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BURMESE FAMILIARIZATION COURSE

Introduction to

Burma (Myanmar)


Map of Burma Burmese national flag


Burma, which is now called Union of Myanmar by the Burmese military government, is a
country lying along the eastern coasts of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea in
Southeast Asia. It is twice the size of Vietnam and close to the size of the US state of
Texas. It is the largest country in the South-East Asian Peninsula and shares borders with
Bangladesh and India on the west and southwest, and China, Laos and Thailand on the
east, northeast, and southeast. The country covers an area of 677,000 square kilometers
(261,228 square miles) ranging 936 kilometers (581 miles) from east to west and 2,051
kilometers (1,275 miles) from north to south, It is a land of hills and valleys and is
rimmed in the north, east and west by mountain ranges. The length of contiguous frontier
is 6,159 kilometers. The total length of the Burma-Bangladesh boundary is 271
kilometers (168.7 miles). The total length of the Burma-China boundary is 2,204
kilometers (1,370 miles); Burma-Thailand 2,107 kilometers (1,309.8 miles); Burma-India
1,338 kilometers (831.8 miles); and Burma-Laos 238 kilometers (147.9 miles).








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Climate

Burma experiences the effects of the Monsoon in different parts of the country.
Temperatures vary from 38 C to 19 C and humidity from 82.8% to 66% depending on the
area of the country. Extremes of temperature are rare. The directions of winds and
depression bring rain, and it is always heavy in the coastal areas during monsoon season.

Burma has three distinctive seasons, namely, the hot season (March to May with average
temperatures of 30-35C), the rainy season (June to October with average temperatures of
25-30C), and the cool season (November to February with average temperatures of 20-
24C). These different seasons are created by seasonal changes in the monsoon wind
directions.

Geography

Three parallel chains of mountain ranges run from north to south in Burma: the Western
Yoma (aka Rakhine Yoma), the Bago Yoma and the Shan Plateau. According to these
mountain chains and river systems, the country can be divided into seven major
topographic regions: the Northern Hills, the Western Hills, the Shan plateau, the Central
Belt, the Lower Myanmar Delta, the Rakhine Coastal Region and Tanintharyi Coastal
Strip.
The mountains in Burma have their origin in the Himalayan mountain range. The peak of
the Hkakabo-Razi at 5,881 meters (18,000 feet) is the highest in South-East Asia.
There are four major rivers in Burma: Ayeyarwaddy, Chindwin, Sittaung, and Thanlwin.
Burma has some semi-desert areas in the middle part of the country. Rainfall in such
areas, e.g. Bagan and Mandalay, is very low, even in the rainy season.

Population

The current population in Burma is 42,642,000 according to the 2006 Burma census.
Seventy percent of the population may be considered poor in Burma. The only affluent
citizens are officers of the army and those who have connections with military officials.
The rate of literacy is very high in Burma. About eighty three percent can read and write
in Burmese. But the level of education has been going down since 1964 after the military
government declared Burmese as the sole medium of instruction in all higher education
except engineering and medical schools. About forty percent of the population is college
educated, but those college graduates normally do not work in the fields where they have
been trained.







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Government

The current leader of Burma is Senior General Than Shwe. There are about twenty
political parties in Burma. But these parties are not allowed to exercise their rights such
as freedom of speech, freedom to assemble, and freedom to advocate their political
ideologies.

Burma has been ruled by a military government since 1988. In the 1990s an election was
held. The National League for Democracy (NLD) party, the party of Aung San Suu Kyi,
won that election. But the military government did not honor the result of the election.
Instead, many members of the NLD have been arrested and imprisoned, and Aung San
Suu Kyi has been under house-arrest until now. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi won the Rafto
Prize and the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990 and in 1991 was awarded
the Nobel Peace Prize for her peaceful and non-violent struggle under a repressive
military dictatorship.


Daw Aung San Suu Kyi Senior General Than Shwe


History

The Burmese, often recorded in history as the "Mranma," seem to have appeared on the
plains of Upper Burma early in the ninth century. According to Chinese sources, the
name "Mranma" was recorded as "mian" which survives in the modern Manderin
Chinese name for Burma, namely "mian dian" (Wheatley 1982:2). In modern colloquial
Burmese, both `mn\ ma myan-ma and b ma ba-ma are used interchangeably for the word
"Burmese."

The history of Burma dates back to the early 11th century when king Anawrahta unified
the country and founded the First Burmese Empire in Bagan. The Second Burmese
Empire was founded in the mid 16th century by King Bayinnaung. King Alaungpaya
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founded the last Burmese dynasty in 1752. Myanmar became a British colony after three
Anglo-Burmese Wars in 1825, 1852 and 1885. During the Second World War, Burma
was occupied by the Japanese from 1942 until the return of the Allied Forces in 1945.
Burma regained its Independence on January 4, 1948 under the leadership of General
Aung San (the father of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi).

Burma enjoyed a system of democratic government from 1948 till 1962 when General Ne
Win took power. The Burmese Way of Socialism was created to disguise the military rule
of Burma for many decades. Because of the people upheaval, in support of a democratic
governmental system, the military took over the power of the State again in 1988.

At present, Burma is considered one of the worst countries in the world when it comes to
human right violations.

Foreign/U.S. Relations

The present Burmese military government does not have a good relationship with western
democratic nations. In fact, the United States proposed to put the human rights situation
in Burma on the agenda of UN Security Council. Along with the US, other countries
voting in favor of putting Myanmar on the Council agenda were Argentina, Denmark,
France, Ghana, Greece, Japan, Peru, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland. On September 15, 2006, the United Nations Security Council voted
(10 votes to four with one abstention) to focus on the situation in Myanmar (Burma). Ten
nations, including the United States, voted in favor of adding Myanmar to the Council
agenda, while China, Russia, Qatar and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) voted
against it. Tanzania abstained.

Economy

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy in Burma. However, Burma possesses
substantial resources in both oil and minerals. High quality jade has been available in
Kachin state far to the north, while rubies are still to be found along the upper western
edge of the Shan plateau. The northern Shan states also contain silver, nickel, and lead
deposits in commercial quantities.

Non-mineral resources include valuable timbers. Teakwood has been a major export in
Burma. The most valuable animal resources in Burma are oxen and water buffalo, useful
for plowing and land transportation. Many oxen are bred locally, and trained elephants
usually handle the felled timber. The economy of Burma has been stifled by many
economic sanctions imposed by the United States government and its allies, which ban
exports from Burma.





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Religion

Over eighty percent of the population are Buddhists in Burma. There are also Christians,
Muslims, Hindus and Animists. An unofficial estimate is as follows: Buddhist 89%,
Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, and other 2%.
The military government routinely engages in the repression of non-Buddhist religions.
As a result, many ethnic minorities in Burma who happen to be non-Buddhists have fled
the country in search of religious freedom. Repression of the Burmese Buddhists because
of political affiliation also is rampant in Burma.



The famous golden Shwedagon pagoda















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Ethnic Groups

Burma has several ethnic groups. The major ones include Burman, Rakhine, Chin,
Kachin, Kayah, Karen, Mon and Shan.



Burman Rakhine

Ethnic Burmans are the majority in the country, constituting about seventy percent of the
entire population. This group is concentrated largely in the central valley and delta areas.
The Rakhines, the closest relatives of the Burmans live in the Rakhine State, the
southwest part of Burma.













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Chin Kachin

The Chin group occupies the northwest mountainous areas of Burma, called Chin State.
There are about 15-20 languages among the Chin group. Although these are distinct
languages, they are closely related to one another.

The Kachins lives in the northern part of Burma, called Kachin State. They are also found
in some parts of Shan State, and Yunnan which is a Chinese territory.

The most numerous ethnic minority group in Burma are the Karens, composed of two
principal language communities, the Pwo and Sgaw. Karens are found in the delta area,
Shan State, and Karen State.

The Kayahs, the closest relatives of the Karens live in Kayah State in the southeast part
of Burma.











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Kayah Karen

The Shan peoples of northern Burma and the eastern plateau region are kinsmen of the
northern Tai. They live mainly in Shan State.



Shan Mon

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The once ruling Mon inhabitants of lower Burma, who entered the region from several
centuries B.C., have been the tutors of politically dominant Burmans in literature, religion,
architecture, and government. This group is mainly found in the Mon State today.

Culture

The people in Burma have been known for their generosity and hospitality. Respect to the
elders, monks, and priests, is a shared value in Burma. A typical Burmese usually
possesses a lively sense of humor, and is not easily taken in or deceived.

Burmese are also very fond of festivals and sporting events. An example is the Thingyan,
also known as The Water Festival. Among the many festivals in Burma, Thingyan is one
of the few observed festivals all over the country. Thingyan welcomes the Burmese New
Year by washing away the dirt of the body and bad memories of the old year. The word
Thingyan comes from a Sanskrit word meaning “the passing of the sun from Pisces into
Aries.” The day of Thagyamin's ascent marks the beginning of the Myanmar New Year,
and usually falls at the end of the second week of April.



A scene that shows the celebration of the Thingyan Water Festival.

Family

The traditional Burmese family is neither patriarchal nor matriarchal. Traditionally and
historically, the Burmese woman has been an almost equal partner of her husband.
Although there is a strong cultural tendency for the wife to be respectful to her husband,
in any marriage it is always the person of stronger personality or character who leads the
household. Economics play a key role in shaping the dynamics of marriage partners,
especially now when both husband and wife usually work to support the family.
Economics is the main reason also, why grandparents live with their married children and
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grandchildren, and why grown children usually live with their parents. The wife usually
controls the family purse-strings, supervises buying and selling, assists in planting and
harvesting routines, and runs the household generally. Women can hope to be born as
men in the next transmigration, while making the best of their current existence in a very
practical fashion.

Foods



coconut noodles (soup) fish noodle soup

There are several foods which distinctly belong to the Burmese people. Such foods
include mun\. hc\; Kf; moun.-hin:-ga: 'fish noodle soup', one of the main dishes eaten as
breakfast countrywide, Aun\; Ni.u eKfk\ SEQ oun:-nou.-hkau'-hswe: ‘coconut noodles’, and lk\
Pk\ qup\ la-hpe'-thou' ‘pickled tea-leaves salad'.



A serve of pickled tea-leaves salads



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Art

Art has been closely intertwined with religion and royalty in Burmese history. Temples,
pagodas and palaces have displayed the artistic skills of painters, wood carvers and
sculptures. Temples and pagodas were traditionally built of brick and many are still
standing. Art and architecture, which relied on royal support, faded when the last royal
kingdom collapsed. Although court culture has been extinguished, popular street-level
culture is vibrant and thriving. Drama is the mainstay of this culture, and just about any
celebration is a good excuse for a pwe (show). Performances may recount Buddhist
legends, or be more light-hearted entertainments involving slapstick comedy, dance,
ensemble singing or giant puppets. Burmese music is an integral part of a pwe; it
originates from Siam (Thailand) and emphasizes rhythm and melody. Instruments are
predominantly percussive and include drums, boat-shaped harps, gongs and bamboo
flutes.

There are 10 Burmese traditional Arts which are metaphorically called "Ten Flowers,"
namely, pn\ ; pE ba-be: (the art of blacksmith), pn\; pu ba-bu. (the art of sculpture), pn\ ; Ti m\
ba-dein (the art of gold and silver smith), pn\ ; tV\ ; ba-din: (the art of bronze casting), pn\ ;
eta. ba-do. (the art of making floral designs using masonry), pn\; rn\ ba-yan (the art of
bricklaying and masonry), pn\ ; t ema. pan:-ta-mo. (the art of sculpting with stones), pn\;
pQt\ pan:-bu' (the art of turning designs on the lathe), pn\ ; KjI ba-ji (the art of painting),
and pn\; yQn\; pan:-yun: (the art of making lacquer ware). These arts have been passed on
from one century to another. Some examples with pictures are given below:





The art of sculpture The art of gold and silver smith

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The art of sculpting with stones The art of bricklaying and masonry
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Language

Burmese belongs to the Lolo-Burmese subgroup of the Tibeto-Burman language family,
ultimately affiliated with Chinese in the Sino-Tibetan stock. Burmese is one of the
principal literary languages of Tibeto-Burman with an extensive written record. The first
attested written record in Burmese was Myacedi Stone Inscription (`m es tI ekjak\ sa
mya.-zei-di kyau'-sa) dated 1113 A.D. (Burmese year 474).

1. Original Stone Inscription 2. Transcription (1
st
14 lines)
Myacedi Stone Inscription of 1113 A.D.

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Burmese is spoken as a first language by ethnic Burmans who constitute about two thirds
of the population, and as a second language by all the other ethnic groups in Burma such
as Akha, Chinsese, Chin, Indian, Kachin, Karen, Lahu, Lisu, Mon, Naga, Palaung, Shan,
Wa, etc. to name a few. It is the sole official language of the country.

Writing System

According to the Myanmar-English Dictionary (MED), the Burmese writing system was
developed from the Brāhmi script which flourished in India from about 500 B.C. to 300
A.D. (MED: iv).

Traditionally, thirty three initial consonants in Burmese have been established by
“Burmese Primer”' (`mn\ ma qc\ pun\; @kI; myan-ma thin-boun:-ji:). Myanmar-English
Dictionary describes Burmese Primer as shown below (MED:viii):

1
k
k
2
K
hk
3
g
g
4
G
g
5
c
ng
6
s
s
7
S
hs
8
z
z
9
Z
z
10
v
ny
11
«
t
12
¬
ht
13

d
14
®
dh
15
¯
n
16
t
t
17
T
ht
18
d
d
19
D
d
20
n
n
21
p
p
22
P
hp
23
b
b
24
B
b
25
m
m
26
y
y
27
r
y
28
l
l
29
w
w
30
q
th
31
h
h
32
±
l
33
A
a

The consonants in the third row (number 11-15) are used mainly for Pali loan words. The
consonant ± (number 32) which is usually called l @kI; la.-ji: "big letter L" is seldom
used in Burmese.

In the Burmese Familiarization Course, we follow modern linguistic descriptions of
colloquial Burmese such as Soe 1999, Okell 1969, and Wheatley 1982.

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Initial Consonants

Labial stops

p p plain voiceless bilabial stop;
like medial p in English spin.
P hp aspirated voiceless bilabial stop;
like initial p in English pin.
B/b b voiced bilabial stop;
like b in English bit.

Alveolar stops

t t plain voiceless alveolar stop;
like medial t in English stop.
T ht aspirated voiceless alveolar stop;
like initial t in English top.
d/D d voiced alveolar stop;
like d in English dot.

Velar stops

k k plain voiceless velar stop;
like medial k in English skin.
K hk aspirated voiceless velar stop;
like initial k in English kinship.
g g voiced velar stop;
like g in English get.

Glottal stop

A unmarked glottal stop;
like h in English ah! a!

Dental fricative

q th voiceless dental fricative;
like th in English thin.

Alveolar fricatives

s s plain alveolar fricative;
like s in English see.
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S hs aspirated alveolar fricative;
no English equivalence. Many native speakers pronounce this sound like
s s.
z/Z z voiced alveolar fricative;
like z in English zone.

Alveola-palatal fricative

rH sh alveo-palatal fricative;
like s in English ship.

Glottal fricative

h h glottal fricative;
like h in English hat.

Palatal affricate

~k/kj c plain palatal affricate;
like c in Italian ciò.
`K/Kj hc voiceless palatal affricate;
like ch in English chin.
gj j voiced palatal affricate;
like j in English jump.

Labial nasals

m m bilabial nasal;
like m in English man.
mH hm voiceless bilabial nasal;
no English equivalent. In the pronunciation of this sound, the breath
expelled quietly through the nose just before the m sound begins.

Alveolar nasals

n n alveolar nasal;
like n in English noun.
NH hn voiceless alveolar nasal;
no English equivalent. In the pronunciation of this sound, the breath
expelled quietly through the nose just before the n sound begins.




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Palatal nasals

v ny palatal nasal;
no English equivalent.
vH hny voiceless palatal nasal;
no English equivalent. In the pronunciation of this sound, the breath
expelled quietly through the nose just before the hny sound begins.

Velar nasals

c ng velar nasal;
like ng in English sing. Note that this sound only appears in English as
a final consonant.
cH hng voiceless velar nasal;
no English equivalent. In the pronunciation of this sound, the breath
expelled quietly through the nose just before the ng sound begins.

Labial glides

w w plain labial glide;
like w in English win.
wH hw voiceless labial glide;
like wh in English what..

Palatal glide

r/y y palatal glide;
like y in English you.

Alveolar lateral

l l plain alveolar lateral;
like l in English land.
lH hl voiceless alveolar lateral;
no English equivalent. In the pronunciation of this sound, the breath
expelled quietly just before the l sound begins.

The consonant r is very rare in Burmese, and usually appears in loan words. When it does
appear the Burmese letter r is used to represent the r sound.






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Medial Consonants

Burmese has two medial consonants -w- and -y- written as (Q) and (j) respectively. Medial
-w- can follow all the consonants. But consonants that palatal glide -y- (j) follow are
restricted to p, hp, b, m, hm, l, hl.

Final Consonants

The Burmese writing system has four final stopped consonants (k, t, s, p). But in
modern colloquial Burmese, these final consonants have merged into a glottal stop, which
is marked in these lessons with " ' ", e.g. kp\ ka' 'stick'. When these consonants appear
word-finally, there is a marker called A qt\ a-tha' ("killer mark") on top of these
consonants, as in k\, t\, s\, p\ . Similarly, the Burmese writing system has four nasal
final consonants. But in modern spoken Burmese, only the vowels are pronounced with a
nasalized sound (aka nasalized vowels) when the word has a nasal final, e.g. kc\ kin “to
roast.” This nasalized sound is represented in these lessons with a final -n.

Vowels and Tones

It seems best to describe the writing systems of vowels and tones together in Burmese
since the system links the description of vowels and tones. Burmese has six
monophthongal vowels and three diphthongal vowels. It also has three tones in smooth
syllables and a stopped tone (a word that ends with a glottal stop). These tones are
usually called Level tone (unmarked in our romanization), Heavy tone (marked in our
romanization with colon, e.g. hka: 'bitter'), Creaky tone (marked in our romanization with
a period, e.g. hka. “cost”), and Stop tone (marked in our romanization with apostrophe,
e.g. yei hka' 'draw water'). The chart below describes how the tone is marked in
accordance with the vowels and diphthong.

Vowel Level tone Heavy tone Creaky tone
a (low central) a
a
a;
a:
(unmarked)
a.
e (mid front) y\
e
E
e:
E.
e.
i (high front) I
i
I;
i:
i
i.
o (mid back) e a\/e F
o
e a/e f
o:
e a./e f.
o.
u (high back) U
u
U;
u:
u
u.
ei (diphthong) e
ei
e ;
ei:
e .
ei.

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For syllables with nasalized vowels, the following chart is drawn to indicate the
correspondence between tones and its vowels.

Nasalized vowels Level tone Heavy tone Creaky tone
an m\/ n\
an
m\;/ n\;
an:
m.\/ n\.
an.
in c\
in
c\;
in:
c\.
in.
un Qm\/ Qn\
un
Qm\;/ Qn\;
un:
Qm\./ Qn.\
un.
ain uic\
ain
uic\;
ain:
uic\.
ain.
aun e ac\
aun
e ac\;
aun:
e ac\.
aun.
ein im\/ in\
ein
im\;/ in\;
ein:
im\./ in\.
ein.
oun um\/ un\
oun
um\;/ un\;
oun:
um\./ un\.
oun.

For a syllable that ends with glottal stop, there are three possible nuclear vowels and a
diphthong, as shown in the chart below.

Vowels Stop final
a p\/ t\
a'
e k\
e'
u Qp\/ Qt\
u'
ai uik\
ai'
au e ak\












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Junctural voicing

Junctural voicing is a phenomenon where certain consonants change their form from
aspirated/plain voiceless consonants into voiced consonants, i.e. voiceless obstruents
become voiced by a process “junctural voicing”. For example, voiceless consonants p or
hp may change into a voiced consonant b depending on a context. This voicing has many
phonological conditions (cf. VanBik 2004) and it affects the initial voiceable consonants
of both content words (e.g. nouns, verbs, etc.) and function words (e.g. post position
markers, particles, etc.). The voiceable initial consonants and their voiced counterparts
are as follows (cf. Okell 1969, Vol.-I:12):

voiceable (plain) k t p c s th
(aspirate) hk ht hp hc hs

voiced counterpart g d b j z dh

Note that this voicing is indicated only in romanization, not in the Burmese writing
system.

References:

CADY, John F. 1976. The United States and Burma. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press.
CLARK, Michael and Joe CUMMINGS. 2000. Myanmar (Burma). Melbourne, Oakland,
London, Paris: Lonely Planet Publications.
MYANMAR LANGUAGE COMMISSION. 1994. Myanmar-English Dictionary (MED).
Yangon: Ministry of Education.
OKELL, John. 1969. A Reference Grammar of Colloquial Burmese. Two Vol. London:
Oxford Univ. Press.
SOE, Myint. 1999. A Grammar of Burmese. Ph.D. Dissertation.
University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.
VANBIK, Kenneth. 2004. Junctural and parasitic voicing in Burmese. Proceedings of the 29th
Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society (BLS 29): 473-484.
WHEATLEY, K. Julian. 1982. Burmese: a Grammatical Sketch. Ph.D. Dissertation, University
of California, Berkeley.


.
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Lesson 1
People and Geography
~ ¸ ¸. , ~
lu-myou: hnin. pa-hta-wi


This lesson will introduce you to:

- Simple greetings and basic introductions in Burmese
- How to greet people in formal and informal situations in Burma/Myanmar
- Personal pronouns
- Possessive pronouns
- How to use the verbs “to be” and “to live” in the present tense
- Basic geographical names of Burma/Myanmar.
-

PEOPLE

1. Listen to these simple greetings and phrases in Burmese and repeat them after the speaker.










How are you?

I am fine.
Nei kaun: dha la: (hka-mya)

Nei kaun: ba de
.,.~.~. ¸¸¸
.,.~. ~
Blessings to you. Min-ga-la ba
~
Have you eaten?

Yes, I have.
sa: pi: bi la: shin

hou'-ke. sa: pi: ba bi
·._._~. ¸¸¸
~~ ·._._
Where to? (informal) be le:
~
Where are you going? (more formal) be thwa: ma-lou. le: hkamya
. ~~ ¸


2. Exchange greetings with your teacher and your partner.


Burmese has no expressions that are equivalent to "hello, hi, good morning, good
evening, good night, etc." Most commonly, Burmese will ask "How are you?" to greet
someone. In the classroom or in an educational setting, Mingala ba "Blessings to
you" is used. During meal times the phrase, "Have you eaten?" functions as a greeting.
And when you meet someone on the street, "Where to?" is appropriate. Male speakers
add hka-mya and female speakers add shin to the greeting to sound polite.
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3. Familiarize yourself with personal pronouns. Listen to the audio and repeat after the speaker.


I Ca-no, ca-ma.
~¸,.~ ~¸,
you Hka-mya: , shin
¸. ¸
he Thu

she Thu

we Ca-no-dou. , ca-ma.-dou.
~¸,.~~ ~¸,~
you (plural) Hka-mya:-dou. , shin-dou.
¸.~ ¸~
they Thu-dou.
~


4. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Read the dialogues in pairs.

Any time of the day, when first
meeting someone you know and
also someone you meet for the
first time

Ko Soe Than: How are you? Nei kaun: dha la:
.,.~.~.
Ko Tin Maung: I am fine.


How about you?
Nei kaun: ba de


Hka-mya: / shin go: nei kaun: ba
dha-la:
.,.~. ~

¸. ¸ _ .~ .,.~.
~.
Ko Soe Than: I am fine, too.

hou'-ke. Nei kaun: ba de

~~ .,.~. ~

During the day between 10:30
and 13:30 or in the evening
between 16:30 and 19:00
(roughly at meal times)

Ko Soe Than: Have you eaten? Sa: pi: bi la:
·._. _~.
Ma Win: Yes. I have eaten.

And you? Have you eaten?
Hou’-ke. Sa: pi: ba bi

shin go: sa: pi: bi la:
~~ ·._. _
¸.~ ·._. _~.
Ko Soe Than: No, I haven't eaten
yet.
ma-sa: ya. thei: ba bu:
·._...



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Any time of the day when you
meet someone you know on the
street (Informal)


Ko Soe Than: Where to? be le:
~
Ko Tin Maung: Just hereabouts.

And you?
di a-na: ba

Hka-mya: go:
,.
¸. .~
Ko Soe Than: I went shopping. zei: we la da ba
.¸. ~ ~


5. Use the dialogues above as a model, and compose your own similar dialogues. Work in pairs or in
small groups.

GEOGRAPHY





Grammar note:
Verbs are not conjugated in the Burmese language. To say that a person is from a certain place, Burmese
commonly use the following sentence pattern, which does not have a verb in it:

~¸,.~~ _¡~
ca-no ga. ba-ma pyei ga. ba
"I am from Burma."
~¸,.~ ca-no = I; ~ ga. = Subject Marker; _¡ ba-ma pyei = Burma country;
~ ga.=from; ba = Polite Particle

24
The same information can be conveyed in a sentence with the verb: _· hpyi', meaning "is" in this context
although in other contexts it means "to happen." The sentence below with the verb: _· hpyi', however, is not
commonly used:

~¸,.~~ _¡~ _· ~
ca-no ga. ba-ma pyei ga. hpyi' pa de
"I am from Burma."

Again, note that verbs do not conjugate in Burmese. Consequently, the same sentence will be used irrespective
of whether the subject is 1st Person, 2nd person, or 3rd Person singular or plural.

The table below gives both versions.

I am from… ca-no ga. ga. ba
ca-no ga. ga. hpyi' pa de
~¸,.~~ ~
~¸,.~~ ~ _·~
You are from… hka-mya: ga. ga. ba
hka-mya: ga. ga. hpyi' pa de
¸. ~ ~
¸. ~ ~ _· ~
He is from… thu ga. ga. ba
thu ga. ga. hpyi' pa de
~ ~
~ ~ _·~
She is from… thu ga. ga. ba
thu ga. ga. hpyi' pa de
~ ~
~ ~ _·~
It is from… e:-da ga. ga. ba
e:-da ga. ga. hpyi' pa de
~ ~
~ ~ _· ~
We are from… ca-no dou. ga. ga. ba
ca-no dou. ga. ga. hpyi' pa de
~¸,.~~ ~ ~
~¸,.~~ ~ ~
_·~
You are from… hka-mya: dou. ga. ga. ba
hka-mya: dou. ga. ga. hpyi' pa de
¸.~ ~ ~
¸.~ ~ ~ _· ~
They are from… thu dou. ga. ga. ba
thu dou. ga. ga. hpyi' pa de
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ _·~

6. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker.

1. I am Burmese. ca-no ba-ma lu-myou: ba
~¸,.~ ~¸¸.
I am from Burma. ca-no ba-ma pyei ga ba
~¸,.~ _¡~
2. He is Burmese. thu ga. ba-ma lu-myou: ba
~ ~¸¸.
He is from Burma. thu ga. ba-ma pyei ga ba
~ _¡~

25
3. She is Burmese. thu ga. ba-ma lu-myou: ba
~ ~¸¸.
She is from Yangon. thu ga yan-goun myou. ga. ba
~ _,~,_¸~
4. We are Burmese.
(Male speaker)

(Female speaker)
ca-no dou. ga. ba-ma lu-myou: ba


ca-ma. dou. ga. ba-ma lu-myou: ba
~¸,.~~~ ~¸¸.

~¸,~~ ~¸¸.
We are from Yangon.
(Male speaker)

(Female speaker)
ca-no dou. ga. yan-goun myou. ga. ba


ca-ma. dou. ga. yan-goun myou. ga. ba
~¸,.~~~ _,~,_¸~

~¸,~~ _,~,_¸~
5. You are Burmese.
(Male speaker)

(Female speaker)
hka-mya: ga. ba-ma lu-myou: ba


shin ga. ba-ma lu-myou: ba
¸.~ ~¸¸.

¸~ ~¸¸.
You are from Yangon.
(Male speaker)

(Female speaker)
hka-mya: ga. yan-goun myou. ga. ba


shin ga. yan-goun myou. ga. ba
¸.~ _,~,_¸~

¸~ _,~,_¸~
6. They are Burmese. thu dou. ga. ba-ma lu-myou: ba

~~ ~¸¸.
They are from Yangon. thu dou. ga. yan-goun myou. ga. ba
~~ _,~,_¸~

7. Pretend you and your classmates are from Burma. Introduce yourself and your classmates to your
friend in Burmese. Use the model below and the map.

