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(Planning and Sizing Grid-Connected

Photovoltaic Systems)


Planning and Installing Photovoltaic
Systems A guide for installers, architects
and engineers ( second edition ).
First published by Earthscan in the UK and
USA in 2008.
Copyright The German Energy Society


4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.3
3

4.1.
( System size and module choice )

4.1.
( System size and module choice )

1.

(CdTe )
(CIS)

2. /

4.1.
( System size and module choice )

(
)
( Rough
number)
6

4.1.
( System size and module choice )

(Rough overall power)


10m2 =
1KWP

4.1.
( System size and module choice )

Area requirement
of PV systems
( Solarpraxis/DGS
Berlin BRB )

4.1.
( System size and module choice )

1KWP

7m2 ~ 9m2
6m2 ~ 7m2
7.5m2 ~ 10m2
9m2 ~ 11m2
12m2 ~ 17m2
14m2 ~ 20m2

4.2 ( System
concepts )

1.
2.
10

4.2 ( System
concepts )
(14 )

(8 )

11

4.2 ( System
concepts )

( Module
tolerance )
( Mismatch losses )

12

4.2 ( System
concepts )
2005 TUV Rheinland

Werner Herrmann

ISC PMPP IMPP

( )

13

4.2 ( System
concepts )
0.2
1

ISC

PMPP

Mismatch in a PV array ( TUV

IMPP
14

4.2 ( System
concepts )

15

4.2 ( System
concepts )
( De-central inverter )

(Sub-array areas)
(Different orientations
and tilts)
(Partially shaded)
16

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )
(Low-Voltage Concept)
(DC < 120V)
(
)

17

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )
(The
entire string current)
(Short strings) (Longer
strings)

18

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

( The number of
shaded strings )

120V
(
Protection Class III )

19

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

(Ohmic
losses)

(Building-integrated systems)
(Custom-made modules)
20

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

Low voltage concept with central inverter


( Solarpraxis )

21

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )
Protection Class

PLANNING AND SIZING GRIDCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS Page 153

22

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

Parallel connection of modules with four connection cables


PLANNING AND SIZING GRIDCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS Page 153

23

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )
(OKE-Service)

(Without bypass diodes)

( Frameless crystalline modules )

24

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

(Metal module mounting


frame)

25

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )
(DC wiring )
( Fuse )
( PV combiner / junction box )

( Protection Class II
)
26

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

(Only as a prototype)
(Low voltage range)

27

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

Parallel connection concept ( Solarpraxis )

28

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )
(Higher voltage
concept)
(DC 120V)
(
)

( )

29

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

30

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

Concept with
central inverter
and higher
voltages
( Solarpraxis )
31

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )
- (Master-Slave concept)

32

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

(Lower irradiance )

( )

33

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

(
)

34

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

Masterslave concept
with a central
inverter unit
( Solarpraxis )

35


( Munich Germany )

http://www.destination360.com/europe/germany/munich#

36


( Munich Germany )

http://maps.google.com/

37

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

1MW

http://maps.google.com/

38

4.2.1
( Central inverter concept )

1MW PV system of the Neue Messe


exhibition centre in Munich, Germany ( Shell Solar )

39

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

3kW

40

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

(Medium-sized)

41

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

42

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

43

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

(The least irradiance)

44

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

(String
inverters)

500W 3000W.
45

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

Sub-array and string inverter concept ( Solarpraxis )

46

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )
1MW

String inverters are used in the 1MW PV system on


the Mont Ceris Training Academy in Germany ( Scheuten Solar )

47


( Herne, Germany, Training Academy Mont-Cenis)

Entwicklungsgesellschaft Mont-Cenis

48


( Herne, Germany, Training Academy Mont-Cenis)

Entwicklungsgesellschaft Mont-Cenis

49

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

1.
2.

50

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

Rhine-Westphalia
Mont Ceris
1MW

569
51

4.2.2
( Sub-array and string inverter concept )

6
16

(MPP)
52

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )


MPP (
)
53

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )

(AC modules)
54

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )

Module inverter concept ( Solarpraxis )

55

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )

56

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )

Efficiency curve of a central inverter and a

57

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )


( )

58

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )


59

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )

60

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )

Moritzplatz

61

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )

Module inverter ( NKF )

62

4.2.3
( Module inverter concept )

PV facade of the ECN building in The


Netherlands with string inverters ( OJA-Services Tjerk Reijenga )

63

4.3
( Inverter installation site )

(
)

64

4.3
( Inverter installation site )

(The meter cupboard)

(The PV array combiner


box)
65

4.3
( Inverter installation site )

(The DC main cable )


66

4.3
( Inverter installation site )

(barn)
(stable) (Ammonia
vapours)
67

4.3
( Inverter installation site )
(Inverter
cabinet)
...

(String inverters)

68

4.3
( Inverter installation site )
IP54

69


E-mail henzusu@ms57.hinet.net

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