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TEACHER’S PACK 3

Contents

Introduction CD-ROM Manual

v x

5

Handling Data 1

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Statistical investigations Scatter graphs and correlation Scatter graphs and lines of best fit Time series graphs Two-way tables Cumulative frequency diagrams Estimation of a mean from grouped data 56 58 60 62 64 66 68

1

Algebra 1 & 2

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Sequences Pattern spotting Functions Graphs Limits of sequences 2 4 6 8 10

2

Number 1

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 The four rules governing fractions 12 Percentages and compound interest 14 Reverse percentages and percentage change 16 Direct and inverse proportion 18 Ratio in area and volume 20 Numbers between 0 and 1 22 Reciprocal of a number 24 Rounding and estimation 26

6

**Shape, Space and Measures 2
**

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Similar triangles Metric units for area and volume Length of an arc and area of a sector Volume of a cylinder Rates of change 70 72 74 76 78

7

Number 2

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Standard form Multiplying with numbers in standard form Dividing with numbers in standard form Upper and lower bounds 1 Upper and lower bounds 2 Recurring decimals Efficient use of a calculator 80 82 84 86 88 90 92

3

Algebra 3

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Simultaneous equations Solving by substitution Find the nth term for a quadratic sequence Equations involving fractions Inequalities Graphs showing direct proportion Solving simultaneous equations by graphs 28 30 32 34 36

8

38 40

Algebra 4

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Index notation with algebra Square roots, cube roots and other fractional powers Quadratic graphs Cubic graphs 94 96 98 100

4

**Shape, Space and Measures 1
**

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Pythagoras’ theorem Solving problems using Pythagoras’ theorem Loci Congruent triangles Circle theorems Tessellations and regular polygons Practical Pythagoras 42

9

44 46 48 50 52 54

Handling Data 2

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Probability statements Mutually exclusive events and exhaustive events Combining probabilities and tree diagrams Estimates of probability 102 104 106 108

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© HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003

10

**Shape, Space and Measures 3
**

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Fractional enlargements Trigonometry: The tangent of an angle Trigonometry: The sine and cosine of an angle Solving problems using trigonometry 110 112 114 116

13

Handling Data 3

13.1 13.2 Revision of statistical techniques A handling data project 160 162

14

**Shape, Space and Measures 4
**

Shape and space revision Shape and space investigation Symmetry revision Symmetry investigation 164 166 168 170

11

Algebra 5

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Expansion Factorisation Quadratic expansion Quadratic factorisation Change of subject 118 120 122 124 126

14.1 14.2, 14.3 14.4 14.5, 14.6

15

Handling Data 4

15.1 15.2 Revision of probability A probability investigation 172 174

12

**Solving Problems and Revision
**

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Fractions, percentages and decimals The four rules; ratio; standard form Rules of algebra and linear equations Graphs Shape, Space and Measures Handling Data SATs Paper 128 130 132 134 136 138 140

16

GCSE Preparation

16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 Reinforcement of Number Reinforcement of Number Reinforcement of Number Reinforcement of Number Reinforcement of Number Reinforcement of Number Reinforcement of Number 176 178 180 182 184 186 188

© HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003

iii

The detailed lesson plans deliver core material from the Framework’s medium-term plans. suggestions for activities using ICT are included throughout the lesson plans and Pupil Book exercises. Trevor Senior and Brian Speed © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 v . student white boards and number fans make the activities easier to present and more accessible to students. counting sticks. Students who are working at Levels 3–5 are catered for by Pupil Book 1 and Teacher’s Pack 1. Due to the break caused by KS3 National Tests.mathsframeworking. are provided on the CD-ROM. A selection of inexpensive or free numeracy resources are available from Collins. Diagrams can also be reproduced for use on overhead projectors or electronic whiteboards. This can only be done by the good work of teachers in the classroom.com The NNS is intended to improve standards. extended activities and revision classes in their teaching programme. A3-sized target boards. See the accompanying website www. Full details of how to use this resource are given on pages x–xii. to help produce customised lessons for individualised teaching programmes. Chapter numbers and titles in Maths Frameworking follow the NNS medium-term plans. The authors appreciate the good work teachers do and hope that Maths Frameworking proves a suitable resource to help them. number squares. Those working at Levels 5–7 are catered for by Pupil Book 2 and Teacher’s Pack 2. and allows for the normal events that disrupt teaching time.com for details. the following specific approach has been taken to tackling the framework objectives in later chapters: G G G Chapter 12 is devoted to revision and is followed by a mock SATs paper. homework and SAT-style questions PLUS The free CD-ROM that comes with each teacher pack allows you to extract text and graphics from the lesson plans. For further information and resources for ICT integration. Keith Gordon. suitable for individual student use. visit www. Kevin Evans. Space and Measures through a range of investigation tasks. We have reduced the teaching time from the 105 hours recommended in the NNS to around 85 one-hour lessons.mathsframeworking. It accompanies Maths Frameworking Year 9 Pupil Book 3 and caters for students working at Levels 6–8. Full answers and a tutorial section for the test. Chapter 16 consolidates Number and Algebra and prepares students for KS4 work. The lesson plans have the following features: G G G G G G G Framework objectives to identify the key learning outcomes from the Framework Engaging Oral and mental starter activities to involve the whole class Main lesson activities to help you lead students into exercise questions Plenary guidance to round off the NNS three-part lesson Key words which highlight when to introduce Framework Vocabulary terms Extra Homework questions to consolidate and extend learning Answers for all pupil book exercises. The authors recognise that ICT provision in schools is varied and we have tried not to commit teachers to an activity that they could not carry out.Introduction This is the higher-level teaching text for Year 9. This should enable teachers some flexibility to include tests. for practice prior to KS3 National Tests. Maths Frameworking has been based totally on the finalised National Numeracy Strategy document. Chapters 13 to 15 allow students to consolidate and extend knowledge of Handling Data and Shape. Some lessons also address cross-curricular issues such as Literacy and Citizenship. However. The Oral and mental starters are designed to work with minimal specialised equipment – a blackboard and a piece of chalk would suffice – but resources such as OHPs.

Represent problems and synthesise information in algebraic. Number 1 Solving Problems and Revision G G G G Understand the implications of enlargement for area and volume. shape. Suggest extensions to problems. algebra. round numbers to three decimal places and a given number of significant figures.6 Recurring decimals G Recognise when fractions or percentages are needed to compare proportions.5 Upper and lower bounds 2 Fractions.6 Recurring decimals 7. identify exceptional cases or counter-examples.2 Long multiplication and division.7 Reciprocal of a number 7. or as a whole. core and extension) to specific lesson plans in Maths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3. and handling data. solve problems involving percentage changes. Use algebraic methods to convert a recurring decimal to a fraction in simple cases.2. Number 1 Number 2 Number 2 2. using a range of efficient techniques. Objectives Using and applying mathematics to solving problems G Chapter title Chapter title Solving Problems and Revision Lesson number and title Lesson number and title 12. including solving word problems. including ICT. Number 1 Handling Data 2 2.5. ratio. multiply and divide fractions.1 Standard form 7. decimals.4 Direct and inverse proportion 12.2 Mutually exclusive events and exhaustive events 9. Space and Measures 13.3 Combining probabilities and tree diagrams 2. Space and Measures 4 Numbers and the number system Place value.3 Shape and space investigation 14. directed numbers 12. Solve substantial problems by breaking them into simpler tasks. G Solving Problems and Revision G Handling Data 3 Shape.4 Upper and lower bounds 1 7.3 Shape and space investigation 14. geometric or graphical form.5 Shape.3 Rules of algebra and linear equations 12.5.Framework Objectives Matching Chart This chart matches the National Strategy Framework Objectives (Year 9. interpret and use ratio in a range of contexts. using symbols. ratio and proportion G Use efficient methods to add. subtract. percentages and decimals 12. Know that a recurring decimal is an exact fraction. compare two ratios. 14. Present a concise. reasoned argument.6 Symmetry investigation Solve increasingly demanding problems and evaluate solutions. ratio. directed numbers 2.8 Rounding and estimation 7. Write numbers in standard form.3 Reverse percentages and percentage change 2. explore connections in mathematics across a range of contexts: number. Number 1 Solving Problems and Revision G Use proportional reasoning to solve a problem. 14. interpreting division as a multiplicative inverse. percentages and decimals 2. graphs and related explanatory text.1 Fractions. percentages and decimals 12. 14. choosing the correct numbers to take as 100%. and measures. diagrams. explaining why.1 Fractions. cancel common factors before multiplying or dividing.2 Long multiplication and division. space. percentages. Recognise and use reciprocals. move from one form to another to gain a different perspective on the problem. methods and resources. 14.2. Understand upper and lower bounds.2 A handling data project 14. Space and Measures 4 G G Shape.2 Percentages and compound interest 12. Number 1 Number 1 Number 2 Number 2 vi © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . give solutions to problems an appropriate degree of accuracy. conjecture and generalise.1 The four rules governing fractions 9.4 Graphs 12.6 Symmetry investigation 14.5 Ratio in area and volume 2.1 Fractions. ordering and rounding G G G Use rounding to make estimates.

2 Factorisation 11. formulae and identities G Solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations by eliminating one variable. ( and sign change keys.2 Solving by substitution 3. positive or negative solution). Derive and use more complex formulae. y + bx + c = 0.2 Solving by substitution 3. Link a graphical representation of an equation or a pair of equations to the algebraic solution. Number 2 G Solving Problems and Revision 12. negative signs anywhere in the equation. Plot graphs of simple quadratic and cubic functions.4 Functions Graphs G Algebra 1 & 2 Algebra 1 & 2 Algebra 1 & 2 Algebra 3 Algebra 3 Algebra 5 Solving Problems and Revision Algebra 4 G G G 3. use the laws of arithmetic and inverse operations. decimals. Check results using appropriate methods. on paper and using ICT. Construct and solve linear equations with integer coefficients (with and without brackets.3 Quadratic factorisation 11.g.2 Pattern spotting 1.2 Pattern spotting 1. Algebra 1 & 2 1. percentages and decimals 12. Solve problems involving direct proportion using algebraic methods. working with decimals. Estimate calculations by rounding numbers to one significant figure and multiplying or dividing mentally. Generate points and plot graphs of linear functions ( y given implicitly in terms of x). function keys for powers.2 Multiplying with numbers in standard form 7. solve word problems mentally. relating algebraic solutions to graphical representations of the equations. expand the product of two linear expressions of the form x ± n and simplify the corresponding quadratic expression. use the constant.5 Change of subject G G Algebra 3 Algebra 3 G G Algebra 3 Algebra 5 Algebra 5 G G G Algebra 5 Sequences.3 Quadratic graphs 8. find the gradient of lines given by equations of the form y = mx + c.1 Simultaneous equations 3.3 Find the nth term for a quadratic sequence 3.g. e. knowing not to round during intermediate steps of a calculation. begin to solve inequalities in two variables. y = 3x2 + 4. Generate sequences from practical contexts and write an expression to describe the nth term of an arithmetic sequence.3 Dividing with numbers in standard form 7.6 Graphs showing direct proportion 3.6 Graphs showing direct proportion 3. Algebra 3 Algebra 3 3. and represent the solution set on a number line. fractions.3 1. y = x2. on paper and using ICT. using an appropriate method. Construct functions arising from real-life problems and plot their corresponding graphs. Find the inverse of a linear function.1 Fractions. Use known facts to derive unknown facts.7 Reciprocal of a number 7.5 Limits of sequences 1.Objectives Calculations G Chapter title Number 1 Number 1 Lesson number and title 2. establish identities such as a2 – b2 = (a + b)(a – b). ay + bx = 0. factors. percentages. metric measures. functions and graphs G Generate terms of a sequence using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions of the sequence.2 The four rules. Enter numbers in standard form into a calculator and interpret the display.5 Inequalities 3. Solve linear inequalities in one variable.6 Numbers between 0 and 1 2.4 Cubic graphs G G © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 vii . powers and roots. ratios and directed numbers Algebra Equations. add simple algebraic fractions.1 Simultaneous equations 3. e. roots and fractions. and change the subject of a formula. use ICT as appropriate. y = x3. G G G Calculator methods G G Use the reciprocal key of a calculator.1 Sequences 1. Number 2 Number 2 2. extend mental methods of calculation.8 Rounding and approximation Oral and mental starter activities throughout Throughout Understand the effects of multiplying and dividing by numbers between 0 and 1.2 Factorisation 11. given values for m and c. Square a linear expression.7 Solving simultaneous equations by graphs 8.7 Efficient use of a calculator G Use a calculator efficiently and appropriately to perform complex calculations with numbers of any size. time). Find the next term and the nth term of quadratic sequences and functions and explore their properties.7 Solving simultaneous equations by graphs 11. Simplify or transform algebraic expressions by taking out single-term common factors.1 Expansion 11. percentages. fractions. money. Enter numbers and interpret the display in context (negative numbers. brackets and the memory.

and of triangles and other polygons. Space and Measures 1 G G Shape.3 Length of an arc and area of a sector 6. SAS.2 Solving problems using Pythagoras’ theorem 4. Know that the tangent at any point on a circle is perpendicular to the radius at that point.1 Pythagoras’ theorem 4.3 Square roots. recognising that the index laws can be applied to these as well.Objectives Integers. SAS. space and measures Geometrical reasoning: lines.1 Index notation with algebra: negative powers 8. Apply the conditions SSS.1 Fractional enlargements G Shape.4 Congruent triangles G Coordinates G Find points that divide a line in a given ratio. rotations and reflections. ASA or RHS to establish the congruence of triangles. Space and Measures 1 Shape.6 Tessellations and regular polygons 10. Space and Measures 1 Shape. angles and shapes G Understand and apply Pythagoras’ theorem. Distinguish between practical demonstration and proof. rotations and reflections preserve length and angle and map objects on to congruent images. Space and Measures G G G G Shape. convert between area measures (mm2 to cm2. Space and Measures 2 Shape.5 Circle theorems G G Understand congruence. using the properties of similar triangles.5 Circle theorems 4. Shape.4 Congruent triangles 4. Shape. Shape.4 Congruent triangles 4.7 Practical Pythagoras 4. Space and Measures 4 Shape. solve problems involving constant or average rates of change. areas and volumes in right prisms. understand the implications of enlargement for area and volume. Transform 2-D shapes by combinations of translations. estimate. Calculate lengths.7 Practical Pythagoras 4. identify reflection symmetry in 3-D shapes. measure and solve problems in a variety of contexts. Visualise and use 2-D representations of 3-D objects. Space and Measures 2 Shape.4 Volume of a cylinder 6. Shape. calculate and use the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons. of parallel and intersecting lines. Space and Measures 4 14. begin to extend understanding of index notation to negative and fractional powers.1 Shape and space revision 6. including cylinders. cm2 to m2.3 Loci 4. Shape. Space and Measures 2 Shape. Space and Measures 2 6. powers and roots G Chapter title Algebra 4 Lesson number and title 8. G Algebra 4 Shape. but that triangles given SSA or AAA are not.2 Metric units for area and volume 14.5 Rates of change G G G viii © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Space and Measures 4 14. and vice versa). Space and Measures 3 10. Space and Measures 3 Solving Problems and Revision 4. Explain how to find.2 Square roots. Space and Measures 1 4.5 Shape. Space and Measures 1 Shape. Solve problems using properties of angles. recognise the similarity of the resulting shapes. Know and use the formulae for length of arcs and area of sectors of circles. Space and Measures 2 6. know that translations.1 Fractional enlargements 12. Space and Measures 1 4. Use ICT to estimate square roots and cube roots. justifying inferences and explaining reasoning with diagrams and text. Know that if two 2-D shapes are similar.1 Similar triangles Measures and mensuration G Use units of measurement to calculate. Understand and use measures of speed (and other compound measures such as density or pressure) to solve problems. Know from experience of constructing them that triangles given SSS. Space and Measures 1 Shape.4 Symmetry revision Transformations G Enlarge 2-D shapes given a fractional scale factor. explain why the perpendicular for the centre to the chord bisects the chord. cube roots and other fractional powers Know and use the index laws (including in generalised form) for multiplication and division of positive integer powers. cm3 to m3. cubes roots and other fractional powers 8. corresponding angles are equal and corresponding sides are in the same ratio. involving loci and simple constructions.4 Symmetry revision Construction and loci G Find the locus of a point that moves according to a more complex rule. Shape. Space and Measures 1 Shape. on paper and using ICT. and vice versa) and between volume measures (mm3 to cm3. ASA or RHS are unique.

2 A handling data project 5.6 Handling data 13. Handling Data 1 Handling Data 1 5. and justify choice of statistical representation in written presentations. Handling Data 2 Handling Data 4 Handling Data 2 9.1 Statistical investigations G G Handling Data 1 Handling Data 3 Handling Data 1 Handling Data 3 Handling Data 1 5.1 Revision of statistical techniques G G Handling Data 1 G Handling Data 3 Interpreting and discussing results G Analyse data to find patterns and exceptions. construct and modify.1 Revision of probability 15. understanding what they represent. Design a survey or experiment to capture the necessary data from one or more sources. estimate the mean. have a basic understanding of correlation.3 Scatter graphs and lines of best fit 5.1 Revision of statistical techniques 5.3 Combining probabilities and tree diagrams 15.2 A handling data project G Probability G Use the vocabulary of probability in interpreting results involving uncertainty and prediction.6 Handling data 13. Handling Data 1 Handling Data 3 Handling Data 1 5.2 A probability investigation 9. determine the sample size and degree of accuracy needed.2 A handling data project 13. on paper and using ICT. suitable graphical representation to progress an enquiry.2 A probability investigation G Handling Data 4 G Understand relative frequency as an estimate of probability and use this to compare outcomes of experiments.Objectives G Chapter title Shape. and select the statistics most appropriate to the problem. Identify what extra information may be required to pursue a further line of enquiry. Shape. cosine and tangent in right-angled triangles to solve problems in two dimensions.1 Shape and space revision 14.1 Revision of probability 9. construct and modify.2 A handling data project 5. design.4 Time series graphs 13. graphs and diagrams in support. identify key features present in the data.1 Probability statements 15. Find summary values that represent the raw data.1 Shape and space revision Begin to use sine.1 Statistical investigations 5.2 Mutually exclusive events and exhaustive events 9. including: – line graphs for time series.4 Solving problems using trigonometry 14.3 Trigonometry: The sine and cosine of an angle 10. Identify possible sources of bias and plan how to minimise it. Compare experimental and theoretical probabilities in a range of contexts. Processing and representing data.7 Estimation of mean from grouped data 13. including primary and secondary sources.1 Revision of probability 15. look for cause and effect and try to explain anomalies.2 A handling data project G G G Handling Data 3 Handling Data 3 12.3 Scatter graphs and lines of best fit 5. trial and if necessary refine data collection sheets. identify possible sources.4 Estimates of probability 15. Interpret graphs and diagrams and draw inferences to support or cast doubt on initial conjectures. G Know and use the formulae for the circumference and area of a circle. Handling Data 2 Handling Data 4 Handling Data 2 Handling Data 4 Handling Data 4 G G © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 ix . using ICT as appropriate G Select. planning and collecting data G Suggest a problem to explore using statistical methods.2 Scatter graphs and correlation 5.5 Two-way tables G Design and use two-way tables.1 Statistical investigations 13. Estimate probabilities from experimental data. Communicate interpretations and results of a statistical enquiry using selected tables.6 Cumulative frequency diagrams 5. median and interquartile range of a large set of grouped data. using ICT as appropriate. Solving Problems and Revision Handling Data 3 Solving Problems and Revision Handling Data 3 Handling Data 3 12. appreciate the difference between mathematical explanation and experimental evidence. Discuss how data relate to a problem. Space and Measures 4 G Handling data Specifying a problem. frame questions and raise conjectures. suitable graphical representation to progress including lines of best fit by eye.1 Revision of probability 9.2 A handling data project 13. recognising the limitations of any assumptions and their effect on conclusions drawn.2 A handling data project 13. Identify all the mutually exclusive outcomes of an experiment. Select. Examine critically the results of a statistical enquiry.1 Statistical investigations 13. Space and Measures 3 Lesson number and title 10.2 Trigonometry: The tangent of an angle 10.4 Estimates of probability 15.1 Revision or probability 15. – scatter graphs to develop further understanding of correlation. Find the median and quartiles for large data sets. know that the sum of probabilities of all mutually exclusive outcomes is 1 and use this when solving problems. on paper and using ICT. Space and Measures 4 Shape. Calculate the surface area and volume of right prisms.

G Type ‘D:\MF.pdf’. to enlarge and print pages and to adapt any of the activities to suit your own requirements. Adapting the text You can select text or a graphic from the lesson plans and copy it to the Clipboard. extensive help in using Acrobat Reader with the CD-ROM. G Double-click the Maths Frameworking icon. If a plus or minus sign appears to the left of a bookmark then you can click on this to show or hide subordinate bookmarks. such as a word processor or graphics package. Printing the PDF pages Select the print options you want by using ‘Page Setup’ in the ‘File’ menu. select the first letter of the sentence or phrase and drag to the last letter. G Click ‘OK’. Helvetica is substituted. that appear on the left hand side of the screen. To select a vertical section of text without selecting text on either side. If your computer does not already have the Acrobat Reader software it can be installed directly from the CD-ROM (please refer to the installation instructions below).) Using the Maths Frameworking Teacher Pack CD-ROM These pages contains brief guidance to help you to move around the CD. For further. hold down the Ctrl (Windows and UNIX) or Option (Mac x © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . If your computer already has Acrobat Reader installed. To select text and copy it to the Clipboard: 1 From the Tool Bar choose the Text Select icon.Maths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher Pack 3 CD-ROM This free Maths Frameworking Teacher Pack CDROM provides all the pages of this pack in PDF format. When you are ready to print. If you are not using the D drive as your CD-ROM drive. These can be read by Adobe Acrobat Reader. You can also navigate your way around by clicking on the ‘bookmarks’ to each lesson. the font cannot be preserved. Navigating the CD-ROM Use the black. follow these steps to view the Maths Frameworking Teacher Pack CD-ROM: Macintosh G Insert the Maths Frameworking Teacher Pack CD-ROM into your CD-ROM drive. select ‘Reader Online Guide’ from the ‘Help’ menu within Acrobat Reader. select ‘Print’ from the ‘File’ menu and specify the pages that you wish to print. and paste it into a new or existing document. Once the selected text or graphic is on the Clipboard you can switch to another application. (Note: If a font copied from a PDF document is not available on the system displaying the copied text. replace D with the appropriate letter. PC For Windows: G Click the ‘Start’ button and select ‘Run’. triangular direction buttons at the top of the screen to move forwards or backwards between pages of text. To select a line (or lines) of text.

Install the Clipboard viewer by choosing Start > Settings > Control Panel > Add/ Remove Programs and clicking the Windows Setup tab. therefore. you cannot use the Show Clipboard command until you install it. and a PICT for Macintosh. click anywhere outside the selected graphic. try zooming in.1. to make the desired section appear as large as possible before selecting and copying it.) PowerPC processor Mac OS software version 8. choose Edit > Select All. (Note: In Windows 95. Windows NT 4. Windows 98. Use the Text Select tool for any text you wish to be able to edit. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 xi . Adobe Acrobat 5 will not run on Windows 3.) Adobe Acrobat Reader 5 software Installation Macintosh G G Insert the CD-ROM into your CD-ROM drive. To select and copy graphics to the Clipboard: 1 Choose the Graphics Select tool by holding down the mouse button on the Text Select icon and dragging to the Graphics Select tool. The graphic is copied in a WMF format for Windows. Windows Millennium. 9. or Windows XP G 32 MB of RAM (64 MB recommended) G 150 MB of available hard-disk space Help When using Acrobat Reader.0. PC For Windows: G Click the ‘Start’ button and select ‘Run’. but text copied with this tool will not be editable by a word processor. G Click ‘OK’. but all files on this CD-ROM are compatible with Adobe Acrobat 4. To select all the text on the page. using the magnifying glass tool. check Clipboard viewer. Double-click the ‘Install Acrobat Reader 5’ icon that appears in the window. 3 From the ‘Edit’ menu select ‘Copy’ to copy the selected graphic to the Clipboard.OS) key as you drag across the document. System Requirements Macintosh G G 2 Drag a rectangle around the graphic you want to copy. If you are not using the D drive as your CD-ROM drive. or Mac OS X G 32 MB of RAM (with virtual memory on) (64 MB recommended) G 150 MB of available hard-disk space PC G Intel Pentium processor G Microsoft Windows 95 OSR 2. In case of copied graphics being of low resolution. and click ‘OK’. replace D with the appropriate letter. select ‘Reader Online Guide’ from the Help menu.0. Note that this is Adobe Acrobat 5 installer. Windows 2000.4. G Type ‘D:\acroread\rp500enu. (Notes: Copied graphics may include text.1 or non-Power Macintoshes.0 with Service Pack 5 or 6.6. 9.exe’. the Clipboard viewer is not installed by default. To deselect the graphic and start over. Or press Shift-V as necessary to cycle through the group of tools. Double-click Accessories. You can then view what you have selected by choosing ‘Show Clipboard’ from the ‘Window’ menu. The cursor changes to a crosshair icon. 2 From the ‘Edit’ menu select ‘Copy’ to copy the selected text to the Clipboard.

No part of this CD-ROM may be reformatted. lent.S. adapted. Maths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher Pack 3 CD-ROM must not be sold. This CD-ROM may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. to third parties. leased. Inc. Windows is a registered trademark and Windows NT is a trademark of Microsoft in the U. Published by HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 77–85 Fulham Palace Road. varied or modified by the user other than specifically for teaching purposes where enlargements and/or minor adaptations may be necessary. sub-licensed. assigned or transferred. Restrictions on use All rights reserved. and other countries.Attributions Adobe and Acrobat are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated. in whole or in part. Macintosh and Power Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer. Pentium is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation. without the permission of the publishers other than the form of printed copies for single use only. rented. London W6 8JB © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 First published 2003 xii © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .

Maths Frameworking Year 9 Lesson Plans For use with Maths Frameworking Year 9 Pupil Book 3 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 1 .

16. … . 13. Go through with the class the building up of the sequence with T(n) = 3n + 2. … and ask the class what the nth term is for this sequence. 9. … . Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G Put on the board T(n) = 2n + 7 and explain that this is a rule describing a sequence. Notice that the sequence goes up in multiples of 3. 3. They should be able to identify the first part as 5n since 5 is added on each time. You may even get ‘One hundred times ten’. 4. put on the board 109 and ask: ‘What does this represent?’ ‘One billion’ is the response that you want. Show the class the sequence 3. 8. the nth term will start with 4n. … and ask what the nth term is for this sequence. since 4 is added on every time to obtain the next term. … . as well as ‘A thousand’ and ‘Ten times ten times ten’. It gives the nth term in the sequence. Now put on the board 9. 13. 21. Talk about the use made of powers to represent large numbers. 18.CHAPTER 1 LESSON Algebra 1 & 2 Framework objectives – Sequences Generate terms of a sequence using position-to-term definitions of the sequence. on paper and using ICT. … . Show the class that this rule will also work for negative numbers.1 Oral and mental starter G G G G G G G G G G G G Put on the board 102 and ask: ‘What does this represent?’ You want the response ‘Ten squared’. Then ask them about 10100: ‘What does this represent?’ This is a googol. Now jump to 106 and ask: ‘What does this represent?’ You are looking for ‘Ten to the power six’ and ‘One million’. Ask the students for the reasons why they have suggested various rules. Now put on the board 104 and ask: ‘What does this represent?’ The response is now ‘Ten to the power four’ and ‘Ten thousand’. Then ask the class what they notice about the differences between the consecutive terms. Next. 2. Lead them to the fact that. Ask what must be added to 5 to get the first term of 3. 25. 11. 36. 9. 1. 8. 11. but you are unlikely to get a response. This generates 5. So the nth term will be 4n + 5. 14. 4. from which every term can be found by substituting the integers 1. Then put on the board 103 and ask: ‘What does this represent?’ You want the response ‘Ten cubed’. Notice how the sequence goes up in 2s and that the first term is 2 + 7. Go through the sequence with T(n) = 4n – 3. 15. So the nth term is given by 5n – 2. 2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Put on the board the sequence 1. The answer is –2. 17. 5. Then see what has to be added to 4 to get the first term of 9. Get the class to generate this sequence: 9. This will be 5. as well as ‘A hundred’ and ‘Ten times ten’. Then put on the board 1012: ‘What does this represent?’ ‘One trillion’ is the response that you want. 13. … . plus 2. the number in front of the n. 13. This sequence is 1.

Finally. 1. 11. 16. 6. 0. … 2 3 4 5 b 4n – 2 c n2 + 7 d n(n + 3) c 1.5. 17 e 1. especially if any student has completed Question 7.3. 21 d 2. 10 c 9. 0. 32 4n + 2 b 7n + 1 c 3 – 4n d 3n – 18 e 0. 9. 37. 9. … e (n + 3)(n – 1) d 3. 4 Find the nth term of each of the following sequences. 7. 10. 7. 9. 14.5. 5. –.1. 4. 7. 33 c 30.5. 9. 2. 15. 11. … e 0. Exercise 1A Answers 1 a f 2 a f 3 a g 4 a 5 a e 6 b 7 b 17. 39 Both are 2 c 2 Both are 4 c 6 d 2A Extension Answers Key Words There are many different solutions to each part. 18.6. 4. 6. 11. 10. … 1 2 3 4 a –.5 Plenary G Discuss with the class the results of the investigation in Exercise 1A. 7. run through the sequence T(n) = n(n + 2). 84 29. 11. 12. 17 d 2. –. 14 c 8. and show that the second differences are constant. 0.5. a 3. 11 b 1. 30. 8.2 f 0. 7. The class can now do Exercise 1A from Pupil Book 3. … Answers 1 a 4. 4.3n + 1. 5. 13. 17 g 2. 6. 12.5. 9. a 3n + 1 a 5. 5. 44. 6.4.1. 12. b 2. 7. 44 d 34. 21 d 4. –. … 3 5 7 9 3 Find the nth term of each of the following sequences of fractions. 4. 5. 2. 6. it is a quadratic sequence.G G G After some discussion.6. T(n) = n2. 25 b 23. 66. 6. a sequence whose nth term contains n2.5.5. 20 h 8. –. 28. 5.2. 16. 14. 10. 6. 4.25. The following includes one example of each: a 1. 9. 6. 3 b 0. 5. 11. 10. 2.1n + 3 c 2. 34 3. 9. 20.2n + 2. 10. In the example above. … 1 2 3 4 b –. 17. –. 10 d 5.5n + 2 b 2.5n + 1. 40.1. put on the board the first and second differences: 1 4 9 16 25 36 First differences 3 5 7 9 11 Second differences 2 2 2 2 Explain that when a sequence has the same second differences. 42 b 0. 8. 11. 25 e 2. 1. That is. 10. 22.4 n (2n + 1) — — — — h ———— (3n – 1) (5n – 1) 2n b 100 6. 12. 23 2 a 2n + 3 b 3n – 1 c n2 d n2 + 2 n n 3 a ——— b ——–— (n + 1) (2n + 1) 4 a 1. 8.75.5. 55 e 50. 7.25 c 2. 12 c 1. 10. 2. 20. –. I sequence I nth term I quadratic sequence I first difference I second difference Homework 1 Write down the first four terms of each sequence whose nth term is given below. 8. 6. … 2 Find the nth term of each of the following sequences. 1. … b 5. 12.1 c 3. 16 2. 28 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 3 . 12. 21. 18. 53 5. 13 b 2.

4. G Now just pour the 3 pint jug into the gallon jug to leave 4 pints in the gallon jug and 4 pints in the 5 pint jug. G From the gallon jug. leaving 1 pint. Working in pairs. fill the 5 pint jug. Ask if anyone knows how many pints there are in a gallon.) Build up a table of results while doing this. leaving 6 pints and 2 pints. There are 8 pints.) Now draw another chord in the circle. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G Draw on the board a circle with a chord (any straight line from one part of the circumference to another). all different from each other but still correct. how to divide the liquid into two equal measures of half a gallon (4 pints). If so. on paper and using ICT. then get them to explain the pattern to the rest of the class. (There are two. Now ask if anyone can describe the term-to-term rule. which gives 11. using just the three jugs. The solution is as follows: G From the full gallon jug. 3 pints and 2 pints. 2 pints and 5 pints.LESSON Framework objectives – Pattern spotting Generate terms of a sequence using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions of the sequence. Generate sequences from practical contexts and write an expression to describe the nth term of an arithmetic sequence. leaving a measure of 3 pints in the gallon jug.2 Oral and mental starter G G G G G Draw on the board three measuring jugs labelled 1 gallon. Many might suggest six due to the sequence starting 2. then 4 and so on. ask which pair can work out. 3 pints and 5 pints. Put this in the table. The explanation is that 2 is added. 4 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . The rule is: T(n) = Term + n where the build-up is from the term immediately before. Put the suggestions on the board. The class can now do Exercise 1B from Pupil Book 3. intersecting the first one. and ask: ‘How many regions are in the circle now?’ (There are four. fill the 5 pint jug. G Pour the 2 pints from the 5 pint jug into the 3 pint jug. 1. There may be a few good suggestions. giving 6 pints and 2 pints. Tell the class that the gallon jug is full. then 3. Ask how many regions there are in the circle. Now draw in the chord to intersect both chords already in the circle. Count with the class the number of regions. and clarity of explanation. 3 pints and 4 pints. fill up the 3 pint jug. Show that this is true. Encourage class discussion here. fill the 3 pint jug leaving 3 pints. Explain this terminology: T(n) is the nth term and Term is the term immediately before it. Now ask again: ‘What is the maximum number of regions if I draw another chord in the circle?’ Some may spot the pattern. Ask the class if they can tell you the possible maximum number of regions when another chord is drawn. leaving 1 pint. G From the 5 pint jug. G From the 5 pint jug. G Pour all of the 3 pint jug into the gallon jug. There are seven regions. showing the number of lines and the number of regions. … .

Exercise 1B Answers 1 a 10 c 15. it is very often useful to create simple diagrams in order to look at the pattern. (Hint 4 = 22. Explain that it is good to try to make a prediction. d Check your results for part c by Drawing diagrams 5 and 6. as this means they are actually looking at the pattern. T(3) = 3. Homework Look at the following diagrams. 15 e T(1) = 0 . from the table. the number of crosses which are in Diagram 4? b Draw Diagram 4. T(2) = 1. and count the number of crosses there are. 1 2 3 Diagram Crosses 1 1 2 5 3 13 4 5 6 a Before drawing a diagram. for there are only nine lines c 12. after this T(n) = Term + 3 3 a 20 c 27. 8 = 23) Answers a You will get the following results. Were you right? c Now predict the number of crosses for Diagrams 5 and 6. e Write down the term-to-term rule for the sequence of crosses. Diagram Crosses e T(n) = Term + 2n 1 1 2 5 3 13 4 29 5 61 6 125 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 5 . which should lead to a refinement in the rule being looked for. To get results from complicated situations. can you predict. 21 e T(n) = Term + (n – 1) 2 a You probably predicted 10 b Probably not. 35 e T(n) = Term + n 4 Two-hundred-and-ten pin bowling Extension Answers 1 –(n2 + 3n + 6) 2 Plenary G G Key Words I prediction G Discuss with the class how good their predictions have been and whether they got better as the lesson went on.

7 006 652. 3 → 12 → 3. has digit total 9. 8 and 8. Show this in flow diagram notation as: x 4x + 3 ×4 +3 6 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . This is different from the last digit sum. division is the inverse of multiplication and vice versa. Here they are both 2. which gives 10. so it might be correct. Now put on the board the function x → x + 3. which is x → x – 7. Explain that the term ‘inverse’ means here doing the opposite process to return to the original values. are they both inverses of each other?’ You may need to refer to both x → 4x and x → 5x in order to show that this is true. The end digit of this number must be the end digit of the original sum. 2 → 8. 1 You want to get the response x → – x. Here they are the same – both 8 – so the answer might be correct. This is not easy to see.3 G G G Oral and mental starter Ask the question: ‘Is 1234 × 5678 = 7 006 652?’ Is there a quick way of checking without doing the whole multiplication? One check is to look at the product of the last digit of each number: 4 × 8 = 32. 1. Ask them to work out 1 that the inverse function of x → 5x is x → – x. so the prediction is not correct. so you will need to break down the function into its two steps of × 4 and + 3. add the digits of 1234. Now put on the board the function x → 4x + 3 and ask for its inverse. Ask the class: ‘What is the inverse function of x → 5x?’ You may need to go through this in the same way which you did for x → 4x. G G G G G G G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G Put on the board x → 4x and ask the class whether they remember what this is. Put in a column underneath the numbers x → 1. Discuss each proposal and ask for a reason why the proposal was made. Another check is to do the digit sum scan. 4 and ask if anyone can tell you what each number will map to. Discuss with them the inverse of x → x + 7. here giving 1. You may need to hide the original column of numbers in order to focus only on the other two columns. 4 → 16 → 4 Ask the class if they can tell you what function will map each value back to where it started. Add the digits of any of these three numbers greater than 9. That is. Ask: ‘When we see a pair of inverse functions. Let the class try this out with a calculator to convince them that this procedure always works. and ask if anyone can propose what its inverse will be. 4 → 16 Now continue the diagram by making each term map back to itself. 4 Tell them that this is the inverse function of x → 4x. That is: 1 → 4 → 1. Now check that the product of the first two values is the same as the third value. They should tell you that it is the function x maps to 4x. 2. You need to lead the students to the inverse being x → x – 3. Try this out: ‘Is 314 × 783 = 245 762?’ The digit sums come to 8. 5678 and the predicted answer. That is.LESSON Framework objectives – Functions Find the inverse of a linear function. 5 Discuss what is happening with the above inversion. You should get the response: 1 → 4. Ensure that the class use the correct terminology. The product. 9 and 8. 3. 2 → 8 → 2. 8 × 9 = 72. 26 and 26. 3 → 12.

4. Exercise 1C Answers 1 1 1 a x → – x b x → – x c x → x – 6 d x → x – 1 e x → x + 3 f x → 5x 2 5 ( x – 3) ( x – 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2) ( x – 7) 2 a x → ——— b x → ——— c x → ——— d x → ——— e x → ——— 2 3 4 5 4 (x + 5) f x → ——— 6 3 Two different types of example are: 12 i x → 10 – x 1 → 9 → 1 ii x → — 1 → 12 → 1 – x 2→8→2 2→6→2 3→7→3 3→4→3 ( x – 6) ( x + 12) 4 a x → ——— b x → ———— c x → 4x – 3 d x → 5x + 2 e x → 2( x – 3) 2 3 f x → 2( x + 7) 5 a {2. 4. 6.G G G Given that the inverse is the opposite process which returns the mapped values to their original values. So what about the inverse? Homework 1 Write down the inverse of each of the following functions. The class can now do Exercise 1C from Pupil Book 3. and of + is –. 10} b 2. c Comment on the symmetries of the graphs.) Discuss the problems that this last inverse has. This gives the inverse function: ( x – 3) x → ——— 4 Show that this is the inverse function of x → 4x + 3 by choosing a starting set of numbers. draw the graph of the inverse of x → 2x + 3. 10 c Yes 9 The lines are symmetrical about the line y = x Plenary G G G G Key Words I inverse Ask: ‘What is the inverse of multiplication?’ (Division. the flow diagram needs to be viewed in reverse. to give: ( x – 3) ÷4 –3 ——— x 4 Remind the class that the inverse of × is ÷. Reverse the arrows and start with x at the right-hand side.) Ask: ‘What is the inverse of addition?’ (Subtraction. a x → 3(x + 5) 1 b x → –( x + 5) 2 (6 + x) c x → ——— 4 4 a On a pair of axes. 8. 8. say. the square of a negative number is the same as the square of its positive value. 6. 2. b On the same pair of axes. For example. 3 Write down the inverse of each of the following functions. Answers 1 1 a x→–x 3 b x→x–8 c x→x–6 d x → 2x ( x – 1) e x → ——— 2 ( x – 3) f x → ——— 4 ( x + 5) g ——— 3 2 There will be a variety of different correct answers 1 3 a x → – x – 5 b x → 2x – 5 c x → 4x – 6 3 4 c The graphs are reflections of each other in the line y = x © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 7 .) Ask: ‘What is the inverse of squaring?’(Taking the square root. a x → 3x b x→x+8 c x→6+x x d x→– – 2 e x → 2x + 1 f x → 4x + 3 g x → 3x – 5 2 Write down two different types of inverse function and show that they are self inverse functions. draw the graph of the function x → 2x + 3. 3 and 4. 1.

such as 10 kilometres and 60 kilometres. 1. round to 38 miles. As this is an 2 2 2 2 approximation. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G Draw on the board a pair of axes with the horizontal axis labelled ‘Time’ and the vertical labelled ‘Distance’. which gives 5 × 7– = 35 + 2– = 37–. In real life. 10 km is just over eight. resulting in a range of different graphs from the ones drawn. Finish off with the class trying mentally to convert approximately each of the following: Kilometres Miles 20 13 35 22 50 31 70 44 90 56 100 200 63 125 G G As the concern is to find approximations.) You may want to discuss that a steeper line represents a faster speed but you will need to create values for the graph in order to show this.4 G G Oral and mental starter Ask: ‘Who knows how many miles are equivalent to 8 km?’ (5 miles) Use this fact to ask quick-fire questions about equivalences of the following: Kilometres Miles G G 16 10 24 15 32 20 40 25 64 40 80 50 96 60 G Discuss how they need to think: ‘How many 8s? Then multiply that by 5.LESSON Framework objectives – Graphs Construct functions arising from real-life problems and plot their corresponding graphs. which will make it just over 5 miles. which represents a race between three boys. For 60 kilometres. This will show a different type of curve with a gradually increasing gradient which eventually becomes a straight line (but not horizontal). The class can now do Exercise 1D from Pupil Book 3. Extension Answers a Population (millions) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 01 21 41 61 81 01 21 41 61 81 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 b 59 million Year 8 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 20 01 . Discuss with the class the fact that graphs illustrate typical speeds.’ Now ask for approximations. The main intention is to practise mental division by 8 and multiplication by 5. look for approximations of eights. call it 1 1 1 1 6 miles. Ask the class to tell you the story behind the graph. however. For an approximation. there would be many changes in the speed of a car. Ask: ‘What might the graph look like if it were representing a car being driven at a steady speed?’(Straight line. So. Draw another pair of axes on the board and ask: ‘What shape would the graph have if the car were slowing down?’ It would be a curve whose steepness becomes less and less until the curve is horizontal. Now draw a third pair of axes on the board and ask what shape the graph would be for a car accelerating from standstill to a steady speed. any answer which is close to the correct mileage will be acceptable. divide by 8. giving 7–. Tell the class how useful graphs can be and that they can hold a lot of information. Again. Look at the graph in Pupil Book 3. page 10.

Answers 1 a b c 2 a d t b d t c d t 3 The graph may look something like this: d t © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 9 . 3 Sketch a graph to show the depth of water in a bath where it is filled initially with just hot water. c A car travelling at a steady speed and then having to accelerate to overtake another vehicle before slowing down to travel at the same steady speed again. ask a student to sketch a graph of an aircraft journey from London to Amsterdam. a child gets into the bath. gradually slowing down d 3 minutes b c d 4 a C 5 a C 6 a b A b A c B c B b c d e Plenary G G G G Key Words I axes I gradient I acceleration Draw on the board a pair of axes labelled ‘Time’ on the horizontal axis and ‘Distance’ on the vertical axis. then the cold water is also turned on. increasing the rate of flow into the bath b After 4 minutes The more water in the bath. b A train slowing down to a standstill in a railway station. The graph is not calibrated for horizontal distance The cold tap was turned on. Homework 1 Sketch graphs to show how the depth of water varies with time when water drips steadily into the following containers. If time permits. and pulling out the plug. the stationary times. Discuss this graph and whether it actually shows the variations in speed. It takes 6 minutes for the water to drain away. the quicker it will flow out.Exercise 1D Answers 1 a e 2 a c 3 a 300 m b 75 m c 42 seconds d D: 40 seconds. a b c 2 Sketch distance–time graphs to illustrate each of the following situations. E: 60 seconds Rocket D travelled a greater distance vertically. etc. a A car accelerating away from traffic lights. Ask a student to draw on the axes a graph representing his/her journey to school that day. splashes about for 5 minutes before getting out. After 2 minutes.

Use this to start the sequence. If you wish to have more control over the numbers.LESSON Framework objectives – Limits of sequences Generate terms of a sequence using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions of the sequence. 4. … b 10 c Sequence always gets closer and closer to 10 4 a 12 5 Gets closer to 4. 4. 5. to find 15 × 13. G Exercise 1E Answers 1 a 1. 9.875. 4. The number needed is half of 390. 5. 42 and 57 by 15.5. 5. One way is to multiply 39 by 10 and then halve the result. 8. Ask someone to give you a number between 0 and 100. 5.5625. multiply 13 by 3 to get 39 and then multiply 39 by 5.2. ask them to explain how they arrived at the answer.995 117 188. As 5 × 3 = 15.980 468 75.5.75. or as an alternative from the explanation offered.859 375.75.84. There are various ways to multiply 39 by 5. 21.843 75.5. … b 8 c Sequence always gets closer and closer to 8 3 a 1. The class can now do Exercise 1E from Pupil Book 3.’ Tell the class that this is a rule for creating a sequence and that this is the termto-term rule. Number Number × 15 16 240 21 315 34 510 42 630 57 855 G G G G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G Put on the board: ‘Divide by 5 and add 4. 7. 5. explain that you can split the sum into two parts.78 125. The class will need calculators to do this. 7. Using the term-to-term rule.999 744.71 875.960 937 5. 5. a multiplication can be split when multiplying by 15. 1. 5. 7.25. say 1.999 949 Ask the class: ‘Do you notice anything about the numbers?’ They should spot that the terms are getting closer and closer to 5. 4.921 875.375.9936. 6. If no one is able to do this mentally. 7.5 6 Gets closer to 6 7 Gets closer to 7.990 234 375. or they could use a spreadsheet if available. The table below can be used to check the results. If a different method from what will be given in the lesson is used. If using a spreadsheet. take it as an alternative method.968.5 8 Gets closer to 9 10 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 5. Ask the class to practise multiplying 16.997 558 594 b 6 c Sequence always gets closer and closer to 6 2 a 1. 4. 34. this will generate: 1.5 G G Oral and mental starter Ask: ‘Who can multiply 15 by 13 mentally?’ (195) Should anyone be able to do this.99 872. they will need to know how to set up a formula and be able to copy it from one cell to another. 9. 4. 4. 5. then choose your own starting number. For example. 9. 3. 4.6875. 5.4375. Halve this in two parts: half of 300 + half of 90 = 150 + 45 = 195.125. 4.

2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 11 . Ask: ‘Can anyone suggest what value this sequence will get closer and closer to? Why do you think that?’ Students should be using the results from Questions 1 to 4. 17 5 – – (2n + 1) d i Plenary G G G G G Key Words I sequence I term-to-term Put on the board the term-to-term rule ‘Divide by 2 and add 10’. 3 What would you expect the sequence to do if you used the term-to-term rule Add 7 and divide by 2? 4 What will the sequence get closer to using the term-to-term rule Add A and divide by 2? 5 Investigate the term-to-term rule Add A and divide by 3.Extension Answers AB Sequence always gets closer to ———– . Using their results from Questions 5 to 8. this gives the result of 15. Answers 1 b 3 c Always gets closer to 3 2 b 4 c Always gets closer to 4 3 Always gets closer to 7 4 A A 5 The terms in the sequence will get closer to –– . to help them to see a simple link. but change the term-to-term rule to Add 4 and divide by 2. Exercise 1E. the class may need help to see the link to multiplying the two numbers and halving the result to get the answer. b To what value does this sequence get closer and closer? c Use the same term-to-term rule with different starting numbers. and ask the same question. and that this sequence will get closer to 20. (A – 1) SATs Answers 1 a Pattern number 5 16 b Pattern number n Number of grey tiles 6 17 Expression for number of grey tiles n+1 Number of white tiles 10 32 Expression for number of white tiles 2n c 3n + 1 d 5n + 4 n 2 – – 3 4 2 a ———— b ii c –. Homework 1 A sequence starting at 1 has the term-to-term rule Add 3 and divide by 2. Here. Now change the term-to-term rule to ‘Divide by 3 and add 10’. 10 . a Find the first 10 terms generated by this sequence. What do you notice? 2 Repeat Question 1.

Cancel common factors before multiplying and dividing. separate the whole numbers from the fractions: 5 7 5 7 – – – – 2– + 315 = 2 + 3 + – + 15 9 9 25 21 – – – – = 5 + 45 + 45 – – = 5 + 46 45 1 1 – – – – = 5 + 145 = 645 Discuss the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each method. This is the first time that the students will have met multiplication and division of fractions.) Continue for as long as necessary. as this makes the calculations easier and means that the answer does not need to be cancelled down. subtract. 2 24 6 12 5 15 9 20 7 18 27 10 8 3 14 25 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G G This is essentially a lesson on the four rules governing fractions. Start by asking the students. 5 2 – – 7 2– – 1– = 17 – – 6 5 6 5 85 43 – – 42 – – – – – – = 30 – 30 = 30 = 113 30 5 2 5 2 2– – 1– = 2 – 1 + – – – 6 5 6 5 25 – – 30 – – = 1 + 30 – 12 – – – – = 1 + 13 = 113 30 30 Ensure that the students understand the fact that the whole numbers are subtracted. namely: 5 8 3 11 15 33 1 7 1 2– × 1– = – × – — — = – = 4– — 5 8 8 51 8 8 12 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 5 7 – – Ask the class to work out 2– + 315.1 Oral and mental starter G G G G Use a target board such as the one shown on the right. First. 6 5 Show them both methods. Explain that it is better to cancel the initial fractions. The students will have met already the addition and subtraction of fractions. For example. – × – 5 5 7 4 3 3 and – × –. multiply and divide fractions. Once the idea of the multiple is well established. so they just need reminding of the basic rules. Demonstrate with: 41 25 5 31 5 –3 × – 7 × – 2 = – – — — — 9 28 10 42 1 7 Now ask for the answer to 2– × 1–. Discuss cancelling in the initial 2 5 4 9 8 product and in the answer. 1 3 5 1 One way to introduce this topic is to use calculators to investigate the answers to products such as – × –. 2. as a group or individually. change to improper (top-heavy) fractions and proceed as follows: 5 7 52 – – – – – – 2– + 315 = 23 + 15 9 9 115 271 1 –– – – – = ––– + 156 = ––– = 645 45 45 45 Second. 9 Outline the two methods for solving this addition. the result of which is added to the outcome of subtracting the fractions. ask for the lowest common multiple (LCM) of a pairs of numbers. 5 2 Now ask the students how to work out 2– – 1–. (It may be necessary to remind students of the definition. Ask why the rule doesn’t appear to work. to give the first five multiples of various numbers. the first method involves larger numbers. – × – and 15 × –. 4 8 1 4 3 8 4 – – 3 Now repeat with – × –. Explain how this is done. The students will see the rule very quickly.CHAPTER 2 LESSON Number 1 Framework objectives – The four rules governing fractions Use efficient methods to add.

Cancel at the multiplication stage when possible. 2 1 3 4 2 8 Division is a little harder to see. 7 3 4 5 3 9 some students may see the method. the same as multiplying by 2. The answer is 20 . Then work out each answer. 8 3 4 8 6 4 2 I convert I equivalent fraction I mixed number I top-heavy fraction I improper fraction I lowest common multiple I cancelling Homework 1 Convert each of the following pairs of fractions to equivalent fractions with a common denominator. 5 2 8 3 – – Work through it. 2 1 a 2– + 2– 5 4 2 1 b 2– + 1– 3 8 5 5 – – c 2– – 112 8 5 3 – – d 312 – 1– 4 2 Work out each of the following. It can best be explained by examples such as how many halves in 7? The answer is. – ÷ – and – ÷ –. cancelling whenever possible. Exercise 2A Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 5 1 1 – – – – – – – – – – b 430 c 311 d 3– e 519 f 7– g 817 h 1124 15 6 20 3 18 7 1 1 13 2 17 23 – – – – – – – – – – b 330 c 115 d 2– e 120 f 3– g 418 h 224 6 3 26 13 9 17 22 – – – – – – – – – – b 63 c 20 d 28 e 96 f 75 2 9 5 1 3 1 3 2 2 1 – – b 16 c 28 d – e 10 f – g – h 15 i – j – – – – – – – – – – 15 6 2 11 3 4 2 4 1 1 4 4 2 2 7 – – – – 3– b 8– c 4 d 2– e 121 f – g 1– h 6– i 4– j 1110 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 1 1 7 2 2 16 1 5 2 – – – – – – 4 b 1– c 1– d 18 e 2– f – g 49 h 112 i – j – 9 4 3 3 6 3 3 1 1 1 7 2 – – – – – – – – – – – – 2 b 216 c 2 d 124 e 115 f 12 g 7– h 516 i 22 j 4– 19 19 2 3 2 9 5 2 2 2 – cm – – 9 2432 cm 10 4– = 4 lengths 11 2– m 9 6 5 a a a a a a a 11 – – 2 12 1 – – 212 11 – – 128 Key Words Extension Answers Magic number is 1 2 – – 15 7 – – 15 2 – 5 3 – 5 1 – 3 1 – – 15 4 – – 15 1 – 5 8 – – 15 Plenary G G G 1 1 3 Write the following problem on the board: 4– ÷ 10– × –. Most are unlikely to see that it requires turning the dividing fraction upside down and multiplying by it. The class can now do Exercise 2A from Pupil Book 3. Cancel before multiplying when possible. of course. namely: 3 9 8 14 84 93 12 2 5 5 2– ÷ 1– = – ÷ – = – 1 × – 7 = – = 1– – — – — — 3 9 7 3 9 3 14 7 Do more examples if necessary. Demonstrate this with the above examples. Explain how this is done. 2 5 Now ask for the answer to 2– ÷ 1–. 1 1 –÷– 4 3 3 – – 16 9 – – ÷ 14 1 1 –÷– 6 3 5 7 – – d 2– ÷ 16 8 3 3 – – e 2– ÷ 10 5 Answers 5 2 – – – – – – 1 a 413 b 319 c 124 d 1– 20 24 3 1 1 1 4 – – – – 2 a 16 b – c 24 d 6 e 3– 2 5 3 7 1 2 – b 24 c – d 6 e 8– – – 3 a 4 2 3 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 13 . cancelling down and/or writing as a mixed number if appropriate. This is an easy method to use but not an easy one to understand. If calculators are used to investigate problems such as – ÷ –. They must be converted to improper (top-heavy) fractions.G G G G G G G Make sure students know that the mixed numbers cannot be separated as in addition or subtraction. 1 1 2 3 3 5 3 1 1 – – – – Repeat for 1– × 4– × 13 (answer: –) and (– + –) ÷ (– + 18 ) (answer: 1–). a a 1 3 –×– 6 8 b b 2 3 –×– 3 4 c c 2 3 – × 16 – – 9 1 3 d 4– × 1– 5 7 3 3 e 2– × 1– 8 5 3 Work out each of the following.