Model:
~¸,.~~ ~¸,.~~ _,~,~ ~~ .~ ~ .~_¸~
ca-no ga. ba-ma ba ca-no ga. yan-goun ga. ba kou tin win: ga. ba-ma ba thu ga. mo-la-myain ga. ba
~¸¸.. , ~ .~ ~ ~ .~_~.~
kou myou: win: ne. ma. nu. ga. ba-ma dwei ba thu dou. ga. taun-ji: ga. ba

When asking where someone is from, the question begins with the 2nd person pronoun, or name, or the 3rd
person pronoun:

¸. ~ ~ ~
hka-mya: ga. be ga. le:
"Where are you from?"


[ ¸. hka-mya: = you; ~ ga. = Subject marker; be = Wh word; ~ ga. = from;
~ le: = Yes/no Question Particle ]



26

Where are you from? hka-mya: ga. be ga. le:

¸.~ ~ ~
Where is he/she from?
Where is it from?
thu ga. be ga. le:
e:-da ga. be ga. le:
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
Where are we from?
Where are they from?
ca-no dou. ga. be ga. le:
thu dou. ga. be ga. le:
~¸,.~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~


8. Listen to the following dialogues in Burmese and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your
workbook.

1. A. I am from Yangon.
(Male speaker)
(Female speaker)

ca-no ga. yan-goun myou. ga. ba
ca-ma. ga. yan-goun myou. ga. ba
~¸,.~~ _,~,_¸~
~¸,~ _,~,_¸~
Where are you from?
(Male speaker)
(Female speaker)

hka-mya: ga. be ga. le:
shin ga. be ga. le:
¸.~ ~~
¸~ ~~
B. I am from Mawlamyine.
(Male speaker)
ca-no ga. Mo-la-myain myou. ga. ba
~¸,.~~
.~_¸ _¸~
2. A. Where is Ko Tin Win
from?
kou tin-win: ga. be ga. le:
~~.~ ~~
B. He is from Mogok. thu ga. mou:-gou' ka. ba
~ .~~~
3. A. I am from Kalaw. ca-no ga. ka-lo: ga. ba
~¸,.~~ ~.~~
Where are you and Ma
Tin Tin Win from?
hka-mya: ne. ma. Tin-tin-win: ga. be
ga. le:
¸., ~~.~
~~
B. We are from Magway. ca-no dou. ga. ma-gwei: ga. ba
~¸,.~~~ .~.~
4. A. Ko Myo Win is from
Pyinmana.
kou myou: win: ga. pyin:-ma-na: ga.
ba
~¸¸..~ ¸¡.,.~
Where are U Lwin and
Daw Yee Yee from?
u: lwin ne. do yi-yi ga. be ga. le:
¡.~ , .¨ __~ ~
~
B. They are from Katha. thu dou. ga. ka-tha ga. ba
~ ~ ~ ~

9. Role-play the dialogues above using the map of Burma/Myanmar.

Note:
In Burmese the question "Are you from Burma?" will be asked in the pattern below:

[You] [Burma FROM] [QUES PARTICLE]


27
Note that this sentence pattern does not have a verb in it. The short answer for this question is Hou' pa de "That
is correct." in the affirmative and Ma-hou' pa bu: "That is not correct." in the negative.

The English "Yes" has an equivalent Hou'-ke. in Burmese. Burmese, however, does not have a word that is the
counterpart of the English "No." Consequently, the short negative answer to the question "Are you from
Burma?" would be the sentence Ma-hou' pa bu: "That is not correct."

10. Read the following dialogues and role-play them.


Grammar note:

(1) When you ask a person what his/her name is in Burmese, you indicate the degree of politeness by including
the polite particle ba , as well as the polite endings kha-mya ¸ (for male speakers) and shin ¸ (for
female speakers.) The number of polite particles you include in your sentences depends on the relative social
status of the person you are speaking with.
(2) Burmese people do not have last names or family names. There are only given names.
(3) Difference in sex, age and social status generally determine how you address a person.
An adult male's name is prefixed with u: ¡. (U Thant, U Nu)
An adult female's name is prefixed with do .¨ (Daw Aung San Suu Kyi)



A. Are you from Burma? hka-mya: ga. ba-ma pyei ga. la:
(male speaker)
shin ga. ba-ma pyei ga. la:
(female speaker)
¸.~ _¡ ~~.

¸~ _¡ ~~.

B. Yes, I am. hou' pa de ~~
A. Are you from Yangon? hka-mya: ga. yan-goun ga. la:
(male speaker)
shin ga. yan-goun ga. la:
(female speaker)
¸.~ _,~, ~~.

¸~ _,~, ~~.
B. No, I am not. I am from
Taunggyi.
ca-no ga. yan-goun ga. ma-hou' pa bu:
taun-ji: ga. ba (ms)
ca-ma. ga. yan-goun ga. ma-hou' pa
bu: taun-ji: ga. ba (fs)

~¸,.~~ _,~,~ ~.
.~_~.~
~¸,~ _,~,~ ~.
.~_~.~

A. Is Tin Win from Burma? tin-win: ga. ba-ma pyei ga. la: ~.~ _¡~ ~.
B. Yes, he is. hou' pa de ~~
A. Are Tin Win and Yi Yi
from Myitkyina?

tin-win: ne. yi-yi ga. myi'-ci:-na: ga.
la:

~., __~ _·_~.,.~ ~.
B. Yes, they are hou' pa de ~~
28
In the examples below, you will notice that when a person introduces himself/herself, the person will give just
his/her name without a preceding title/honorific/kin term. Later in the conversation, when that person is
addressed by some other person, you will notice that there is a kin term prefixed to the name. This is done to be
polite. In this context, the speakers address one another with the kin terms kou (Older brother) and ma. (Older
sister) prefixed to the name. If for example, you address someone who is either apparently much older than you
or who is your social superior, then again you would prefix the name with the title u: ¡ . ¸ do .¨. If it is your
teacher or someone you recognize as a teacher, you would address that person as hsa-ya u: than. (Teacher U
Thant) or has-ya-ma. do su. (Teacher Daw Su). It is also common for people to address their bosses with just
hsa-ya .
When addressing a younger male you would prefix maun "Younger brother" to the name, or ma. to the name of
a younger female for politeness. Here, ma. has lost its connotation of "Older sister". Just to keep life simple,
however, we will assume that in the exercises below the speakers are roughly of the same age and social
standing. And, to make the question polite in asking names, we will include the polite particle ba.




What is your name? Na-me be lou hko ba dha
le:
What is your name? Na-me be lou hko
ba dha le:
My name is Steve. Steve ba My name is Peter Brown. Peter Brown ba

I ca-no (ms)
ca-ma. (fs)
~¸,.~
~¸,
My ca-no. (ms)
ca-ma. (fs)
~¸,.~
~¸,
You hka-mya: (ms)
shin (fs)
¸.
¸
Your hka-mya: ye.(ms)
shin. (fs)
¸._
¸
He thu His thu.
She thu Her thu.
It e: da Its
We ca-no dou. (ms)
ca-ma. dou.(fs)
~¸,.~~
~¸,~
Our ca-no dou. ye.(ms)
ca-ma. dou. ye. (fs)
~¸,.~~ ¸
~¸,~ _
They thu dou. ~ Their thu dou. ye. ~ _

29



What is her name? What is his name?
Thu. na-me be lou hko ba dha le: Thu. na-me be lou hko ba dha le:
,¡ ~ .¨ ~ ,¡ ~ .¨ ~

Her name is Ma Tin Tin. His name is Ko Tin Win.
Thu. na-me ga. ma. tin tin ba Thu. na-me ga. kou tin win: ba
,¡~ ~~ ,¡~ ~~.

11. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker.

A. Blessings! Min-ga-la ba

~
B. Blessings! Min-ga-la ba
~
A. My name is Myo Win.
What is your name?
Ca-no. na-me ga. myou:-win: ba
(Hka-mya:) na-me be lou hko ba
dha le:
~¸,.~ ,¡~ ¸¸..
¸¸.¸ ,¡ ~ .¨
~

B. My name is Aye Gyaw. Ca-no. na-me ei:-jo ba ~¸,.~ ,¡ ...~¸
A. Nice to meet you, Ko Aye
Gyaw.
Twei. ya. da wun: tha ba de , kou
ei:-jo
.~ _~ .~
~...~¸
B. Nice to meet you, Ko
Myo Win.
Twei. ya. da wun: tha ba de , kou
Myou:-win:
.~ _~ .~
~¸¸..

30




12. Work in pairs or in small groups. Look at the pictures and make up similar dialogues.

Grammar note:
Burmese is a verb final language. Declarative sentences end with the verb phrase as shown below:

Main Verb + Auxiliary(s) + Tense/Statement ending Particle

The order of subject, object, time, and place phrases preceding the verb phrase in a statement is relatively
flexible. Interrogatives end with either the yes-no question particle la: or the information question particle le:
Either of these question particles comes at the end of the sentence. The yes-no question order is:

(Subject) (Object) + Wh-word or phrase + Verb (Auxiliaries) + Tense particle + la:

Note that subjects and objects may be omitted in the sentence, and when they do occur their order is relatively
flexible. The Wh-word or phrase may even precede the subject and/or object.

When you answer the question "Do you live in Yangon?" in the affirmative, the usual answer is "Yes, (I) live in
Yangon." Only saying Hou'-ke. "Yes" is possible, but "Yes, I live in Yangon." sounds more complete, thus
more polite. In other words, Burmese does not have the equivalent of the English "I do" for the short affirmative
answer. When the answer is in the negative, however, the whole statement has to be negated. The answer then is
ca-no yan-goun hma ma nei ba bu: "I do not live in Rangoon."






31
13. Listen to the following statements and repeat after the speaker.
1 2 3
My name is Paw Htin.
Ca-no. na-me po-thin ba
~¸,.~ ,¡ .¨~
His name is Pe Aung.
thu. na-me hpei-aun ba
,¡ ..
Her name is Aye Aye.
thu. na-me ei;-ei; ba
,¡ ....
I live in Yangon.
Ca-no yan-goun hma nei ba de
~¸,.~ _,~, .,~
He lives in Pyinmana.
Thu pyin:-ma-na: hma nei ba de
¸¡.,. .,~
She lives in Mawlamyine.
Thu mo-la-myain hma nei ba de
.~_¸ .,~
4 5
We live in Katha.
Ca-no dou. ka-tha hma nei ba de
~¸,.~~ ~ .,~
They live in Myitkyina.
Thu dou. myi'-ci:-na: hma nei ba de
~ _·_~.,. .,~


14. Read the following sentences. Translate them into English. Check your work with the answer
Key.
1. Kou tin-win: yan-goun hma nei ba de ~~. _,~, .,~
2. Yan-goun hma nei ba dha la: Hou'-ke. Nei ba de _,~, .,~.
~~ .,~
3. Ma. yi-yi-win: ka-tha hma ma nei ba bu: __. ~ .,.
4. Be hma nei ba dha le:
Ca-no man;-da-lei: hma nei ba de
.,~
~¸,.~ –.~. .,~
5. Mya.-mya. ne. po-htin be hma nei dha le:
Myi'-ci:-na: hma nei ba de
__, .¨~ .,~
_·_~.,. .,~

15. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook.
Make up a similar dialogue. Work in pairs or in small groups.


A. Are you well? (How are
you?)
Nei kaun: ba dha la: .,.~. ~.
B. I am fine.

A. My name is Aye Aye.
What is your name?
Nei kaun: ba de

Ca-ma. na-me ga. ei:-ei: ba
(shin.) na-me be lou hko ba dha le:
.,.~. ~

~¸,,¡ ....
¸¸¸ ,¡ ~ .¨ ~
B. My name is Paw Thin. Ca-no. na-me po-thin ba

~¸,.~ ,¡ .¨~
A. Nice to meet you, Ko
Paw Thin.
Twei. ya. da wun: tha ba de ,
kou po-thin
.~ _~ .~
~.¨~
B. Nice to meet you, Ma
Aye Aye.
Twei. ya. da wun: tha ba de ,
ma. ei:-ei:
.~ _~ .~
....
32
A. I live in Mawlamyine.
Where do you live?
Ca-ma. mo-la-myain hma nei ba
de
(Shin) be hma nei ba dha le:

~¸, .~_¸ .,~

¸¸¸ .,~
B. I live in Yangon. Ca-no yan-goun hma nei ba de ~¸,.~ _,~, .,~

16. Imagine that you are new to the class. Ask your partner about the rest of the students (their names
and where they live). Use the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups.


17. What is the question? Read the answers below and reproduce the questions in English. Check your
work with the answer key.

1. ____________________________?

Ca-no taun-ji: ga. ma hou' pa bu: yan-goun ga. ba
~¸,.~ .~_~.~ ~ . _,~,~

2. ____________________________?

Hou' ke. Ca-no si'-twei hma nei ba de
~~ ~¸,.~ ··.~ .,~

3. ____________________________?

Hou' ke. Thu ga. pa-thein ga. ba
~~ ~ ~
4. ____________________________?

Hou' ke. Thu maw-la-myine hma nei ba de
~~ .~_¸ .,~

5. ____________________________?

Thu ga. myi'-ci:-na; ga. ma hou' pa bu: ka-tha ga. ba
~ _·_~.,.~ ~ . ~ ~




Thu. na-me be lou hko dha le: A. ,¡ ~ .¨~
Thu. na-me kou tin-win: ba B. ,¡ ~~.
Thu be hma nei dha le: A. .,~
Yan-goun hma nei ba de B. _,~, .,~
33

6. ____________________________?

Hou' ke. Ca-no. na-me ga. tin-win: ba
~~ ~¸,.~ ,¡~ ~.

7. ____________________________?

Thu. na-me ga. u: myou;-win: ma hou' pa bu:
,¡~ ¡.¸¸.. ~ .

8. ____________________________?

Hou' ke. Ca-no ga. man:-da-lei: ga. ba
~~ ~¸,.~~ –.~.~





























34
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Read the following sentences and translate them from English into Burmese.

A. My name is Tanya. I am from Moscow.
B. Do you live in Seattle? Yes.
C. His name is Joe. He lives in Berlin.
D. We are from Vancouver.
E. My name is Maurice. I am from Chicago.
F. His name is Bob.He lives in Boston.
G. Her name is Susan. She lives in San Diego.
H. What is your name? My name is Tony.




2. Pretend that you are at a party. Introduce yourself to other people and ask them their names, where
they are from, and where they live. Work in pairs or in small groups. Use the model below.

A. .,.~. ~.
~¸,.~ ,¡ .¨~
,¡ ~ .¨ ~

Nei kaun: ba dha la:
Ca-no. na-me po-thin ba
na-me be lou hko ba dha le:
B. ~¸,,¡ ....

Ca-ma. na-me ei:-ei: ba

A. ~¸,.~~ _¡~
.... ~~
Ca-no ga. ba-ma pyei ga. ba
Ma. ei:=ei: be ga. ba le:
B. ~¸,~ _¡~ Ca-ma. ga. ba-ma pyei ga. ba

A. ~¸,.~ _,~, .,~
.... .,~
Ca-no yan-goun hma nei ba de
Ma. ei:=ei: be hma nei ba dha le:
B. ~¸,~ .~_~. .,~ Ca-ma. ga. taun-ji: hma nei ba de


35
3. Introduce your friend to your classmates.

Thu. na-me hpei-aun ba ,¡ ..
Thu ga. ba-ma pyei ga. ba ~ _¡~
Thu ga. ba-ma lu-myou: ba ~ ~¸¸.
Thu ga. yan-goun hma nei ba de ~ _,~, .,~






































36
Vocabulary List

(I) am leaving. (good buy) thwa: ba oun: me . .
Are you well? (how area you) nei kaun: dha la: .,.~. ~.
I am well. nei kaun: ba de .,.~. ~
Thank you. cei: zu: tin ba de .~¸.~.~~
You got it.(you are welcome) ya. ba de ¸~
Glad to meet you. twei. ya. da wun: tha ba de .~ _~ .~
My name is … ca-no. / ca-ma. na-me ga. ~¸,.~ ¸ ~¸, ,¡~
I ca-no / ca-ma. ~¸,.~ ¸ ~¸,
He thu
She thu
You kha-mya: / shin ¸. ¸ ¸
We ca-no dou./ ca-ma. dou. ~¸,.~~ ¸ ~¸,~
You (plural) kha-mya: dou./ shin dou. ¸.~ ¸ ¸~
They thu dou. ~
To live in ----- hma nei ba de .,~
No ma hou' pa bu: ma
VERB pa bu:
~. Verb .
Yes hou'-ke. ~~
To be
To be from ---- ga. ba ~
Where are you from? (kha-mya: / shin /Kin term)
be ga. ba le:
¸¸.¸¸¸kin term) ~
~
What is your name? na-me be lou hko ba tha le: ,¡ ~ .¨ ~
Where do you live? be hma nei ba dha le: ., ~
Mine ca-no. ha / ca-ma. ha ~¸,.~ ¸ ~¸,
Yours kha-mya: ha / shin. ha ¸. ¸ ¸
His thu. ha
Hers thu. ha
Ours ca-no dou. ha/ ca-ma. dou.
ha
~¸,.~~ ¸
~¸,~
Yours kha-mya: dou. ha / shin
dou. ha
¸.~ ¸ ¸~
Theirs thu dou. ha ~





37
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 14.

1. Ko Tin Win lives in Yangon.
2. Do you live in Yangon? Yes, I do.
3. Ma Yi Yi Win does not live in Katha.
4. Where do you live? I live in Mandalay.
5. Where do Mya Mya and Paw Htin live? They live in
Myitkyina.

Exercise 17. Your questions should be similar in grammatical form to those below although some city
and people names may be different.

1. Are you from Taunggyi?
2. Do you live in Sittway?
3. Is he from Pathein?
4. Does she live in Mawlamyine?
5. Is he from Myitkyina?
6. Is your name Tin Win?
7. Is his name U Myo Win?
8. Are you from Mandalay?

End of Lesson Exercise 1

~¸, ,¡~ ¸Tanya) ~¸,~ .·~ ¸Moscow) ~
ca-ma. na-me ga. Tanya ba ca-ma. ga. mo-sa-kou ga. ba

¸. ¸ ¸ ·_~ ¸Seattle) ., ~. ~~ ., ~
kha-mya: / shin si-ye-te hma nei ba dha la: hou'-ke. nei ba de

,¡~ Joe ~ ~ ¸Berlin) ., ~
thu. na-me ga. Joe ba thu ga. ba-lin hma nei ba de

~¸,.~ ¸ ~¸, ~ ~ ~.. ¸Vancouver) ~
ca-no/ ca-ma. dou. ga. bin-ku:-ba: hma nei ba de

~¸,.~ ,¡~ ¸Maurice) ~¸,.~~ ¸~ ¸Chicago) ~
ca-no. na-me ga. Maurice ba ca-no ga. shi-ka-gou ga. ba

,¡~ Bob ~ .·~, ¸Boston) ., ~
thu. na-me ga. Bob ba thu ga. bo-sa-tan hma nei ba de

38
,¡~ Susan ~ ·. ¸San Diego) ., ~
thu. na-me ga. Susan ba thu ga. san-di-ei-gou hma nei ba de

,¡ ~ .¨ ~ ~¸,.~ ,¡~ Tony
na-me be lou hko ba dha le: ca-no. na-me ga. Tony ba


39
Lesson 2
Living and Working
enTu i c\ er; nE . Alu p\ Aku i c\
nei htain yei: ne. a-lou'-a-kain


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Typical housing arrangements of most people living in Burma
- Using “or” in questions about living arrangements and professions
- The verb “to have” in the present tense
- Names of professions (singular and plural forms).

In big cities like Rangoon (Yangon), you will find many different types of homes. In downtown Rangoon, there
are older apartment buildings. In upscale residential areas where you will find embassies, there are large brick,
single family homes with large gardens. There are many neighborhoods with wooden houses built close to one
another. There are now five or six story high apartment buildings in many residential areas. In the satellite
towns surrounding Rangoon, many people live in huts with corrugated iron roofs. In the rural areas, you will
find many people living in huts with thatched roofs.

After more than 44 years of misrule by a military government, what was once one of the richest countries in
Southeast Asia has now become one of the poorest in the world. A more than two decade long experiment with
a quasi-socialist economic system has brought the country to economic ruin. After countrywide protests in
1988, a so-called free enterprise economic system was introduced in the 1990's, which has only enriched those
in the military and those connected to them. There is great economic disparity between the few extremely
wealthy people and the vast majority who suffer from terrible economic hardship. The standard of living for the
average person in Burma is very low. Health care, education, and public transportation are in very poor shape,
and malnutrition is rampant all over the country.
















40
1. Look at the pictures below and listen to the words. Repeat the words after the speaker.



apartment
tai' hkan:
tuik\Kn\;

apartment building
tai' hkan: mya:
tuik\Kn\; mja;

room
a-hkan:
AKn\;

house
ein
Aim\

military camp
si' sa-hkan:
ss\ sKn\;
tent
te:
tE

barracks
si' tan:-ya:
ss\ tn\;lja;

hotel
hou-te
huity\


2. Match the Burmese words on the left with their English equivalents on the right. Replay the audio
from the previous section if necessary. Check your work with the Answer Key.

tE te: Hotel

AKn\; a-hkan: Tent

Aim\ ein Barracks

tuik\Kn\; tai' hkan: Room

huity\ hou-te Military camp

tuik\Kn\;mja; tai' hkan: mya: House

ss\ tn\;lja; si' tan:-ya: Apartment

ss\ sKn\; si' sa-hkan:

Apartment building

41

3. Read the following sentences and translate them into English. Check your work with the answer key.

1. tc\wc\;k ss\ sKn\;mHa tETEmHa enpfty\"
tin-win: ga. si' sa-hkan: hma te: de: hma nei ba de

2. edF sn\; k tuik\Kn\;kel;mHa enpfty\'
do san: ga. tai'hkan: ga-lei: hma nei ba de

3. ePtc\ nE . lE.lE. k rn\kun\mHa Aim\@kI;mHa enpfty\"
hpei-tin ne. le.-le. ga. yan-goun hma ein ji: hma nei ba de

4. tc\emac\k huity\mHa enpfty\"
tin-maun ga. hou-te hma nei ba de

5. sin\emac\ nE . tc\eA; k ss\ tn\;lja;mHa enpfty\"
sein-maun ne. tin-ei: ga. si' tan:-ya: hma nei ba de

6. qin\;lQc\ nE . kYn\eta\k kYn\eta\tui . Aim\mHa enpfty\ "
thein:-lwin ne. ca-no ga. ca-no dou. ein hma nei ba de

4. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook.
Then, make up similar dialogues. Work in pairs or in small groups.

1. A. I live in a big house. Where do you live? B. I live in a tent in a military camp.
ca-no ein ji: hma ni ba de hka-mya: be hma nei ba dha le: ca-no si' sa-hkan: hma te: de: hma nei ba
de
kYn\eta\ Aim\@kI;mHa enpfty\" Kc\bja; By\mHa enpfqlE"

kYn\eta\ ss\ sKn\;mHa tETEmHa enpfty\"
2. A. Myo Win lives in the hotel. Where does Aye Aye live? B. Aye Aye lives in an apartment
building.
myou:-win: hou-te hma nei ba de ei: ei: be hma nei ba dha le: ei: ei: tai'-hkan: hma nei ba de
mjio;wc\;k huity\mHa enpfty\" eA;eA; By\mHa enpfqlE"

eA;eA; tuik\Kn\;mHa enpfty\"
3. A. We live in the barracks. Where do Pei Aun and Aye
Aye live?
B. They live in the military camp.
ca-no dou. si' tan-ya: hma nei ba de
hpei-aun ne. ei: ei: be hma nei ba dha le:

thu dou. si' sa-hkan: hma nei ba de
kYn\eta\tui . ss\ tn\;lja;mHa en pfty\ "
ePeAac\ nE . eA;eA; By\mHa enpfqlE "

qUtui . ss\ sKn\;mHa en pfty\"



42
Grammar Notes:
Spoken colloquial Burmese has an expression (dfmH mhut\ da hma. ma-hou') that is the equivalent of “or” in
choice questions; however, this expression is usually omitted when asking a choice question. The literal
translation of the expression is "if this is not so." When asking a choice question in Burmese, the alternative
questions are repeated in full. For the English question "does he live in a tent or the barracks?" in Burmese you
will ask "does he live in a tent? Does he live in the barracks?" Consequently, as the expression "if not this is not
so" is redundant, it is almost always omitted.

5. Read the following dialogues and translate them into English. Check your translations with the
answer key.

1. A. Aim\mHa enqla;' tuik\Kn\;mHa enqla;" ein hma nei dha la: tai'-hkan: hma nei dha la:
B. Aim\mHa enpfty\ " ein hma nei ba de

2. A. qUtui . huity\mHa enqla;'
tuik\Kn\;mHa enqla;"
thu dou. hou-te hma nei dha la:
tai'-hkan: hma nei dha la:
B. tuik\Kn\;mHa enpfty\" tai'-hkan: hma nei ba de

6. Compose choice questions using the model and the words below. Check your work with the answer
key.

Model: tEmHa enqla; ' ss\ tn\;lja; mHa enqla; "
te: hma nei dha la: si' tan-ya: hma nei dha la:

Kc\bja;
RHc\
hka-mya:
(ms)
shin (fs)
tE / ss\ tn\;lja; te: / si' tan-ya:
qUtui> thu dou. huity\ / Aim\ hou-te / ein
qU thu tuik\Kn\;mja; / ss\ sKn\; tai'-hkan: mya: / si' sa-hkan:
qU thu AKn\; / Aim\ a-hkan: / ein
kYn\eta\tui .
kYn\m tui .
ca-no dou.
ca-ma. dou.
tuik\Kn\; / huity\ tai'-hkan: / hou-te

7. Listen to the speaker and circle the words you hear. Check your work with the answer key.

1. barracks tent
2. house apartment building
3. military camp room
4. apartment hotel




43
Grammar note:
To say that someone has something, the pattern below is used:

Subject hma Object shi. ba de
Subject mHa Object RHi pf ty\"
Note that some pronouns and kin terms preceding hma undergo a change in tone:
ca-no changes to ca-no.
shin to shin.
thu to thu.
mei mei (mother) to mei mei.
hpei hpei (father) to hpei hpei.
kou (brother) to kou.
Verb <<to have>>

I have ca-no. hma NOUN shi. ba de (ms)
ca-ma. hma NOUN shi. ba de (fs)
kYn\eta\.mHa Noun RHipfty\"
kYn\mmHa Noun RHipfty\"
You have hka-mya: hma NOUN shi. ba de (ms)
shin. hma NOUN shi. ba de (fs)
Kc\bja;mHa Noun RHipfty\"
RHc\. mHa Noun RHipfty\"
He/she has thu. hma NOUN shi. ba de (he/she)

qU .mHa Noun RHipfty\"
We have ca-no dou. hma NOUN shi. ba de
(ms)
ca-ma. dou. hma NOUN shi. ba de
(fs)
kYn\eta\tui .mHa Noun RHipfty\"
kYnm\tui .mHa Noun RHipfty\"
You (plural) have hka-mya: dou. hma NOUN shi. ba de
(ms)
shin dou. hma NOUN shi. ba de (fs)
Kc\bja;tui .mHa Noun RHipfty\"
RHc\tui .mHa Noun RHipfty\"
They have thu dou. hma NOUN shi. ba de qUtui .mHa Noun RHipfty\"

8. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook.

1. I have a house in Yangon. ca-no (ms) / ca-ma. (fs)
yan-goun hma ein shi. ba de
kYn\eta\/ kYn\m
rn\kun\mHa Aim\ RHipfty\"
2. We have a room in an
apartment building.
ca-no dou.(ms) / ca-ma. dou.(fs)
tai'-hkan: ta hku. hma a-hkan:
shi. ba de
kYn\eta\tui ./ kYn\mtui .
tuik\Kn\;tKumHa AKn\; RHipfty\"
3. Aung Win has an
apartment in Yangon.
aun-win: ga. yan-goun hma tai'
hkan: shi. ba de
eAac\wc\;k rn\kun\mHa tuik\Kn\; RHipfty\"
4. Pe Tin and Yi Yi have
their house in Pyinmana.
hpei-tin ne. yi-yi pyin:-ma-na:
hma thu dou. ein shi. ba de
ePtc\ nE . rIrI pjV\;mna; mHa qUtui . Aim\
RHipfty\"




Note: Burmese uses tai'-hkan: tuik\Kn\, interchangeably, to refer to either an apartment or
an apartment building.
44
9. Make up sentences using the correct form of the verb “to have.”

