# 8==0- hgd vlnpcd fnu` mirnthgt vamccvhomcmtm`v'Eni hen` dmvfpvvmng# mt mv noumnpv tlht mgf`hvmgk tl`vhirc` ne noj`ftmu`v hgd fngt`gtv h`hv mgfcpd`d mg hg}kmu`g t`vt {mcc mirnu` tl` uhcmdmt} ne t`vt hgd en eptl`mirnu`i`gt mg tl` hvv`vvi`gt v}vt`i ne rl}vmncnk}#fngt`gt uhcmdmt} mv g``d`d tn o` `vthocmvl`d' Vn# npt`hflmgk fhg f`ht` h d`vm` tn c`hg# hgd hvv`vvi`gtfhg f`ht` h fngvtpftmu` h{h`g`vv ne mkgnhgf`1 tl`

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