Go round the class picking students at random and asking for the appropriate multipliers for an increase and/or a decrease for percentages on the board. Work through an example. you have £324.2 Oral and mental starter G G G Use a target board such as the one shown on the right. then use a multiplier.52.78) gives: 30 000. Then move on to compound interest. For example.04 = £337.48 × 1. G 14 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 8661. Ask the students for the equivalent multiplier when there is a percentage increase or decrease. First. use the method of working out the yearly interest and adding it on for each year. First method After first year: Increase and addition 4% of £300 = £12. For example. For example. 5269.95 for a 5% decrease. at end of second year. 18 252. Discuss the advantage (quick) and the disadvantage (any keying errors mean no working from which to gain partial credit).48 + £12. After third year: 4% of £324. 6755. Solve problems involving percentage changes. 5% 10% 22% 13% 16% 25% 14% 35% 20% 17% 8% 12% 6% 15% 1 7–% 2 2% Main lesson activity G G G G Start by asking the students what they know about interest and how it works. The second method (using the constant multiplier of 0. there are 5270 ants left at the end of 7 days.48 = £324. The class can now do Exercise 2B From Pupil Book 3.46 G G G G G G Point out that the last value is rounded to the nearest penny.04)3.98 = £337.98. Most students are likely to prefer the second method.52. Repeat with an example that decreases each year. some will prefer the structured nature of the first method.4592.99.04 = £312 £312 × 1.04 = £324. Make sure that the students understand that the interest for each year is added to the principal of the previous year to give the new principal for the following year. 11 104.48.48. 14 236. So. the above result is identical to 300 × (1.46.05 for the multiplier for a 5% increase and 0. So. Second method After first year: After second year: After third year: Use a multiplier £300 × 1. calculate how much £300 will earn when invested for 3 years at 4% interest per annum. you have £312 + £12. Demonstrate the use of powers on a calculator. 1. 23 400. at end of third year. After second year: 4% of £312 = £12.LESSON Framework objectives – Percentages and compound interest Recognise when fractions or percentages are needed to compare proportions.48 = £12. However.67 Hence.48 £324. So. you have £300 + £12 = £312. an ant colony has 30 000 ants. How many ants will be left after 7 days? The first method is too lengthy. which has to be rounded to the nearest penny. at end of first year. namely: an amount of money (the principal) is invested at an annual percentage rate(R%). 2. This gives 337. They start to die off at the rate of 22% per day. For example. Emphasise the basis of compound interest. and over a period of years the value increases by R% each year.56.

49 b £3740.06 b £8165. b £750.83.30 d £47.50 b £47. £45. £45.92 d 1.5% interest per annum for 7 years.28 units 100 ( ) ( ) Homework 1 How much would you have in the bank if you invest as follows? a £450 at 3% interest per annum for 4 years. which lost 14% each year for 3 years.42 e £80. take as an example 45 000 units decreasing at 6% each day for 3 days.68.23.15 c £1334.45.37.Exercise 2B Answers 1 a 1.175 2 a £216.005 m 0.96 f 1. £45. £45. Answers 1 a £506.974 l 1.06 c £214. establish the formula for compound interest: Percentage rate Time period Total at end of period = Initial amount × 1 ± ———————— 100 So.27 b £219. which gives: 6 3 Total after 3 days = 45 000 × 1 – — — = 37 376.14.93 o 1. If the class is able enough.60. 2 Stocks and shares can decrease in value as well as increase.12 Plenary G G Key Words I compound interest I multiplier Discuss the advantages/disadvantages of using a multiplier and powers compared with other methods. £46.07.54 c £47.90 d £19 348. which lost 5. How much would your stocks and shares be worth if you had invested as follows? a £1000. £45 e £555.12 b 0.25 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 15 .95 c 0. £46. £46.76 n 0.07 e 0. b £6000 at 4.91.48 2 a £636.025 i 0. £46.2% each year for 5 years.032 h 1.06 k 0.02 g 1.17 b £574.85 j 1.49 4 a 33 662 b 18 837 5 6 days 6 12 days Extension Answers a £547.77 3 a £2348.

06 0. Explain that £195 represents not 100% but 130%.50.88 Main lesson activity G G G G G Reverse percentages and how to choose the appropriate quantity to take as 100% are now going to be covered. choosing the correct numbers to take as 100%.92 1. after a 30% increase.90 1.14 0.02 0. Ask the students for the original amount when the new value. the answer is £177.8 0.3 0.87 0.22 1. The class can now do Exercise 2C from Pupil Book 3. as it is easier to work out and has fewer steps.81 1.05 represents a 5% increase. which is £136. This gives: 195 ÷ 1. Repeat with other examples if necessary.) Method 2 Use a multiplier A 30% increase is represented by the multiplier 1.50 represents 1% (Dividing both sides by 130. £195 represents 130% £1.12 1. 16 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .65 0. Oral and mental starter G G G Use a target board such as the one shown on the right. However. or as a whole. Ask the students for the equivalent percentage increase or decrease for each multiplier.3 = £150 G G G G G G Discuss the disadvantages/advantages of each method. and then a multiplier.3 Framework objectives – Reverse percentages and percentage change Use proportional reasoning to solve a problem. Solve the problem using first the unitary method. Many may suggest that it is the same as a 30% decrease of £195. is £195.30. 1. when the latter amount is increased by 30%.175 0. Hence.98 1. The students will probably prefer to use the multiplier.) £150 represents 100% (Multiplying both sides by 100.35 1.6 1.LESSON 2. Method 1 Unitary method This involves finding a single unit value.05 0. For example. Go round the class picking students at random and asking for the appropriate percentage increase and/or decrease for the multipliers on the board.16 0. which in this case is the value of 1%. 1. Now ask the students: ‘What is the percentage increase from £550 to £704?’ Do the calculation on the board: Actual increase = £704 – £550 = £154 £154 Percentage increase = ——– × 100 = 28% £550 Emphasise that £550 is the original amount. divide £195 by 1.3 to find the original amount.75 1.45.

7% d 79. Item Radio Table Cost inc VAT £112. heater £60. printer £70. cooker £280. East Anglia 36% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Extension Answers a 19.4% 4. That is: New value = Original value × Multiplier Multiplier = New value ÷ Original value Original value = New value ÷ Multiplier New value Original value Multiplier Homework 1 A packet of biscuits claims to be 24% bigger! It now contains 26 biscuits. How much was it before the decrease? 1 3 This table shows the cost of some items after 17–% VAT has been added. Scotland 16%. computer £1800 £128 £50 41. Work out the cost of each 2 item before VAT.2% Plenary G Key Words I reverse percentage I unitary method I multiplier I power Introduce the ‘magic road sign’.80 £131.6% b 11. a hi-fi system now costs £288. washer £250. What was the percentage reduction in the price of the boots? Answers 1 21 biscuits 2 £320 3 Radio £96. which is a mnemonic to help to recall the different combinations used in the calculation of percentage change and reverse percentages.2% 8 946 154 9 £15 10 South-east England 24%.Exercise 2C Answers 1200 g £260 Camera £190. were reduced to £36 in a sale. How many did it have before the increase? 2 After a 10% price decrease. table £112. What was the original price? 5 A pair of boots. Yorkshire 15%.60 Item Cooker Bed Cost inc VAT £329 £376 4 A pair of designer jeans is on sale at £96. sofa £450. originally priced at £60.4% c 12. bed £320 4 £160 5 40% © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 17 .6% e 2. which is 60% of its original price.

10 : … (10 : 25). 18 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Students could use number fans or mini white boards on which to write their answers. Therefore. So. When I travel at 60 mph. How long would five taps take to fill the sink? One tap would fill the sink in 3 × 15 = 45 minutes. Use the unitary method to solve simple word problems involving ratio. Alternatively. Now. giving 5 : 175 = 1 : 35 = 4 : 140. G Nine canteen tables can seat 72 people. G The class can now do Exercise 2D from Pupil Book 3. and ask them to find the missing value in the equivalent ratio … : 15 (6 : 15). so it would take five taps 9 minutes. four books have 4 × 35 = 140 pages. Ask the class how to do this problem. the time taken will be exactly the same. G G G The following examples use inverse proportion. Three taps can fill a sink in 15 minutes.4 G Oral and mental starter Give the class a ratio. Five books have 175 pages so. G Repeat with the following examples.) Repeat with the following examples. A bus with 20 passengers on board takes 10 minutes to travel from Silkstone to Barnsley. one book has 35 pages. eight tables will seat 8 × 8 = 64 people. Alternatively this can be considered as a ratio. Therefore. G G Main lesson activity G Ask the class to solve the following problem: If five exercise books have a total of 175 pages. Students find this concept quite difficult.5 days. my car does 10 miles to a litre of petrol. Therefore. 9 : 72 =1 : 8 = 8 : 64. How many people can sit at eight canteen tables? If nine tables seat 72 people. 10 minutes. How long will the same bus with 10 people on board take to do the same journey? The number of passengers does not affect the speed of the bus. one table would seat eight people. Five men build a wall in 9 days. … : 35 (14 : 35). for example. 2.LESSON Framework objectives – Direct and inverse proportion Reduce a ratio to its simplest form. How many miles will I get per litre if I travel at 30 mph? This is impossible to answer as the petrol consumption of a car is not just dependent on speed. How long would it take six men? The wall would take one man 5 × 9 = 45 days. 5 × 9 = 45. Repeat with other ratios. Repeat with. (Note: this relates to the starter activity. such as 2 : 5. how many pages will four exercise books have? G G G Students may have an intuitive idea of the answer (140 pages) but outline the unitary method. six men take 45 ÷ 6 = 7. direct proportion and inverse proportion.

If he had earned £8 an hour. Homework 1 In 4 hours a man earns £45. How much will 20 litres of petrol cost? 5 Eight men dig a ditch in 9 days. How long would six men take? 6 A camping party of three has enough food to last them 4 days. Now ask what would happen to y if x doubles? ( y halves) Similarly. grass grows 21 mm. Ask the class what values x and y could take. discuss the connection with the inverse proportion questions. what happens to x if y trebles? (x assumes one third of its first value) Ask what happens when x is divided by 4? ( y is multiplied by 4) Repeat with xy = 36 and other fractions. how long will the food last? 7 At £6 an hour.Exercise 2D Answers 1 7 12 16 22 28 £39.4 cm b 4.5 h 30 253 exam papers Extension Answers a 2d b 3d 1 c –d 2 d 3d e 8d 1 f –d 8 Plenary G G G G G G G Key Words I I I I ratio unit direct proportion inverse proportion Put the following problem on the board: xy = 24.375 km 13 a 144 miles b 4.20 2 1 h 40 min 3 2 days 4 3 h 20 min 5 £2. Jack takes 16 hours to earn enough for a guitar. These could be written on the board. How much does he earn in 5 hours? 2 A man walking one dog takes 20 minutes to walk one mile. How long would four bell ringers take to ring the same tune? Answers 1 £56.86 6 14 min 6 min 8 3 days 9 240 miles 10 40 min 11 12 days a 22.25 2 20 min 3 12 mm 4 £14 5 12 days 6 3 days 7 12 h 8 5 min © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 19 .5 cm 24 20 miles 25 36 h 26 9 days 27 2– tubes 3 180 miles 29 7. If another person joins the party. how long would it have taken him to earn the money? 8 Three bell ringers ring a tune on 6 bells in 5 minutes. How long will it take him to cover one mile if he walks two dogs? 3 In a week. How much does it grow in 4 days? 4 Fifty litres of petrol costs £35. If time allows.58 14 48 min 15 216 min a 12 s b 6 s 17 360 min 18 9 days 19 5 min 20 15 min 21 21 tins 2 2 h 24 min 23 2.

They should know the squares up to 15 × 15 and the cubes up to 5 × 5 × 5. ii Area of the front face of block A to area of the front face of block C.5 G G Oral and mental starter Give the class practice on squares and cubes. the class can now do Exercise 2E from Pupil Book 3. 12 cm G Investigation 4 cm 2 cm A 2 cm 3 cm B 6 cm C 18 cm 4 cm 12 cm These three blocks are similar. Main lesson activity G G G This section of Pupil Book 3 opens with an investigation which is reproduced below.LESSON Framework objectives – Ratio in area and volume Understand the implications of enlargement for area and volume. areas and volumes of similar shapes. b Work out the volume of each block. This means that the ratio height : length : width is the same for all three blocks. G After the investigation. Work out each of the following ratios and write it in the form 1 : n. Let students work through the investigation. c i Length of block A to length of block B. Do this as a mental test or ask students individually to give you answers to questions such as: four cubed. 2. a Work out the area of the front face of each block. ii Area of the front face of block A to area of the front face of block B. 20 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Use the plenary (see next page) to bring the students together to check their answers. ii Area of the front face of block B to area of the front face of block C. and so on. d i Length of block A to length of block C. What do you notice? Explain the connection between the ratio of the lengths. nine squared. iii Volume of block B to volume of block C. iii Volume of block A to volume of block B. e i Length of block B to length of block C. iii Volume of block A to volume of block C. Look at your answers to parts c. the cube root of eight. d and e.

What is the volume of solid D? 4 Two similar solids. plane shapes. have lengths in the ratio 1 : 2. Students have difficulty with the concept of a scale factor. C and D. 169. The area of shape A is 10 cm2. volume 1 : a3. R and S. area or volume. 28. Stop students working and discuss the results of the investigation.57 cm2. 78. What is the area of shape P? 3 Two similar solids. means an area increase by a factor of 4 and a volume increase by a factor of 8. plane shapes.27 cm2. A and B. What is the volume of solid R? Answers 1 160 cm2 2 25 cm2 3 405 cm3 4 9 cm3 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 21 . The area of shape Q is 100 cm2. Ensure they understand that it is the original length.65 cm3.375 iv 1 : 15.27 cm3. What is the area of shape B? 2 Two similar.40 cm3 c i 1 : 2. Generalise this as linear 1 : a. P and Q. have lengths in the ratio 1 : 2. area 1 : a2. Homework 1 Two similar. say. have lengths in the ratio 1 : 3. area or volume which is multiplied by the scale factor to get the new length. have lengths in the ratio 1 : 4. The volume of solid C is 15 cm3. Make sure they understand that a linear increase by a factor of 2. area and volume scale factors and the connection between them.625 d i 1 : 9 ii 1 : 27 Plenary G Key Words I linear scale factor I area scale factor I volume scale factor G G G G The plenary can be done at any appropriate time and is used to ensure that every student has grasped the concept of linear.25 iii 1 : 3.54 cm2 ii 50.Exercise 2E Answers 1 b i 1 : 3 ii 1 : 9 iii 9 × 5 = 45 cm2 c i 1 : 5 ii 1 : 25 iii 25 × 5 = 125 cm2 2 b i 1 : 4 ii 1 : 64 iii 64 × 6 = 384 cm3 c i 1 : 5 ii 1 : 125 iii 125 × 6 = 750 cm3 3 90 cm2 4 4 cm2 5 64 cm3 6 2 cm3 1 1 – – 7 a 4 b 8 8 a 1 : 100 b 1 : 10 000 c 1 : 1 000 000 Extension Answers a Height : radius in same ratio b i 12.25 ii 1 : 6. The volume of solid S is 72 cm3. 785.

15 from Pupil Book 3 are reproduced here. B contains all the numbers between –1 and 0.5 = –7. A contains all the numbers less than –1.4 ÷ 1 = –0. The introduction and Example 2. could be worked through to start the investigation.15 a What happens when a number from set A is multiplied by a number from set D? b What happens when a number from set B is divided by 1? a Choose any number from set A. Quickly recall the rules for multiplying and dividing with directed numbers. say –2. For example: –4 × +4 = –16 –1.5 –5 × 1. –3 –2 A –1 B –1 0 C 0 1 2 D 3 1 The special numbers –1. Understand the effects of multiplying and dividing by numbers between 0 and 1. such as: –2 × +3 = –6 –4 ÷ –1 = +4 –5 ÷ 0. Example 2. For example: –0. So. G G This example. or similar examples. C and D. they all give numbers in set B. a number from set A multiplied by a number from set D always gives a number in set A.5 = –10 Main lesson activity G G This lesson is essentially an investigation. 2.LESSON Framework objectives – Numbers between 0 and 1 Use the laws of arithmetic and inverse operations. So. 22 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Multiply them together: –2 × +3 = –6. The answer belongs to set A. Do this with a few examples. B. b Pick numbers from set B and divide each one by 1. The class can now do Exercise 2F from Pupil Book 3.6 G G Oral and mental starter This brief starter could be missed out.03 ÷ 1 = –0.4 2 2 –– ÷ 1 = –– 3 3 –0. The class can work in groups or individually. say +3. C contains all the numbers between 0 and 1 and D contains all the numbers greater than 1. 0 and 1 divide the number line into four sets of numbers: A. Try other combinations of numbers from set A and set D.5 They all belong to set A.5 × 5 = –7. Choose any number from set D. Keep the introduction as brief as possible.03 The answers are the same as the values from set B.

Highlight particularly the significance of multiplying and dividing by numbers between 0 and 1. The results depend on the numbers chosen. c Dividing any number by a number between 0 and 1 always gives a bigger answer. Plenary G Key Words I I I I counter-example generalise conclude deduce G The answers to the two tables (Exercise 2F.4 d –6 × –0. a The square of a number between 0 and 1 is also between 0 and 1. Familiarise them with the term counter-example. Questions 1 and 2) should be discussed with the whole class. give a counter-example.2 = –45 Extension Answers No firm conclusions can be reached. for example –7 ÷ 0. for example: (–0.Exercise 2F Answers 1 × A –1 A D D –1 B 0 C 1 D A A 2 ÷ A –1 B D D 0 C A A 1 D D C/D 0 A/B A 1 C C 0 B B 0 0 0 0 0 B B 0 C C –1 A C/D D –1 B 0 C 1 C C 0 B A 1 A A/B –1 B B 0 C D B C/D C 0 0 0 B A/B 0 0 C C/D 0 0 A/B B 0 0 C A/B B 1 D A A –1 C C/D 1 D D B A/B –1 B A C/D C C D 1 A A/B 0 C/D D D A/B A D C/D 3 a ii b iii c iii d ii 4 For example: a –8 ÷ –1 = 8 b 7 × –1.5 = +3 c 9 ÷ –0.2 = –8. which is smaller d True © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 23 . Homework Say which of these statements is true. b The square of a number between 0 and –1 is also between 0 and –1.5 = –14.4)2 = 0. Answers a True b False.16 c False. If it is not true. d Dividing any positive number by a number between 0 and 1 always gives a bigger answer.

Next. if necessary. 1 What is nine squared? 2 What is the square root of 144? 3 The diagram shows a cube made from smaller cubes. [Draw this on the board. ask them to find the reciprocal of each of these numbers: 40 (1 ÷ 40 = 0.7 2. define the reciprocal of x as 1 ÷ x.] What is the largest integer value that x could be? 8 What number is five cubed? 9 The nth term of a sequence is n plus one all squared.8 = 1.8 (1 ÷ 0. such as the reciprocal of 2 is 1 ÷ 2 = 0.5. this starter concentrates on SATs style questions using powers.] What is the fifth term of the sequence? 10 What is the square root of nine-sixteenths? It would be worthwhile discussing the techniques involved when giving the answers. Some students may find it just as easy to divide the number into 1. [Write x2 <17 on the board.LESSON Framework objectives – Reciprocal of a number Recognise and use reciprocals. the reciprocal of 10 is 1 ÷ 10 = 0. In Exercise 2G there are two questions (3 and 4) which are investigations. This will be marked in various ways.025) and 0. The class can now do Exercise 2G from Pupil Book 3. What is the perimeter of the square? 6 x squared is 4. Give some examples. It is useful to repeat this test within a few days to see whether scores improve. Now ask the class to find the reciprocal key on their calculators. Know how to use the reciprocal key on a calculator. Answers 1 81 2 12 7 4 8 125 3 8 (cm3) 4 16 cm2 5 32 cm 9 36 10 Three-quarters 6 2 and –2 G G Main lesson activity G G G G G Every student will need a calculator. These could be done as a class activity. it may look like one of the following: G G G G G G Do some examples and get the class to practise the use of this key. For example. Do more examples. [Write (n + 1)2 on board. First. 24 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .2 G Oral and mental starter As preparation for the mental test in the SATs papers.25). 2.] What is the volume of the big cube? 4 The length of one side of a square is 4 cm. Which two values can x have? 7 Look at the inequality. rather than use the reciprocal key.1. Ask each question twice and allow about 10 seconds for the students to answer. What is the area of the square? 5 The area of a square is 64 cm2.

142 857 14 … .6 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 25 . 10–3 0.0666 … . D. 0.0526 … .01 10–1 0. 8. 0. B.001 10–2 0.0005 f 500 g 0. a 50 b 0. 0.0625. b Which of the reciprocals are recurring decimals? 2 Find the reciprocals of each of the following numbers. C. 20 2 a 0.04 b All except the reciprocal of 25 which terminates. –.004 c 60 d 0.02 b 250 c 0.0333 … b 200 c 0.05 b Reciprocals of 1.Exercise 2G Answers 1 a 1. 5. –. 10. –4. –1.125. 0.1 100 1 101 10 102 100 103 1000 G G Now ask them to find the reciprocals of these numbers.166 … .0909 … .041 66 … .047 619 … . 0. 16. For example: 10–4 = 1 ÷ 104 10–7 = 1 ÷ 107 10–a = 1 ÷ 10a Homework 1 a Find. their gradients are the negative reciprocals of each other 5 a 2 b –2 Always true 6 No. 0. 0. as decimals. –.076 923 0769 … .0714 285 71 … .016 66 … d 1. the reciprocals of all the integers from 21 to 25.01 h 0.045 45 … .055 … . 3. 0. negative powers and reciprocals. Round your answers if necessary. 0. 1. 0. E. 0.1. 0.0588 … . you are not allowed to divide by zero. 2.0833 … .043 47 … . 0. 0.2. Then write them on the board in the form of a table. –– 2 2 3 4 3 c When a pair of lines is perpendicular.625 Answers 1 a 0.25. 0. the reciprocal of 2n is 2–n Plenary G Key Words I reciprocal I divide into Invite the class to give you the value of each power from 10–3. Extension Answers For any power n. 0. – –. 4. 0.5.000 001 (10–6) a b 3 Reciprocal of — is — b a 4 a They are perpendicular to each other 1 3 2 1 1 b A. 0.0125 d 800 e 0. 0.111 … . 0. 0. 0. and the reciprocal of 23 which neither recurs or terminates 2 a 0. –2. Establish the relationship between positive powers.33 … . 0.

The class can now do Exercise 2H from Pupil Book 3. You are 0. 0.8 2.2 × 0. Ask them whether the answers have anything in common.06 0.03. START. I am approx.68)2 19 I am approx. I am approx. You are (0. 450. You are 3.0764 ≈ 0.9 × 50 = 9 × 5 = 45 (29 + 88) ÷ (2. It is suggested that each pair be given a few moments to come up with an estimate (the teacher can write each one on the board) and that jottings are allowed. 8100.198 ≈ 0. I am approx. I am approx.053) ≈ (30 + 90) ÷ (2 × 0.29 × 0. You are 892 × 0.05) = 120 ÷ 0. They may notice – or may need to be prompted to state – that the answers all have one digit apart from zero. You are 217 × 53 I am approx. You are 187 × 0. I am approx. 0. You are 0. You are 92 × 89.265 ≈ 0. 18. You are 312 × 0. 2.25 ≈ 0. Do more examples of rounding to one significant figure. 26 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .3 0. 4200.52 × 0.49. You are 0. END. 140. 10 000. 4.09 × 500 = 0.636 ≈ 0. These should be given to pairs of students to allow discussion.6 0. 90. This is a concept that many students find hard to grasp.48. such as: 3789 ≈ 4000 0.2 G Oral and mental starter Have a set of Follow-me cards dealing with approximations. I am approx. 27.72 I am approx. 0.0713 to one decimal place (dp).62 I am approx. 10. 100 000.68.3 0.12 I am approx. 0. 0.08 Now give some examples of how rounding to one significant figure can be used to estimate answers to calculations. For example: 320 × 398 ≈ 300 × 400 = 120 000 0. You are 0.092 × 321 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 I am approx. 0. I am approx.2 0. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G Ask the class to round the following numbers as indicated: 368 to the nearest 100. You are 58 × 72.092 × 0.11 I am approx. Emphasise that there will be only one digit apart from zeros. 23. You are (72)2 I am approx. These are examples of rounding to one significant figure (1 sf).11.33 I am approx.1 = 1200 ÷ 1 = 1200 17 ÷ 0.32 × 0. You are 0.009.09.9.32 × 61 I am approx. 2000.2. 0.4 = 200 ÷ 4 = 50 Do more examples. A set of 20 are given below. You are 0. You are 504 × 189 17 I am approx. You are 39 × 51.9 to the nearest 10.0621 ≈ 0.3.31 I am approx.32.3 × 0. 4900.LESSON Framework objectives – Rounding and estimation Estimate calculations by rounding numbers to one significant figure and multiplying or dividing mentally. You are 6.092 × 476 ≈ 0. if necessary.42 ≈ 20 ÷ 0. You are 96 × 0.2 × 0.

That is: (10 × 4) ÷ (1 + 0.2. Homework 1 By rounding each value to one significant figure.487 c 812 ÷ 0.5 = 600 c 3000 ÷ 0. Then – + – = 1 + 1 = 2 but –––– = – = 1.59) Ask a student to round to 1 sf and approximate the answer.6 k 900 l 1 2 a 80 000 b 1 500 000 c 4200 d 160 000 e 8100 f 0.1) × (800 ÷ 0.Exercise 2H Answers 1 a 600 b 0. 70 × 1.04 = 5000 j (20 × 0.049 b 618 ÷ 0.5 8 2 : 3 9 21% Plenary G G G G G G Key Words I most significant digit I least significant digit I approximate I significant figure Put the following on the board: (14. but rounding to 25 × 8 ÷ 50 = 4 is easier to do mentally. estimate the answer to each of the following. 70 × 0.04 i 100 j 140 k 240 l 420 3 a 6 b 3000 c 5 d 400 e 40 f 50 g 500 h 600 i 400 j 50 k 400 l 0.7 + 6.07 d 100 e 0. w = 1.06) × (0.04 + 0.3) × (0.6 × 7.3 = 2000 c 800 ÷ 0.86 1 1 2 2 4 For example: Let t = 1. and 2 ≠ 1 1 1 1+ 1 2 5 a 13 b 28.5 = 40 Point out that approximations do not have to be made to 1 sf when a more sensible approximation is possible.07 + 0.3% d Not enough information: total number of police officers not given for both years 15 – – 2 a 48% b 1 : 5.015 g (200 × 0.012 e (20 × 0.2 = 0.2 5 a 4000 b 10 000 c 250 000 d 0.2) = 2.5 = 240 f (3 + 6) × (0.02) = 800 000 h 0.5) = 60 ÷ 1.18 g 0.32 e (38 × 3.8 × 800 = 640 b 600 ÷ 0.5 f (0.4 = 2000 e (40 × 3) ÷ 0.17) Homework answers 1 a 0.4) ÷ (2 + 0.52 – 0.96 + 0.4) = 40 i 52 × 8 ÷ 0. 70 × 0.3 c 0. Rounding to 1 sf gives 20 × 8 ÷ 50.001 e 20 f 1900 Extension Answers a 350 b 4220 c 4200 i 0.5 – 0.5% b 17 255 c 39.2) ÷ 0. a 0.5) = 3.7 × 3.7 j 0.09 g 300 h 0.38 f (2.8 × 0.09 is 9% of 70 b 0.62 f 300 g 4700 h 4700 SATs Answers 1 a 14.22 = 25 × 8 ÷ 0.3 f 0.4 i 0.78 × 0.04 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 27 .3 k 978 d 0.09. Try this out with 23.6 = 5000 d 0.7 d 0.9 is 70 increased by 90%. Ask whether it is possible to approximate differently.83 × 793 d 0. For example: (15 × 4) ÷ (1 + 0.619 l 980 e 0.6 At this stage.6) = 40 ÷ 1.4 = 2.063 h 0.06 × 0. the problem becomes too difficult to do mentally. birthrate in Scotland was lower than birthrate in Northern Ireland 6 £45 7 t = 4 r = 7.2% c In 1961.3 4 a 0.08) = 0.9 is 90% of 70.04 = 200 ÷ 0.8 c 34 3 a 70 × 1.8 ÷ 49.7 × 600 = 420 b 300 ÷ 0.05) ÷ 0.05 = 0.079 j 978.5 × (30 ÷ 0.9) ÷ (0.

Put them all on the board. 3. put on the board another pair of simultaneous equations: 5x + 2y = 20 (i) 3x + 2y = 16 (ii) Since there are two identical terms (2y). which can be seen to be about 40. Start from 300 ÷ 7. x = 2. x = 6. y = 0. Largest multiple of 11 less than 700 (693). y = 3. Largest multiple of 15 less than 800 (795). y = 9. which is the largest multiple (as it is only 6 less than 300).CHAPTER 3 LESSON Algebra 3 Framework objectives – Simultaneous equations Solve a pair of simultaneous equations by eliminating one variable. (It is 99. +y + –y = 0. Each equation has many solutions. Today. Again.) x=5 Now substitute x = 5 into equation (i) to give: 5+y=8 y=3 Show the class that this is the same solution which they had before. x = 1. since there are two identical terms apart from their signs. you are going to show them the method of elimination. Put the two equations on the board again in the traditional simultaneous mode: x+y=8 (i) 3x – y = 12 (ii) Add the two equations in columns. 2y can be eliminated by subtracting one equation from the other. It really depends on avoiding a negative quantity in the resulting equation. then 294. Ask the class to give you some solutions to the equation. x = –1. Largest multiple of 7 less than 400 (399). x = 5. Demonstrate the following method for finding it. y = 6. the two equations are added together to eliminate this variable. They would probably have added on from known facts or used trial and improvement.1 Oral and mental starter G G G G G Ask the class for the largest multiple of 9 less than 100. Explain that. This can be either top from bottom or bottom from top. Ask the class to give you some solutions of this equation. y = 7. Calculate 7 × 40 = 280. put them all on the board. Largest multiple of 8 less than 300 (296). Examples are: x = 5. Examples are: x = 4. y = 3. Now put on the board the equation 3x – y = 12. add on sevens to get 287. 28 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . x = 0. y = –6. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G Put on the board the equation x + y = 8. Working from known facts is a good way to find an answer. but how many solutions will fit both equations simultaneously? There is only one such solution to these two equations: x = 5. Next. Explain to the class that solving simultaneous equations is an important part of mathematics and there are three main ways of finding the unique solution. y = 3.) Repeat this for the largest multiples less than 100 of these numbers: 7 (98) 8 (96) 13 (91) 3 (99) Discuss how students found the answers. Now ask individual students to find each of the following using a similar method. Now ask for the largest multiple of 7 under 300. y = 8. Largest multiple of 6 less than 500 (498). to get: 4x = 20 (Notice that.

This gives: 2x = 4 (Notice that 2y – 2y = 0.3. y = 2 8 x = 2.10 b 19p Plenary G G Key Words I simultaneous equation I elimination I substitution Ask the class: ‘When do we add and when do we subtract a pair of simultaneous equations?’ Use this as a discussion starter. y = 4 4 x = 5. how to check the solution by substituting both x and y values into equation (i).G G G Hence. y = 1 7 x = 4. If the class require further examples to be worked through. y = 4 3 x = 3. The class can now do Exercise 3A from Pupil Book 3. Homework 1 4x + y = 14 2x + y = 8 3 3x + y = 10 8x – y = 1 5 5x – 4y = 36 2x – 4y = 6 2 6x + 3y = 33 2x + 3y = 21 4 5x + 2y = 22 7x – 2y = 2 6 5x + 3y = 50 9x – 3y = 48 Answers 1 x = 3. y = 2 2 x = 3. and that addition is undertaken when terms are identical but the signs are not. y = 3. which is correct for equation (i). Exercise 3A Answers 1 x = 4. y = 1 6 x = 5. y = 3 11 x = 4. y = 5 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 29 . subtract equation (ii) from equation (i). use those on page 42 in Pupil Book 9. y = 4 12 x = 5. y = 7 4 x = 2. y = 3 Extension Answers 1 a 29p 2 £1.5 6 x = 7. y = 2 9 x = 3. (Chosen as it has the smallest numbers. y = 5 3 x = 1. y = 3 2 x = 1.) x=2 Substitute x = 2 into equation (ii). but do ensure that every member of the class understands that subtraction is undertaken when there are two identical terms with the same sign. That gives: 5 × 2 + 2 × 5 = 20.) 6 + 2y = 16 2y = 10 y=5 Show here. y = 1 10 x = 2. y = 6 5 x = 10. y = 5 5 x = 7.

Give them four numbers: 1. 4 and 9. G 30 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .) Now substitute y = 2 in equation (i). they are going to solve equations where it is possible to eliminate one of the variables by simple substitution. 2. Main lesson activity G G G G Remind the class that the last lesson was devoted to solving simultaneous equations by adding or subtracting in order to eliminate one of the two variables. 4 and 6. This game can be extended to more sets of four numbers. such as: 2x + y = 7 (i) 3x – 2y = 7 (ii) From equation (i). make y the subject: y = 7 – 2x Substitute this in equation (ii) to give: 3x – 2(7 – 2x) = 7 3x – 14 + 4x = 7 7x = 21 x=3 (Divide both sides by 7.LESSON Framework objectives – Solving by substitution Solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations by eliminating one variable. Put on the board this pair of simultaneous equations: x – 2y = 1 (i) 2x + y = 12 (ii) From equation (i) make x the subject: x = 1 + 2y Next. Ask who can make a sum out of these numbers whose answer is 24. Once one sum has been made. if you wish. which gives: x = 1 + 2y x=1+2×2=1+4 x=5 Go through another example.) The class can now do Exercise 3B from Pupil Book 3. substitute this value for x in equation (ii): 2(1 + 2y) + y = 12 2 + 4y + y = 12 2 + 5y = 12 5y = 12 – 2 = 10 y=2 (Divide both sides by 5. Ask who can make a sum out of these numbers whose answer is 24. Now. One solution is 42 + 9 – 1. 2.2 Oral and mental starter G G G G G G Tell the class they are going to play a quick game of 24. make another. Two possible answers to this game are: (4 × 6) × (2 – 1) (4 – 1) × (2 + 6) Discuss the possible solutions and see who has made the most. Next give them 1. 3.

y = 7 11 x = 1. for example: 3x + 4y = 31 x – 4y = 5 Work through the solution using both methods. y = 3 5 x = 2. y = 1 8 x = 3. y = 5 2 x = 2. y = 3 9 x = 6. Take. y = 3 7 x = 2. y = 1 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 31 . y = 3 6 x = 5. y = 3 5 x = 4. y = 2 Extension Answers 1 £2. The solution is x = 9 and y = 1. y = 5 2 x = 4. y = 5 12 x = 4. y = 1 4 x = 7. y = 3 3 x = 4. You will find that most students see that the elimination method (adding the two equations) will be the quicker method here.Exercise 3B Answers 1 x = 4. y = 5 10 x = 8. y = 1 6 x = 4. Homework 1 3x + y = 8 2x + 5y = 27 3 5x + 2y = 47 3x – y = 26 5 7x – 4y = 16 x–y=1 2 6x + 4y = 36 2x + y = 11 4 3x + y = 24 5x + 2y = 41 6 8x – 4y = 36 x + 3y = 8 Answers 1 x = 1.25 2 1 h 20 min Plenary G Key Words I substitution I variable G G Tell the class that there will be times when they have to make a choice about which method to use – elimination or substitution. y = 5 4 x = 7. y = 3 3 x = 9.

Substitute B = 5 into equation (i) to give C = 2. Step 3 Solve the simultaneous equations in B and C. Hence. the nth term is T(n) = 3n2 + 5n + 2. and seeing what the second differences are.) Ask the students closest to explain how they estimated the answer – no calculators allowed. (76% is the correct estimate. 7. Hence. 44. Ask them: ‘Approximately what percentage is this?’ Jot down the answers on the board. Step 1 Find the second difference. This can be done by multiplying both numbers by 3. you got correct answers to 28 questions out of 37. Take from the 84 a third of the extra 17 from the denominator. generating the sequence. This gives 78% – not a bad estimate. 9. 70. Once various strategies have been considered. A = 3. Having established that this is the way to express a quadratic nth term. T(2) = 24. given by Step 2. The nth term of any quadratic sequence is given by T(n) = An2 + Bn + C. The class can now do Exercise 3C from Book 3. Hence. You may need to go through another example with the class. however. One way is to try to get to a fraction out of 100. which gives the nth term as: T(n) = 3n2 + Bn + C When n = 1. 10 = 3 + B + C ⇒ B + C = 7 When n = 2. you are going to be looking at quadratic sequences.3 Framework objectives – Find the sequence n th term for a quadratic Find the next term and the nth term of quadratic sequences. Oral and mental starter G G G G G G Tell the class that last night in a pub quiz. as some students will have other quite interesting ways to explore. … . You should check this with the class on the next few terms. Remind the class that a quadratic sequence is one whose second differences are the same throughout the sequence. 24. put on the board the sequence 10. Explain that you now have a routine for finding the nth term of a quadratic sequence T(n) = An2 + Bn + C. 5. to obtain B = 5. You may want to show that this is true by substituting some values for A.LESSON 3. This would give 84 out of 117. which is about 6. to give a pair of simultaneous equations to solve for B and C. Hence. Step 2 Find T(1) and T(2). 102. Use one of the examples in Pupil Book 3. 24 = 12 + 2B + C ⇒ 2B + C = 12 This gives a pair of simultaneous equations to solve: B+C=7 (i) 2B + C = 12 (ii) Subtract equation (i) from equation (ii). Do encourage class discussion and a sharing of techniques here. 43 out of 77 Find a third (to get to 25) and multiply by 4 56% 62 out of 81 Find a quarter (to get to 20) and multiply by 5 75% 34 out of 92 Find a tenth (92 needs about a tenth added on to get to 100) of 34 and add it on 37% 51 out of 123 Find a fifth (to get to 25) and multiply by 4 40% Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G Ask the class what the nth term is of the sequence 3. Remind the class that any linear sequence can be expressed by an nth term such as T(n) = An + B. Then show the differences: 10 24 44 70 102 First differences 14 20 26 32 Second differences 6 6 6 In a previous investigation it was established that half the second difference is A. You want the answer T(n) = 2n + 1. Today. ask for a few more to see whether they apply. or any other pair. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 32 . T(1) = 10. B and C. Halve it to give A.

27. 36. . . 27. 55. 76. 27. . Homework 1 Find the first five terms of each of the following sequences given by: a T(n) = n2 + 7n – 3 a 13. second differences are 6 f No. 46. 15. second differences are 2 Yes. 26. . 73 b 5. 19. 1 – 4 – 18 9 – 9 – – – 16 25 – – – 31 48 69 c T(n) = 6n2 – 5n c 7. 125 2 a 2n2 + 6n + 5 b n2 + 3n + 8 c 3n2 – 2n + 6 d n/(n2 + n + 1) f (3n2 + 4n + 5)/( 6n2 + 7n + 8) e n2/(2n2 + 3n + 4) © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 33 . 51. 57 b 9. Answers 1 a 5. second differences are all different 14 b 24 c 29 9. . 18. 93 n (n2 + 4) 4 a n2 + 7n b 3n2 + n + 5 c 3n2 + 2n – 3 d ———– e —————— (n2 + 4n + 4) (n2 + 3) Extension Answers 1 – (n + 3)(n + 4) – n 2 Plenary G Key Words I quadratic sequence I second difference G Put on the board the triangular numbers together with their associated triangles of circles. 141 c 1. . 41. . 1 2 – 3 – – 13 3 7 – 4 – – 21 5 – – 31 b T(n) = 5n2 + 3n + 1 b 12. 71 f 12 25 44 — 100 – – – 69 — – – – – – 21 46 83 132 193 2 Find the nth term for each of the following quadratic sequences. second differences are 0 b Yes. .Exercise 3C Answers 1 a c e 2 a 3 a No. 39. 25. 48 e . 61. 62. 14. . 85 d . 14. 33. second differences are 2 Yes. Ask if anyone can tell you what the nth triangular number is? 1 (Answer: – n(n + 1)) 2 Work through this with the class as a means of bringing together the strategy for finding the nth term of a quadratic sequence. 37. 18. second differences are 1 d Yes. 93. 41. .

After a few correct suggestions. such as: 4(2x + 1) 2(2x – 4) ———— = ———— 5 3 Again. the denominator on each can be eliminated to give: 6( x – 1) = 2(2x + 8) Expand each side to give 6x – 6 = 4x + 16. 12 × ( x – 1) 12 × (2x + 8) — — — = —————— — — — 2 6 Now remind the students about cancelling fractions. Next. (4x + 5) Then. multiply both sides by the product of the denominators and then cancel down. put on the board the equation — — = 7 and ask ‘How do we solve this?’ — — 3 Again it is a matter of simplifying.LESSON Framework objectives – Equations involving fractions Solve linear equations involving fractions. (27 and 18 ) 3 1 28 7 –– – – – Equivalent to – using the number 28. Hence. such as 2 2 – 5 1 –. Start by multiplying both sides by 3 to give 4x + 5 = 21. to obtain: 15 × 4(2x + 1) 15 × 2(2x – 4) ——————— = ——————— 5 3 which cancels down to 12(2x + 1) = 10(2x – 4). When the class understand this process. G 34 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . write the following example on the board: x – 1 2x + 8 — – = —— — —— 2 6 Explain that when there is a fraction on both sides. the first step is to find the product of the denominators and multiply both sides by it. this gives: 2 × 6 = 12. 3 36 Repeat this with the following examples: 1 45 9 ––– – – Equivalent to – using the number 45. 4 – 2 34 17 The two possible answers are –– and –– . – 3 You should be given the response ‘multiply both sides by 3’. Then subtract 5 from both sides to give 4x = 16. step-by-step. Finally. … . 68 34 1 4 – – – – Now ask for two fractions equivalent to – that use the number 12 ( 12 and 12 ). divide both sides by 4 to give x = 4. Here. ask for an equivalent fraction to – that uses 34.4 G G G G Oral and mental starter 1 Ask for some equivalent fractions to –. x. Show how to add 6 to each side. 3. (112 and 28) 4 3 36 27 – – – – Equivalent to – using the number 36. which gives x = 15. the side which has the variable. Expanding and simplifying gives the solution x = –13. (225 and 45) 5 2 18 12 – – – – Equivalent to – using the number 18. then subtract 4x from each side to give 2x = 22 and x = 11. The class can now do Exercise 3D from Pupil Book 3. 10 . you may want to work through a more difficult problem. (48 and 36) 4 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G x Put on the board the equation – = 5 and ask the class how to solve it.

5 e 4 f –5. Answers 1 a x = 20 b t = 10 c m = 24 d x = 20 2 a x = 14 b x = 27 c x = 13 d x = 5 3 a x = 7 b x = –12 c x = 24 4 a x = –4 b x = 2 c x = 11. 245 Now give them — = 14 and ask how this could be solved.Exercise 3D Answers 1 2 3 4 a a a a x = 15 b t = 15 c m = 24 d x = 12 e w = 8 22 b 2.5 Extension Answers 1 – – 1 a 11 5 – – 2 a 14 7 1 47 – – – – – – – – b 13 c – – d 32 e 17 f 26 3 5 5 8 1 73 – c – d 70 e 0. – x Some students should see that the solution is x = 6.75 0.8 b 3. 3x a — = 12 – 5 x+1 a ——– = 5 3 x–1 x+1 a ——– = ——– 3 4 5 3 a ——– = ——– x–1 x+1 3t b —=6 – 5 x+5 b ——– = 8 4 6m c —– = 18 8 2x + 4 c ——— = 6 5 2x + 3 x – 2 b ——— = ——– 3 2 4 5 b ——— = ——— 3x – 2 2x + 1 2x d — =8 – 5 3x + 1 d ——— = 2 8 3x – 2 x + 4 c ——— = ——– 5 2 7 5 c ——— = ——— 5x – 2 3x + 5 2w e —– = 6 7 2 Solve each of the following equations. 3 Solve each of the following equations. Homework 1 Solve each of the following equations.6 – – b –3 5 Plenary G G G G Key Words I denominator I cancelling 12 Put on the board the equation — = 2 and ask the class if anyone can solve it. 4 Solve each of the following equations.2 c 16 d –2 3 b 17 c 19 d –21. Then divide both sides by 14 to obtain x = 17.25 e w = 21 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 35 . — x Multiply both sides by x to give 245 = 14x.5.57 f 0.17 c 2. but discuss with the class the methods that they might have used in order to get that solution.

11 g 3. 3. Exercise 3E Answers 1 a 0 1 2 b 8 9 10 c 5 6 7 d 1 2 3 e 2 3 4 f 0 1 2 g –2 –1 0 h –3 –2 –1 i 3 4 5 j –1 0 1 k –3 –2 –1 l 5 6 7 m 11 12 13 n 3 4 5 o 2 3 4 2 a 1. 3. 3.6 x2 = 179. so we might estimate this as 6. The solution looks closer to 7 than 6.) If you were to set the problem out as an equation it would look like 3x – 100 < 2000 Go through the solution of this inequality.6 x2 = 158. Show how this can be illustrated on a number line as: 0 G G 700 Explain the use of an empty circle to show a strict inequality and a solid circle to show the added equality used. 7. 4.7 (and –6. 5 e 1.7). with the intention being to get them thinking about a solution that involves an inequality. between 7 and 8.5 G G G G Oral and mental starter Ask the class if anyone can tell you the solution to x2 = 45. you are saying that you earn less than £700 per week. between 12 and 13.4 Main lesson activity G G G Tell the class that if your salary was tripled and then they took £100 away you would still earn less than two thousand pounds a week. 5. 9 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 c 4 5 6 7 8 d 0 1 e 1 2 3 4 5 f 1 2 3 4 36 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 5. 3. 4. 7. estimate 7.LESSON Framework objectives – Inequalities Solve linear inequalities in one variable and represent the solution set on a number line. estimate 12. 6. only an approximate answer can be given. 5 c 2. estimate 13. 8 b 1. 16 f 2.5 and show this on a number line. 2. This will lead to 3x < 2100 x < 700 So. explaining that the rules are exactly the same as for normal equations. 4. We are looking for the two whole numbers between which the solution lies. 9. Then ask them how much you might be earning? (You could use a similar problem. Repeat this process for the following numbers: x2 = 58. 8 3 a x ≤ 5 b x > 16 c x < 3 d x ≥ 10 b 4 a 2 3 4 5 6 7 –3 d 2. These will be 6 and 7. 3. as 62 = 36 and 72 = 49. begin to solve inequalities in two variables. 6. Now put up on the board the inequation 4x + 5 ≥ 19. Show how this reduces to x ≥ 3. between 13 and 14. It should quickly become clear that since 45 is not a square number. 6. –1 G 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 The class can now do Exercise 3E from Pupil Book 3.

Extension Answers 1 a

y y≥6 6

b

y x≤4

c

5

y y ≤ 3x + 2 2 1 x

x

4

x

2 x ≤ 4, y ≥ 1, y ≤ x

Plenary

G

Key Words

I inequality I inequation

G

Put on the board a sketch of the graph y = x and discuss with the class where the region y > x actually is. Discuss the line itself and the fact that as this is y = x the region does not include the line. Draw on the board a sketch of the graph y = x2 and repeat the discussion for the region y > x2.

Homework

1 Solve the following inequalities and illustrate their solutions on number lines. a 5x + 7 ≥ 22 d 2(x + 4) > 20 b 2x – 3 ≤ 10 e 4(3t + 7) ≤ 16 c 4x + 3 < 11 f 2(5x – 4) ≥ 17

2 Write down the values of x that satisfy the conditions given. a 2(4x + 3) < 50, where x is a positive, prime number. b 2(3x – 1) ≤ 60, where x is a positive, square number. c 4(5x – 3) ≤ 100, where x is positive but not a prime number. 3 Solve the following inequalities and illustrate their solutions on number lines. a 5x – 4 < 11 x > –1 b 3(2x + 5) ≤ 9 x > –4

Answers 1 a

2 3 4

b

6 6.5 7

c

1 2 3

d

5 6 7

e

–2 –1 0

f

2 3

2 a 2, 3, 5 3 a

–2 –1

b 1, 4, 9

c 1, 4 b

0

1

2

3

4

–5

–4

–3

–2

–1

0

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37

LESSON

Framework objectives – Graphs showing direct proportion Solve problems involving direct proportion, relating algebraic solutions to graphical representation of the equations.

3.6

G

**Oral and mental starter
**

Tell the class that you were looking at a DVD yesterday and noted that the running time was 135 minutes. Ask the class how many hours and minutes this is (2 hours 15 minutes). Discuss with the class how to calculate this, using multiples of 60 to find the number of hours with the remainder being minutes. Now ask: ‘What fraction of an hour is 15 minutes?’ Ask for both a fraction and a 1 decimal answer ( – and 0.25). 4 1 Next ask: ‘What fraction of an hour is 10 minutes?’ This is – as a fraction, but the 6 decimal is more awkward. Can the class determine what the decimal answer would be without using a calculator? 1 1 Starting from known facts, – = 0.333 3333 and – is half of this. Hence, 3 6 1 – = 0.166 6667. 6 3 1 4 2 1 4 3 Alternatively, – = – = 0.5, and – = – = 0.666 6667, so – = – – – = 0.666 6667 – 0.5 6 2 6 3 6 6 6 = 0.166 6667. 1 1 – – Then ask: ‘What fraction of an hour is 5 minutes?’. This is 12, which is half of – or 6 0.083 333. Talk about the potential confusion of using decimal notation in time. That is, 1 1.50 could mean 1– hours or 1 hour 50 minutes. The students should be sure 2 they know which unit is being used.

G G G

G

G G

**Main lesson activity
**

G

Tell the class that you took a taxi journey late at night and watched the taxi fare change on the display. The table shows the fares at various times after getting into the taxi. Time Fare (£) 00:15 1.30 00:20 3.00 00:30 6.40 00:35 8.10

G

G

G

G

G G G G

Draw a pair of axes with time on the x-axis and the fare on the y-axis. Label them. Mark the x-axis with one hour as the principal unit, subdivided into 5-minute sections. Mark the y-axis in pounds up to £10. Ensure there is enough room to extend the y-axis down to at least –£4. Now plot the points and draw a suitable straight line through them. Explain to the class that as the line is straight, the two variables have a linear relationship. Furthermore, the fare increase in a time interval is directly proportional to the length of time. This means that the fare always increases by the same amount for a given increase in time. Show that this works out as £1.70 every 5 minutes. Ask the students what the equation of the line will be in terms of time, t, in hours, and fare, f, in pounds. Remind them of the general equation of a straight line: y = mx + c, where m is the gradient and c is the y–axis intercept. In one hour, the fare would have increased by 12 × £1.70, which is £20.40. Hence, the gradient is 20.4. Extend the vertical axis down to –£4. Then demonstrate that the line intercepts it at f = –£3.8. Therefore, the equation of the line is f = 20.4t – 3.8. Explain that the extra point used to find the equation of the line is impossible in real-life situations, since a negative fare is meaningless. Ask what the fare would be at 00:50 if the same rate continued. The graph can be used, or the equation. But if the equation is used, 50 minutes 50 – – must be changed into hours ( 60 = 0.833 hours), giving £13.20. The class can now do Exercise 3F from Pupil Book 3.

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Exercise 3F Answers 1 b Yes 2 b Yes c C = 1.5t – 8 d 16°C c f = 48 000t – 58 000 d Between 12 and 13 minutes past one w 3 b Yes c L = — + 10 d 1700 g — 100 4 b Yes c S = 52t – 156 d 338 5 b Approximately, yes c B = Approximately 0.66H d Approximately 760 cm

Extension Answers a Approximately 10.40 AM b 5 times

Plenary

G G

Key Words

I directly proportional I linear relationship

G

Ask the class what is meant by ‘directly proportional’. They need to understand that this means that one variable always increases by the same amount for a given increase in the other variable. The graph of two variables which are directly proportional will always be linear (that is, a straight line). Discuss the fact that some students did not find it easy to obtain the equations of the lines in Pupil Book 3, Exercise 3F. Using the idea of y = mx + c will always help them in this respect.

Homework

A baby squid is weighed from birth at midday for its first 5 days. The results are shown in the table below. Day Weight (kg) 1 1.7 2 3.1 3 4.5 4 5.9 5 7.3

a Plot the points on a graph and join them with a suitable line. b Is the increase in weight during a time interval directly proportional to the length of the interval? c Write down the equation of the line showing the relationship between the weight (W ) and the age (D) of the squid. d If the relationship held, at what age would the squid first weigh over 15 kg?

Answers b Yes

c W = 1.4D + 0.3

d Day 11

© HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003

39

LESSON

3.7

G G G

Framework objectives – Solving simultaneous equations by graphs Link a graphical representation of a pair of equations to the algebraic solution.

**Oral and mental starter
**

Ask whether any student can estimate the answer to 37 × 8. You are hoping for ‘About 300’. Discuss with the class the various methods they used, such as rounding 37 up to 40, then 8 × 40 = 320. But since 37 was rounded up, round down the answer to 300. Ask for the approximation of 28 × 43. You are hoping for ‘About 1200’ – maybe from 30 × 40. Discuss the different strategies the class have adopted. Ask the following, ensuring that everybody is taking part and knows what they are doing. 33 × 58 30 × 60 = 1800 67 × 72 70 × 70 = 4900 38 × 59 40 × 60 = 2400 You know it will be less. 19 × 98 20 × 100 = 2000 You know it will be less. 25 × 36 100 × 36 ÷ 4 = 900 Did anyone spot this way?

G G G G

G

Should the class find these too simple, challenge them with the three- and twodigit product estimations: 237 × 76 200 × 80 = 16 000 319 × 88 300 × 90 = 27 000 423 × 579 400 × 600 = 240 000 792 × 617 800 × 600 = 480 000

**Main lesson activity
**

G G G

G G G G G

G G G

Put a pair of axes on the board and draw on the line with the equation y = 2x + 1 from (–1, –1) to (3, 7). Tell the class this is the graph of y = 2x + 1. Ask them what the graph actually represents. What you want as a response is: ‘It’s a collection of solutions to the equation’. Every point on the graph represents a different possible solution. For example, (0, 1) represents x = 0, y =1, (1, 3) represents x = 1, y =3, and so on. Ask the class for some solutions to the equation and write them down, as coordinates. Now, using the same axes, put on the board the graph with the equation y = 4x – 2, from (–1, –6) to (3, 10). Again, ask for some solutions for this equation. For example, (0, –2) representing x = 0, y = –2 and (2, 6) representing x = 2, y = 6. Ask the question: ‘What is so special about the point where the two lines cross?’ One of the students should comment that the coordinates are on each graph. So, at that point the solution of each equation is the same. In other words, this is the solution of the two simultaneous equations. 1 Show that the point where these two lines cross is (1– , 4) and that this point does 2 indeed satisfy both equations. Explain to the class that an alternative way to find the solution of simultaneous equations is to draw their graphs. The class can now do Exercise 3G from Pupil Book 3.