Model: I have an apartment.

ca-no. (ms) / ca-ma. (fs) hma tai'-hkan: shi. ba de
"I have an apartment."
ca-no. = I (male speaker) / ca-ma. = I (female speaker); hma = at; tai'-hkan: = apartment;
shi. = to have; ba = Polite Particle; de = Statement ending marker

Note: The verb RiH shi. means that something is located at a specific place. The sentence pattern to describe
location in Burmese is also used to describe possession, literally meaning that something is (located) at or with
someone.

kYn\eta.\ ca-no. (ms)
kYn\m ca-ma. (fs)

Kc\bja; hka-mya: (ms)
RHc\. shin. (fs)
Aim\
ein

qU . thu
qU . thu tuik\Kn\;
tai'-hkan:
kYn\eta\tui . ca-no dou.(ms)
kYn\mtui . ca-ma. dou.(fs)
AKn\;
a-hkan:
qUtui> thu dou.
mHa
hma







RHipfty\ "

shi. ba de


Cultural note:
Burma is an agricultural country and the majority of the people live in rural areas, in small towns and villages.
The majority of the people there are engaged in farming, fisheries, logging, mining, cottage industries and
associated businesses and small-scale industries. There are, however, major cities and towns like Yangon
(Rangoon), Mandalay, Mawlamyine and Taunggyi. Rangoon's population is over 4 1/2 million, and like any
other major urban area, you will see factory workers, street-vendors, taxi drivers, tourist guides, brokers,
realtors, lawyers, merchants, businessman, etc. there.

10. Listen to the new vocabulary related to professions and repeat after the speaker.

Profession a-lou' a-kain Alup\Akuic\
Doctor hsa-ya-wun Srawn\
Nurse thu-na-pyu. hsa-ya-ma. qUna!po Sram
Laborer a-lou'-tha-ma: Alup\qma;
Teacher hsa-ya / hsa-ya-ma.
male teacher/ female teacher
Sra / Sram
Student caun:-dha: / caun:-dhu
male student / female student
ekjac\;qa; / ekjac\;qU
45
Soldier si'-tha: ss\qa;
Mechanic me'-ke:-ni' (loan word) mk\kEns\
Farmer le-dha-ma: ly\qma;
Police Officer ye: a-ya-shi. rEAraRHi
Waitress za-bwe:-htou: sa;pQETui;
Interpreter ba-dha-pyan Baqa!pn\

11. Circle the more likely profession of the two choices under the photo.


thu-na-pyu. hsa-ya-ma. la: hsa-ya-ma. la:
qUna!po Sram la; Sram la;
ye: a-ya-shi. la: le-dha-ma: la:
rEAraRHi la; ly\qma; la;

si'-tha: la: ba-dha-pyan la: za-bwe:-htou: la: hsa-ya-wun la:
sa;pQETui; la; Srawn\ la; ss\qa; la; Baqa!pn\ la;







46
12. Match the Burmese words on the right with their English equivalents on the left. Check your
work with the answer key.

1. Profession sa;pQETui; za-bwe:-htou:
2. Doctor ly\qma; le-dha-ma:
3. Nurse Baqa!pn\ ba-dha-pyan
4. Laborer Alup\Akuic\ a-lou' a-kain
5. Teacher qUna!po Sram thu-na-pyu. hsa-ya-ma.
6. Student rEAraRHi ye: a-ya-shi.
7. Soldier Srawn\ hsa-ya-wun
8. Mechanic Alup\qma; a-lou'-tha-ma:
9. Farmer ekjac\;qa; / ekjac\;qU caun:-dha: / caun:-dhu
10. Police Officer ss\qa; si'-tha:
11. Waitress mk\kEns\ me'-ke:-ni'
12. Interpreter Sra / Sram hsa-ya / hsa-ya-ma.

Grammar note:
Burmese does not have plural forms of nouns. The plural particle twei/dwei is suffixed to the noun to indicate
plurality.

13. Listen to the plural form of nouns related to the names of professions, and repeat after the
speaker.

Profession - professions
a-lou' a-kain a-lou' a-kain dwei
Alup\Akuic\ Alup\Akuic\ etQ
Doctor - doctors
hsa-ya-wun hsa-ya-wun dwei
Srawn\ Srawn\ etQ
Nurse - nurses
thu-na-pyu. hsa-ya-ma. thu-na-pyu. hsa-ya-ma. dwei
qUna!po Sram qUna!po Sram etQ
Laborer - laborers
a-lou'-tha-ma: a-lou'-tha-ma: dwei
Alup\qma; Alup\qma; etQ
Teacher - teachers
hsa-ya / hsa-ya-ma. hsa-ya dwei / hsa-ya-ma. dwei
Sra / Sram Sra etQ / Sram etQ
Student - students
47
caun:-dha: / caun:-dhu caun:-dha: dwei / caun:-dhu dwei
ekjac\;qa; / ekjac\;qU
ekjac\;qa; etQ / ekjac\;qU etQ

Soldier - soldiers
si'-tha: si'-tha: dwei
ss\qa; ss\qa; etQ
Mechanic - mechanics
me'-ke:-ni' me'-ke:-ni' dwei
mk\kEns\ mk\kEns\ etQ
Farmer - farmers
le-dha-ma: le-dha-ma: dwei
ly\qma; ly\qma; etQ
Police officer - police officers
ye: a-ya-shi. ye: a-ya-shi. dwei
rEAraRHi rEAraRHi etQ
Waitress - waitresses
za-bwe:-htou: za-bwe:-htou: dwei
sa;pQETui; sa;pQETui; etQ
Interpreter - interpreters
ba-dha-pyan ba-dha-pyan dwei
Baqa!pn\ Baqa!pn\ etQ

14. Listen to the speaker and put a circle around each word you hear. Replay the audio as many
times as you need. Check your answers with the answer key.

A. He is a mechanic / farmer.
B. They are teachers / doctors.
C. She is an interpreter / student.
D. They are police officers / soldiers.















48
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Give a brief introduction of yourself, in Burmese, listing your name, where you are from, where
you live, and what your occupation is.

Model: kYn\eta\. namv\k !mc\.sui; pf " kYn\eta\k bma lUmjio;pf " kYn\eta\k bma!pv\k pf "
ca-no. na-me ga. myin.-sou: ba ca-no ga. ba-ma lu myou: ba ca-no ga. ba-ma pyei ga. ba
kYn\eta\k rn\kun\mHa enpfty\ " kYn\eta\k Srapf " kYn\eta\k tuik\Kn\;mHa enpfty\ "
ca-no ga. yan-goun hma nei ba de ca-no ga. hsaya ba ca-no ga. tia'-hkan: hma nei ba de

2. Listen to the recording and circle all the professions you hear. Check your work with the answer
key.

A. 1. sa;pQETui;
2. rE AraRHi
3. Baqa!pn\

B. 1. qUna!po Sram
2. Sram
3. ly\qma;

C. 1. Srawn\
2. qUna!po Sram
3. ekjac\;qa;

3. Reproduce the questions to the following answers. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. ____________________?
kYn\eta\. namv\k tc\eAac\ pf "
ca-no. na-me ga. tin-aun ba
2. ____________________?
kYn\eta\k bma!pv\k pf "
ca-no ga. ba-ma pyei ga. ba
3. ____________________?
hut\kE. ' kYn\eta\ ss\etQmHa en pf ty\\ "
hou'-ke. ca-no si'-twei hma nei ba de
4. ____________________?
kYn\eta\.mHa Aim\ mRHipfBU;" tuik\Kn\; RHipfty\"
ca-no. hma ein ma shi. ba bu: tai'-hkan; shi. ba de

49
5. ____________________?
hut\kE. ' kYn\eta\k mk\kens\ pf "
hou'-ke. ca-no ga. me'-ke:-ni' pa




































50
Vocabulary List

Apartment tai'-hkan: tuik\Kn\;
Apartment building tai'-hkan: mya: tuik\Kn\;mja;
Barracks si'-tan:-ya: ss\ tn\;lja;
Military camp si' sa-hkan: ss\ sKn\;
House ein Aim\
Tent te: tE
Room a-hkan: AKn\;
Big ci; @kI;
Small nge cy\
Profession a-lou'-a-kain Alup\Akuic\
Farmer le-dha-ma: ly\qma;
Doctor has-ya-wun Srawn\
Nurse thu-na-pyu. has-ya-ma. qUna!po Sram
Laborer a-lou'-tha-ma: Alup\qma;
Teacher hsa-ya / has-ya ma.
male teacher / female teacher
Sra / Sram
Student caun: dha: / caun: dhu
male student/ female student
ekjac\;qa; / ekjac\;qU
Soldier si'-tha: ss\qa;
Mechanic me'-ke:-ni' mk\kEns\
Waitress za-bwe:-htou: sa;pQETui;
Interpreter ba-dha-pyan Baqa!pn\
Police officer ye:-a-ya-shi. rE AraRHi
To have shi. RHi

















51
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 2

tE te: Tent
AKn\; a-hkan: Room
Aim\ ein House
tuik\Kn\; tai' hkan: Apartment
huity\ hou-te Hotel
tuik\Kn\;mja; tai' hkan: mya: Apartment building
ss\ tn\;lja; si' tan:-ya: Barracks
ss\ sKn\; si' sa-hkan: Military camp

Exercise 3

1. Tin Win lives in a tent at the military camp.
2. Daw San lives in a small apartment.
3. Pe Tin and Le Le live in a big house in Yangon.
4. Tin Maung lives in a hotel.
5. Scott and Mike live in the barracks.
6. Thein Lwin and I live in our house.

Exercise 5

1. A. Do you live in a house or in an apartment?
B. I live in a house.
2. A. Do they live in a hotel or in an apartment building?
B. They live in an apartment building.

Exercise 6

Do you live in a tent or in the barracks?
tEmHa enqla;' ss\ tn\;lja;mHa enqla;"
te: hma nei dha la: si' tan:-ya: hma nei dha la:

Do they live in a hotel or a house?
qUtui . huity\mHa enqla;' Aim\mHa enqla;"
thu dou. hou-te hma nei nei dha la: ein hma nei dha la:

Does he live in an apartment building or a military camp?
qU tuik\Kn\;mja;mHa enqla;' ss\ sKn\;mHa enqla; "
thu tai'-hkan: mya: hma nei dha la: si' sa-hkan: hma nei dha la:


52
Does she live in a room or a house?
qU AKn\;mHa enqla;' Aim\mHa enqla;"
thu a-hkan: hma nei dha la: ein hma nei dha la:

Do we live in an apartment or a hotel?
kYn\eta\tui . tuik\Kn\;mHa enqla;' huity\mHa enqla;"
ca-no dou. tai'-hkan: hma nei dha la: hou-te hma nei dha la:

Exercise 7

1. tent tE
2. house Ai m\
3. military camp ss\ sKn\;
4. hotel huity\

Exercise 12

1. Profession a-lou'-a-kain Alup\Akuic\
2. Doctor hsa-ya-wun Srawn\
3. Nurse thu-na-pyu. hsa-ya-ma. qUna!po Sram
4. Laborer a-lou'-tha-ma: Alup\qma;
5. Teacher hsa-ya / hsa-ya-ma. Sra / Sram
6. Student caun:-dha:/ caun:-dhu ekjac\;qa; / ekjac\;qU
7. Soldier si'-tha: ss\qa;
8. Mechanic me'-ke:-ni' mk\kEns\
9. Farmer le-dha-ma: ly\qma;
10. Police Officer ye:-a-ya-shi. rEAraRHi
11. Waitress za-bwe:-htou: sa;pQETui;
12. Interpreter ba-dha-pyan Baqa!pn\

Exercise 14

A. farmer le-dha-ma: ly\qma;
B. teachers hsa-ya hsa-ya-
ma. dwei
Sra SrametQ
C. interpreter ba-dha-pyan Baqa!pn\
D. soldiers si'-tha: dwei ss\qa;etQ






53
End of Lesson Exercise 2

interpreter ba-dha pyan A. 3 Baqa!pn\
teacher hsa-ya-ma. B. 2 Sram
student caun:-dha: C. 3 ekjac\;qa;

Exercise 3

1. What is your name?
namv\ By\lui eKFpfqlE"
na-me be lou hko ba dha le:
2. What country are you from?
By\ Nuic\cMk pflE"
be nain-gan ga. ba le:
3. Do you live in the city?
ss\etQ mHa enpfqla; "
si'-twei hma nei ba dha la:
4. Do you have a house or an apartment?
Aim\ RHiqla; ' tuik\Kn\; RHiqla;"
ein shi. dha la: tai'-hkan: shi. dha la:
5. Are you a mechanic?
Kc\bja;k mk\kEns\ la; "
hka-mya: ga. me'-ke:-ni' la:p


54
Lesson 3
Days of the Week, Numbers, Ages of People
., ¸. , ~ ¸., ~ ¸.
Nei. mya: nan-ba' mya: ne. a-the' mya:


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Days of the week
- Numbers from 0 to 100
- How to understand and respond to questions about what day it is
- How to find out somebody’s age and say how old you are.


1. Listen to the days of the week and repeat them after the speaker.

Monday ta-nin:-la ~,~
Tuesday in-ga
Wednesday bou'-da-hu: ™.
Thursday ca-dha-ba-dei: _~.~.
Friday thau'-ca ._~
Saturday sa-nei ·.,
Sunday ta-nin:-ga-nwei ~,.


Read the days of the week several times, practicing pronunciation. Replay the audio if
necessary.

2. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the
workbook. Role-play the dialogues using the names of the other days of the week. Work in
pairs or in small groups.

~, . _~.~. ·., ™ . ._~

1. What day is it today? di nei. ba nei. le: ., ., ~
Today is Monday. di nei. ta-nin:-la nei. ba ., ~,~.,
2. Is today Monday? di nei. ta-nin:-la nei. la: ., ~,~., ~.
Yes, today is Monday. hou'-ke. di nei. ta-nin:-la nei. ba ~~ ., ~,~.,
3. Is today Monday? di nei. ta-nin:-la nei. la: ., ~,~., ~.
No, today is Tuesday. ma-hou' pa bu: di nei. in-ga nei.
ba
~. ., .,

55
3. Listen to the pronunciations and read the numbers from 0 to 10.


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
¸ ¸ , ¸ ¸ . ¸
thoun-
nya.
ti' hni' thoun: lei: nga: hcau' hkun-
ni'
shi' kou: ta-
hse

4. Practice using the numbers. Work with a partner and, in Burmese, tell them your
home and work telephone numbers, address numbers, etc.

5. Read the following dialogue. Pay attention to the numbers.

A. What is your telephone
number?
hka-mya: te-li-hpoun: nan-
ba' be-lau' le:
¸. ~~,. ,~
.~~~
B. My telephone number is
(360) 984 – 0217.
ca-no. te-li-hpoun: nan-ba'
ka. thoun: hcau' thoun-nya.
kou: shi' lei: thoun-nya. hni'
ti' hkun-ni' pa
~¸,.~ ~~,.
,~~ ¸¸¸ ¸.,¸¸

A. What is your house
number?
hka-mya: ein nan-ba' be-
lau' le:
¸. ,~
.~~~
B. My house number is
10456.
ca-no. ein nan-ba' ka. ti'
thoun-nya. lei: nga: hcau'
pa
~¸,.~ ,~~


6. Role-play the dialogue with a partner using exercise 5 as a model. Pretend one of you is
a receptionist who wants to know the other’s name, telephone number, and house number.
Ask each other questions and use as many numbers in your answers as you can.

7. Listen to the sentences and write down the missing numbers you hear. Check your
work with the answer key.

Model: ~¸,.~ ~~,. ,~~ ¸¸ . ,
ca-no. te-li-hpoun: nan-ba' ka. nga: hcau' hkun-ni' shi' lei: ba

1. ~¸, .~ ~ ~ , . , ~ ~ ¸ ¸¸
ca-no. te-li-hpoun: nan-ba' ka. hcau' hkun-ni' hcau' nga: thoun:
2. ~¸, .~ ~ ~ , . , ~ ~ ,¸¸
ca-no. te-li-hpoun: nan-ba' ka. lei: thoun: hni' : thoun-nya. ti' pa
3. ~¸, .~ ~ ~ , . , ~ ~ .¸,¸
ca-no. te-li-hpoun: nan-ba' ka. shi' kou: hcau' lei: nga: . ba
4. ~¸, .~ ~ ~ , . , ~ ~ , ¸¸
56
ca-no. te-li-hpoun: nan-ba' ka. lei: : thoun-nya. hcau' kou: hni' pa
5. ~¸, .~ ~ ~ , . , ~ ~ ¸¸. ,¸
ca-no. te-li-hpoun: nan-ba' ka. kou: hkun-ni' shi' hcau' lei: nga: ba

Grammar note:
In saying the numbers 11 to 19, the first syllable hse (ten) changes in tone to hse. For
example, 11 is hse. ti' , 12 is hse. hni' etc.

8. Listen as the speaker says the numbers 11 to 19. Repeat after the speaker.

11 eleven hse. ti' ~ ~·
12 twelve hse. hni' ~ ·
13 thirteen hse. thoun: ~ .
14 fourteen hse. lei: ~ .~.
15 fifteen hse. nga: ~ .
16 sixteen hse. hcau' ~ ._~
17 seventeen hse. hkun-ni' ~ ,·
18 eighteen hse. shi' ~ ¸·
19 nineteen hse. kou: ~ ~.

9. Read the following numbers in Burmese:

11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 12, 14, 16, 18

Grammar note:
20 is said hna-hse , literally 'two ten'. When saying the numbers 21 to 29, the syllable
meaning 'ten' changes in tone; e.g., hna-hse. ti' , hna-hse. hni' etc.


20 twenty hna-hse ·~
21 twenty-one hna-hse. ti' ·~ ~·
22 twenty-two hna-hse. hni' ·~ ·
23 twenty-three hna-hse. thoun: ·~ .
24 twenty-four hna-hse. lei: ·~ .~.
25 twenty-five hna-hse. nga: ·~ .
26 twenty-six hna-hse. hcau' ·~ ._~
27 twenty-seven hna-hse. hkun-ni' ·~ ,·
28 twenty-eight hna-hse. shi' ·~ ¸·
29 twenty-nine hna-hse. kou: ·~ ~.



57

10. Read the texts and translate into English. Check your work with the answer key.

1. ~¸, ,¡~ ~~. ~¸,~ _,~, .,~ ~¸,~ ·.~.
~¸, ¸~ ~¸, ,~~ ¸
ca-ma. na-me ga. tin-tin-mou: ba ca-ma. ga. yan-goun hma nei ba de ca-ma. ga. za-
bwe: htou: ba ca-ma. hma ein shi. ba de ca-ma. ein nan-ba' ka. hna-hse. ti' pa
2. .,.~ ··. ~ ~~,. .,~ ~~,. ,~~ ¸¸
nei-win: ga. si'-tha: ba thu ga. tai'-hkan: hma nei ba de thu. tai'-hkan: nan-ba' ka. hna-
hse. nga: ba
3. ,¡~ ~~ ~ ~_ ~ .,~ ,~~

thu. na-me ga. hla.-hla. ba thu ga. hsa-ya-ma. ba thu ga. ein hma nei ba de thu. ein
nan-ba' ka. hse.-hcau' pa
4. .. , ··..~ .~ ¸~ ~ ,~~ ,
hpei-aun ne. su.-su.-nwei: ga. taun-ngu hma ein shi. ba de thu dou. ein nan-ba' ka.
hse.-lei: ba


11. Listen to the speaker and circle the number you hear from each row. Check with
the answer key.

A. 1 - 10 - 21
B. 2 - 12 - 22
C. 3 - 13 - 23
D. 4 - 14 - 24
E. 5 - 15 - 25
F. 6 - 16 - 26
G. 7 - 17 - 27
H. 8 - 18 - 28
I. 9 - 19 - 29

Grammar note:
The numbers 30 through 99 are said in the same way as 20 through 29 are said. 20 is hna-hse, 30
is thoun:-ze, 40 is lei:-ze, 50 is nga:-ze, 60 is hcau'-hse, 70 is hkun-hna-hse, 80 is shi'-hse and 90
is kou:-ze . Note that the word for 'ten' is pronounced ze when it is preceded by an open syllable
and hse when it is preceded by a glottal stop. 100 is ta-ya.







58

12. Listen to the next set of numbers. Repeat after the speaker.

30 ¸ thoun: ze .~
40 , lei: ze .~.~
50 ¸ nga: za .~
60 hcau' hse ._~~
70 ¸ hkun-na hse ,·~
80 . shi' hse ¸·~
90 ¸ kou: ze ~.~
100 ta ya ~·_

13. Read the following numbers in Burmese.

30, 31, 40, 42, 50, 53, 60, 64, 70, 75, 80, 86, 90, 97, 100.

Grammar note:
Burmese use polite particles and tags to sound polite. When a female speaker wants to be polite
while she asks someone's age, she would end the question with shin, and a male speaker would
add hka-mya.


14. Listen to several short exchanges asking about ages. Repeat after the speaker.

1. A. How old are you? a-the' be-lau' shi. bi le: shin
(fs - polite)
~ .~~ ¸_~
¸
B. I am 32 years old. ca-ma. thou:-ze hna hni' shi
ba bi
~¸, ¸¸ · ¸_

2. A. How old is he? thu a-the' be-lau' shi. bi le: ~ .~~
¸_~
B. He is 11. thu a-the' hse.-ta hni' shi. ba
bi
~ · ¸_

3. A. How old is she? thu a-the' be-lau' shi. bi le: ~ .~~
¸_~
B. She is 86 years old. thu a-the' shi. hse. hcau' hni'
shi. ba bi
~ . · ¸_

4. A. Is she 34 years old? thu a-the' thoun:-ze lei: hni'
shi. bi la:
~ ¸, · ¸_~.
59
B. No, she is 35. ma-hou' pa bu: thoun:-ze
nga: hni' pa
~. ¸¸ ·

5. A. Are you 21? hka-mya: a-the' hna-hse. ta
hni' la:
¸. ~ ¸ ~.
B. Yes, I am 21. hou'-ke. ca-no hna-hse. ta
hni' pa
~~ ~¸,.~ ¸ ·

6. A. What is your age? a-the' be-lau' le: shin ~ .~~ ~ ¸
B. I am 47. thoun:-ze hna hni' pa ¸¸ ·


15. Tell your classmates in Burmese how old you are and ask them about their age.






























60
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following statements in Burmese. Answer the questions for each
statement. Pause or replay the audio as necessary until you understand the relevant
information. Check your work with the answer key.

A. .,.~.~. ~¸,.~ ,¡~ ·.. ~¸,.~~ __¸
nei kaun: dha la: ca-no. na me ga. sou: thin: ba ca-no ga. ye: a-ya-shi. ba

B. ,¡~ ~.¨ ~ ~ , ¸_ ~ ··.
thu. na me ga. htin-po ba thu ga. a-the' lei:-ze shi. ba bi thu ga. si'-tha: ba

C. ,¡~ .... ~ ~ ,, · ¸_ ~ ~_
thu. na me ga. ei:-ei: ba thu ga. a-the' lei:-ze lei: hni' shi. ba bi thu ga. hsa-ya
ma. ba


1. What is his/her name?
2. How old is he/she?
3. What is his/her profession?

2. Recite the following in Burmese.

Ask what day it is.

Say what day it is today.

Ask someone’s age.

Say how old you are.







61
Vocabulary List

Day nei. .,
Today di nei. .,
Year hni' ·
Monday ta-nin:-la nei. ~,~.,
Tuesday in-ga nei. .,
Wednesday bou'-da-hu: nei. ™..,
Thursday ca-dha-ba-dei: nei. _~.~..,
Friday thau'-ca nei. ._~
Saturday sa-nei nei. ·.,.,
Sunday ta-nin:-ga-nwei nei. ~,..,
Telephone te-li-hpoun: ~~,.
Number nan-ba' ,~
Age a-the' ~
How old are you? a-the' be-lau' shi. bi le: ~ .~~ ¸_~
What day is it today? di nei. ba nei. le: ., ., ~
Today is Monday. di nei. ta-nin:-la nei. ba ., ~,~.,
I am 25 years old. ca-no hna-hse. nga: hni' shi. ba bi
(male speaker)
~¸,.~ ~ ¸¸· ¸_
0 zero thoun-nya. ¡
1 one ti' ~·
2 two hni' ¸ ·
3 three thoun: ¸ .
4 four lei: , .~.
5 five nga: ¸ .
6 six hcau' ._~
7 seven hkun-ni' ¸ ,·
8 eight shi' . ¸·
9 nine kou: ¸ ~.
10 ten ta-hse ~·~
11 eleven hse.-ti' ~ ~·
12 twelve hse.-hni' ~ ·
13 thirteen hse.-thoun: ~ .
14 fourteen hse.-lei: ~ .~.
15 fifteen hse.-nga: ~ .
16 sixteen hse.-hcau' ~ ._~
17 seventeen hse.-hkun-ni' ~ ,·
18 eighteen hse.-shi' ~ ¸·
19 nineteen hse.-kou: ~ ~.
62
20 twenty hna-hse · ~
21 twenty-one hna-hse. ti' ·~ ~·
22 twenty-two hna-hse. hni' ·~ ·
23 twenty-three hna-hse. thoun: ·~ .
24 twenty-four hna-hse. lei: ·~ .~.
25 twenty-five hna-hse. nga: ·~ .
26 twenty-six hna-hse. hcau' ·~ ._~
27 twenty-seven hna-hse. hkun-ni' ·~ ,·
28 twenty-eight hna-hse. shi' ·~ ¸·
29 twenty-nine hna-hse. kou: ·~ ~.
30 thirty thoun: ze . ~
40 forty lei: ze .~. ~
50 fifty nga: ze . ~
60 sixty hcau' hse ._~ ~
70 seventy hkun-hna hse ,· ~
80 eighty shi' hse ¸· ~
90 ninety kou: ze ~. ~
100 one hundred ta ya ~·_























63

ANSWER KEY

Exercise 7

1. 4
2. 5
3. 0
4. 3
5. 2

Exercise 10

1. My name is Tin Tin Mou. I live in Yangon. I am a waitress. I have a house. My house
number is 21.
2. Nei Win is a soldier. He lives in an apartment building. His apartment number is 25.
3. Her name is Hla Hla.. She is a teacher. She lives in a house. Her house number is 16.
4. Hpei Aun and Aye Aye have a house in Taunngu. Their house number is 14.

Exercise 11

A. 10
B. 12
C. 3
D. 24
E. 5
F. 16
G. 27
H. 18
I. 29

End of Lesson Exercise 1

A. Hi, my name is Sou Thin. I am 26 years old. I am a police officer.
B. His name is Thin Po. He is 40. He is a soldier.
C. Her name is Aye Aye. She is 44. She is a teacher.



64
Lesson 4
Daily Activities
., ·¡ ~
Nei.-zin a-lou'


This lesson will introduce you to:
- How to ask for and tell time
- Typical daily activities in Burma
- The verbs “to go,” “to study,” “to play,” “to work,” “to watch,” “to read,” “to eat,” and
“to get up”
- The past tense of the verbs.
-

Grammar note:

Burmese say "It is four o’clock" in two different ways: lei: na-yi htou: bi and lei: na-yi shi. bi.
Both are complete statements. In the first statement, the verb htou: may be translated as "strike"
as in "(The clock) struck four." In the second statement, the verb shi. is the counterpart of "is."
Note that htou: is only used when the time that is said, does not include a fraction of an hour.
Consequently, lei: na-yi htou: bi for 4:00 but lei: na-yi hse. nga: shi. bi for 4:15.
na-yi means "hour or clock" and in the context of telling time, means "hour." In Burmese, mi.-ni'
or "minute," is a loan from English, but is usually omitted as in the examples below. Note,
however, that it is not omitted for "x hour ten minute," where you say lei: na-yi hse mi.-ni' for
4:10.

When telling time between daybreak and noon, Burmese include the word ma-ne' "morning" to
say ma-ne' kou: na-yi for 9:00 am, literally 'morning 9 hours'. After noon and roughly up till 4:30
pm, Burmese include the word nei.le "afternoon," e.g., nei.le thoun: na-yi "3:00 pm." From about
5pm to dusk, Burmese include the word nya.-nei "evening," e.g., nya.-nei hcau' na-yi "6:00 pm."
When it gets dark, nya. is said, for example, nya. shi' na-yi "8:00 pm."














65
1. Listen as the speaker tells time in Burmese. Repeat after the speaker.





