Submitted To.


Mr. MP Sharma sir Mrs. Mishika Ma’am

Aayush Vijayvargia. Roll no. 2901. Class – XI A

I would fail in my duty if I didn’t express my gratitude towards my Teachers Mr. MP Sharma and Mrs. Mishika Who guided me for this Project from nowhere. I am thankful to them for giving me such a wonderful topic, which gained me knowledge of a lot of new things. Also I am thankful to my parents and my friends who helped me to complete this project in such a limited time. Everyone’s help is acknowledged.

The Report is made to show the significance of Synthetic fibers in one’s daily life as well as shows the Chemical phase of their production. Synthetic fibers have been introduced and explained the process of their manufacturing and uses. The Reader will come to know the chemical processes involved in the production of some of the most common synthetic fibers like nylon, rayon, polyester, plastic fibers etc.

This report is totally dedicated to the chemical processes involved in the manufacturing of synthetic fibers on the commercial level.

Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve on naturally occurring animal and plant fibers. In general, synthetic fibers are created by forcing, usually through extrusion, fiber forming materials through holes (called spinnerets) into the air, forming a thread. Before synthetic fibers were developed, artificially manufactured fibers were made from cellulose, which comes from plants. These fibers are called cellulose fibers.

Synthetic fibers are made from synthesized polymers or small molecules. The compounds that are used to make these fibers come from raw materials such as petroleum based chemicals or petrochemicals. These materials are polymerized into a long, linear chemical that bond two adjacent carbon atoms. Differing chemical compounds will be used to produce different types of fibers. Although there are several different synthetic fibers, they generally have the same common properties.

 Synthetic fibers do not depend either on an agricultural crop or on animal farming.  They are generally cheaper than natural fiber.  Synthetic fibers possess unique characteristics which make them popular dress material.  They dry up quickly, are durable, readily available and easy to maintain.

 Synthetic fibers melt before burning  Some electrical charge accumulates on the synthetic fibers. The electrical charge causes irritation of the skin.  Low melting temperature  Extremely hazardous to the environment.  Can shrink wrap and suffocate the user.  Can make you overheat

 Can make you cold when wet

Sr. Name of the fiber no.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Rayon Nylon Polyester Mod acrylic Glass Fiber Olefin Aramids Vinyon Carbon Fiber Spandex

1895 1939 1953 1949 1938 1949 1963 1939 1968 1959

Rayon is the oldest commercial manmade fiber. The U. S. Trade Commission defines rayon as "manmade textile fibers and filaments composed of regenerated cellulose". The process of making viscose was discovered by C.F. Cross and E.J. Bevan in 1891. The process used to make viscose can either be a continuous or batch process. The batch process is flexible in producing a wide variety of rayons having broad versatility. Rayon's versatility is the result of

the fiber being chemically and structurally engineered by making use of the properties of cellulose from which it is made. However, it is somewhat difficult to control uniformity between batches and it also requires high labor involvement. The continuous process is the main method for producing rayon. Three methods of production lead to distinctly different types of rayon fibers: viscose rayon, cuprammonium rayon and saponified cellulose acetate. Of the methods mentioned, the viscose method is relatively inexpensive and of particular significance in the production of nonwoven fabrics.

Viscose rayon is a fiber made from regenerated wood cellulose. Viscose rayon is structurally similar to cotton, which is almost pure cellulose. Cellulose is a linear polymer of β-D-glucose units with the empirical formula of (C6H10O5)n. To prepare viscose, the

cellulose is treated with sodium hydroxide to form "alkali cellulose," which has the approximate formula [C6H9O4-ONa]n. The alkali cellulose is then treated with carbon disulfide to form a solution of sodium cellulose xanthate, which is called viscose. [C6H9O4-ONa]n + nCS2 → [C6H9O4-OCS2Na]n The higher the ratio of cellulose to combined sulfur, the lower the solubility of the cellulose xanthate. The xanthate is dissolved in additional sodium hydroxide and allowed to depolymerize to a desired extent, indicated by the solution's viscosity. The rate of depolymerization (ripening or maturing) depends on temperature and is affected by the presence of various inorganic and organic additives, such as metal oxides and hydroxides. Air also affect the ripening process since oxygen causes depolymerization. Rayon fiber is produced from the ripened solutions by treatment with a mineral acid, such as sulfuric acid. In this step, the xanthate groups are hydrolyzed to regenerate cellulose and release dithiocarbonic acid that later decomposes to carbon disulfide and water: [C6H9O4-OCS2Na]2n + nH2SO4 → [C6H9O4-OH]2n +2nCS2 + nNa2SO4 H2COS2 → H2O + CS2 The sulfur is then removed by the addition of sodium sulfide solution and impurities are oxidized by bleaching with sodium hypochlorite solution

Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers known generically as polyamides, first produced on February 28, 1935, by Wallace Carothers at DuPont's

research facility at the DuPont Experimental Station. Nylon is one of the most commonly used polymers. Nylon is a thermoplastic, silky material, first used commercially in a nylon-bristled toothbrush (1938), followed more famously by women's stockings ("nylons"; 1940) after being introduced as a fabric at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Nylon is made of repeating units linked by amide bonds and is frequently referred to as polyamide (PA). Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic polymer. There are two common ways of making nylon for fiber applications. In one approach, molecules with an acid (COOH) group on each end are reacted with molecules containing amine (-NH2) groups on each end. The resulting nylon is named on the basis of the number of carbon atoms separating the two acid groups and the two amines. These are formed into monomers of intermediate molecular weight, which are then reacted to form long polymer chains. Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk and substituted for it in many different products after silk became scarce during World War II. It replaced silk in military applications such as parachutes and flak vests, and was used in many types of vehicle tires. Nylon fibers are used in many applications, including clothes fabrics, bridal veils, package paper, carpets, musical strings, pipes, and rope etc.

Nylons are condensation copolymers formed by reacting equal parts of a diamine and a dicarboxylic acid, so that amides are formed at both ends of each monomer in a process

analogous to polypeptide biopolymers. Chemical elements included are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. The numerical suffix specifies the numbers of carbons donated by the monomers; the diamine first and the diacid second. The most common variant is nylon 6-6 which refers to the fact that the diamine (hexamethylene diamine, IUPAC name: hexane-1,6-diamine) and the diacid (adipic acid, IUPAC name: hexanedioic acid) each donate 6 carbons to the polymer chain Making nylon-6,6 industrially Nylon-6,6 is made by polymerising hexanedioic acid and 1,6-diaminohexane exactly as shown further up the page. Because the acid is acidic and the amine is basic, they first react together to form a salt. That is then converted into nylon-6,6 by heating it under pressure at 350°C. The two monomers can both be made from cyclohexane. Oxidation of the cyclohexane opens the ring of carbon atoms and produces a -COOH group at each end. That gives you the hexanedioic acid. Some of that can then be converted into the 1,6-diaminohexane. The acid is treated with ammonia to produce the ammonium salt.

The ammonium salt is heated to 350°C in the presence of hydrogen and a nickel catalyst. This both dehydrates the salt and reduces it to the 1,6-diaminohexane. Making nylon-6,6 in the lab In the lab, it is easy to make nylon-6,6 at room temperature using an acyl chloride (acid chloride) rather than an acid. The 1,6-diaminohexane is used just as before, but hexanedioyl dichloride is used instead of hexanedioic acid.

The general reaction is:

Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Although there are many polyesters, the term "polyester" as a specific material

most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naturally occurring chemicals, such as in the cutin of plant cuticles, as well as synthetics through step-growth polymerization such as polycarbonate and polybutyrate. Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not. Depending on the chemical structure, polyester can be a thermoplastic or thermoset, there are also polyester resins cured by hardeners; however, the most common polyesters are thermoplastics.[1] Fabrics woven or knitted from polyester thread or yarn are used extensively in apparel and home furnishings, from shirts and pants to jackets and hats, bed sheets, blankets, upholstered furniture and computer mouse mats. Industrial polyester fibers, yarns and ropes are used in tyre reinforcements, fabrics for conveyor belts, safety belts, coated fabrics and plastic reinforcements with high-energy absorption. Polyester fiber is used as cushioning and insulating material in pillows, comforters and upholstery padding. While synthetic clothing in general is perceived by many as having a less natural feel compared to fabrics woven from natural fibers, polyester fabrics can provide specific advantages over natural fabrics, such as improved wrinkle resistance, durability and high color retention. As a result, polyester fibers are sometimes spun together with natural fibers to produce a cloth with blended properties. Synthetic fibers also can create materials with superior water, wind and environmental resistance compared to plant-

derived fibers.