40

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y = 3.3 4 x = 1. This should prompt some useful class discussion about solutions and intersections. they do not intersect 2 a No b When the pair represent a pair of parallel lines 3 a No b When one equation can be simplified to the other equation.5 5 x = 1.6 3 x = 4. y = 8. Ask whether these two simultaneous equations have a solution.Exercise 3G Answers 1 x = 1. 4 Sketch a pair of graphs. y = 3. 2 a Does every pair of linear simultaneous equations have a solution? b Explain your answer to part a.9 Extension Answers 1 Two solutions: x = 1.5. there are an infinite number of solutions 4 U-shaped curve and a straight line. Then draw on the lines whose equations are x + y = 4 and x + y = 7. b Explain why there is no solution to this pair of simultaneous equations.3 7 c – d 2 – 3 3 a (1 × 1) + (2 × n) + (3 × 5) + (4 × 6) + (5 × 3) = 55 + 2n 4 x = –1. which is a tangent to the curve.7 and x = –4.2.5. 3 a Does every pair of simultaneous equations which do have a solution. which represent a pair of simultaneous equations that will have only one solution. y = –1 2 a 2 b 1 b 15 + n c 10 Plenary G G G Key Words I intersection Draw on the board a pair of axes. y = 3. The fact that these two lines are parallel to each other indicates that there can be no solution to them as a pair.1.9 2 Two solutions: x = 0.5. y = 1. y = 15. Homework 1 a On the same pair of axes. will have only one point in common © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 41 .6 and x = –3.3. y = 3. Answers 1 b Because the two lines are parallel. one quadratic and one linear.5 8 x = 2.8 SATs Answers 1 y = 7.2.9.7 2 x = 2. y = 1.5 6 x = 2.5 7 x = 1. y = 2. y = 1. y = 1. draw the graphs of the equations y = 2x + 1 and y = 2x + 3.5.2. y = 2. have a unique solution? b Explain your answer to part a.5.9.

Draw the diagram on the right on the board or OHP. the longest side.4 2.4 1. Remind the class that in a rightHypotenuse angled triangle. the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. which was discovered over two thousand years ago. The following famous theorem about right-angled triangles is attributed to him. Calculate the length x in the triangle shown on the right. ask the class to copy the table below and then complete it as quickly as possible. 42 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . They must only use their calculators for the square numbers that they do not know. Pythagoras’ theorem Pythagoras was a Greek philosopher and mathematician who was born in about 581 BC on the island of Samos. is called the hypotenuse. Space and Measures 1 Framework objectives – Pythagoras’ theorem Understand and apply Pythagoras’ theorem.2 2. x = √113 = 10.7 3. just off the coast of Turkey. and you may need to show some students how to do it on their calculator.5 1.7 2 Main lesson activity G G G G Tell the class that they are going to use Pythagoras’ theorem. Ask the class to give their answers to one decimal place. Ask the class to do the activity in Pupil Book 3.6 2. Pythagoras’ theorem is usually written as: c2 = a2 + b2 G G Show the class how to find the length of a hypotenuse by doing the following example.9 4 4. which is always opposite the right angle.1 4. Then show them how to work this out on a scientific calculator. page 59. c a b In any right-angled triangle.4 4.CHAPTER 4 LESSON Shape.2 4. Using Pythagoras’ theorem: x2 = 82 + 72 = 64 + 49 = 113 — — So.6 3. Explain that it is used to calculate the length of sides in right-angled triangles.3 3.1 G G G Oral and mental starter Ask the class to find the square and the square root keys on their calculators. x x2 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Now repeat the activity for square roots.8 3 3. x 1 2 x 1 – – √x 1 2 4 3 9 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 2.5 3. 8 x2 + 7 x2 = x = 8 cm x 7 cm This may not work on some makes of calculator. x 1 – – √x 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 G Give the class the answers.6 cm (1 dp). 4. Next.2 3. Ask individual students to explain how to use the two keys by giving examples.

4 cm. z = 2.2 cm c 6. y = 1. Exercise 4A Answers 1 a 5.6 cm b 10. a 2 cm a 3 cm 9 cm b b 6 cm c 10 cm 16 cm c 2 Calculate the length of the unknown side in each of the following right-angled triangles.4 cm e 5.4 m 3 x = 1. ∠C is an acute angle When a2 + b2 > c2.9 cm 2 a 4.4 m h 4. Answers 1 a 3.7 cm f 3.8 cm 5 7. > or < = < > = < > Is ∠C right-angled. x = √ 51 = 7. acute or obtuse? Right-angled Acute Obtuse Right-angled Acute Obtuse When a2 + b2 = c2.6 cm d 8.G G Next.0 cm d 13.1 m h 10.1 cm Extension Answers a2 b2 c2 a2 + b2 Is a2 + b2 = c2? Is a2 + b2 > c2? Is a2 + b2 < c2? Write =. Homework 1 Calculate the length of the hypotenuse in each of the following right-angled triangles.8 cm b 9.8 cm c 18.2 cm 12 cm c 9. ∠C is an obtuse angle 9 16 25 25 16 49 16 25 36 144 64 64 25 49 49 169 100 81 25 41 61 169 80 113 Key Words I hypotenuse I Pythagoras’ theorem I square I square root Plenary G G Ask the class to explain Pythagoras’ theorem.1 cm (1 dp). Calculate the length x of the triangle on the right.7 cm e 4. Tell them that in the next lesson they will apply Pythagoras to solve problems.5 m f 4. Then.2 cm c 12.0 cm 4 10. show the class how to find the length of a shorter side by doing the following example.9 m 2 a 6.8 cm x 25 cm 3 a Calculate x in the right-angled triangle shown on the right. a 5 cm a 7 cm b 14 cm b c 7. show them how to work this out on a scientific calculator. Using Pythagoras’ theorem: x2 + 72 = 102 7 cm x2 = 102 – 72 = 100 – 49 = 51 — – So.0 m g 4. Give your answers to one decimal place.9 cm b 7.7 cm.6 m g 4. Give your answers to one decimal place. ∠C is a right angle When a2 + b2 < c2.6 cm 3 a 7 cm 24 cm b 84 cm2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 43 . b Calculate the area of the triangle. 10 x2 – 7 x2 = x = 10 cm x G The class can now do Exercise 4A from Pupil Book 3.2 cm c 6.2 cm b 10.

clearly showing the right angle. G Round your answer to a suitable degree of accuracy. Then label the direct distance x. Now use Pythagoras’ theorem: x2 = 252 + 452 = 625 + 2025 = 2650 — — — So. Oral and mental starter G G The class will need calculators for this starter. First. G Decide whether the hypotenuse or one of the shorter sides needs to be found. The class can now do Exercise 4B from Pupil Book 3.LESSON 4. Main lesson activity G G Explain to the class that Pythagoras’ theorem can be used to solve various practical problems. G Draw a diagram for the problem. G Use Pythagoras’ theorem to calculate x. it is helpful to proceed as follows. Show the class how to do the following problem. draw a diagram to show the distances sailed by the ship.2 Framework objectives – Solving problems using Pythagoras’ theorem Understand and apply Pythagoras’ theorem. G Label the unknown side x. x = √ 2650 = 51. Ask the class to copy and complete the following table. 25 x 45 G 44 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . A ship sails 25 km due east.5 km (1 dp). Calculate the distance the ship would have travelled if it had sailed the direct route. When solving a problem. Answer: x 15 x2 225 25 625 35 1225 45 2025 55 3025 65 4225 75 5625 The last two digits of x2 are 25 and the digit(s) before the 25 is (are) the product of the number in the tens column of x and this number plus 1. Then it sails for a further 45 km due south. x 15 x2 25 35 45 55 65 75 G Ask the class whether they can see the rule for squaring a number that ends in 5.

7 m a 36.4 cm b 22. a 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 b 4 12 24 40 60 84 112 c 5 13 25 41 61 85 113 1 1 b For a odd and greater than 1. it flies directly back to airport A.5 km a 4 b 5 a 4. Give your answer to the nearest kilometre.6 m b 5. Finally. Give your answer to the nearest metre. Give your answer to one decimal place.56 m 5 1.8 c 4.3 cm2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 45 . Answers 1 305 km 2 128 m 3 a 5.4 cm a 7.Exercise 4B Answers 1 6 7 8 9 10 108 km 2 10.2 d 9. 2 The length of a football pitch is 100 m and the width of the pitch is 80 m.8 4 2. the foot of the ladder must be placed between 1.2 cm2 4.78 m Extension Answers a Some further Pythagorean triples with a odd are given below.2 m from the building.5 b 4.8 m 4 43. b = – (a2 – 1) and c = – (a2 + 1) 2 2 c Yes Plenary G Key Words I Pythagoras’ theorem Ask the class to give a summary of how to go about solving a practical problem using Pythagoras’ theorem. Calculate the direct distance from airport C to airport A.8 m 3 7. Homework 1 A plane flies due east for 120 km from airport A to airport B.1 cm b 22. It then flies due north for 280 km to airport C. a What is the minimum height the ladder can safely reach up the side of a building? b What is the maximum height the ladder can safely reach up the side of a building? 4 Calculate the area of an equilateral triangle whose side length is 10 cm. Calculate the length of a diagonal of the pitch. 3 The regulations for the safe use of ladders states: For a 6 m ladder.5 m and 2.

and give them about 5 minutes to discuss their answers. so that it is always exactly 5 cm from it. is the bisector of the angle ABC. G A point which moves so that it is always 5 cm from a fixed point X has a locus which is a circle of radius 5 cm. with its centre at X. Go over the two important constructions of Example 4. Allow them to work in pairs or groups.4 in Pupil Book 3. which meet at B. Note that the boundary usually is drawn as a dashed line to show that the points which are exactly 5 cm from X are not to be included. is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the two points. A A B B G C Explain that a locus can sometimes be a region. A and B. 4. X G The locus of a set of points which are 5 cm or less from a fixed point X is the region inside a circle of radius 5 cm. as shown in the three examples to the right.3 G G Oral and mental starter Ask the class to imagine a stick standing upright in the ground. Remind them that a locus is the movement of a point according to a given set of conditions or a rule. X G The class can now do Exercise 4C from Pupil Book 3. 46 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Next. G The locus of a point which is always equidistant from each of two fixed points.) Main lesson activity G G G Tell the class that they are going to learn how to find loci for more complicated situations than those which they met in Year 8. Then tell them to imagine a fly moving around the stick. G The locus of a point which is equidistant from two fixed lines AB and BC. involving loci and simple constructions. with its centre at X.LESSON Framework objectives – Loci Find the locus of a point that moves according to a more complex rule. X G The locus of a set of points that are less than 5 cm from a fixed point is the region inside a circle of radius 5 cm. which can now be stated to be loci. with its centre at X. (Answer: surface of a cylinder with a hemisphere on top. Note that the region usually is shaded. invite the class to describe the shape which shows all the different positions at which the fly could be.

construct the locus which is equidistant from the points A and B.Exercise 4C Answers 3 a X b X c X 4 5 A B A B C X D 6 P X Q R 7 8 X Y A B 9 All points on the surface of a sphere with radius 10 cm 10 All points on the surface of a half cylinder with half of a hemisphere at each end. Then ask them to make up some examples of their own. The sensors can detect movement to a maximum distance of 5 m. construct the locus which is equidistant 3 Draw a diagram to show the locus of a set of points which are 4 cm or less from a fixed point X. are fitted to the side of a house. as shown below. Use a scale of 1 cm to 1 m. A 5 cm A B 2 Using a ruler and compasses. Homework 1 Using a ruler and compasses. 4 Two alarm sensors. from the perpendicular lines AB and BC. both with a radius of 5 cm Extension Answers 1 Locus is a cycloid (see diagram) 2 Locus is an arc of the circle whose radius is 3 m 4 Point is where perpendicular bisector of AB meets road Key Words I angle bisector I perpendicular bisector I equidistant I locus I loci I region Plenary G G Ask the class to give the definition of a locus. Draw a scale drawing to show the region that can be detected by both sensors. Answers 1 Perpendicular bisector of AB 2 Angle bisector of angle ABC 3 Shaded region inside the circle of radius 4 cm 5 cm C 5 cm B 6m 4 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 47 . 6 m apart.

SAS. Understand congruence. hypotenuse and side (RHS) Z 70° X Hypotenuse Side G G G Now apply these conditions to show that the two triangles given on the A right are congruent. Their answer should be: ‘Two shapes are congruent when they are exactly the same shape and size’. the congruence of these two triangles may be written as: ∆ABC ≡ ∆XYZ The class can now do Exercise 4D from Pupil Book 3. Side Side Angle Side Three sides (SSS) Side Two sides and the included angle (SAS) Angle Side Two angles and the included side (ASA) Angle Side Right angle. Write their responses on the board. 4. ASA or RHS are unique. Apply the conditions SSS. Hence. but that triangles given SSA or AAA are not. calculate and use the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons. or use a prepared OHT. inviting individual students to explain their answers. Then summarise the following on the board or using an OHT. Explain to the class that it is a convention to show congruence by using the symbol ≡.LESSON Framework objectives – Congruent triangles Know from experience of constructing them that triangles given SSS. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 5 cm 56° C Y 48 . which should be as follows: ∠B = ∠X ∠C = ∠Y BC = XY 70° B Then ask the class whether this proves that ∆ABC is congruent to ∆XYZ. SAS. Main lesson activity G G Tell the class that they will now learn how to prove that two triangles are congruent when information is given on both triangles. to which they should respond affirmatively. Remind the class that they already know how to construct triangles from given information. The following questions could also be asked: G Do you need dimensions to show that the triangles are congruent? G Do you have to draw the triangles exactly to prove that they are congruent? G Do you need to be given any angles to show that the triangles are congruent? Ask them whether they can draw other pairs of triangles which are congruent but include angles. ASA or RHS to establish the congruence of triangles. Invite individual students to state which angles and which sides are equal. 8 cm A 8 cm 6 cm B 9 cm 8 cm 7 cm 7 cm C 9 cm 8 cm 8 cm D 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm 8 cm E 10 cm 6 cm G G 8 cm F 8 cm 8 cm G 6 cm 10 cm H 6 cm 8 cm G Ask the class which pairs of triangles are congruent. Draw on the board the following triangles. Get them to state 56° 5 cm the condition of congruence (ASA).4 Oral and mental starter G G Ask the class how to recognise congruent shapes. Explain how to find.

NO = QR (ASA) d ∠T = ∠W = 90°. TU = VX (RHS) 2 ∠X = 40° (angles in a triangle). ∆DCE ≡ ∆ΒCE 3 Four different triangles are possible. AD is a common side. each diagonal and show that the two triangles formed are congruent (SSS). forming a right angle. 7 cm a A 5 cm 40° B 6 cm M C D Q 75° 10 cm 55° R 15 cm 55° N 75° O P T 9 cm U X 15 cm 9 cm 10 cm 5 cm 7 cm 40° 6 cm E H 8 cm I L F b G J K 9 cm 9 cm 8 cm c d S V W 2 ABCD is a rectangle and E is the mid-point of AB. SU = WX (hypotenuse). AC = DF (SAS) b GH = KL. AC = DF (SAS) b GH = JK. ignoring reflections or rotations 4 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Side 2 Side 2 Angle Side 1 Arc for the radius of side 2 cuts side 3 in two places. BC = XY (ASA) 3 a Angles are the same but no sides are given. Hence. ∆AXB ≡ ∆CXD. Side 3 Side 2 Side 3 Side 2 Angle Side 1 Arc for the radius of side 2 does not meet side 3. BC = DE. opposite angles are equal 2 a AB = AD. ∆AXD ≡ ∆BXC Extension Answers 1 Draw. two triangles can be drawn. ∠C = ∠Y. BC = CD. Give reasons for your answers and state which condition of congruence you are using. Angle Side 1 Arc for the radius of side 2 touches side 3. A E B D C Answers 1 a ∠C = ∠D. This is condition RHS.Exercise 4D Answers 1 a ∠C = ∠D. Homework 1 Show that each of the following pairs of triangles are congruent. BC = DE. So. ∆ABC ≡ ∆ADC (SSS). HI = KL (SSS) c ∠N = ∠R. Side 3 Plenary G Key Words I congruent I congruence Ask the class to write in their books the four conditions which show that two triangles are congruent. So. AB = AC (hypotenuse). TU = WX (RHS) 2 AE = EB. GI = JL. NO = PR (ASA) d ∠T = ∠V = 90°. GI = JL. in turn. So. 49 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . So. HI = JK (SSS) c ∠N = ∠R. AD = BC. ∠A = ∠B (SAS) Explain why ∆AED is congruent to ∆BEC. ∠O = ∠Q. ∆ABD ≡ ∆ACD (RHS) 5 ∆ACD ≡ ∆ABC ≡ ∆ABD ≡ ∆BCD. So. the two triangles could be drawn with different side lengths. SU = VX (hypotenuse). b ∆ABE ≡ ∆ADE. AC a common side. AAA is not a condition for congruence 4 ∠ADB = ∠ADC = 90°. ∠O = ∠P. it is not possible to draw the triangle. So. ∠B = ∠X.

A circle is a set of points equidistant from a centre. d d O Radius. G The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre of a circle. passing through the centre. 4. O Circumference.LESSON Framework objectives – Circle theorems Distinguish between practical demonstration and proof. r Diameter r Chord Tangent Chord Tangent G Alert the class to the fact that they are going to meet two important circle theorems in Exercise 4E: O O The radius at the point of contact of a tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the tangent. Circumference The distance around a circle. passing through the circle and then moving to the other side of the circle. the different situations which can occur. Tell the class to imagine the line getting closer to the circle. Answer: Touches at a point Cuts the circle twice Passes through the centre Touches at a point again Does not touch again Main lesson activity G Remind the class of the following terms for parts of a circle that they met in Year 8. A line that touches a circle at a single point on the circumference. Diameter. The class can now do Exercise 4E from Pupil Book 3. Know that the tangent at any point on a circle is perpendicular to the radius at that point.5 Oral and mental starter G G G Draw a circle and a vertical line on the board or OHP. Explain why the perpendicular from the centre to the chord bisects the chord. The distance from one side of a circle to the other. as in the diagram. 50 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . A line which cuts a circle into two parts. O. Ask the class to draw on their white boards or on the board. C Radius The distance from the centre of a circle to its circumference.

9 cm Centre of the circle is the intersection of the perpendicular bisector of EF and the perpendicular drawn from either E or F Centre of the circle is the intersection of the perpendicular bisector of XY and the perpendicular bisector of XZ Extension Answers 1 a 33° b 42° c 70° d 52° e e = f = 67° 2 In ∆ABO.5 cm • O 3 A circle passes through the three points A. AB is a tangent (radius is perpendicular to tangent) 3 Join OA. OP is a common side.4 cm d 10. OB is a radius of the small circle and since ∠ABO = 90°. ∠OAP = ∠OBP = 90° (radii are perpendicular to tangents). B A C Answers 1 a 47° b 52° c 55° d 58° e 34° f 61° 2 a 19. Homework 1 Calculate the size of the lettered angle in each of the following diagrams.3 cm b 7. B and C. Give your answers to one decimal place. using a ruler and compasses. OA = OB (radii).9 cm c 6. construct the circle. ∠ABO = 90° (angle in a semicircle). a O a 43° b b • O 38° c O 110° c d d 122° O e O e 56° f 61° O f 2 Use Pythagoras’ theorem to calculate the length x in each of the following diagrams. ∆AOP ≡ ∆BOP (RHS). In ∆AOP and ∆BOP. So. On a copy of the diagram.2 cm d 10. OB and OP. a O 7 cm x x • O x 3 cm 3 cm 3 cm 18 cm x b 20 cm 14 cm c O d 10 cm 8.Exercise 4E Answers 3 4 5 6 a 28° b 65° c 50° d 120° e 51° f 29° g 123° h 48° i 50° a 8.1 cm c 4.5 cm 3 Centre of the circle is intersection of perpendicular bisector of AB and perpendicular bisector of BC (and perpendicular bisector of AC) © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 51 .5 cm b 22. hence AP = BP Plenary G Key Words I I I I chord radius tangent Pythagoras’ theorem Invite individual students to explain on the board or OHP the two circle theorems they have met in the lesson.

the class will require squared paper. Hence: y = 180° – 72° = 108° For Exercise 4F. 4. Sets of commercially produced. y x G 52 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Now ask the class what shapes can be formed when one of the transparencies has parallel lines 2 cm apart. x is an exterior angle of the regular pentagon. isometric paper. A tessellation is a pattern made on a plane (flat) surface with identical shapes which fit together exactly. so that the students can easily visualise the shapes. each displaying a set of parallel lines 4 cm apart. it follow that: x = 360° ÷ 5 = 72° y is an interior angle of the regular pentagon.6 Oral and mental starter G Show the class two transparencies. calculate and use the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons. Then show them that only squares and rhombuses can be formed. Remind the class how to find the size of the interior angle of a regular polygon by showing them an example for a regular pentagon. Show the class how equilateral triangles and squares tessellate. which they met in Year 7. G G G Ask them what shapes are formed when one transparency is placed on top of the other and one of them is rotated.LESSON Framework objectives – Tessellations and regular polygons Explain how to find. card for making regular polygon templates and scissors. Explain that they will be doing a practical activity to discover which of the regular polygons tessellate and the reason why. (Answer: rectangles and parallelograms) Main lesson activity G G G G G Remind the class about tessellations. The class can now do Exercise 4F from Pupil Book 3. Ask the class whether any other regular polygons will tessellate. leaving no gaps. Since all the exterior angles are equal. regular polygons can also be useful. The sum of the exterior angles for any polygon is 360°. as below. Explain that it is usual to draw up to about ten of the shapes to show the tessellating pattern. particularly if they have difficulty in making their own templates.

interior angle is 60°. interior angle is 90°. which divides exactly into 360° e No. which does not divide exactly into 360° 2 For example: © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 53 .Exercise 4F Answers 2 b There are gaps 3 b There are gaps (squares) 4 a Regular polygon Size of each interior angle Equilateral triangle 60° Square 90° Regular pentagon 108° Regular hexagon 120° Regular octagon 135° Does polygon tessellate? Yes Yes No Yes No b Size of the interior angle divides exactly into 360° c No. giving each a different polygon. interior angle is 120°. Answers 1 a Yes. which does not divide exactly into 360° d Yes. interior angle is 108°. which divides exactly into 360° b Yes. each interior angle of a regular nonagon is 140°. Continue to invite individual students to the board. interior angle is 135°. which does not divide exactly into 360° Plenary G G Key Words I I I I exterior angle interior angle regular polygon tessellate Invite a student to the board and give her/him a regular polygon. which divides exactly into 360° c No. In each case. and which do not. by making templates or by drawing diagrams. a Equilateral triangle b Square c Regular pentagon d Regular hexagon e Regular octagon 2 Draw a diagram to show how squares and equilateral triangles together form a tessellating pattern. asking the student to show whether it tessellates. Homework 1 Work out. which of the following regular polygons tessellate. write down a reason for your answer.

Proof of Pythagoras’ theorem A right-angled triangle has sides a. page 75 gives a practical demonstration to show Pythagoras’ theorem. draw another diagram identical to this. Answer Diagram 1 and Diagram 2 have the same total area. Arrange the cut-outs of the eight triangles and three squares as in the two diagrams below. Next. Then tell them to imagine cutting the square again. Finally. as below. B and C? Show how this demonstrates Pythagoras’ theorem. G In your book. Answer: two isosceles right-angled triangles. 16 + 9 = 25 cm2. Cut them out and place them to one side. 5 cm X 4 cm G G 3 cm On the card. the activity is given below. draw squares on each of the three sides of the triangle.7 Oral and mental starter G G G G G Tell the students to imagine a square. A practical demonstration shows how a rule or theorem works by using a specific example. More able students can do the Extension Work. Label them A. X. Each student will need a sheet of thin card and a pair of scissors. whereas a proof shows how the rule or theorem works for all cases. What can you say about the areas of squares A. ask the students to describe the two shapes that are left. get the students to describe the two shapes that are left. For completeness. Main lesson activity G G Explain to the class that the aim of the lesson is to show the difference between a practical demonstration and a proof. A theorem is usually proved by using algebra. C 5 cm X 4 cm A G G B 3 cm On the card. Answer: an isosceles right-angled triangle and a pentagon. B and C. 4. Area of A + Area of B = Area of C So. which gives a proof of Pythagoras’ theorem. On your original triangle. B and C. draw the right-angled triangle X. draw eight more triangles identical to X. Now tell them to imagine cutting the square along one of its diagonals. but this time along a line which is parallel to the diagonal. which is 42 + 32 = 52 cm2. as below. Diagram 1 X C A X X X X X X Diagram 2 X B G G G G G What can you say about the total area of Diagram 1 and of Diagram 2? Now remove the four triangles from each diagram. b and c. Understand and apply Pythagoras’ theorem.LESSON Framework objectives – Practical Pythagoras Distinguish between a practical demonstration and a proof. Cut out the squares A. The activity in Pupil Book 3. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 c b a 54 .

8 cm.929 168 55. so 2 × 180° = 360° 2 a 20. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 55 . AC = 31. ∠CBO = y (∆CBO is isosceles. since radii are equal). This can be shown by applying Pythagoras’ theorem. area of the four triangles = 2ab. Area of the large square = (a + b)2. This diagonal is the length of the — – — – hypotenuse of the triangle plus the length of the sloping side of the trapezium.928 388 28.44.8 cm b 9.44 and AD2 = 1142. — — The length of the diagonal in the rectangle should be √194 = 13. three equal sides (SSS) 4 2m a b c b c a a c c b a b b 540° c 900° 5 a b 6 a b AD = 33.8 cm 3 A and C. The apparent increase of 1 cm2 in the area of the rectangle is due to the fact that the diagonal of the rectangle is not a straight line. Hence: (a + b)2 = c2 + 2ab a2 + 2ab + b2 = c2 + 2ab a2 + b2 = c2 which is Pythagoras’ theorem. 2x + 2y = 180°. 1 Area of each triangle = –ab. x + y = 90° = ∠ABC Plenary G Key Words I proof I prove I Pythagoras’ theorem Ask the class to explain the difference between a practical demonstration and a proof. which is √ 73 + √ 29 = 13. Area of the large square can also be written as c2 + 2ab. so perimeter = 78 cm AC2 + CD2 = 1142.2 cm and CD = 13 cm. 3 cm 3 cm 5 cm 5 cm Now rearrange the four pieces to make a rectangle. since radii are equal) x + x + y + y = 180°. 2 So. as in the diagram below. 5 cm 3 cm What is the area of the square and of the rectangle? Can you explain why this practical demonstration does not work? Answers The area of the square is 64 cm2 and the area of the rectangle is 65 cm2. SATs Answers 1 a Sum of interior angles of a triangle = 180°. So. Homework Practical demonstration with a difference Cut out an 8 cm by 8 cm square and then cut it up into two right-angled triangles and two trapezia.The diagram on the right can be drawn using four of these triangles. This shows that the diagonal of the rectangle cannot be a straight line. so by Pythagoras’ theorem ∆ACD is right-angled ∠ABO = x (∆ABO is isosceles. as in the diagram below.

frame questions and raise conjectures. Main lesson activity G G G G Explain to the class that the aim of the lesson is to look at how to plan a statistical investigation. Discuss how data relate to a problem. Primary Data Secondary Data Number of left-handed students Long jump performances by in the class international athletes TV viewing habits of students Car engine sizes Reaction times of students Populations of various countries Whether students are better at Football results in Europe catching with their left or Prices of different makes of right hand second-hand cars The amounts of pocket money received by males and females in school They should discuss each topic and decide how best to investigate each one. Design a survey or experiment to capture the necessary data from one or more sources. Give the students cards.CHAPTER 5 LESSON Handling Data 1 Framework objectives – Statistical investigations Suggest a problem to explore using statistical methods. Identify possible sources of bias and plan how to minimise it. or a list. Design.1 Oral and mental starter G G G G The students can work in small groups for this activity.) Explain that to help them they will be given a planning sheet so that they may work systematically through their problem. Step 1 Decide which general topic to study 2 Specify in more detail 3 Consider questions which you could investigate 4 State your hypotheses (Your guesses at what could happen) Example The cost of housing in different parts of the UK Comparing the costs in Wales and England Is the average price higher in Wales? Is there a bigger difference in the prices in England than in Wales? The price is higher in Wales There is more variation in price in England 56 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Point out that sometimes the most difficult part is to decide a topic to investigate. Identify possible sources. Computer database and Observation sheet. Write the following sources of information on a sheet: Questionnaire. (Steps 1 and 2 in the table below. Determine the sample size and degree of accuracy needed. 5. Printed tables in books. containing the following topics. Internet. including primary and secondary sources. Take an example of your choice or use the example given below. trial and if necessary refine data collection sheets. using the sources given above.

Office for National Statistics http://www.statistics. Homework Take a different topic to those already studied and prepare a new planning sheet. you may decide that the results do not support the hypothesis that the prices are different Make sure that you collect enough data from both countries If there are a few extreme values. The class can now do Exercise 5A from Pupil Book 3. Estate agents. The students could use ideas already used by other groups. Building societies and banks mortgage reports. Explain that the homework is to produce an individual plan for a different topic. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 57 . causing your data to be biased Make sure that your sample size is big enough to draw valid conclusions If results are within. say.uk/ Average house prices in different counties of Wales and England Counties of different sizes may affect the average unfairly. Ask other groups to contribute points that can be added to the planning sheet. as this will distort the results G G You could now show the students the three examples in Pupil Book 3. Exercise 5A Answers Answers will vary but should be similar in style to the examples. £1000 pounds of each other. Answers Answers will vary but should be similar in style to the examples. Plenary G G G Key Words I I I I I I I questionnaire printed table database survey statistic bias census Use a group’s planning sheet to discuss the points on it. Government data: for example.5 Sources of information required 6 Relevant data 7 Possible problems 8 Data collection 9 Decide on level of accuracy required 10 Determine sample size 11 Construct tables for large sets of raw data in order to make work manageable 12 Decide which statistics are most suitable Internet.gov. you may choose to ignore the mean.

into negative numbers. construct and modify. multiplication table on the board or OHP. with zero. subtracting 3s in the first row) to × +3 complete the columns. as this does not affect the correlation.2 Oral and mental starter G G G G G G G G Write a simple. on paper and using ICT. 5. Hence you cannot tell just by using the rules. 58 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Prompt them to extend the table. + × – = –. negative or no correlation. suitable graphical representation to progress an enquiry.LESSON Framework objectives – Scatter graphs and correlation Select. as the answer could be a graph with either positive. including scatter graphs to develop further understanding of correlation. +1 3 Show the class that. the case of the fish caught off Rhyl. which have a common axis. Multiply (×) + 0 – G + + 0 – 0 0 The exception 0 – – 0 + Combining two graphs showing no correlation can be misleading. Identify key features in the data. Use patterns (for example. the resulting graph can have its axes in either order. as shown below. Prompt the students to tell you how to complete it. An easy way to remember these rules is by comparing them with the rules for multiplying together positive and negative numbers. as shown. Take. Complete the extra column. they × + 0 – 0 0 have just proved the rules for + + 0 – –1 –3 multiplying positive and negative 0 0 0 0 –2 –6 numbers: for example. Positive correlation Positive No correlation Negative No correlation No correlation Cannot tell No correlation Negative correlation Negative No correlation Positive Positive correlation No correlation Negative correlation As can be seen from the table. to obtain the resulting correlation. with the students’ help. open. for example. +3 9 Now prompt the students to fully extend the table downwards. – – 0 + –3 –9 × +3 +2 +1 +2 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 +1 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +3 +2 +1 –1 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 –2 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 –3 –9 –6 –3 0 3 6 9 Main lesson activity G Introduce the class to the table below. Hours of sunshine Number of fish caught daily off Rhyl Number of fish caught daily off Rhyl Hours of sunshine Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C) In this example. the two left-hand graphs show no correlation but combining hours of sunshine with temperature gives a positive correlation. using patterns. +2 6 as shown. which gives the rules for combining two scatter graphs. Now add on an extra column.

Invite them to discuss the correlation between the Mathematics and Science scores. do not necessarily mean that the derived graph would have no correlation. Plot the data for English and Music on a scatter graph. and two scatter graphs created. two graphs. and between the Mathematics and Art scores. Now ask them to look at the rules for combining two correlation graphs in Pupil Book 3. Plot the data for Spanish and English on a scatter graph. Exercise 5B Answers 1 Correlation between Q and R a Negative d Cannot tell b No correlation e Positive c Positive f No correlation Test A Test C G Tell the class that 12 students’ marks were collected from their tests in three different subjects. Then tell the class that they are actually Mathematics (Test A). Test A Key Words g Negative h No correlation i No correlation 2 a Positive correlation b No correlation c No correlation 3 a Negative correlation b Negative correlation c Positive correlation Plenary G Finish the lesson with a short test of multiplications of positive and negative whole numbers. Describe the relationship between Spanish and English. but emphasise the exception to the rule. Now prompt the class to tell you the correlation between the Science and the Art scores. Ask the class to tell you what the subject of each test could be. Student A B C D E F G H I J French 45 64 22 75 47 15 80 55 85 33 Spanish 52 60 30 80 60 24 74 65 77 47 English 63 56 46 70 55 40 68 53 75 51 Music 35 45 58 30 42 50 42 48 41 50 a b c d e f g Plot the data for French and Spanish on a scatter graph. each showing no correlation. In this case. Use your answers to parts d and f to state the correlation between Music and Spanish. Describe the relationship between French and Spanish. Here are the results. Point out how similar the rules are. They could copy into their books the table for correlations and the table for multiplying together positive and negative numbers. Then put these graphs on the board. there would be negative correlation. namely. Science (Test B) and Art (Test C). Describe the relationship between English and Music.G G G G Test B G G G The class can now do Exercise 5B from Pupil Book 3. d Negative correlation f Positive correlation g Negative correlation Answers b Positive correlation © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 59 . to reinforce the rules for combining two scatter graphs. 1 +8 × –3 2 –6 × –5 3 +11 × 0 4 –13 × –13 5 +8 × –6 6 –9 × –4 7 0 × +14 8 +15 × –15 9 +14 × +14 10 –7 × –10 2 30 7 0 3 0 8 –225 4 169 9 196 5 –48 10 70 I scatter graph I correlation I positive correlation I negative correlation I no correlation Answers 1 –24 6 36 Homework 1 The test results of ten students are recorded for four different subjects.

although they could not have an official level. Tell them that a student was absent for the second paper but. Repeat for negative correlation. understanding what they represent. suitable representation to progress an enquiry. 60 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . including scatter graphs to develop further understanding of correlation. Ask the class to describe the trend. Ask a student to give an example of two variables having positive correlation. Explain that in order to make an accurate guess at the missing student’s Paper 2 score. It is important to stress the need to use a ruler and also that different students would have slightly different lines of best fit.LESSON Framework objectives – Scatter graphs and lines of best fit Select. construct and modify. to keep showing their sketches. Students who do well on Paper 1 usually do well on Paper 2. the school wanted to know how the student might have performed. The class can now do Exercise 5C from Pupil Book 3. Draw in a line of best fit. ask the class to draw and show you a sketch illustrating positive correlation. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G Continuing from the Oral and mental starter. Label the axes with graduation marks and ‘Paper 1’ and ‘Paper 2’. ask a student to draw a strong positive correlation on the board or OHP. 5. Discuss where the line should go. on paper and using ICT. Now ask a student to come out and read off the Paper 2 score. passing as close as possible to all of them. lines of best fit by eye. The Pupil Book suggests using a ruler to draw a line between the plotted points. you are going to put a trend line (called a line of best fit) on the scatter graph. Briefly talk about no correlation. Discuss different strengths of positive correlations. In this case the line of best fit will run down the middle of the finger. Introduce the idea that it could represent the test results for Paper 1 and Paper 2 of the SATs. but you could also show them the idea of covering the points with a finger.3 Oral and mental starter G G G G G G Using students’ Show me white boards or sheets of paper. Ask those who think that their sketches show strong positive correlation.

So. and the y-axis for the maths exam scores. c Use your line of best fit to estimate the reaction time of a 30-year-old.58 24 0.21 42 0. c One person did not do quite as well as expected on the maths test. from 0 to 100. 2 A survey is carried out to compare the ages of people with the reaction time in a test. from 0 to 1 seconds.18 50 0. Homework 1 The table shows the scores of some students in a music exam and in a maths exam. d Explain why it would not be sensible to use the line of best fit to predict the reaction time of someone aged 100.62 63 0.20 76 0. Plenary G G Key Words I I I I scatter graph correlation line of best fit positive correlation I negative correlation I interpret Look at an example and discuss the problem of trying to extrapolate from a line of best fit. Student Music Maths A 35 42 B 48 57 C 72 80 D 23 32 E 76 65 F 51 69 G 45 50 H 60 71 I 88 94 J 17 25 a Plot the data on a scatter graph. 2 c The older they are. In Question 2.2 d Line of best fit is for range 24–83 years old. 3 c Answers will vary according to line of best fit drawn but should be approximately £12 – £14. so correlation might not continue to be linear © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 61 . the closer they live to the shops. from 0 to 100.Exercise 5C Answers 1 c Darren. 100 years old is outside this range. for specific examples. Use the x-axis for the range of ages. b Draw a line of best fit. they could imply that a 20-year-old may be working and have a much greater income. reasons why it might not be valid to extrapolate data outside the given range. Stress that students will need to be able to explain.15 62 0. Who do you think it was? Give a reason. Answers 1 c Student E. the age of the child is not a factor in the question as he/she is not the homeowner. Use the x-axis for the music exam scores. as the point representing him is not close to the line of best fit.43 44 0. In Question 3. You could use the questions posed in the extension.49 a Plot the data on a scatter graph. Age (years) Reaction time (seconds) 45 0. the distance which a child lives from the shops will depend on the parent.31 83 0.25 37 0. b Draw a line of best fit. Extension Answers Explanations which imply that it is not sensible to extrapolate lines of best fit outside the range of the original data. from 0 to 90 years. as their point is not as close to the best fit line as the other students’ points 2 c Answers will vary according to line of best fit drawn but should be approximately 0. and the y-axis for reaction times.

as shown January on the right. season. For each example. This activity could be done individually or in small groups. February March Main lesson activity G G G G G G Tell the class that the aim is to look at different types of graph involving time. G 62 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . hour and days of the week.4 Oral and mental starter G G G G Ask individual students to give different units of time. For example. the time axis is always the horizontal axis. Other examples which they may offer could include year. including line graphs for time series. Write any correct answers on the board or OHP. Suggest that they write down any key features of the graphs. The class can now do Exercise 5D from Pupil Book 3. You could prompt them by asking what they can tell you about February and March. Then ask the students to look at the winter months and the summer months and compare the weather. construct and modify. February and March showed the greatest differences. You may need to give an example. in 10 out of 12 months. draw a horizontal scale and put a few labels on it. Invite the class to look at Graph 1 in Pupil Book 3 (mean temperature difference from normal for the UK in 2002). such as months. Explain that for all the types of graph which they are going to look at or produce. on paper and using ICT. the mean temperature was above normal. Now tell the class that you want them to look at the other graphs in Pupil Book 3.LESSON Framework objectives – Time series graphs Select. Ask them to give some facts from the graph. suitable graphical representation to progress an enquiry. They should observe that there are bigger temperature changes in the winter months. Identify key features present in the data. 5.

2°C) b As data is for only one year. Make at least three statements. July and August are the most popular months to visit North America © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 63 . Brisbane has 5 more days of rainfall. 3 a June b September c Different pattern for average rainfall each month and different pattern for number of days of rain each month d Perth (approx values) 3 + 3 + 4 + 7 + 13 + 17 + 18 + 16 + 14 + 9 + 7 + 4 = 115. Data would need to be recorded over at least 10 years for valid conclusions to be drawn. Plenary G G G Key Words I time series graphs I raw data I key features I line graphs Choose a graph and ask a group to list some key features. so the costs are less. There is greater variation in the number of visitors for Western Europe from month to month (April being the most popular month). Homework 1500 Visitors (×1000) 1000 500 0 Nov 2001 Dec Jan 2002 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov North American Western Europe Write a brief report on the similarities and differences between the visits from the UK for North America and Western Europe. Extreme changes in temperature were greater above normal (about 3.3°C) than below normal (about –1.Exercise 5D Answers 3 1 a Time becomes shorter b – c After third bounce 4 d In theory. Try to give reasons for your answers. Explain that when there are two similar graphs. it would eventually stop bouncing 2 a Mean temperature was exceeded on 10 months out of 12. Brisbane (approx values) 13 + 14 + 14 + 11 + 10 + 7 + 7 + 6 + 7 + 10 + 10 + 11 = 120. looking for both similarities and differences. it is important to compare them. In practice. this could be exceptional. such as two rainfall graphs. Answers More UK people visit Western Europe than North America (three to four times more). Ask the other students to add to it. the ball never comes to rest. probably because Western Europe is nearer. So.

After the answers have been given. For example: Blue Favourite hobby Sport Computer Music Favourite colour Red Yellow Green 64 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Each ‘collector’ goes from group to group collecting their data. Use the data collection sheets as shown below. as shown.2 7 Write down one answer to x2 + x = 0 9 What is the square root of 196? Answers 1 £19. Favourite subject Boys Girls English Science Art Maths Blue Red Yellow Green Favourite colour Boys Girls Soap Drama Cartoon News Other Favourite food Boys Girls Chips Salad Pizza Burger Sport Computer Music Favourite hobby Boys Girls Favourite TV programme Boys Girls Favourite music Boys Girls Rock Pop Dance RnB G Now use other combinations to form different two-way tables. Group 1 2 3 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Test 1 £4. One student from each group is the ‘collector’. ask the team captains to record their answers in a two-way table on the board or OHP.LESSON Framework objectives – Two-way tables Design and use two-way tables. Appoint one person from each group as team captain to record a team’s answer to each question. using ticks for correct answers. 5.96 5 360 8 £158.40 2 15 6 12 9 14 or –14 1 1 3 – of a – 2 2 6 What is the HCF of 36 and 48? 8 Increase £132 by 20% 10 Give both solutions to (5 + x)2 = 81 1 3 – 4 7 x = 0 or x = –1 10 x = 4 and x = –14 4 2 400 000 Main lesson activity G G G Keeping the students in their groups. explain that their task is to collect data from the whole class and record it. the rest of the group are the ‘informers’.99 × 4 2 25% of 60 4 600 × 4000 5 72 ÷ 0. or the students can design their own. Give the groups a mental test of ten questions.5 G G G Oral and mental starter Put the class into small groups of four or five students.

3 In June. Answers may vary depending on how the data is analysed but the conclusion should be the same. December and January. shown below. This would support the claim. Exercise 5E Answers 1 a Condition Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Difference between boxed and not boxed 100% – 60% = 40% 80% – 50% = 30% 60% – 40% = 20% 40% – 25% = 15% 20% – 10% = 10% b Boxed toys are worth more than unboxed toys but the percentage difference in value reduces as the condition deteriorates. Homework 1 Two fair spinners are spun and the scores are added together to get a total score. 1 3 I I I I I two-way table relationship data tally frequency 2 A year group recorded the days of the week on which they were born. Give your answer as a fraction in its simplest form. d Write down the probability of getting a total score of 7. Here are the results. 4 160 cm and above: 20 boys but only 16 girls. In each case. Extension Answers 9 – – a 40 31 – – b 80 1 – – c 10 67 – – d 80 Key Words 11 – – 16 e Plenary G G G Ask the class to select a table where they saw a relationship. 228 birthdays. number of births of boys is close to that of girls b Fewer births on Saturdays and Sundays 65 . percentages increase. Ask the class what they could do to test whether the results were representative of the school. This would support the claim. Answers 1 a + 1 2 3 4 First spinner Second spinner 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 – – b 2. for example.G G Having collected their data. 3. a larger percentage of boys have mobile phones. ask the students to pick out a key feature. Give your answer as a fraction in its simplest form. b Write a comment about the number of births on different days of the week. b List all the total scores which are prime numbers. Answers may vary depending on how the data is analysed but the conclusion should be the same. The class can now do Exercise 5E from Pupil Book 3. c State the most likely total scores. A key feature could be that the data appears random (no relationship between the two variables). This is recorded in the two-way table. both For the age range 13 to 15. b As the boys and girls get older. Look at. 252 birthdays but in November. Are their responses different from girls? Write any relationships on the board. 2 a For the age range 10 to 12. boys’ favourite colour and boys’ favourite music. e Write down the probability of getting a total score of 5. 5 and 7 c 4 and 5 d 12 e – 4 2 a Each day. the students can record it in their books. Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Total Boys 23 19 27 31 35 14 12 161 Girls 19 25 28 26 41 17 11 167 1 2 4 First spinner + 1 2 3 4 Second spinner 1 2 2 3 3 a Complete the table of total scores. July and August. a larger percentage of girls have them. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 3 2 3 a Write a comment on the births of boys and girls.

you can use – – — where n –. n n 3n Explain that because there is a large set of data. Add extra columns to your table and record the data as shown. Draw the axes for a cumulative frequency graph on the board. for example. 2 4 4 is the total frequency. The class can now do Exercise 5F from Pupil Book 3. Write on the board ‘Median = …’. the first two months of the year. lower quartile and upper quartile. Ask the class to indicate if their birthday is in January. Plot the origin and say this is the beginning of January so there are no birthdays. Explain that the slight differences in the graphs and the fact that they are using grouped data are why their results are estimates. Write ‘Month’ along the horizontal axis and ‘Cumulative frequency’ along the vertical axis. to read off the values of the median. Now ask the class to compare their answers. they can start to draw the graphs from Exercise 5F. Now ask them to look at the table and tell you how many students have a birthday in the first month of the year. Use the data obtained in the starter. choosing suitable scales so that it uses most of the page. –. Record the number in the table. explain to the class they are about to learn how to estimate medians and quartiles for large sets of grouped data. 66 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Discuss with the class where they think the next point should be plotted. Now ask the class whether they think it would be better to join the points using straight lines or a curve. Stress that in order to include. ‘Upper quartile = …’ and ask them to copy and fill in their answers. Estimate the median and interquartile range of a large set of grouped data. For example: Month January February March … Number of students 5 7 2 … Birthdays First month First two months First three months … Cumulative frequency 5 12 14 … G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G Continuing from the Oral and mental starter. Show the class how to do this on the board and then ask them to read off their values. –. ‘Lower quartile = …’. all five students. Explain that they can use either unless a question specifies ‘polygon’ or ‘curve’. Prompt the students to explain how they worked out each answer. Finish off by giving the class the formula for finding the interquartile range: Interquartile range = Upper quartile – Lower quartile Write ‘Interquartile range = …’ And ask them to work out their value and write it down.LESSON Framework objectives – Cumulative frequency diagrams Find the median and quartiles for large data sets. 5. Repeat for February and so on for the whole year. Complete the graph and ask the class to copy the tables and the graph onto graph paper. If some students are waiting for others. There may be slight differences.6 G G G G Oral and mental starter Write a blank table on the board or OHP. the first three months and so on. Complete the cumulative frequency column in the table. you must plot at the end of January and so on – the upper class boundaries.

3 min c Median = 27. h (cm) h ≤ 10 h ≤ 20 h ≤ 30 h ≤ 40 h ≤ 50 Cumulative frequency 2 The time that the school bus is late on 40 days.9 – 7. IQR = 17. this will be approximately half the class.5 – 4.2 – 10. IQR = 17 – 10. Repeat this for the quartiles and for students with a birthday between the lower and upper quartiles. the birthday data – and ask the students what the median tells them.8 °C 2 a Time.7 min.9 = 18.2 = 8. M (kg) Cumulative frequency M≤ 5 0 M ≤ 10 15 M ≤ 15 46 M ≤ 20 68 M ≤ 25 80 c Median = 14 kg. c Use your graph to estimate the median and the interquartile range.7 min.8 = 7. h (cm) h ≤ 10 h ≤ 20 h ≤ 30 h ≤ 40 h ≤ 50 Number of days 12 15 6 7 Time. t (min) t≤ 5 t ≤ 10 t ≤ 15 t ≤ 20 2 a Cumulative frequency Cumulative frequency 6 30 57 87 100 Time. Height. Hopefully. T (°C) Cumulative frequency T≤ 5 8 T ≤ 10 23 T ≤ 15 65 T ≤ 20 90 T ≤ 25 100 c Median = 13. t (min) 0<t≤ 5 5 < t ≤ 10 10 < t ≤ 15 15 < t ≤ 20 Answers 1 a Height.1 = 10. IQR = 36 – 17. Ask those with a birthday before the median date to put up their hands.Exercise 5F Answers 1 a Temperature.2 °C. 1 The height of 100 plants. b Draw the cumulative frequency graph. t (min) Cumulative frequency t≤ 5 5 t ≤ 10 17 t ≤ 15 26 t ≤ 20 33 t ≤ 25 37 t ≤ 30 40 c Median = 11. t (min) t≤ 5 t ≤ 10 t ≤ 15 t ≤ 20 Cumulative frequency 12 27 33 40 c Median = 7. IQR = 12.8 min 3 a Mass.1 cm © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 67 . h (cm) 0 < h ≤ 10 10 < h ≤ 20 20 < h ≤ 30 30 < h ≤ 40 40 < h ≤ 50 Number of plants 6 24 27 30 13 Height. Time. Homework For each table of data: a Copy and complete the cumulative frequency table.4 cm. IQR = 18.2 = 6.4 kg Key Words I cumulative frequency I upper class boundary I quartile I lower quartile I upper quartile I interquartile range I polygon I curve Plenary G G Look back at one of the questions – for example.

Oral and mental starter Introduce a counting stick. the product of eight and the midvalues. Tell the class that. Now write the same data in a grouped frequency table and ask the same question.5. we have to use mid-values as these offer the best guess of the value of the average of the data in a class interval.7 G Framework objectives – Estimation of a mean from grouped data Estimate the mean of a large set of grouped data. of time (seconds) 13.5. Tell them that you want. Exercise 5G Answers 1 c i 4.35 cm 2 19.LESSON 5. you should get the same answer. Now give the class the end values. x.5 kg ii 27. G G G G Main lesson activity G G G G Tell the class that they are going to be estimating the means of large sets of grouped data. as in the last section on cumulative frequency. 12 on the board and ask the class to tell you the mean. For example. Work through the example to show the class how to estimate the mean using a table with four columns.5 16. as shown below. This is then divided by 4 (total frequency) to give the answer 11. 1541 The estimate of the mean time = ——– = 15. for example.41 seconds. any results will be estimates because you do not know the original (individual) data as we are dealing with grouped data. f 12 21 39 20 8 Total = 100 Mid value. estimate and so on. but students may suggest the answer 11 (as it is half way between 10 and 12). Point out that every piece of data has to be counted. page 96.5 17. 10 12 Frequency 1 3 G G G G G Clearly.5 330 140 Total = 1541 G G G Show the students how they can now calculate an estimate of the mean. using fractions and decimals. Point out that.4 min (8 min 24 s) 68 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . so there are three 12s (36) and a 10 (total 46). 12. Now refer them to the example in Pupil Book 3. t (seconds) 13 < T ≤ 14 14 < T ≤ 15 15 < T ≤ 16 16 < T ≤ 17 17 < T ≤ 18 Frequency. using 12 and 16.5 604. as shown below. Explain that in order to estimate the mean.5 15. Put the numbers 10. Repeat this.5 14. You could ask the students for definitions.5 f×x (seconds) 162 304. the answer would be 8 × 14 = 112. for example. 100 The class can now do Exercise 5G from Pupil Book 3. Hopefully. frequency. such as mid-value. Remind them of the key words which they have met before in this context. Repeat. increasing the level of difficulty each time. So. Time. mean. they will say 11. Then ask them the value of the midpoint. one end is 12 and the other end is 16. 12.8 °C 3 8.

0–2 years.30 pm. Bird is under the mass to survive. would have a mid-value of 1. there are more words per sentence in old version. f 2 7 10 5 Total = Mid-value. as furthest away from line of best fit.85 g b 0. B and C – false 8 a 28 years b 16 to 18 years c Younger people. f Mid-value.) Remind the class how to find which class interval the median lies in and refer them to the Extension Work. f Mid value. t. x. went to the theme park Plenary G G G Key Words I I I I I I grouped data estimate mean median mid-class value frequency table G Discuss the effect of extreme values on a mean. false 4 a 4. (They will need this information to enable them to do the homework. Point out that sometimes these are called rogue values and sometimes they are called outliers. on average. of age (years) 12 f × x (years) 60 Total = Mid-value. 1998 – 500) b Cannot be certain. false.5 years. Frequency. of time (years) (hours) 0<t≤2 2 1 2 2<t≤4 7 3 21 4<t≤6 10 5 50 6<t≤8 5 7 35 Total = 24 Total = 108 b Estimate of mean = 4. a Complete each table including the totals. f 5 8 12 5 Total = Frequency.13 years 2 a Time. f×x (years) x. Remind the class that when tables contain people’s ages. A.2 m d False. trend may not continue 2 a 65 b 30 and 50 c Game A and Game B positive relationship. of age (years) (years) 11–12 5 12 60 13–14 8 14 112 15–16 12 16 192 17–18 5 18 90 Total = 30 Total = 454 b Estimate of mean = 15. t. b Calculate an estimate of each mean. false. Game A and Game C no relationship d Game B and Game C no relationship 3 a Positive correlation (wider the diameter. c 20% – 30% 7 a £30. A (years) 11–12 13–14 15–16 17–18 Frequency.5 hours © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 69 .Extension Answers 1 i 4<M≤6 ii 24 < L ≤ 28 2 20 < T ≤ 30 3 7<t≤9 SATs Answers 1 a False (1988 – 725. (hours) 0<t≤2 2<t≤4 4<t≤6 6<t≤8 Total = Answers 1 a Age. 1 Age. the new version has shorter sentences: that is. 5 a A b Approximately 350 h 6 a Old 7 ≤ x < 8.50 – £32 b 83% c £9. x. They may wish to do this as an oral exercise. for example. Homework Copy and complete each table of values given below. f×x (hours) x. Frequency. higher the tree) b Point if plotted on scatter graph is not near to line of best fit c Approximately 5.50 – £11. of time (hours) 1 f × x (hours) 2 2 Time. new 6 ≤ x < 7 b For example.1 g c Point at 12. Ask the class to give you a definition of an extreme value.50 e A – true.