What time is it? It is four o’clock. What time is it? It is four fifteen.

be hna na-yi htou: bi le:
lei: na-yi htou: ba bi
be hna na-yi htou: bi le:
lei: na-yi hse. nga: shi. ba bi
· ,_ ~._~ .~.,_ ~. _ ·,_ ~._~ .~.,_ ~. ¸ _




What time is it? It is four thirty. What time is it? It is four forty-five.

be hna na-yi shi. bi le:
lei: na-yi gwe: shi. bi
be hna na-yi shi. bi le:
lei: na-yi lei:-ze nga: shi. bi
· ,_ ¸_~ .~.,_ ¸_

· ,_ ¸_~ .~.,_ .~.~. ¸_


What time is it? It is three twenty. What time is it? It is three forty.

be hna na-yi le:
thoun: na-yi hna-hse
be hna na-yi le:
thoun: na-yi lei:-ze
· ,_~ .,_ ·~ · ,_~ .,_ .~.~




66

2. What time is it? Fill in the clock faces with the correct times according to how they are
listed in Burmese below. Check your work with the answer key.


A. ., ~ .,_
E. ¡ ~~·,_
nei. le thoun: na-yi gwe: nya. hse.-ta na-yi gwe:
B. ,~ ¸·,_ .~.~. F. ., ~ ~·,_ .~.
ma-ne' shi. na-yi lei:-ze nga: nei. le ta na-yi nga:-ze nga:
C. ._~,_ ~,· G. ~·,_
hcau' na-yi hse mi. ni' hse. hna na yi
D. ,~ ~.,_ H. .~.,_ ~.
ma-ne' kou: na-yi lei: na-yi hse.-nga:



A. B. C. D.





E. F. G. H.











67
3. Listen to the following exchanges and identify the clock time mentioned in each.
Check your work with the answer key.

A. 8:15 - 9:00

B. 9:50 - 9:15

C. 5:10 - 8:50

D. 4:13 - 4:30

E. 7: 50 - 7:10

4. Compose dialogues according to the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups. Use
the times listed below.

Model: A. - ·,_ ~._~
be hna na-yi htou: bi le:
B. - ., ~ ·,_ ~._
nei.-le hna na-yi htou: bi


8:00 am, 7:15 am, 10:30 am, 2:10 pm, 4:45 pm, 6:50 pm, 12:00, 11:05

Grammar note:

Verbs do not inflect or conjugate for number, gender, person or tense in Burmese. Tense is
indicated by either a tense particle or the statement ending particle. You will find ~
¸pronounced either te or de) at the end of present and past statements, as well as statements about
habits, customs and universal truths. The presence of time phases and/or the extra-linguistic
context determines whether a sentence is about the past or the present. On the other hand, is
seen at the end of statements about the future. There is the particle (pronounced hke. / ge.),
which has an auxiliary verb function, that tends to co-occur in past tense sentences. Note,
however, that this is an optional particle and not grammatically required to indicate past tense.
With plural subjects, themarker is plural.

The occurrence of is detemined by whether one is speaking about an event that happened
where the speech is now taking place or whether the event occurred elsewhere. For the purpose
of this lesson, it can appropriately occur with all the example verbs we use here, but its presence
is optional and depends on the individual speaker.




68

I go ca-no thwa: ~¸,.~ . I study ca-no sa thin ~¸,.~
·
you go hka-mya:
thwa:
¸. . you study hka-mya: sa
thin
¸. ·
he goes

thu thwa: . he studies thu sa thin ·
we go ca-no dou.
thwa:
~¸,.~~
._~
we study ca-no dou. sa
thin ja.
~¸,.~~
· _~
you go hka-mya:
dou. thwa: ja.
¸.~ ._~ you study hka-mya: dou.
sa thin ja.
¸.~
· _~
they go thu dou.
thwa: ja.
~ ._~ they study thu dou. sa thin
ja.
~ ·
_~

I work ca-no a-lou'
lou'
~¸,.~
~~
I watch ca-no ci. ~¸,.~
_~¡
you work hka-mya: a-
lou' lou'
¸. ~~ you watch hka-mya: ci. ¸. _~¡
he works

thu a-lou' lou' ~~ he watches thu ci. _~¡
we work ca-no dou. a-
lou' lou' ca.
~¸,.~~
~~_~
we watch ca-no dou. ci.
ja.
~¸,.~~
_~¡_~
you work hka-mya:
dou. a-lou'
lou' ca.
¸.~
~~_~
you watch hka-mya: dou.
ci. ja.
¸.~
_~¡_~
they work thu dou. a-
lou' lou' ca.
~
~~_~
they watch thu dou. ci. ja. ~
_~¡_~

I eat ca-no sa: ~¸,.~ ·. I read ca-no hpa' ~¸,.~
~
you eat

hka-mya: sa: ¸. ·. you read hka-mya: hpa' ¸. ~
he eats

thu sa: ·. he reads thu hpa' ~
we eat ca-no dou. sa:
ja.
~¸,.~~
·._~
we read ca-no dou. hpa'
ca.
~¸,.~~
~_~
you eat hka-mya:
dou. sa: ja.
¸.~ ·._~ you read hka-mya: dou.
hpa' ca.
¸.~
~_~
they eat thu dou. sa:
ja.
~ ·._~ they read thu dou. hpa'
ca.
~ ~_~

I play ca-no ga-za: ~¸,.~ ~·. I get up ca-no hta. ~¸,.~ ~
69

you play hka-mya: ga-
za:
¸. ~·. you get up hka-mya: hta. ¸. ~
he plays

thu ga-za: ~·. he gets up thu hta. ~
you play hka-mya:
dou. ga-za: ja.
¸.~
~·._~
you get up hka-mya: dou.
hta. ja.
~¸,.~~
~_~
they play thu dou. ga-
za: ja.
~ ~·._~ they get up thu dou. hta. ja. ¸.~
~_~
we play ca-no dou.
ga-za: ja.
~¸,.~~
~·._~
we get up ca-no dou. hta.
ja.
~ ~_~

5. Listen to the short statements that describe each activity in the pictures below.
Repeat after the speaker. Pay attention to new verbs and other new vocabulary.



They play basketball. She goes to the market.
thu dou. ba-sa-ke'-bo: ga-za: ja. de thu zei: thwa: de
~ ~·~~. ~·._~~ .¸. .~

They study at school. She works in the hospital.
thu dou. caun: hma sa thin de thu hsei:-youn hma a-lou' lou' te
~ .~¸. ·~ .~.¸ ~~~
70

He plays soccer.
The girl eats lunch.

thu bo-loun: kan de mein:-hka-lei: nei.-le-za sa: de
.~. ~,~ ,..~. ., ~· ·.~

The man reads a book.
The woman watches television.

yau'-ca: ga. sa-ou' hpa' te mein:-ma. ga. you'-myin-than-ca: ci. de
.~¸.~ · ~~ ,.~ ¸__~. _~¡~

Grammar note:

(1) Burmese say "kicks the ball" to mean "plays soccer".
(2) English use the verb "study" to say that she "studies at school," "studies at home," and
"studies the stars." Burmese use the verb sa-thin to say "studies at school," sa-hpa' to say
"studies at home," and lei.-la to say "studies the stars."











Burmese has the postposition ~ (pronounced gou/kou) for "to," and the postposition for
"at, in, on."
71
6. Listen to the following statements in Burmese and repeat after the speaker. Follow
along in the workbook. Replay the audio if necessary.

A. The boy goes to school at
7:30.
yau'-ca: ga-lei: ga. ma-ne'
hkun-na na-yi gwe: hma
caun: thwa: ba de
.~¸.~.~.~ ,~
,· ,_ .~¸..
~

B. The man eats breakfast at
seven o’clock.
yau'-ca: ga. ma-ne' sa hkun-
na na-yi hma sa: ba de
.~¸.~ ,~· ,·
,_ ·.~

C. The woman watches
television in the evening.
mein:-ma. ga. you'-myin-
than-ca: nya.-nei hma ci. ba
de
,.~ ¸__~.
¡., _~¡~

D. The girl studies at home in
the afternoon.
mein:-hka-lei: ga. ein hma
nei.-le hma sa hpa' pa de
,..~.~ .,
~ ·~ ~

E. Cho Cho goes to the market
in the morning.
hco hco ga. ma-ne' hpe' zei:
thwa: ba de
¸¸¸¸~ ,~~
.¸..~

F. Kyaw Gyi plays soccer on
Friday.
co-ji: ga. thau'-ca nei. hma
bo-loun: kan de
.~¸_~.~ ._~.,
.~. ~,~

G. I get up at 7:00. ca-no ma-ne' hkun-na na-yi
hma hta. ba de
~¸,.~ ,~ ,· ,_
~~

7. Match the following sentences with the pictures below. Check your answers with the
answer key.

1. ~¸,.~ ~.,_ .~¸ . . ~
ca-no kou: na-yi gwe: hma caun: thaw: ba de
2. ~ ,~ · ,· ,_ ·.~
thu dou. ma-ne' sa hkun-na na-yi hma sa: ba de
3. ~¸, .~ ~ ,~ ~ ·~ ~
ca-no dou. ma-ne' hpe' hma sa hpa' pa de
4. ¡.,~ · ~· ~ ~
thu nya.-nei be' hma sa-ou' ta ou' hpa' pa de

72


A #______________ B #_______________




C #____________ D #_________________


8. Read the following text and answer the questions below in complete sentences in
Burmese. If you have any difficulty you may go to the answer key to check the text or the
questions in English. Check your answers to the questions with the answer key.

.~~ .~¸..
.~¸. ·~
,~~. ,· ,_ ~. ~~
,~· ,· ,_ ·.~
¸·,_ .~¸..~
.~¸._._ ~·~~. ~·.~
¡.,~ ·.~~_. ¸__~. _~¡~
.~~ ·., ~,. ·~.

hpei-tin ga. caun: tha: ba thu caun: hma sa thin ba de thu ma-ne' tain: hkun-na na-yi hse.-nga:
hma hta. ba de ma-ne' sa hkun-na na-yi gwe: hma sa: ba de shi. na-yi hma caun: thwa: ba de
caun: pi: yin ba'-sa-ke'-bo: ga-za: ba de nya.-nei. be' hma sa-ou' twei hpa' pi: you'-myin-than-
ca: ci. ba de hpei-tin ga. sa-nei ta-nin:-ga-nwei hma sa ma-hpa' pa bu:





73

1. .~~ ~_ ~. hpei-tin ga. hsa-ya la:
2. · ~ thu be hma sa thin tha le:
3. ,· ,_ ~. ~~ thu hkun-na na-yi hse.-nga: hma ba lou' tha le:
4. ,~· ¸, ·.~ thu ma-ne' sa hma be a-hcein hma sa: tha le:
5. ¸·,_ ~~ thu shi. na-yi hma ba lou' tha le:
6. ¸, ~·~~. ~·.~ thu be a-hcein hma ba-sa-ke'-bo: ga-za: tha le:
7. ¡.,~ ~~ thu nya. be' hma ba lou' tha le:
8. ·.,~,. ·~~. sa-nei ta-nin:-ga-nwei hma thu sa hpa' tha la:

9. Rearrange the following statements into a logical order for a daily schedule. Check
your work with the answer key.

1. ~¸,.~ ¸.¸., ., ~· .·. ~
ca-no tha-nge-jin: mya: ne. nei.-le-za thwa: sa: ba de
2. ~¸,.~ ¸_ _~. _~¡~
ca-no you'-myin-than-ca: ci. ba de
3. ~¸,.~ .~¸..~
ca-no caun: thwa: ba de
4. ~¸,.~ ¡· ¸., ·.~
ca-no nya.-za tha-nge-jin: ne. sa: ba de
5. ~¸,.~ ~·~~. ~·.~
ca-no ba-sa-ke'-bo: ga-za: ba de
6. ~¸,.~ ,~· ·.~
ca-no ma-ne'-sa sa: ba de
7. ~¸,.~ ·~~
ca-no ein hma sa hpa' pa de

10. Tell your partner about your daily schedule. Use the words and word combinations
given below.

., ~. ~ ,~· ·. ~ . ., ~· ·.
nei. dain: hta. ma-ne' sa a-lou' thwa: nei.-le-za sa:
~ ·~~ .
~·.
.¸.. · ~ ¸_ _~.
_~¡
¡.,
ba-sa-ke'-bo: ga-
za:
zei: thwa: sa-ou' hpa' you'-myin-than-
ca: ci.
nya.-nei hma





74
11. Listen to these five short statements. Circle the English statement that is the
equivalent of each Burmese statement you hear. Replay the audio as many times as you
need. Check the answer key.

1. A. I play soccer after school.
B. I play soccer after dinner.
C. I play soccer after work.

2. A. She goes to the market in the evening.
B. She goes to the market in the afternoon.
C. She goes to the market in the morning.

3. A. I go to work in the morning.
B. I go to school in the morning.
C. I go to the market in the morning.

4. A. I study at home on Saturday.
B. I play soccer at home on Saturday.
C. I eat breakfast at home on Saturday.

5. A. He watches television in the afternoon.
B. He watches television in the evening.
C. He watches television in the morning.

Grammar note:
As discussed earlier, Burmese does not conjugate for tense. Tense is either indicated with a tense
particle, or a statement ending particle, which also indicates tense. In interrogatives, the particle
(pronounced tha./dha.) indicates present or past, and (pronounced ma) indicates future. In
declarative statements, ~ (te/de) indicates past, present, or habits, universal truths and
customs. (me) indicates the future. There is a third statement ending particle _ (pronounced
bi), which, in some cases (with some verbs) is analogous to English in indicating the present
perfect. (But at this point in time, we need not go there yet.)
In the table below, ~ (te/de) is required to indicate the past tense, and what we have are
grammatically complete sentences in the examples below.

I went ca-no thwa:
(ge.) de
~¸,.~
.¸¸~
I studied ca-no sa hpa'
te
~¸,.~
·~~
you went hka-mya:
thwa: (ge.) de
¸.
.¸¸~
you studied hka-mya: sa
hpa' te
¸.
·~~
he went thu thwa:
(ge.) de

.¸¸~
he studied thu sa hpa' te
·~~
we went ca-no dou.
thwa: (ge.) de
~¸,.~~
.¸¸~
we studied ca-no dou. sa
hpa' te
~¸,.~~
·~~
75
you went hka-mya:
dou. thwa:
(ge.) de
¸.~
.¸¸~
you studied hka-mya:
dou. sa hpa'
te
¸.~
·~~
they went thu dou.
thwa: (ge.) de
~
.¸¸~
they studied thu dou. sa
hpa' te
~
·~~

I worked ca-no a-lou'
lou' (hke.) te
~¸,.~
~~
¸¸~
I watched ca-no ci. de ~¸,.~
_~¡~
you worked hka-mya:
a-lou' lou'
(hke.) te
¸.
~~
¸¸~
you watched hka-mya: ci.
de
¸.
_~¡~
he worked thu a-lou' lou'
(hke.) te
~~
¸¸~
he watched thu ci. de _~¡~
we worked ca-no dou.
a-lou' lou'
(hke.) te
~¸,.~~
~~
¸¸~
we watched ca-no dou. ci.
de
~¸,.~~
_~¡~
you worked hka-mya:
dou. a-lou'
lou' (hke.) te
¸.~
~~
¸¸~
you watched hka-mya:
dou. ci. de
¸.~
_~¡~
they worked thu dou.
a-lou' lou'
(hke.) te
~
~~
¸¸~
they watched thu dou. ci.
de
~
_~¡~

I ate ca-no sa: (ge.)
de
~¸,.~ ·.
¸¸~
I read ca-no hpa' te ~¸,.~
~~
you ate hka-mya: sa:
(ge.) de
¸. ·.
¸¸~
you read hka-mya hpa'
te:
¸.
~~
he ate thu sa: (ge.)
de
·.
¸¸~
he read thu hpa' te ~~
we ate ca-no dou. sa:
(ge.) de
~¸,.~~
·. ¸¸~
we read ca-no dou.
hpa' te
~¸,.~~
~~
you ate hka-mya:
dou. sa: (ge.)
de
¸.~ ·.
¸¸~
you read hka-mya:
dou. hpa' te
¸.~
~~
they ate thu dou. sa:
(ge.) de
~ ·.
¸¸~
they read thu dou. hpa'
te
~
~~

I played ca-no ga-za:
(ge.) de
~¸,.~
~·. ¸¸~
I got up ca-no hta. de ~¸,.~
~~
76
you played hka-mya: ga-
za: (ge.) de
¸. ~·.
¸¸~
you got up hka-mya: hta.
de
¸.
~~
he played thu ga-za:
(ge.) de
~·.
¸¸~
he got up thu hta. de ~~
we played ca-no dou.
ga-za: (ge.)
de
~¸,.~~
~·. ¸¸~
we got up ca-no dou.
hta. de
~¸,.~~
~~
you played hka-mya:
dou. ga-za:
(ge.) de
¸.~
~·. ¸¸~
you got up hka-mya:
dou. hta. de
¸.~
~~
they played thu dou. ga-
za: (ge.) de
~ ~·.
¸¸~
they got up thu dou. hta.
de
~
~~

12. Read the following sentences and translate them into English. Check your work with
the answer key.

ma-nei.-ga. ca-no caun: thwa: de ., ~ ~¸,.~ .~¸..~
ma-hni'-ka. ca-no ne . ca-no. tha-nge-jin: dwei ba-
sa-ke'-bo: ga-za: de
·~ ~¸,.~, ~¸,.~
¸..~ ~·~~.
~·.~
a-yin a-pa' ka. thu dou. zei: thwa: de _~~ ~ .¸..~
ma-nei.-ga. kou: na-yi ga. ca-no ein hma shi. de ., ~ ~.,_~ ~¸,.~
¸~
ma-nei.-ga. hcau' na-yi ga. ca-no dou. nya.-za sa:
de
., ~ ._~,_~ ~¸,.~~ ¡·
·.~
ma-hni'-ka. yau'-ca:-ga-lei: ga. caun: hma tei: gi-ta.
ne. thin-hca thin ba de
·~ .~¸.~.~.~ .~¸.
.~.~ , ¸ ~
ma-nei.-ga. mein:-hka-lei: ga. you'-myin-than-ca:
ci. ba de
., ~ ,..~.~ ¸__~.
_~¡~
a-yin ta-nin:-ga-nwei ga. ca-no sa-ou' hpa' pa de _ ~,.~ ~¸,.~ ·
~~
ma-hni'-ka. ca-no pa-yi hma shi. ba de ·~ ~¸,.~ _ ¸~
pyi: ge. de. hna hni' ka. ca-no dou. yan-goun hma
ein shi. ge. ba de
_.~ ··~ ~¸,.~~ _,~,
¸~

Grammar note:
yesterday – ., ~ ma-nei.-ga.
last year /week /Sunday – ·~ ma-hni'-ka. / _ ~ ~ a-yin a-pa' ka. / _ ~,.~
a-yin ta-nin:-ga-nwei ga.
a year ago – ~,~ ~··~ lun ge. de. ta-hni' ka.

77
13. Complete the following sentences using the verbs located in the box below. Check your
answers with the answer key.

¸ ¸~ ~·.¸ ¸~ ¸ ¸ ¸~ _~¡ ¸ ¸
~
~¸ ¸~ .¸ ¸~ ~ ~
¸ ¸~
·.¸ ¸~
thin ge. de ga-za: ge. de shi. ge.
de
ci. ge.
de
hta. ge.
de
thwa: ge.
de
a-lou'
lou' hke.
de
sa: ge. de


1. ~¸,.~ ., ~ ,·,_
ca-no ma-nei.-ga. hkun-na na-yi hma
2. ~¸,.~ ~¸,.~.~, ,~·
ca-no ca-no. mi-ba. dwei ne. ma-ne'-sa
3. _ ~,.., ~ ~¸,.~ .¸.
a-yin ta-nin:-ga-nwei nei. ga. ca-no zei: we
4. _ ~,~., ~ ~¸,.~ ~·~~.
a-yin ta-nin:-la nei. ga. ca-no ba-sa-ke'-bo:
5. ., ~ ~¸,.~ ¸__~.
ma-nei.-ga. ca-no you'-myin-than-ca:
6. ·~ ~¸,.~ ~
ma-hni'-ka. ca-no hou-te hma
7. ~,~ .·~ ~¸,.~ .~¸.
lun ge. de. thoun: hni' ka. ca-no caun: hma
8. _~~ ~¸,.~ _,~,
a-yin a-pa-ka. ca-no yan-goun hma


14. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Make up similar
dialogues using the words and word combinations given below. Work in pairs or in small
groups.

A. ., ~ ¸. ~~
ma-nei. ga. hka-mya: ba lou' tha le:
B. ., ~ ~¸,.~ ¸__~. _~¡~
ma-nei. ga. ca-no you'-myin-than-ca: ci. ba de
A. ., ~ ¸. ¸__~. .~~ _~_~ _~¡~
ma-nei. ga. hka-mya you'-myin-than-ca: be-lau' ca ca ci. dha le:
B. ~· ,_
ta na-yi ba



78
ma-nei.-ga. - ta na-yi - you'-myin-than-
ca: ci.
., ~ ~·,_ ___~. _~¡
ma-nei.-ga. - hna na-yi - zei: we thwa: ., ~ ·,_ .¸..
ma-hni'-ka. - lei: ba' - hou-te hma lou' ·~ .~.~ ~ ~
ma-hni'-ka. - shi' pa' - caun: hma sa thin ·~ ¸·~ .~¸. ·
a-yin ta-nin:-ga-nwei-ga. - ta na-yi - sa-ou'
hpa'
_ ~,.~ ~·,_ · ~
lun ge. de. ta-hni'-ka. - hcau' pa' -
ba-sa-ke'-bo: ga-za:
~,~ ~··~ ._~~
~·~~. ~·.
lun ge. de. ta-hni'-ka. - hna pa' - ba-ma
pyei hma shi.
~,~ ~··~ ·~ _¡ ¸


































79
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following statements read in Burmese. Circle the times you hear.

1. 6:30 - 5:30

2. 6:00 - 7:00

3. 9:30 - 8:30

4. 5:30 - 5:45

5. in the morning - in the evening

6. 6:00 - 8:00

2. Read the following text in Burmese. Put T (True) or F (False) next to the statements
that are written below the text. Check your work with the answer key.

~ ~¸,.~ ,¡~ ¸·. ~¸,.~~ _,~, .,~
min-ga-la ba ca-no. na-me ga. hci'-aun ba ca-no ga. yan-goun hma nei ba de

~¸,.~ ~.~. ~· ¸ ~
ca-no. hma ein ga-lei: ta ein shi. ba de

~¸,.~~ .~¸. ~_ ~¸,.~~ ¸ , .~.~ ~
ca-no ga. di caun: hma hsa-ya ba ca-no ga. thin-hca ne. tei: gi-ta. thin ba de

., ~. ~¸,.~ ,~ ._~,_ ~~
nei.-dain: ca-no ma-ne' hcau' na-yi hma hta. ba de

~¸,.~ ,~· ·._. .~¸..~ ~¸,.~ .~¸. ¸·,_ ¸.,~
ca-no ma-ne'-sa sa: pi: caun: thwa: ba de ca-no caun: hma shi' na-yi hma shi. ba de

, ™. .,.~ ~¸,.~ ·,_ .~. ~,~
in-ga ne. bou'-da-hu: nei. dwei hma ca-no hna na-yi bo-loun: kan ba de

.~¸._._ .¸. .~ .,_ ~¸,.~ ¸~
caun: pi: yin zei: we thwa: ba de nga: na-yi hma ca-no ein hma shi. ba de


80
¡., ~¸,.~ ~·,_ __ _~. _~¡_. ·,_ ·.~ ~~
nya.-nei hma ca-no ta na-yi you'-myin-than-ca: ci. pi: hna na-yi sa-ou' twei hpa' pa de

1. _______ The man lives in Yangon.
2. _______ He lives in small house.
3. _______ He is a student.
4. _______ He studies math and music.
5. _______ Everyday he gets up at 6:00 a.m.
6. _______ He does not have breakfast.
7. _______He is at school at 8:00.
8. _______Chi Aun plays soccer on Saturday and Monday for 3 hours.
9. ____ __He goes shopping after school.
10._______In the evening he works for 2 hours.

3. Describe your daily schedule of activities, including the times, in Burmese. For example,
start with what time you get up, then eat breakfast, etc. “I get up at 6:00 and eat breakfast
at 6:30. I go to school at …..”

4. Find out what your partner did yesterday at 7:00 am, 7:30 am, 10:00 am, 1:00 pm, 4:00
pm, and 8:00 pm, and how long each activity lasted. Work in pairs or in small groups.


Grammar note:
¡· ·. _ . .~ . ~, ~
nya.-za sa: pi: bo-loun: kan ba de
dinner eat and ball kick Polite Tense
Particle

The above sentence translates into "I play soccer after dinner." So instead of “after,” we can
include _ . (pi) in the list.














81
Vocabulary List

And (between verbs/
clauses)
pi: _.
In the morning ma-ne' hma (future/habitual)
ma-ne' ka. (past)
,~
,~~
In the afternoon nei.-le hma (future/habitual)
nei.-le ga. (past)
., ~
., ~~
In the evening nya.-nei hma (future/habitual)
nya.-nei ga. (past)
¡.,
¡.,~
Everyday nei. dain: ., ~.
Last week a-yin a-pa' ka. _ ~~
A year ago lun ge. de. ta hni' ka. ~,~ ~··~
Last Sunday
(Monday, Tuesday, etc.)
a-yin ta-nin:-ga-nwei ga.
a-yin ta-nin:-la ga.
a-yin in-ga ga.
_ ~,.~
_ ~,~~
_ ~
At school caun: hma .~¸.
Math thin-hca ¸
Music tei: gi-ta. .~.~
Book sa-ou' ·
Breakfast ma-ne'-sa ,~·
Lunch nei.-le-za ., ~·
Dinner nya.-za ¡·
Home ein
At home ein hma
Market zei: .¸.
On Sunday
(Monday, Tuesday…)
ta-nin:-ga-nwei nei. hma
ta-nin:-la nei. hma
in-ga nei. hma
~,..,
~,~.,
.,
To go (to) thwa: bou. .
To go shopping zei: we thwa: bou. .¸. .
To play soccer/basketball bo-loun: kan bou.
ba-sa-ke'-bo: ga-za: bou.
.~. ~,
~·~~. ~·.
To watch television you'-myin-than-ca: ci. bou. ¸__~. _~¡
To eat breakfast
(lunch, dinner)
ma-ne'-sa sa: bou.
nei.-le-za sa: bou.
nya.-za sa: bou.
,~· ·.
., ~· ·.
¡· ·.
To get up
to wake up (intransitive)
to wake up (transitive)
hta. bou.
nou: bou.
hnou: bou.
~
.
.
82
To read hpa' hpou. ~
To study/learn (at school)
to study (at home)
to study (something)
thin bou.
sa hpa' hpou.
lei.-la bou.

·~
.~~
To work a-lou' lou' hpou. ~ ~
What time is it? be hna na-yi htou: bi le: ·,_ ~._~
It is three o’clock. thoun: na-yi htou: bi .,_ ~._
When (to ask about the
future)
When (to ask about the past)
be do.

be doun: ga.
.~
~,.~
Man yau'-ca: .~¸.
Woman mein:-ma. ,.
Boy yau'-ca:-ga-lei: .~¸.~.~.
Girl mein:-hka-lei: ,..~.























83

ANSWER KEY

Exercise 2

A. three thirty pm E. eleven thirty pm
B. eight forty-five am F. thirteen fifty-five
C. ten after six G. twelve o’clock
D. zero nine hundred H. four fifteen

Exercise 3

A. What time is it? It is 8:15 am.
·,_ ~._~ ,~ ¸·,_ ~. ¸_
be hna na-yi htou: bi le: ma-ne' shi. na-yi hse.-nga: shi. bi

B. What time is it? It’s 9:50.
·,_ ~._~ ~.,_ .~ ¸_
be hna na-yi htou: bi le: kou: na-yi nga:-ze shi. bi

C. What time is it? It is 5:10.
·,_ ~._~ .,_ ~,· ¸_
be hna na-yi htou: bi le: nga: na-yi hse mi.-ni' shi. bi

D. What time is it? It is 4:30 pm.
·,_ ~._~ ¡., .~.,_ ¸_
be hna na-yi htou: bi le: nya-nei lei: na-yi gwe: shi. bi

E. What time is it? It is 7:10.
·,_ ~._~ ,·,_ ~,· ¸_
be hna na-yi htou: bi le: hkun-na na-yi hse mi.-ni' shi. bi


Exercise 7

A 3. We study in the morning.
B 1. I go to school at 9:30.
C. 2. They eat breakfast at 7:00.
D 4. She reads a book in the evening.