A polyester is a polymer (a chain of repeating units) where the individual units are held together by ester linkages.

In condensation polymerisation, when the monomers join together a small molecule gets lost. That's different from addition polymerisation which produces polymers like poly(ethene) - in that case, nothing is lost when the monomers join together. A polyester is made by a reaction involving an acid with two -COOH groups, and an alcohol with two -OH groups. In the common polyester drawn above: The acid is benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (old name: terephthalic acid). The alcohol is ethane-1,2-diol (old name: ethylene glycol).

Now imagine lining these up alternately and making esters with each acid group and each alcohol group, losing a molecule of water every time an ester linkage is made.

That would produce the chain shown above (although this time written without separating out the carbon-oxygen double bond).

Poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide or Kevlar was invented by Polish-American chemist Stephanie Kwolek while working for DuPont in anticipation of a gasoline shortage. In 1964, her group began searching for a new lightweight strong fiber to use for light but strong tires. Currently, Kevlar has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to body armor because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio; by this measure it is 5 times stronger than steel on an equal weight basis It is also used to make modern drumheads that hold up withstanding high impact. When used as a woven material, it is suitable for mooring lines and other underwater applications. Production Kevlar is synthesized in solution from the monomers 1,4-phenylene-diamine (paraphenylenediamine) and terephthaloyl chloride in a condensation reaction yielding hydrochloric acid as a byproduct. The result has liquid-crystalline behavior, and mechanical drawing orients the polymer chains in the fiber's direction. Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) was the solvent initially used for the polymerization, but for safety reasons, DuPont replaced it by a solution of N-methyl-pyrrolidone and calcium chloride

The reaction of 1,4-phenylene-diamine (para-phenylenediamine) with terephthaloyl chloride yielding kevlar

This is a picture of a typical ball stick structure of Kevlar(Poly-


A modacrylic is a synthetic copolymer. Modacrylics are soft, strong, resilient, and dimensionally stable. They can be easily dyed, show good press and shape retention, and are quick to dry. They have outstanding resistance to chemicals and solvents, are not attacked by moths or mildew, and are nonallergenic. Among their uses are in apparel linings, furlike outerwear, paint-roller covers, scatter rugs, carpets, and work clothing and as hair in wigs.[1]

Modacrylic fibers are modified acrylic fibers made from acrylonitriles, but larger amounts of other polymers are added to make the copolymers. The modacrylic fibers are produced by polymerizing the components, dissolving the copolymer in acetone, pumping the solution into the column of warm air (dry-spun), and stretching while hot.[3] Modacrylics are creamy or white and are produced in tow and staple form. If looked at in cross section views they have an irregular shape. Modacrylic fibers are also produced in many different lengths, crimp levels, deniers and they can have various shrinkage potentials. Current modacrylic fiber producers include Solutia Inc. in the U.S. and Kaneka Corporation in Japan

Carbon fiber, alternatively graphite fiber, carbon graphite or CF, is a material consisting of fibers about 5–10 μm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio (makes it strong for its size). Several thousand carbon fibers are bundled together to form a tow, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric. Carbon fibers are usually combined with other materials to form a composite. When combined with a plastic resin and wound or molded it forms carbon fiber reinforced plastic (often referred to as carbon fiber) which has a very high strength-to-weight ratio, and is extremely rigid although somewhat brittle. However, carbon fibers are also composed with other materials, such as with graphite to form carbon-carbon composites, which have a very high heat tolerance
Synthesis of carbon fiber from Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 1) Polymerization of acrylonitrile to PAN 2) Cyclization during low temperature process 3) High temperature oxidative treatment of carbonization (hydrogen is removed) .... after this, process of graphitization starts where nitrogen is removed and chains are joined into graphite planes

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