6 cm 12 cm 4 cm AB BC AC x 15 Therefore. So. Show the class how to use similar triangles by completing the following three examples. Let the side DF = x. ∠C = 80° (the sum of the angles in a 48° triangle = 180°) and in triangle XYZ. 80° 52° 52° Since the angles in both triangles are the same. Under an enlargement all of the angles are the same size and corresponding sides are in the same ratio. AB AC BC Explain to the class that the two triangles are said to be similar. one of which is held still while the other coin is rolled around it so that the coins are always in contact. Space and Measures 2 Framework objectives – Similar triangles Find points that divide a line in a given ratio. Two triangles are similar if their angles are the same size or their corresponding sides are in the same ratio. – B 5 cm C 6 5 E 15 cm Z F 70 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .CHAPTER 6 LESSON Shape. In triangle ABC. – = — = 3.1 Oral and mental starter G G Invite the class to imagine two 10p coins. Now. corresponding sides are D in the same ratio. So. ask the class how many revolutions the moving coin will make before it returns to its starting position. (Answer: Two) Main lesson activity G Remind the class about the properties of an enlargement by showing them how a triangle is enlarged by a scale factor of 2. ––– = ––– = ––– = 3. A A B B C C G G G Triangle ABC has been mapped onto triangle A B C by an enlargement of scale factor 2. x = 18 cm. AB AC BC This can also be written as –––– = –––– = –––– = 2. Some revision on parallel lines may be required. Since the triangles are similar. Explain that only one of these conditions is required to show that the triangles are similar. A DE EF DF x So. Example 2 Triangle ABC is similar to triangle DEF. 6. Calculate the length of the side DF. AB : A B = AC : A C = BC : B C = 1 : 2. X Example 1 A Show that the two triangles on the right are similar. triangle Y B C ABC is similar to triangle XYZ. ∠X = 48° (the sum of the angles in a triangle = 180°). using the properties of similar triangles.

Let the side DC = x.Example 3 A 4 cm E 3 cm B 4 cm D G In the triangle. 6 cm c Triangle XYZ and triangle VWY. 5 cm Plenary G G Key Words I similar I similarity Ask the class to explain the two conditions needed to show that two triangles are similar. – – 3 4 The class can now do Exercise 6A from Pupil Book 3. Check that the students understand the difference between similar triangles and congruent triangles. So. ∠AEB = ∠ADC (corresponding angles in parallel lines) and ∠ABE = ∠ACD (corresponding angles in parallel lines). So. 5 cm d Triangle JKL and triangle JMN. b Find the length of the side QR. Exercise 6A Answers x C 1 a Yes b No c Yes d No 2 a 3 equal angles b 8 cm 3 a 3 equal angles b 12 cm 4 a ∠PST = ∠PQR (corresponding angles). A 4 cm D 6 cm B 6 cm C E 57° 88° P Q 6 cm Answers 1 a Yes b No c Yes d No 2 a 3 equal angles b 8 cm 3 15 cm © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 71 . ––– = ––– = 2. EB is parallel to DC. Calculate the length of the side DC. the corresponding sides are in the same ratio. x = 6 cm. 3 In the triangle below DE is parallel to BC. Find the length of BC. – = – = 2. DC AC So. ∠PTS = ∠PRQ (corresponding angles). ∠ACB = ∠DCE (vertically opposite angles) b 6 cm 6 12 cm 7 40 m 8 90 cm Extension Answers 1 a Triangle ABC and triangle ADE. ∠ABD = ∠BDE (alternate angles). a 87° 42° 51° 42° 46° 30° 114° b 30° c 5 cm 4 cm 2 cm 4 cm 10 cm 8 cm d 6 cm 2cm 12 cm A 35° 9 cm 88° B C R 6 cm 4 cm 9 cm 9 cm 2 a Explain why triangle ABC is similar to triangle PQR. 9 cm b Triangle PQR and triangle STR. triangle AEB is similar to triangle ADC (since ∠A is common to both triangles). Homework 1 State whether each of the pairs of triangles below are similar. ∠P common b 6 cm 5 a ∠BAE = ∠AED (alternate angles). EB AB x 8 Therefore. Since triangle AEB is similar to triangle ADC.

always divide by the conversion factor.5 × 10 3. Land area is usually given in units of 100 ares. 1 cm 10 mm 1 cm3 1000 mm3 The students can now copy the following into their books: Metric units of volume = 1 cm3 1000 mm3 3 = 1 m3 1 000 000 cm 1m 100 cm Remind the class that the metric units for capacity 1m 100 cm are: the litre (l). 1000 and 10 000 will be revised. 35 0. They can now copy the following into their books: Metric units of capacity 1m 100 cm 1 000 000 cm3 1 m3 1 m3 = 1000 litres 1000 cm3 = 1 litre 1 cm3 = 1 millilitre Stress the following: G To convert from a large unit to a smaller unit. cm2 to m2.000 35 350 0.5 ÷ 10 3.5 × 1000 3. ask individual students to point to the number that is: 3. The students can now copy the following into their books: Metric units of area 100 mm2 = 1 cm2 1m 100 cm 10 000 cm2 = 1 m2 10 000 m2 = 1 hectare (ha) 1 hectare = 100 ares 1 m2 1m 100 cm 10 000 cm2 Note that. 6. ask the class to explain the rules for dividing by powers of 10.LESSON Framework objectives – Metric units for area and volume Use units of measurement to calculate. On the board. while the km2 is too large. Next.5 ÷ 1000 3. 1 cm 10 mm Draw two squares on the board and explain why 2 = 100 mm2. the m2 is too small. 100. 1 cm Draw another two squares on the board and explain to the 1 cm2 1 cm 10 mm 100 mm2 class why 1 m2 = 10 000 cm2.0035 3500 3. a more conveniently sized unit is used – the are. convert between area measures (mm2 to cm2. the centilitre (cl) and the millilitre (ml).5 × 100 3. draw the grid on the right.5 × 10 000 Then ask the class to explain the rules for multiplying by powers of 10. volume and capacity. Tell the class that the starting number is 3. measure and solve problems in a variety of contexts. 1 cm 10 mm Draw two cubes on the board and explain why 1 cm 10 mm 1 cm3 = 1000 mm3. and vice versa). Ask individual students to point to the number that is: 3. or use a prepared OHT.5 0. where 100 ares = 1 hectare. which is 100 m2. 72 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . estimate.5 ÷ 100 3. for measuring the area of fields. the square centimetre (cm2) and the square metre (m2).2 Oral and mental starter G G G G G G G Multiplying and dividing by 10. Remind the class that the metric units for volume are: the cubic millimetre (mm3).5 ÷ 10 000 Finally.035 35 000 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G Tell the class that the lesson is about converting the metric units of area. Hence. cm3 to m3. G To convert from a small unit to a larger unit.5. the cubic centimetre (cm3) and the cubic metre (m3). Remind them that the metric units for area are: the square millimetre (mm2). Draw another two cubes on the board and explain why 1 m3 = 1 000 000 cm3. always multiply by the conversion factor. and vice versa) and between volume measures (mm3 to cm3.35 0.

5 m2 G 0. Give your answer in litres.4 cm2 e 0.5 cm2 c 32 000 cm2 c 3.8 cm2 d 5000 cm2 d 0. 3 Express each of the following in cm3.2 m2 3 a 2 000 000 cm3 b 9 000 000 cm3 c 3 700 000 cm3 d 300 000 cm3 4 a 8 litres b 12 litres c 23. a 3 cm2 a 40 000 cm2 a 2 m3 a 8000 cm3 b 8 cm2 b 70 000 cm2 b 9 m3 b 12 000 cm3 c 4. Exercise 6B Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a 40 000 cm2 b 70 000 cm2 c 200 000 cm2 d 35 000 cm2 e 8000 cm2 a 200 mm2 b 500 mm2 c 850 mm2 d 3600 mm2 e 40 mm2 a 8 cm2 b 25 cm2 c 78.35 cm3 = 0. 6 Calculate the volume of the box on the right.5 m2 c 27 m2 d 1.35 cm3 to mm3 3500 cm3 to litres G 35 000 cm2 = 35 000 ÷ 10 000 = 3.08 hectares 11 150 litres 12 6 days 13 500 G Extension Answers 1 250 2 a 1296 square inches b 46 656 cubic inches 3 4840 square yards ≈ 0.G Show the class the following examples of conversion. 35 000 cm2 to m2 0.5 litres d 0.3 cm2 d 5.35 × 1000 = 350 mm3 G 3500 cm3 = 3500 ÷ 1000 = 3.7 m3 c 23 500 cm3 d 0.002 m3 a 8 litres b 17 litres c 0.5 m2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 73 . 1 _____ mm2 = 1 cm2 4 _____ mm3 = 1 cm3 6 _____ litres = 1 m3 2 = 1 m2 3 = 1 m3 2 _____ cm 5 _____ cm 7 _____ cm3 = 1 litre 2 = 1 hectare (ha) 3 _____ m Answers 1 100 2 10 000 7 1000 3 10 000 4 1000 5 1 000 000 6 1000 Homework 1 Express each of the following in mm2. Homework Answers 1 a 300 mm2 b 800 mm2 c 450 mm2 d 80 mm2 2 a 4 m2 b 7 m2 c 3.405 hectares Key Words I square millimetre I square centimetre I square metre I hectare I cubic millimetre I cubic centimetre I cubic metre I litre Plenary G Write the following on the board and ask the students to fill in the blanks.5 litre d 3000 litres e 7200 litres a 8.5 litres The class can now do Exercise 6B from Pupil Book 3.6 cm2 a 2 m2 b 8.08 hectares 6 10 litres d 0.65 m3 e 0.25 litre 5 21.348 m2 a 3000 mm3 b 10 000 mm3 c 6800 mm3 d 300 mm3 e 480 mm3 a 5 m3 b 7.3 m3 d 250 cm3 25 cm 10 cm 40 cm 2 Express each of the following in m2.5 m3 c 12 m3 d 0.5 litres e 2400 ml 160 10 a 10 800 m2 b 1.5 cl b 120 cl c 84 ml d 4. 5 A rectangular park is 620 m long and 340 m wide.86 m2 e 0. Find the area of the park in hectares. 4 Express each of the following in litres.

142 or they can use the π key on their calculator. Draw the diagram below on the board or on a prepared OHT. 360 30 b Area of the sector AOB = ––––– × π × 82 = 16.8 cm2 (3 s. sector. chord. 360 The class can now do Exercise 6C from Pupil Book 3.). ask the students to sketch a circle on their whiteboards or in their books.LESSON Framework objectives – Length of an arc and area of a sector Know and use the formulae for length of arcs and area of sectors of circles. Calculate: a the length of the arc AB. The following terms should be covered: centre. O G G θ Explain that the length of the arc AB as a fraction of the circumference is –––––. ∠AOB is the angle of the sector and is usually denoted θ by the Greek letter θ (pronounced theta). Then ask them to draw and label all the different parts of a circle which they can remember. or to write separate answers on the board. Ask individual students to show the answers on their whiteboards. making sure that the students obtain the correct answers using their calculators. Explain that the arc. 6. circumference. is part of the circumference. the area of the sector AOB = ––––– × πr2 360 Complete the following example. 360 θ Similarly. AB.f. Check their spelling. is a slice of the circle sector enclosed by the arc AB and the radii OA and OB. b the area of the sector AOB. arc A B and that the sector.3 Oral and mental starter G G G G Revise the names and spelling of the various parts of a circle. radius. segment. A 30° O B 8 cm G 74 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . AOB. Give the answers to three significant figures. 360 θ So. First. arc. and tangent. diameter. the length of the arc AB = ––––– × πd. Main lesson activity G Remind the class how to calculate the circumference and the area of a circle using the formulae: C = πd = 2πr A = πr2 O d r G Remind them that π = 3. 30 a Length of the arc AB = ––––– × π × 16 = 4.f.).19 cm (3 s.

9 m2 2 a 23.5 m b 34.24 m b 10.5 cm 150° 3. 1 Calculate (i) the length of the arc and (ii) the area of the sector for each of the following circles.54 m2 Extension Answers a i 2π cm d i 6π cm ii 6π cm2 b i 4π cm ii 32π cm2 ii 27π cm2 e i 4π cm ii 6π cm2 c i 2π cm ii 12π cm2 Plenary G G G Key Words A θ O B Draw this diagram on the board. Give your answer correct to three significant figures.4 cm 3 ii 6.5 cm Answers 1 a i 2. a b 8 cm 30° 5 cm 40° c 10 cm 135° 2 Calculate the total perimeter of the sector on the right.59 cm ii 22. Check the students’ answers.8 m b 67. I I I I arc circumference radius sector Homework In this exercise take π = 3.142 or use the π key on your calculator.3 cm2 c i 23.4 m2 3 109 mm 4 29 cm2 b 19. Give your answers correct to three significant figures.55 cm2 16.5 m2 vi a 18.62 cm 2 33.Exercise 6C Answers 1 i a 10.1 cm2 iv a 5.0 cm2 b i 5. 3. Ask the class to write down the formulae for the length of the arc AB and the area of the sector AOB.19 cm b 6.2 cm2 v a 5.5 cm b 52.24 m iii a 4. Give your answer correct to three significant figures.50 cm b 25.6 cm ii 118 cm2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 75 .4 cm2 ii a 5. 12 cm 45° 12 cm 3 Calculate the area of the sector below.

making sure that the students obtain the correct answer using their calculators. for the cylinder is given by the formula: V = πr2 × h = πr2h r h G Carefully go through the following example on the board. square-based pyramid.LESSON Framework objectives – Volume of a cylinder Calculate lengths. then the volume.f. giving the answer correct to three significant figures. So. Main lesson activity G Remind the class how to calculate the volume of a prism. tetrahedron. Calculate the volume of the cylinder. areas and volumes in right prisms.) The class can now do Exercise 6D from Pupil Book 3. cuboid. V. 4 cm 7 cm G 76 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . including cylinders. the area of the cross-section is A = πr 2. triangular prism. V. If the height of the cylinder is h. Write all the names on the board. The volume. of a prism is found by multiplying the area A of its cross-section by its length l: V = Al l A G Explain to the class that the cross-section of a cylinder is a circle with radius r. Ask them to identify each shape and the spelling of each name. V = π × 42 × 7 = 352 cm3 (3 s. sphere.4 Oral and mental starter G G Show the class various 3-D shapes such as: cube. cylinder. 6.

Give your answer correct to one decimal place.Exercise 6D Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 a 1130 cm3 b 226 cm3 c 75.82 cm3 1062 mm3 cylindrical tin (a 2352 cm3 b 2300 cm3 c 2356 cm3) a 35. Give your answer correct to the nearest cubic centimetre. h = 10. It has an internal diameter of 2. 1m 3.51 m3 b 1131 litres a 10 000 cm3 b 250 cm2 c 8.4 cm.3 litres b 141 a 1. a 3 cm b 5 cm 12 cm 2 cm c 8m 4m 2 The diagram below shows a metal pipe of length 1 m. Give your answers correct to three significant figures. Homework In this exercise take π = 3. calculate the radius of the base of the can. Calculate the volume of metal in the pipe.4 m3 d 37.7 m2 2 r = 5.2 cm. If the height of the can is 25 cm.7 m3 e 9. Answers 1 a 339 cm3 b 157 cm3 2 188 cm3 3 5.142 or use the π key on your calculator. 1 Calculate the volume of each of the following cylinders.8 cm. and an external diameter of 3.9 cm Extension Answers 1 a 207 cm2 b 37.0 cm c 101 m3 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 77 .8 cm 3 A cylindrical can holds 2 litres of oil. Ask the class to explain how the formula for the volume of a cylinder is derived.2 cm 2.8 cm Plenary G G Key Words I I I I cross-section cylinder radius volume Draw a cylinder on the board.

kilometres per hour (km/h) or metres per second (m/s). 2 1 – = 200 miles. Explain that speed is the distance travelled per unit of time and that the relationship between speed. as it is unusual to maintain the same. exact speed in one journey. Find the distance travelled by the train in 2– hours.75 hour 0. we usually mean average speed. the distance travelled = 80 × 22 Example 2 A car travels 120 km on a motorway at an average speed of 80 km/h. D 120 1 Using the formula T = —. distance and time can be expressed by the following three formulae: Distance Distance Speed = ––––––––– Distance = Speed × Time Time = ––––––––– Time Speed When we refer to speed.25 hour 0. Find the time taken for the journey.5 hour 0. time T and speed S can be remembered by using this triangle: Covering up the quantity you want to find leads to the three formulae: D S T D S=— T D = ST D T=— S G G G Show the students how to use the triangle by doing the following examples. Draw the diagram below and explain that the relationships between distance D. Density – with units grams per cubic centimetre (g/cm3).LESSON Framework objectives – Rates of change Understand and use measures of speed (and other compound measures such as density or pressure) to solve problems. Answers (Explain that sometimes the answers may have to be given to three decimal places.333 hour 0.5 Oral and mental starter G G Explain to the class that the starter is about converting minutes into fractions and decimals of an hour. Rates of change can always be recognised because their units contain ‘per’ or ‘p’ or ’/’ which means ‘for every’. the time taken = –––– = 1.) Time in minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes 45 minutes 20 minutes 6 minutes 1 1 3 1 1 – hour – hour – hour – hour –– Time as a fraction 2 4 4 3 10 hour of an hour Time as a decimal 0. Using the formula D = ST.1 hour of an hour G 10 minutes 1 – hour 6 0. Time in minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes 45 minutes 20 minutes 6 minutes 10 minutes 1 – hour Time as a fraction 2 of an hour Time as a decimal 0. Write the following examples of compound measures on the board: Speed – with units miles per hour (mph). Example 1 1 A train travels at an average speed of 80 mph. 6.5 hour of an hour Ask the students to copy and complete the table in their books or on their whiteboards. 2 S 80 Explain that density is the mass of a substance per unit of volume and that the formula for density is: Mass Density = ––––––– Volume 78 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .167 hour Main lesson activity G G G G Explain to the class that a rate of change is the way of comparing how one quantity changes with another. Copy the table below on the board or use a prepared OHT. The first example has already been completed. solve problems involving constant or average rates of change.5 hours = 1– hours or 1 hour 30 minutes. Fuel consumption – with units miles per gallon (mpg) or kilometres per litre (km/l).

V 20 Example 2 Find the mass of a plastic model.25 g/cm3.5 miles 2 1 hour 40 minutes 3 5 m/s 4 19.72 cm Plenary G G Key Words I density I pressure I speed Summarise the lesson by asking the class to write down the relationships between distance D. the density of the wood is ––– = 0. Repeat for density. Give your answer in kilograms.5 mph b 42 mph c 60 mph a 3 hours b 2 hours 30 minutes c 3 hours 20 minutes d 1 hour 45 minutes a 75 mph b 120 km/h c 125 miles d 225 km e 12.25 kg 6 480 cm3 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 79 . the angles are the same 4 a B b A c 2. M 18 Using the formula D = —.5 mph. find the mass of the water in the bucket.05 g/cm3.6 g/cm3 d 63 mph G Extension Answers 1 42 mph 2 48 mph 3 17. Exercise 6E Answers 1 3 4 5 8 a 240 miles b 180 miles c 30 miles d 40 miles 2 a 52.1 km/h 4 450 g 5 a 90 miles b 20 gallons SATs Answers 1 1 a 7– hours b 465 mph c 60 miles 2 a 60 mph b 30 mph c 40 mph 2 3 a 15 cm b 12 cm c Yes. Using the formula M = DV.5 seconds f 3 hours 20 minutes 1 216 metres 6 600 mph 7 a 10 m/s b 25 m/s c 33– m/s 3 156. which has a volume of 30 cm3 and a density of 1.9 g/cm3. The class can now do Exercise 6E from Pupil Book 3. the mass of the model = 1.6 g/cm3. mass M and volume V can be remembered by using this triangle: Covering up the quantity you want to find leads to the three formulae: M D V M D=— V M = DV M V=— D G Show the students how to use the triangle by doing the following examples. 4 Find the density of a gold ingot that has a mass of 4825 g and a volume of 250 cm3.8 g 9 5 litres 10 1. time T and speed S by using the triangle at the top of the page.G Draw the diagram below and explain that the relationships between density D. Homework 1 Find the distance travelled by a hiker who walks for 3 hours at an average speed of 2. 3 A runner runs a 1000 m race in 3 minutes 20 seconds. Find the volume of a block of cork that has a mass of 120 g. If a bucket with a capacity of 5 litres is filled with seawater. 2 Find the time taken to drive a car 125 km at an average speed of 75 km/h.6 × 30 = 48 g.3 g/cm3 5 5. 6 The density of cork is 0.83 cm 5 0. Find his average speed in m/s. Answers 1 7. Find the density of the wood. Example 1 The volume of a wooden block is 20 cm3 and its mass is 18 g. 5 The density of sea water is 1.

CHAPTER 7 LESSON Number 2 Framework objectives – Standard form Write numbers in standard form. Ensure that the class know which way round to do the division.4 × 109. Use algebraic methods to convert a recurring decimal to a fraction in simple cases. 80 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Ask students if they can see the connection with the original number and the power of 10.000 072 can be written as 7.1 Oral and mental starter G G G G Use a target board. 7.000 005 89 = 5. where 1 ≤ A < 10 and n is an integer. Make sure they know and understand the definition of a standard form number: A × 10n. Now reverse the process and ask the class to convert numbers in standard form to ordinary numbers. Repeat with more examples as necessary. For example: 540 000 = 5. Demonstrate how to convert ordinary numbers to standard form.56 × 10–4 = 5. to do this exercise in multiplying and dividing powers.6 × 10–7 = 0. Recall the rules for multiplying and dividing powers. Point to two powers and ask a student to multiply or divide them.963 × 10 The class may realise that this is a matter of moving the digits and counting the number of places that they move. For example 3 400 000 000 can be written as 3.4 × 105 0.89 × 10–6 7 89 630 000 = 8.3 × 107 and 0. x3 x8 x–3 x2 x5 x–7 x6 x10 x–4 x7 x–8 x9 x–2 x–6 x4 x–5 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G Students may have met the idea of standard form through extension activities.6 × 10–1 × 10–4 = 5.2 × 10–5. such as the one shown on the right.4 × 105 = 340 000 They should be able to relate this to work done previously with powers of 10. Repeat with examples such as 23 × 106 = 2. Explain that a way is needed to express and use very large and very small numbers without writing out many zeros. and 0.000 000 36 3. For example: 3.6 × 10–5 Repeat with more examples as necessary. The class can now do Exercise 7A from Pupil Book 3.3 × 10 × 106 = 2.

8 × 10–3 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 81 .305 g 4 820 000 0.6 × 10–1 5 × 10–4 g 7.69 × 103 b 1.78 × 104 e 3.4 × 10–4 2.3 × 106 b 5.003 14 d 0.35 × 10–1 h 9 × 10–5 2 300 000 b 456 c 670 000 d 3590 e 9 000 000 f 2 010 000 34 780 h 87 300 000 0. Put some calculator displays on the board.000 067 b 0.2321 × 104 g 9.8 × 104 b 3.61 × 102 g 7.Exercise 7A Answers 1 a f 2 a f 3 a f 4 a g 5 a g 6 a h 7 a f k 8 a g 5.03 × 10–1 d 58 × 10–4 2 Write each of the following standard form numbers as an ordinary number.0568 e 8 000 000 000 f 0.87 × 10–3 d 83 300 h 0.71 × 10–5 d 9.868 × 107 g c 2.4 × 10–3 b 5.01 × 10–4 g 8 × 10–4 h 8 × 10–2 I 2.5 × 10–3 j 5.2 × 106 c 9.9 × 104 e 8 × 109 a 68 × 103 b 0.6 × 10–2 c 3.903 e 0.3 × 109 3.057 66 c 930 d 0.78 × 10–4 c 8.0385 c 0.4 × 10–4 c 3.82 × 10–4 b 37.8 × 10–5 c 322 000 g 0.5 × 108 km b 2.0543 4.36 × 10–3 f 4.35 × 10–3 h 5 × 10–7 2 a 49 000 b 0.33 × 104 e 7.8 × 103 d 5.39 and the actual standard form number 4.603 3 a 6.21 × 109 s d 9 × 10–28 gm Plenary G Key Words I I I I standard form integer less than less than or equal to G Make sure that the class is aware of the difference between a calculator display showing standard form as 4. This is a common error in SATs and GCSE exams.5 × 10–3 cm e 1.001 22 e 50 000 f 0.005 39 e 0.000 74 f 92 321 b 4.3 × 101 h 4.000 482 g 9 200 000 h 0. Then ask individual students to convert them: first.2 × 10–6 e 7.22 × 105 d 8.4 × 103 g 9.3 × 109. to a standard form number and next to an ordinary number.000 000 71 a 4.9 × 106 b 5. a 63 000 000 e 0.003 21 h 0.59 × 104 880 b 53 200 c 0.004 36 c 8400 d 0.2 × 106 c 0.000 008 f 0.8 × 104 d 3.3 × 107 b 7.7 × 10–6 8.33 × 107 e 6.7 × 104 l 3.38 × 105 d 7.167 0.1 × 10–7 f 9.000 78 d 0.2 × 10–6 h 4 × 10–4 8.68 × 103 c 7.001 82 f 7 950 000 504 000 000 h 0.6 × 10–3 6.000 0005 d 5. 3 Write each of the following numbers in standard form Answers 1 a 6. Homework 1 Write each of the following numbers in standard form.000 684 2 Extension Answers a 1.009 35 c 8.965 × 108 5.000 000 66 4 600 b 0.68 × 10–2 h 6.923 × 103 g 7.8 × 102 e 9.7 × 10–4 d 5.3 × 10–3 c 1.

13 × 10–7 is entered as: 2 . Oral and mental starter G G Use a target board like the one shown on the right.) 134 35 50 0. Do other examples as necessary. That is. 5 6 × 1 0 3 EXP This will give a value of 4.067 6000 256 0. Some will probably respond 18 × 108. Ask individual students to give each number in standard form.56 × 104.56 × 103) × (2.8 × 10 × 108 = 1.56 × 103 is entered as: 4 .7128 × 10–4 or round to 9. Explain how to use a calculator to enter numbers in standard form. Repeat with: (2. 82 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Explain that it is not in standard form.56 × 103 as: 4 .5 × 10–2) × (8 × 10–5). Explain the process of separating the numbers and the powers: 3 × 3 × 106 × 102.256 5477 0.002 0. 5 6 3 EXP 2.023 0. Some students may respond intuitively that it is 9 × 108. Make sure that no students enter 4. and that the sign change key may operate differently.13 × 10–7). 4. They will realise that this is difficult without the use of a calculator.71 × 10–4 (3 sf). Ask them for the answer.039 0.2 Framework objectives – Multiplying with numbers in standard form Enter numbers in standard form into a calculator and interpret the display.134 0.8 × 109.007 0. This gives 20 × 10–7 = 2 × 10 × 10–7 = 2 × 10–6. Explain the calculator notation which relates to the previous plenary.7128–04.00 097 128 or 9. Demonstrate how to get it in standard form. Next give the class: (4. Convert this to the standard form number 9.03 1300 2000 270 0. Give them: (3 × 106) × (3 × 102) and ask them what they think the answer is.25 0. G The class can now do Exercise 7B from Pupil Book 3.LESSON 7. 1. the appropriate key may be marked EE or with some other notation. Do the above calculation.001 100 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G Tell the class that they are going to learn how to multiply together two numbers in standard form. (The numbers are straightforward enough to allow this to be done mentally. Ask them what is wrong with this. 1 3 EXP 7 +/– G G G G G Note that on some makes of calculator. The display should say 0. Now give the class: (6 × 106) × (3 × 102).

25 × 109 bytes 5 1.8 × 107 c 1. Another mathematician came up with googolplex.6 × 107 2 a 9.46 × 109 b 1.75 × 10–6 e 1.82 × 1010 b 7.9 × 107 2 a 7.064 × 101 f 1. They should be able to do this as 12 × 6 = 72. ten to the power of one hundred (10100).6 × 104) × (1. Homework 1 Do not use a calculator for this question.2 × 108 c 8 × 107 d 9 × 10–5 e 3.672 × 105 f 1.2 × 10–7 f 4. Do not round off your answers.5 × 10–7) Answers 1 a 8 × 108 b 2 × 106 c 1.6 × 103 i 5.2 × 10–2) × (6 × 10–3) = 7.000 072. Plenary G G G G Key Words I standard form I addition of powers G Give the class the following problem: 0.288 × 1010 d 5.29 × 10–2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 83 .95 × 106 h 1.04 = 0.51 × 10–5 e 4.8 × 10–4) × (2. Work out each of the following and give your answer in standard form. His nephew called it a googol.6656 × 107 3 a 9.05 × 10–3 f 5.7 × 107 e 4 × 10–7 f 4.Exercise 7B Answers 1 a 8 × 105 b 1. a (4 × 102) × (2 × 106) d (9 × 10–2) × (3 × 108) b (5 × 103) × (4 × 102) e (5 × 10–5) × (8 × 10–3) c (6 × 10–3) × (2 × 10–4) f (7 × 103) × (7 × 103) 2 You may use a calculator for this question.1 × 10–1 h 2.28 × 107 c 7.5 × 10–2) × (2.56 × 10–6 i 6. Ask them to ‘translate’ the calculation to a standard form problem which would be: (1.2 × 10–2 g 2.14 × 108 b 4.8 × 104) c (3. a (2. There is no limit to the largest number in practical use.5 × 104) e (3.2 × 10–6 d 2.085 × 0.25 × 105 k 1. with six decimal places in the answer: 0.63 × 10–5 4 1. and defined it to be ten to the power of googol.008 × 10–4 d 3.012 × 0. Repeat with: 0.84 × 10–2 g 2.27 × 109 d 2.6 × 103) × (2.8 × 10–8) f (8.2 × 103) × (1.006. but remember that the total number of elementary particles in the known universe is only about 1080.4 × 10–3 Discuss the similarities and the advantages of each method.13 × 1013 j 1.5 × 10–4) b (3.35 × 10–6 e 4.12 × 103 l 3.0034 (8.1 × 105) × (3.99 × 104 h 1.2 m Extension Answers The American mathematician Edward Kasner asked his nine-year-old nephew to invent a name for the number.5 × 10–2) × (4 × 10–2) = 34 × 10–4 = 3.674 × 10–1 g 2.6 × 103 j 2. Work out each of the following and give your answer in standard form.4 × 103) d (1.152 × 108 c 1.2 × 10–5.311 × 103 i 4.

Explain the process of separating the numbers and the powers: (9 ÷ 3) × (106 ÷ 102).6 × 10–1 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G This lesson focuses on dividing one number in standard form by another number in standard form. That is.3 × 103 2. Next give the class: (4.1 × 102 6.56 × 103) ÷ (2. The class can now do Exercise 7C from Pupil Book 3. Ask them what is wrong with this.7 × 102 4.4 × 102 6. Make sure they are happy with the position of the multiplication sign. Make sure that they can enter this into their calculators using the EXP (or equivalent) key and the sign change key. 84 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Ask individual students to give the ordinary numbers shown by the numbers in standard form. Some will probably respond 0.25 × 103 = 2. Do with other examples as necessary. Now give the class: (4 × 106) ÷ (8 × 102).6 × 103 4.13 × 10–7).8 × 10–1 5. They will realise that this is extremely difficult without the use of a calculator.LESSON Framework objectives – Dividing with numbers in standard form Divide numbers in standard form. 7. Repeat with: (2 × 10–2) ÷ (8 × 10–5).) 2 × 103 7 × 10–4 3.5 × 104.5 × 102. Enter numbers in standard form into a calculator and interpret the display.3 × 10–3 8.5 × 10–1 × 103 = 2. Some students may intuitively respond that it is 3 × 104. (The numbers are simple enough for the students to do this mentally. Ask them for the answer.3 G G Oral and mental starter Use a target board such as the one shown on the right.1 × 101 6 × 10–5 3. This gives 0. Demonstrate how to get it in standard form.14 × 1010 (3 sf).2 × 10–3 5. Explain that it is not in standard form. The display should say 2. Give the class: (9 × 106) ÷ (3 × 102) and ask them what they think the answer is.3 × 10–1 5.2 × 10–2 6.1 × 102 3 × 10–3 8 × 10–2 5. 5 × 10–1 × 104 = 5 × 103.140 845 0710 Round off and convert this to the standard form number 2.5 × 103 4 × 105 1.

a (8 × 105) ÷ (2 × 103) d (1.88 × 109 g 6.05 × 102 c 2.92 × 102 e 5.06 = 1.5 × 104 b 4.15 × 105) ÷ (1.2 × 109 g 9 × 10–7 h 4 × 108 i 1.1 (5.5 × 106 f 6.2 × 105 d 8 × 101 e 9 × 10–7 f 3.25 × 107 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 85 .4 × 102 e 8 × 10–9 f 6 × 109 g 7 × 104 h 8 × 105 i 2 × 102 3 a 5. Work out each of the following and give your answer in standard form. zepto = one sextillionth (10–21). atto = one quintillionth (10–18).9 × 10–5) f (1.012 ÷ 0.495 × 106) ÷ (4.2 × 10–3) ÷ (3 × 10–2) b (4 × 105) ÷ (5 × 107) e (6 × 106) ÷ (8 × 10–1) c (6 × 103) ÷ (2 × 10–4) f (5 × 102) ÷ (8 × 10–3) 2 You may use a calculator for this question.366 × 103 km 5 33. a (6.2 × 101 = 2 Repeat with: 0.006 = 0.5 × 102 c 2 × 10–1 d 3 × 105 e 5 × 105 f 1. femto = one quadrillionth (10–15).3 Extension Answers Milli = one thousandth (10–3).012 ÷ 0.25 × 107 c 2.006.05 = 1.37 × 103 c 1. Homework 1 Do not use a calculator for this question.85 × 10–3) ÷ (6.15 × 106) ÷ (1.6 × 10–2) Answers 1 a 4 × 102 b 8 × 10–3 c 3 × 107 d 4 × 10–2 e 7.6 × 105 j 5 × 102 k 7 × 107 l 3 × 103 2 a 4.8 × 10–5 d 3.5 × 102) c (3.5 × 103) b (3. Do not round off your answers.1 × 103 b 2. pico = one trillionth (10–12).61 × 104 b 1.055 ÷ 0.Exercise 7C Answers 1 a 3 × 104 b 7. which would be: (1. micro = one millionth (10–6).1 Discuss the similarities and the advantages of each method.25 × 104 2 a 4.5 × 103 j 1.32 × 10–4 d 2.2 × 103 · 4 6.98 × 1011 f 2.6 = 12 ÷ 6 = 2 Ask them to ‘translate’ the calculation to a standard form problem. yocto = one septiillionth (10–24) Plenary G G Key Words I standard form I division I subtraction of powers G G G Give the class this problem: 0. Work out each of the following and give your answer in standard form.5 × 10–2) ÷ (5 × 10–2) = 1. They should be able to do this as: 0.45 × 10–2) e (5.19 × 103) ÷ (1.1 × 100 = 1.2 ÷ 0.32 × 10–3) ÷ (2.23 × 10–12 h 4.48 × 10–4 i 2.2 × 10–2) ÷ (6 × 10–3)= 0.12 ÷ 0.4 × 10–1) d (2. nano = one billionth (10–9).

5 Emphasise that the upper value is a limit and can be given as a value and need not be truncated to 23. Upper and lower bounds for first bag: 195 ≤ Marbles ≤ 204 Upper and lower bounds for second bag: 115 ≤ Marbles ≤ 124 Emphasise why these limits are precise.5 ≤ Length < 25.5 + 29.LESSON Framework objectives – Upper and lower bounds 1 Understand upper and lower bounds for discrete data and continuous data. both measurements to the nearest centimetre. Give students the following example: One piece of wood is 25 cm long and another is 30 cm long. Justify it by using the notation: 22. the value can equal the lower bound but cannot equal the upper bound. If the pieces are joined end to end. of numbers given to degrees of accuracy.5 = 56 cm Upper and lower bounds of combined length: 54 ≤ Combined length < 56 cm Next. what are the upper and lower bounds for the number of marbles in the bag. 79. measured to the nearest 10. 80 cm (to nearest cm). what are the upper and lower bounds of the combined length? Upper and lower bounds of first piece: 24. In other words.5 Lowest possible combined length: 24.5 to 80. 500 given to the nearest 10 has a lower bound of 500 – half of 10 = 495 and an upper bound of 500 + half of 10 = 505 23 cm to the nearest centimetre has upper and lower bounds of 23 ± half a centimetre: 22.5 ≤ Length < 30.4 Oral and mental starter G G G Use a target board such as the one shown on the right. do the following example: One bag of marbles contains 200 marbles. such as the weight of people.5 Upper and lower bounds of second piece: 29. Another bag of marbles contains 120 marbles. particularly the difference between discrete and continuous data.5. Some students may be happier to have a ‘rule’ for continuous data: Lower bound = Value – Half the degree of accuracy Upper bound = Value + Half the degree of accuracy For example. 95 to 104. 7. such as a number of people.4 or 23. G 86 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 100 marbles 25 cm 5 kg 5 litres 50 g 600 mph 25 m 80 cm 100 cars 600 people 500 eggs 400 people £ 2000 150 mm 40 km 300 g 200 ml 400 sweets 220 ducks 120 bees Main lesson activity G G G G G G G Ensure that the class can work out the limits. measured to the nearest 10. 100 marbles (to nearest 10). Ask individual students to give the limits of each number chosen by you to a given accuracy. If both bags are combined.5 ≤ Value < 23.5 + 30. called the upper and lower bounds.5 ≤ 23 < 23.4999. The students may need to have some of the rules of upper and lower bounds explained to them. Upper and lower bounds for combined bags: 310 ≤ Marbles ≤ 328 The class can now do Exercise 7D from Pupil Book 3. Make sure they are happy with the difference between limits of accuracy for discrete quantities. and continuous quantities. For example. This is a concept students find hard to grasp.5.5 = 54 cm Largest possible combined length: 25.

2727 … . which is not enough Extension Answers a For largest length left.5 cm. I I I I upper bound lower bound strict inequality greater than/less than Homework Do not use a calculator for Questions 1 and 2.5 ≤ Hard drive < 40.5 cm.5 cm3 j 39.5 = 34 cm.2 m 3 a 99. a ÷ b (0.65 kg 2 a 2. For shortest length left.75). Smallest jug is 1850 ml 10 No. Key Words Plenary G Give the class the following problem.75 m 9 Yes.5 cl b 10. take the longest length of cut-off piece from the shortest length of original: 119.75. b The amount of honey in a jar is 200 ml to the nearest 10 ml.5 Gb 2 a 395 ≤ Length < 405 cm b 295 ≤ Width < 305 cm c 13. a – b (10. 9 mugs would be 205 × 9 = 1845. 12).5 ≤ Width < 70.5 cm c No.2 m 3 a 9. 0.5 metres.8 ≤ Perimeter < 8.45 ≤ Width < 1. particularly the subtraction and division.5 = 36 cm. he will need 32 × 22 = 704 4 a 6250 b 6745 5 a 195 ≤ Number ≤ 204 b 195 ≤ Mass < 205 g c Number is discrete data.5 – 84.5 cm b 10. 22).3548 …)? Discuss the required combinations.5 m d 0.5 ≤ String < 20. 1 Find the upper and lower bounds between which the following quantities lie. For smallest possible length.5 g i 999. mass is continuous 6 a 23 500 b 244 990 ≈ 245 000 7 a 225 b 234 8 No.5 × 9. could be guaranteed to cover 95 cm d No. a = 5 to nearest unit. if all tiles are 9. d The mass of a loaf is 0.5 ≤ Speed < 70. b = 16 to nearest unit. he will only have enough for 19.05 litres © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 87 .5 ≤ Donut < 50.33 cm.45 ≤ Length < 2.6 kg to the nearest 100 grams. a × b (69.5 – 85. What are the upper and lower bounds of a + b (20. c The width of a field is 70 m to the nearest metre. each measurement accurate to the nearest 10 cm. b For largest possible length.5 × 10.55 m c 7.5 = 28.5 ≤ Jug < 1000.5 ÷ 1. if each slab is only 39. a What is the smallest possible amount in the bottle? b What is the greatest possible amount that 10 bottles could hold? Answers 1 a 1950 ≤ Bees < 2049 b 195 ≤ Honey < 205 ml c 69.8 ≤ Perimeter < 14.Exercise 7D Answers 1 a 25 ≤ Toffees ≤ 34 b 15 ≤ Rice < 25 g c 65 ≤ Speed < 75 mph d 69.5 mph e 15 ≤ String < 25 cm f 19.5 ÷ 2. Melanie’s lowest possible total is 43 + 48 + 62 + 38 + 52 = 243. a In a hive there are 2000 bees to the nearest 100.5 cm g 495 ≤ Cake < 505 g h 49. 90. take the shortest length of cut-off piece from the longest length of original: 120.5 metres by 1. divide the smallest possible area of the rectangle by the smallest possible width: 42.55 m b 1.5 = 19 cm.55 ≤ Mass < 0. divide the largest possible area by the largest possible width: 47. a What are the upper and lower bounds for the length of the poster? b What are the upper and lower bounds for the width of the poster? c What are the upper and lower bounds for the perimeter of the poster? 3 A bottle of water holds 1 litre to the nearest centilitre. 2 A poster is 2.

5 ÷ 54.3 9 0.01 asked. 0. A jar contains 850 ml of oil (accurate to the nearest 10 ml).32 (0.25 ÷ 60 = 5.035 (0. G 88 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . A cup containing 250 ml (to the nearest 10 ml) is poured out.048 ÷ 0.5 × 7.8 0.5 × ? = 0.24.5 Oral and mental starter G G G G G Recall the methods of multiplying integers and decimals × expressed to one significant figure.6 = ? (0.04 ÷ ? = 0. For two numbers a and b with upper and lower bounds amax ≤ a < amin and bmax ≤ b < bmin Operation Maximum Minimum a+b amax + bmax amin + bmin a–b amax – bmin amin – bmax a×b amax × bmax amin × bmin a÷b amax ÷ bmin amin ÷ bmax Work through the following examples. 7. could be used.20 m/s Greatest speed: 400.5 = 344. 0. 0.25 ÷ 60 = 4.07).LESSON Framework objectives – Upper and lower bounds 2 Understand upper and lower bounds for discrete data and continuous data.5 = 7.35 m/s (3 sf) The same runner runs for 40 minutes at a speed of 8 mph.74 miles (3 sf) The class can now do Exercise 7E from Pupil Book 3. for example. both values to two significant figures.08). What are the upper and lower bounds of the distance run? Least distance: 39. Greatest amount left: 855 – 245 = 610 Upper and lower bounds of amount left: 590 ≤ Amount left < 610 ml A runner sprints 400 metres in 55 seconds.94 miles Greatest distance: 40. For example.2.7 × 6 = 4.5 ÷ 55.5 × 8.5 = 7.02 Particular squares could be pointed at and individual students 0. To help them the following table could be copied into their books. What are the upper and lower bounds of the amount of oil remaining in the jar? Least amount left: 845 – 255 = 590. Following the previous plenary. a grid. 0. or the answer to 0. Reverse the process by asking for the missing number in.6 Main lesson activity G G G This lesson is concerned with making calculations with limits.5 = 296.7 Use this to ask for answers to a variety of similar questions. What are the upper and lower bounds of the runner’s speed? Lowest speed: 399. As 5 these can be hard to verbalise and for students to conceptualise. the students will have some idea of how the maximum and minimum values are combined. 0. 0. for the product. 1 Repeat with examples such as 0. as shown on the right. each measurement to the nearest unit.8).4 × ? = 0.03 × 8 = 0.08 (–). 2 0.

5 iv 552.8 cm2 (4 sf) 2 214.903 b 3. a Write down the upper and lower bounds of a.25 3 a 82.7 mph (1.25 ≤ c2 < 600.1 cm2 (4 sf) Plenary G Key Words I I I I upper bound lower bound strict inequality greater than/ less than G Ask the class to consider which combination of maximum and minimum value of a. b Work out the upper and lower bounds of each of the following.25 ≤ Area < 21.75 ≤ Side < 10.25 cm (3 sf) a+b 7 a 94. The length is 15 cm.25 ii 1.109 ≤ –––––– < 1. b = 20 and c = 30.156 (4sf) c c 0.25 ≤ a × b < 215.25 ii 2. 75 iv 870.37 miles per min) b 77.5 ≤ a < 12. measured to the nearest 10 cm2.21 (3 sf) iii 214.75 ≤ Area < 118. i a×b ii c ÷ a iii (a × b) + c iv c2 2 A rectangle has an area of 120 cm2.29 miles per min) 4 a 1137.25 cm2 c 97.25 ≤ a × b < 231.5.61 ≤ Width < 10.103 g 6 9.61 iii 681.5 ≤ c < 24.62 ≤ a × b × c < 101.4 ≤ a ÷ a < 1. 19.75 ≤ a + b + c < 1.81 ≤ c ÷ a < 3.75 ≤ Area < 22. Homework 1 a = 10.65 ≤ Mass coat < 2.75 cm2 2 a 11.5. rod of 4. All values to the nearest whole number.3 ≤ Surface area < 219.62 cm (3 sf) b 7.5.42 cm (3 sf) © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 89 .5.5 cm Extension Answers 1 352.4 cm (3 sf) 9 1. b and c. 17.3 (4sf) b 1. 29.3 ≤ Surface area < 402.5 ≤ (a + b)c < 759. a What is the greatest possible width of the rectangle? b What is the least possible width of the rectangle? Answers 1 a 9.5 ≤ b < 20. 23.5 ≤ c < 30.4 mph (1.05 d 1.5 b i 185.25 2 a 8.5 ≤ b < 18.75 miles 5 a 2.Exercise 7E Answers 1 a 13.96 8 9.75 miles b 1062. b. measured to the nearest cm.25 ≤ c2 < 930.05 cm would be required to fit into hole which is 3. c and d would give the maximum and minimum values of an expression such as: a–b a2 –––––– or ––––– – × d –– c–d (b – c) Ensure that the students understand the need to combine upper and lower bounds in such a way that they maximise and minimise the value of such combined expressions.5 b i 201.44 ≤ (b – a)2 < 1.5 ≤ a < 10.75 ≤ (a × b) + c < 245.75 kg 10 No.75 cm2 b 11.

777 777 77… (2) Subtract equation (1) from (2): 9F = 2.7 ( – ). 0.27. the denominator will be 9. 100. Use algebraic methods to convert a recurring decimal to a fraction in simple cases. powers of 10 (10.37. 16.5 5 Divide through by 9: F = –––– = ––– 9 18 1 5 – – Repeat with 0. These can then be written on the board and the recurring notation explained to · 32 ·· 4 – – – – the class.45?’ Give them the chance to see whether they can find the answer by trial and 5 – improvement.26.6 = – = – 0. 50 (5 × 10) … . · 7 · · –– 26 – Now repeat with 0. They have met these ideas before but may need to be reminded of them. …). will terminate and which will recur. when there are two recurring digits. Give the students a few moments to see whether they can find its fraction by trial and improvement. Ask: ‘How would you write a recurring decimal as a fraction: for example.277 777 77 … (1) Multiply by through10: 10F = 2. like that shown on the right. Now work through the procedure. After they have made their predictions.454 545 45 (1) Then 100F = 45. Be careful! This rule works only when the recurring digits are the only digits after · the decimal point. 7. 1 – 2 11 – – 30 3 – – 11 9 – – 25 3 – 7 7 – – 12 3 – 4 7 – – 60 7 – – 20 43 – – 50 1 – – 28 31 – – 40 2 – 3 3 – 8 12 – – 25 4 – 5 13 – – 18 7 – 9 5 – 6 3 – – 13 G G G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G This follows on from the Oral and mental starter. the denominator will be 999.6 G G Oral and mental starter The class will need calculators.166 66 … (–) and 0. 8. such as 40 (4 × 10). when converted to a decimal. ask the class whether they can predict which of the fractions. Ask if there is any relationship between the denominators which give terminating decimals? They are all multiples of powers of 2 (2.675 = – – – = – – – – –– – 9 3 99 33 999 37 · Put this recurring decimal on the board: 0. ask them to work out the decimals on their calculators. 4. Let F = 0. …). or products of these. 33 = 0. Using a target board.454 545 (2) Subtract equation (1) from (2): 99F = 45 45 5 Divide through by 99: F = – – = – – (Cancel by 9). Let F = 0.277 777 77 … = 0. 125.39 = – – = – – 0. They may find the answer of – . powers of 5 (5.LESSON Framework objectives – Recurring decimals Know that a recurring decimal is an exact fraction. – – 99 11 Ask: ‘Why multiply by 100?’ Establish that we have to multiply by the power of 10 equivalent to the number of recurring digits. For example: 15 = 0. 0. 25. the denominator will be 99. 90 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .234 ( 111 ).377 777 7 … = 0. and when there are three recurring digits. Give some examples: · 6 2 · · 39 13 · · 675 25 0.5 2.416 666 … (12 ) 6 The class can now do Exercise 7F from Pupil Book 3.96. 11 Outline the following method. 9 Ask: Can anyone see a connection or a short cut? Establish that when there is just one recurring digit.454 ·· 545 … = 0. It will not work with a number such as 0. 1000. …).

12 e 0.3.076 923.37 Answers · · · · ·· 1 a 0. √2 and √5 do not terminate nor do they recur.461 538.857 142 7 First recurring digits are in numerical order 5 8 27 4 9 123 89 9 – ––– – – – – – – ––– – – 5 a – b 107 c – d 37 e 33 f 11 g 1111 h 26 i ––– j – = 1 11 333 9 33 111 9 4 28 578 352 23 – – – — – — — 6 a 90 b — c 999 d 4995 e 666 — – 495 389 1 39 2021 — – – – — – — — 7 a 2 990 b 118 c 5185 d 2 4950 Extension Answers 1 – – 13 6 – – 13 11 – – 13 · · – · · – · · – · · – · · 2 3 4 5 – – – – = 0. – = 0. – = 0. Homework 1 Write each of the following fractions as a recurring decimal.384 615. √2 and √5. – = 0. 10 = 0.8.54.769 230. 11 = 0.538 461.54 b 0.307 692. – = 0. Define these as irrational numbers.571 428.846 153.51 6 82 2 4 17 – –– – – – – – 2 a 11 b 333 c – d 33 c 45 9 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 91 .90 – – – – – 11 11 Recurring digits form the nine times table up to 90 · · 2 · · 3 · · 4 · · 5 · · 1 – 4 – = 0. – – The values of π.3 e 0.714 285.45.4.18.81. – = 0. 9 = 0. 13 = 0.285 714. – = 0. – = 0.246 c 0.2 d 0. 13 = 0.1.142 857. That is. The other numbers are known as rational numbers.615 384 .2 · – · – · – · – · – · – · 8 · 9 · 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 – = 0. 13 = 0.7.923 076. 13 = 0. 13 · · 12 · · 13 – – – – = 0.571 428 b 0. 9 = 0.27. a 4 – 7 b 85 ––– 101 c 17 – – 33 2 Write each of the following recurring decimals as a fraction in its simplest form. Ask them if they can spot the difference between these decimals and those with which they have been working. – = 0. – = 0.Exercise 7F Answers · · · · ·· · · 1 a 0. – = 0. 13 = 1 Plenary G G G G G Key Words I recurring decimal I terminating decimal – – Ask the class to write down from their calculators the values of π. That is. – = 0. 9 = 0.63 11 11 11 · · 11 · · 11 · · 11 8 9 – = 0. 9 = 0.7524 c 0. · · – · · – · · – · · –– · · 7 8 9 – – – = 0. 13 = 0.153 846.36.72.9 9 9 9 Recurring digits are the same as original numerators ·· 2 ·· 3 ·· 4 ·· 5 ·· 6 ·· 7 ·· 1 – – – – – – – – 3 11 = 0.230 769. 13 = 0.8415 c 0.69 d 0.692 307. – = 0. ·· · · · ·· · a 0. 9 = 0. decimals which do not terminate or recur. 9 = 0. 10 = 0.2. 13 = 0.6. numbers which can be expressed as a terminating decimal or a recurring decimal. 7 7 11 7 · · 7 6 – = 0.571 428 b 0.5.09. 13 = 0.428 571.

The answer is 0. G 92 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .48) ————————— (4.33.32 . roots and fractions. As the next example. π and sign change keys. ——— – — Work out.89 ≈ 30. the function keys for powers. work out: 3. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G This is a review lesson on the effective use of calculators. Now take 4. 158 Finally.887 452 67 ≈ 29.281 25 ≈ 1845.2) 0. Discuss the need to round answers to a sensible degree of accuracy. brackets and the memory. The class should have met most of the keys before. Use the constant. some of the main keys listed in the Framework objectives could be discussed and found for the different makes of calculator. This requires the square root key. The answer is –––.53 – 1.55. Do a variety of problems using the appropriate keys.92 This requires the brackets keys. √ π ÷ 5. The answer is 29. for example. The answer is 1845. The class can now do Exercise 7G from Pupil Book 3.2 – 17. This requires the power key.334 425 254 9 ≈ 0. work out: 7 5 11 7 – – – – – – (– – 12 ) ÷ ( 15 + 12 ) 8 55 This requires the fraction key and the brackets keys. which are needed on many calculators in order to do powers. However. Make sure the students can find these keys on their calculators.7 Oral and mental starter G Due to the variety of calculators in use and the problems this may cause. there is no Oral and mental starter. Some students may need help to locate the inverse/shift keys. 7. the π key and the square key. knowing not to round during intermediate steps of a calculation.LESSON Framework objectives – Efficient use of a calculator Use a calculator efficiently and appropriately to perform complex calculations with numbers of any size.56(43.

taken by spaceship to travel to Proxima Centauri b 11 years Plenary G Key Words I I I I I I I fraction brackets square root square power pi memory keys G This is the last time that calculators will be the focus of the lesson.66:1 c 5. a 2.4164 b 165.627 c 820 13.5 b 12.076 92 gallons. 24 photo films are £5. Ensure that they can identify the following keys: brackets.22 e 7.42 + (6. in hours. Using film of 36 photos costs £61.3 2 a 143. memory (M in. 13 000 gallons 5 a 1.6 5 a 15. a [2.40. taken by spaceship to travel to Proxima Centauri iii time in years. For 360 photos. so each student needs to be sure that he/she can use his/her particular model.95 d 0. b = 20 4 13 403.8 b 70.000 002 2 3 b 8 c 11 d 1. M+.10. power. square.618 SATs Answers 1 Using film of 24 photos costs £56.02 b ——————— 2. square root.5 2 b 4 c 5 d 0.72) b 42.69 b 32 768 c 1.Exercise 7G Answers 153. Homework 1 Use a calculator to evaluate each of these.636 62 b 0.4 c 512 d 104.9 b 0. M–).9(4.25 65 c ––– 126 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 93 .87 1 – – – – 6 a 138 b ––– c 413 99 210 20 1 2 3 4 a a a a Extension Answers 0. π.75 Answers 1 a 130.04)]2 63. This leaves only three principal keys that will be needed in future: sine.5 – 1.30 cheaper 2 a 0.79 × 1010 km3 6 a 4 × 10–4 b 4 × 10–5 c 4.528 68 3 a = 1500.7 – 1. cosine and tangent.8753 2 – 19 7 c — –— – – 21 18 2 Use the power key to evaluate each of these. fraction.01 × 105 N/m2 b 16.4 × 10–4 7 a ii Time.4 × 21.

e. then to find the result of 8 halves. Rather. write on the board 4m2 × 3m. they may bring this knowledge to this discussion.5. that they divided the coefficients and subtracted the powers. ensure that all of the students understand that n–n = — . write on the board x2 × x3. Ask the class if they can simplify this expression. Now. 134 litres (30 gallons). If not. Ask them how they arrived at this answer and discuss the various methods used. 22 gallons (99 litres). © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 94 . 8. 70 litres (16 gallons). Here this gives 60 ÷ 4 = 15 and 60 ÷ 5 = 12. giving 32 + 4 = 36. add the two together. The correct answer is about four and a half. you would not try to divide by 4. 1 Now ask how many litres there are in: 12 gallons (54 litres). If someone comes up with the correct answer of x5. Ask the class how many gallons there are in: 100 litres (22 gallons). Ask if anyone can generalise the rule. move on to dividing powers. Discuss the results with the whole class. Ask the class to simplify this expression. Discuss the strategy.. getting 32. You are looking for something like: xa × xb = xa + b Ask if anyone can prove this rule. Ask the class if they can simplify this expression. Have a discussion with the class about multiplying expressions containing powers and adding the powers. For an approximation. The expression cannot be simplified because it contains two unlike terms. Ask the students what they think m–2 represents. i. If someone comes up with the correct answer of 12m3. You should explore the proof of this with an example such as: k×k×k×k×k×k k 6 ÷ k2 = –––––––––––––––––– = k × k × k × k = k4 = k 6 – 2 k×k Now write on the board the expression m3 ÷ m5 and ask the students to simplify this expression. you would divide by 4 and also by 5 and go for a midway answer.3. i. if someone comes up with the correct answer of 4m3.e. Again. Write on the board the expression 8m5 ÷ 2m3 and ask if anyone can tell you what the answer should be. ask him/her to explain how. If the class covered standard form recently. which is rounded up to 14. 17 gallons (76– litres). One way is to multiply the 4 by 8. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G Write on the board x2 + x3. xn The class can now do Exercise 8A from Pupil Book 3. Approximately halfway between 15 and 12 is 13. 2 Now ask approximately how many gallons are in 60 litres.5. Introduce the investigation on page 139 of Pupil Book 9. Next. Next. ask him/her to explain how. recognising that the index laws can be applied to these as well. Then ask how many litres there are in 8 gallons.CHAPTER 8 LESSON Algebra 4 Framework objectives – Index notation with algebra: negative powers Know and use the index laws (including in generalised form) for multiplication and division of positive integer powers. If not.. Go through the first two parts with the class. Make sure that the students understand that numbers and variables with negative indices follow the same rules as numbers and variables with positive indices. then let them complete the investigation individually or in pairs. You want something like: k2 × k3 = (k × k) × (k × k × k) = k × k × k × k × k = k 5 = k2 + 3 Now. remind the class of this and that m is the same as m1 and work through some more examples. You should get the response m–2.1 Oral and mental starter G G G G G G G G Ask the class approximately how many litres there are to a gallon. The answer is 36. that they multiplied the coefficients and added the powers. 40 litres (9 gallons). begin to extend understanding of index notation to negative and fractional powers. ask him/her to explain how. 1 Finally. work through this with the class and introduce some further examples. which is 4.