Exercise 8

Hpei-tin is a student. He studies at school. Everyday he gets up at 7:15. He has breakfast at 7:30.
He goes to school at 8:00. After school he plays basketball. He reads books and watches TV in
the evening. Hpei-tin does not study on Saturday and Sunday.
84

1. Is Hpei-tin a teacher? No, Hpei-tin is a student.
2. Where does he study? He studies at school.
3. What does he do at 7:15? He gets up at 7:15.
4. When does he have breakfast? He has breakfast at 7:30.
5. What does he do at 8:00? He has breakfast at 8:00.
6. When does he play basketball? He plays basketball after school.
7. What does he do in the evening? He reads books and watches TV in the evening.
8. Does he study on Saturday and Sunday? No, Hpei-tin does not study on Saturday and
Sunday.

Exercise 9
Your answer may vary.

6. I eat breakfast.
3. I go to school.
1. I go to lunch with my friends.
5. I play basketball.
4. I eat dinner with my friend.
7. I study at home.
2. I watch television.

Exercise 11

1. B. I play soccer after dinner. ¡· ·._ . . ~ . ~, ~
2. C. She goes to the market in the morning. ,~~ .¸..~
3. A. I go to work in the morning. ~¸,.~ ,~~ ~ .~
4. B. I play soccer at home on Saturday. ~¸,.~ ·.,., . ~ . ~, ~
5. A. He watches television in the afternoon. ., ~ ¸__~. _~¡~

Exercise 12

1. Yesterday I went to school.
2. Last year my friends and I played basketball.
3. They went shopping last week.
4. I was at home at 9:00 yesterday.
5. We ate dinner at 6:00 yesterday.
6. The boy studied music and math at school last year.
7. The girl watched television yesterday.
8. Last Sunday I read a book.
9. I was in Paris a year ago.
10. We had a house in yan-goun two years ago.




85
Exercise 13

1. hta. (ge.) de ~ ¸¸ ~ I got up at 7:00 yesterday.
2. sa: (ge.) de ·. ¸¸ ~ I ate breakfast with my parents.
3. thwa: (ge.) de . ¸¸ ~ I went shopping last Sunday.
4. ga-za: (ge.) de ~·. ¸¸ ~ I played basketball last Monday.
5. ci. (ge.) de _~¡ ¸¸ ~ I watched television yesterday.
6. shi. (ge.) de ¸ ¸¸ ~ I was at the hotel last year.
7. thin (ge.) de ¸¸ ~ I studied at school three years ago.
8. thwa: (ge.) de . ¸¸ ~ I went to Yangon last week.

End of Lesson Exercise 1

1. We eat breakfast at 6:30. ca-no dou. hcau' na-yi gwe:
hma ma-ne'-sa sa: ba de
~¸,.~~ ._~,_
,~· ·.~
2. I go to school at 7:00. ca-no hkun-na na-yi hma caun:
thwa: ba de
~¸,.~ ,· ,_
.~¸..~
3. You go to work at 9:30 hka-mya: dou. kou: na-yi gwe:
hma a-lou' thwa: ba de
¸. ~. ,_ ~
.~
4. He plays soccer at 5:45. thu nga: na-yi lei:-ze nga: hma
bo-loun: kan be de
. ,_ .~.~.
.~. ~,~
5. They went to the market
in the morning.
thu dou. ma-ne'-ka. zei: thwa:
ge. ba de
~ ,~~ .¸. .
~
6. They watched television
at 8:00.
thu dou. shi. na-yi ga. you'-
myin-than-ca: ci. ge. ba de
~ ¸·,_~ __
_~. _~¡ ~

Exercise 2

1. T The man lives in Yangon.
2. T He lives in small house.
3. F He is a student.
4. F He studies math and music.
5. T Everyday he gets up at 6:00 a.m.
6. F He does not have breakfast.
7. T He is at school at 8:00.
8. F Chi Aun plays soccer on Saturday and Monday for 3 hours.
9. T He goes shopping after school.
10. F In the evening he works for 2 hours.

Hello. My name is Chi Aun. I live in Yan-goun. I have a small house. I am a teacher at this
school. I teach math and music. Everyday I get up at 6:00 a.m. I eat breakfast and go to school. I
am at school at 8:00 a.m. On Tuesday and Thursday I play soccer for 2 hours. After school, I go
shopping. I am home at 5:00. In the evening I watch TV for an hour and read books for 2 hours.
86
Lesson 5
Meeting the Family
.· , .~ ~_.
Mi.-dha:-zu. ne. twei. hsoun jin:


This lesson will introduce you to:
- The kinship terms used for immediate and extended family
- How to ask and answer simple questions about family members
- The pronouns “who,” “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.”
-

Cultural note:
The traditional Burmese family is neither patriarchal nor matriarchal. Traditionally and historically, the
Burmese woman has been an almost equal partner of her husband. Although there is a strong cultural tendency
for the wife to be respectful to her husband, in any marriage it is always the person of stronger personality or
character who leads the household. Economics play a key role in shaping the dynamics of marriage partners,
especially now when both husband and wife will usually work to support the family. Economics is the main
reason too, why grandparents live with their married children and grandchildren, and why grown children
usually live with their parents.

1. Look at these photos of families. Listen to the kinship terms and repeat after the speaker.









87

Burmese does not have a generic word for brother. Burmese only has words meaning "older brother" and
"younger brother." Additionally, there are different words for "younger brother" depending on whether the
speaker is male or female. Similarly, Burmese does not have a generic word for sister. It has only words
meaning "older sister" and "younger sister." So to say "I have three sisters," in Burmese, one has to say
something like "I have two older sisters and one younger sister."

Family mi.-dha:-zu. .·
Parents mi.-ba. (dwei) ¸.~¸
Mother a-mei (informal)
mi.-gin (formal)
.

Father a-hpei (informal)
hpa.-gin (formal)
.

Children tha: tha-mi: ..
Daughter tha-mi: .
Son tha: .
Grandparents a-hpou: a-hpwa: . .
Grandfather a-hpou: .
Grandmother a-hpwa: .
Older sister
Younger sister
a-ma.
nyi-ma.
·
¡
Older brother
Younger brother
Younger brother
a-kou
nyi (male speaker)
maun (female speaker)
·~
¡
.

Grammar note:
When referring to people in a photograph or a picture, the pronouns da “this,” hou ha “that,” da dwei ga. “these”
and hou ha dwei ga. “those” sound appropriate. With actual people, you would sound rude. When referring to
actual people, you would use thu “s/he” or thu dou. “they.”

2. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat them after the speaker. Role-play the dialogues using
the pictures above.

1. A. Who is this? da be-dhu le: ~
B. This is my mother. ca-no. a-mei ba ~¸,.~ .
2. A. Who is that? hou-ha be-dhu le: ~
B. That is my older sister. ca-no. a-ma. ba ~¸,.~ ·
3. A. Who are they? thu dou. ga. be-dhu dwei le: ~ ~ .~~
B. They are my parents. ca-no. mi.-ba dwei ba ~¸,.~ .~
4. A. Who are they? thu dou. ga. ba-dhu dwei le: ~ ~ .~~
B. They are my grandparents. ca-no. a-hpou: a-hpwa: ba ~¸,.~ . .
88

3. Translate the following sentences into English. Check you work with the answer key.

1. ~¸,.~ . , . . ~·.~ , . ·.~ ¸~
ca-no. a-hpei ne. a-mei hma tha: ta-yau' ne. tha-mi: ta-yau' shi. ba de
2. ~¸,.~~ ~¸,.~ .. , _~. ~· .,~
ca-no ga. ca-no. a-hpou: a-hpwa: ne. ein ji: ta ein hma nei ba de
3. .~~ _,~, .,~ ~ ~ ~_~...~
thu. mi.-ba. dwei ga. yan-goun hma nei ba de thu dou. ga. a-lou' kyan: dha-ma: dwei ba
4. ~¸,.~ ·~ ·.~ ¸~ ~ ~ ··..~ ~ ~ ···,. .,~
ca-no. hma a-kou hna yau' shi. ba de thu dou. ga. si'-tha: dwei ba thu dou. ga. si' sa-hkan hma nei ba
de
5. ¡ ¸~ ,¡~ ··
thu. hma nyi-ma. shi. ba de thu. na-me ga. su.-su. ba
6. ~¸,.~ ·~~ ~ .~ ¸_ . ~·.~ , . ~·.~ ¸~
ca-no. a-kou ga. a-the' thoun:-ze shi. bi thu. hma tha: ta yau' ne. tha-mi: ta-yau' shi. ba de

4. Tell about your mother/father/sister/brother/grandfather/grandmother according to the scheme
below:

1. name
2. age
3. occupation
4. where they live (city and type of residence).

Model:

~¸,.~ . ,¡~ ¡.,.. ~ ~ .~.~¸·· ¸_
da ca-no. a-hpei ba thu. na-me ga. u: than: maun ba thu ga. a-the' lei:-ze shi' hni' shi. ba bi
~ ~_ ~ .~. .,~ ~.~. ~·~. ¸~
thu ga. hsa-ya ba thu ga. ma-gwei hma nei ba de thu. hma ein ga-lei: ta loun: shi. ba de

5. Create questions in Burmese to the following answers. Check your work with the answer key for some
suggested questions.

1. __________________?
~~ ~¸,.~ ¡
hou.-ke. da ca-no. nyi ba
2. __________________?
,¡~ ~.
thu. na-me ga. tin-mou: ba
3. ___________________?
~ ~ .,~
thu ga. ka-tha hma nei ba de
89
4. ___________________?
~ ~_,
thu ga. hsa-ya-wun ba
5. ____________________?
~,~., ~ .~
ta-nin:-la nei. hma thu a-lou' thwa: ba de
6. _____________________?
~. ., ..
~·.~
ma-hou' pa bu: thu in-ga nei. hma bei.-
bo: ga-za: ba de

6. Listen to the audio. Circle the word you hear. Check your work with the answer key.

1. mother - father

2. daughter - son

3. family - parents

4. children - grandparents

5. sister - brother

6. grandmother - grandfather

7. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook.

Husband yau'-ca: (informal/rural)
a-myou: tha: (polite)
hkin-bun: (formal/official)
.~¸.
¸¸..
,.
Wife mein:-ma. (informal/rural)
a-myou: tha-mi: (polite)
za-ni: (formal/official)
,.
¸¸..
~,.
Married ein daun shi. .~ ¸
Unmarried
Bachelor male
Bachelor female
ein daun ma shi.
lu-byou
a-pyou
.~ ¸
~¸¸
¸¸



90
8. Fill in the blanks using the words written in the boxes below. Check your answers with the answer
key.

1.
. ~ ¸ · ~ ¸ .~¸ ~_,
tha: a-the' nga:
hni'
a-the. thoun:-
ze
thu. ein daun shi. thu. hsa-ya-wun


~¸,.~ ·~ ~ ¸¸..~
ca-no. a-kou hma ----------- ba de thu. a-myou:-tha-mi: ga. ------------- ba

,¡~ ,, ~
------------ na-me ga. ni ni ba thu ga. ---------- ba

~ ~·.~ ¸~ ~ ¸_ ,¡~ ~.
thu dou. hma ------- ta yau' shi. ba de thu ga. -------- shi. bi ------------ na-me ga. tou:-nain ba


2.

.~¸ ~ .
·
. ¡ ~
·
··. ~ _
ein daun
shi.
thu a-the' shi'
hni'
tha-mi: thu. nyi-
ma.
a-the' hse hni' si'-tha: thu dou. ye.


·,_ ¸~ ,¡~ ..~ ~
sein-myin. hma shi. ba de na-me ga. wei-wei-tin ba thu. hma ba de

.~¸.~ ,¡~ ~~. ~ ¸~
thu. yau'-ca: ga. ba na-me ga. htin-lin: ba thu dou. hma hna yau' shi. ba de

,¡.~~ , ·· ~ _~. _·_. ¸_
na-ma dwei ga. mu-mu ne. su.-su. ba mu-mu ga. a-ci: hpyi. pi: ba bi
··~ ¸_
su.-su. ga. shi. ba bi

9. Make up short stories in Burmese about the people listed below.

1. .... .~¸ ~ ¸· .~¸.~ ~_~..
ei:-ei: - ein daun shi. ; a-the' thoun:-ze ta hni' ; thu. yau'ca: ga. a-lou' can: tha-ma:
. ~·.~ , . ~·.~
tha: ta yau' ne. tha-mi: ta yau'
91

2. .. .~¸ ~ ¸. · ,.~ ~_ ~.~. ¸
hpei-aun - ein daun shi. a-the' hna-hse. shi. hni' thu.mein:-ma. ga. hsa-ya ma. hka-lei: ma shi.

3. ~ ¸¸ ~ ¸ .~ , ., .~¸. ·~ ~·.~
mi-mi-tin - a-pyou ; a-the' hna-hse ; mi.-ba. dwei ne. nei ; caun:-thu ; a-kou ta yau'


10. Listen to several short dialogues as people answer questions about their family members. Circle
the correct answer for each question. Check your work with the answer key.

1. A. ~ ~
thu ga. be-thu le:
B. She is my mother / sister / grandmother.

2. A. ~ .~ ¸~.
thu ga. ein daun shi. dha la:
B. No, she is single / a doctor / 25 years old.

3. A. ~ ~
thu ga. be-thu le:
B. He is my wife / my husband / my father.

4. A. ~ .~ ¸~.
thu ga. ein daun shi. dha la:
B. Yes, he is married / single / a soldier.

5. A. ~ ~ .~ ~
thu dou. ga. ba-thu dwei le:
B. They are my parents / my children / my grandparents.

6. A. ~ ~ ., ~
thu dou. ga. be hma nei dha le:
B. They live in the barracks / in the tent / in the apartment.

7. A. ¸. ¡·~.~ ¸~.
hka-mya: hma nyi a-kou dwei shi. dha la:
B. Yes, I have two brothers / two sisters / two sons.

8. A. ~
e:-da be-thu le:
B. That is my wife / mother / husband.

92
9. A. .. ¸~.
thu. hma tha: tha-mi: shi. dha la:
B. Yes, she has two brothers / two sisters / two sons.

11. Read and translate the text. Put T (True) or F (False) next to the statements below. Check your
answers with the answer key.

~. . , . ¸~ ~ ~ ~. , .· , .,~
tin-win: hma a-hpou: ne. a-hpwa: shi. ba de thu dou. ga. tin-win: ne. thu. mi.-dha:-su. ne. nei ba de
~. ¡·~.~ ¸. · ·.~ ¸~
tin-win: hma nyi a-kou dwei ma shi. ba bu: thu. hma a-ma. hna yau' shi. ba de
~ ~ .~¸..~ ~. .~ ¸~ ¸¸..~ ~_,
thu dou. ga. caun: dhu dwei ba tin-win: hma ein daun shi. ba de thu. a-myou: tha-mi: ga. has-ya wun ba
~. , ¸¸.. . ~·.~ , . ~·.~ ¸~
tin-win: ne. thu. a-myou: tha-mi: hma tha-mi: ta yau' ne. tha: ta yau' shi. ba de

tin-win: hma mi-ba. dwei shi. ba de 1. ___ ~. .~ ¸~
tin-win: hma ein daun shi. ba de 2. ~. .~ ¸~
tin-win: hma a-ma. hna yau' shi. ba de 3. ~. · ·.~ ¸~
tin-win: ne. thu. a-myou: tha-mi: ga. caun: dhu
caun: dha: dwei ba
4. ~. , ¸¸..~ .~¸.
.~¸...~
tin-win: ga. hsa-ya-wun ba 5. ~.~ ~_,
tin-win: hma tha: tha-mi: hna yau' shi. ba de 6. ~. .. ·.~
¸~

















93
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Give a brief description in Burmese of your immediate family. Include the age, name, and profession
of each person, and tell whether each person is married or single, and where he/she lives. If you want to,
use real pictures of your family members.


2. Ask your classmate in Burmese about his/her mother/father/sister/brother/etc. What are their names,
how old are they, where do they live, and what are their professions.


3. Work in small groups. Describe the pictures below. Use new vocabulary.
















94
Vocabulary List

Parents mi.-ba dwei ¸.~¸
Father a-hpei (informal)
hpa.-gin (formal)
.

Mother a-mei (informal)
mi.-gin (formal)
.

Children tha: tha-mi: . .
Son tha: .
Daughter tha-mi: .
Older brother
younger brother
younger brother
a-kou (both ms & fs)
nyi (ms)
maun (fs)
·~
¡
.
Elder sister
Younger sister
a-ma.
nyi-ma.
·
¡
Grandparents a-hpou: a-hpwa: . .
Grandmother a-hpwa: .
Grandfather a-hpou: .
Husband yau'-ca: (informal / rural)
a-myou:-tha: (polite)
hkin-bun: (formal)
.~¸.
¸¸..
,.
Wife mein:-ma. (informal / rural)
a-myou:-tha-mi: (polite)
za-ni: (formal)
,.
¸¸..
~,.
Married ein daun shi. .~ ¸
Unmarried
Bachelor male
Bachelor female
ein daun ma shi.
lu-byou
a-pyou
.~ ¸
~¸¸
¸¸
Who is this/that?
Who is s/he?
da be-dhu le:
thu be-dhu le:

~
~
Who are these/those?
Who are they?
da dwei ga. be-dhu dwei le:
thu dou. dwei ga. be-dhu dwei
le:

.~~ .~~
~ .~~ .~~

This/that is… da ga. ------- ba ~
These/those are…
They are
da dwei ga. ------- ba
thu dou. dwei ga. ------- ba
.~~
~ .~~


95
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 3

1. My mother and father have one son and two daughters.
2. I live with my grandparents in a big house.
3. His parents live in Yangon. They are laborers.
4. I have two older brothers. They are soldiers. They live in a military camp.
5. She has a younger sister. Her name is Su Su.
6. My older brother is 30 years old. He has a son and a daughter.

Exercise 5
These are some possible questions. Yours may vary slightly.

1. ~ ¸. ·~ ¸ ¡ ~. thu ga. hka-mya: a-kou / nyi la: Is this your brother?
2. ,¡~ ~
,¡ ~ .¨~
thu. na-me ga. ba le:
thu. na-me be-lou hko dha le:
What is his name?
3. .,~ thu be hma nei dha le: Where does he live?
4. ~~ thu ba lou' tha le: What is his occupation?
5. ¸, ~ .~ thu be a-hcein a-lou' thwa: dha le: When does he go to work?
6. ., ~ ~~. thu in-ga nei. hma a-lou' lou' tha la: Does he work on Tuesday?

Exercise 6

1. Father .

a-hpei (informal)
hpa-gin (formal)
2. Daughter . tha-mi:
3. Family .· mi.-dha:-zu.
4. Grandparents . . a-hpou: a-hpwa:
5. Sister · a-ma.
6. Grandfather . a-hpou:

Exercise 8

1. ~¸,.~ ·~ .~¸ ~ ¸¸..~ ~ ¸
ca-no. a-kou hma ein daun shi. ba de thu. a-myou:-tha-mi: ga. a-the' thoun:-ze ba
,¡~ ,, ~ ~_,
thu. na-me ga. ni ni ba thu ga. hsa-ya-wun ba
~ . ~·.~ ¸~ ~ ~ ¸ · ¸_ ,¡~ ~.
thu dou. hma tha: ta yau' shi. ba de thu ga. a-the' nga: hni' shi. bi thu. na-me ga. tou:-nain ba

1. My brother is married. His wife is 30 years old. Her name is Ni Ni. She is a doctor.
They have a son. He is 5 years old. His name is Tou-nain.
96
2. ·,_ ¡ ¸~ ,¡~ ..~ .~¸ ~
sein-myin. hma nyi-ma. shi. ba de thu. na-me ga. wei-wei-tin ba thu. hma ein daun shi. ba de
.~¸.~ ··. ,¡~ ~~. ~ . ·.~ ¸~
thu. yau'-ca: ga. si'-tha: ba thu. na-me ga. htin-lin: ba thu dou. hma tha-mi: hna yau' shi. ba de
~ _ ,¡.~~ , ·· ~ _~. _·_. ~ · ¸_
thu dou. ye. na-ma dwei ga. mu-mu ne. su.-su. ba mu-mu ga. a-ci: hpyi. pi: a-the' hse hni' shi. ba bi
··~ ~ . · ¸_
su.-su. ga. a-the' shi' hni' shi. ba bi

2. Sein-myin has a sister. Her name is Wei wei tin. She is married.
Her husband is a soldier. His name is Thin-lin. They have two daughters.
Their names are Mu-mu and su-su. Mu-mu is older and is 10 years old. Su-su is 8 years old.

Exercise 10

1. Who is she? She is my sister.
~ ~ ~ ~¸,.~ ¡
thu ga. be-thu le: thu ga. ca-no. nya-ma. ba
2. Is she married? No, she is single.
~ .~ ¸~. ¸ . ~ ¸¸
thu ga. ein daun shi. tha la: ma shi. ba bu: thu ga. a-pyou ba
3. Who is he? He is my husband.
~ ~ ~ ~¸, .~¸.
thu ga. be-thu le: thu ga. ca-ma. yau'-ca: ba
4. Is he married? Yes, he is
~ .~ ¸~. ~~ .~ ¸~
thu ga. ein daun shi. tha la: hou'-ke. thu. hma ein-daun shi. ba de
5. Who are they? They are my children.
~ ~ .~ ~ ~¸,.~ ...~
thu dou. ga. be-thu dwei le: ca-no. tha: tha-mi: dwei ba
6. Where do they live? They live in the apartment.
~ ~ .,_~~ ~ ~ ~~,. .,_~~
thu dou. ga. be hma nei ja. tha le: thu dou. ga. tai' hkan: hma nei ja. ba de
7. Do you have any brothers? Yes, I have two older brothers.
¸. ¡·~.~ ¸~. ~~ ~¸,.~ ·~ ·.~ ¸~
hka-mya: hma nyi a-kou dwei shi. dha la: hou'-ke. ca-no. hma a-kou hna yau' shi. ba de
8. Who is that? That is my wife.
~ ~¸,.~ ,.
e:-da be-dhu le: e:-da ca-no. mein:-ma. ba
9. Does she have any children? Yes, she has two sons.
. . ¸~. ~~ . ·.~ ¸~
thu. hma tha: tha-mi: shi. dha-la: hou'-ke. thu. hma tha: hna yau' shi. ba de


97
Exercise 11

1. F Tin Win has parents.
2. T Tin Win is married.
3. T He has two sisters
4. F Tin Win and his wife are students.
5. F Tin Win is a doctor.
6. T Tin Win has two children.

Tin Win has a grandfather and a grandmother. They live with Tin Win and his family. Tin Win has no brothers.
He has two sisters. They are students. Tin Win is married. His wife is a doctor. Tin Win and his wife have a
daughter and a son.


98
Lesson 6
Around Town
_ ¸ ~ ~¡
Myou. pa'-le


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Cardinal directions
- Names of urban buildings and landmarks
- How to ask and answer questions about the locations of places and buildings.
.



1. Listen to and repeat the cardinal directions.


North myau' ._~
Northwest a-nau'
myau'
.,~
._~
Northeast a-shei.
myau'

._~
West a-nau' .,~

East a-shei. .¸
Southwest a-nau'
taun
.,~
.~
Southeast
a-shei. taun .¸
.~
South taun .~

99
2. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in
your workbook.




Pyinmana is north of Yangon. ¸¡.,.~ _,~, _ ._~~ ¸~
pyin:-ma-na: ga. yan-goun ye. myau' hpe' hma shi.
ba de
Pathein is west of Yangon. ~ _,~, _ .,~~ ¸~
pa-thein ga. yan-goun ye. a-nau' hpe' hma shi. ba
de
Magway is south of Mandalay. .~.~ –.~. _ .~~ ¸~
ma-gwei: ga. man:-da-lei: ye. taun be' hma shi. ba
de
Kalaw is east of Mandalay. ~.~~ –.~. _ .¸ ~ ¸~
ka-lo: ga. man:-da-lei: ye. a-shei. be' hma shi. ba de

3. Work with a partner. Tell each other where certain cities/locations are in relation to
other cities/locations. Compose sentences according to the exercise above and the model
below.

Model: Los Angeles is south of San Francisco.
.~ ¸· ¸ , ¸ ~ .¸· ¸~ ·, _,·· ·~ _ .~ ~ ¸ ~
los an-je-li:s ka. san hpa-yan-si'-sa-kou ye. taun be' hma shi. ba de
The apartment building is east of the military camp.
~ ~ , .¸.~ ·· ·, ._ .¸ ~ ¸ ~
tai'-hkan: mya: ga. si' sa-hkan: ye. a-shei. be' hma shi. ba de
100
4. Topographical features, urban buildings and landmarks are useful reference
points when getting to know a new area or for giving and receiving directions. Listen to a
list of common sites and features. Repeat after the speaker while following along in the
workbook.


Airport lei zei' .~~
Bank ban ~
Building a-hsau'-a-u .~~¡
House ein
Bus station bas-ka: gei' ~¸·¸~. ~
Train station mi:-ya-hta: bu-da-youn ._~. ~¸
Police station ye: sa-hkan: _ ·,.
Café le'-hpe'-yei zain ~~~_¡~
Restaurant sa: thau' hsain ·..~~
Church hpa-ya: shi'-hkou: caun: _ ¸..~¸.
Mosque ba-li ~
Pagoda hpa-ya: _.
Hindu temple hein-du hpa-ya: caun: ˜¸ _. .~¸.
Movie theater you' shin youn ¸¸¸
Hospital hsei: youn .~.¸
Market zei: .¸.
Pharmacy hsei: zain .~.~
Post office sa-dai' ·~~
Store sa-tou: zain ·~.~
Park pan:-jan ,._
Factory se' youn ·~¸
Bridge da-da: ~~.
Farm sai' pyou: mwei: myu
yei: hcan
·~¸¸..._¸._._
Field sai' kwin: ·~~.
Forest to: .~
Lake kan ~,
Mountain taun .~
River myi' _·





101
5. Match the English word in the left column with the Burmese equivalent in the right
column. Check your work with the answer key.

1. Airport A. se' youn .~~
2. Bank B. hsei: youn ~
3. Bus Station C. lei zei' ~¸·¸~. ~
4. Café D. hsei: zain ~~~_¡~
5. Church E. sa: thau' hsain _ ¸..~¸.
6. Movie Theater F. pan: jan _¸¸
7. Factory G. sa-dai' _ ¸..~¸.
8. Hospital H. bas-ka: gei' .~.¸
9. Park I. ban ,._
10. Pharmacy J. le'-phe'-yei zain .~.~
11. Post Office K. you' shin youn ·~~
12. Restaurant L. hpa-ya: shi'-hkou:
caun:
·..~~


6. Translate the following sentences from Burmese into English. Check your work with the
answer key.

1. .¸.~ ~_ .~~ ¸~
zei: ga. ban ye. taun be' hma shi. ba de
2. _·~ .~.~_ .¸ ~ ¸~
myi' ka. taun dwei ye. a-shei. be' hma shi. ba de
3. .~~~ ~_ .,~~ ¸~
lei zai' ka. hou-te ye. a-nau' hpe' hma shi. ba de
4. .~.~ , ~,.~~ .~_ .¸ ~ ¸~
taun dwei ne. kan dwei ga. to: ye. a-shei. be' hma shi. ba de
5. _·~ ·~¸¸..._¸._.__ .~~ ¸~
myi' ka. sai' pyou: mwei: myu yei: hcan ye. taun be' hma shi. ba de
6. ¸¸¸~ .~.¸_ .¸ ~ ¸~
you' sin youn ga. hsei: youn ye. a-shei. be' hma shi. ba de
7. ~,~ ,.__ ._~~ ¸~
kan ga. pan: jan ye. myau' hpe' hma shi. ba de

7. Create sentences according to the model. Use the words below.

Model:

The park is east of the post office.
,._~ ·~~_ .¸ ~ ¸~
pan: jan ga. sa-dai' ye. a-shei. be' hma shi. ba de
102

1. .~~ ~, .¸ ~
lei zei' - kan - a-shei. be'
2. ~ .~.¸ .~~
ban - hsei: youn - taun be'
3. .~.~ ·~~ .,~~
hsei: zain - sa-dai' - a-nau' hpe'
4. ~~. _· ._~~
da-da: - myi' - myau' hpe'
5. ~¸·¸~. ~ _·,. .¸ ~
bas-ka: gei' - ye: sa-hkan: - a-shei. be'
6. ·~¸ .~ .~~
se' youn - taun - taun be'
7. ·~¸¸..._¸._._ ·~~.
.,~~
sai' pyou: mwei: myu yei: hcan - sai' kwin: - a-
nau' hpe'
8. ,._ ~, ._~~
pan: jan - kan - myau' hpe'


8. Listen to the speaker and circle the term you hear. Check your answers with the
answer key.

1. north west south
2. bank park bridge
3. train station bus station airport
4. restaurant café factory
5. post office pharmacy hospital
6. church movie theater factory
7. lake river farm
8. building bridge mountain

9. Listen to the following words and word combinations and repeat after the speaker.
Follow along in your workbook.

Grammar note: To ask “Where is the bank?” Burmese will say ~~ ~ ban ga. be
hma le: In this question, ban ga. is the subject and ga. is the subject marker. be hma is "where"
and le: is the information question particle.



