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A Goal A Project Manager Tasks Timings of those tasks Dependencies / timing relationships in those tasks Resources – people, equipment, supplies, facilities Budget / Cost
Three T’s – Tasks, Timing & Dependencies All tasks have timing called Duration – to be provided based on experience & judgement Only tasks without duration are called Milestones – Marks a moment in time that must reflect in project outline Dependencies – are the timing relationships among tasks – one task must begin only once another task is complete. Only after you start to assign these relationships can you begin to see a project’s timing as related to not just each task’s duration but also the specific ways in which the tasks relate to each other. In addition to applying dependencies to tasks, you can apply Constraints. For example, say that you don’t want to start shipping your new cake flavor until you get the ad for it in your Christmas catalog, so you set a dependency between those two events. You can also set a constraint which says that you must start producing the cakes no later than November 3. In this case, if you don’t make the catalog deadline (dependency is not met), the product will still ship on November 3; that task will not be allowed to slip its constraint because of this dependency relationship. [Constraint takes priority over dependency] Resources aren’t just people: A resource can be a piece of equipment you rent, a meeting room that you have to pay an hourly fee to use, or a box of nails or a software program you have to buy. Project allows for three kinds of resources: Work resources, material resources, and cost resources. A work resource is charged by how many hours or days the resource (often human) works on a task. Material resource, such as sewing supplies or steel, is charged by a per-use cost or by a unit of measurement (such as square yards or linear feet or tons). Cost resource has a set cost, such as a conference fee of $250; this cost doesn’t vary by how much time you spend at the conference or how many people attend. Resources and their costs are depicted on Resource Sheet Imp: Resources tend to have conflicts. These conflicts have to do with assigned resources that become overallocated for their available work time. For example, if you assign one poor soul to three 8-hour tasks that must all happen on the same day — and in the same eight hours. Baseline: After you build all your tasks, give them durations and dependencies, and assign all your resources and costs, you set a baseline. A baseline is a snapshot of your project at the moment you feel your plan is final and you’re ready to proceed with the project.
software development etc. Whether you have good news or bad. you record some activity on your tasks. cheap. Tried and True methodologies The Gantt Chart .After you set a baseline. and determining strategies to prevent the most likely ones from occurring. Tracking activity in your project involves recording the actual timing of tasks and recording the time that your resources have spent on those tasks. The Network Diagram (also called a logic diagram). resources (which are essentially costs). ranking them from most to least likely. Being able to view all this information on one page helps you understand what’s happening in your project in terms of time and costs. pick two. or meet your final deadline. such as the delays. In Project. and quality of the product or service produced at the end of the project. with the click of a button. down to the last hour and penny. you save money. MS Project benefits: Project automatically calculates costs and timing for you based on your input. You have timing. The quality of your project is often affected directly by how well you manage them. Then you can compare that actual activity with your baseline because Project saves both sets of data in your schedule. You can use codes for resources that designate skill levels or abilities so that finding the right resource for each job is as simple as performing a search. You can create resources for your project according to information you already created in your Outlook Address Book. Project offers views and reports that. tools are available. The dreaded triple constraint . and resource conflicts that might occur in such a scenario. You can see how overbooked a resource the is on any date. is essentially the Microsoft version of a PERT chart (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) – focuses on work. Resource leveling (a calculation that automatically reschedules resources to resolve overbooking). which reflects resource workload. You can use built-in templates to get a head start on your project.You can have it fast. or right. If you take away resources. Risk management is the art of anticipating risks. shows you a spreadsheet with columns of data along with a graphical representation of the tasks in the project arranged along a horizontal timeline.The main view of Project. cost overruns. If you add time. Coming to a logical balance of time. money. You can quickly recalculate what-if scenarios to solve resource conflicts. but this can affect quality — and so on. you can use Reports to show your boss how things are going compared with how you thought they would go. Project templates are prebuilt plans for a business project. make a wealth of information available to you and those you report to. such as an engineering project. Project helps you with risk management by allowing you to try out what-if scenarios: You can change the start date or length of a task or phase of tasks (for example) and see just what that change does to your schedule. not on time. Microsoft Project helps you manage the resources and timing of your project. costs increase because resources are working longer hours at a certain wage. . Resource management consists of using resources wisely. such as a resource graph (traditionally called a histogram) and the resource usage chart. as well as entering any actual costs that accrue. and quality is at the core of what a good project manager does throughout the life of a project. which can enable you to manage resources much more effectively. a new product rollout. get your costs within budget.