Remind the class of the large number 10100. leaving your answer in fraction form: d 2x5 ÷ 3x8 e Ax × Bx–5 Answers 1 a 64 b 243 c 1296 d 1024 e 289 f 2744 g 729 h 14641 2 a t4 b t5 c m2 d q3 3 a 6m b t6 c 6m = m + m + m + m + m + m. d Show the difference between t4 and 4t. a 26 b 35 c 64 d 45 e 172 f 143 g 272 h 114 d q×q×q 2 Write down the following in index form: a t×t×t×t b t×t×t×t×t c m×m 3 a Write m + m + m + m + m + m as briefly as possible. called the googol. and find their value (use a calculator if necessary). 4t = t + t + t + t 4 a 8x10 b 4t5 c 4m2 d 6y6 e x 1 4 4 2 AB Ax6 5 a — b —– c —– d —— e —– f —— 2 3 5 3 4 m x 3x x B x © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 95 .Exercise 8A Answers 1 a 4x5 b 7m4 c n2 d x5 e 4m4 f 6x4 g 15t4 h 5m3 i g9 j m4 k 4t2 l 15m8 m 48q6 n abm5 o cdy4 1 1 1 1 5 4 8 a 2 a — b — c — d — e — f — g — h – m k2 x3 n4 m2 y x3 b 3 a 5–1 b 4–1 c 3x–1 d x–2 e m–6 f 9–1 g 5x–4 h Am–3 4 a 4x–2 b 7m–2 c n–3 d 4x–3 e 4m–5 f 4x–2 g 15t–2 h 5m–2 i g–1 5 a x7 b m7 c n2 d 2x8 e 3m–3 f 3x3 g 12t–7 h 6m5 i 6g–5 6 a 3x2 b 30m c 6n d 12x10 e 6m–2 f 24x–2 g 60t3 h 8m–1 i 9g j 4m–1 k 30t7 l 24m7 m 6q12 n kpm6 p dey8 Extension Answers 1 a c 2 a c Any value larger than 1 or smaller than 0 b Values between 0 and 1 x = 0 and x = 1 Any value larger than 5 or less than 0 b Values between 0 and 5 x = 0 and x = 5 Plenary G G Key Words I power I index Discuss with the class why powers are used – they shorten very large numbers and also make very small numbers accessible. Tell them that this was the answer to the million pound question on the television programme Who Wants to be a Millionaire. Homework 1 Expand the following. b Write t × t × t × t × t × t as briefly as possible. m6 = m × m × m × m × m × m d t4 = t × t × t × t. when Major Charles Ingram was suspected of cheating. c Show the difference between 6m and m6. 4 Simplify each of the following: a 2x3 × 4x7 a x3 ÷ x5 b 12t6 ÷ 3t b 4m2 ÷ m5 c 20m5 ÷ 5m3 c 8x–4 ÷ 2x d 3y × 2y5 e x–2 ÷ x–3 f Ax ÷ Bx–5 5 Simplify each of the following.

472 135 955.LESSON 8. Discuss with them any answers that are obviously wrong. The calculator will show the square root of 20 to be 4. In this example. and how they know they are wrong.2 Framework objectives – Square roots. the square root of 20 must be less than 5. Introduce the investigation on page 141 of Pupil Book 3. ask the class to estimate the following (all divisions by 8): 629 537 → 300 000 → 150 000 → 80 000 173 492 → 90 000 → 45 000 → 22 000 23 774 → 12 000 → 6000 → 3000 117 008 → 60 000 → 30 000 → 15 000 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G Ask the class for the square root of 25. You will need to explain that the cube root is the number that gives 8 when multiplied by itself three times. Ask the class for the cube root of 8. Oral and mental starter G G G G Tell the class that approximation is a valuable skill. then to halve the result. The class can now do Exercise 8B from Pupil Book 3. Hence. This rounds to 4. and finally to halve the second result to complete the division. Begin to extend understanding of index notation to negative and fractional powers. which is less than 20.5 – so. You can use this as an opportunity to show or remind them how to find square roots on their calculators. the cube root of 125 is 5. remind the class that –5 is also a square root of 25. and the cube root of 1000 is 10. Doing this with 41 672 gives the approximate sequence: 41 672 → 20 000 → 10 000 → 5000 Finally. so a good estimate would be 4. ask the class if they can estimate the answer to 41 672 divided by 8. Now ask the class to estimate the square root of 20. the square root of 20 must lie between 4 and 5. Ensure that the class know the – correct symbol. Discuss why the numbers for which the roots are given have grown so quickly. Ask the class to work out the correct answer using their calculators. It looks halfway. then let them complete the investigation. One way is to halve the dividend. For example. 96 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 8 Ask the class why they think that there are no negative answers to cube roots. It is written as 3√–– . √ . For example. If only 5 is given. After a few have been given. for square root. the answer is 2. Put their suggestions on the board. Write on the board a few of the better-known cube roots: the cube root of 27 is 3. It enables a quick check to be made on calculations – maybe even to ensure that they have used their calculators correctly. cube roots and other fractional powers Estimate square roots and cube roots. discuss with the class any strategy which they used to estimate division by 8. Go through the first example with the class. the square root of 20 must be larger than 4 as 4 × 4 = 16. – Finally. Ask for quick approximations and write them up on the board.5. Similarly. the approximation was correct. discuss with the class the generation x n = n√x. recognising that the index laws can be applied to these as well.

7 iii 7. 100.6 2 b 1 c 5 d 3 e 10 f –4 g –1 h –10 i 0. but ensure that all students have their textbooks shut.5 33 b 19 c 42 d 34 e 44 p 2 q 9 Extension Answers a b c d Only for A = B = 0 Always true Never true Always true Plenary G G Key Words I square root I cube root Ask the class which is bigger. x = –7 d x = 11.4 v 12.1 b 7.7 2 a 4 b 7 c—— d 9 —– 6 e 8 —– 3 i 4. Go through the better-known square roots and cube roots as a quick competition.1 j 0.Exercise 8B Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a a a a a b a b a x = 3. hence x = 5 and x = –5 b x2 = 36 ÷ 4 = 9.2 i 4. Homework 1 Estimate the square root of each of the following.3 v 9. column. page 141.4 iv 6.8 iv 6. in each pair of numbers.3 e 9.6 c 8.6 —– —– —– —– —– —– 3√ 50 b √ 30 c √ 20 d √ 35 e √ 15 f √ 40 i 3. Give your answers to one decimal place.9 iii 7.8 v 9. 4 State which. x = –3 b x = 6.9 iv 6.0 ii 1.6 iii 3.7 d 10. 3√ 149 a 15 a 25 000 a 492 1 – —– —– c √ 18 . is the larger. seeing which set of students (row.7 v 14. the square root of ten thousand or the cube root of a million.4 d 5. Then use a calculator find the result to one decimal place and see how close you were. state the cube roots of each of the following numbers.4 e 14. 7 Write down the value of each of the following without using an index. table) remembers the most.5 6 a 29 b 20 c 38 d 34 e 44 7 a 7 b 8 c 2 d 4 e –7 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 97 . Answers 1 a 6.4 ii 4.9 c 7. Use the list of roots in Pupil Book 3. b Use a calculator to find the accurate value of the above.8 iii 3.5 b 3.4 4 a √ 20 b 3√ 149 c 3√ 79 5 a 2.6 iv 6. 3√ 79 d 150 d 41 000 d 10245 1 – 5 Estimate the cube root of each of these numbers without a calculator.4 e 16. x = –11 x2 = 50 ÷ 2 = 25. —– —– —– —— a √ 20 . The answer is they are both the same.6 d 11. hence x = 3 and x = –3 4 b 5 c 9 d 10 e 2 f 10 g –4 h –5 i 5 j 3 k 6 l 2 m 3 n 5 5.8 b 5.6 ii 1.6 ii 4.4 c 9. x = –6 c x = 7. 3√ 55 b √ 28 . b 61 b 8000 b 5123 1 – c 400 c 57 000 c 164 1 – e 850 e 83 000 e (–343)3 1 – 6 Try to estimate the cube root of each of these numbers without using a calculator. a 64 i 96 ii 110 b 343 iii 55 iv 297 c 216 v 3000 d 729 e 512 3 a Estimate the integer closest to the cube root of each of the following.1 c i 4. —– —– —– —— —— a √ 46 b √ 31 c √ 74 d √ 129 e √ 215 2 Without a calculator.

Then tell them that you are going to go through the drawing of this graph with them. so explain the term. but do tell them that when the x2 part is negative. Then put on the board the equation y = ax2 + bx + c. You want the answer: ‘It’s a straight line’. to convert the following euro prices to the approximate equivalent in pounds: 9 euros (£6). Plot the coordinates given by the table on a pair of axes drawn on the board. You want the answer ‘linear’. So 37 euros is about £24. 15 euros (£10). Tell the class that. Put the equation y = x2 – 4x + 3 on the board. doubling this gives 24. such as: 25 euros: Dividing by 3 gives about 8. they are going to look at the graphs of equations like this. Go through a few examples. There are approximately 1. G 98 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 8.50 euros to the pound. 37 euros: Dividing by 3 gives about 12. then double the result to get the approximate price in pounds. If they do not also mention that m is the gradient and c is the y-axis intercept. If someone has. as below. Hence. 29 euros (£20). G G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G G Put on the board y = mx + c.LESSON Framework objectives – Quadratic graphs Plot graphs of simple quadratic functions. Start by putting a table on the board. ask how many euros he/she got for a pound. x x2 –4x 3 y = x2 + 2x + 3 –1 1 4 3 8 0 0 0 3 3 1 1 –4 3 0 2 4 –8 3 –1 3 9 –12 3 0 4 16 –16 3 3 G G G Complete this table with help from the class. and ask if anyone knows what type of equation this is. Now ask the students to try this themselves. 49 euros (£32). the graph will be an inverted U-shape. an easy way to make a comparison while shopping in Europe is to divide the price in euros by 3. So 25 euros is about £16. Explain that the U-shaped curve is typical for a graph from a quadratic equation. doubling this gives 16. today. Ensure the class realise that quadratic graphs will always be curved. You want the answer ‘quadratic’. and ask the class what type of equation this is. Then ask them what is special about the graph drawn from an equation like this. try to tease this from them. and that it is used because the highest power is a square. with no straight lines and no kinks. This may not be known. 22 euros (£14). The class can now do Exercise 8C from Pupil Book 3. Plot the coordinates to show a smooth curve.3 G G Oral and mental starter Ask if anyone has been to France or Germany recently.

in time. with c being the y-axis intercept Extension Answers 1 b The graph is an inverted U shape 2 b y = –x2 Plenary G G Key Words I quadratic I intercept I gradient G Talk about the characteristic U-shape of a quadratic graph. but in a quadratic graph there could be no value for x. 8. a Draw a graph to show the cost of plating knives up to 10 cm long. 4. there is only one possible value for x in a linear graph. Point out to the class that this will be useful to them when they come to looking at solutions of quadratic equations. 0. b Find the distance travelled after 3.8 seconds. C pence. 8.65 c 4. the fact that in both cases. 9 b 13. You will need to point out where this happens on a graph. 4. and inverted U-shape when the x2 coefficient is negative. 5. where d = 5t + t2. –3. However. a Draw a graph to show the distances covered up to 6 seconds. –1.4 m c 5 s 2 b £9. 5. 2 The cost. Compare the difference between a quadratic graph and a linear graph. there is only one value of y. 9 2 a x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 y b x y c x y d x y 18 –4 8 –4 5 –3 4 8 –3 3 –3 0 –2 0 2 –2 0 –2 –3 –1 –2 0 –1 –1 –1 –4 0 –2 2 0 0 0 –3 1 0 8 1 3 1 0 2 4 18 2 8 2 5 3 10 3 b All the curves go through the origin. 1. 4.8 cm © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 99 . one value for x or two values for x.Exercise 8C Answers 1 a 9. 3. for each value of x. d metres. 1.7 cm long? c What would be the length of a knife costing £4 to plate? Answers 1 b 33. 6. the wider the graph becomes 4 b They are all parallel curves. In particular. c Find the time taken to travel 50 metres. b What would be the cost of plating a knife 8. 0. when given a value of y. Homework 1 A sledge sliding down a slope has travelled a distance. t seconds. 0. for plating knives of length L cm is given by the formula C = 50L + 7L2. –3. (coefficient of x2). but the larger the value of a. 2. 2. 6 d 3. –1. 13 c 12.

which gives the answer 2 × 10 = 20. The square root of each of these numbers is known. Continue in this way. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 100 . giving the graph a single twist. The approximation 1. giving the root as 1. the graph will start in the second quadrant (top left-hand corner) instead of in the third quadrant (bottom left-hand corner. 457 → 21. sometimes the two turning points coincide. After some guesses. Explain that it is called a cubic equation because the highest power in the equation is a cube. such as: 805 → 28. and that the graph has a U-shape or an inverted U-shape. You want the answer ‘quadratic’. The square root of 100 is 10. Tell the class you are going to go through the drawing of this graph with them. Join up the coordinates to show a smooth curve with two turning points. 971 → 31.9 is quite reasonable. x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x –125 –64 –27 –8 –1 0 1 8 2 4x 100 64 36 16 4 0 4 16 3 + 4x2 y=x –25 0 9 8 3 0 5 24 Complete this table with help from the class.77 × 100. 548 → 23. having either two bends or a single twist. However. They should remember that it is linear and has a straight line graph.77 can be estimated at between 1 and 2. The correct answer of 30 should now be forthcoming. Ask him/her how they worked it out. 4900 → 70. asking for square roots of: 1600 → 40. G G G G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G Put on the board y = mx + c. Plot the coordinates given by the table on a pair of axes drawn on the board. Then put on the board the equation y = ax2 + bx + c. as below. Explain that the number can be broken down into 3. Start by putting a table on the board. Then put on the board the equation y = x3 + 4x2. but quite close to 2. Explain that this is a typical shape for a graph from a cubic equation. The class can now do Exercise 8D from Pupil Book 3. Ask the class what type of equation this is and what is special about its graph. 8. but may still create a discussion before everyone sees the reasoning. If the correct answer of 19 is offered. ask how the answer was worked out. and ask the class if they know what type of equation this is. someone may come up with the correct answer of 20. One example of such a graph is given by y = x3 + 3x2 + 3x +1 (see Pupil Book page 146). Also tell them that if the x3 part is negative.) Ensure the class realise that this type of graph will always be curved. 810 000 → 900.4 G G G G Oral and mental starter Ask the class whether anyone knows the square root of 400. 12 100 → 110. Ask if anyone knows what type of equation this is and what is special about its graph.9 × 10 = 19. and the square root of 3. The quick way to get the solution is to recognise that 400 = 4 × 100. Let the question provoke discussion in the class with different suggestions being put on the board. Repeat with other examples. Ask for the square root of 900.LESSON Framework objectives – Cubic graphs Plot graphs of simple cubic functions. 90 000 → 300. Now ask if anyone can estimate the square root of 377.

Following the pattern linear. quadratic. Answers 1 x = 1. two turning points. solve this pair of simultaneous equations: 2x + y = 5 y = x3 – 1 There is only one solution. b y = –x2 c y = x2 + 1 d y > x2 and y < 2 4 a –0.375. 0.1 2 b t 0 d 0 1 3 2 12 3 33 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 101 . –1.7 6 t 0 1 2 3 v 0 2 9 28 SATs Answers 2 2 a 2n b — c n2 n 3 a A wider U-shape.2 y = 2. 22 5 x = 1. y = 2. 3. cubic.6 m 1 k = 3. 8. –4. 3. –1. a rocket is above the ground is given by d = 2t + t3 where t is the time in seconds. 8 2 Values of y: 0.Exercise 8D Answers 1 Values of y: –8. Draw the distance–time graph for the first 3 seconds. one turning point.45. 2 The distance. 0 3 Values of y: –3. an equation whose highest power was four would probably have three turning points. 2. 3.0) and the y-axis is a line of symmetry. m = 6 Extension Answers a y y= 1 – x b y 1 y =– – x 2 c y 1 y =– – x 3 x x x Plenary G G G Key Words I cubic I turning points G Talk about the shape of a cubic graph always having two turning points even though they may coincide and act as only one. 10. 1. Start a discussion about how many turning points they might expect in the graph of y = Ax4 + Bx3 + Cx. 0. –10.625. –10. d metres. Someone might like to find out! Homework 1 By drawing suitable graphs. Goes through (0. 3.04 b 1. no turning points. –8. 9 4 Values of y: –32. –8.

G There is an even chance of picking the girl because there are both boys and girls (meaning there are two choices). Ask them for the value of the other end. Tell the class that you have five names on five separate pieces of paper. The class can now do Exercise 9A from Pupil Book 3. (For example.1 Oral and mental starter G Use a counting stick as a probability scale.9. Write on the board a = b and b = c. G There is no chance of picking the girl because she is outnumbered. not just responses such as ‘It is incorrect’. and to increase their familiarity with the vocabulary of probability. all of which they have already met. the class will realise that the logic here does not necessarily work. you point to 0. Two other aims of this lesson are to give students an understanding of when statements can be misleading even though they have apparently been deduced logically.5 (as there are two 1 5 choices). Tell them that one end is zero. Ask the class to give you an equation connecting a and c. 9. Amy likes Bob and Bob likes chips. Their explanations could include what the true statements should be. Explain that sometimes statements may seem logical but are not necessarily true. G 102 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . They should respond a = c. Repeat this quickly for different values. such as dice P(6) = –. Draw their attention to the tabular summaries in Pupil Book 3.5. Now replace the statements with the following sentence. P(not 6) = –. G The probability of picking the girl is one fifth because there is a one in five chance. Now point at the centre of the stick and ask them to tell you an event which has a probability of 0. For example. four boys and one girl. 0 1 G G G G Explain to the class that the stick is a probability scale. 6 6 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G Remind the class that they should be able to find the probability of a range of situations. Ask the class to give you a statement connecting Amy and chips! Hopefully. Finish by asking why ‘Event happens’ and ‘Event does not happen’ is not always at 0. Move on to a brief discussion of independent events. obtaining a Head on a fair coin. Explain to the class that these are the sort of statements they will have to consider. Tell the class that most of the combined events they have dealt with so far have been independent. Ask them which statement is true when one piece of paper is picked at random.) Now say to the class that you will point out a probability of something that happens and they will have to show you the probability that it does not happen. Ask them whether they think that the score on the dice may affect how the coin lands – Heads or Tails.CHAPTER 9 LESSON Handling Data 2 Framework objectives – Probability statements Use the vocabulary of probability in interpreting results involving uncertainty and prediction.1 on the stick. giving them this definition: Two events are said to be independent when the outcome of one of them does not affect the outcome of the other event. Give as an example a dice being rolled at the same time as a coin is tossed. Ask the class to give you examples to explain the reason. the class would point to 0. Their answers will require an explanation.

such as: ‘There is a 50% chance that Jon is wearing size 10 shoes because either he is size 10 or he isn’t. 5 – – Z There is a probability of 12 that I will pick a white cube. b A bag contains black and white cubes. eye colour or shoe size. Homework 1 Write down a reason why each of these statements is incorrect. there is a chance. Last time I picked out a black cube. For each bag. So. Grid 3 –. so there is a 50% chance of picking a black cube. it could happen today b Correct. a A bag contains black and white cubes. I have no chance of picking out the black cube. Here are three statements about the bags of cubes. say whether the statements are correct or incorrect. (You could give them a hint by asking for a sentence about. The fact that Ashad thinks he is unlucky does not affect his chance of 6 starting the game b If this were true. 5 Y There is an even chance that I will pick a black cube. c A bag contains one black cube and many white cubes. it is possible that the bus could be late tomorrow d Incorrect. So. 2 X There is a probability of – that I will pick a black cube. there is an equal chance of picking out red or blue 3 a Not possible to know. C There are seven black cubes and five white cubes in the bag. C Correct A B C X I I I Y C I I Z I I C © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 103 . A There are four black cubes and four white cubes in the bag. B There are two black cubes and five white cubes in the bag. Answers 1 a This would only be correct if there were an equal number of black and white cubes b Provided there are still some black cubes in the bag.28) to produce a winning square · – – 6 by 6 grid with 10 winning squares has a probability of 10 (0. there is a chance that black might be picked out c As in part b. assuming it is a fair coin c Incorrect. as number of winning squares not given for each case b Grid 1 1 1 1 c Proportion of winning squares is Grid 1 –. it would rain forever c Probability of snow depends which part of the world you are in and at what time of year d Only true if there were equal numbers of mint.27) to produce a winning square Greatest chance of finding a winning square is on 5 by 5 grid Plenary G Key Words I I I I certain even chance probability probable G G Ask the class to think of different sentences which have some logic to them but which are incorrect. so this time I will pick out a white cube.27) to produce a winning square 36 27 ––– 10 by 10 grid with 27 winning squares has a probability of 100 (0. 2 Here are three different bags of cubes. Grid 2 –.’ Ask a student to explain why the statement is incorrect. It would only be impossible if the black cube had been taken from the bag 2 I Incorrect. greatest chance of winning is using Grid 3 4 3 2 4 a Not independent because when Jonathan writes computer programs he is unlikely to be watching TV at the same time b Independent c Independent Extension Answers 7 – – 5 by 5 grid with 7 winning squares has a probability of 25 (0. chocolate and plain sweets 2 a Incorrect.Exercise 9A Answers 1 1 a Probability of rolling 6 on a fair dice is –.) Prompt them with an example of your own. for example.

they will get the correct answer of 1. their probabilities always add up to 1. For example: you say 0.75 8 8 Ask them how they worked it out when they mixed fractions with decimals. Encourage them to give additions which involve more than two 3 5 – – 0.25 0. Know that the sum of probabilities of all mutually exclusive outcomes is 1 and use this when solving problems. then: P(Event not happening) = 1 – P(Event happening) Now ask the class to sum the probabilities of picking the three coloured balls.LESSON 9. Thus. 0. deal with the probability of an event which will not happen. ‘picking a yellow ball’ and ‘picking a green ball’ can never happen at the same time. given that only one ball is allowed to be taken out. multiply and divide fractions. because they do not overlap. Then note that 3 7 – – – – P(blue) + P(not blue) = 10 + 10 = 1 So.15 0.2 and they give 0. with two other fractions or decimals. Now give them one value and ask them to make it add up to 1. Such events are call mutually exclusive. the probability of not picking out a blue ball is give by: 7 – – P(not blue) = 10 because there are seven outcomes which are not blue balls. Use efficient methods to add. Then tell them that because there are no other possibilities.125 + –. They may use either the target board values or their own.5 + 0. Hopefully.3. Using the same example.85 2 4 8 Ask the class to pick out fractions and decimals which add up to one. The class can now do Exercise 9B from Pupil Book 3. 8 7 3 – – 0. subtract. two yellow and five green balls. 1 1 1 – – – 0.125 0.2 Framework objectives – Mutually exclusive events and exhaustive events Identify all the mutually exclusive outcomes of an experiment. knowing P(Event happening). Tell them that the events are also mutually exclusive and that when events are both exhaustive and mutually exclusive.5 0. The probabilities for picking each colour are: 3 – – P(blue) = 10 2 1 – – P(yellow) = 10 = – 5 5 1 – – P(green) = 10 = – 2 The events ‘picking a blue ball’. they are called exhaustive events. 104 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .5 + 0. from which only one ball is allowed to be picked at random. Oral and mental starter G G G G Use a target board as shown on the right.625 4 8 3 fractions/decimals: for example.1 0. Main lesson activity G G G G G Give the class the example of a bag which contains three blue.

40.55 b 0. pencils. Repeat this with different combinations. and in the other hand you have rulers. 90 Plenary G G G Tell the class that in a box you have a set of mathematical instruments and other equipment: for example. P(A) = 0. for example. C or D.2 P(B) = 0.75 d 0.4 2 – 5 Key Words I mutually exclusive I exhaustive I probability I expectation c Both d Neither Extension Answers 5.6 c 0. protractors.4 P(C) = 0. You say that in one hand you have.45 c 0. The probabilities that a disc picked at random will have a given letter are shown below. pencils. The class have to tell you whether the content of your hands is exhaustive. 24. 60. and small and large rulers.3 c 0. which are all face down.Exercise 9B Answers 1 2 3 4 a a a a b 0. Homework 1 Ten pictures are shown. a What is the probability of choosing a picture of a guitar? b What is the probability of choosing a picture of a guitar or a boat? c What is the probability of choosing a picture of a horse or a doll? d What is the probability of choosing a picture which is not of a boat? 2 A bag contains a large number of discs. mutually exclusive or neither. A picture is picked at random.85 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 105 .25 Mutually exclusive b Mutually exclusive 0.15 P(D) = ? a What is the probability of choosing a disc with a letter D on it? b What is the probability of choosing a disc with a letter A or B on it? c What is the probability of choosing a disc which does not have the letter C on it? Answers 3 7 3 3 – – – – – – 1 a 10 b 10 c 10 d – 5 2 a 0. pens.25 b 0. B. pairs of compasses. 20. each labelled either A.95 9 3 – – b 16 c 25 d – – – 5 25 0.

– . for example. Tell them that unless they are told what to do. – and –. You could remind them that 2 3 1 2 this is the same as – of –. 6 – 8 Ask the class to tell you each fraction in its simplest form. 5 – 6 Dice 1 5 P(6) = – P(Not a 6) = – 6 6 Coin 1 P(Head) = – 2 1 P(Tail) = – 2 1 1 1 – × – = 12 – – 2 6 1 – 2 6 Not a 6 6 Not a 6 × = 1 – 6 1 5 5 – × – = 12 – – 2 6 1 5 5 – × – = 12 – – 2 6 1 – – 12 G G Explain to the class that they are all valid methods. using different methods. 1 2 6 – 1 – 2 6 Tail Ask the class to tell you the other combinations. or ask them to cancel each fraction down to its simplest form. as shown below. This activity can be repeated for different fractions. For example: ‘Two events are independent if the outcome of one is not affected by the outcome of the other’. Hopefully. Dice. multiply and divide fractions. and all the probabilities. Tail. invite the class to give you the answer to – × –. etc. 3 2 3 Now write – × – on the board. Then explain that this information could also be put into a table. Then ask them how they did it. for 1 – – example. and cancelling the 2s first to obtain – × – and 6 3 1 3 1 then –. Dice 1 2 3 4 5 6 Head Coin Tail Point out that there are twelve different outcomes so that the probability of. Start by explaining the meaning of the word ‘independent’. they may use whichever method they prefer. a Head and a 6 is 12. 1 1 2 Now ask them to give you equivalent fractions to. completed. Tell the class that the answer they give must be in 9 4 simplest form. Head The class should help to complete the details. such as: knowing that – of – is –. 1 5 – – 2 6 Now explain that when working across the branches the 1 1 1 – – probability of getting a Head and a 6 is – × – = 12. 106 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . to solve problems which involve two or more events. Draw a blank sample space diagram on the board for two events.3 Framework objectives – Combining probabilities and tree diagrams Identify all mutually exclusive outcomes of an experiment. Ask them how they worked it out. The class will also be working with fractions and may wish to refer to chapter 2 to remind themselves of the various methods for simplifying fractions. Coin Dice Explain that it is important for the diagram to have all the labels. as before. their 2 3 1 2 1 answers will cover different methods. Now draw a tree diagram on the board. Oral and mental starter G G G G G 2 5 6 – Write some fractions on the board: for example –. 2 5 7 1 2 Next. subtract.LESSON 9. such as rolling a fair dice and throwing a fair coin. Use efficient methods to add. the class will recognise that it is easier and more efficient to simplify the fractions before doing the multiplication. 2 3 3 multiplying the numerators together and then the denominators to obtain 2 1 1 1 – which is cancelled down to –. 1 – 6 Coin. The class can now do Exercise 9C from Pupil Book 3. Head. You could ask the class to write down a definition. Hopefully. 10 and –. G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G Explain that the aim of this lesson is to look at probability questions: in particular. as shown on the right. Cancel common factors before multiplying or dividing.

Ask the class how many different combinations there are in this example.6.9 0. c Calculate the probability that it is not fine and he does not have all the materials.Exercise 9C Answers 1 First dice Second dice 1 – 2 Even 3 – 2 a 4 3 a 1 b – 3 1 c – 6 1 – 3 5 or 6 1 – 2 Not even Even First bag 1 – – b 10 1 – 2 1 – 5 2 c 10 + – = – Second bag 1 Red – 5 1 1 – – Red – 2 10 1 1 – – Blue – 2 10 4 Blue – 5 2 – 5 2 – 5 2 – 3 Not 5 or 6 1 – 2 1 – 2 Not even 1 – 3 × = 1 – 2 1 – 6 Extension Answers a First game Second game Third game 2 – 3 2 – 3 1 – 3 2 – 3 1 – 3 b WWL. b Calculate the probability that he completes the job in a day. and the probability that he has all the materials is 0. Then invite them to tell you how many combinations they would expect for four events (16). Homework 1 A builder is working on a patio. he needs the weather to be fine and to have all the materials.04 2 1 1 1 1 a –×–×–=– 2 2 2 8 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 107 .1 0. Then show them the tree diagram in the extension question which takes in three events. The probability of winning each time is –.4 Fine Not fine 0. 2 1 a Show that the probability of winning all three games is –. WWW 4 – – – – – 4 4 8 20 – – – – – c 27 + 27 + 27 + 27 = 27 Win Lose Win Lose Win Lose Win Lose Win Lose 1 – 3 2 – 3 1 – 3 2 – 3 Win Lose 2 – 3 1 – 3 Win Lose 1 – 3 2 – 3 1 – 3 Plenary G G Key Words I tree diagram I mutually exclusive I independent I two-way table G Explain to the class that they have been looking in Exercise 9C at two events.9. Point out that 23 = 8. To complete the job in a day. 1 2 A game is played three times. WLW.9 0. 8 b What is the probability of winning exactly one game? Answers 1 a Weather Materials 0. Explain that they can either work out the probabilities for every possible combination or just the combinations required to answer the question.54 c 0. The probability that the weather is fine is 0. a Draw a tree diagram to show all the possibilities. LWW.6 0.1 Has all materials Does not have all materials Has all materials Does not have all materials 3 b – 8 b 0.

LESSON

Framework objectives – Estimates of probability Estimate probabilities from experimental data. Understand relative frequency as an estimate of probability and use this to compare outcomes of experiments.

9.4 2.2

**Oral and mental starter
**

G G G G

Tell the class that in a test someone scored 7 out of 10. Ask a student to give you the score as a fraction of 10. Ask another student to give you this score as a decimal. 9 32 – – ––– – 4 24 – – – Repeat this for other simple scores, leading to, for example, 10, 10, 100 and 50. Gradually increase the level of difficulty up to scores which will need rounding: for example, 20 out of 30. Encourage the students to round to two decimal places. 7 2 – – Finally, ask them to work out mentally simple fractions of quantities: for example, 10 of 100, – of 20. 5

**Main lesson activity
**

G G G G G G

G G

G G

G G

The aim is to recall the work on experimental probability, to introduce the term relative frequency and to move on to expectation. Ask the class to consider a coin which is tossed ten times and lands on Heads nine times. Ask them whether the coin is biased. They will probably say that it is. Now suggest that when the coin is tossed a further ten times, it landed on Heads only once. Ask the class whether they still think that it is biased. They will probably say that you cannot tell. Ask the class how they could improve the experiment. Hopefully, they will tell you to carry out more trials. Tell them that relative frequency is about carrying out repeated trials and obtaining estimates of probability from experimental data. Write down on the board the formula: Number of successful trials Relative frequency = ————————————— Total number of trials Emphasise that the greater the number of trials, the closer the estimates of probability get to the theoretical probability. Draw a graph showing relative frequency against number of trials on the board and show the class how to record the results. Use the coin example, plotting at 10 trials, 20 trials and so on. Point out to the class that a relative frequency graph will usually approach a value and that this value is the best estimate of the probability. Ask the class why it is not valid to use the graph to read off at say, 15 trials. Hopefully they will realise that that data between 10 and 20 trials may not follow the steady trend line. Now say to the class that an experiment has been carried out many times and you believe that the estimate is 70 ––– reliable. For example, the coin landed on Heads 70 times out of 100, so the relative frequency is 100 . Ask them how many times they would expect this coin to land on Heads were it tossed 200 times. Stress that you are using the estimate of probability and not the theoretical probability. Then tell them that the expected number of successes can be calculated using the formula: Expected number of successes = Relative frequency × Number of trials The class can now do Exercise 9D from Pupil Book 3.

Exercise 9D Answers

32 1 a 100 b Yes, it is probably biased: more 4s than other scores c 160 (32 × 5) ––– 2 a Number on throws b 0.64 10 20 30 40 50 Number of times it lands point up 6 13 20 24 32 Relative frequency of landing point up 0.6 0.65 0.67 0.6 0.64

c 0.64 × 200 = 128

**3 a Number of trials Number of times blue cube chosen Relative frequency 4 a Relative frequency of Heads
**

7 – – 10

10 25 50 100 3 8 15 28 0.3 0.32 0.3 0.28

12 – – 20

b 0.28

c 0.28 × 75 = 21

= 0.7

= 0.6

18 – – 30

= 0.6

22 – – 40

28 – – = 0.55 50 = 0.56

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Exercise 9D (Cont’d) b

Relative frequency

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 Numbers of throws 40 50

5 a

Relative frequency

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 4 6 Number of games 8 10

c 0.56 d 112 e Probably, as best estimate is not 0.5

b Only know one out of first two games was won, not which one c 0.70 d Number of wins 1 3 4 6 7

Extension Answers a 6 b 0.65 c 65, assuming player performs as on graph d Relative frequency not plotted for 15 throws, so cannot find number of hits

SATs Answers

7 – – 1 a 25 b 336 (accept 332 to 340) 2 a This would give 2.5 blue counters b 1 blue, 6 red, 9 green, 4 yellow 171 ––– 3 a Sue, most throws b 300 c 167, 125, 8 d Experiment, therefore subject to random variation, and theoretical results do not give whole-number 1 –––– answers in this case e 1296 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 a – × – × – = – b WWL or WLW or LWW = – + – + – = – 2 2 2 8 8 8 8 8 5 a Win, Lose, Lose b 45% c 0.6 d 0.6

0.4

Plenary

G G

Key Words

I relative frequency I estimate I probability I expectation I limit

G

Refer to the question in the extension work, which involves taking relative frequency from a graph. Explain to the class that relative frequency questions can be asked using experimental data either collected in a table or presented as a graph. Point out that the relative frequency plots can be read from a graph and that the number of successful trials can be calculated by working backwards. Discuss briefly why it is not possible to read values at intermediate points on a graph. Homework

A spinner has different coloured sectors. It is spun 100 times and the number of times it lands on blue is recorded at regular intervals. The results are shown in the table. Number of spins Number of times lands on blue Relative frequency a b c d 20 6 0.3 40 10 60 15 80 22 100 26

Copy and complete the table. What is the best estimate of the probability of landing on blue? How many times would you expect the spinner to land on blue in 2000 spins? If there are two sectors of the spinner coloured blue, how many sectors do you think there are altogether? Explain your answer.

0.3 0.25 0.25 0.275 0.26

Answers a Relative frequency

b 0.26 c 0.26 × 2000 = 520 1 d Given spinner is fair, 0.26 ≈ –, so a quarter of sectors are blue. So, altogether eight sectors. 4

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CHAPTER

10

LESSON

**Shape, Space and Measures 3
**

Framework objectives – Fractional enlargements Know that if two 2-D shapes are similar, corresponding angles are equal and corresponding sides are in the same ratio. Enlarge 2-D shapes, given a fractional scale factor; recognise the similarity of the resulting shapes; understand the implications of enlargement for area and volume.

10.1

**Oral and mental starter
**

G G G G

Imagine a cube which has an edge length of 2 cm. What is the volume of the cube? (Answer: 8 cm3) Now imagine the cube is twice as big. What is its volume now? (Answer: 64 cm3) Make sure that the students appreciate that ‘twice as big’ means that the edges of the cube are multiplied by two. This starter can be extended by asking the class to make the original cube three times or four times larger and allowing them to work out their answers on paper.

**Main lesson activity
**

G G

G

G G G

G

G G G

G

Remind the class about enlargement, which was covered in Year 8. It may be necessary to revise enlargement, using the ray method, by drawing on the board the diagram shown A on the right, or show a prepared OHT. Object State that the object triangle ABC has been enlarged by O C a scale factor of 2 about the centre of enlargement, O, B B to give the image triangle A B C . The dashed lines are called the rays or guidelines for the enlargement. The object and image are on the same side of O. The scale factor is positive. This is called positive enlargement. Next, explain to the class that there is fractional enlargement. A Draw on the board the diagram shown on the right, Image or show a prepared OHT. B B O Explain that each side of ∆A B C is half the C length of the corresponding side of ∆ABC. 1 1 1 Also that OA = – of OA, OB = – of OB and OC = – of OC. 2 2 2 1 That is, ∆ABC has been enlarged by a scale factor of – about the centre of 2 enlargement, O, to give the image ∆A B C . The object and the image are on the same side of O, with the image smaller than the object. The scale factor is a fraction. This is called fractional enlargement. Point out that, under any enlargement, corresponding angles on the object and image remain the same. Now demonstrate fractional enlargement on a grid. Explain that the grid may or may not have coordinate axes x and y. Show the class how the image points can be easily found by counting grid units in the vertical and horizontal directions. This can be an alternative to drawing rays. When there are coordinate axes, the centre of enlargement is sometimes given as the origin (0, 0). The coordinates of the image shape are then the coordinates of the object shape multiplied by the fractional scale factor. The class can now do Exercise 10A from Pupil Book 3.

A Image C

A Object

C

G

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Exercise 10A Answers 3 a Vertices at (3, 5), (5, 3), (1, 3) b Vertices at (1, 3), (3, 3), (3, 2), (1, 2) c Vertices at (1, 3), (3, 2), (1, 2) 1 1 4 a – b (2, 2) c 16 cm2 and 4 cm2, 4:1 d – 2 4

Extension Answers 2 a i 22 cm2 ii 6 cm3 b i 88 cm2, 4 ii 48 cm3, 8 c i 198 cm2, 9 ii 162 cm3, 27 d i k 2 ii k 3

Plenary

G

Key Words

I object I image I centre of enlargement I scale factor I fractional enlargement I similar

Ask what the class knows about each of these when making enlargements. G The relationship between lengths on the image and lengths on the object. G The relationship between angles on the image and angles on the object. G Fractional scale factor (makes a shape smaller on the same side of the centre of enlargement).

Homework

1 Draw copies of (or trace) each of the following shapes. Enlarge each one by the given scale factor about the centre of enlargement O.

1 a Scale factor – 3

2 Copy the diagram below onto a coordinate 1 grid and enlarge the triangle by scale factor 1– 2 about the origin (0, 0).

8 7

O 6 5 4

b Scale factor

1 – 2

3 O 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Answers 2 Vertices at (3, 3), (3, 6), (7.5, 3)

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Explain the following terms for the right-angled triangle ABC: G The side opposite the right angle is always the longest side Hypotenuse (H) Opposite side (O) and is known as the hypotenuse (H) G The side opposite the angle in question (labelled ) is called the opposite side (O) Adjacent side (A) G The side next to the angle in question is called the adjacent side (A) Draw another triangle on the board with ∠A labelled . or use a prepared OHT. Work through some examples with the students to ensure that they have all mastered using their calculators for this. explain that the formula tan = ————– O Adjacent can be used in conjunction with the ‘tan’ key to find the lengths of sides and the size of A angles in right-angled triangles. Show the students how to find the tangent of angles using their calculators.6. It will be useful if students can work in pairs or small groups. = 33. Show the class how to calculate in the diagram below and explain that angles are usually given to 1 decimal place. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G NB You may wish to use more than one lesson to cover the material in this lesson plan and the associated pupil book. Ask the students to point out the opposite and adjacent sides. Explain that once they have found tan . as some discussion is helpful. Explain to the class that the next few lessons will be about an important branch of Mathematics called Trigonometry which is used to calculate the lengths of sides and the size of angles in right-angled triangles. Draw the right-angled triangle on the right on the board. cosine and) tangent in right-angled triangles to solve problems in two dimensions. and is shortened to tanA.7° (1dp) Make sure that the students know how to use their calculators to do this. Opposite Using the formula: tan = ————– Adjacent 4 cm 4 = – = 0. Opposite H Using a diagram similar to the one shown here. Its main use is in areas of engineering.667 – 6 6 cm So.LESSON Framework objectives – Trigonometry: The tangent of an angle Begin to use (sine. 10. Ensure that all of the students know how to do this and work through some examples.2 G Oral and mental starter On the board draw the table below. 112 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Introduce the investigation on page 171 of Pupil Book 3. The last student asked should then simplify the remaining ratio. they will need to find the value of and to do this they will need to use the inverse tan function on their calculators. The pupil book shows some of the more common sequences. 1:10 8:200 1:20 1:40 40:80 G G 1:8 1:2 10:300 20:80 4:48 1:12 20:720 5:50 1:30 1:100 2:80 1:5 1:36 100:800 10:200 1:4 8:800 5:25 10:500 1:25 Ask individual students to cross out the pairs of ratios that are identical. such as: find the value of when tan = 0. Some students may need individual help as different models have different key sequences. Tell the students that the value of the tangent of any angle is stored in their calculators. navigation and surveying. Summarise what the investigation has shown by explaining that this value is called the tangent of angle A.

3 Calculate the angle marked a in each of the following triangles.759 f 11.956 b 14tan51° b 4 cm 10 cm 12 cm c tan = 3. Give your answers to 3 significant figures.8° b 43. a x 25° 7 cm 9.732 c 1 d 0. x = 6.3° e 66.1° e 45.8° a 4.09 f 86.3° a 1.5 cm x 15° 62° 14.4° d 74. gives: 4tan60° = x So.55 cm c 26.0 cm e 3.0 d 39.9° c 2 Find the value of each of the following.7 cm x 60° 4 cm G f 40.7 cm © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 113 .8° 2 a 3.2 cm x b c Answers 1 a 6.00 b 17.532 b 1.0 cm 2 a 56.158 e 0.4° 4 a 3.6° c 24. Homework 1 Find the value of a tan = 0.0° c 40.5 cm Extension Answers 1 a 6.7° c 2.51 b 3.2° d 56.7° b 26.4 cm Key Words I adjacent I angle of depression I angle of elevation I hypotenuse I opposite I tangent (tan) Plenary G G Explain that tan is the ratio between the opposite side and the adjacent side in a right-angled triangle.0° f 66. Tell the students that next lesson they will be looking at two other trigonometric ratios that will involve using the hypotenuse.93 cm (3sf) Make sure that the students know how to use their calculators to do this. Exercise 10B Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 a 0.6 a 16. Give your answers to 1 decimal place.0 cm d 32.G Now show the class how to calculate x in the diagram below and explain that lengths are usually given to three significant figures. Give your answers to 1 decimal place.2 m b 78.9 e 6.26 cm b 2.664 a 26.1 3 a 21.25 cm c 14. Opposite Using the formula: tan = ————– Adjacent x tan60° = – – 4 Multiplying both sides by 4. Give your answers to 3 significant figures.12 a 5tan31° for each of the following.8° b 29.25 cm b 3.8° f 84. 10 cm 18 cm 5 cm 4 Calculate the length of the side marked x in each of the following triangles.6° b 13.29 cm 31.45 c 23tan58.7° c 73.1° c 67.77 cm d 28.3 c 38. b tan = 0.93 cm b 17.0° 7 10.73 c 10. The class can now do Exercise 10B from Pupil Book 3.

H O A G G The three trigonometric ratios should now be summarised as follows: O A O sin = –– cos = –– tan = –– H H H A O A G Show the class how to do the following two examples: Example 1 Calculate the angle marked in the diagram on the right. O Remind the class that the tangent of the angle = tan = –– and that this is the A ratio of two sides of a right-angled triangle. Using the same diagram. so use cosine: Adjacent 8 cos = —————– = — = 0.8 – Hypotenuse 10 So. H. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 10 cm 8 cm 5 cm x 38° G 114 . The angle and the hypotenuse are given. Give your answer to 1 decimal place. and tell them that there are two trigonometric ratios.LESSON 10.08 cm (3sf) The class can now do Exercise 10C from Pupil Book 3. = 36. giving your answer to 3 significant figures.3 Framework objectives – Trigonometry: The sine and cosine of an angle Begin to use sine.9° (1dp) Example 2 Calculate the length of the side marked x on the diagram on the right. H O A Main lesson activity G G G G NB You may wish to use more than one lesson to cover the material in this lesson plan and the associated pupil book. Let the class work in pairs or small groups and ask them to work out how the sin and cos keys on their calculators can be used to find lengths and angles. The adjacent side and the hypotenuse are given. and the opposite side is required. Oral and mental starter G G G Draw the triangle on the right on the board or on a prepared OHT. x = 3. Explain to the class that the sin and cos keys on their calculators are used in exactly the same way as the tan key. which do include H. tell the students that: O G the ratio –– is called the sine of the angle and is written as sin H A G the ratio –– is called the cosine of the angle and is written as cos H Explain that the sine and cosine are used in the same way as the tangent to find the lengths of sides and size of angles in right-angled triangles when the length of the hypotenuse is involved. Point out to the students that the tangent does not include the hypotenuse. so use sine: Opposite sin = —————– Hypotenuse x sin 38° = – 5 Multiply both sides by 5 to give: 5sin38° = x So. cosine (and tangent) in right-angled triangles to solve problems in two dimensions. Allow a five-minute discussion.

34 0.0 cm 49.98 1.50 0.59 b 3.57 f 9.53 c 1. Homework 1 Find the value of a sin = 0.7° b 32.5° b 58.7° a 1.8 cm x 17° c 42 cm 55° x Answers 1 a 14. Give your answers to 1 decimal b 15 cm c 28 cm 25 cm 13 cm 4 Calculate the length of the side marked x in each of the following.2° d 76.9° c 26.5° e 40.8° c 28.3° f 12.752 c 21cos86° d cos = 0.00 Plenary G Key Words I I I I I adjacent hypotenuse opposite cosine (cos) sine (sin) Ask the class to give a summary of the three trigonometric ratios.9 cm c 2 a 0° 10° 20° sin 0.17 0.77 0.4° 2 a 4.Exercise 10C Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 0. Give your answers to 3 significant figures.98 0.17 0.40 cm c 24.1 cm © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 115 . Give your answers to 1 decimal place.0° d 75.8 cm d 1.3 cm Extension Answers 1 a 12.309 b 0.00 0.5° b 34.8 cm b 15.41 b 9.080 a 5.54 c 12.34 cos 1.0° c 58. 3 Calculate the angle marked place.235 d 3.912 d 0.00 0.94 0.74 3 a 19.4° e 47.8° d 66.87 0.0 cm 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 0.6° c 41.23 cm d 49. a 11 cm 31° x b 4.62 cm c 14.64 0.500 c 0.854 b 12sin52.50 0.25 a 5sin62° for each of the following.23 cm 19.87 0.97 cm e 8. b sin = 0.875 e 0.2 d 1.46 d 2.77 0.6° c cos = 0.98 e 3.2° f 16.00 0.00 a 17.7cos42.67 cm b 1.3° 2 Find the value of each of the following.500 f 0.64 0.80 cm b 4. Give your answers to 3 significant figures.5° b 29.94 b sin = cos(90° – ) 9.7° a 3.9° f 69. a 9 cm 3 cm in each of the following triangles.8° 4 a 5.

The ratio required is sin = — –. Draw a sketch of the right-angled triangle in the problem. = 19. At this point you may wish to introduce some mnemonics which the students can use to help them remember the three ratios. cosine and tangent in right-angled triangles to solve problems in two dimensions. 3. G The class can now do Exercise 10D from Pupil Book 3. Calculate the angle the ladder makes with the wall.4 G G G Oral and mental starter Draw the triangle on the right on the board or on a prepared OHT. Check their answers. 5. 2. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 116 .5 (1dp). such as the one given below.LESSON Framework objectives – Solving problems using trigonometry Begin to use sine. 10. Tell the students that even when a diagram or picture accompanies the problem. 1/2 Draw a sketch for the problem and write on all the known sides and angles: 6m 2m 3 Identify the angle required by labelling it : 6 m (H) 2 m (O) 4 5 Identify the trigonometric ratio to be used: The opposite and hypotenuse are known. Example A window cleaner has a ladder that is 6 m long. it is a good idea to redraw the triangle. Mark on the sketch all the known sides and angles. including the units. Demonstrate how to follow these stages by working through an example. Ask the class to write down in their books or on their whiteboards the three trigonometric ratios for the angle . Go through the following stages which should be taken when solving a problem involving trigonometry: 1. Solve the problem and give your answer to a suitable degree of accuracy. H Solve the problem: 2 sin = – = 0. so sine should be O used to solve the problem. He leans it against a wall so that the foot of the ladder is 2 m from the wall. Decide and write down which ratio you need to use to solve the problem.333. 4. – 6 So. H O A Main lesson activity G G G Explain to the class that the lesson is about solving problems using trigonometry. Identify the unknown side or angle by labelling it x or . This is usually three significant figures for lengths and one decimal place for angles.

25° 9.4 m 6 58. When the plane has flown for 3.0° 4 058° 7 a 7.01 cm c 25.2 cm 3 a 9.5 km 4 18. Calculate the height. 3 A helicopter takes off from an army base on a bearing of 075° and flies for 52 km. Ask individual students to explain how the mnemonic can be used to remember the three trigonometric ratios.40 km 5 a AC2 = 62 + 82 = 100. Homework 1 The stays on a flagpole are 10 m long and make an angle of 65° with the horizontal ground.9° Plenary G G Key Words I cosine (cos) I sine (sin) I tangent (tan) Write on the board ‘SOHCAHTOA’ or a similar mnemonic. a How far east has the helicopter flown? b How far north has the helicopter flown? 25 cm 1.7 cm c 5.22 m 2 69.2° 5 2. 10 m 65° 2 The diagram on the right shows a ramp for wheelchairs. 5 The diagram on the right shows a wooden truss of a roof.0 cm2 SATs Answers 1 a 4 cm b 40° c 12 cm 2 a 10:14 = 5:7 and 8:12 = 2:3 so corresponding sides are not in the same ratio b 11.2 cm2 5 24.44 cm b 8.1° Extension Answers 1 a 238 km b 26.8 m h 25° Answers 1 9.2 km.9° 4 a 056° b 1.7 m 3 40.28 m © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 117 .98 m b 2.Exercise 10D Answers 1 7. it reaches an altitude of 1000 m. h.06 m 2 10. Calculate the angle the ramp makes with the ground.60 cm2 c 43.5 km c 239 km 2 a 3. Calculate the angle at which the plane is climbing.19 cm b 7.2 km b 13.9° 3 a 50. climbing at a constant angle. of the roof.3 m 4 A plane takes off from an airport. Calculate the height of the flagpole. so AC = 10 cm b 11.

Show that the brackets are expanded by multiplying each term by 5 to arrive at 15x + 10. Now draw on the board a rectangle with the dimensions 4x + 3 and 2x. Show how. Repeat the process for x(3x + 2) to give 3x2 + 2x. The correct answer (15x + 10) will be seen by some students more easily than others.2. Using a target board such as the one shown below. 8 3 10 5 12 13 15 9 100 4 11 2 7 20 3 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G Draw a rectangle on the board. so ignore them. Again. Ask the class to give you the area of the rectangle. probably 6 × 2 = 12 added to 6 × 0. Again. Now put on the board the expression 3(4x + 2) and ask the class what this might mean.2 = 1. You also want them to refer to the expansion of the bracket to give 12x + 6.2. and work towards (or point out) the correct answer. These can then be multiplied to find the area of each rectangle and added together to give the total area 8x2 + 6x. This should help all the students see that they need to find the area of each smaller rectangle and add them together to give the total area (15x + 10). 118 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Draw a second rectangle on the board. 11. When someone gives you the correct answer (20 cm2). Put on the board the expression 3(4x – 1) and ask the class what this might represent. ask the class for the area of the rectangle. taken from it. ask the class for the area of the rectangle. ask the class for the area of the rectangle.2. showing the dimensions 4 cm and 5 cm. Now ask what the equivalent of 6 kg is in pounds. Show that the last example is the same as 5(3x + 2) and link this to the finding of the area using two rectangles. work your way around the class asking individual students for pound equivalents of kilogram weights. This should provoke some discussion leading to the correct answer of 12x. ask them how they calculated it (4 cm × 5 cm). You want the response: ‘The area of a rectangle with dimensions 3 and 4x + 2’. the larger one has the dimensions 4x by 3 with the smaller one. Square a linear expression. (The units are not an important issue for this lesson. if this is split into two rectangles. this time showing the dimensions 4x and 3 cm. giving 13. One answer is a rectangle with sides 4x – 1 and 3. Again. The class can now do Exercise 11A from Pupil Book 3.) Now draw on the board a rectangle with the dimensions 3x + 2 and 5. using the 3x and the 2 to give two rectangles – one with the dimensions 3x and 5. Ask them how they worked this out. Again. show the link to the expansion of the bracket 2x(4x + 3). Show how this rectangle can be split up. expand the product of two linear expressions of the form x ± n and simplify the corresponding quadratic expression. and the other with the dimensions 2 and 5.CHAPTER 11 LESSON Algebra 5 Framework objectives – Expansion Simplify or transform algebraic expressions by taking out single-term common factors. Accept the answer 2 as a start. Show that the expansion of 3(4x – 1) can be done in the same way as before to give 12x – 3. which is 2.1 Oral and mental starter G G G Ask the class how many pounds equal one kilogram in weight. the dimensions 1 and 3. Lead the students through the splitting of the rectangle to give two rectangles – one with the dimensions 4x and 2x and the other with the dimensions 3 and 2x. Establish identities such as a2 – b2 = (a + b)(a – b).