103
In front of the pharmacy. hsei: zain na: hma ba .~.~.¸
Next to the post office. sa-dai' bei: hma ba ·~~..
Between the pharmacy and the
post office.
hsei: zain ne. sa-dai' ja: hma
ba
.~.~ , ·~~_~.

Near the police station. ye: sa-hkan: na: hma ba _·,. ,.
Around the corner from the
hospital.
hsei: youn ta-gwei. hma ba .~.¸ ~.~
Across from the hospital. hsei: youn ne. mye'-hna-
hcin:-zain hma ba
.~.¸ , ¸~¸.~


10. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. Then
translate the dialogues into English. Check your work with the answer key.

1. ~,~ ~ ~,~ .~..
kan ga. be hma le: kan ga. to: bei: hma ba
2. .¸.~ ~ .¸.~ _·,. , _.¸..~¸. _~.
zei: ga. be hma le: zei: ga. ye: sa-hkan: ne. hpa-ya: shi'-hkou: caun: ja: hma ba
3. ·~~~ ~ ·~~~ .~.¸ ~.~
sa-dai' ka. be hma le: sa-dai' ka. hsei: youn da-gwei. hma ba
4. ._~. ~¸~ ~ ._~. ~¸~ ,._, ¸~¸.~
mi:-ya-hta: bu-da-youn ga. be hma le: mi:-ya-hta: bu-da-youn ga. pan: jan ne. mye'-hna-
hcin:-zain hma ba
5. ~~~_¡~~ ~ ~~~_¡~~ ~.¸
le'-hpe'-yei zain ga. be hma le: le'-hpe'-yei zain ga. hou-te shei. hma ba

11. Work with a partner. Compose similar dialogues using the words below. Role-play your
dialogues.

Model:
A. ~·~~.~~ ¸ ¸ ¸ ,._ ~
ta-hsei' lau' hka-mya (ms) / shin (fs) pan: jan be hma ba le:
Excuse me, Sir. Where is the park?
B. ,._~ .~.¸.¸
pan: jan ga. shei: youn shei. hma ba
The park is in front of the hospital.
A. .~¸.~.~~
cei:-zu: tin be de
Thank you.
B. _~
ya. ba de
You are welcome.
104
1. park - hospital - in front of
,._ .~.¸ .¸
pan: jan - hsei: youn - a-shei. hma
2. airport - bus station - across from
.~~ ~¸·¸~.~ ¸~¸.~
lei zei' - bas-ka: gei' - mye'-hna-hcin:-zain hma
3. forest - the mountain - next to
.~ .~ ..
to: - taun - bei: hma
4. police station - movie theater - around the corner from
_·,. ¸ ¸¸ ~.~
ye: sa-hkan: - you' shin youn - da-gwei. hma
5. church - the factory and the park - between
_. ¸..~¸. ·~¸ , ,._ _~.
hpa-ya: shi'-hkou: caun: - se' youn ne. pan: jan - ja: hma



























105
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Translate each phrase into Burmese. Check your work with the answer key.

A. The restaurant is next to the hotel.
B. The park is north of the lake.
C. The bank is between the church and the bus station.
D. The market is south of the bridge.
E. The café is across from the bookstore.
F. The field is in front of the farm.

2. Work with a partner or in small groups. In Burmese, come up with a list of the facilities
on your base. Then draw a schematic map of the base. Now describe the locations of each
facility. Use the following vocabulary: a store, a hospital, a police station, a movie theater, a
park, a hotel, a church, an airfield, a restaurant, a forest, and your language training facility.
Use the prepositions: between, next to, across from, in front of.



























106
Vocabulary List

Where be hma
North myau' ._~
South taun .~
East a-shei. .¸
West a-nau' .,~
Mountain taun .~
Lake kan ~,
River myi' _·
Forest to: .~
Bridge da-da: ~~.
Store sa-tou: zain ·~. ~
Market zei: .¸.
Church
mosque
pagoda
(hindu) temple
hpa-ya: shi'-hkou: caun:
ba-li
hpa-ya:
hpa-ya: caun:

_. ¸..~¸.
~
_.
_..~¸.
Restaurant sa: thau' hsain ·..~~
Café le'-hpe'-yei zain ~~~_¡~
Park pan: jan ,._
Bank ban ~
Airport lei zei' .~~
Train station mi:-ya-hta: bu da youn ._~. ~¸
Bus station bas-ka: gei' ~¸·¸ ~.~
Pharmacy hsei: zain .~.~
Hospital hsei: youn .~.¸
Movie Theater you' shin youn _¸¸
Factory se' youn ·~¸
Farm sai' pyou: mwei: my yei: hcan ·~¸¸..._¸._._
Post office sa-dai' ·~~
Field sai' kwin: ·~~.
Police station ye: sa-hkan: _·,.
In front of shei. hma .¸
Next to bei: hma ..
Between ja: hma _~.
Around the corner from da-gwei. hma ~.~
Across from mye'-hna-jin:-zain hma ¸~¸.~

107

ANSWER KEY

Exercise 5

1. C
2. I
3. H
4. J
5. L
6. K
7. A
8. B
9. F
10. D
11. G
12. E

Exercise 6

1. The market is south of the bank
2. The river is east of the mountains.
3. The airport is west of the hotel.
4. The mountains and lakes are east of the forest.
5. The river is south of the farm.
6. The movie theater is east of the hospital.
7. The lake is north of the park.

Exercise 8

1. north myau' ._~
2. bridge da-da: ~~.
3. bus station bas-ka: gei' ~¸·¸~. ~
4. café le'-hpe'-yei zain ~~~_¡~
5. post office sa-dai' ·~~
6. church hpa-ya: shi'-hkou: caun: _.¸..~¸.
7. farm sai' pyou: mwei: myu yei: hcan ·~¸¸..._¸._._
8. mountain taun .~






108
Exercise 10

1. Where is the lake? The lake is next to the forest.
2. Where is the market? The market is between the police station and the church.
3. Where is the post office? The post office is around the corner from the hospital.
4. Where is the train station? The train station is across from the park.
5. Where is the café? It is in front of the hotel.

End of Lesson Exercise 1

A. The restaurant is next to the hotel.
·..~~~ ~_ .. ¸~
B. The park is north of the lake.
,._~ ~,_ ._~~ ¸~
C. The bank is between the church and the bus station.
~~ _.¸..~¸. , ~¸·¸~. ~ _~.
D. The market is south of the bridge.
.¸.~ ~~. _ .~~ ¸~
E. The café is across from the bookstore.
~~~_¡~~ ·~ , ¸~¸.~ ¸~
F. The field is in front of the farm.
·~~. ~ ·~¸¸..._¸._._ .¸ ¸~


109
Lesson 7
Shopping
.¸. ~ ~ _ .
Zei: we htwe' hcin:


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Customs and practices accepted in the Burmese marketplaces
- Names of foods and stores
- How to make purchases in Burmese shops
- The verbs “to want,” “to buy,” “to pay,” and “to take”
- The modal verb “can.”

Cultural note:
Burma changed from a quasi-socialist economic system to a so-called free market economy after country-wide
demonstrations against the military regime in 1988. In this new economy, the few who are from the military or
connected with the military have become extremely rich. The majority, however, are faced with severe
economic hardship. Burma is relatively rich in natural resources like natural gas, timber, and precious stones
like jade, rubies and sapphires to name but a few. But the sale of these to earn foreign currency is used by the
military to buy arms. This translates into a very low standard of living for the majority of the people. The per
capita income is less than U.S. $500, and the cost of living is extremely high. The government tends to
demonetize the currency or, at least, the larger bills in circulation whenever inflation gets sky high.
Additionally, the government prints more money to deal with inflation. Civil servants who live on fixed salaries
are the ones hurt most by the government's economic policies.



The local currency in Burma is the Kyat. The official exchange rate, which has not changed for the last 45
years, is about 7 Kyats to $1 U.S. The real exchange rate is about 1300 Kyats to U.S. $1. There are 100 pyas to
a kyat. Coins come in 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 pya denominations. Bills come in 1, 5, 10, 45, 90, 200, 500 and 1,000
Kyat denominations.


110
1. Listen to the following vocabulary and repeat after the speaker.



Banana Pear Tomato Potato
nga-pyo:-dhi: thi'-to-dhi hka-yan:-jin-dhi: a-lu:
~.¸. ·.~. _.¸¡. ~.

Milk Butter Egg Cheese
nwa: nou. hto:-ba' ce'-u. dein-ge:
. .~~ _~~¡ ,

nga: paun-moun. dha-ja: ce'-tha:
. ., _~. _~~.

2. Work in pairs or in small groups. Ask your partner what foods he/she has at home. Use the model
below.

Model: A. What do you have at home?
¸~
ein hma ba shi. dha le:
B. I have bananas, tomatoes, and potatoes.
~.¸. _.¸¡. , ~. ¸~
nga-pyo:-dhi: hka-yan:-jin-dhi: ne. a-lu: shi. ba de





111
3. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow along in the
workbook.



~ ·..~~,~ ~~~ ·..~~,~
~~ ~ ._.·._.

~.~
·..~~,~
~~ ~ ._.·._.

da ga. sa: thau' koun hsain
ba
hla.-hla. ga. sa: thau' koun hsain
hma lou' pa de
thu ga. a-yaun: sa-yei: ba
tin- maun ga. sa: thau' koun
hsain hma lou' pa de
thu ga. a-yaun: sa-yei: ba





~~~ ~¡~ ~~
~ ._.·._.
.¡.~ ~¡~ ~~
~ ._.·._.
tin-tin ga. a-hte zain hma lou' pa de
thu ga. a-yaun: sa-yei: ba
win:-u: ga. a-hte zain hma lou' pa de
thu ga. a-yaun: sa-yei: ba

·..~~,~ sa: thau' koun hsain means grocery store
._.·._. a-yaun: sa-yei: means cashier
._.·._. a-yaun: sa-yei: means salesperson
~¡~ a-hte zain means clothing store

112
Cultural note:
The majority of the people buy groceries in markets. In larger cities, these would be covered markets where
different vendors sell their goods in separate stalls. There are stalls that only sell "dry goods," such as onions,
garlic, lentils, salt, spices etc. and stalls that only sell fish, chicken, pork, beef, or vegetables. There are some
department stores in major cities; however, in all towns and cities, there are "general stores," where household
items like soap, cosmetics, and commonly used medicines like aspirin and antacids are sold. The literal meaning
of koun-dai' kun\tuik\ "department store" is "merchandise building."

4. Work in pairs or in small groups. Make up dialogues using the model below.

Model:
A. ~~~ ~~
hla.-hla. ga. be hma lou' tha le:
A. Where does hla.-hla. work?
B. ~~~ ·..~~,~ ~~
hla.-hla. ga. sa: thau' koun hsain hma lou' pa de
B. hla.-hla. works at the grocery store.


Grammar note:
To say "want to buy," in Burmese, you will use the Verb we "to buy" + Auxiliary ¸ jin "want to."
Note that auxiliary verbs are also called "second-verbs" in these lessons.

~¸,.~ ¸ ~¸, ¸~
ca-no / ca-ma. ----- we jin ba de
¸. ¸ ¸ ¸~
hka-mya: / shin ----- we jin ba de
¸~
thu ----- we jin ba de
¸~
thu ----- we jin ba de
~¸,.~~ ¸ ~¸,~ ¸~
ca-no dou./ ca-ma. dou. ----- we jin ba de
~ ¸~
thu dou. ----- we jin ba de






113
5. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow along in the
workbook.





__.~ · ¸~
~ ·~
~.~ ,_ ¸~
~ ~~.~·Œ¡.._.~
mya. mya. win: ga. sa-ou' we jin be de
thu ga. sa-ou' hsain hma ba
tin win: ga. na-yi we jin ba de
thu ga. le'-hsaun pyi'-si: a-yaun: hsain hma ba

sa-ou' hsain ·~ means bookstore.
na-yi ,_ means clock.
le'-hsaun pyi'-si: a-yaun: hsain ~~.~·Œ¡.._.~ means gift store.


6. Match each Burmese sentence in the left column with the English equivalent in the right column.
Check your answers with the answer key.

A. Myau Than wants to buy fish. 1. ~¸,.~ ., , .~~
¸~
ca-no paun-moun. ne. hto:-ba' we jin ba de
B. They want to buy cheese. 2. __.~ · ¸~
mya. mya. win: ga. sa-ou' we jin ba de
C. I want to buy bread and butter. 3. _..~ . ¸~
mya. thaun: ga. nga: we jin ba de
D. My sister wants to buy the clothes. 4. ~.~ ,_ ¸~
tin win: ga. na-yi we jin ba de
E. Tin Win wants to buy a clock. 5. ~¸,.~~ ~~.~·Œ¡.
¸~
ca-no dou. le'-hsaun pyi'-si: we jin ba de
F. Mya Mya Win wants to buy a book. 6. ~ ~ , ¸~
thu dou. ga. dein-ge: we jin ba de

114
G. We want to buy a gift. 7. ~¸,.~ ~ ~~¡
¸~
ca-no. a-ma. ga. a-wu' a-hte we jin ba de

Grammar note:
When you count things in Burmese, the construction Noun + Number + Classifier is used. "One book" is sa-ou'
ta ou' where we have sa-ou' "book" + ta "one" + ou' "classifier." Units of measurement like pounds, kilos,
miles, gallons are "classifiers," which are also referred to as "counting classifiers" or "counting words." In
Burmese, there are classifiers for round things, long things, flat things, etc.
Thus, 2 sticks would be: ~~ ¸ .¸. dou' hna hcaun:
stick two Classifier for long things
"A loaf of bread" is ., ~· ~. paun-moun. ta loun:
bread one Classifier for round things

A pound/kilo of pears thi'-to-dhi: da baun / ta ki-lou ·.~. ~·. ¸ ~·~~
A bag of potatoes a-lu: ta ei' ~. ~·~
A loaf of bread paun-moun. ta loun: ., ~·~.
A bottle of water yei da ba-lin: ._ ~·~.
A carton of milk nwa: nou. da bu: . ~·.
A dozen eggs ce'-u. da da-zin _~~¡ ~·~


7. Work with a partner or in small groups. Pretend that you are planning to have a surprise birthday
party for one of your classmates. You need to buy some food and gifts. Make a shopping list and tell your
partner in Burmese what you want to buy.

Cultural note:
When Burmese ask for the price of grocery items that are sold by weight, volume, or in dozens, such as rice, oil,
sugar, cheese, tomatoes, oranges, etc., the question be zei: le: .¸. ~ is commonly used. When Burmese
ask the price of items that are not sold by weight, volume or in dozens, e.g., books, clocks etc., the question be
lau' le: .~~ ~ is commonly used. When you want to haggle, you say ne: ne: sho. ba oun: ,¡ ,¡ .
.~¸. which literally means "Please reduce (the price) a little."

8. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker.

A. Excuse me. I want to buy cheese. How much is it?
~·~~.~~ ¸ ~¸,.~ , ¸~ .¸. ~
ta-hsei' lau' hka-mya ca-no dein ge: we jin ba de be zei: ba le:
B. A pound of cheese is $5.40.
, ~·. ¸ ~¸ , _.
dein-ge: da baun nga: ja' lei:-ze pya: ba


115
A. Thank you.
.~¸.~.~~
cei:-zu: tin ba de
B. You are welcome.
_~
ya. ba de

9. Pretend you want to buy the items listed below. One of your classmates is a salesperson. Role-play an
“In the Shop” dialogue using the dialogue above as a model. Work in pairs or in small groups.

1. ·.~. ~·. ¸ ~¸ ,¸ _.
thi'-to-dhi: da baun - thoun: ja' lei:-ze nga: bya:
2. . ~·. . ~¸ ¸ _.
nga: da baun - shi' ca' hse. nga: bya:
3. ~. ~·~ ~¸ ¸¸ _.
a-lu: ta ei' - da ja' nga:-ze kou: bya:
4. ._ ~·~. ~¸ ¸ _.
yei da ba-lin: - da ja' hse. kou: bya:
5. . ~·. , ~¸ ¸ _.
nwa: nou. da bu: - lei: ja' nga: ze bya:
6. ., ~·~. ¸ ~¸ ¸ _.
paun-moun. ta loun: - hna ca' hcau' hse nga: bya:
7. _~~¡ ~·~ ¸ ~¸ ,. _.
ce'-u. da da-zin - hna ca' lei: ze shi' pya:

10. Complete the sentences using the words in the box. Check your answers with the answer key.

~¡ ~ ·..~ ~ , ~ · ~ ~~ .~ ·Œ ¡ .
._.~
~,~~
a-the zain sa: thau' koun zain sa-ou' hsain le'-hsaun pyi'-si: a-
yaun: hsain
koun dai'

1.
~¸,.~.~~ ~~.~·Œ¡..~~ ~
ca-no. mi.-ba. dwei ga. le'-hsaun pyi'-si: dwei gou hma we ba de
2.
~ ~ _.¸¡. , ~.~ ~
thu dou. ga. hka-yan: jin dhi: ne. a-lu: gou hma we ba de
3.
~¸,.~ ·~~ ·.~~ ~
ca-no. a-kou ga. sa-ou' twei gou hma we ba de
4.
~¸,.~ · , ~¸,.~~ ~~¡.~~ ~
ca-no. a-ma. ne. ca-no ga. a-wu' a-hte dwei gou hma we ba de
116
5.
~¸,.~~ ~ ~~¡ · , ~~.~·Œ¡..~~ ~
ca-no dou. ga. a-wu' a-hte sa-ou' ne. le'-hsaun pyi'-si: dwei gou hma we ba de


11. Listen to the following sentences and circle the words you hear. Check your answers with the
answer key.

1. ~¸,.~~ ·.~~ ~¡~ ¸ ·~ ~

2. ~¸,.~ ·~ ~~.~·Œ¡..~~ ~~.~·Œ¡. ._.~ ¸ ·.~~,~
~

3. ~¸,.~ .~ _~. ~ ~ ¸~¸.~~ ~~.~·Œ¡. ._.~ ¸ ·.~~,~
~
4. ~¸,.~ . ..~~ . , .~~~ ·~ ¸ ·..~~,~ ~

5. ~¸,.~~ ~ ~~¡ · , ~~.~·Œ¡..~~ ~,~~ ¸ ·~ ~


The verb “can:”
In English, "I can" is an ellipsis of "I can + verb," where the meaning indicated by the main verb, which has
been omitted, can be retrieved from the context. "Can" is not a verb. It is an auxiliary verb. Burmese does not
have a construction where the main verb can be omitted, as in English. It has the auxiliary verb nain "can,"
and to say "I can (do something)" in Burmese, you have to say:
~¸,.~ ~ ~
ca-no lou' nain de
I do can Statement ending particle
where lou' "to do" is the main verb and nain "can" is the auxiliary. Note that an appropriate verb comes before
the auxiliary verb nain. In the examples below, we will use lou' "do" as the main verb. Note that ~ te/de
"statement ending particle" is also called "realis" in these lessons.


I can ca-no / ca-ma. lou' nain de ~¸,.~ ¸ ~¸, ~~
You can hka-mya: / shin lou' nain de ¸. ¸ ¸ ~~
He can thu lou' nain de ~~
She can thu lou' nain de ~~
We can ca-no dou. / ca-ma. dou. lou' nain de ~¸,.~~ ¸ ~¸,~ ~~
You can hka-mya: dou./ shin dou. lou' nain de ¸.~ ¸ ¸~ ~~
They can thu dou. lou' nain de ~ ~~


117
12. a) Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook.

Grammar note:
Burmese don't normally greet salespersons when shopping if they don't know the salesperson. To be polite,
Burmese would address the salesperson with an appropriate kin term like "uncle, aunt, sister, etc." We will omit
these in the sentences below. Burmese people usually establish contact through eye contact, rather than say
“hello.”

A. Hello. I want to buy a loaf of bread. How much is it?
~¸,.~ ., ~·~. ¸~ .~~ ~
ca-no paun-moun. ta loun: we jin ba be be lau' le:

B. It is $2.65.
¸ ~¸ ¸ _.
hna ca' hcau' hse nga: bya: ba

A. Can I pay with a credit card?
~¸,.~ ._~. ~_. .~ _~.
ca-no a-cwei: yu ka' pya: thoun: lou. ya. ma la:

B. I’m sorry, but we only take cash.
·~¸ , ~~ ~
sei' ma shi. ba ne. pai'-hsan be: yu ba de

b) Role-play the dialogue. Make up similar dialogues using the words below.


1. two bottles of water
._ · ~.
yei hna pa-lin:
2. a book
· ~·
sa-ou' ta ou'
3. a carton of milk
. ~·.
nwa: nou. da bu:
4. a pound of cheese
, ~·.
dein-ge: da baun
5. a dozen eggs
_~~¡ ~·~
ce'-u. da da-zin

118
13. Listen to and read along with the dialogue, and then answer the follow-up questions. Check
your work with the answer key.

PLAY AUDIO

~,.. .,.~.~. ~~
kou thein: maun > nei kaun: dha la: ma. tin tin

~~ .,.~.~. ~,..
ma. tin tin > nei kaun: dha la: kou thein: maun

~,.. . ~ ~
kou thein: maun > be thwa: ma lou. le:

~~ ~¸, ·..~~,~~ .~
ma. tin tin > ca-ma. sa: thau' koun hsain gou thwa: ma lou. Ba

~,.. ¸~ ~
kou thein: maun > ba we jin lou. le:

~~. ~¸, ., ._ ·~. , ·.~. ~·. ¸~ ~,.. .
~ ~
ma. tin tin > ca-ma. paun-moun. yei hna pa-lin: ne. thi'-to-dhi: we jin lou. ba kou thein: maun be thwa:
ma lou. le:

~,.. ~¸,.~ ~,~~ .~
kou thein: maun > ca-no koun-dai' thwa: ma lou. Ba

~~ ¸~ ~
ma. tin tin > ba we jin lou. le:

~,.. ~¸,.~ . ~~ ~~.~ ¸~ · ~ ,_ ¸~
kou thein: maun > ca-no. a-hpou: a-twe' le' hsaun we jin lou. ba sa-ou' da hma. ma hou' na-yi we jin lou. Ba

~~ ~¸, ~~.~.~~ ~~.~·Œ¡. ._.~ ~
ma. tin tin > ca-ma. le' hsaun dwei gou le' hsaun pyi'-si: a-yaun: zain hma we ba de

Questions:

1. Where is Ma Tin Tin going?
2. What does she want to buy?
3. Where is Ko Thein Maung going?
4. What does he want to buy?

119
End-of-Lesson Tasks


1. Translate the following into Burmese. Check your work with the answer key.

A. Where do you buy tomatoes and potatoes?
B. Do you take credit cards? No, we take cash.
C. I will buy the gift for my sister in the clothing store.
D. How much is a loaf of bread? It is $2.35.

2. In Burmese, explain where you buy groceries/gifts/books/clothes.

3. What would you tell a salesperson in Burma if you want to buy a carton of milk/a watch/a dozen eggs?
How would you ask the price of each item? Role-play the dialogue.


























120
Vocabulary List

How much …? --- be lau' le: .~~ ~
It is… --- ba
I want to buy… ca-no --- we jin ba de ~¸,.~ ¸~
Banana nga-pyo:-dhi: ~.¸.
Butter hto:-ba' .~~
Chicken ce' tha: _~~.
Fish nga: .
Ice cream yei ge: moun. ._,
Milk nwa: nou. .
Tomato hka-yan: jin dhi: _.¸¡.
Pear thi'-to dhi: ·.~.
Potato a-lu: ~ .
Sugar dha-ja: _~.
Cheese dein ge: ,
Eggs ce'-u. _~~¡
A pound/kilo of cheese dein ge: da baun / ta ki-lou , ~· .¸ ~· ~~
A bag of potatoes a-lu: ta ei' ~. ~·~
A loaf of bread paun-moun. ta loun: ., ~·~.
A bottle of water yei da ba-lin: ._ ~·~.
A dozen eggs ce'-u. da da-zin _~~¡ ~·~
A carton of milk nwa: nou. da bu: . ~·.
Department Store koun-dain' ~,~~
Clothing Store a-hte zain ~¡~
Grocery Store sa; thau' koun zain ·..~~,~
Bookstore sa-ou' hsain ·~
Bread paun-moun. .,
Credit card a-cwei: yu ka' pya: ._~. ~_.
Cash pai' hsan ~~
Cashier a-yaun: sa-yei: ._.·._.
Salesperson a-yaun: sa-yei: ._.·._.
To buy we
To take yu
To pay for pei: ..






121
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 6

1. C I want to buy bread and butter.
2. F Mya Mya Win wants to buy a book.
3. A Mya Thaun wants to buy fish.
4. E Tin Win wants to buy a clock.
5. G We want to buy a gift.
6. B They want to buy cheese
7. D My sister wants to buy the clothes.

Exercise 10

My parents buy gifts at the gift
store.
le' hsaun pyi'-si: a-yaun: zain ~~.~·Œ¡. ._.~
They buy tomatoes and potatoes at
the grocery store.
sa: thau' koun zain ·..~~,~
My brother buys books at the
bookstore.
sa-ou' hsain ·~
My sister and I buy clothes at the
clothing store.
a-hte zain ~¡~
We can buy clothes, books and
gifts at the department store.
koun-dai' ~,~~

Exercise 11

I buy books in the bookstore. sa-ou' hsain ·~
My sister buys gifts at the gift
store.
le' hsaun pyi'-si: a-yaun: zain ~~.~·Œ¡. ._.~
My mother buys sugar at the
grocery store across from the bank.
sa: thau' koun zain ·..~~,~
My grandparents buy milk and
butter at the grocery store.
sa: thau' koun zain ·..~~,~
We buy clothes, books, and gifts at
the department store.
koun-dai' ~,~~

Exercise 13

1. Ma Tin Tin is going to the grocery store.
2. She wants buy bread, two bottles of water, and a pound of pears.
3. Kou Thein Maun is going to the department store.
4. He wants to buy a book or a clock.



122
End of Lesson Exercise 1

A. Where do you buy tomatoes and potatoes?
_.¸¡. , ~. ~
hka-yan:-jin-dhi: ne. a-lu: be hma we dha le:
B. Do you take credit cards? No, we only take cash.
._~. ~_. , ..~ _~. _. .~~. ~
a-cwei: yu ka' pya: ne. pei: lou. ya. ma la: ma ya. ba bu: ngwei le' ngin: yu be de
C. I buy the gift for my sister in the clothing store.
~¸,.~ · ~~ ~~.~~ ~¡~ ~
ca-no. a-ma. a-twe' le'-hsaun gou a-hte zain hma we ba de
D. How much is a loaf of bread? It is $2.35.
., ~·~. .~~ ~ ¸ .¨ ~ ¸¸ · ¸ ¸ ~¸ ¸¸ _.
paun-moun. ta loun: be lau' le: hna do-la thoun: ze nga: sin. / hna ca' thoun: ze nga: bya:
(US currency) (Burmese currency)
123
Lesson 8
Eating Out
_ · ~ ~ ·._ .
A-pyin za htwe' sa: jin:


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Eating out in a restaurant in Burma
- Various menu items
- How to order menu items
- Different table service items.

Cultural note:

Like any other Southeast Asian country, there are a lot of Indian and Chinese restaurants in the larger towns and
cities. In Burmese restaurants, the menu typically consists of different entrees and soups that accompany rice.
Rice and side dishes are all served together at the same time. The typical Burmese meal consists of rice and a
variety of soups, meat, fish, fowl and vegetable dishes. Beef, pork, chicken and fish curries are usually spicy,
and how spicy a curry is depends on individual taste and style of cooking. Recently, eating out has become
more international and cosmopolitan in Rangoon. There are now Japanese, Korean, Thai and Italian restaurants,
where only the rich can afford to eat. The majority of the people eat out at roadside stalls or in open air markets,
where a variety of Burmese, Chinese and Indian food is common. Teashops can be found all over the country.
Pickled tea leaf salad is unique to Burma and is popular all over the country. Fresh sugar cane juice is delicious
and the sugar cane is crushed fresh at roadside stalls.




A Burmese restaurant

124



Sign at a roadside stall. Part of the menu: fried noodles, fried vermicilli and fried rice, with either
chicken or pork.