constraints. Chapter – 2 The file that you create in Project is called a Project plan. and calculate in dollars the value of work performed to date. With your priorities set on all projects. Priority . choose Night Shift. Tasks: The task name.for example. resource type. and 24 Hours. Status date .assigning a priority (such as 500 for high priority or 100 for a lower priority) can be especially useful if you use the same resources across several projects. choose 24 Hours. for example . costs. you have information about the following: 1. If you work a standard 8-hour day. assigned resources. your computer assumes that any activity you record in your project is being tracked as of this date. Getting started . and more 2. rate per hour. choose Standard. department. Starting from scratch New Project Info: [Project => Project Information] Start Date Finish Date (Absolute drop-dead date) Schedule from (start date or finish date) . If you set a status date. if you have an absolute drop-dead date for the end of your project (for example. However. if you’re organizing a sports event). Resources: The resource name. and dependencies.By default there is no status date set for the project. you might want a field that explains which department in the company is running the project. assignments. you might want to set the finish date and then work backward to fit all your tasks into the allotted length of time. (Most projects use a standard calendar with a typical 8hour workday. You can use a project template that already contains data related to your industry or the type of project you’re doing Nothing is as daunting — or as inspiring — as facing a blank page. Night Shift.three choices . Working calendar . If you change this setting to Project Finish Date. You can use Project Guide to get Project’s assistance creating a project (Wizard – In logical sequence – Tasks – Resources – Track – Report) 2. Project tools can then automatically reallocate resources.) You can also set up individual calendars for each resource you create.Most projects work forward from the start date.Standard. If your company uses resources in three shifts per day — a total of 24 hours of straight working time — and all those shifts would contribute work to your project. overtimerate. or schedule. In a typical Project plan. cost per use. Create custom project information fields . A number of tools in Project employ complex algorithms (that you couldn’t even begin to figure out) to do such tasks as level resource assignments to solve resource conflicts. If you use a day shift and a night shift. the Finish Date field becomes available. model what-if scenarios. You use a status date when you’re tracking the progress of your project at regular intervals. You can build a project on your own from scratch by entering individual task and resource details 3.You have three choices when starting a new project: 1. start and finish date. filter tasks by various criteria. duration.
with boxes that represent days on a calendar in rows that represent the days in a week. Chapter – 3 Tasks are scheduled and resources are assigned based on the calendar settings that you make. 4. Changing Timescale: . 24 Hours. critical path information. Tasks with an X through them have been marked as complete. Views: Gantt Chart View . project start and finish dates. and Night Shift. Project 2007 has to base that work on a timing standard. Calendar View . and more 4.The organization of information represents the workflow in your project. resource hours spent. Project calendar: This is the default calendar for scheduling. finish date. 2. 3. The boxes include dependency lines running between them to reflect the sequence of tasks. Network Diagram view has no timescale because the view isn’t used to see specific timing but rather to see the general order of tasks in a plan. Tables are preset combinations of columns of data that you can easily display by choosing View➪Table and then choosing a table (such as Entry or Cost) from the submenu that appears. 3. percentage of tasks completed. you can change what information is shown in the sheet by using tables. Base calendar: This is the calendar template that all other calendars are built on top of. select a task category. However.looks like a monthly Outlook calendar. In the Style Settings For list.In Gantt Chart view (and any view with a sheet pane). Task calendar: This is where you can set exceptions for a particular task. with the earlier tasks on the left flowing into later tasks and subtasks to the right. Calendars – 4 types 1. To modify the data included in the task boxes. Three Base calendars are available: Standard.Format => Timescale To modify the contents of the Network Diagram boxes: 1. each task box holds specific timing information about each task. with a series of task boxes. Resource calendar: This combines the Base calendar settings with any exceptions (nonworking times) that you set for a particular resource. the two . You read this view from left to right. such as the start date. select a different template from the Data Template list.3. Project timing and progress: Several types of calendars. This is where you choose which Base calendar template this particular project should use. Financial information: Earned value. Likewise. 2. suppose that you assign a resource to put in two weeks of work on a task in a company that uses a standard five-day workweek. Network Diagram View . projected costs for uncompleted work etc. If that resource’s own calendar is set for a standard four-day workweek. baseline information. and duration. Tasks that happen in the same timeframe are aligned vertically above each other. Right-click anywhere in Network Diagram view outside any box and then choose Box Styles. time and cost variance. When you create tasks and assign resources to work on them. If you say that a task should be completed in one workday. Project 2007 knows that a workday means 8 hours (or 12 hours or whatever) because that’s how you set up a standard workday in your Project calendar.
that calendar takes precedence over the Project calendar for that task. those settings take precedence over the Project calendar for that resource when you assign it to a task. with an hour for dinner and a six-night. Project 2007 uses only common hours to schedule the resource.m.m. How one calendar relates to another? All calendars in your project are controlled. Night Shift: Sets the working time as 11 p. by default. by the Project calendar setting.m. Standard: The default setting. 24 Hours: Allows work to go on around the clock every day of the week.. if you assign a different Base calendar for a task.m. If you apply one calendar to a resource and a different calendar to a task that the resource is assigned to. 3. If you make changes in the working hours for a resource.m. and the Resource calendar allows work from 6 a. Monday– Saturday workweek.–5 p. which is the only period the calendars have in common. 2. if the Task calendar allows work from 8 a.–2 p.m. For example. A two-week. the Base calendar template you select for the Project calendar when you first create the project controls the working times and days of all tasks and resources.–2 p. Here’s how this precedence thing works: With no other settings made. Monday–Friday workweek. you have to understand which setting takes precedence. Sets a working day as 8 a.–5 p.–8 a.weeks of work put in by that resource defer to the timing of the Resource calendar for a total of only eight workdays. with an hour for lunch and a five-day. effort-driven task isn’t complete until its resources have put in two weeks (according to the Project or Task calendar) of effort. regardless of their usual work hours. The nature of a task can have an effect on resource time.m.m.. Here’s the tricky part. though: When you change a Task or Resource calendar (this type of change is referred to as an exception). . (This setting isn’t available if the Task calendar is set to None.) You might make this setting if you know that all resources are required to be involved in a task (such as a quarterly company meeting). Likewise. The three Base calendar templates are as follows: 1.m. the resource works from 8 a.m. You can set a task to ignore Resource calendar settings by opening the Task Information dialog box (double-click the task name in Gantt Chart view) and selecting the Scheduling Ignores Resource Calendars check box on the Advanced tab.
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