Again.Exercise 11A Answers a a a a a a a a a k 10 a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3x + 6 b 5t + 20 c 4m + 12 d 2y + 14 e 12 + 4m f 6 + 3k g 5 + 5t h 14 + 7x 2x – 6 b 4t – 12 c 3m – 12 d 6y – 30 e 20 – 5m f 6 – 2k g 8 – 4t h 15 – 3x 8x + 8 b 18t – 24 c 10m – 15 d 9y + 21 e 9 – 9m f 8 + 16k g 6 – 12t h 4 + 6x 12t + 3 b 15x + 10 c 10x – 2 d 24x – 8 e 28t – 14 x2 + 3x b t 2 + 5t c m2 + 4m d y 2 + 8y e 2m + m2 f 3k + k2 g 2t + t2 h 5x + x2 x2 – 2x b t2 – 4t c m2 – 3m d y2 – 6y e 5m – m2 f 2k – k2 g 3t – t2 h 6x – x2 4x2 + 3x b 2t2 – 3t c 3m2 – 2m d 4y2 + 5y e 4m – 5m2 f 3k + 2k2 g 4t – 3t2 h x + 4x2 2x2 + 3x b 5t – 3t2 c 4m + 5m2 d 7k2 – 2k 9x + 14 b 10t + 27 c 18 – 8m d 2k + 26 e 4x – 12 f 9x – 7 g 6 – x h 8 – 2x i 13m + 2 4x – 7 l 6x – 36 m 9x – 14 n 14x – 19 AB = y – 5 b AB = 3y c AB = y + 1 d AB = 4y + 1 CD = 4x – 1 CD = x + 3 CD = 3x – 3 CD = 3x + 1 j 16m – 3 Extension Answers 1 One possible method for each is shown. a x(3x + 4) e m(5 – 4m) b t(3t – 1) f k(1 + 6k) c m(4m – 3) g t(3 – 4t) b 4(2k + 3) + 2(1 – 3k) d 4(5x + 2) + 5(1 – 5x) b 2y 3 4y C ? D 7x + 5 D ? C 8x + 4 3y + 5 d y(5y + 3) h x(2 + 5x) 2 Expand and simplify each of the following. Homework 1 Expand each of the following. Now put on the board a rectangle with the dimensions x + 7 and x + 3. + + 1 1 b a – – – – —— —— a – + – = ab + ab = (b aba) = (a abb) a b + a c ad – – – bc (adbd bc) – b – + – = bd + bd = –––—— b d 2 b It is always the same as the starting number. CD = 4y – 3 b AB = 5x + 3. ask the class for the area of the rectangle. 3x A ? B 3x + 1 A ? B Answers 1 a 3x2 + 4x b 3t 2 – t c 4m2 – 3m d 5y2 + 3y e 5m – 4m2 2 a 8 – 3m b 2k + 14 c 3x – 4 d 13 – 5x 3 a AB = 4x + 5. c x [multiply by 3] = 3x [add 15] = 3x + 15 → [divide by 3] = x + 5 [subtract 5] = x Plenary G G G Key Words I dimension I expansion Put on the board a rectangle with the dimensions 3x + 7 and 4x. CD = y + 5 f k + 6k2 g 3t – 4t2 h 2x + 5x2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 119 . This should provoke discussion whereby the rectangle with dimensions x + 7 and x + 3 is split into four rectangles with a total area of x2 + 7x + 3x + 21. Ask the class for the area of the rectangle. a 3(m + 2) + 2(1 – 3m) c 5(3x – 2) + 3(2 – 4x) a 3 Write down the missing lengths in each of the following rectangles.

The class can now do Exercise 11B from Pupil Book 3. Now put on the board the expression x2 + 5x and again ask what dimensions a rectangle of this area could have. add simple algebraic expressions. Help the class to see that this factorisation will be x(x + 5). Work through a couple more examples. 34 55 61 99 109 42 32 93 38 76 57 103 40 89 71 67 73 50 88 72 Main lesson activity G G G G G G Put on the board a rectangle with 7 cm2 written inside the outline. There is more than one simple choice here. 3 cm by 4 cm). Now put on the board a rectangle with the expression 3x + 3 written inside. give 3x + 3. In order to reach the answer above. Now put on the board a rectangle with the area 12 cm2 written inside. and any factor pair will do (for example. G 120 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 11.2 Oral and mental starter G G G A formula for the approximate conversion of temperatures from degrees 1 Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius is C = –(F – 32). expand the product of two linear expressions of the form x ± n and simplify the corresponding quadratic expression. Ask them what the dimensions of the rectangle could be. Explain that coming up with these numbers involves finding a pair of factors. Invite them to imagine that this is the area of a rectangle. They need to factorise the expression to create a bracket with two factors inside and a term outside. a pair of factors has to be found which. such as: 66 – 30 90 – 30 36 60 –2 –2 34 58 ÷2 ÷2 17 29 G Using a target board such as the one shown below. 2 cm by 6 cm. Square a linear expression. Ask the class to use this formula to estimate the equivalent of 100° Fahrenheit in degrees Celsius (Answer 34°). Discuss with the class the strategy they used to do this mentally. Next. put on the board the expression 6x + 9. For this example. The simplest answer is 1 cm by 7 cm. factorisation gives 3(2x + 3). when multiplied together. where C is the temperature in 2 degrees Celsius and F is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Explain that this is called factorisation and is the opposite process of expansion. Ask the class what dimensions the rectangle could have. ask the class what dimensions the rectangle could have. Show that this expands to give 6x + 9. work your way around the class asking the students to convert temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit to their approximate equivalents in degrees Celsius. Again. which they covered in the previous lesson.LESSON Framework objectives – Factorisation Simplify or transform algebraic expressions by taking out single-term common factors. Lead the discussion so that the class reaches the correct answer of 3 and x + 1. Establish identities such as a2 – b2 = (a + b)(a – b). again showing that the expansion will give the original expression. Tell the class that this is the area of the rectangle and ask what dimensions the rectangle could have.

Exercise 11B Answers 1 a g 2 a g 3 a g 4 a 5 a g 6 a g 7 a g 8 a 9 a d 3( x + 2) b 2(2t + 3) c 4(m + 2) d 5( y + 2) e 2(4 + m) f 3(1 + 2k) 5(1 + 3t) h 3(4 + x) 2( x – 2) b 4( t – 3) c 3(m – 3) d 3(2y – 3) e 7(2 – m) f 3(7 – k) 4(3 – 2t) h 3(5 – x) 3(4x + 1) b 2(3t – 2) c 3(3m – 1) d 3( y + 2) e 3(5 – m) f 4(3 + k) 2(3 – t) h 3(9 + x) 3x + 4 b 5 + 3t c 2m – 3 d 4 – 2t x( x + 3) b t( t + 4) c m(m + 5) d y( y + 7) e m(3 + m) f k(4 + k) t(3 + t) h x(1 + x) x( x – 3) b t(3t – 5) c m(m – 2) d y(4y – 5) e m(2 – m) f k(4 – 3k) t(5 – t) h x(7 – 4x) x(3x + 4) b t(5t – 3) c m(3m – 2) d y(4y + 5) e m(4 – 3m) f k(2 + 5k) t(4 – 3t) h x(2 + 7x) 3x + 4 b 2 + 3m c 3 – 2t d 4x – 1 n. (n + 1) is an integer. Show them again the two stages which they have gone through today with some examples such as: 6 + 9x = 3(2 + 3x) 5x2 – 3x = x(5x – 3) Homework 1 Factorise each of the following. You want responses which show their understanding of how to break down an expression into two terms which will multiply together to give the original expression. hence 3(n + 1) is always a multiple of 3. For x = 3. 6 and 2x2 + 3x. For x = 2. 6x and 2x + 3 Plenary G Key Words I factorisation G Ask the class what is meant by the term ‘factorisation’. 2x and 6x + 9. all pairs of values multiply to give an area of 16. Extension Answers a 2 and x2 + 2x. 3x and 4x + 6. all pairs of values multiply to give an area of 6. x and 12x + 18. 2x and x + 2 b For x = 1. a 3x + 9 e 10 + 2m i 6x – 4 m 21 – 7m a x2 + 5x e 6m + m2 i x2 – 4x m 3m – m2 b 4t + 12 f 4 + 6k j 8t – 12 n 18 – 3k b t2 + 3t f 2k + k2 j 2t2 – 3t n 6k – 5k2 c 2m + 8 g 10 + 15t k 6m – 9 p 12 – 10t c m2 + 4m g 7t + t2 k m2 – 5m p 6t – t2 d 5y + 15 h 12 + 9x l 20y – 8 q 15 – 5x d y2 + 8y h x + x2 l 5y2 – 4y q 8x – 5x2 2 Factorise each of the following. c 2 and 6x2 + 9x. n + 2 b 3n + 3 c 3(n + 1) Sum of 3 integers = 3n + 3 = 3(n + 1). x and 2x + 4. Answers 1 a 3( x + 3) b 4(t + 3) c 2(m + 4) d 5( y + 3) e 2(5 + m) f i 2(3x – 2) j 4(2t – 3) k 3(2m – 3) l 4(5y – 2) m 7(3 – m) 2 a x( x + 5) b t( t + 3) c m(m + 4) d y( y + 8) e m(6 + m) f i x( x – 4) j t(2t – 3) k m(m – 5) l y(5y – 4) m m(3 – m) n 2(2 + 3k) g 5(2 + 3t) h 3(4 + 3x) n 3(6 – k) p 2(6 – 5t) q 5(3 – x) k(2 + k) g t(7 + t) h x(1 + x) k(6 – 5k) p t(6 – t) q x(8 – 5x) © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 121 . n + 1. 3 and 4x2 + 6x. all pairs of values multiply to give an area of 30.

put on the board (x – 4)2. which is the most common incorrect answer. This should lead to a discussion on splitting the rectangle up into 4 parts. That is. Using a target board such as the one shown below.3 Oral and mental starter G G G G G This starter is concerned with calculating percentages. Ask the class how they would calculate 20% of a value? They might use the strategy of finding the value of 10% then doubling it. which simplifies to x2 + 4x – 12. Ultimately. 122 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . they will be expected to multiply out brackets with no props at all.LESSON Framework objectives – Quadratic expansion Square a linear expression. such as: ‘What is 20% of £34’. work your way around the class. asking individual students to work out 20% of the given value. Look out for the response of x2 + 16. expand the product of two linear expressions of the form (x ± n) and simplify the corresponding quadratic expression. Demonstrate this expansion. or they might divide the original value by 5. Finally. Give them an example. Show the class that the easiest way to do this is to multiply term by term. The class can now do Exercise 11C from Pupil Book 3. 11. put on the board the pair of brackets (x + 5)(x + 3). Ask the class if they know what the area of the rectangle is. Add these up to get x2 + 6x + 8. Work through the example. Next. using the first method which most students will regard more straightforward. to get x2 – 2x + 6x – 12. doubling it gives 20% as £6. Ask if anyone can square this bracket. put on the board a pair of brackets with a negative sign involved: for example (x + 6)(x – 2). £45 65 minutes 130 kg £234 35 kg £67 180 minutes 83 m 50 minutes 18 m £89 24 hours £82 2 hours 75 kg £26 29 kg £39 49 m 130 kg Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G Put on the board a rectangle with sides labelled as (x + 2) and (x + 4). Tell the students they must use whichever method they find simpler for them. Let the discussion flow from the geometric application of finding the area of a rectangle to a possible way of multiplying out the brackets term by term. with areas of x2.40. Ask the class if anyone can expand. Show both methods. 2x and 8. Then.80. which is the area of the original rectangle. 10% of £34 is £3. Set percentages in context by talking about getting a 20% reduction on the price of a certain item you purchased recently. which is (x – 4)(x – 4). or multiply out this pair of brackets. giving x2 – 8x + 16. 4x.

32 Answers 1 a x2 + 11x + 28 b x2 – 3x – 18 c x2 + 2x – 35 g x2 + 6x + 9 h x2 – 10x + 25 i x2 – 16 2 a 5000 b 94 c 348 d x2 – 2x – 15 e x2 – 7x + 12 f x2 – 3x – 40 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 123 . Next. find the result of each of the following calculations.72 – 0.72 – 1. If you feel that the class is ready for the next step. Discuss with the class what its expansion will yield: acx2 + adx + bcx + bd. put on the board (x + a)2 and discuss with the class what its expansion will give: x2 + 2ax + a2. Homework 1 Expand and simplify each of the following expressions.32 2 Without using a calculator. a (x + 4)(x + 7) d (x + 3)(x – 5) g (x + 3)2 b (x + 3)(x – 6) e (x – 4)(x – 3) h (x – 5)2 c (x – 5)(x + 7) f (x – 8)(x + 5) i (x + 4)(x – 4) c 18.Exercise 11C Answers 1 6 11 16 19 20 x2 + 7x + 12 2 x2 + 6x + 5 3 x2 + 9x + 14 4 x2 – 2x – 8 5 x2 + x – 12 x2 – 4x – 5 7 x2 – x – 6 8 x2 + 5x – 6 9 x2 – x – 12 10 x2 – 3x + 2 x2 – 9x + 18 12 x2 – 9x + 20 13 4 – 3x – x2 14 10 – 3x – x2 15 18 + 3x – x2 x2 + 10x + 25 17 x2 – 6x + 9 18 4 – 4x + x2 f (x + y)(x – y) = x2 – xy + xy – y2 = x2 – y2 a 800 b 400 c 280 d 75 e 400 f 35 g 62 h 58 i 1997 Extension Answers 1 8x2 + 14x + 3 2 12x2 + 23x + 10 5 8x2 – 22x + 12 6 25x2 – 30x + 9 3 8x2 + 2x – 3 4 10x2 + 26x – 12 Plenary G G G Key Words I expand I quadratic Put on the board (x + a)(x + b) and discuss with the class what its expansion will give: x2 + ax + bx + ab. a 752 – 252 b 9. then write on the board (ax + b)(cx + d ).

The class can now do Exercise 11D from Pupil Book 3. 124 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .) Hence. how much they cost. 11. 10p or 12p. 12 or 2. work out how much students spend on text messaging per day.LESSON Framework objectives – Quadratic factorisation Simplify or transform algebraic expressions by taking out common factors. Discuss the fact that because the second sign of the expression is a plus. Lead the discussion to factorising with a pair of brackets. This means that as the signs are different. put on the board the expression x2 – 3x – 10. the factorisation is: (x + 2)(x + 6). Talk about the last plus sign in the expression. these are generally 8p. £15 or £20. Ask what information the 12 gives. and the same as the first sign in the expression. leading to (x – 4)(x – 4) or (x – 4)2. the brackets will be of the form (x – a)(x – b). Ask the class if they can simplify this expression. Help the class to see that this shows that a + b must be 8. which indicates that the larger of the factor pair must also be negative. ensure that they are included in the discussions. the factor pair of 10 must have a difference of 3. current charges. At the time of printing. which leads to 5 and 2. and lead the class into a discussion on the factorisation of this expression. But do use those which your students offer. the signs will be the same. (They can be either way round. which indicates that the signs in the brackets will be the same. a factor pair of 12 is required: 1. the two signs in the pair of brackets will be pluses. If there are some students not able to text. Hence. 4. using the price per message. and the pair of brackets will be in the form (x + a)(x + b). the factorisation is (x + 2)(x – 5). Now put on the board the expression x2 – 8x + 16 and ask the class to factorise it. This leads to the conclusion that a and b are 2 and 6 respectively. unless they only offer 10p! Ask how many text messages each student sends per day. Ask several of the students who do.4 G G Oral and mental starter Ask the class: ‘Who sends text messages to their friends?’. Hence. 6 or 3. Hence. Ask other students how many messages they send per week. The first sign of the expression is negative. a factor pair which adds up to 8 is required. The x2 indicates that each bracket must start with two single xs. Ask what information the 8x gives. Talk about top up cards costing £10. and the same as the first sign in the expression. Using the price per message that the student quoted earlier. G G G G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G Put on the board the expression x2 + 8x + 12. Next. Go briefly through the expansion to show that this does indeed give x2 + 8x + 12. How many text messages can the students send from one top up at the different values? This is a rich source of mental work that goes best when real live data is being used: that is. Try not to be exclusive. Hence. So. Again. the two signs in the brackets must be different. This can be expanded into estimating how many text messages each student might make in a year and therefore how much this will cost. As the second sign of the expression is a minus. which is a minus. This means that a factor pair of 16 is required which adds up to 8. work out how much various students spend on text messaging per week. Help the class to see that this represents the product of a and b. Put on the board the different rates for text messages.

When the last sign in the expression is a minus. Discuss the signs. When the last sign in the expression is a plus. When the last sign in the expression is a plus. both bracket signs will be the same as the first sign in the expression. Discuss the factor pair needed for B. the factor pair must add up to A. the bracket signs will be different. Homework Factorise each of the following. Ask what clues should be looked for in the factorisation of these expressions. 1 x2 + 6x + 8 4 x2 – 4x – 12 7 x2 – 16 Answers 1 (x + 4)(x + 2) 8 (x + 1)(x – 1) 2 x2 – 9x + 20 5 x2 + 4x + 4 8 x2 – 1 3 x2 + 3x – 4 6 x2 – 14x + 49 9 x2 – 4x – 21 2 (x – 5)(x – 4) 3 (x + 4)(x – 1) 4 (x + 2)(x – 6) 5 (x + 2)2 6 (x – 7)2 7 (x + 4)(x – 4) 9 (x – 7)(x + 3) © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 125 .Exercise 11D Answers 1 5 10 15 (x + 4)(x + 6) 2 (x + 2)(x + 12) 3 (x + 3)(x + 6) 4 (x – 2)(x – 9) (x – 3)(x – 4) 6 (x – 2)(x – 6) 7 (x + 6)(x – 4) 8 (x + 11)(x – 4) 9 (x – 2)(x + 6) (x + 4)(x – 11) 11 (x – 9)(x + 7) 12 (x – 10)(x + 9) 13 (x + 5)2 14 (x – 6)2 (x – 1)2 16 (x + 2)(x – 2) 17 (x + 5)(x – 5) 18 (x + 10)(x – 10) Extension Answers 1 (3x + 1)(x + 1) 2 (3x + 1)(x – 2) 6 (3x + 4)(2x – 5) 3 (3x + 2)2 4 (2x – 1)(x – 5) 5 (4x + 5)(x – 5) Plenary G G G Key Words I factorisation G Put on the board x2 + Ax + B. the factor pair must have a difference of A. When the last sign in the expression is a minus.

LESSON

Framework objectives – Change of subject Derive and use more complex formulae and change the subject of a formula.

11.5

G G G G G

**Oral and mental starter
**

Ask the students to put up their hands if they can multiply by 11. Many hands will go up. Tell them to keep their hands up if they can work out 11 × 28 in their heads. Discuss the different strategies the students have used to get their various answers. One strategy is to do it in two parts and add the results together: 11 × 28 = (10 × 28) + (1 × 28) = 280 + 28 = 308. Go through another example using this method with them: 11 × 34 = (10 × 34) + (1 × 34) = 340 + 34 = 374. Using a target board such as the one shown below, work your way around the class asking individual students to multiply the number at which you point by 11. 17 42 94 25 78 85 51 19 36 67 34 48 92 83 23

**Main lesson activity
**

G

G

G G

G

This lesson is about changing the subject of a formula. Put on the board the formula C = 250 + 5W. Explain that this formula is used to calculate the cost of advertisements in a certain newspaper, where C is the cost in pence of the advertisement and W is the number of words in the advertisement. Explain that C is the subject of the formula because it is the variable (letter) in the formula which stands on its own, usually on the left-hand side of the equals sign. Ask how much it would cost to place an advertisement with 20 words in the newspaper. Use this example to verify that all the students can substitute W = 20 into the formula to get C = 250 + 5 × 20 = 250 + 100 = 350, giving the cost as £3.50. Now tell the class that you want to place an advertisement in the newspaper, on which you want to spend £10. Ask them how many words you would use in the advertisement. In order to work this out, they need to rearrange the formula so that W is the subject. Remind the class that the same rules apply which they have used previously with equations. That is, the same thing is done to both sides of the formula. Work through the example. To get W on its own, start by simplifying the right-hand side of the formula: Subtracting 250 from both sides gives: Dividing both sides by 5 gives: Turning the expression round gives: So, if C = 1000, then: C = 250 + 5W C – 250 = 5W C – 250 ———— = W 5 C – 250 W = ———— 5 1000 – 250 W = —————— = 150. 5

G

The class can now do Exercise 11E from Pupil Book 3.

SATs Answers 1 a i 100 cm2, 80 cm2, 32 cm2 ii 252 cm2 iii 252 b i n2 cm2, 2n cm2, 6 cm2 ii n2 + 5n + 6 2 a 5(2y + 4) and 2(5y + 10) b 12( y + 24) c 7( y + 2) d 2y2(3y – 1) 3d 3 a a = 1500; b = 200 b — – 5 4 a ( y + 3)2 = ( y + 3)( y + 3) = y2 + 6y + 9 ≠ y2 + 9 b i y2 + 7y + 10 ii y2 – 12y + 36 iii 6y2 – y – 40

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Exercise 11E Answers V V (S – U) (S – U) 1 a i I = – ii R = – b i U = S – FT ii F = ———– iii T = ———– – – R I T F (P – 2w) (P – 2b) 2A 2A c i b = ———— ii w = — — — — d i b = — ii h = — – – 2 2 h b 5(F – 32) 2 a C = ———— b i –53.9 °C ii 19.2 °C iii 13.6 °C 9 3 a 24.5 cm2 b 11.8 cm2 4 a £1.60 b 0.75 cm 5 a 125.7 cm2 b 9.6 cm (9.5 cm if π key on calculator used) c 1.5 cm 6 a N = 5, R = 3, A = 6, so N + R – A = 5 + 3 – 6 = 2, so N + R – A = 2. c N + R – A = 2, so N + R = 2 + A, so N + R – 2 = A, i.e. A = N + R – 2. N = 10, R = 9, so A = 17 7 a y = 2x – 3 b y = 3x – 5 c y = 9 – 2x d y = 14 – 3x e y = 4x + 3 f y = 5x + 1 8 a i y: –1, 1, 3, 5, 7 ii y: –4, –1, 2, 5, 8 iii y: 7, 5, 3, 1, –1 9 They are all parallel to each other ( y = x) and cut the y-axis at the negative value of the constant in the equation. 10 They are all parallel to each other ( y = –x) and cut both the x-axis and the y-axis at the negative value of the constant in the equation.

Extension Answers They are all parallel to each other ( y = –6x) and they cut the y-axis at the negative value of the product of the constant in the equation multiplied by the denominator of the y coefficient.

Plenary

G G

Key Words

I subject of a formula

Discuss with the class the similarities between the process of changing the subject of a formula and that of solving an equation. To close the lesson, work with the class to make T the subject of the following formula: 3K + 5T 2 W=— — — — — 4

Homework

1 Change the subject of each of the following formulae as indicated. a Make I the subject of the formula W = IPT. b i Make P the subject of F = P + MK.

c i Make m the subject of T = 3m + 2n. ii Make M the subject of F = P + MK. ii Make n the subject of T = 3m + 2n.

d Make b the subject of V = — —.

abh 3

**19R 2 The formula C = —— + 40 is used to calculate the cost in pounds of making a boiler of radius 8 R (cm).
**

a Make R the subject of the formula. b Use this formula to find the radius of a boiler that cost £150 to make.

3 Draw a graph of each of the following equations on the same pair of axes. a y – 2x – 1 = 0 b y – 2x – 3 = 0 c y – 2x + 1 = 0 d y – 2x + 3 = 0 Comment on the similarities and differences between the graphs.

Answers W (F – P) (T – 2n) (T – 3m) 3V 1 a I = —– b i P = F – MK ii M = ——— c i m = — — — — ii n = ———— d b = —– PT K 3 2 ah 8(C – 40) 2 a R = ————– b 46.3 cm 19 3 All graphs should be parallel to each other ( y = 2x) and cut the y-axis at the negative value of the constant in the equation.

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CHAPTER

12

LESSON

**Solving Problems and Revision
**

Framework objectives – Fractions, percentages and decimals Revision of Number: Solve increasingly demanding problems and evaluate solutions. Solve problems involving percentage changes. Use proportional reasoning to solve a problem, choosing the correct numbers to take as 100%, or as a whole. Recognise when fractions or percentages are needed to compare proportions; solve problems involving percentage changes. Enter numbers and interpret the display in context (negative numbers, fractions, decimals, percentages, money, metric measures, time).

12.1

**Oral and mental starter
**

G

The following is a 10-question, SATs-style, mental test on the theme of fractions. Repeat each question twice and allow 10 seconds to answer. 1 What fraction of one metre is thirty five centimetres? [Write ‘1 m’ and ‘35 cm’ on the board.] 2 Look at these numbers. Which one of them is the decimal equivalent of three-eighths? [Write the decimals on the board.] 0.38 3.8 0.375 3.125 3.08 3 What is half of 4.7? 4 What is the sum of three-eighths and one-quarter? 5 Add one point six to one quarter. 3 2 6 What is three-quarters squared? [Write – on the board.] – 4 7 What is a quarter of 6.2? 8 What decimal is equivalent to the fraction five-eights? 9 Four-ninths of a number is thirty six. What is the number? – – 10 What is the square root of 16 ? 49 35 7 5 — or equivalent 20 2 0.375 3 2.35 4 – or equivalent (0.625) – – – Answers 1 100 8 9 4 –– 7 1.55 8 0.625 9 81 10 – 5 1.85 6 16 7

( )

**Main lesson activity
**

G

G

This is a revision lesson on Number, principally covering fractions, decimals and percentages. The questions in the Pupil Book exercise are graded from Level 5 to Level 8 as follows: Q. 1, 6, 7 Level 5 Q. 2, 8, 9 Level 6 Q. 3, 4, 10 Level 7 Q. 5, 11, 12, 13 Level 8 Before letting students start the questions you can go through key points (as suggested below) or discuss some specific questions with the class to remind them of the methods used.

General G Equivalence of fractions, percentages and decimals Fractions G Equivalent fractions G Cancelling G Converting mixed numbers to top heavy fractions and vice versa G Adding and subtracting fractions 128

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Decimals G Ordering G Changing between metric measurement units Percentages G Finding a percentage of a quantity G Finding one quantity as a percentage of another G Calculating percentage increase and decrease G Compound interest G Reverse percentage

G

**The class can now do Exercise 12A from Pupil Book 3.
**

Exercise 12A Answers

1 a

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14 7 3 – – b 18 c 4–– –– 15 20 134.4 a i 0.08 ii 2000 b 400–450 a 45 × 0.85 × 0.9 b 1.13 a Always even b Always an integer 74.5 kg £63.05 £36.21 a 200 000 b 425 000 c 3.9% a 31.4% b 36% c Unleaded 76.2p per litre. Lead replacement 77p per litre a 800 b 12.2% a £836 b £499 c £295.53 d 6 days a 16.521 174 86 b 16.5

Plenary

G

Go through the answers to the exercise. Discuss and clarify those with which students had difficulty.

Homework

It is assumed that during the revision period students will be given a past SATs paper to work through at home. Students will have seen some questions before in the Maths Frameworking Pupil Books, so a mock SATs paper is provided in this Teacher’s Pack, after the Chapter 12 lesson plans. The mock paper consists of SATsstyle questions which students will not have encountered before. Additional homework questions are provided below, for further practice on the topics covered in this lesson.

Homework

1 In a sale, a hi-fi is reduced by 15%. The sale price of the hi-fi is £459, what was the original price? 2 For each part of the question, where n is always an integer, write down the answer which is true and explain your choice. n2 – 2 a When n is even, ——— is: 2 Always odd Always even n2 Sometimes odd, sometimes even –2 b When n is odd, ——— is: 2 Always an integer

Answers 1 £540

Always a fraction

Sometimes an integer, sometimes a fraction

2 a Always odd

b Always a fraction

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What was the original price? 8 What percentage is equivalent to the fraction seven-eighths? 9 Six percent of a number is nine. ratio. 12. ratios and standard form. What percentage of the chocolates have soft centres? 6 Fifteen percent of a number is twelve. percentages. including solving word problems. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 130 . metric measures. principally covering the four rules. 10 Level 6 Q. money. 8 Level 5 Q. 9.70 5 60% 6 80 7 £200 8 87. 13 Level 8 Before letting students start the questions you can go through key points (as suggested below) or discuss some specific questions with the class to remind them of the methods used. fractions. What is the new price of the CD? 5 There are 20 chocolates in a box. Interpret and use ratio in a range of contexts. 6. 1 What is ten percent of thirty five pounds? 2 What is twenty percent of two hundred pounds? 3 Thirty percent of a number is nine. 5.LESSON Framework objectives – The four rules. a cooker was priced at £180. What is the number? 4 A CD costing thirteen pounds is reduced in a sale by ten percent. mental test on the theme of percentages. General G Basic knowledge of tables up to 10 × 10 Four rules G Setting out in columns for addition and subtraction G Using box method or column methods for long multiplication G Using chunking for long division Directed numbers G Using a number line G Combining signs when adding and subtracting: ++. decimals. 2. Enter numbers and interpret the display in context (negative numbers. 12. of which 12 have soft centres. etc Ratio G G G Adding ratios Dividing up an amount into a given ratio Multiplying by a ratio to get individual amounts Standard form G Writing numbers in standard form G Calculating with numbers in standard form G The class can now do Exercise 12B from Pupil Book 3.2 Oral and mental starter G The following is a 10-question. 4. 11 Level 7 Q. What is the number? 10 What percentage of forty five is twenty seven? Answers 1 £3. 7. 1. Repeat each question twice and allow 10 seconds to answer. standard form Revision of Number: Solve increasingly demanding problems and evaluate solutions. What is the number? 7 After a 10% reduction.50 2 £40 3 30 4 £11. time). SATs-style. 3.5% 9 150 10 60% Main lesson activity G G G This is a revision lesson on Number. – +. The questions in the Pupil Book exercise are graded from Level 5 to Level 8 as follows: Q.

25 a 52 mph b 4 hours and 40 minutes a 400 kg b 8 bags 347 tickets 1:4 a 1 × 10–6 b 5 × 104 a 3. a p+q b p×q c r2 2 Light green paint is made by mixing yellow paint and blue paint in the ratio 2 : 3. 82 and 59 a iii 32 × 103 is larger than 33 × 102 b 3.32 × 107 b 8.6 × 103 and 36 × 102 a 15 b £56 175 c £80.2 × 107. r = 6. b = 8. Homework 1 p = 1. (–2)6.93 × 107 c 54 × 10–3 Plenary G Go through the answers to the exercise. One litre of light green paint and one litre of dark green paint are poured into a large bucket.3 × 10–3 Work out each of the following.Exercise 12B Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 17 bins with £7 left over £18 a 14.969 × 10–5 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 131 .46 × 108 c 1. c = 3 a 59 b –26 and 82 c 44 d (–1)2. Dark green paint is made by mixing yellow paint and blue paint in the ratio 1 : 3. Discuss and clarify those with which students had difficulty.4 b 90 c 0.06 a = 4.5 × 108. How much more yellow paint needs to be added to the bucket to produce light green paint? Answers 1 a 2.62 × 108 2 250 ml b 3 × 1015 c 3. giving your answer in standard form. q = 2.

] 20 Divide eight by fifty [Write 8 and 50 on the board.] 17 Divide forty point two by nought point one.01 and 5. When I multiply them together I get twenty. mental test on the theme of the four rules. an expression and an equation Manipulative algebra G Substituting numbers into expressions G Expanding brackets G Factorising G Collecting like terms G Cancelling 132 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .16 Main lesson activity G G G This is a revision lesson on Algebra. 3 A chocolate bar costs one pound forty pence.LESSON Framework objectives – Rules of algebra and linear equations Revision of Algebra: Represent problems and synthesise information in algebraic form.] 10 What is three minus nought point two? 11 How much must be added to this number to make one hundred. 6. How many coins is that? 14 Divide thirty by nought point three. 2.1 on the board.29 16 0.8 11 36.04 and 0. 1. How much change will I get from a ten pound note? 4 I am thinking of two numbers.] — — 18 What is the value of this. 10 Level 7 Q.] 12 Multiply together the first three prime numbers.3 6 132 7 £24. 3 Level 5 Q. 11.3 on the board. 15 What number is nought point nought one less than five point three? [Write 0. Repeat each question twice and allow 10 seconds to answer. What are the numbers ? 5 Multiply nought point six by nought point five. 8. 6 Double sixty six. [Write 23 × 32 on the board. principally covering the basic rules and solving linear equations.2 on the board.5 on the board. 5.3 Oral and mental starter G The following is a 20-question. I buy four bars. 12. [Write 0. 9.03 on the board.75 8 900 9 72 10 2. [Write 63.0009 20 0. When I add them together I get nine.] 19 Work out nought point nought three squared. 7 Level 6 Q. Basic algebra G Using letters to represent variables G The difference between a term.2 and 0. How much will seven boxes of pencils cost? 2 Multiply nought point seven by ten. [Write 40. 4. 13 I have saved thirty seven pounds in twenty pence coins.5 12 30 13 185 14 100 15 5.40 4 4 and 5 5 0. 13 Level 8 Before letting students start the questions you can go through key points (as suggested below) or discuss some specific questions with the class to remind them of the methods used.50 2 7 3 £4.] Answers 1 £10. [Write 0. The questions in the Pupil Book exercise are graded from Level 5 to Level 8 as follows: Q. SATs-style. 1 Four boxes of pencils cost six pounds.] 16 Multiply together nought point nought four and nought point two. 12. [Write √225 × 23 on the board.008 17 402 18 120 19 0. 7 What is the total cost of five video tapes at four pounds ninety five pence each? 8 How many seconds are there in fifteen minutes? 9 Work out the value of this.

Discuss and clarify those with which students had difficulty.Linear equations G Rearranging – collecting together variables and numbers on the LHS and RHS respectively G Inverse operations (change sides. Homework 1 a Explain why (x – 4)(x – 4) ≠ x2 – 16 b Expand and simplify each of the following. 4n.5 2n + 4 b n + 6 c 2 – n d 3n – 1 i 45 ii 26 iii –11 b i 3(x + 2y) ii x(x + 1) iii 2a(2b + 3) x = 1.5 b x = 2 c x = –0. (n + 4)2 4x – 20 b 11x + 3 c 5x + 2 d 17x + 16 e 5x + 22 i 21 ii 10 iii 50 b i z = 3 ii z = 22 iii z = –1 6x + 3 = 12.5 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 133 .5 c 0 or 4 x2 – 8x + 16 b x2 + x –20 c 12x2 – 5x – 2 9 a 10 a 11 a 12 a 13 2 Plenary G Go through the answers to the exercise. –. a 6 + 2x = 8 + 4x c 5(1 + x) = 3(x + 2) Answers 1 a (x – 4)(x – 4) = x2 – 4x – 4x + 16 = x2 – 8x + 16 b i 8x – 9 ii x2 – 3x – 28 2 a –1 b 6 c 0. x = 1.5 b 3y – 6 = y + 7. i 2(x – 3) + 3(2x – 1) ii (x + 4)(x – 7) 2x + 3 b ——— = 5 3 2 Solve each of the following equations. change signs) G Checking answers by substituting into original equation G The class can now do Exercise 12C from Pupil Book 3. 16 b n2 + 8n + 16. – 2n + 3 5 10 17 2 i 3 ii 4 b – xy2 c i x – 24 ii 9y + 2x – 3 7 b –2.5 3(4x – 6) and 6(2x – 3) b 6( y – 2) c 3y(3y – 2) 2n 4 9 16 ——— b – — — c 1 –. y = 6. Exercise 12C Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 a a a a a a a a n2.

Repeat each question twice and allow 10 seconds to answer.4 6 7 c 8 60° 9 72° 10 G Number of families 1 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of children 3 a b c d 4 2 Barnsley Birdwell High Green Sheffield 09 32 09 55 10 16 10 36 5 –2 –1 0 6 7 a 5 b c 5 d5 5 8 9 Women (20%) 10 Men (80%) 134 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 12. Each student will need a sheet with the diagrams below to refer to. 10 Look at the octagon. mental test on reading diagrams.4 G Oral and mental starter The following is a 10-question. work out how long the journey from Barnsley to High Green takes. How many families are represented? 2 This is a centimetre grid. Work out the angle which represents the women. Teachers may find the Teacher’s Pack CD useful to prepare these.LESSON Framework objectives – Graphs Revision of Algebra: Represent problems and synthesise information in graphical form. SATs-style. 7 Which diagram shows the graph x + y = 5? 8 What is the exterior angle of a regular hexagon? 9 The pie chart shows the proportion of men and women in a sports club. What is the area of the shaded square? 3 Which diagram shows strong positive correlation? 4 By looking at the timetable. Which diagram shows the octagon after a ninety degree rotation in a clockwise direction? Answers 1 21 2 17 cm2 3 c 4 44 minutes 5 –1. 1 The bar chart shows the number of children in some families. 5 What number is the arrow pointing to? 6 Add one more square to the grid so that it has rotational symmetry of order 2.

Homework 1 By drawing the graphs y = 2x. 0) and (0. y ≥ 1. graph is levelling off c cannot be sure – there may not be a causal link 4 a b c (3. 7. 10. 4) in the equation b x + y = 6 Draw line at y = 2. Discuss and clarify those with which students had difficulty. x ≤ 3 135 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 1.5 a y ≤ x. y 4 3 2 1 0 x 0 1 2 3 4 Answers 1 16 square units 2 y ≤ 4. 7) b 6 4 2 0 –6 –4 –2 2 4 6 y = 3x 0 2 4 6 –6 –4 –2 d 9:30 5 a y = –2 6 a b y = –2x 6 4 2 0 0 –2 –4 –6 x=2 2 4 c x = –0. 9 Level 7 Q. 2 Give the four inequalities which describe the shaded region. 0) and (–1.5 and y = 1 b 13. 4. 11 Level 8 Before letting students start the questions you can go through key points (as suggested below) or discuss some specific questions with the class to remind them of the methods used. 6 Level 6 Q. 8. parallel lines and intercept with y–axis G Quadratic graphs Real life graphs G Travel graphs or distance–time graphs G Gradient of line represents speed G Horizontal line represents no motion G The class can now do Exercise 12D from Pupil Book 3.Main lesson activity G G G This is a revision lesson on Algebra. 3. x ≤ 2 b R 4 3 2 1 0 –6 y = 2x + 2 y = 2x – 1 0 1 2 3 4 Plenary G Go through the answers to the exercise. x ≥ 1.5 square units 6 y = –3 3 a true b cannot be sure. x = ±2. Basic graphs G y = mx + c as the formula of a straight line G Significance of m and c for gradients. y = –2 and x = 3. 5) 6 4 2 –6 –4 –2 y=x+2 0 0 –2 –4 2 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 a A and E b C and D c A and F d D and F a 9:30 b 160 kph a Test (8. work out the area of the triangle enclosed by all three lines. The questions in the Pupil Book exercise are graded from Level 5 to Level 8 as follows: Q. 5. y ≥ x. Exercise 12D Answers 1 a 7:15 b 7:45 c 8 : 40 2 a (6. principally covering graphs. 2 Level 5 Q.

7. triangle. Space and Measures: Represent problems and synthesise information in geometric form. SATs-style. Volume and area G Recall of formulae for area of rectangle. 11 Level 7 Q. Solve problems using properties of angles. 6 Level 5 Q.LESSON Framework objectives – Shape. of parallel and intersecting lines.] 6 Draw the shape that you get after rotating this T shape by 90° clockwise. justifying inferences and explaining reasoning with diagrams and text. What direction am I now facing? 3 I drive six and a half kilometres in 10 minutes.] 10 This picture shows a shape cut in half along a line of symmetry. What is my average speed in kilometres per hour? 4 What is the value of angle a? [Draw the diagram shown on the board. Space and Measures Revision of Shape.] 5 What is the area of this triangle? [Draw the triangle shown on the board. 9. cuboids and prisms Symmetry G Line symmetry G Rotational symmetry Angles G Definition of acute. Repeat each question twice and allow 10 seconds to answer. [Draw the picture shown on the board. circle G Recall of formulae for volume of cubes. mental test on the theme of shape. space and measures. 5. 2. 13 Level 8 Before letting students start the questions you can go through key points (as suggested below) or discuss some specific questions with the class to remind them of the methods used. 12. 1. 12. and of triangles and other polygons. 4. 8. 3.5 Oral and mental starter G The following is a 10-question. [Draw the shape shown on the board. Approximately how many miles is that? 5 cm 9 What is the area of this triangle? [Draw the triangle shown on the board.] What is the name of the original shape? Answers 1 0 2 south-west 3 39 km/h 4 50° 5 12 cm2 6 7 12–14 cm2 8 7–8 miles 9 6 cm2 10 Kite 130° a° 5 cm 6 cm 4 cm 3 cm Main lesson activity G G G This is a revision lesson on Shape. parallelogram. 10 Level 6 Q. The questions in the Pupil Book exercise are graded from Level 5 to Level 8 as follows: Q. obtuse and reflex G Measuring angles G Angles at a point and on a straight line G Alternate and corresponding angles 136 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .] 7 What is the approximate area of a circle with a radius of 2 centimetres? 8 The distance from home to school is about 12 kilometres. Space and Measures. 1 How many lines of symmetry does a parallelogram have? 2 I face south-east and turn anticlockwise through 270 degrees.

**Enlargements G Scale factor and centre of enlargement G Similar triangles Right-angled triangles G Pythagoras G Trigonometry
**

G

The class can now do Exercise 12E from Pupil Book 3.

Exercise 12E Answers a = 54°, b = 82°, c = 152° 27.5 cm2 a 300 cm3 b 25 cm2 x = 18 cm, y = 10 cm a 288 cm2 b 4 c 16 : 1 a 80 km b no, 100 kph ≈ 62 mph c 93 miles, 50 km is about 31 and 3 × 31 = 93 7 a check sides measure 5 cm, 8 cm and 7 cm b 82° 8 a a = 39°, b = 39°, c = 43° b angle ADB = angle DBE so AD is parallel to BE 9 40 cm 10 1 2 3 4 5 6

11 a 6.32 cm b 5.66 cm 12 a Area = 33.5 cm2, Perimeter = 24.4 cm 13 x = 16.6 cm y = 36.7°

b 4.09 cm

Plenary

G

Go through the answers to the exercise. Discuss and clarify those with which students had difficulty.

Homework

**1 Find the length x in the triangle shown on the right.
**

20 cm 13 cm

x cm

**2 Find the length x and the angle y in each of the triangles shown below. a
**

57° 7 cm y° x cm 7 cm

b

12 cm

Answers 1 15.2 cm

2 a 10.8 cm

b 54.3°

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LESSON

Framework objectives – Handling Data Revision of Handling Data: Interpret graphs and diagrams and draw inferences to support or cast doubt on initial conjectures; have a basic understanding of correlation. Analyse data to find patterns and exceptions, look for cause and effect and try to explain anomalies.

12.6

**Oral and mental starter
**

G

The following is a 10-question, SATs-style mental test on the theme of Handling Data. Repeat each question twice and allow 10 seconds to answer. 1 What is the mean of these numbers? [Write 10, 10 and 25 on the board.] 2 What is the range of these numbers? [Write on the board: 4, 8, 2, 9, 7, 12, 1, 3, 7, 8, 2 and 3.] 3 A dance class contains both boys and girls. The probability that a member of the class, picked at random, is a girl is 0.7. What is the probability that a member picked at random is a boy? 4 A bag contains only red, blue and green balls. The table shows the Red probability of choosing each colour, when a ball is picked from the bag at 0.35 random. [Draw the table shown.] What is the probability that the ball picked is blue or green? 5 An ordinary, fair, six-sided dice is rolled. What is the probability that the dice shows a score of 7? 6 Two ordinary, fair, six-sided dice are rolled. What is the probability that the total score is 3? 7 What is the median of these numbers? [Write on the board: 7, 8, 10, 13, 15 and 20.] 8 The table shows the number of pets owned by ten students. Number of pets How many pets are owned altogether? 1 9 The mean mass of thirty text books is nought point seven kilograms. 2 [Write 0.7 on the board.] What is the total mass of the textbooks? 3 10 A referendum returned one hundred yes votes and five hundred no votes. Which pie chart best represents these data? a b c d

Blue 0.2

Green 0.45

Frequency 2 5 3

Answers

1 15 2 11 3 0.3 9 21 kg 10 c

4 0.65

5 0

6

2 –– 36

1 –– = 18

7 11.5

8 21

**Main lesson activity
**

G G

G

This is a revision lesson on Handling Data. The questions in the Pupil Book exercise are graded from Level 5 to Level 8 as follows: Q. 1, 2, 3 Level 5 Q. 4, 5, 8, 9 Level 6 Q. 6, 10 Level 7 Q. 7, 11 Level 8 Before letting students start the questions you can go through key points (as suggested below) or discuss some specific questions with the class to remind them of the methods used.

Probability G Language and definition of probability G Writing probabilities as fractions, decimals or percentages G Sample space diagrams 138

© HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003

Averages G The three averages used for discrete data G Range of a set of data G Mean of a table of discrete data G Mean of a table of grouped data Surveys G Methods of sampling G Unbiased questions with unambiguous response boxes Scatter diagrams G Types of correlation G Using line of best fit for predicting values

G

**The class can now do Exercise 12F from Pupil Book 3.
**

Exercise 12F Answers 1 Any combination where the number of red to blue is in the ratio 2:1, e.g. 20 red 10 blue 2 a Q b R c P and R 3 a 6 b 5 c i False, there is no mode to start with ii False, both old and new marks were above median iii True, total will be 2 more 4 0.3 5 a Not representative b Overlap of responses 6 a 3x b 3x + 1 7 a 56 b 39 to 71 = 32 c 33% 8 The percentage value of a car decreases as the mileage increases or there is a negative correlation b 50% c 28 000 miles 9 a 30 b 4.9 10 3.75 min or 3 min 45 s 11 a 0.36 b 0.48 c 80

Plenary

G

Go through the answers to the exercise. Discuss and clarify those with which students had difficulty.

Homework

1 1 When two dice are rolled the probability of a double one is — –. 36 a When two dice are rolled what is the probability of a double 2? b Which answer shows the probability of a treble six when three dice are rolled. 1 — 18 1 — — 216 3 — — 216 1 — 42

**2 The bar chart shows the distances that 50 students threw a discus.
**

Number of pupils 15 10 6 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 Distance (m) 50 10 14 11 9

a What is the probability that a pupil chosen at random will have thrown the discus more than 30 metres? b What is the probability that a pupil chosen at random will have thrown the discus more than 45 metres? c Work out the mean length of throw for the 50 pupils.

Answers 1 1 – – ––– 1 a 36 b 216 2 a 0.4 b 0.09

c 26.4 m

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PRACTICE PAPER

Level 5

THIS IS A NON-CALCULATOR PAPER

1 A 3 × 3 × 3 cube is made from 27 different coloured small cubes.

The small cubes with 3 faces showing are coloured grey. The small cubes with 2 faces showing are coloured white. The small cubes with 1 face showing are dotted. The small cubes with 0 faces showing are striped. (a) Complete the table below to show the number of small cubes of each colour that are used.

Grey cubes White cubes Dotted cubes

.......................... .......................... ..........................

**Striped cubes .......................... Total: 27
**

3 marks

(b) A 4 × 4 × 4 cube is made in the same way. Complete the table below to show the number of small cubes of each type it has and the total number of cubes used.

Grey cubes White cubes Dotted cubes

.......................... .......................... ..........................

**Striped cubes 8 Total: ..........................
**

2 marks 140

© HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003

packs 2 marks © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 141 . 2 marks (b) This is how Jim works out 25% of 240 in his head. The pencils come in packs of 12. 2 marks 3 (a) A school needs 250 pencils. How many packs must the school order? Show your working. “50% of 240 is 120 so 25% of 240 is 60” Show how Jim can work out 25% of 460 in his head.2 This is how Helen works out 25% of 240 in her head. “10% of 240 is 24 20% of 240 is 48 5% of 240 is 12 so 25% of 240 is 48 + 12 = 60” (a) Show how Helen can work out 25% of 180 in her head.

This tower is m cubes high. Write an expression to show the total number of cubes in Qayser’s tower. Write an expression to show the total number of cubes in Linda’s tower. m Tower M 1 mark 142 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . How much do 250 rulers cost? Show your working. n Tower N 1 mark (b) Qayser builds another tower.(b) Rulers cost 22p each. Give your answer in pounds. Linda adds another 7 cubes to the tower. £ 3 marks 4 (a) There are n cubes in this tower.

n=m×2 n=m×4 n=m÷2 n=m÷4 1 mark (d) Brian builds two more towers like Tower N and Tower M. Which expression below is true? Put a tick ( ) by the correct expression. Work out the value of m. Brian’s towers have an equal number of cubes in them. and their heights are related by this expression: n = m + 6.(c) n m Tower N Tower M The number of cubes in each tower is the same. m= 1 mark © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 143 .

5 The graphs below show the number of goals scored per match by Team A and Team B over 50 games. 1 mark 144 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Team A 20 Number of games 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of goals Number of games 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of goals Team B (a) How many goals did Team A score altogether in the 50 games? Goals: 2 marks (b) Which team scored three or more goals in 20% of their games? Explain your answer. 2 marks (c) Eli says that the graphs show that Team B is more successful than Team A. Give a reason why this may not be true.

B and C run a race. Runner A sets off quickly. Distance Distance Distance Time Graph 1 Graph 2 Time Graph 3 Time Distance Distance Time Graph 4 Graph 5 Time Fill in the gaps below to show which runner matches up with which graph.Level 6 6 Three people A. Below are ﬁve different distance–time graphs. slows down and then speeds up Graph Runner B runs at a steady speed Graph Runner C sets off quickly and then slows down Graph 3 marks © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 145 .

y C A y=x LINE A x=5 10 5 B LINE B y=5 LINE C 0 5 D 10 x x+y=5 LINE D y = 5x 3 marks 8 Each shape in this question has an area of 20 cm2. cm 1 mark 146 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .. (a) Calculate the length of the base of the parallelogram....... No diagram is drawn to scale.7 Use the graphs to match each line with its equation......... The ﬁrst one has been done for you... 5 cm base area = 20 cm2 base = ..

.. What is the value of a + b in the trapezium? area = 20 cm2 h = 5 cm a + b = ......(b) Calculate the height of the triangle........... cm 1 mark (c) What is the value of h in this trapezium? b h a area = 20 cm2 a + b = 4 cm h = ............. height 10 cm area = 20 cm2 height = ..... cm 1 mark A different trapezium has an area of 20 cm2 and a height of 5 cm...................... cm 1 mark © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 147 .....

.... cm 2 marks 9 This is a series of patterns with black and white squares..(d) Look at this rectangle: 3x + 1 area = 20 cm2 5x – 5 Calculate the value of x and use it to ﬁnd the perimeter of the rectangle.. Pattern Number 1 Pattern Number 2 Pattern Number 3 (a) Complete this table: pattern number 5 12 number of black squares number of white squares 2 marks 148 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 ........ perimeter = .. Show your working........

1 mark (d) A different series of patterns is made with squares. Pattern Number 1 Pattern Number 2 Pattern Number 3 For this series of patterns. 2 marks © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 149 .(b) Complete this table by writing expressions: pattern number expression for the number of black squares expression for the number of white squares n 2 marks (c) Write an expression to show the total number of tiles in pattern number n. Show your working and simplify your expression. write an expression to show the total number of tiles in pattern number n. Simplify your expression.

4a + 3 2b – 25 = 75 c2 – 6 a = b = c = 3 marks 150 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 ...... b and c..5 × 30 0........10 (a) Each of these calculations has the same answer.. 2......5 ÷ .......... 2 marks (b) Solve these equations to ﬁnd the values of a.....25 × ..... = 75 75 ÷ 1 7. Fill in each gap with a number. 75.

Level 7 11 In the scale drawing. Scale: 1 cm to 1 m 2 marks 12 This is what a student wrote: a b a+b + = 2 3 5 Show that the student was wrong. On the diagram. There is a path all around the ﬂowerbed. the shaded area represents a rectangular ﬂowerbed. 2 marks © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 151 . draw accurately the position of the edge of the path. The shortest distance from the ﬂowerbed to the edge of the path is always 2 m.

1 mark 152 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Results 40 35 Number of Passengers 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Waiting Time (minutes) (a) Use the graph to estimate the probability that a passenger chosen at random will wait for 15 minutes or longer. An inspector records the waiting times of 100 passengers on one of the company’s bus routes on one day. 1 mark (b) Use the graph to estimate the probability that a customer chosen at random will wait for 7.13 Passengers have been complaining to a bus company about how long they have to wait for a bus.5 minutes or less.

1 mark © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 153 . Waiting time (minutes) 0– 5– 10– 15– 20– 25–30 Mid-point of bar (x) 2.5 Number of passengers ( f ) 22 fx minutes 2 marks (d) The inspector wants to improve the survey.(c) Calculate an estimate of the mean waiting time per passenger. You may complete the table below to help you with the calculation. Give a different way the inspector could improve the survey. Show your working. She records the waiting times of more customers.

2 p3 a=— — 5 a= 1 mark p2( p + 1) b = ————— 3p b= 1 mark (b) Simplify this expression as fully as possible: 15cd ——– 3d 1 mark (c) Multiply out and simplify these expressions: 3(x + 4) – 2(3 – 2x) 1 mark (x + 3)(x + 5) 1 mark (x + 1)(x – 2) 1 mark (x – 4)2 1 mark 154 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 .14 (a) Find the values of a and b when p = 5.

y y = x3 x 1 mark (b) Curve A is a reﬂection in the x-axis of y = x3. 1 mark © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 155 .Level 8 15 (a) The diagram shows the graph with equation y = x3. On the same axes sketch the graph of y = x3 + 2. y A y = x3 x A What is the equation of curve A? 1 mark (c) Curve A can also be obtained from the graph of y = x3 using a different transformation. Describe this transformation.