1. Look at the restaurant menu below. Repeat the words after the speaker, and follow along in the
workbook.
 
Small World Restaurant 
 
Price
Duck rice soup
be: dha: hsan pyou' . ~,_¸~ , ~¸
Tea leaf salad
le' hpe' thou' ~~~ ¸¸ ~¸
Fried rice
hta-min: jo ~..~¸ ¸ ~¸
Fried potatoes
a-lu: jo ~..~¸ ¸ ~¸
Fried noodles
hkau'-hswe: jo .~~.~¸ ~¸
Chicken curry
ce' tha: hin: _~~. . ,¸ ~¸
Mutton curry
hsei' tha: hin: ~~. . ¸ ~¸
Fish curry
nga: hin: . . ,¸ ~¸
Ice Cream
yei ge: moun. ._, ¸¸ ~¸
Cake
kei' moun. ~~, ¸¸ ~¸
Orange Juice
lein-mo yei ~. _¡ ¸¸ ~¸
Sugar cane Juice
can yei _~_¡ ¸¸ ~¸
Coffee
ko-hpi .~ ¸ ~¸
Milk
nwa: nou. . ¸ ~¸
Tea
le' hpe' yei ~~~_¡ ¸ ~¸
Beer
bi-ya ~¸
Wine
wain ¸ ~¸
                                 
2. Imagine that you have 3500 kyats. What would you order at the “Small World Restaurant”?
125

3. A) Listen to, and read along with, the following dialogue between a waiter and a patron.

A. ,.~~ ¸
hka-na. lau. hka-mya
A. Excuse me, waiter.
B. ~~
hou'-ke.
B. Yes, please.
A. .~ ~·~ ¸
ko hpi ta hkwe' hka-mya
A. I want a cup of coffee.
B. .~., ~ ¸ .~ ¸. ~~~_¡ .~ ¸~
taun:-ban ba de hka-mya ko-hpi ma shi. ba bu: le' hpe' yei do. shi. ba de
B. Sorry, sir. We do not have coffee, but we have tea.

B) Make up similar dialogues using the words and word combinations that are in the box.

1. .~ ~· ~ ~~~_¡ ~·~
ko-hpi ta-hkwe' le' hpe' yei ta-hkwe'
2. . ~·~
nwa: nou. ta-hkwe'
3. ~._¡ ~·~ _~_¡ ~·~
lein-mo yei ta-hkwe' - can yei ta-hkwe'
4. . , .~~ _~~. , ~..~¸
nga: ne. hkau'-hswe: - ce'-tha: ne. a-lu: jo


4. Listen to the following dialogue that takes place at a restaurant. Follow along in your workbook.
Pay attention to the new words. Role-play the dialogue. You can substitute some words with any food
from the “Small World Restaurant” menu.

A. Hello, sir. What do you want to eat?
~~ ~_ ~ ¸~
hou'-ke. hsa-ya ba a-lou shi. ba dha le:
B. What do you recommend?
.~.~
ba kaun: dha le:
A. We have wonderful fried chicken and noodles. They are delicious.
_~~._~ , .~~ ¸~ _ ¸~
ce' co ne. hkau'-hswe: shi. ba de thei' a-ya.-tha shi. ba de
126
B. Very well. Fried chicken and noodles, please.
.~._ _~~._~ , .~~ ¸~ ¸
kaun: ba bi ce' co ne. hkau'-hswe: hma jin ba de hka-mya
A. What do you want to drink?
.~¸ ~
ba thau' hcin ba dha le:
B. A cup of tea.
~~~_¡ ~·~
le' hpe' yei ta hkwe'
A. Any dessert?
¸¸ ¸ ..~.
a-hcou bwe: hma jin ba dhei: dha la:
B. Yes, I want ice cream.
._, ¸~
yei ge: moun. hma jin ba de
A. Here is your bill, sir.
¸~¸ ¸
bi(l) ba hka-mya
B. Can I pay with a credit card?
._~. ~_. , ..~ _~.
a-cwei: yu ka' pya: ne. pei: lou. ya. ma la:
A. Yes, you can.
~~ _~
hou'-ke. ya. ba de

Grammar note:
Verbs are not morphologically marked for tense, unlike English. Burmese does not have inflections or suffixes
to mark verbs for person, number or tense, unlike English. Statements about the present or past end with the
Present/Past Statement-ending particle ~ pronounced te/de. Explicit time phrases and time expressions or the
context determines whether a sentence is about the present or past. Present tense sentences also include
statements about habits, customs and universal truths. Statements about the future end with the Future
Statement-ending particle pronounced me.


Present tense Past Tense

I drink ca-no thau' te
(ms)
ca-ma. thau' te
(fs)
~¸,.~ .~~
~¸, .~~
I drank ca-no thau' te
(ms)
ca-ma. thau' te
(fs)
~¸,.~
.~~
~¸, .~~
You drink hka-mya: thau'
te (ms)
shin thau' te (fs)
¸. .~~
¸ .~~
You drank hka-mya: thau'
te (ms)
shin thau' te (fs)
¸. .~~
¸ .~~
He drinks thu thau' te .~~ He drank thu thau' te .~~
We drink ca-no dou. thau' ~¸,.~~ We drank ca-no dou. thau' ~¸,.~~
127
te (ms)
ca-ma. dou.
thau' te (fs)
.~~
~¸,~ .~~
te (ms)
ca-ma. dou.
thau' te (fs)
.~~
~¸,~
.~~
You drink hka-mya: dou.
thau' te (ms)
shin dou. thau'
te (fs)
¸.~ .~~
¸~ .~~
You drank hka-mya: dou.
thau' te (ms)
shin dou. thau'
te (fs)
¸.~
.~~
¸~ .~~
They
drink
thu dou. thau' te ~ .~~ They
drank
thu dou. thau' te ~ .~~

5. Using the restaurant menu at the beginning of the lesson, tell your classmates, in Burmese, what you
ate and drank at a restaurant the last time you were there.

6. Listen and read along with the dialogue. Fill in the blanks with the missing word in English.
Check your answers with the Answer Key.

_ ·.~
a-yin -------- be hma sa: dha le:

-------- ·.~
-------- hma sa: ba de

-------- ~·.~~¡. ·.~.
ta yau hte: sa: dha la:

~·.~~¡. ·.. ~¸,.~ ~
ta yau hte: ma sa; ba bu: ca-no. ------ pa ba de

·.~
thu ba sa: dha le:

.~~ , ·. ~
thu hkau'-hswe: ne. ------ sa; ba de

~
thu ba --------- tha le:

.~~
thu --------- thau' pa de

¸. ~
hka-mya: ba dha le:

128
~¸,.~ , ~.._~ ·. ~
ca-no ---------- ne. a-lu: co sa: ba de

.~~
ba thau' tha le:

~¸,.~ .~~
ca-no thau' pa de

7. Below are some table service items. Listen and repeat after the speaker.


Plate Bowl Cup Glass
ba-gan bya: ba-gan loun: le' hpe' yei gwe' hpan gwe'
,.~, _. ,.~, ~. ~~~_¡ ~ ,~

Knife Fork Spoon Napkin
da: hka-yin: zun: le' thou' pa-wa
. ~_. ~,. ~~~


8. Match the English words in the left column with the Burmese equivalents in the right column. Check
your work with the Answer Key.

1. Plate zun: A. ~,.
2. Bowl hpan gwe' B. ,~
3. Cup da: C. .
4. Glass hka-yin: D. ~_.
5. Knife ba-gan loun: E. ,.~, ~.
6. Fork ba-gan bya: F. ,.~,_.
7. Spoon le' thou' pa-wa G. ~~~
8. Napkin le' hpe' yei gwe' H. ~~~_¡ ~

129
9. Listen to the following model. Repeat after the speaker. Compose similar sentences using the
words in the box below the model.

MODEL:

A. ~¸,.~ ~,. ¸. ~,. ~·.¸. _~.
ca-no. hma zun: ma shi. ba bu: zun: ta hcaun: ya. nain ma la:
I do not have a spoon. Can I have a spoon?

B. ~~ ¸ ~,. ~·.¸.
hou'-ke. hka-mya di hma zun: ta hcaun: ba
Yes, of course. Here you are.

1. napkin le' thou' pa-wa ~~~
2. cup le' hpe' yei gwe' ~~~_¡ ~
3. fork hka-yin: ~_.
4. knife da: .
5. glass hpan gwe' ,~


10. Listen to the speaker and circle the words you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

1. I want a glass of milk / juice.
2. We drank orange juice / sugar cane juice at a restaurant.
3. Did you eat salad / noodles?
4. They ate fried potatoes and chicken / fish.
5. She had soup and hamburger / salad and beef.
6. Can I have a knife / fork?
7. He does not have a glass / plate.












130
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Say, in Burmese, what you usually eat and drink for breakfast / lunch / dinner.

2. Say, in Burmese, what you ate and drank at a restaurant the last time you were there.

3. Pretend that you are at a restaurant now. What would you say in Burmese if you wanted to eat salad
and fried potatoes? You also want a cup of coffee, and you need a fork and a napkin. What would you say
in Burmese if you did not know what to choose? Your classmate is a waiter. Role-play the dialogue.
Work in pairs or in small groups.

4. Read and translate the following text into English. Answer the questions that follow in complete
sentences, in Burmese. Check the Answer Key to review your translation and check your answers.

_ ._~~ ~ _..~ ~¸,.~ ~¸,.~ ·~, ~¸,.~~ .~
a-yin thau'-ca ga. a-lou' pi: do. ca-no ca-no. a-kou ne. ca-no dou. mi.-ba. dwei

~¸ ·..~~~ ._~~ ~ ¸~¸.~ ¸~ ·..~~~.~.
ga-ba nge sa: thau' hsain gou thwa: ja. ba de ban mye'-hna-jin:-zain hma shi. de. sa: thau' hsain ga-lei: ba

·.~.~ _~~._~ , .~~ .~.~ ~ _~..~ ~¸,.~ ·~~
za-bwe:-htou: ga. ce' co a-thou' ne. hkau'-hswe: kaun: de lou. a-can pei: ba de ca-no. a-kou ga.

. , ~. ·.~ ~~~_¡ .~~ ~¸,.~.~ .¸¸ ,
a-me: tha: ne. a-lu: sa; ba de le' hpe' yei thau' pa de ca-no. a-mei ga. hin: jou ne.

~.._~ ·.~ _~_¡ .~~ ¸¸ ~~ ·.~_ ~~, ·.~
hta-min: jo sa; ba de can yei thau' pa de a-hcou pwe: a-twe' sa-to-be-yi kei' moun. sa: ba de

~¸,.~.~ . ~.._~ , _.¸¡. ·.~ ¸¸ ~~
ca-no. a-hpei ga. a-me: tha: a-lu: jo ne. hka-yan: jin dhi: sa: ba de a-hcou bwe: a-twe'

._, ·._. .~ .~~ ~¸,.~~ _~~. , ·.~ _ ¸~
yei ge: moun. sa: pi: ko-hpi thau' pa de ca-no ga. ce' tha: ne. a-thou' sa: ba de thei' a-ya.-tha shi. ba de

~¸,.~~ ._~. ~_. , ..¸. ~¸,.~ .~ . ~~. ..~~~
ca-no ga. a-cwei: yu ka' pya: ne. pei: jin bei me. ca-no. a-hpei ga. ngwei le'-ngin: pei: lai' pa de

¡.,~ .¸·_ .~.~
e:-di nya. ga. pyo-za-ya kaun: ba de

131
Questions:

1. When did the family go to the restaurant?
.· ~,.~ ·..~~~ .~
mi.-dha:-zu. be doun: ga. sa: thau' hsain gou thwa: dha
le:
2. Where is the restaurant?
·. .~~~ ~
sa: thau' hsain ga. be hma le:
3. What did the waiter recommend?
·.~.~ .~.~~ _~..~
za-bwe: htou: ga. ba kaun: de lou. a-can pei: dha le:
4. What did my brother eat?
~¸,.~ ·~~ ·.~
ca-no. a-kou ga. ba sa: dha le:
5. What did he drink?
.~~
thu ba thau' tha le:
6. Did my mother eat soup and fried rice?
~¸,.~ .~ .¸¸ , ~.._~ ·.~.
ca-no. a-mei ga. hin: jou ne. hta-min: jo sa: dha la:
7. Did she drink orange or sugar cane juice?
~ ~._¡ ~ _~_¡ .~~.
thu ga. lein-mo yei da hma. ma hou' can yei thau' tha
la:
8. Did she eat ice cream for dessert?
~ ¸¸ ~~ ._, ·.~.
thu. ga. a-hcou-bwe: a-twe' yei ge: moun. sa: dha la:
9. What did my father eat?
~¸,.~ .~ ·.~
ca-no. a-hpei ga. ba sa: dha le:
10. Did he drink wine?
.~~.
thu wain thau' tha la:
11. Did my father pay with a credit card?
~¸,.~ .~ ._~. ~_. , ..~.
ca-no. a-hpei ga. a-cwei: yu ka' pya: ne. pei: dha la:
12. Was it a wonderful evening?
¡.,~ .¸·_ .~.~.
e:-di nya. nei ga. pyo-za-ya kaun: dha la:

132
Vocabulary List

Sugar cane juice can yei _~_¡
Bowl ba-gan loun: ,.~, ~.
Strawberry cake sa-to-be-yi kei' moun. ·.~_ ~~,
Coffee ko-hpi .~
Cup le' hpe' yei gwe' ~~~_¡ ~
Fork hka-yin: ~_.
Fried potatoes a-lu: jo ~. ._~
Glass hpan gwe' ,~
Knife da: .
Napkin le' thou' pa-wa ~~
Orange juice lein-mo yei ~._¡
Plate ba-gan bya: ,.~,_.
Salad a-thou'
Soup hin: jou .¸¸
Spoon zun: ~,.
Tea le' hpe' yei ~~~_¡
Beef a-me: tha: .
Fried rice hta-min: jo ~.._~
Here you are di hma ba
To drink / drank thau' te .~~
To eat /ate sa: de ·.~
Wonderful pyo za-ya kaun: de. .¸·_ .~.~
Delicious a-ya.-tha shi. de. _ ¸~
Very well thei' kaun: de .~. ~
Dessert a-hcou-bwe: ¸¸
Bill bi(l) ¸~¸
Wine wain
Beer bi-ya

133
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 6

Where did you eat last
Sunday?
a-yin ta-nin:-ga-nwei ga. be hma sa: dha
le:
_ ~,.~ ·.~

I ate at a restaurant. sa: thau' hsain hma sa: ba de ·..~~ ·.~
Did you eat alone? ta yau hte: sa: dha la: ~·.~~¡. ·.~.

No, my brother was with me. ta yau hte: ma sa: ba bu: ca-no. a-kou
pa ba de
~·.~~¡. ·..
~¸,.~ ·~ ~

What did he eat? thu ba sa: dha le: ·.~

He ate noodles and fish. thu hkau'-hswe: ne. nga: sa: ba de .~~ , . ·. ~

What did he drink? thu ba thau' tha le: .~ ~

He drank tea. thu le' hpe' yei thau' pa de ~~~_¡ .~~

What did you eat? hka-mya: ba sa: dha le: ¸. ·. ~

I ate chicken and fried
potatoes.
ca-no ce'-tha: ne. a-lu: co sa: ba de ~¸,.~ _~~. , ~ .._~
·.~

What did you drink? hka-mya: ba thau' tha le: ¸. .~~

I drank coffee. ca-no ko-hpi thau' pa de ~¸,.~ .~ .~~


Exercise 8

1. Plate ba-gan bya: F ,.~,_.
2. Bowl ba-gan loun: E ,.~, ~.
3. Cup le' hpe' yei gwe' H ~~~_¡~
4. Glass hpan gwe' B ,~
5. Knife da: C .
6. Fork hka-yin: D ~_.
7. Spoon zun: A ~,.
8. Napkin le' thou' pa-wa G ~~~
134
Exercise 10

1. milk nwa: nou. .
2. sugar cane juice can yei _~_¡
3. noodles hkau' hswe: .~~
4. fish nga: .
5. salad and beef a-thou' ne. a-me: tha: , .
6. knife da: .
7. glass hpan gwe' ,~

End of Lesson Exercise 4

Last Friday after work, my brother, our parents, and I went to the restaurant “Small World.” It’s a small
restaurant across from the bank. A waiter recommended we have fried chicken, salad, and pasta. My brother ate
beef and potatoes; he drank tea with sugar and lemon. My mother ate soup and a hamburger. She drank apple
juice. For dessert she had a piece of strawberry cake. My father ate beef, fried potatoes, and tomatoes. He ate a
piece of cheesecake for dessert and drank coffee. I ate chicken and salad. It was delicious! I wanted to pay with
a credit card, but my father paid cash. We had a wonderful evening.

1. When did the family go to the restaurant? The family went to the restaurant last Friday.
.· ~,.~ ·..~~~ .~ .· _._~~ ·..~~~ .~
mi.-dha:-zu. be doun: ga. sa: thau' hsain gou thwa: dha le: mi.-dha:-zu. a-yin thau'ca ga. sa: thau' hsain gou
thwa: ba de
2. Where is the restaurant? The restaurant is across from the banks
·. .~~~ ~ ·. .~~~ ~ ¸~¸.~
sa: thau' hsain ga. be hma le: sa: thau' hsain ga. ban mye'-hna-jin:-zain hma ba
3. What did the waiter recommend? He recommended fried chicken, salad, and pasta.
·.~.~ .~.~~ _~..~ ~ _~~._~ , .~~ .~.~~ _~
..~
za-bwe: htou: ga. ba kaun: de lou. a-can pei: dha le: thu ga. ce' co a-thou' ne. hkau'-hswe: kaun: de lou.
a-can pei: ba de
4. What did my older brother eat? He ate beef and potatoes.
~¸,.~ ·~~ ·.~ ~ . , ~. ·.~
ca-no. a-kou ga. ba sa: dha le: thu ga. a-me: dha: ne. a-lu: sa: ba de
5. What did he drink? He drank tea.
.~~ ~~~_¡ .~~
thu ba thau' tha le: thu le' hpe' yeo thau' pa de
6. Did my mother eat soup and fried rice? Yes, she did.
~¸,.~ .~ .¸¸ , ~.._~ ·.~. ~~ ·.~
ca-no. a-mei ga. hin: jou ne. hta-min: jo sa: dha la: hou'-ke. sa: ba de
7. Did she drink orange or sugar cane juice? She drank only sugar cane juice.
~ ~._¡ ~ _~_¡ .~~. ~ _~_¡ .~~
thu ga. lein-mo yei da hma. ma hou' can yei thau' tha la: thu ga. can yei be: thau' pa de
8. Did she eat ice cream for dessert? No, she had strawberry cake.
135
~ ¸¸ ~~ ._, ·.~. ·.. ·.~_ ~~, ·.~
thu. ga. a-hcou-bwe: a-twe' yei ge: moun. sa: dha la: ma-sa: ba bu: sa-to-be-yi kei' moun. sa: ba de
9. What did my father eat? He ate beef, fried potatoes, and tomatoes
~¸,.~ .~ ·.~ ~ . ~. , _.¸¡. ·.~
ca-no. a-hpei ga. ba sa: dha le: thu ga. a-me:-dha: a-lu: ne. hka-yan: jin dhi: sa: ba de
10. Did he drink wine? No, he drank coffee.
.~~. .. .~ .~~
thu wain thau' tha la: ma-thau' pa bu: ko-hpi thau' pa de
11. Did my father pay with a credit card? No, he paid cash.
~¸,.~ .~ ._~. ~_. , ..~. ... . ~~. ..~
ca-no. a-hpei ga. a-cwei: yu ka' pya: ne. pei: dha la: ma pei: ba bu: ngwei le'-ngin: pei: ba de
12. Was it a wonderful evening?Yes, it was.
¡.,~ .¸·_ .~.~. ~~ .¸·_ .~.~
e:-di nya. nei ga. pyo-za-ya kaun: dha la: hou'-ke. pyo-za-ya kaun: ba de


136
Lesson 9
Holidays, Customs, and Cultural Traditions
.~_~¸. , .~~.·¸.
A:-la' ye' mya: ne. da-lei. htoun:-zan mya:


This lesson will introduce you to:
- How to read dates
- How to use ordinal numbers
- Names of the months
- Holidays, customs, and cultural traditions of Burma.

Cultural note:
The main holidays in Burma are Independence Day, which falls on January 4, Union Day, which falls on
February 12, Peasant's Day on March 2, Armed Forces Day on March 27, and Martyr's Day, which falls on July
19. Christmas is celebrated and is a public holiday, but the majority of the people are Buddhists. Major
Buddhist holidays fall on different days from one year to the next because Buddhist religious holidays are based
on the lunar calendar. Burma officially follows the Gregorian calendar, but January 1
st
is not a public holiday.
In fact, New Year's Eve is extremely quiet throughout Burma, except in hotels and restaurants which are
frequented by foreign visitors. The Burmese New Year, however, is a public holiday and usually falls on April
16. People celebrate the last three days of the old year by throwing water on everyone who is out on the streets.
Young men, women, families and children go round the major towns and cities in pickup trucks and jeeps to be
splashed with water from groups of people who gather at pandals (platforms) built especially for the festivities.
These pandals are organized and funded by neighborhood groups, private companies, and government
departments.




Burmese New Year in front of City Hall People being splashed from water hoses


Grammar note:
There are separate words for the ordinal numbers from one to ten.

"The third person" is ~~ ~ ta-ti.-ya. lu
"The second cup" is ~ ~ du.-ti.-ya. hkwe'

137
1. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook.

1 one ti' ~·
first pa-hta-ma. ~
2 two hni' ·
second du.-ti.-ya. ~
3 three thoun: .
third ta.-ti.-ya. ~~
4 four lei: .~.
fourth sa-tou'-hta. ·~~—
5 five nga: .
fifth pyin-sa-ma. ¡Œ
6 six hcau' ._~
sixth hsa.-da-ma. ~¸
7 seven hkun-ni' ,·
seventh tha'-ta-ma. ~–
8 eight shi' ¸·
eighth a-hta-ma. ¸
9 nine kou: ~.
ninth na-wa-ma. ,
10 ten ta-hse ~·~
tenth da'-tha-ma.

2. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentences using the words located in the box. Check your
answers with the Answer Key.

¡Œ ~ ~ ~¸ ~~ ~– ·~ ~— ~–
pyin-sa-
ma.
du.-ti.-ya. pa-hta-ma. hsa.-da-
ma.
ta.-ti.-ya. tha'-ta-ma. sa-tou'-
hta.
tha'-ta-ma.


1.
~,~., ~ ~ ~·~_ ., _·~
ta-nin:-la nei. ga. a-pa' da-pa' ye. --------------- nei. hpyi' pa de

2.
., ~ ~ ~·~_ ., _·~
in-ga nei. ga. a-pa' da-pa' ye. --------------- nei. hpyi' pa de

138
3.
™. ., ~ ~ ~·~_ ., _·~
bou'-da-hu: nei. ga. a-pa' da-pa' ye. --------------- nei. hpyi' pa de
4.
_~.~.., ~ ~ ~·~_ ., _·~
ca-dha-ba-dei: nei. ga. a-pa' da-pa' ye. --------------- nei. hpyi' pa de

5.
._~., ~ ~ ~·~_ ., _·~
thau'-ca nei. ga. a-pa' da-pa' ye. --------------- nei. hpyi' pa de

6.
·.,., ~ ~ ~·~_ ., _·~
sa-nei nei. ga. a-pa' da-pa' ye. --------------- nei. hpyi' pa de

7.
~,.., ~ ~ ~·~_ ., _·~
ta-nin:-ga-nwei nei. ga. a-pa' da-pa' ye. --------------- nei. hpyi' pa de

Grammar note:
Burmese does not have separate words for the ordinal numbers starting from 11. From eleven and up, the word
._~ myau' comes after the cardinal number to show rank, order or position in a series. Moreover, an
appropriate counting classifier comes after the number and before myau' . For example:

"the eleventh cup of coffee" "the thirteenth person"
.~ ~ ._~ ~ ¸ .~ ._~
ko-hpi 11 hkwe' myau' lu 13 yau' myau'
coffee 11 cup myau' person 13 Class. myau'


3. Listen to the ordinal numbers 11 through 19, and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the
workbook.

11 eleven hse. ti' ~~·
eleventh hse. ti' (Clf) myau' ~~· Clf ._~
12 twelve hse. hni' ~·
twelfth hse. hni' (Clf) myau' ~· Clf ._~
13 thirteen hse. thoun: ~.
thirteenth hse. thoun: (Clf) myau' ~. Clf ._~
14 fourteen hse. lei: ~.~.
fourteenth hse. lei: (Clf) myau' ~.~. Clf ._~
139
15 fifteen hse. nga: ~.
fifteenth hse. nga: (Clf) myau' ~. Clf ._~
16 sixteen hse. hcau' ~._~
sixteenth hse. hcau' (Clf) myau' ~._~ Clf ._~
17 seventeen hse. hkun-ni' ~,·
seventeenth hse. hkun-ni' (Clf) myau' ~,· Clf ._~
18 eighteen hse. shi' ~¸·
eighteenth hse. shi' (Clf) myau' ~¸· Clf ._~
19 nineteen hse. kou: ~~.
nineteenth hse. kou: (Clf) myau' ~~. Clf ._~
20 twenty hna-hse. ·~
twentieth hna-hse. (Clf) myau' ·~ Clf ._~

4. Read the following ordinal numbers in Burmese.

11
th
, 13
th
, 15th, 17
th
, 19
th
, 12
th
, 14
th
, 16
th
, 18
th


5. Listen to the ordinal numbers 20-30, and repeat after the speaker.

20 twenty hna-hse ·~
twentieth hna-hse (Clf) myau' ·~ Clf ._~
21 twenty-one hna-hse. ti' ·~~·
twenty-first hna-hse. ti' (Clf) myau' ·~~· Clf ._~
22 twenty-two hna-hse. hni' ·~·
twenty-second hna-hse. hni' (Clf) myau' ·~· Clf ._~
23 twenty-three hna-hse. thoun: ·~.
twenty-third hna-hse. thoun: (Clf) myau' ·~. Clf ._~
24 twenty-four hna-hse. lei: ·~.~.
twenty-fourth hna-hse. lei: (Clf) myau' ·~.~. Clf ._~
25 twenty-five hna-hse. nga: ·~.
twenty-fifth hna-hse. nga: (Clf) myau' ·~. Clf ._~
26 twenty-six hna-hse. hcau' ·~._~
twenty-sixth hna-hse. hcau' (Clf) myau' ·~._~ Clf ._~
27 twenty-seven hna-hse. hkun-ni' ·~,·
twenty-seventh hna-hse. hkun-ni' (Clf) myau' ·~,· Clf ._~
28 twenty-eight hna-hse. shi' ·~¸·
twenty-eighth hna-hse. shi' (Clf) myau' ·~¸· Clf ._~
29 twenty-nine hna-hse. kou: ·~~.
twenty-ninth hna-hse. kou: (Clf) myau' ·~~. Clf ._~
140
30 thirty thoun: ze . ~
thirtieth thoun: ze (Clf) myau' . ~ Clf ._~
40 forty lei: ze .~. ~
fortieth lei: ze(Clf) myau' .~. ~ Clf ._~
50 fifty nga: ze . ~
fiftieth nga: ze (Clf) myau' . ~ Clf ._~
60 sixty hcau' hse ._~ ~
sixtieth hcau' hse (Clf) myau' ._~ ~ Clf ._~
70 seventy hkun-hna-hse ,· ~
seventieth hkun-hna-hse (Clf) myau' ,· ~ Clf ._~
80 eighty shi' hse ¸· ~
eightieth shi' hse (Clf) myau' ¸· ~ Clf ._~
90 ninety kou: ze ~. ~
ninetieth kou: ze (Clf) myau' ~. ~ Clf ._~
100 one hundred ta ya ~·_
one hundredth ta ya (Clf) myau' ~·_ Clf ._~

6. Listen to the names of the months and repeat after the speaker.

January zan-na-wa-yi ~,,_
February hpei-bo-wa-yi ..¨_
March ma' ~
April ei-pyi ƒ_
May mei .
June zun ~,
July zu-lain ~~
August o:-gou' _~
September se'-tin-ba ·~~
October au'-tou-ba .~~
November nou-win-ba
December di-zin-ba ~


7. Look at the picture and say the dates and days of the week in Burmese. Practice the different dates,
days, and months throughout the year.

MODEL:
Today is the 15
th
of April, 1999. It is Thursday.
., ƒ_ ¸ _~ ¸¸¸ · _·~
di nei. ei-pyi hse.-nga: ye' ta-htaun. kou: ya kou: ze kou: gu. hni' hpyi' pa de

141




8. Listen as the speaker reads the following years. Repeat after the speaker.

1925-nineteen twenty-five ta htaun. kou: ya hse. nga:
gu. hni'
¸¸¸ ~·.~~._·~.·
1900-nineteen hundred ta htaun. kou: ya hku.-hni' ¸ ~·.~~._ ·
2004-two thousand four hna htaun. lei: gu. hni' ¸, ·.~.~. ·

Grammar note:
Burmese follows the mm/dd/year order to tell dates. For example, July 7, 1962 is:
~~ ¸ _~ ¸¸ ·
zu-lain 7 ye' 1962 hku. hni'
July 7 Clf 1962 Clf year
_~ ye' is the counting classifier for days and hku./gu. is the classifier for years.

9. Read the following years in Burmese.

2001 1987 1960 1945 2000 1700 1516

10. Listen and repeat after the speaker, the names of Burmese holidays. Follow along in the
workbook.

1.Christmas – the 25
th
of December hka-yi'-sa-ma'
di-zin-ba hna-hse nga: ye'
_·Œ~
~ ¸¸ _~
2. Independence Day – the 4
th
of
January
lu'-la'-yei: nei.
zan-na-wa-yi lei: ye'
~~~._..,
~,,_ , _~
3. Union Day – the 12
th
of February. pyi daun zu. nei.
hpei-bo-wa-yi hse. hna ye'
_¡.~·.,
..¨ _ ¸ _~


142
4. Peasant's Day – the 2nd of March taun thu le-dha-ma: nei.
ma' la. hna ye'
.~ ~. .,
~ ~ ¸ _~
5. Armed Forces Day – the 27th of March ta'-ma-do nei.
ma' la. hna hse. hkun hna ye'
~.~ .,
~ ~ ¸¸ _~
6. Martyr's Day – the 19
th
of July a-za-ni nei.
zu-lain hse. kou: ye'
~,¡ .,
~~ ¸ _~
7. Burmese New Year – the 16
th
of April hni'-hsan: ta ye'
ei-pyi hse. hcau' ye'
·~,. _~
ƒ_ _~


11. Listen to the speakers talk about their dates of birth. Follow along in the workbook.



1. When were you born? 2. When were you born? 3. When were you born?

be doun: ga. mwei: dha le: be doun: ga. mwei: dha le: be doun: ga. mwei: dha le:
~,.~ ..~ ~,.~ ..~ ~,.~ ..~

I was born on the
11
th
of June, 1936.
I was born on the
31
st
of July, 1960.
I was born on the
23
rd
of January, 1987.
ca-no ga. ta htaun. kou: ya thoun:
ze hcau' hku.-hni' zun la. hse. ta ye'
nei. hma mwei: ba de
ca-no ga. ta htaun. kou: ya hcau' hse
hku.-hni' zu-lain la. thoun: ze. ta ye'
nei. hma mwei: ba de
ca-no ga. ta htaun. kou: ya shi' hse
hkun-hna hku.-hni' zan-na-wa-yi
la. hna hse. thoun: ye' nei. hma
mwei: ba de
~¸,.~~ ¸¸ · ~,~
_~., ..~
~¸,.~~ ¸ · ~~~ ¸
_~., ..~
~¸,.~~ ¸.¸ · ~,,_ ~
¸¸ _~., ..~







143
12. Work in pairs or in small groups. Ask your partner when he was born. Use the model below.