5 × 103 –5 × 10–2 2 marks 156 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . y < x3 y > x3 x<0 x>0 y<0 y>0 y < 2x y > 2x 2 marks 16 (a) Which number is the greater? 3 × 104 Explain your answer. 4 × 103 1 mark (b) Circle the number that has the same value as 5 × 102. 52 52 500 0. y y = 2x y = x3 x Circle two inequalities which together fully describe the shaded region.(d) The shaded region is bounded by the curve y = x3 and the line y = 2x.

Number of shapes with straight edges only Number of shapes with curved edges only Number of shapes with both straight edges and curved edges 1 mark © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 157 . (a) Complete the table. (4 × 105) × (2 × 10–1) 1 mark 8 × 1010 ———— 4 × 102 1 mark 17 Here are 10 shapes. Write these values as simply as possible.(c) (3 × 102) × (2 × 102) can be written more simply as 6 × 104.

(b) A shape is chosen at random. Which calculation shows the probability that both shapes have curved edges? 6 6 — ×— – – 10 10 6 5 — +— – – 10 10 6 5 — ×— – – 10 10 6 5 — × –– – 10 9 6 6 — +— – – 10 10 6 5 — + –– – 10 9 1 mark 158 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . What is the probability that it does not have both straight and curved edges? 1 mark (c) What is the probability that a shape is chosen that has straight edges if you already know that it has curved edges? 1 mark (d) Two of the shapes are chosen at random.

5πa2. leaving your answer in terms of π. of the shape is 20 cm3. Show your working to simplify your equation. and show that the total area of the shape is 5πa2. in terms of a and π. 3 marks (b) The shaded area.18 This shape is made using two circles. 3a 2a (a) Find the area of each circle. Write an equation in the form a = … … . 2 marks © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 159 . The radii of the circles are 3a and 2a.

pie chart. 8 Pictogram. histogram. In fact it has only risen by about 2. summing up these answers and dividing by the total frequency. for example make of car and colour of car. line graph. identify possible sources. excluding those to do with probability. G You should look for answers which refer to the following. G 1 What sort of things should you think about when The class can now do Exercise 13A from Pupil Book 3.CHAPTER 13 LESSON Handling Data 3 Framework objectives – Revision of statistical techniques Discuss how data relate to a problem. Tell the class that this activity is called ‘The A–to–Z of handling data’. 4 Primary data is data obtained directly by the person carrying out the research whereas secondary data has already been collected by someone else. 160 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 7 A frequency table is a table showing the number of times (frequency) that each particular value or item is recorded in a survey or experiment. The interquartile range is the difference between the upper and lower quartile values. 10 The mode is the most common value. in preparation for an investigation next lesson. a mean and a 4 What is the difference between primary and range for a set of data? secondary data? 11 How do you estimate the median and interquartile range 5 How can you choose a random sample from a group from a cumulative frequency graph (for large sets of of people? data). 7 What is a frequency table? planning a question and response section for a 8 Name as many different types of frequency diagrams questionnaire? as you can. the median is the middle value of an ordered set of data. You may wish to ask for a few suggestions and write them on the board. the range is the difference between the largest and smallest values. such as average. 5 A random sample of a group could be obtained by putting everyone’s name in a bag. then ask the groups to give you the topics to write on the board. ask the students to give you responses to the following types of questions. frequency polygon. and select the statistics most appropriate to the problem. etc. data collection sheet or observation sheet. to make sure they are familiar with the terms there. covering the meaning of each one. G Ask each group to think of as many handling data topics and words beginning with different letters of the alphabet as they can. bar chart. G Explain to the class that the lesson will be used to revise handling data topics that they have already covered. including primary and secondary sources. –. a median. 1 Avoid: leading questions. For example: the average of 2 and 4 is 3. Main lesson activity G Continuing from the oral and mental starter. any form of bias. G Give the groups a few minutes to discuss their answers. 6 What is a two-way table? 12 How do you estimate the mean for a table of grouped data. missing or overlapping responses. G Ask the groups to write down an example for each word they come up with. the mean is the total of all the values divided by the number of items of data. 10 How do you work out a mode. 6 A two-way table records two sets of related information within one table. 13. Extension Answers The vertical axis (population) starts at 56 500 000. lower and upper quartiles are obtained by reading off at – – — where n is the total –. 12 The estimate of the mean is calculated by multiplying the mid-class values by the frequency for that class. n n 3n 11 The median. grouped to show how the data is distributed. –. 3 Tally chart. 9 A stem–and–leaf diagram is an ordered set of numerical data. making population appear to more than double in ten years. 2 A census is a survey of a whole population. bias. G Ask the class to look through the table of vocabulary in the Pupil Book. data.1 Oral and mental starter G The class should work in small groups for this activity. 2 4 4 frequency. 2 What is a census? 9 What is a stem–and–leaf diagram? 3 Name some ways of recording data. It is in effect a bar chart using a list of numerical data.4% as stated. graph. then drawing a portion of the names out. Find summary values that represent the raw data.

7 cm. ‘cycle’ or ‘other’ b The categories overlap c 8.1 Sep 20.50.7 May 16. median and mean and explain the effect of an extreme value on the mean. mean = 11.8 Check that pie chart shows the following data: Class A B C D For this to be true the classes would have to Angle (°) 72 54 144 90 have equal numbers of students in.7 Feb 6. or ask the class if it is sensible to use a scatter graph for 5 pairs of data [there are probably not enough data to produce a meaningful graph].0 13.6 = 20. ‘it would be inappropriate to use the mean as one value has distorted the data’.7 Aug 23. mode = 1. but that it is equally important to be able to interpret them.7 b mode = 5.6 18. G Ask the class if it is appropriate to use a pie chart to represent 20 categories of data [with so many categories.4 kg.6 = 13.3 3.0 – 51. Answers 1 a Weight. Median = 62. mean = £3.35 cm Height. d Explain why these weights are not representative of the whole adult population. For example. commenting on how useful they are. W (kg) Tally |||| |||| | |||| || |||| || Frequency 4 6 7 5 2 c Weight (kg) W ≤ 40 W ≤ 50 W ≤ 60 W ≤ 70 W ≤ 80 W ≤ 90 Cumulative frequency 0 4 10 17 22 24 40 ≤ W < 50 50 ≤ W < 60 60 ≤ W < 70 70 ≤ W < 80 80 ≤ W < 90 b 60 ≤ W < 70 d Only males in results.3 Mar 9.7 – 125. 50.1 16.3 5. e.7 Jan 5. 2 a Histograms or line graphs drawn.50.9 kg. b Comment on the differences between the average monthly temperatures in Paris and Madrid. 60 ≤ W < 70 70 ≤ W < 80 draw the cumulative frequency graph and use it 80 ≤ W < 90 to calculate the median and interquartile range.8 19.41 mode = 18. IQR = 72.7 Apr 12. 50.Exercise 13A Answers 1 a Other categories not given.5 12.0 a Draw suitable graphs to represent both sets of data.7 7. b Average temperatures consistently higher in Madrid.15 AM is in two categories 2 a b 45% c 18 ≤ T < 20 d 14 ≤ T < 16 Boys Girls 12 ≤ T < 14 2 2 14 ≤ T < 16 4 1 16 ≤ T < 18 3 2 18 ≤ T < 20 0 4 20 ≤ T < 22 1 1 0 5 6 8 9 b 14 c 15 d 8 1 0 1 1 2 2 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 9 2 0 Key 0 | 6 means 6 students There are longer bars for females over 55 years old. Use the phrase. h (cm) Cumulative frequency 3 a 4 a b 5 a d 6 a b 7 a Key Words h ≤ 100 h ≤ 120 h ≤ 130 h ≤ 140 h ≤ 150 h ≤ 160 0 7 39 80 97 100 c Median = 132. mean = 20. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 161 .1 cm I I I I I I I I I I I I Plenary G Explain to the class that it is important to be able to draw appropriate statistical diagrams and calculate statistics such as averages. but a mean of 60 when the 100 is included. 2 These tables show the average monthly temperatures for Paris and Madrid over the course of one year. more men than women were killed in WWII (and WWI). the data 50. IQR = 138. a Use the data to copy and complete the frequency table.2 Dec 6. 100 give a mean of 50 when the 100 is excluded. data collection raw data primary source secondary source frequency table frequency diagram population pyramid scatter graph cumulative frequency lower quartile upper quartile interquartile range Homework 1 The weights (in kg) of 24 men are given below.9 16.5 Jun 20. mean = 5.7 9. median = 4.5 Oct 14. G Briefly refer to the mode. Females may live longer generally in France. median = 20.4 c mode = £4. W (kg) Tally Frequency 54 57 76 74 40 ≤ W < 50 b In which class is the median weight? 50 ≤ W < 60 c Complete a table of cumulative frequencies.7 7. Paris Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec °C Madrid °C 3. median = 5.g. median = £3.3 Nov 9. 50. 62 48 55 67 81 40 45 59 58 62 72 65 70 82 66 48 59 68 71 65 Weight. a bar chart might be easier to interpret].0 Jul 24. 8 Mean = 132.

the top 50. show the class the handling data cycle and the related checklist for completing a handling data investigation. rather than consecutive. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 G 162 . G [How to obtain data] Use pop charts from different sources (this information could be obtained from the Internet).’ G [Sample size] Look at. on p. Interpret graphs and diagrams and draw inferences to support or cast doubt on initial conjectures. but a singer in a band is more likely to be male than female. depending on the amount of detail asked for when carrying out the investigation. You could then suggest that the initial hypothesis needs to say that it refers to the most successful singers. so consider different types of chart. suitable graphical representation to progress an enquiry. so the weeks looked at should really be far apart in the year. using ICT as appropriate. G [Factors affecting results] Songs stay in the charts for several weeks. G [Foreseen problems] Charts will change from week to week – may need to use charts over several weeks. including ICT. say. Go through and consider how each point applies to the pop singers example from the oral and mental starter: G [Statement of topic] Compare number of male singers and female singers in the charts. Answers which they might say or be prompted to say could include: Make a list of known singers and bands Do a survey using the pop charts You could discuss the fact that the chart data will only look at the most successful singers and therefore may give a biased result. Solve substantial problems by breaking them into simpler tasks. The class can now do one of the investigations in Exercise 13B from Pupil Book 3. G [Hypothesis] ‘In the charts. record the number of males and females in each case. construct and modify. have a basic understanding of correlation. The list is also reproduced opposite. Identify possible sources of bias and plan how to minimise it. G [Identify what extra information may be required] Ask yourself the question. recognising the limitations of any assumptions and their effect on conclusions drawn. Analyse data to find patterns and exceptions. G [Limitations of any assumptions made] The mean number of weeks may be distorted by an extreme value (one singer may be in the charts for a relatively long time). “How can I extend this problem. 218 of Pupil Book 3. ‘A solo pop singer is more likely to be female than male. Main lesson activity G G G The activities given in this section could easily take two lessons. look for cause and effect and try to explain anomalies. or you may decide to provide the students with secondary data.2 Oral and mental starter G G G G Write on the board. using a range of efficient techniques. a solo singer is more likely to be female than male. G [Identify any sources of bias and plan how to minimise them] A chart may only look at one type of music. but a singer in a band is more likely to be male than female.LESSON Framework objectives – A handling data project Select.’ Ask the class how they could investigate this. Examine critically the results of a statistical enquiry. Continuing from the oral and mental starter. and justify choice of statistical representation in written presentations. methods and resources. You may wish to ask the students to collect certain data prior to the lesson. using more complex techniques which will provide more reliable results? G [Data collection sheet] Record the number of bands and the number of solo artists. Identify what extra information may be required to pursue a further line of enquiry. G [Conclusion] State whether you agree with initial hypothesis based on your results. graphs and diagrams in support. Represent in percentage bars or pie charts. Communicate interpretations and results of a statistical enquiry using selected tables. 13. working in small groups. on paper and using ICT. G [Analysis] Calculate average numbers per week.

Discuss how the problem can be extended using more complex data. using the interquartile range rather than the range in order to overcome problems with extreme values. 1 Complete the investigation started in the lesson by writing up the report.Plenary G Key Words I I I I I I I I conjecture hypothesis sample bias investigation extension enquiry limitations G G Having observed the students working on a choice of investigations. 2 Collect data in order to investigate the pop singers example. Checklist for completing a handling data investigation G Specify the problem and plan G statement of problem or topic to investigate G hypothesis stating what you think the investigation will show G how you will choose your sample and size G any practical problems you foresee G identify any sources of bias and plan how to minimise them G how you will obtain your data G identify what extra information may be required to extend the project G Collect data from a variety of sources G follow initial plan and use a suitable data-collection sheet G Process and represent data G analysis of your results using appropriate statistical calculations and diagrams G Interpret and discuss data G comparison of results with your original hypothesis G list of any factors which might have affected your results and how you could overcome these in future G consider the limitations of any assumptions made G a final conclusion Homework Choose one of the following tasks. analysing large sets of continuous data and carrying out more complex calculations. 3 Carry out and write up a detailed investigation of your own choice. you may wish to give one or more groups the opportunity to present their findings so far to the rest of the class. for example. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 163 . for example. It is important that the students are encouraged to be critical of their own work and that they can recognise any limitations.

Know and use the formulae for the circumference and area of a circle.1 Oral and mental starter G G G G G The class should work in pairs or small groups for this activity. Give the class a few minutes to discuss their answers. Main lesson activity G G G Once the class has finished writing down the formulae. The class can now do Exercise 14A from Pupil Book 3. 14. which they have already covered. Ask each pair or group to write down the formulae for the perimeter and the area of any 2-D shapes. area or volume. area and volume. Tell them that they are going to revise perimeter. Continue this activity until all the shapes are covered.CHAPTER 14 LESSON Shape. Space and Measures 4 Framework objectives – Shape and space revision Use units of measurement to calculate and solve problems in a variety of contexts. 164 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Now ask each pair or group to write down the formulae for the surface area and the volume of any 3-D shapes. Calculate the surface area and volume of right prisms. ask individual students to draw a shape on the board or OHT and below it give the formula for its perimeter.

and that they may need to use some of the formulae which they met during the present lesson.5 cm2 d i 39.3 cm ii 63.4 cm ii 78. Give your answers to one decimal place.6 cm2 c i 31. 3m 2m 5m 12 m Answers 1 a 45 cm2 b 24 cm2 c 180 cm2 d 60 cm2 2 a i 50. 6060 m2 Plenary G Key Words I I I I area circumference surface area volume Tell the class that in the next lesson they will be working on a shape and space investigation.Exercise 14A Answers 1 a i 12 cm ii 9 cm2 b i 28 cm ii 45 cm2 c i 16 cm ii 12 cm2 d i 52 cm ii 128 cm2 e i 30 cm ii 30 cm2 2 a i 18.7 cm2 3 a i 150 cm2 ii 125 cm3 b i 160 cm2 ii 100 cm3 c i 108 cm2 ii 48 cm3 d i 736 cm2 ii 960 cm3 4 a 226 cm3 b 295 cm3 c 7. a 5 cm 9 cm b 8 cm 6 cm c 12 cm 15 cm d 15 cm 6 cm 5 cm 2 Calculate i the circumference and ii the area of each of the following circles.8 cm ii 314.14 or use the π key on your calculator. Homework 1 Find the area of each of the following shapes.3 cm2 b i 28.3 cm ii 201.2 cm2 3 96 m3 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 165 .8 cm2 6 7. Take π = 3.1 cm Extension Answers 366 m.6 cm ii 124. a 8 cm b 20 cm 3 Calculate the volume of this prism.39 m3 5 a 6.1 cm2 b i 62.8 cm ii 28.4 cm b 31.

reasoned argument. G Summarise your results with a conclusion. or pairs or groups may choose their own investigation from the four given. Other solutions can now be found. The class can work in pairs or small groups. making all diagrams clear with all measurements shown. All the investigations are helpful to the preparation for the GCSE coursework assessment. G Put your results in a table with suitable headings. G Look for any patterns among the entries in the table. Main lesson activity G G G G G Each investigation given in this section will take up to two lessons to complete. For completeness. The whole class may undertake the same investigation. but intuition may tell them that other solutions may exist. w = 2. The use of algebra would also enhance the students’ work and should be encouraged wherever possible. using symbols. G If possible. they should find that the value of the perimeter equals the value of the area when l = 6 and w = 3.5. P = 2l + 2w and A = lw. P = 4l and A = l 2. (It could also be shown by drawing a graph. the area is always greater than the perimeter. when l = 10. Area (A) 1 4 9 16 25 From the table. l = 0 has no meaning.) Some students may be able to show that this is the only solution by using an algebraic approach. Clearly. explaining why. They should then check this using another example. conjecture and generalise: identify exceptional cases or counter-examples.3 G Oral and mental starter Ask individual students to give the formulae for the perimeter. They should see that this is the only solution. after the 4 × 4 square. They may use different approaches to the investigations and these should be noted. briefly go through the methods of doing an investigation: G Draw some easy examples first. For the rectangle to have the same value for P and A. 166 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 4l = l 2. by noticing that. l w l To extend the investigation. G Describe and explain any patterns which you spot. this can be shown by an algebraic approach: For a rectangle of length l and width w. G Try to find a rule or formula to explain each pattern. which gives: lw – 2w = 2l w( l – 2) = 2l 2l w = —— l–2 This shows that there are an infinite number of solutions. the students will notice that the 4 × 4 square has the same value for its perimeter and area. 1 It is expected that the students will draw a sequence of Size of square 1 × 1 2 × 2 3 × 3 4 × 4 5 × 5 squares and complete a table similar to the one on the right. For the square to have the same value for P and A. extend the investigation by introducing different questions. 2l + 2w = lw. Before the investigations are started. G Try another example to see whether your rule or formula does work. the area or the volume of various 2-D and 3-D shapes. 14. For example. diagrams and related explanatory text. Suggest extensions to problems.2 14. the students could consider rectangles. Note: the students may need centimetre-squared paper. l This is true only for l = 0 or l = 4. The students should always explain their choice of presentation and link all their diagrams with the text. The class can now do Exercise 14B from Pupil Book 3.LESSONS Framework objectives – Shape and space investigation Present a concise. Perimeter (P) 4 8 12 16 20 Note that units are not necessary for this investigation. For a square of side l. so l = 4 is the only solution. By drawing a number of rectangles. They may think that this is the only solution. Exercise 14B Answers The layout below for each investigation is minimal. Considering circles would also extend the investigation.

5% 21. where n is the length of the side of the square.Exercise 14B (cont’d) 2 The students should start by completing a table of results to Size of square l P A l:P l:A show the length (l). the number of bounces. The investigation could be extended by looking at cubes and considering the ratio of the length of a side to the surface area and the ratio of the length of a side to the volume.5% The students should now see that the percentage waste is always 21. • For a table of length l and width w. • When only l is odd (or a if simplified). the ball ends up in pocket C. b For a 6 × 2 table.5% 78.14 cm2 12. c After drawing different sized tables. the students should be able to spot various patterns. as shown below. the number of bounces. N. They should then present their results in a table. when the length and width of the table are reversed. 3 The students should start by considering squares of different sizes. N. • When l : w cannot be simplified. the students can see that the ratio l : P is 3×3 3 12 9 1:4 1:3 always 1 : 4 and the ratio l : A is 1 : n. • If only l is even (or a if simplified). but in all cases they should test their rules or formulae on further examples. with the ball always starting from pocket A. From the table.5 — – 2 4 4r So. the ball ends up in pocket B. An algebraic approach could also be used.57 cm2 28. there are two bounces.5% for squares of any size. The table on the right shows some results for 17 different tables.5%. The investigation could be extended to four coins stamped from a square or by considering rectangular sheets of metal. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 167 . write it as the ratio l : w. the students should complete a table to show their results. the percentage waste is 21. l : P = 1 : 4 and l : A = 1 : n. 1×1 1 4 1 1:4 1:1 They can then find the ratios l : P and l : A.27 cm2 Area of coin as % of area of square 78. A further example would show this. The area of the coin as a percentage of the area of the square is: π r2 π — × 100 = – × 100 = 78. (One decimal place is suggested. They will realise that it will be easier to use even numbers for the side of the square. Size of table 1×1 2×2 3×3 2×1 3×1 4×1 3×2 4×2 5×2 6×2 4×3 5×3 6×3 2×3 3×4 3×5 3×6 Number of bounces 0 0 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 2 5 6 1 3 5 6 1 Pocket C C C B C B D B D C B C B B D C D Plenary G Key Words I investigate I generalise Having observed the students working on the investigations. including square tables. The following is a summary. Homework Complete the investigation you started in the lesson. The students may write down these conditions.5% 21.5% 78. the number of bounces is the same but the ball may not end up in the same pocket. 2×2 2 8 4 1:4 1:2 From the table. For example: a square table has no bounces and the ball ends up in pocket C. 4 a For a 6 × 2 table.5% % waste 21.) Size of square 2 cm × 2 cm 4 cm × 4 cm 6 cm × 6 cm Area of square 4 cm2 16 cm2 36 cm2 Area of coin 3. the area of the square is 4r2 and the area of the coin is π r2. giving their final answers to a suitable degree of accuracy. They should now test their rules on new data. the ball goes down pocket C. For a square of side 2r. you may wish to discuss one of their choices. the ball ends up in pocket D. is given by the formula: N=l+w–2 • When l : w can be simplified to give the ratio a : b. They may be able to generalise: for a square of size n × n. is given by the formula: N=a+b–2 • When l and w (or a and b if simplified) are both odd. perimeter (P) and area (A) of the squares.

Now ask them to repeat the activity but to write down the order of rotational symmetry below each one. which they have already covered. Then ask them to write down how to find the number of planes of symmetry for a 3-D shape. ask individual students to draw a shape on the board or OHT and to insert its lines of symmetry or to give its order of rotational symmetry. 168 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . The class can now do Exercise 14C from Pupil Book 3. Give the class a few minutes to discuss their answers.4 Oral and mental starter G G G G G The class should work in pairs or small groups for this activity. and then to draw on them all the lines of symmetry. Ask each pair or group to draw and write down the names of any 2-D shapes. Main lesson activity G G G G Once the class have finished writing down their answers. Use rotations and reflections on paper. Tell them that they are going to revise reflection and rotational symmetry.LESSON Framework objectives – Symmetry revision Visualise and use 2-D representations of 3-D objects. Briefly remind them how to find the number of planes of symmetry for a 3-D shape by showing them that a cuboid has three planes of symmetry. Identify reflection symmetry in 3-D shapes. Continue this activity until it is clear that the class understand the concepts. 14.

© HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 169 . which has both reflection and rotational symmetry. Homework Design a logo for a badge for your school.Exercise 14C Answers 1 2 3 4 5 6 a 2 b 2 c 6 d 4 e 5 a 2 b 1 c 1 d 4 a 2 b 2 c 5 d 4 e 2 a 4 b 3 c 4 d 2 a 2 b 3 c 2 d 3 Cuboid with two square faces Plenary G Key Words I reflection symmetry I rotational symmetry I plane of symmetry Tell the class that in the next lesson they will be working on a symmetry investigation and that they may need to use some of the concepts which they met during the present lesson.

G Explain anything you notice from the diagrams. 14. briefly go through the methods of doing an investigation: G Draw some easy examples first. using symbols. reasoned argument. mirrors. conjecture and generalise: identify exceptional cases or counter-examples. All the investigations are helpful to the preparation for the GCSE coursework assessment. centimetre-squared paper and a selection of 3-D solids. The students should always explain their choice of presentation and link all their diagrams with the text. G If possible.LESSONS Framework objectives – Symmetry investigation Present a concise. The class can now do Exercise 14D from Pupil Book 3. G Summarise your results with a conclusion. Similarly for six. The investigation could be extended by using a different size of tile.5 14. The use of algebra would also enhance the students’ work and should be encouraged wherever possible. Examples are shown below. 170 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . This could now be usefully summarised in a table. They may use different approaches to the investigations and these should be noted. extend the investigation by introducing different questions. The class can work in pairs or groups and the class can all work on the same investigation or be allowed to make their own choice from the four investigations given. Exercise 14D Answers The layout below for each investigation is minimal. (Reflections and rotations are omitted. rotational symmetry and planes of symmetry. explaining why. Suggest extensions to problems. showing any lines of symmetry and/or stating the order of rotational symmetry on the diagrams. Main lesson activity G G G G Each investigation given in this section will probably take two lessons. the diagrams are the same as for four squares but with the shading reversed. Before the class start the investigation. G Describe and explain any patterns which you spot.) One square 1 line of symmetry 4 lines of symmetry Two squares 1 line of symmetry 2 lines of symmetry Three squares 1 line of symmetry 2 lines of symmetry Four squares 1 line of symmetry 4 lines of symmetry The students should now notice that for five shaded squares.6 G Oral and mental starter Ask individual students to explain reflection symmetry. 1 It is expected that the students will draw diagrams to show the number of lines of symmetry for a tile with different numbers of shaded squares. diagrams and related explanatory text. G Note: the students may need tracing paper. seven and eight squares.

the T-shape will fit in the 3 × 3 grid four times. the T-shape will fit inside the grid is given by: T = 4(n – 2)2 for n > 2 To extend the investigation. The students should be encouraged to show their results in a table. The table below shows the number of ways for three different square grids. They should test another example to confirm that the rule works. The students may also be able to use algebra in this investigation and arrive at a formula. it is useful for the students to have access to a collection of different solids. the students could consider rectangular grids or use a different shape. The students should now draw square grids of different sizes and find the number of ways in which the T-shape fits inside each grid. For an n × n grid. Size of grid Number of ways 3×3 4 4×4 16 5×5 36 The students should now be able to spot the rule: the numbers of ways give the even square numbers.Exercise 14D (cont’d) 2 There are 12 different pentominoes (excluding mirror images). © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 171 . the total number of ways. 3 Allowing rotations. you may wish to discuss one of their choices. The table below is not exhaustive. there are 35 different hexominoes. 3-D solid Cube Cuboid Regular tetrahedron Square-based pyramid Regular octahedron Regular triangular prism Regular pentagonal prism Regular hexagonal prism Cylinder Sphere Outline Square Rectangle Equilateral triangle Square Square Equilateral triangle Regular pentagon Regular hexagon Circle Circle Symmetry number 24 4 12 4 4 6 10 12 ∞ ∞ The students may notice that the symmetry number for any prism is twice the order of rotational symmetry for the cross-section of the prism. Pentomino Number of lines of symmetry Order of rotational symmetry Pentomino 4 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Number of lines of symmetry Order of rotational symmetry 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 For students who extend the investigation. 4 For this investigation. Plenary G Key Words I investigate I generalise Having observed the students working on the investigations. T. Homework Complete the investigation you started in the lesson.

Ask the students to explain how they have worked each answer out. If fair you would expect it to be close to –. in preparation for an investigation next lesson.CHAPTER 15 LESSON Handling Data 4 Framework objectives – Revision of probability Use the vocabulary of probability in interpreting results involving uncertainty and prediction. of which 10 are strawberry. 10 Relative frequency is an estimate of probability based on experimental data. 7 Mutually exclusive events are events that cannot happen at the same time. Identify all the mutually exclusive outcomes of an experiment. 4 red and 3 green cubes in a bag G not picking a blue cube in the above example 3 G it not raining. G rolling a 6 on a fair. 8 Exhaustive events are events that cover every possible outcome. 3 Two coins are thrown. Do you think that the dice is fair? Give a reason. a What is the probability of picking a strawberry sweet? b What is the probability of picking a sweet that is not strawberry? c A second box of sweets of the same make contains 300 sweets. to make sure they are familiar with the terms there. appreciate the difference between mathematical explanation and experimental evidence. six-sided dice G throwing a head on a fair coin G picking a blue cube when there are 3 blue. if the probability of rain is – 4 Main lesson activity G Continuing from the oral and mental starter. 4 6 1 A box contains 60 sweets. G You should look for answers which refer to the following. HT. Some examples are given below. 6 Independent events are events where the outcome of one event is not affected by the outcome of the other event and vice versa. 15. TH. six-sided dice G rolling a 3 or a 4 on a fair. 9 A tree diagram is used to help calculate combined probabilities for more than one event. How many different outcomes are there? 4 What is the difference between theoretical and experimental probability? 5 What could you do to test if a spinner is biased? 8 What are exhaustive events? 6 What are independent events? 9 When do you use a tree diagram? 7 What are mutually exclusive events? 10 What is relative frequency? 3 Four. know that the sum of probabilities of all mutually exclusive outcomes is 1 and use this when solving problems. Total number of trials G Ask the class to look through the table of vocabulary in the Pupil Book. Understand relative frequency as an estimate of probability and use this to compare outcomes of experiments. Number of successful trials Relative frequency = ————————————— . TT 4 Theoretical probability looks at equally likely outcomes whereas experimental probability is based on the results of an experiment or number of trials. six-sided dice G rolling an odd number on a fair. 172 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Compare experimental and theoretical probabilities in a range of contexts. Estimate probabilities from experimental data. G Ask the class a few simple probabilities. HH. ask the students to give you responses to the following types of questions. G The class can now do Exercise 15A from Pupil Book 3. how many would you expect to be strawberry? 2 A six-sided dice is rolled and lands on 6 four times out of 24 rolls.1 Oral and mental starter G Explain to the class that the lesson will be used to revise the probability topics they have already covered. 1 5 – – 1 a 10 or – b – c 50 60 6 6 1 1 2 It appears biased as 6 out of 24 is –. 5 Roll it many times and compare the results to see if the experimental probabilities are close to the theoretical probabilities based on the assumption that the spinner is fair.

2 c Probably not fair as the probabilities are quite different. 2 a Not mutually exclusive as 2 is both even and prime. THH. G Now ask them to work out the theoretical probabilities and compare with the experimental probabilities. b Not independent – the chances of winning with 2nd ticket are increased as there is 1 ticket fewer to choose from. 17 = 0. 20 = 0. 1 – = 0.7 0. c 0. HTT. because this occurs much less than the other numbers.6 Number of wins 4 7 10 15 19 Relative frequency 0. just by looking at these experimental frequencies. Extension Answers 1 a Independent as 2nd roll is not affected by outcome of 1st roll.8 Relative frequency of wins 0. c Not mutually exclusive as ‘at least one tail’ includes ‘two tails’. theoretical = 4 G Finally. c Exhaustive as all possible outcomes are included.8 0. HHT.2375.2125. 80 = 0. The results are shown below. c Not independent. which are all close to the theoretical 80 80 80 probability of 0. 16 = 0.4 0. The 2nd spinner is possibly biased: i as the frequencies are not close to 20 25 22 – – – – – – – – ii as the experimental probabilities are 80 = 0. d 30 5 a – b – c 20 5 5 5 a b You only know that 4 out of the first 5 games were won. Exercise 15A Answers 1 2 4 6 1 3 7 a 8.25.2625.76 d Number of games 1 5 10 15 20 25 0. Ask the class if they think the spinner is biased.67 0.3125. TTH. Number on spinner Frequency 1 12 2 5 3 10 4 13 G From inspection of the data.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Number of games Homework Two four-sided spinners are each spun 80 times.4 b 0.25. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 173 . HTH.76 0. which are not very close to the theoretical 80 80 probability of 0. THT.275. b Mutually exclusive as the outcomes do not overlap. which gives the results of spinning a four-sided spinner 40 times. point out that minor differences between expected frequencies and actual frequencies do not necessarily mean that there is bias. 80 = 0.25).75 0. 3 a Exhaustive as all possible outcomes are included. 1st spinner 2nd spinner Number on spinner Frequency Number on spinner Frequency 1 20 1 25 2 21 2 17 3 19 3 16 4 20 4 22 Answers The 1st spinner is probably not biased: i as the frequencies are all close to 20 21 – – – – – – – – ii as the experimental probabilities are 20 = 0. G Ask the class to explain the meaning of bias.12 b – or 0.Plenary G Explain to the class that it is important to be able to calculate probabilities from Key Words I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I event outcome random probability scale experimental probability theoretical probability relative frequency expectation bias fair sample sample space exhaustive independent mutually exclusive experimental and theoretical situations in order to make and test hypotheses. For each spinner state whether you think it is biased by comparing i the individual frequencies ii the experimental and theoretical probabilities. b Not exhaustive as the outcome landing on the number 3 is not included. G As an example.25.6 3 a 50 b 12 = 25 c 50 50 6 1 1 3 3 – – – – a 50 or 0. It could still be argued here that these are sufficiently close to 0.25. Point out that bias can be tested either by looking at raw data or by comparing experimental and theoretical probabilities. TTT b – c – d – 8 8 8 7 31 – – – – – 6 – – – a 0. Comparison of the experimental 5 – – with the theoretical probability verifies this conclusion (experimental = 40 = 0.125. the spinner appears to be biased against landing on 2. show the class the table below.25 to suggest the spinner is fair. 19 = 0. HHH.2.

2 Oral and mental starter G G G G Write on the board. G [Foreseen problems] Adults may be reluctant to answer the questions given. 232–233 of Pupil Book 3. Continuing from the oral and mental starter. “How can I extend this problem. G [Identify any sources of bias and plan how to minimise them] Avoid using all one age group for adults. if they were given a short briefing. show the class the handling data cycle and the related checklist for completing a probability investigation. G [Data collection] Record the number of correct and incorrect answers. ‘Teenagers are better at probability than adults’. G 174 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . G [Identify what extra information may be required] Ask yourself the question. and calculate the experimental probability of each answering a probability question correctly. Main lesson activity G G G The activities given in this section could easily take two lessons. depending on the amount of detail asked for when carrying out the investigation. Choosing the sample may be difficult. Go through and consider how each point applies to the example from the oral and mental starter: G [Statement of topic] Compare the abilities of teenagers and adults at probability. using more complex techniques which will provide more reliable results?” G [Analysis] Produce statistical diagrams to compare the success rates of teenagers and adults. You may wish to ask the students to collect certain data prior to the lesson or you may decide to provide the students with secondary data. G [Conclusion] State whether you agree with the initial hypothesis based on your results. on pp. Ask the class how they could investigate this. You may even want to test a different area of mathematics if using your fellow students as a sample. You could discuss how they would decide which people to use in the sample. 15. working in small groups. the number of people who declined to do the questions and any other factors which may affect your results. G [Sample size] Look at 30 teenagers and 30 adults. whereas adults may quickly understand the topic. appreciate the difference between mathematical explanation and experimental evidence. They could then record the results for their samples and compare the experimental probabilities of answering particular questions correctly for teenagers and adults. The list is also reproduced opposite. The class can now do Exercise 15B from Pupil Book 3. G [Limitations of any assumptions made] Children may have had a more recent experience than adults of work on probability. Students might suggest writing a set of probability questions to be given to both teenagers and adults. Understand relative frequency as an estimate of probability and use this to compare outcomes of experiments. It would not be sensible to use students in your class who have just revised probability. G [Hypothesis] ‘Teenagers are better at working out theoretical probabilities than adults’.LESSON Framework objectives – A probability investigation Compare experimental evidence in a range of contexts.

Checklist for completing a probability investigation G Specify the problem and plan G statement of problem or topic to investigate G hypothesis stating what you think the investigation will show G how you will choose your sample and size G any practical problems you foresee G identify any sources of bias and plan how to minimise them G how you will obtain your data G identify what extra information may be required to extend the project G Collect data from a variety of sources G follow initial plan and use a suitable data-collection sheet G Process and represent data G analysis of your results using appropriate statistical calculations and diagrams G Interpret and discuss data G comparison of results with your original hypothesis G list of any factors which might have affected your results and how you could overcome these in future G consider the limitations of any assumptions made G a final conclusion Homework Choose one of the following tasks.Plenary G Key Words I hypothesis I experimental data I mathematical explanation I statistical report I experimental probability I theoretical probability I Relative frequency G G G Having observed the students working on a choice of investigations. It is important that the students are encouraged to be critical of their own work and that they can recognise any limitations. Discuss the effect of a small number of trials on the reliability of any relative frequencies as estimates of theoretical probability. you may wish to give one or more groups the opportunity to present their findings so far to the rest of the class. Discuss how the problem can be extended using more complex analysis. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 175 . 2 Collect data in order to investigate the ability of teenagers and adults at working out theoretical probabilities. then carry out and write up another detailed investigation of your own choice. 1 Complete the investigation started in the lesson by writing up the report. 3 If you have completed the report of your first investigation.

They should find that x = 1 quickly (answers can be written on mini white boards). either x – 1 = 0 ⇒ x = 1. x + 3 = 0 (–3). which should be that either a or b should be zero in each case. Ask students to write their answers down on mini white boards as a = ? and b = ?. Ask students if they can find a value for x that solves the quadratic equation x2 + 6x – 7 = 0. Repeat with x + 4 = 0 (–4). or x + 7 = 0 ⇒ x = –7. i. The class can now do Exercise 16A from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10K (page 256) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. So. Discuss the common characteristics. Check answers. but are unlikely to spot the answer of x = –7.CHAPTER 16 LESSON GCSE Preparation Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Solving quadratic equations. Now ask students to write down a value for x that will make (x – 2)(x + 4) = 0. x – 3 = 0 (3).e. First. Once again check answers. 16. Outline the method. x2 + 6x – 7 = 0 ⇒ (x – 1)(x + 7) = 0.1 Oral and mental starter G G G G G G Ask students to mentally solve x – 1 = 0. Hopefully they will be either x = 2 or x = –4. x2 + 4x + 3 = 0 (x = –1 or –3). Some could be written on the board. 176 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Repeat with other examples such as: x2 – x – 6 = 0 (x = 3 or –2). factorise and then solve each bracket equal to zero. Now ask students to give two values for a and b that solve a × b = 0. They may spot the answer x = 1. Do more examples if necessary. x2 – 8x + 15 = 0 (x = 3 or 5). Main lesson activity G G G G G G G This is a lesson on solving quadratics that factorise.

1 They should find – fairly quickly. Give a clue that the other answer is a fraction between 0 and 1. They may spot x = 1 as a solution. then solve these equations. 2 Do more examples with a non-unit coefficient of x2. 2 Discuss ways that this could be solved mathematically. The students may establish that the factorisation is (x – 1)(2x – 1) = 0 and that 1 these brackets solve to 1 and –. a (x + 3)(x – 4) = 0 d (x + 5)(x + 2) = 0 a x2 + 8x + 15 = 0 d x2 – 9x + 14 = 0 b (x – 1)(x + 6) = 0 e (x – 3)(x + 6) = 0 b x2 + 13x + 30 = 0 e x2 + 4x – 21 = 0 c (x – 7)(x + 6) = 0 f (x – 9)(x – 3) = 0 c x2 + 4x – 5 = 0 f x2 – 4x + 4 = 0 2 First factorise.Exercise 16A Answers 1 a f 2 a f l x = –1 or 1 b x = 2 or –5 c x = 3 or –6 d x = –4 or –3 e x = –2 or –7 x = 3 or 8 g x = 8 or –1 h x = –3 i x = 4 x = –1 or –2 b x = –5 or –6 c x = –2 or –4 d x = 3 or 2 e x = 5 or 2 x = 1 or 4 g x = –5 h x = 4 i x = 5 or –3 j x = 3 or –5 k x = 6 or –4 x = 3 or –2 m x = 9 or 1 n x = 6 or –3 p x = –1 Plenary G G G G G G Key Words I quadratic equations I unitary coefficient Ask the students if they can solve 2x2 – 3x + 1 = 0. such as 2x2 – 5x + 3 = 0. Homework 1 Solve these equations. Answers 1 a x = –3 or 4 b x = 1 or –6 c x = 7 or –6 d x = –5 or –2 e x = 3 or –6 f x = 9 or 3 2 a x = –5 or –3 b x = –3 or –10 c x = 1 or –5 d x = 2 or 7 e x = 3 or –7 f x = 2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 177 . if time allows.

41(1 × 5 + 12 × 3). The answer is 2 3 2 × –5 + 6 × 3 = 8. They may have an intuitive idea of the answer but they also need to have a method outlined. G G G G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G This is a lesson on factorising quadratics with a non-unit coefficient for x2. –3(3 × –5 + 4 × 3). Suggest to the students that negative values could be used. 16. Ask the students to factorise 2x2 + 9x + 4. e. Now find a combination that gives the coefficient of x. Example: Factorise 6x2 – 17x + 12. The class can now do Exercise 16B from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10L (page 257) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook.e. 6 –5 Repeat with totals of 24(2 × 15 + 6 × –1). 2 × 6. 1 2 3 1 3 12 6 4 15 5 Ask the students to find a combination of products using one pair of factors from each side that give a total of 28.e. Students have met the idea in previous plenaries. Now ask for the total 8. This first exemplar may need to be demonstrated i. Do more examples if necessary. 178 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . where a > 1.g. 1 × 12. Example: Find factors of the x2 coefficient and of the constant term. (x + 4)(2x + 1). There are several methods. Do more examples if time available. By trial and improvement we can find that the combination (3x – 4)(2x – 3) works. 2 3 2 × 5 + 6 × 3 = 28.e. For 2x2 + 9x + 4. 1 1 1×1+2×4=9 2 4 The brackets are then the ‘opposite’ to the pairs i. i. but a method for solution has not been outlined.2 G Oral and mental starter Give students the factors of 12 in pairs and the factors of 15 on each side of a vertical line. 27(3 × 5 + 4 × 3 or 1 × 15 + 12 × 1).LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Factorisation of quadratics of the form ax2 + bx + c. The brackets must start (3x …)(2x …) or (6x …)(x …) and the constant term has factors 3 × 4. two of which are outlined in the Pupil Book. the factors of 2 are 1 × 2 and the factors of 4 are 1 × 4. 6 5 Repeat with totals of 29(3 × 3 + 4 × 5).

a (3x + 1)(x – 4) d (3x – 2)(3x + 2) a 2x2 – 7x – 4 d 4x2 + 23x – 6 g 5x2 – 26x + 5 b (3x – 1)(x + 5) e (3x – 1)2 c (2x – 1)(2x + 3) f (2x + 5)2 c 3x2 + 5x – 2 f 6x2 + 11x + 3 i 4x2 – 16x + 15 2 Factorise the following quadratic expressions.Exercise 16B Answers 1 a 2x2 + 11x + 5 b 3x2 + 9x – 12 c 4x2 – 18x + 20 d 6x2 – 15x – 21 e 4x2 + 24x + 36 f 9x2 – 24x + 16 g 6x2 – 22x – 8 h 8x2 + 10x – 3 i 4x2 – 1 2 a (2x + 1)(x + 3) b (x + 2)(2x + 5) c (x + 4)(3x + 1) d (x – 1)(2x + 1) e (2x + 1)(3x + 2) f (x – 2)(2x + 3) g (x + 3)(2x – 3) h (2x + 1)2 i (4x – 1)(x + 2) j (5x + 1)(x + 2) k (3x – 1)(x + 1) l (4x + 1)(2x + 1) m (x – 2)(3x + 1) n (2x + 1)(3x – 1) p (4x + 1)(x – 3) q (2x – 3)(2x + 5) r (x – 7)(2x + 5) s (x – 5)(2x + 5) t (3x – 1)(x + 5) u (3x + 1)2 v (2x + 3)(5x – 1) Plenary G G Key Words I quadratic equations I non-unitary coefficients G Ask the students if they can solve the quadratic equation 2x2 – 3x – 2 = 0. Homework 1 Expand these brackets into quadratic expressions. b 2x2 + 13x + 15 e 6x2 – 5x + 1 h 6x2 – 5x – 6 Answers 1 a 3x2 – 11x – 4 b 3x2 + 14x – 5 c 4x2 + 4x – 3 d 9x2 – 4 e 9x2 – 6x + 1 f 4x2 + 20x + 25 2 a (2x + 1)(x – 4) b (2x + 3)(x + 5) c (3x – 1)(x + 2) d (4x – 1)(x + 6) e (3x – 1)(2x – 1) f (3x + 1)(2x + 3) g (x – 5)(5x – 1) h (3x + 2)(2x – 3) i (2x – 3)(2x – 5) © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 179 . if time allows.g. (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 giving x = – – or x = 2 2 Repeat with other examples. such as 3x2 – 5x – 2 = 0. 1 e. They should be able to put all previous ideas together to explain the process of factorisation and solving each bracket.

This is not in the correct form to factorise and solve. The equation above then becomes x2 + x – 12 = 0. 1 2x2 – 14x = 6 – 3x ⇒ 2x2 – 11x – 6 = 0 ⇒ (2x + 1)(x – 6) = 0 ⇒ x = – – or 6. 180 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 12x 3 4 4 2 Do more examples if necessary.3 G G G G G Oral and mental starter 1 Ask students to mentally solve 2x – 1 = 0. 16. Ask students if they can find a value for x that solves the quadratic equation 2x2 – x – 1 = 0. 3 2 1 3 1 2 + 5x – 2 = 0 ( x = – – or –). Repeat with 2x(x – 7) = 6 – 3x. so either x – 1 = 0 ⇒ x = 1 or 1 2x + 1 = 0 ⇒ x = – –. The class can now do Exercise 16C from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10M (page 258) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. They should find that x = –. 4x – 3 = 0 ( – ). where a > 1. 3 Do more examples if necessary. which can be factorised and solved to give x =3 or –4. 2x + 3 = 0 (–1–). 5x – 1 = 0 ( –). First factorise and then solve each bracket equal to zero. 8x2 – 14x – 15 = 0 (x = – – or 2–). 3 4 2 5 2 3x – 2 = 0 ( –).e. 2 1 Once again check answers. Encourage students to always rearrange quadratic equations into the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. This must be expanded and then collected into the correct form. Now ask students to write down a value for x that will make (3x – 2)(4x + 1) = 0. They should be x = – or x = – –. but are unlikely to spot the answer of – –. 1 They may spot the answer x = 1. Answers 2 can be written on mini white boards. i. 2 Outline the method. 1 3 1 1 Repeat with 3x + 4 = 0 (–1–). 2x2 – x – 1 = 0 ⇒ (2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0. 3 4 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G This is a lesson on solving quadratic equations with non-unitary coefficients. 2 Do more examples if necessary. Ask students to solve the quadratic equation x2 + x = 12. 2 1 Repeat with other examples such as 3x2 + 2x – 1 = 0 (x = – or –1).LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Solving quadratic equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0.

Outline the method of solution ( x2 – 1)( x2 – 4) = 0. Repeat with 4x4 – 37x2 + 9 = 0. 2 Homework 1 Solve these equations. Ask students if they can spot any of the solutions. So. 1 (4x2 – 1)(x2 – 9) = 0 ⇒ x = ± – or ±3. Explain that the equation has 4 solutions since the highest power of x is 4. x2 – 1 = 0 ⇒ x2 = 1 ⇒ x = ±1 or x2 – 4 = 0 ⇒ x2 = 4 ⇒ x = ±2. They may spot 1 and 2 but may not spot –1 and –2. a 2x2 – 15x + 7 = 0 d 24x2 + 14x – 5 = 0 2 Solve these equations a x2 + x = 6 b 2x(x + 4) = 3(x – 1) b 3x2 – 5x + 2 = 0 e 6x2 + 23x + 20 = 0 c 2x2 – 9x – 5 = 0 f 6x2 – 23x + 7 = 0 c 8x2 – 3x + 4 = 2x2 + 2x + 3 Answers 1 2 1 1 5 1 a 7 or – b – or 1 c – – or 5 d – or – – 2 3 2 4 6 1 1 1 2 a 2 or –3 b –3 or – c – or – 2 3 2 1 1 e –2– or –1– 2 3 1 1 f 3– or – 2 3 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 181 .Exercise 16C Answers 1 a f k 2 a f 1 1 1 1 1 1 x = – or 3 b x = 2 or – – c x = –4 or – d x = –1– or – e x = –6 or – 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 x = –2 or – g x = –2– or – – h x = – or – – i x = –1– j x = – or – 4 2 3 3 2 2 4 5 1 2 1 1 5 2 x = 2– or – l x = –– m x = – n x = – – or 1 p x = –1– or 2 2 3 3 2 6 3 1 2 1 x = –2 or 1 b x = 1 or –1 c x = – – or 1 d x = – – or 1 e x = – or 2 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 – g x = 5 or –5 h x = – – or 1– i x = – – or – x=2 2 3 4 5 Plenary G G G G G Key Words I quadratic equations I non-unitary coefficients I roots Write the following equation on the board x4 – 5x2 + 4 = 0.

85 or –2. b = 3.75 or –1. not just the square root. b and c are the coefficients of x2. Work through some examples but encourage students to follow some basic principles: Substitute values in brackets before attempting to work anything out.403 +3.403 So.25). –0. c = –4. Repeat with x2 – 4x – 1 = 0. — 2 2 2 — – — – — – –3 – √ 52 –5 + √ 31 –1 – √ 13 Repeat with ————– (≈ –2.3508 4 4 Answers are normally given to 2 decimal places.72.25).403 Now evaluate the square root x = —————– = —————– 2(2) 4 –3 + 6.25).39). 4 2 4 — – –4 + √ 21 ————– (≈ 0. x and the constant term in the general quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.4 Oral and mental starter G G G — – –4 + √ 41 –4 + 6. Take particular care with: The change of sign of b.25 or –6. 16.5 Ask students to estimate the value of ————– ≈ ———— = — = 1. 4 ( ) Main lesson activity G G G G G G This is a lesson that introduces the quadratic formula. — – – – 4 ± √20 The answers are — — – or 2 ± √ 5 . Example: Solve 2x2 + 3x – 4 = 0. the solutions are x = —————– = ———– = 0. so x = 0.25). First.8508 or 4 4 –3 – 6.5 2. identify a. Repeat with 3x2 – 4x – 2 = 0 (1. ————– (≈ 0. G 182 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . particularly if it is negative Working out 4 × a × c correctly particularly if c is negative. Dividing the whole top line by 2a. 2 — – –1 ± √17 ————– (≈ 0. but this time leave the answer in surd form.403 –9. b and c (a = 2. ————– (≈ –1. — — 2 The class can now do Exercise 16D from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10N (page 259) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. Introduce the formula: ———— –b ± √ b2 – 4ac x = ———————— 2a and explain that a. 2 — – –5 ± √ 60 Repeat with (two answers required) ————– (≈ 1. Squaring b inside the root.5).25 .35.1). ——— —— —— –(3) ± √ (3)2 – 4(2)(–4) Substitute into the formula x = ———————————– 2(2) — – –(3) ± √ 41 –3 ± 6.LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number The quadratic formula.403 —————– = ———– = –2.

22 b 1.20 or –1. This gives three situations 2 roots G 1 (repeated) root No roots This will be useful for the investigation that ends this chapter.16 f x = 0.56 or 0.16 or –6.22 or –0.64 b x = 1.45 – — – — – — – – – — 4 ± √ 24 –6 ± √ 40 –5 ± √ 33 3 a ———— or 2 ± √ 6 b ———–— or –3 ± √ 10 c ———–— 2 2 2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 183 .Exercise 16D Answers 1 a f 2 a d g 1 1 x = 4 or –6 b x = 1 or –7 c x = –2 or – d x = 2– or –4 e x = 0 or –5 2 2 x = 6 or –6 x = 1.22 e x = 0.19 or –2. giving your answer in surd form.44 – – – — – — – – – – (3 ± √ 5 ) –4 ± √ 20 –4 ± √ 12 3 a ———— b ————– or –2 ± √ 5 c ————– or –2 ± √ 3 2 2 2 – – – — – — – – – — – – –2 ± √ 8 –10 ± √ 92 –6 ± √ 32 d ————– or –3 ± √ 8 e ————— or –5 ± √ 23 f ———— or –1 ± √ 2 2 2 2 Plenary G G G Key Words I quadratic formula I coefficients G G Ask students to solve 2x2 + 3x + 5 = 0 using the quadratic formula.32 or –5.82 or 0.32 x = 2. Homework 1 Solve these equations using the quadratic formula. 4 Explain that when a quadratic equation is solved.69 or –1.26 c x = 1. a x2 + 4x – 5 = 0 a x2 + 7x – 10 = 0 a x2 – 4x – 2 = 0 b 2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0 b 2x2 – x – 4 = 0 b x2 + 6x – 1 = 0 c 6x2 – 19x + 10 = 0 c 4x2 + x – 7 = 0 c x2 + 5x – 2 = 0 2 Solve these equations.19 c 1. All answers are whole numbers or fractions.14 or –2.69 x = 1. The formula gives —–– –3 ± √ –31 x = ————– which cannot be solved due to the square root. 3 Solve these equations.19 or –0. Answers 1 2 1 1 a 1 or –5 b – or –3 c – or 2– 2 3 2 2 a 1.59 or –1. the roots are where the graph crosses the x-axis.69 i x = 4.22 or –8. giving your answers to 2 decimal places.18 h x = 2. This example could be worked through on the board by a student.

x2 + 6x – 7 = (x + 3)2 – 9 – 7 = (x + 3)2 – 16. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G This is a lesson on completing the square. — – — – Repeat with x2 – 6x – 2 = 0 (x = 3 ±√ 11 ) and x2 + 10x + 15 = 0 (x = –5 ± √ 10 ). Example: Solve x2 + 6x – 4 = 0. — – x2 + 6x – 4 = 0 ⇒ (x + 3)2 – 13 = 0 ⇒ (x + 3)2 = 13 ⇒ x + 3 = ±√ 13 ⇒ — – x = –3 ± √ 13. x2 – 4x – 3 ((x – 2)2 – 7) and x2 + 30x + 100 ((x + 15)2 – 125). Repeat with x2 + 12x ((x + 6)2 – 36). inside the bracket is half the coefficient of x. x2 + 6x = (x + 3)2 – 9. Repeat with other examples such as –32 + 5 (answer –4). 184 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 16. –42 – 1 (answer –17).5 G G G G Oral and mental starter Ask students to fill in the missing number in problems such as –22 – 9 = ? (Answer –13). Now ask if they can fill in the missing numbers in x2 + 4x – 3 = (x + …)2 – … . The value of a is half the coefficient of x. Example: Write x2 + 6x – 7 in the form (x + a)2 – b. So. So. Discuss how this relates to the identities established at the start of the lesson. The value b is the sum of the existing constant term and the square as before. Repeat with x2 + 12x + 15 ((x + 6)2 – 21). Demonstrate how to solve equations using completing the square. x2 – 4x ((x – 2)2 – 4) and x2 + 30x ((x + 15)2 – 225). Ask students to expand (x – a)2 and (x + a)2. Example: Write x2 + 6x in the form (x + a)2 – b. The class can now do Exercise 16E from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10P (page 260) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. Work through the following examples on completing the square. a. Make sure that students understand that –32 = –(3 squared) and not (–3) squared. Eventually they will probably come up with the answer (x + 2)2 – 7.LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Solving quadratics by completing the square. Hopefully they will get the answer x2 – 2ax + a2 and x2 + 2ax + a2. Repeat with more examples if necessary. The value b is the square of this. The value. Complete more examples if necessary.

particularly when taking a square root — – 1 1 1 1 1 1 i. a x2 + 12x a x2 + 12x – 9 a x2 + 12x – 9 = 0 d x2 – 10x + 5 = 0 b x2 – 6x b x2 – 6x + 3 b x2 – 6x + 3 = 0 e x2 + 4x – 7 = 0 c x2 – 20x c x2 – 20x + 100 c x2 – 20x + 100 = 0 f x2 – 8x – 5 = 0 2 Rewrite the following quadratic expressions by completing the square. 2 2 2 Homework 1 Complete the square for the following. ⇒ (x + 1)2 = 2– ⇒ x + 1 = ±√ 2– ⇒ x = –1 ± √ 2– . Answers 1 a (x + 6)2 – 36 b (x – 3)2 – 9 c (x – 10)2 – 100 2 a (x + 6)2 – 45 b (x – 3)2 – – c (x – 10)2 6 – — – – — 3 a x = –6 ± √ 45 b x = 3 ± √ 6 c x = 10 d x = 5 ± √ 20 – — e x = –2 ± √ 11 – — f x = 4 ± √ 21 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 185 . The odd coefficient of x will cause problems. 3 Solve the following quadratic equations using the completing the square method.Exercise 16E Answers 1 a f 2 a f 3 a f l (x + 4)2 – 16 b (x – 1)2 – 1 c (x – 6)2 – 36 d (x – 7)2 – 49 e (x + 2)2 – 4 (x + 1)2 – 1 (x + 4)2 – 17 b (x – 1)2 + 2 c (x – 6)2 – 31 d (x – 7)2 – 42 e (x + 2)2 – 7 (x + 1)2 – 6 g (x + 3)2 – 11 h (x + 5)2 – 34 i (x – 3)2 – 6 – — – — – — x = –4 ± √ 17 b x = 3 or –1 c x = 6 ± √ 31 d x = 7 ± √ 42 e x = –5 or 1 – – – – – — – – – — – — x = 3 ± √ 11 g 5 ± √ 24 h 3 ± √ 5 i 4 ±√ 11 j x = 1 ± √ 2 k x = –1 ± √ 6 – — x = –6 ± √ 43 Plenary G G G Key Words I completing the square I coefficient G G Ask students to solve x2 + 3x – 2 = 0 using the completing the square method.e. x2 + 3x – 2 = 0 ⇒ (x + 1–)2 – 4– = 0 ⇒ (x + 1–)2 = 4– ⇒ x + 1– = ±√ 4– 2 4 2 4 2 4 — – 1 1 ⇒ x = –1– ± √ 4– . 2 4 Now ask students to solve 2x2 + 4x – 3 = 0 using the completing the square method. A student could be asked to come to the board to give the solution. 2x2 + 4x – 3 = 0 ⇒ 2(x2 + 2x) – 3 = 0 ⇒ 2[(x + 1)2 – 1] – 3 = 0 ⇒ 2(x + 1)2 – 2 – 3 = 0 — – — – 1 1 1 2(x + 1)2 = 5.

Make sure that they understand the answer is ±2x. Repeat with the square roots of 9y2. 81x2. They will obviously give the answer of 9. Start by asking students to expand expressions of the type (x + 2)(x – 2) = (x2 – 4) e.LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Difference of two squares. Emphasise that it is important to identify both squares since failure to do this can lead to errors such as (x – 36)(x + 36). The class can now do Exercise 16F from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10J (page 255) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G This is a lesson on factorising the quadratic the difference of two squares. Discuss with students the similarities between the results. Now ask students for the square root of x2. (3x – 6)(3x + 6) = (9x2 – 36) etc.e. They will. 9x2 – 16y2 ((3x – 4y)(3x + 4y)). Now ask if students can reverse the result. 25x2. (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = (4x2 – 1). can they factorise x2 – 36? Explain that this can be written down as x2 – 62 = (x – 6)(x + 6). (x – 4)(x + 4) = (x2 – 16). Remind them that both answers are possible.g. Establish the result (a – b)(a + b) = a2 – b2.6 G G G G G Oral and mental starter Ask students to find the square root of 81. 186 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Explain that this is known as the difference of two squares. 4x2 – 9 ((2x – 3)(2x + 3)). 16z2. give ±x as the answer. Do more examples if necessary. hopefully. Repeat with x2 – 100 ((x –10)(x + 10)). i. Some will give the answer ±4x. Now ask for the square root of 4x2. (answers can be written on mini white boards) but may not give –9. Eventually ask for the expansion of (a – b)(a + b). 16. 100y2 etc.

Discuss the advantages of both methods. Now.Exercise 16F Answers 1 a x2 – 1 b x2 – 25 c x2 – y2 d 2 a (x – 10)(x + 10) b (x – 2)(x + 2) e (x – 8)(x + 8) f (x – 11)(x + 11) i (x – 3y)(x + 3y) j (4x – 3)(4x + 3) m (3 – x)(3 + x) n (2x – 6)(2x + 6) 4x2 – 1 e x2 – 4y2 f 4x2 – 9y2 c (x – 6)(x + 6) d (x – 9)(x + 9) g (x – z)(x + z) h (2x – 5)(2x + 5) k (2x – 5y)(2x + 5y) l (5x – 8)(5x + 8) p (6x – 1)(6x + 1) Plenary G G Key Words I difference of two squares G G G G Ask the students to simplify (x + 2)2 – (x – 4)2. Answers 1 a x2 – 121 b 4x2 – 9 c 25x2 – 4y2 2 a (x – 12)(x + 12) b (x – 15)(x + 15) c (2x – 6)(2x + 6) d (9x – 8)(9x + 8) e (x – 2y)(x + 2y) f (4x – 11)(4x + 11) g (x – 3z)(x + 3z) h (2x – 5y)(2x + 5y) i (9x – 4y)(9x + 4y) © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 187 . If possible. i. write the above as: ((x + 2) – (x – 4))((x + 2) + (x – 4)) = (x + 2 – x + 4)(x + 2 + x – 4) = (6)(2x – 2) = 12x – 12.e. Using brackets (because of the minus signs). a (x + 11)(x – 11) a x2 – 144 d 81x2 – 64 g x2 – 9z2 b (2x – 3)(2x + 3) b x2 – 225 e x2 – 4y2 h 4x2 – 25y2 c (5x – 2y)(5x + 2y) c 4x2 – 36 f 16x2 – 121 i 81x2 – 16y2 2 Factorise the following quadratic expressions. i. (x + 2)(x + 2) – (x – 4)(x – 4) = (x2 + 4x + 4) – (x2 – 8x + 16) = x2 + 4x + 4 – x2 + 8x – 16 = 12x – 12. ask a student who wants to expand brackets to work through the problem on the board. any values or expressions can be used for a and b in a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b). Some students may recognise this as the difference of two squares. ask if the original expression could be written in any other way.e. Homework 1 Expand these brackets into quadratic expressions. Make sure that the students understand that the difference of two squares is an identity.

Then look at graphs of y = x2 + 1. You should use a graph plotting program or a graphical calculator to help you. y = 3x2 etc. x2 – 3x. x2 + 5x etc. Then look at graphs of y = x2 + 2x. The investigation will take more than one lesson. b and c on the graph.7 Oral and mental starter There is no starter as the investigation will need to be introduced via a class discussion. The vertex also could be investigated via the completing the square method. Main lesson activity The investigation in the Pupil Book is reproduced here. You will gain credit for a systematic investigation into the effect of a. For example. b and c individually they could then look at more general equations. Once they have an idea of the effect of a. y = x2 + 3 etc. y = x2 – 2. Q (where the graph crosses the x-axis). they could start by looking at graphs of y = x2. You will not gain any credit for spending a lot of time drawing graphs accurately. Investigate the relationship between the values a. 16. The graph of a quadratic equation has a characteristic shape called a parabola. the point R (where the graph crosses the y-axis) and the point S (the ‘vertex’ or turning point of the graph). b and c in the graph y = ax2 + bx + c and the points P. y y = ax2 + bx + c P R S Q x Introduce the investigation and ask the students to suggest ideas for getting started.LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number An investigation into y = ax2 + bx + c. y = 2x2. Students will need access to graphical calculators or computers with a graph-drawing application package. 188 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . Students should be encouraged to look at the roots from the quadratic formula or the completing the square method.

74 6 a 9x2y6 b 3. –0. –0.GCSE Answers 1 0 and 5 2 a (x – 4)(x – 2) b x = 4.14. This can be helpful for students who are having difficulty but avoid the ‘bush fire’ effect of one student giving the rest of the group the answer. Students could be stopped working at various points and a general discussion on progress could be held.64 7 1.74. Key Words I I I I I roots factors vertex intersect coefficient Homework Students could be asked to continue the work at home if they have computer facilities or asked to look on the Internet for information on the quadratic equation.28.78 8 a = 9 b = 2 c = –5 9 a = –5 b = –7 10 p = 2 q = –4 Plenary There is no plenary. x = 2 3 a i 3( pq – 2r) ii (c – 4)(c – 5) b x = –7 or x = 2 p–5 4 a (3p + 1)( p + 5) b ——— 3p + 1 5 –5. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 189 . 1.

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so your answer has to 50% of 460 = 230 follow the same method as the example.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 RACTICE PAPER ANSWERS AND TUTORIAL Question 1 Mark 3 Answer 8 grey cubes 12 white cubes 6 dotted cubes 1 striped cube 8 grey cubes 24 white cubes 24 dotted cubes 8 striped cubes Total 64 cubes Tutorial Part (a) numbers right. You have to realise that there are 64 cubes altogether. 25% of 460 = 115 • You will be given some credit for using a different correct method such as the method shown in part (a): 10% of 460 = 46 20% of 460 = 92 5% of 460 = 23 25% of 460 is 92 + 23 = 115 Total 4 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 1 . • You can still gain 1 mark if you get three of the four (b) 2 • You might need to make a drawing of a 4 × 4 × 4 cube. • You will be given some credit for using a different correct method such as the method shown in part (b): 50% of 180 is 90 25% of 180 = 45 Part (a) • This question is testing whether you can understand a (b) 2 For full marks you have • Again this question is testing whether you can to show something like: understand a rule and carry it out. so your answer has to follow the same method as the example. Total 5 Question 2 Mark 2 Answer For full marks you have to show something like: 10% of 180 = 18 20% of 180 = 36 5% of 180 = 9 25% of 180 is 36 + 9 = 45 Tutorial rule and carry it out. • You can count cubes of each type that are showing. or get the right numbers in the wrong order. or get the right numbers in the wrong order. • You can still gain 1 mark if you get three of the four numbers right.

The ﬁrst is the traditional method: 2 0 r. One way is the grid 200 20 2 50 5000 500 5500 or × 250 22 500 5000 5500 4000 1000 400 100 • An answer of 5500 gains 2 marks. You can still gain this mark for dividing by 100. There are a couple of ways of doing long division. 5 Total © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 2 0 r. • This is long multiplication.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Question 3 Mark 2 Answer 21 packs Tutorial Part a) • This is long division. • To gain the last mark you need to convert your answer from pence to pounds. • An answer of 21 gains 2 marks. or say 20 packs. you will only gain 1 mark. If you make one mistake you can still gain 1 mark. 2 1 5500 p £55 b) method. 10 12) 2 5 0 2 4 1 0 0 1 0 • As the remainder is fairly easy to work out you may have done this as a short division. 10 12) 2 5 1 0 • Another method is the method of repeated subtraction: 2 5 0 10 × 12 = 1 2 0 1 3 0 10 × 12 = 1 2 0 1 0 The number of 12s in 250 is 20 remainder 10. even if your calculation is wrong. If you make one mistake. This means dividing by 100. which means that the school will need 21 packs. • There are several ways of doing this.

so the other tower is 8 cubes high. Another acceptable answer is 7 + n. Many different reasons could be acceptable such as. You can combine these by writing an equation m + 6 = 4m. You cannot change letters. • Each tower has the same number of cubes. It is safer to write down the expression without using equals signs and not to try to simplify the answer unless the question says ‘write your answer as simply as possible’ or ‘simplify your answer’. ‘It does not show how many games each team won’. Suppose the number of cubes is 20 then m would be 5 as 5 × 4 = 20. but x + 7 is wrong. Team B scored 3 or more goals in 10 matches (5 + 2 + 3). Total 4 Question 5 Mark 2 Answer 59 Tutorial 1 goal was scored in 14 games = 14 goals 2 goals were scored in 8 games = 16 goals 3 goals were scored in 7 games = 21 goals 4 goals were scored in 2 games = 8 goals 14 + 16 + 21 + 8 = 59 goals altogether 20% of 50 games is 10 games. You can check your answer using numbers. You can work this out by saying 10% of 50 = 5 and doubling it. which is 2 + 6 as required. Neither can you simplify expressions wrongly. ‘Successful might mean different things to different people’. Part (a) (b) 2 Team B (c) 1 Any valid reason: Total 5 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 3 . Subtracting m from each side gives 3m = 6 and dividing by 3 gives m = 2.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Question 4 Mark 1 Answer n+7 Tutorial Part (a) • There are lots of rules about what you can and cannot do with algebra. There are four cubes in each layer and m layers so the answer is 4 × m or 4m. If m = 2 there will be 8 cubes in tower M. ‘It does not show how many goals were conceded’. • You could also answer this question by trying different tower sizes. 4 (b) 1 4m (c) 1 You should have this box ticked: n=m×4 2 (d) 1 • You now know that n = 4m and n = m + 6. so because there are 4 cubes in each layer in the second tower it only 1 needs to be – of the height. • You can write multiplications such as m × 4 and 4 × m either way around and they would be acceptable but do not write m4 as this is not correct. So n + 7 = 7n would be wrong but c = n + 7 would be allowed as it could be read as ‘number of cubes = n + 7’.

where a is the value where the line crosses the y-axis. • You would gain 1 mark for each correct answer. You would gain no marks if you wrote ‘x is 5’. • Line D passes through points where the coordinates add up to 5 (x + y = 5) such as (0. • Lines that are drawn vertically. 3). then 20 = b × 5 and so b = 4. Part • Graph 1 shows a runner going at a steady speed as the Total 3 Question 7 Mark 3 Answer LINE B y = 5 LINE C x = 5 LINE D x + y = 5 Tutorial Part • Lines that are drawn horizontally. • Line C passes through the point 5 on the x-axis and so has the equation x = 5. parallel to the y-axis. where b is the value where the line crosses the x-axis. then less quickly in the middle and then more quickly at the end. Others you need to learn. The formula for the area of a parallelogram is A = bh. 2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 b) 1 4 .aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Question 6 Mark 3 Answer A = Graph 4 B = Graph 1 C = Graph 2 Tutorial graph is a straight line. are of the form x = b. Graph 2 covers distance very quickly at the beginning and then less quickly at the end so this runner is getting slower. (1. 0) so the equation is x + y = 5. 5). Total 3 Question 8 Mark 1 Answer 4 Tutorial Part a) • Some formulae for the area of 2-D shapes that you need to know will be given at the front of the test papers. If A = 20 and h = 5. (5. 4). You would gain no marks if you wrote ‘y is 5’. then 20 = ——— and so h = 4. then more quickly in the middle and then less quickly at the end. Graph 5 covers distance very slowly at the beginning. Graph 4 covers distance very quickly at the beginning. are of the form y = a. parallel to the x-axis. There is one mark for each correct answer. • Line B passes through the point 5 on the y-axis and so has the equation y = 5. Graph 3 covers distance very slowly at the beginning and then more quickly at the end so this runner is getting faster. (2. • The formula for the area of a triangle is: bh A = —– 2 10 × h If A = 20 and b = 10.

So the perimeter is 10 + 2 + 10 + 2 = 24 cm. then (a + b) × h = 40. This gives w = 2. so you must use n in your answers. This gives the equation: 3x + 1 = 5x – 5 (Take 3x from both sides) 1 = 2x – 5 (Add 5 to both sides) 6 = 2x (Divide both sides by 2) x=3 • The length of the rectangle is 3x + 1 = 10 or 5x – 5 = 10. as you would lose marks. You could write ‘number of black squares = 2n’. notice that the number of black squares is always 2 times the pattern number. then 20 = 10w. If A = 20 and l = 10. • You would gain 1 mark if you gave two or three correct values or if you got the colours the wrong way round. Do not use equations such as n = n × 2. • The number of black squares in the pattern follows the sequence 3. so a + b = 8. • The total number of squares in pattern number n is 2n for the black squares + n2 for the white squares which is written 2n + n2.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 (c) 1 h = 10 • The formula for the area of a trapezium is: (a + b)h A = ———— 2 If A = 20. as shown in the table. 9 … increasing by 3 each time. but try to avoid using equations when questions ask you to write expressions. so h = 10. So (a + b) × 5 = 40. • The question asks for expressions for the number of black and white squares. and the number of white squares is always the pattern number squared. 6. For 2n you could also write 2 × n or n + n. 1 2 a+b=8 x=3 Length = 10 cm Width = 2 cm Perimeter = 24 cm If A = 20. length of the rectangle must be equal. • The total number of squares in pattern number n is 3n for the black squares + n2 for the white squares which is written 3n + n2. You would gain 1 mark if you showed that x = 3 or that l = 10. and for n2 you could also write n × n. You need to ﬁnd a number which when multiplied by 4 gives 40. (d) • Find x ﬁrst by noticing that the two expressions for the Total 6 Question 9 Mark 2 Answer 5 12 10 24 25 144 Tutorial Part (a) • From the three patterns given. then (a + b) × h = 40. (b) 2 n 2n n2 (c) 1 2n + n2 (d) 2 3n +n2 Total 7 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 5 . The formula for the area of a rectangle is A = lw.

Total 2 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . • You can.1 = 75. The line at the corners is a quarter-circle.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Question 10 Mark 1 Answer 300 Tutorial two multiplications that have the same answer.25 2.25 × 300 = 75. or both c = 81 (Take the square root of both sides) c=9 — – Since √ 81 is also –9. Total 5 Question 11 Mark 2 Answer Tutorial Part The completed diagram • The line on the diagram that shows the position of the should look like this: path must be drawn 1 square from the edge of the ﬂower bed on the sides. of course. then 0. do a division sum without a calculator: 75 750 7500 —— = — = — – = 300 — — 0. Notice that to ﬁnd divisions that have the same answer. • You would gain 1 mark for an otherwise correct diagram with the circle arcs wrongly drawn or omitted. you can divide one of the numbers by an amount (10 here). Notice that to ﬁnd • If 75 ÷ 1 = 75. this answer would be accepted. then 7. • 4a + 3 = 75 (Subtract 3 from both sides) 4a = 72 (Divide both sides by 4) a = 18 b) 1 a = 18 1 b = 50 • 2b – 25 = 75 (Add 25 to both sides) • c2 – 6 = 75 (Add 6 to both sides) 2 2b = 100 (Divide both sides by 2) b = 50 1 c = 9 or c = –9. drawn using compasses. and divide the other number by the same amount. you can divide one of the numbers by an amount (10 here). but try to avoid drawing lines freehand.5 25 1 0. • Some allowance is made for diagrams that are slightly inaccurate.5 × 30 = 75.1 or 1 – – 10 Part a) • If 2.5 ÷ 0. and multiply the other number by the same amount. radius 2 cm. centred at the corner. You are expected to show that you can use a ruler and a pair of compasses in the tests.

though. 100 5 • Probability is written as a fraction or a decimal.5 minutes or less is approximately 22 + 20 = 42. 2 3 Then the left-hand side becomes – + – = 1 + 1 = 2 – – 2 3 (2+3) 5 and the right-hand side becomes ——— = – = 1. Total 2 Question 13 Mark 1 Answer 20 1 — or – or 0.5 1015 (b) 1 42 21 — or – or 0.5 minutes.42. • There were 40 passengers waiting from 5 to 10 minutes.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Question 12 Mark 2 Answer Tutorial Part Any correct method to • The easiest way to show that the statement is wrong is show that the statement by substituting numbers for a and b into both sides of the is wrong. let a = 2 and b = 3. so approximately 20 passengers were waiting between 5 and 7.5 137. So P (passenger waits for 7. Always cancel fractions if it is possible. for writing ‘20 out of 100’ or ‘20 in 100’. equation and then showing that the answers obtained are not the same.2 — – 100 5 Tutorial Part (a) • The number of passengers waiting 15 minutes or longer is found by adding the last three frequencies of the bar chart: 8+ 7 + 5 = 20.5 minutes or less) = 42 21 — = – or 0. For example. Therefore the number of passengers waiting 7. – 5 5 2 is not equal to 1. You would get no marks. so the values on both sides are not equal.42 — — 100 50 (c) 2 10.15 • You would gain 1 mark if your total in the fx column was wrong but you correctly divided this by 100. — — 100 50 • The last column of the table is given below: fx 55 300 225 140 157. and we have found an example to prove the students is wrong. So P (passenger waits for 15 minutes or longer) = 20 1 — =– — –. although you would not lose marks if you did not.15 total waiting time for all passengers The mean = ————————————————— total number of passengers 1015 = ——– 100 = 10. © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 7 .

irrelevant. do it on different routes. 2 × 53 a = ——— 5 2×5×5×5 = —————— = 2 × 25 = 50 5 1 10 • When p = 5.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Part Mark 1 Answer Tutorial d) Possible answers are: • Make sure that you read the question carefully. such as ‘draw a pie chart’ or ‘use the mode’. so you need intervals for recording. 5×5×6 b = ———— 3×5 5×6 = ——– 3 30 =— – 3 = 10 b) 1 1 5c 7x + 6 15c Notice how the d cancels. Notice the change in sign when multiplying out the second bracket. to give a different way. You need to know that a(b + c) = ab + ac and –a(b + c) = –ab – ac and –a(b – c) = –ab + ac. so you need to know that: (a + b) (c + d) = a(c + d) + b(c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd (x + 3) (x + 5) = x2 + 5x + 3x + 15 = x2 + 8x + 15 2 • (x + 1) (x – 2) = x2 – 2x + x – 2 1 1 x2 – x – 2 x2 – 8x + 16 =x –x–2 • (x – 4)2 = (x – 4)(x – 4) 2 = x – 4x – 4x + 16 = x2 – 8x + 16 Total 7 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . leaving — = 5c. Total 5 Question 14 Mark 1 Answer 50 Tutorial Part a) • When p = 5. Collecting like terms together gives 7x + 6. You are decrease the time already told one way of improving the survey. — 3 This question involves multiplying out brackets. Do not give answers that are do it on different days. Multiplying out the brackets gives 3x + 12 – 6 + 4x. c) 1 x2 + 8x + 15 • The next three parts involve expanding two brackets.

as these are conﬂicting inequalities. The shaded region is also above the curve y = x3. This makes the curve translate 2 units in the positive y direction. • For example 4 000 000 can be written as 4 × 1 000 000 or. • Curve A is a reﬂection of y = x3 in the x-axis. so y > x3 is the other inequality that describes the region. 3 × 104 = 30 000 4 × 104 = 4000 500 and 0. so the y-value is 2 more than at each point on y = x .5 × 1000. in standard form 4 × 106.5 × 10 or 0. You would get no marks if you ringed y < 2x and y > 2x or y < x3 and y > x3. (d) 2 y < 2x and y > x3 Total 5 Question 16 Mark 1 Answer 3 × 104 is greater than 4 × 103. • You will gain 1 mark for each correct inequality. 3 × 10 is a shorter way of writing 3 × 10 000 = 30 000 and 4 × 103 is a shorter way of writing 4 × 1000 = 4000. so y < 2x is one inequality that describes the region. Part (a) • This part4is about using numbers written in standard (b) 2 1 • 5 × 102 = 5 × 100 = 500.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Question 15 Mark 1 Answer Your graph should look like this: y y = x3 + 2 x Part Tutorial (a) • y = x33 + 2. (c) • All the points on the graph can also re-plotted with the sign of the x values negative so the graph has been reﬂected in the y-axis. (b) 1 1 y = –x3 Reﬂection in the y axis. • The shaded region is below the line y = 2x. so all the y values will now become negative. 3 This is the same as 0.5 × 103 80000 or 8 × 104 Tutorial form. (c) • This part uses the fact 10a × 10b = 10a+b (4 × 105) × (2 × 10–1) = 8 × 105–1 = 8 × 104 = 8 × 10 000 = 80 000 • This part uses the fact —– = 10a–b 10b 8 × 1010 ———— = 2 × 108 or 200 000 000 4 × 102 10a 1 200 000 000 or 2 × 108 Total 5 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 9 .

The are 3 shapes with both straight and curved edges. of which 5 have curved edges. There are 3 shapes with only curved edges. Therefore P(shape has straight edges given that it has 3 1 – – curved edges) = – = –. 5 – So.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Question 17 Mark 1 Answer Number Number Number of of of shapes shapes shapes with with with straight curved both edges edges straight only only edges and curved edges 4 3 3 Part Tutorial a) • There are 4 shapes with only straight edges. an outcome from one event does not determine an outcome of the other event). 6 P(ﬁrst shape has a curved edge) = –– 10 • If another shape is chosen this leaves 9 shapes to choose from. 10 9 c) 1 1 – – 2 d) 1 6 5 –– × – – 10 9 • For this question you need to know that for two events A Total 3 0 © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 . 6 2 and B: P(A and B) = P(A) × P(B) provided A and B are independent events (i. 9 6 5 – P(both shapes have curved edges) = –– × –. P(second shape has curved edges) = –. 10 • There are 6 shapes altogether which have curved edges and 3 of them also have straight edges. Therefore P (a shape does not have both straight and 7 curved edges) = ––.e. b) 1 7 –– 10 • There are 7 shapes which do not have both straight and curved edges (4 + 3) or (10 – 3) as there are 3 shapes with both straight and curved edges.

The formula for the area of a circle is A = πr 2. A = πr 2 = π × (3a)2 = π × 3a × 3a = 9πa2 For the small circle r = 2a. • 5πa2 = 20 (Divide both sides by 5π) 20 4 a2 = —– = –– (take the square root of both sides) 5π π — – 4 2 a= – =— – — –– π √π (b) 2 2 a=— — –– √π • You would only gain 1 mark if you tried to substitute 3.aths Frameworking Year 9 Teacher’s Pack 3 Practice Paper Answers ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Question 18 Mark 3 Answer 9πa2 – 4πa2 = 5πa2 Tutorial Part (a) • This is an example of an unstructured question. So A = πr 2 = π × (2a)2 = π × 2a × 2a = 4πa2 The shaded area is given by 9πa2 – 4πa2 = 5πa2 • Remember to take away the area of the small circle. This means that you have to do more than one step to get the answer. Now use this formula to calculate the area of each separate circle. since the question asks for the answer in terms of π. It usually involves showing a fair amount of working. • You would gain 2 marks if you found the area of both circles but did not obtain the ﬁnal answer. For the large circle.142 for π. 5 √ Total © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 11 . • You would gain one mark if you only found the area of one circle. r = 3a. So.

x2 – 8x + 15 = 0 (x = 3 or 5). Repeat with x + 4 = 0 (–4).CHAPTER 16 LESSON GCSE Preparation Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Solving quadratic equations. They may spot the answer x = 1. Outline the method. x – 3 = 0 (3). Now ask students to write down a value for x that will make (x – 2)(x + 4) = 0. They should find that x = 1 quickly (answers can be written on mini white boards). x + 3 = 0 (–3). 16. The class can now do Exercise 16A from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10K (page 256) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook.1 Oral and mental starter G G G G G G Ask students to mentally solve x – 1 = 0. Ask students to write their answers down on mini white boards as a = ? and b = ?. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G This is a lesson on solving quadratics that factorise.e. but are unlikely to spot the answer of x = –7. Hopefully they will be either x = 2 or x = –4. Once again check answers. which should be that either a or b should be zero in each case. Do more examples if necessary. Check answers. or x + 7 = 0 ⇒ x = –7. So. Some could be written on the board. Repeat with other examples such as: x2 – x – 6 = 0 (x = 3 or –2). Discuss the common characteristics. First. x2 + 4x + 3 = 0 (x = –1 or –3). i. Now ask students to give two values for a and b that solve a × b = 0. either x – 1 = 0 ⇒ x = 1. factorise and then solve each bracket equal to zero. x2 + 6x – 7 = 0 ⇒ (x – 1)(x + 7) = 0. . Ask students if they can find a value for x that solves the quadratic equation x2 + 6x – 7 = 0.

Answers 1 a x = –3 or 4 b x = 1 or –6 c x = 7 or –6 d x = –5 or –2 e x = 3 or –6 f x = 9 or 3 2 a x = –5 or –3 b x = –3 or –10 c x = 1 or –5 d x = 2 or 7 e x = 3 or –7 f x = 2 . if time allows. Give a clue that the other answer is a fraction between 0 and 1. 1 They should find – fairly quickly. Homework 1 Solve these equations. The students may establish that the factorisation is (x – 1)(2x – 1) = 0 and that 1 these brackets solve to 1 and –. 2 Do more examples with a non-unit coefficient of x2. a (x + 3)(x – 4) = 0 d (x + 5)(x + 2) = 0 a x2 + 8x + 15 = 0 d x2 – 9x + 14 = 0 b (x – 1)(x + 6) = 0 e (x – 3)(x + 6) = 0 b x2 + 13x + 30 = 0 e x2 + 4x – 21 = 0 c (x – 7)(x + 6) = 0 f (x – 9)(x – 3) = 0 c x2 + 4x – 5 = 0 f x2 – 4x + 4 = 0 2 First factorise. They may spot x = 1 as a solution. such as 2x2 – 5x + 3 = 0. 2 Discuss ways that this could be solved mathematically. then solve these equations.Exercise 16A Answers 1 a f 2 a f l x = –1 or 1 b x = 2 or –5 c x = 3 or –6 d x = –4 or –3 e x = –2 or –7 x = 3 or 8 g x = 8 or –1 h x = –3 i x = 4 x = –1 or –2 b x = –5 or –6 c x = –2 or –4 d x = 3 or 2 e x = 5 or 2 x = 1 or 4 g x = –5 h x = 4 i x = 5 or –3 j x = 3 or –5 k x = 6 or –4 x = 3 or –2 m x = 9 or 1 n x = 6 or –3 p x = –1 Plenary G G G G G G Key Words I quadratic equations I unitary coefficient Ask the students if they can solve 2x2 – 3x + 1 = 0.

i. (x + 4)(2x + 1). Now find a combination that gives the coefficient of x. 16. Do more examples if necessary.e. Suggest to the students that negative values could be used. Example: Factorise 6x2 – 17x + 12. 1 2 3 1 3 12 6 4 15 5 Ask the students to find a combination of products using one pair of factors from each side that give a total of 28. They may have an intuitive idea of the answer but they also need to have a method outlined. 6 5 Repeat with totals of 29(3 × 3 + 4 × 5). e. There are several methods.e. G G G G G Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G This is a lesson on factorising quadratics with a non-unit coefficient for x2. Ask the students to factorise 2x2 + 9x + 4. 2 × 6. 1 × 12. For 2x2 + 9x + 4.g. Example: Find factors of the x2 coefficient and of the constant term. where a > 1.2 G Oral and mental starter Give students the factors of 12 in pairs and the factors of 15 on each side of a vertical line. –3(3 × –5 + 4 × 3). 6 –5 Repeat with totals of 24(2 × 15 + 6 × –1). The class can now do Exercise 16B from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10L (page 257) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. Do more examples if time available. Now ask for the total 8. 27(3 × 5 + 4 × 3 or 1 × 15 + 12 × 1). 1 1 1×1+2×4=9 2 4 The brackets are then the ‘opposite’ to the pairs i. The brackets must start (3x …)(2x …) or (6x …)(x …) and the constant term has factors 3 × 4. 41(1 × 5 + 12 × 3). Students have met the idea in previous plenaries. This first exemplar may need to be demonstrated i. 2 3 2 × 5 + 6 × 3 = 28.e. the factors of 2 are 1 × 2 and the factors of 4 are 1 × 4. By trial and improvement we can find that the combination (3x – 4)(2x – 3) works. The answer is 2 3 2 × –5 + 6 × 3 = 8. but a method for solution has not been outlined.LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Factorisation of quadratics of the form ax2 + bx + c. . two of which are outlined in the Pupil Book.

(2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 giving x = – – or x = 2 2 Repeat with other examples. such as 3x2 – 5x – 2 = 0. They should be able to put all previous ideas together to explain the process of factorisation and solving each bracket.Exercise 16B Answers 1 a 2x2 + 11x + 5 b 3x2 + 9x – 12 c 4x2 – 18x + 20 d 6x2 – 15x – 21 e 4x2 + 24x + 36 f 9x2 – 24x + 16 g 6x2 – 22x – 8 h 8x2 + 10x – 3 i 4x2 – 1 2 a (2x + 1)(x + 3) b (x + 2)(2x + 5) c (x + 4)(3x + 1) d (x – 1)(2x + 1) e (2x + 1)(3x + 2) f (x – 2)(2x + 3) g (x + 3)(2x – 3) h (2x + 1)2 i (4x – 1)(x + 2) j (5x + 1)(x + 2) k (3x – 1)(x + 1) l (4x + 1)(2x + 1) m (x – 2)(3x + 1) n (2x + 1)(3x – 1) p (4x + 1)(x – 3) q (2x – 3)(2x + 5) r (x – 7)(2x + 5) s (x – 5)(2x + 5) t (3x – 1)(x + 5) u (3x + 1)2 v (2x + 3)(5x – 1) Plenary G G Key Words I quadratic equations I non-unitary coefficients G Ask the students if they can solve the quadratic equation 2x2 – 3x – 2 = 0. a (3x + 1)(x – 4) d (3x – 2)(3x + 2) a 2x2 – 7x – 4 d 4x2 + 23x – 6 g 5x2 – 26x + 5 b (3x – 1)(x + 5) e (3x – 1)2 b 2x2 + 13x + 15 e 6x2 – 5x + 1 h 6x2 – 5x – 6 c (2x – 1)(2x + 3) f (2x + 5)2 c 3x2 + 5x – 2 f 6x2 + 11x + 3 i 4x2 – 16x + 15 2 Factorise the following quadratic expressions.g. if time allows. Homework 1 Expand these brackets into quadratic expressions. 1 e. Answers 1 a 3x2 – 11x – 4 b 3x2 + 14x – 5 c 4x2 + 4x – 3 d 9x2 – 4 e 9x2 – 6x + 1 f 4x2 + 20x + 25 2 a (2x + 1)(x – 4) b (2x + 3)(x + 5) c (3x – 1)(x + 2) d (4x – 1)(x + 6) e (3x – 1)(2x – 1) f (3x + 1)(2x + 3) g (x – 5)(5x – 1) h (3x + 2)(2x – 3) i (2x – 3)(2x – 5) .

Repeat with 2x(x – 7) = 6 – 3x. This must be expanded and then collected into the correct form.3 G G G G G Oral and mental starter 1 Ask students to mentally solve 2x – 1 = 0. 3 2 1 3 1 12x2 + 5x – 2 = 0 ( x = – – or –). 1 2x2 – 14x = 6 – 3x ⇒ 2x2 – 11x – 6 = 0 ⇒ (2x + 1)(x – 6) = 0 ⇒ x = – – or 6. i. 3 Do more examples if necessary. 2 Do more examples if necessary. but are unlikely to spot the answer of – –. 4x – 3 = 0 ( – ). where a > 1. . Now ask students to write down a value for x that will make (3x – 2)(4x + 1) = 0. They should be x = – or x = – –. so either x – 1 = 0 ⇒ x = 1 or 1 2x + 1 = 0 ⇒ x = – –. First factorise and then solve each bracket equal to zero. This is not in the correct form to factorise and solve. 2 1 Once again check answers.e. 16. 3 4 4 2 Do more examples if necessary. 2x2 – x – 1 = 0 ⇒ (2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0. 5x – 1 = 0 ( –). 3 4 Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G This is a lesson on solving quadratic equations with non-unitary coefficients. Ask students to solve the quadratic equation x2 + x = 12. 2x + 3 = 0 (–1–). 2 Outline the method. The class can now do Exercise 16C from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10M (page 258) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. Answers 2 can be written on mini white boards. 3 4 2 5 2 3x – 2 = 0 ( –). 1 They may spot the answer x = 1. 1 3 1 1 Repeat with 3x + 4 = 0 (–1–). Ask students if they can find a value for x that solves the quadratic equation 2x2 – x – 1 = 0. Encourage students to always rearrange quadratic equations into the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. They should find that x = –. which can be factorised and solved to give x =3 or –4. 2 1 Repeat with other examples such as 3x2 + 2x – 1 = 0 (x = – or –1).LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Solving quadratic equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. 8x2 – 14x – 15 = 0 (x = – – or 2–). The equation above then becomes x2 + x – 12 = 0.

Explain that the equation has 4 solutions since the highest power of x is 4. They may spot 1 and 2 but may not spot –1 and –2. Ask students if they can spot any of the solutions. a 2x2 – 15x + 7 = 0 d 24x2 + 14x – 5 = 0 2 Solve these equations a x2 + x = 6 b 2x(x + 4) = 3(x – 1) b 3x2 – 5x + 2 = 0 e 6x2 + 23x + 20 = 0 c 2x2 – 9x – 5 = 0 f 6x2 – 23x + 7 = 0 c 8x2 – 3x + 4 = 2x2 + 2x + 3 Answers 1 2 1 1 5 1 a 7 or – b – or 1 c – – or 5 d – or – – 2 3 2 4 6 1 1 1 – c – or – 2 a 2 or –3 b –3 or 2 3 2 1 1 e –2– or –1– 2 3 1 1 f 3– or – 2 3 . So. 1 (4x2 – 1)(x2 – 9) = 0 ⇒ x = ± – or ±3. Repeat with 4x4 – 37x2 + 9 = 0.Exercise 16C Answers 1 a f k 2 a f 1 1 1 1 1 1 x = – or 3 b x = 2 or – – c x = –4 or – d x = –1– or – e x = –6 or – 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 x = –2 or – g x = –2– or – – h x = – or – – i x = –1– j x = – or – 4 2 3 3 2 2 4 5 1 2 1 1 5 2 x = 2– or – l x = –– m x = – n x = – – or 1 p x = –1– or 2 2 3 3 2 6 3 1 2 1 x = –2 or 1 b x = 1 or –1 c x = – – or 1 d x = – – or 1 e x = – or 2 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 x = – g x = 5 or –5 h x = – – or 1– i x = – – or – 2 2 3 4 5 Plenary G G G G G Key Words I quadratic equations I non-unitary coefficients I roots Write the following equation on the board x4 – 5x2 + 4 = 0. 2 Homework 1 Solve these equations. Outline the method of solution ( x2 – 1)( x2 – 4) = 0. x2 – 1 = 0 ⇒ x2 = 1 ⇒ x = ±1 or x2 – 4 = 0 ⇒ x2 = 4 ⇒ x = ±2.

c = –4. 2 — – –1 ± √17 ————– (≈ 0. — — 2 The class can now do Exercise 16D from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10N (page 259) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. Repeat with 3x2 – 4x – 2 = 0 (1.403 +3. –0.8508 or 4 4 –3 – 6. Example: Solve 2x2 + 3x – 4 = 0. b and c are the coefficients of x2. b = 3. ——— —— —— –(3) ± √ (3)2 – 4(2)(–4) Substitute into the formula x = ———————————– 2(2) — – –(3) ± √ 41 –3 ± 6.75 or –1.403 So.25). Work through some examples but encourage students to follow some basic principles: Substitute values in brackets before attempting to work anything out. 4 ( ) Main lesson activity G G G G G G This is a lesson that introduces the quadratic formula. — – – – 4 ± √20 The answers are — — – or 2 ± √ 5 . ————– (≈ –1.3508 4 4 Answers are normally given to 2 decimal places. ————– (≈ 0.25).25 . 16. particularly if it is negative Working out 4 × a × c correctly particularly if c is negative. Repeat with x2 – 4x – 1 = 0.5 2.403 –9. Dividing the whole top line by 2a.35.5 Ask students to estimate the value of ————– ≈ ———— = — = 1.4 Oral and mental starter G G G — – –4 + √ 41 –4 + 6. Introduce the formula: ———— –b ± √ b2 – 4ac x = ———————— 2a and explain that a. Squaring b inside the root. 2 — – –5 ± √ 60 Repeat with (two answers required) ————– (≈ 1.403 —————– = ———– = –2. G . — 2 2 2 — – — – — – –3 – √ 52 –5 + √ 31 –1 – √ 13 Repeat with ————– (≈ –2.5).1). First.72. x and the constant term in the general quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. not just the square root. identify a. 4 2 4 — – –4 + √ 21 ————– (≈ 0.25 or –6.25).85 or –2.403 Now evaluate the square root x = —————– = —————– 2(2) 4 –3 + 6.39). the solutions are x = —————– = ———– = 0. but this time leave the answer in surd form. b and c (a = 2.25). Take particular care with: The change of sign of b.LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number The quadratic formula. so x = 0.

All answers are whole numbers or fractions.69 x = 1. Homework 1 Solve these equations using the quadratic formula.45 – — – — – — – – – — 4 ± √ 24 –6 ± √ 40 –5 ± √ 33 3 a ———— or 2 ± √ 6 b ———–— or –3 ± √ 10 c ———–— 2 2 2 .32 or –5.16 or –6.26 c x = 1. the roots are where the graph crosses the x-axis.Exercise 16D Answers 1 a f 2 a d g 1 1 x = 4 or –6 b x = 1 or –7 c x = –2 or – d x = 2– or –4 e x = 0 or –5 2 2 x = 6 or –6 x = 1.19 or –2.59 or –1.32 x = 2.22 or –0. Answers 1 2 1 1 a 1 or –5 b – or –3 c – or 2– 2 3 2 2 a 1.44 – – – — – — – – – – (3 ± √ 5 ) –4 ± √ 20 –4 ± √ 12 3 a ———— b ————– or –2 ± √ 5 c ————– or –2 ± √ 3 2 2 2 – — – — – – – – – — – – –6 ± √ 32 –10 ± √ 92 –2 ± √ 8 d ————– or –3 ± √ 8 e ————— or –5 ± √ 23 f ———— or –1 ± √ 2 2 2 2 Plenary G G G Key Words I quadratic formula I coefficients G G Ask students to solve 2x2 + 3x + 5 = 0 using the quadratic formula.69 i x = 4.22 e x = 0.16 f x = 0. This example could be worked through on the board by a student. 3 Solve these equations.18 h x = 2.19 or –0.19 c 1.64 b x = 1. giving your answers to 2 decimal places. a x2 + 4x – 5 = 0 a x2 + 7x – 10 = 0 a x2 – 4x – 2 = 0 b 2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0 b 2x2 – x – 4 = 0 b x2 + 6x – 1 = 0 c 6x2 – 19x + 10 = 0 c 4x2 + x – 7 = 0 c x2 + 5x – 2 = 0 2 Solve these equations.82 or 0.20 or –1.56 or 0.69 or –1.22 or –8.22 b 1. The formula gives —–– –3 ± √ –31 x = ————– which cannot be solved due to the square root. 4 Explain that when a quadratic equation is solved. This gives three situations 2 roots G 1 (repeated) root No roots This will be useful for the investigation that ends this chapter. giving your answer in surd form.14 or –2.

Work through the following examples on completing the square. Complete more examples if necessary. Discuss how this relates to the identities established at the start of the lesson. Repeat with more examples if necessary. Repeat with other examples such as –32 + 5 (answer –4). Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G This is a lesson on completing the square. The value b is the square of this. Example: Write x2 + 6x – 7 in the form (x + a)2 – b. 16. The value of a is half the coefficient of x. Example: Solve x2 + 6x – 4 = 0. . Eventually they will probably come up with the answer (x + 2)2 – 7. Make sure that students understand that –32 = –(3 squared) and not (–3) squared. Repeat with x2 + 12x + 15 ((x + 6)2 – 21). x2 + 6x = (x + 3)2 – 9. So. So. x2 – 4x – 3 ((x – 2)2 – 7) and x2 + 30x + 100 ((x + 15)2 – 125). The class can now do Exercise 16E from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10P (page 260) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. x2 – 4x ((x – 2)2 – 4) and x2 + 30x ((x + 15)2 – 225). Demonstrate how to solve equations using completing the square. x2 + 6x – 7 = (x + 3)2 – 9 – 7 = (x + 3)2 – 16. The value. inside the bracket is half the coefficient of x. — – x2 + 6x – 4 = 0 ⇒ (x + 3)2 – 13 = 0 ⇒ (x + 3)2 = 13 ⇒ x + 3 = ±√ 13 ⇒ — – x = –3 ± √ 13.5 G G G G Oral and mental starter Ask students to fill in the missing number in problems such as –22 – 9 = ? (Answer –13). a. Now ask if they can fill in the missing numbers in x2 + 4x – 3 = (x + …)2 – … . The value b is the sum of the existing constant term and the square as before. Repeat with x2 + 12x ((x + 6)2 – 36). Hopefully they will get the answer x2 – 2ax + a2 and x2 + 2ax + a2. –42 – 1 (answer –17). — – — – Repeat with x2 – 6x – 2 = 0 (x = 3 ±√ 11 ) and x2 + 10x + 15 = 0 (x = –5 ± √ 10 ).LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Solving quadratics by completing the square. Ask students to expand (x – a)2 and (x + a)2. Example: Write x2 + 6x in the form (x + a)2 – b.

Answers 1 a (x + 6)2 – 36 b (x – 3)2 – 9 c (x – 10)2 – 100 2 a (x + 6)2 – 45 b (x – 3)2 – – c (x – 10)2 6 – — – – — 3 a x = –6 ± √ 45 b x = 3 ± √ 6 c x = 10 d x = 5 ± √ 20 – — e x = –2 ± √ 11 – — f x = 4 ± √ 21 . x2 + 3x – 2 = 0 ⇒ (x + 1–)2 – 4– = 0 ⇒ (x + 1–)2 = 4– ⇒ x + 1– = ±√ 4– 2 4 2 4 2 4 — – 1 1 ⇒ x = –1– ± √ 4– . A student could be asked to come to the board to give the solution. particularly when taking a square root — – 1 1 1 1 1 1 i. The odd coefficient of x will cause problems.Exercise 16E Answers 1 a f 2 a f 3 a f l (x + 4)2 – 16 b (x – 1)2 – 1 c (x – 6)2 – 36 d (x – 7)2 – 49 e (x + 2)2 – 4 (x + 1)2 – 1 (x + 4)2 – 17 b (x – 1)2 + 2 c (x – 6)2 – 31 d (x – 7)2 – 42 e (x + 2)2 – 7 (x + 1)2 – 6 g (x + 3)2 – 11 h (x + 5)2 – 34 i (x – 3)2 – 6 – — – — – — x = –4 ± √ 17 b x = 3 or –1 c x = 6 ± √ 31 d x = 7 ± √ 42 e x = –5 or 1 – — – — – – – — – – – – x = 3 ± √ 11 g 5 ± √ 24 h 3 ± √ 5 i 4 ±√ 11 j x = 1 ± √ 2 k x = –1 ± √ 6 – — x = –6 ± √ 43 Plenary G G G Key Words I completing the square I coefficient G G Ask students to solve x2 + 3x – 2 = 0 using the completing the square method. a x2 + 12x a x2 + 12x – 9 a x2 + 12x – 9 = 0 d x2 – 10x + 5 = 0 b x2 – 6x b x2 – 6x + 3 b x2 – 6x + 3 = 0 e x2 + 4x – 7 = 0 c x2 – 20x c x2 – 20x + 100 c x2 – 20x + 100 = 0 f x2 – 8x – 5 = 0 2 Rewrite the following quadratic expressions by completing the square. 2 4 Now ask students to solve 2x2 + 4x – 3 = 0 using the completing the square method. 2 2 2 Homework 1 Complete the square for the following. 3 Solve the following quadratic equations using the completing the square method.e. ⇒ (x + 1)2 = 2– ⇒ x + 1 = ±√ 2– ⇒ x = –1 ± √ 2– . 2x2 + 4x – 3 = 0 ⇒ 2(x2 + 2x) – 3 = 0 ⇒ 2[(x + 1)2 – 1] – 3 = 0 ⇒ 2(x + 1)2 – 2 – 3 = 0 — – — – 1 1 1 2(x + 1)2 = 5.

Do more examples if necessary. can they factorise x2 – 36? Explain that this can be written down as x2 – 62 = (x – 6)(x + 6). Make sure that they understand the answer is ±2x. Now ask if students can reverse the result. give ±x as the answer. (answers can be written on mini white boards) but may not give –9. i.g. Main lesson activity G G G G G G G G G G G G This is a lesson on factorising the quadratic the difference of two squares. Some will give the answer ±4x. Emphasise that it is important to identify both squares since failure to do this can lead to errors such as (x – 36)(x + 36). 16z2. . (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = (4x2 – 1). 25x2. 16. They will obviously give the answer of 9. Repeat with the square roots of 9y2. 4x2 – 9 ((2x – 3)(2x + 3)).e. Establish the result (a – b)(a + b) = a2 – b2. 100y2 etc. Explain that this is known as the difference of two squares.LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number Difference of two squares. The class can now do Exercise 16F from Pupil Book 3 or Exercise 10J (page 255) from the Higher Mathematics for GCSE textbook. 81x2. Discuss with students the similarities between the results. Remind them that both answers are possible.6 G G G G G Oral and mental starter Ask students to find the square root of 81. (x – 4)(x + 4) = (x2 – 16). They will. (3x – 6)(3x + 6) = (9x2 – 36) etc. Now ask for the square root of 4x2. hopefully. Now ask students for the square root of x2. 9x2 – 16y2 ((3x – 4y)(3x + 4y)). Start by asking students to expand expressions of the type (x + 2)(x – 2) = (x2 – 4) e. Repeat with x2 – 100 ((x –10)(x + 10)). Eventually ask for the expansion of (a – b)(a + b).

write the above as: ((x + 2) – (x – 4))((x + 2) + (x – 4)) = (x + 2 – x + 4)(x + 2 + x – 4) = (6)(2x – 2) = 12x – 12. Answers 1 a x2 – 121 b 4x2 – 9 c 25x2 – 4y2 2 a (x – 12)(x + 12) b (x – 15)(x + 15) c (2x – 6)(2x + 6) d (9x – 8)(9x + 8) e (x – 2y)(x + 2y) f (4x – 11)(4x + 11) g (x – 3z)(x + 3z) h (2x – 5y)(2x + 5y) i (9x – 4y)(9x + 4y) . Homework 1 Expand these brackets into quadratic expressions. ask if the original expression could be written in any other way. Some students may recognise this as the difference of two squares. If possible.e. Now. (x + 2)(x + 2) – (x – 4)(x – 4) = (x2 + 4x + 4) – (x2 – 8x + 16) = x2 + 4x + 4 – x2 + 8x – 16 = 12x – 12.e. Make sure that the students understand that the difference of two squares is an identity. a (x + 11)(x – 11) a x2 – 144 d 81x2 – 64 g x2 – 9z2 b (2x – 3)(2x + 3) b x2 – 225 e x2 – 4y2 h 4x2 – 25y2 c (5x – 2y)(5x + 2y) c 4x2 – 36 f 16x2 – 121 i 81x2 – 16y2 2 Factorise the following quadratic expressions. i. Discuss the advantages of both methods. any values or expressions can be used for a and b in a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b). Using brackets (because of the minus signs). i.Exercise 16F Answers 1 a x2 – 1 b x2 – 25 c x2 – y2 d 2 a (x – 10)(x + 10) b (x – 2)(x + 2) e (x – 8)(x + 8) f (x – 11)(x + 11) i (x – 3y)(x + 3y) j (4x – 3)(4x + 3) m (3 – x)(3 + x) n (2x – 6)(2x + 6) 4x2 – 1 e x2 – 4y2 f 4x2 – 9y2 c (x – 6)(x + 6) d (x – 9)(x + 9) g (x – z)(x + z) h (2x – 5)(2x + 5) k (2x – 5y)(2x + 5y) l (5x – 8)(5x + 8) p (6x – 1)(6x + 1) Plenary G G Key Words I difference of two squares G G G G Ask the students to simplify (x + 2)2 – (x – 4)2. ask a student who wants to expand brackets to work through the problem on the board.

Once they have an idea of the effect of a.LESSON Framework objectives – Reinforcement of Number An investigation into y = ax2 + bx + c. y = x2 + 3 etc. The graph of a quadratic equation has a characteristic shape called a parabola. y y = ax2 + bx + c P R S Q x Introduce the investigation and ask the students to suggest ideas for getting started. Then look at graphs of y = x2 + 2x. x2 + 5x etc. Then look at graphs of y = x2 + 1. b and c in the graph y = ax2 + bx + c and the points P. the point R (where the graph crosses the y-axis) and the point S (the ‘vertex’ or turning point of the graph). b and c individually they could then look at more general equations. y = x2 – 2. x2 – 3x. You will gain credit for a systematic investigation into the effect of a. y = 2x2.7 Oral and mental starter There is no starter as the investigation will need to be introduced via a class discussion. y = 3x2 etc. Investigate the relationship between the values a. Main lesson activity The investigation in the Pupil Book is reproduced here. 16. they could start by looking at graphs of y = x2. Students should be encouraged to look at the roots from the quadratic formula or the completing the square method. The vertex also could be investigated via the completing the square method. b and c on the graph. Students will need access to graphical calculators or computers with a graph-drawing application package. Q (where the graph crosses the x-axis). You will not gain any credit for spending a lot of time drawing graphs accurately. The investigation will take more than one lesson. You should use a graph plotting program or a graphical calculator to help you. For example. .

.74 6 a 9x2y6 b 3.78 8 a = 9 b = 2 c = –5 9 a = –5 b = –7 10 p = 2 q = –4 Plenary There is no plenary. This can be helpful for students who are having difficulty but avoid the ‘bush fire’ effect of one student giving the rest of the group the answer. 1.74. Students could be stopped working at various points and a general discussion on progress could be held. x = 2 3 a i 3( pq – 2r) ii (c – 4)(c – 5) b x = –7 or x = 2 p–5 4 a (3p + 1)( p + 5) b ——— 3p + 1 5 –5.28.14.GCSE Answers 1 0 and 5 2 a (x – 4)(x – 2) b x = 4. –0. Key Words I I I I I roots factors vertex intersect coefficient Homework Students could be asked to continue the work at home if they have computer facilities or asked to look on the Internet for information on the quadratic equation.64 7 1. –0.

com Online support for schools and colleges © HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd 2003 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 0 00 713881 4 Keith Gordon. leased. to third parties. Kevin Evans. lent. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A Catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library Edited by John Day Typesetting and design by Gray Publishing Project management by Nicola Tidman Covers by Tim Byrne Illustrations by Gray Publishing Proofreading by Amanda Whyte and Jenny Wong CD mastering by Alan Trewartha Production by Sarah Robinson The publishers would like to thank the many teachers and advisers whose feedback helped to shape Maths Frameworking. varied or modified by the user other than specifically for teaching purposes where enlargements and/or minor adaptations may be necessary.CollinsEducation. adapted. This CD-ROM must not be sold. No part of this CD-ROM may be reformatted.Published by HarperCollinsPublishers Limited 77–85 Fulham Palace Road Hammersmith London W6 8JB www. in whole or in part. Trevor Senior and Brian Speed assert their moral rights to be identified as the authors of this work. sub-licensed. without the permission of the publishers other than the form of printed copies for single use only. assigned or transferred. rented.co. This CD-ROM may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. The author and publishers will gladly receive any information enabling them to rectify any error or omission in subsequent editions.harpercollins. Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material.uk The book lover’s website . You might also like to visit: www. All rights reserved.

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