MODEL:

A. I was born on the 15
th
of February, 1982. When were you born?
A. ~¸,.~ ..¨_ ~ ¸ _~ ¸.¸ ·~ ..~ ¸. ~,.~ ..~
ca-no hpei-bo-wa-yi la. hse. nga: ye' ta htaun. kou: ya shi' hse hna hku. hni' ka. mwei: ba de
hka-mya: be doun: ga. mwei: dha le:
B. I was born on the 4
th
of September, 1979.
B. ~¸,.~ ·~~ ~ , _~ ¸¸¸ ·~ ..~
ca-no se'-tin-ba la. lei: ye' ta htaun. kou: ya hkun-hna hse kou: gu. hni' ka. mwei: ba de

13. Look at the picture below and imagine that this is your family. Describe each member. Use the model
below. You can use real pictures of your family.

MODEL:

This is my younger brother. His name is… He is …years old. He was born on the …of…19…
~ ~¸,.~ ¡ ,¡~ ~ , · ¸_
da ga. ca-no nyi ba thu. na-me ga. thi-ha. ba thu ga. lei: hni' shi. ba bi
~ .~~ ~ _~ ¸.¸ ·~ ..~
thu ga. au'-tou-ba la. ta ye' ta htaun. kou: ya shi' hse hna hku. hni' ka. mwei: ba de




14. Read the following text. Answer the questions below in English. Check your work with the Answer
Key.

~¸,.~ ,¡~ ~. ~¸,.~~ _¡~ ~¸,.~~ _,~, .,~ ~¸,.~ .·~
_~.~ ~¸,.~ ,.. .. ·.~ , .~ ¸~
ca-no. na-me ga. tin-win: ba ca-no ga. ba-ma pyei ga. ba ca-no ga. yan-goun hma nei ba de ca-no. mi-dha:-zu.
ga. ci: ba de ca-no. hma mein:-ma. tha: tha-mi: hna yau' ne. mi.-ba. dwei shi. ba de

144
~¸,.~~ ~ _~. ., ~ ~¸,.~ ,..~ ~ .~ ~ ~ ¸¸ _~ ¸¸ ·
..~
ca-no dou. ga. ein ji: hma nei ba de ca-no. mein:-ma. ga. a-the' thoun: ze ba thu ga. nou-win-ba la. hna hse thoun:
ye' ta htaun kou: ya hkun-hna hse hku. hni' hma mwei: ba de

~ ~_, _·_. .~.¸ ~~ ~¸,.~ ...~~ .~¸..~¸...~
thu ga. hsa-ya-wun ma. hpyi' pi: hsei:-youn hma lou' pa de ca-no. tha: tha-mi: dwei ga. caun: dhu caun: dha: dwei
ba

~ ~ .~¸. ·_~~ ~¸,.~ .~ ƒ_~ ¸ _~ ¸¸¸ ·~ ..~
thu dou. ga. caun: hma sa thin ja. de ca-no. tha-mi: ga. ei-pyi la. hna hse. hcau' ye' ta htaun. kou: ya kou: ze hna
hku.-hni' ka. mwei: ba de

~¸,.~ .~ ~ ¸·· ~ . ~ _~ ¸¸ · ..~ ~¸,.~ .~ ~,
~ _~_ ~ ¸. ·
ca-no. tha: ga. a-the' shi' hni' pa thu ga. mei la. ta ye' ta htaun. kou: ya kou: ze hcau' hku.-hni' hma mwei: ba de
ca-no. a-mei ga. a-lun a-the' ci: bi thu ga. hkun-hna hse. shi' hni' pa

~ ~ ¸¸ _~ ¸¸ · ..~ ~¸,.~ .~ ¸¸ · ~ _~ ~ ¸¸ _~ ¸¸¸
· ..~
thu ga. nou-win-ba la. hna hse. hna ye' ta htaun. kou: ya hna hse. hcau' hku.-hni' hma mwei ba de ca-no. a-hpei ga.
hkun-hna hse. kou: hni' pa thu ga. o:-gou' la. hna hse. nga: ye' ta htaun. kou: ya hna hse. nga: gu.-hni' hma mwei:
ba de

~ ~ ~ ~_~. ~ ~ ·~_~~ ¸__~. _~¡ _~~ ~ ~¸,.~~
...~ , ~·._~~
thu dou. ga. a-lou' ma-lou' ca. ba bu: thu dou. ga. sa hpa' ca. de you'-myin-than-ca: ci. ja. de da hma. ma hou'
ca-no dou. tha: tha-mi: dwei ne. ga-za: ja de

~¸,.~ .·~ ~, ¸··_.~. ~
ca-no. mi-tha:-zu. ga. a-lun hci'-sa-ya kaun: ba de

1. Where does the family live?
2. How old is the wife?
3. When was she born?
4. What is her occupation?
5. Where does she work?
6. How many children do they have?
7. How old is the son? When was he born?
8. How old is the daughter?
9. When was she born?
10. How old is the grandmother?
11. When was she born?
145
12. How old is the grandfather?
13. When was he born?
14. What do the grandparents do?

Cultural note:
Proper behavior and etiquette for a guest, as well as the host, depends on how formal or familiar the relationship
is. There are no set rules. If the guest is a close friend he or she will make themselves at home and help out. If
the guest is someone important he or she will be given extra attention, which is culturally universal. Hosts
usually ply their guests with food, and "have some more" is an oft-repeated expression. Birthday parties are not
very common, except for those who consider themselves westernized. Burmese Buddhists celebrate birthdays
by performing acts of merit, like going to the pagoda and offering candles and flowers, or making donations to
the home for the aged or releasing birds and fish from captivity. Clearly, the latter customs come from the
desire to have a long and healthy life. Again, the so-called westernized upper middle class and the rich hold
wedding receptions at hotels. Traditional Burmese invite people from the neighborhood as well as their friends
and colleagues, or the village, to a feast where a popular Burmese dish, "mohinga," which is rice noodles with a
spicy fish broth, is usually served. Burmese Buddhists also invite monks either to the bride or bridegroom's
house to offer lunch and hear a sermon. Although Buddhist monks offer words of advice they do not, however,
perform, or officiate at, a wedding. Monks are always invited to funerals, where the bereaved family offers
lunch and alms to the monks. This ceremony usually takes place on the seventh day after someone passes away.
Friends, relatives and neighbors drop by and again, "mohinga" is usually served.

15. Listen to the following conversation between two people. Repeat after the speakers. Follow
along in the workbook. Answer the questions that follow. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. ~~. .,.~.~. ¸ .~ _~., ..., ~ ¸~
~¸,.~~ ~~ ~~¡ ¸. ~ ~¸ ~
kou tin-win: nei kaun: dha la: hka-mya mei la. hcau' ye' nei. hma mwei: nei. min-ga-la bwe: shi. ba de
ca-no dou. hsi gou la le bou. hka-mya: gou hpei' hcin ba de

B. .~¸.~.~~ ~~. ¸, .~.~
cei:-zu:-tin ba de kou hla.-maun be a-chein kaun: ma le:
A. . ,_ . ,_ .~~ .~.~
nga: na-yi nga: na-yi gwe: lau' kaun: ba de
B. ~· ...
ein lei' sa pei: ba oun:
A. ¸¸ ~ ~.
thoun: ze hni' thi-da lan: ba
B. ~ ~_~
be lou la ya. ma le:

146
A. ~. ~. ._~~~ .._. ~. ~. ._~_ ~ ¸¸.
~. ~. ~. .._. ~ ~. ¡~ ¸¸.
~¸,.~ ~ ~. ¡~ ¸~ ~~
lan: ma. a-tain: myau' hpe' maun: pi: ta-mwei lan: yau' yin be be' hcou: ba
ta-mwei lan: a-tain: maun: pi: du.-ti.-ya. lan: hma nya be' hcou: ba
ca-no. ein ga. lan: nya be' hma shi. de. ta-ti.-ya. ein ba

B. _~ ¸
ba yu ge. ya. ma le: hka-mya
A. ~ , .~¸.~~~
ba hma. ma yu la ge. ba ne. cei:-zu:-tin ba de
B. ~¸,.~~ ~~~ .~¸.~.~~
ca-no. gou hpei' hta gou cei:-zu:-tin ba de

1. What is the occasion for the invitation?
2. What is the date?
3. What time should he arrive?
4. What is the address?
5. What directions is he given to get there?
6. What should he bring?

16. Work with a partner. Invite him/her to your house to celebrate a holiday. Give him/her directions
how to get to your house. Use the dialogue above as a model.



















147
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Tell in Burmese the date when:

- you were born
- you graduated from high school
- your wedding was
- your child was born
- you joined the military


2. Give the names of Burmese holidays and tell when they are celebrated (in Burmese).

3. Invite your roommate to a Christmas party and give him/her directions how to get there.


























148
Vocabulary List

first pa-hta-ma. ~
second du.-ti.-ya. ~
third ta.-ti.-ya. ~~
fourth sa-tou'-hta. ·~~—
fifth pyin-sa-ma. ¡Œ
sixth hsa.-hta.-ma. ~¸
seventh tha'-ta-ma. ~–
eighth a'-hta.-ma. ¸
ninth na-wa-ma. ,
tenth da'-tha-ma.
eleventh hse. ti' myau' ~~· ._~
twelfth hse. hni' myau' ~· ._~
thirteenth hse. thoun: myau' ~. ._~
fourteenth hse. lei: myau' ~.~. ._~
fifteenth hse. nga: myau' ~. ._~
sixteenth hse. hcau' myau' ~._~ ._~
seventeenth hse. hkun-ni' myau' ~,· ._~
eighteenth hse. shi. myau' ~¸· ._~
nineteenth hse. kou: myau' ~~. ._~
twentieth hna hse myau' ·~ ._~
twenty-first hna hse. ti' myau' ·~~· ._~
twenty-second hna hse. hni' myau' ·~· ._~
twenty-third hna hse. thoun: myau' ·~. ._~
twenty-fourth hna hse. lei: myau' ·~.~. ._~
twenty-fifth hna hse. nga: myau' ·~. ._~
twenty-sixth hna hse.hcau' myau' ·~._~ ._~
twenty-seventh hna hse. hkun-ni' myau' ·~ ,· ._~
twenty-eighth hna hse.shi' myau' ·~ ¸· ._~
twenty-ninth hna hse. kou: myau' ·~ ~. ._~
January zan-na-wa-yi ~,,_
February hpei-bo-wa-yi ..¨ _
March ma' ~
April ei-pyi ƒ_
May mei .
June zun ~,
July zu-lain ~~
August o:-gou' _~
September se'-tin-ba ·~~
149
October au'-tou-ba .~~
November nou-win-ba
December di-zin-ba ~
Was born mwei: ..
To invite hpei' ~
Invitation hpei' hta ~~
Address lei'-sa ~·
Drive maun: ..
Along a-tain: ~.
Turn right nya be' hcou: ¡~ ¸¸.
Turn left be be' hcou: ~ ¸¸.
Burmese conflates
"come over and visit"
la le ba ~~¡
Birthday mwei: nei. ...,
Birthday party mwei: nei. min-ga-la pwe: ..., ~
Wedding le' hta' min-ga-la pwe: ~~~ ~
Funeral a.-thu.-ba.
To bring yu
I want to invite you … hka-mya: gou hpei' hcin
ba de
¸. ~ ~¸ ~
Christmas
the 25
th
of December
hka-yi'-sa-ma'
di-zin-ba hna-hse nga: ye'
_·Œ~
~ ¸¸ _~
Independence Day –
the 4
th
of January
lu'-la'-yei: nei.
zan-na-wa-yi lei: ye'
~~~._..,
~,,_ , _~
Union Day
12
th
February.
pyi daun zu. nei.
hpei-bo-wa-yi hse. hna ye'
_¡.~·.,
..¨ _ ¸ _~
Peasant's Day
2
nd
March
taun thu le-dha-ma: nei.
ma' la. hna ye'
.~ ~. .,
~ ~ ¸ _~
Armed Forces Day
27
th
March
ta'-ma-do nei.
ma' la. hna hse. hkun hna
ye'
~.~ .,
~ ~ ¸¸ _~
Martyr's Day
19
th
July
a-za-ni nei.
zu-lain hse. kou: ye'
~,¡ .,
~~ ¸ _~
Burmese New Year
16
th
April
hni'-hsan: ta ye'
ei-pyi hse. hcau' ye'
·~,. _~
ƒ_ _~

Note: Two blocks - Burmese says it differently: turn right at the second street




150
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 2

1. ~ pa-hta-ma. first
2. ~ du.-ti.-ya. second
3. ~~ ta.-ti.-ya. third
4. ·~~— sa-tou'-hta. fourth
5. ¡Œ pyin-sa-ma. fifth
6. ~¸ has-hta.-ma. sixth
7. ~– tha'-ta-ma. seventh

Exercise 14

1. Yangon, Burma
2. 30
3. November 23, 1970
4. Doctor
5. Hospital
6. 2
7. 8 years old, May 1, 1996
8. 12 years old
9. April 26, 1992
10. 78
11. November 22, 1926
12. 79
13. August 25, 1925
14. Read books, watch television, and play with the grandchildren

My name is Tin Win. I am from Burma. I live in Yangon. I have a big family: a wife, two children, and my
parents. We live in a big house. My wife is 30. She was born on November 23, 1970. She is a doctor and
works at the hospital. My children are students. They study at school. My daughter was born on the April 26,
1992. My son is 8 years old. He was born on the 1
st
of May, 1996. My mother is very old. She is 78. She was
born on the 22
nd
of November, 1926. My father is 79. He was born on the 25
th
of August, 1925. They do not
work. They read books, watch television, or play with our children. I have a wonderful family.

Exercise 15

1. What is the occasion for the invitation? A birthday party.
2. What is the date? May 6.
3. What time should he arrive? 5:00 or 5:30.
4. What is the address? 32 Thida Street.



151
5. What directions is he given to get there?
Drive north on the main road to Tamwei Street and turn left. Drive along Tamwei Street two blocks and
turn right. My house is the third house on the right.
6. What should he bring? Nothing.

A. Hi, Kou Tin Win. There is birthday party the 6
th
of May.
I invite you to come over and visit my family.
B. Thank you. What time?
A. Five or five thirty.
B. What is your address?
A. It is 32 Thida Street
B. How can I get there?
A. Drive north on the main road to Tamwei Street and turn left.
Drive along Tamwei Street two blocks and turn right.
My house is the third house on the right.
B. What can I bring?
A. Nothing, thanks.
B. Thank you for the invitation.

152
Lesson 10
Around the House
~ ~¡
Ein pa'-le


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Basic vocabulary related to the home
- Rooms around the house
- Furniture items you may see.

Burmese homes do not have basements and bath tubs are not common. Burmese homes rarely
have offices, although doctors and astrologers may have an office at home where they see their
patients or clients. Radios, televisions, telephones and refrigerators are quite common in
Burmese homes, as well as rice cookers and hot plates. Appliances that are not common are
toasters, electric ovens, and microwave ovens.


1. Listen to the vocabulary below and repeat after the speaker.

Bathroom yei-hcou:-gan: ._¸¸.,.
Bedroom ei'-hkan: ,.
Dining room hta-min:-sa:-gan: ~.·.,.
Door da-ga: ~.
Floor can: byin _~._
Window ba-din:-bau' _~..~
Garage ka: gou-daun ~. .
Roof hkaun-mou: ..
Antenna in-te-na ~,
Office youn:-gan: ¸.,.
Basement myei -au'-hkan: ._.~,.
Yard hcan _
Kitchen mi:-bou-jaun ..¸
Living room e.-gan: ƒ¡,.
One-story ta hta' ~·~
Two-story hna hta' ·~
First floor pa-hta-ma. da' ~ ~
Second floor du.-ti.-ya. da' ~ ~


153
2. Match the Burmese words in the left column with their English equivalents in the right
column. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

1. ._¸¸.,. yei-hcou:-gan: A. Basement
2. ,. ei'-hkan: B. Yard
3. ~.·.,. hta-min:-sa:-gan: C. Garage
4. ~. da-ga: D. Living room
5. _~._ can:-byin E. Bathroom
6. _~..~ ba-din:-bau' F. Kitchen
7. ~. . ka: gou-daun G. Bedroom
8. ƒ¡,. e.-gan: H. Door
9. ¸. youn: I. Dining room
10. ._.~,. myei-au'-hkan: J. Floor
11. _ hcan K. Office
12. ..¸ mi:-bou-jaun L. Window


3. Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with a word from the list
written in the box. Check your work with the Answer Key.

~. . , . ~ , _ . .¸ ƒ¡ , . , ~ .·., .
ka: gou-
daun
ei'-
hkan:
in-te-na hcan mi:-bou-
jaun
e.-gan: ne. hta-min:-sa:-
gan:

1. .. .¨ ¸~
hkaun-mou: bo hma shi. ba de

2. ¸.,. , ._¸¸.,. _~. ¸~
youn:-gan: ne. yei-hcou:-gan: ja: hma shi. ba de

3. .¸ ¸~
ein shei. hma hma shi. ba de

4. _~. ..¸ ¸~
ja: hma mi:-bou-jaun shi. ba de

4. Draw a plan of your house and tell your partner, in Burmese, the types of rooms you
have and where they are located. Work in pairs or in small groups.

154
5. Match the following questions with the correct answers. Check your work with the
Answer Key.

A. ._¸¸.,.~ ~

yei-hcou:-gan: ga. be hma le:
1. ~~ ~¸,.~~ ~ ~..~.~.
¸~
hou'-ke. ca-no dou. hsi hma ka: gou-daun ga-
lei: shi. ba de

B. ..¸ ~ 2. ,.~ ƒ¡,., ~~¸~ ¸~
mi:-bou-jaun be hma le: ei'-hkan: ga. e.-gan: ne. ka' ye' shi. ba de

C. ,. ~ 3. ~~ ~¸,.~~ ._.~,._~.
~· ¸~
ei'-hkan: be hma le: hou'-ke. ca-no dou. hma myei-au'-hkan: ji: ta
hku. shi. ba de

D. ~.·.,. ¸~. 4. ,. .,. ¸~
hta-min:-sa:-gan: shi. dha la: ei'-hkan: thoun: gan: shi. ba de

E. ~.. ¸~. 5. ..¸~ ~ ~
ka: gou-daun shi. dha la: mi:-bou-jaun ga. pa-hta-ma. da' hma ba

F. ,. ·,. ¸~ 6. ._¸¸.,.~ ,. , ~~¸~ ¸~
ei'-hkan: be-hna hkan: shi. dha le: yei-hcou:-gan: ga. ei'-hkan: ne. ka' ye' shi. ba de

G. ._.~,. ¸~. 7. ~.·.,. ¸.
myei-au'-hkan: shi. dha la: hta-min:-sa:-gan: ma shi. ba bu:

6. Work in pairs or in small groups. Pretend that you want to buy a house and your
classmate is a real estate agent. Make up a dialogue using the model below.

MODEL:

A. I want to buy a two-story house.
A. ~¸,.~ ·~ ¸~
ca-no hna hta' ein we jin ba de

B. There is a nice small house next to the market.
B. .¸., ~~¸~ .~.~.~. ~·~. ¸~
zei: ne. ka' ye' ein gaun: ga-lei: ta loun: shi. ba de

A. How many bedrooms does the house have?
A. ,. · ,. ¸~
ein hma ei'-hkan: be hna hkan: shi. dha le:
155
B. It has one bedroom.
B. ,. ~·,. ¸~
ei'-hkan: ta hkan: shi. ba de

A. How many bathrooms are there in the house?
A. ._¸¸.,. ·,. ¸~
ein hma yei-hcou:-gan: be hna hkan: shi. dha le:

B. There is a nice large bathroom in the house.
B. .~.~ ._¸¸.,. ~· ¸~
ein hma thei' kaun: de. yei-hcou:-gan: ta hku. shi. ba de

A. Is there a kitchen in the house?
A. ..¸ ¸~.
ein hma mi:-bou-jaun shi. dha la:

B. Yes, there is.
B. ~~ ¸~
hou'-ke. shi. ba de

7. Familiarize yourself with these terms for furniture and furnishings. Listen and
repeat after the speaker.



Bathtub Bed Bookcase Chair Closet
yei-hcou:-gan ga-din sa-ou'-sin ka-la-htain a-wu'-bi-dou
._¸¸.~, ~ ·· ~~.~ ~¸



Table Refrigerator Dresser Lamp Microwave oven
za-bwe: yei-ge:-thi'-ta a-wu'-bi-dou za-bwe:-tin mi: mai'-ka-you-wei.
mi:-bou
·. ._.~– ~¸ ·.~. ~~¸ . .
156





Radio Carpet Sink Sofa Stove
rei-di-you ko-zo: le'-hsei:-gan sou-hpa hlya'-si' mi:-bou
._ .~.~ ~~.~.~, ~ ~¸··.





Telephone Television Toilet Toaster
te-li-hpoun: you'-myin-than-
ca: (OR) ti-bwi
yei-ein paun-moun. kin-
za-ya
~~,. ¸__~.
~
._ ., ~·_

8. Below is a chart with rooms you would find in a typical home. Under each room, list in
Burmese, the furniture and furnishings (from the list above) that you would expect to find
there. Some items will be used more than once.

Kitchen Dining Room Living Room Bedroom Bathroom
. .¸ ~ .·., . ƒ¡ , . , . ._¸ ¸., .
mi:-bou-jaun hta-min:-sa:-
gan:
e.-gan: ei'-hkan: yei:-hcou:-gan:








157
9. Work in pairs or small groups. Using the chart above, ask each other questions, in
Burmese, about the furniture in your rooms.

MODEL:

1. What do you have in your kitchen? I have a stove, a…. in my kitchen.
¸. _ ..¸ ¸~ ~¸,.~ ..¸ ~¸··.
¸~
hka-mya: ye. mi:-bou-jaun hma ba shi. dha le: ca-no. mi:-bou-jaun hma hlya'-si' mi:-bou -----
shi. ba de
2. What do you have in your dining room? I have a table, a….in my dining room.
¸. _ ~.·.,. ¸~ ~¸,.~ ~.·.,. ·.
¸~
hka-mya: ye. hta-min:-sa:-gan: hma ba shi. dha
le:
ca-no. hta-min:-sa:-gan: hma za-bwe: -----
shi. ba de

10. Listen and read along as a speaker talks about his home and then answer the
questions about the passage. Check your work with the Answer Key.

PLAY AUDIO

~¸,.~ ,¡~ _·. ~¸,.~~ ~¸,.~ ,. , ~.~. ·.~ , _,~,
.,~ ~¸,.~~ ·~ ~.~. ~·~. _ ~ _ ~ ~ ,.
·,. ¸~ ~·,.~ ~¸,.~~ ..~ ~~ _·_. ~·,.~ ~¸,.~ .
~~ _·~ ~¸,.~, ~¸,.~ ,.~ ~ ~ ¸~ ,. ~
._¸¸.,. ·,. ¸~ ..¸_~. ~· ¸_. ~¸··. ~~¸ . .
~~.~.~, , ._.~– ¸~ ..¸~ ·_~. ~·~. ¸~
~¸,.~~ ~. ·.~ ~.·.,. ¸. ~¸,.~~ _ ƒ¡,.~ ~
~·~. ·. ~·~. ~~.~ ·~., ~ ~·~. ¸~ ¡.,~ ~. ·._.~
~¸,.~ .· , ~¸,.~~ ~ _~¡_~~

ca-no. na-me ga. myin.-sou: ba ca-no ga. ca-no. mein:-ma. ne. hka-lei: hna yau' ne.
yan-goun hma nei ba de ca-no dou. hma hna hta' ein ga-lei: ta loun: shi. ba de
ein ye. du.-ti.-ya. da' hma ei'-hkan: hna hkan: shi. ba de ta hkan: ga. ca-no dou. tha: dwei a-twe'
hpyi' pi: ta hkan: ga. ca-no. a-hpei a-twe' hpyi' pa de ca-no ne. ca-no. mein:-ma. ga.
pa-hta.-ma. hta' hma shi. de. ei'-hkan: hma ei' pa de yei-hcou:-gan: hna hkan: shi. ba de
mi:-bou-jaun ji: ta hku. shi. pi: e:-di hma hlya'-si' mi:-bou mai'-ka-rou-wei. mi:-bou
le'-hsei:-gan ne. yei-ge:-thi'-ta shi. ba de mi:-bou-jaun de: hma za-bwe: ji: ta loun: shi. ba de
e:-di hma ca-no dou. hta-min: sa: ba de . hta-min:-sa:-gan: ma si. ba bu: ca-no dou. ye.
e.-gan: de: hma hsou-hpa ta loun: za-bwe: ta loun: ka-la-htain hna loun: ne. ti-bwi ta loun:
shi. ba de nya.-nei be' hta-min: sa: pi: de. a-hka ca-no. mi.-dha:-zu. ne. ca-no ga.
ti-bwi ci. ja. ba de

158
A. Where does the family live?
B. How many people live in the house?
C. Is the house one story or two stories?
D. How many bedrooms are there?
E. How many bedrooms are on the first floor? Who sleeps there?
F. How many bathrooms are there in the house?
G. Where do they eat their meals?
H. What does the family do in the evening after dinner?
159

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the speaker and circle the terms that you hear. Check your work with the
Answer Key.


1. bedroom bathroom living room
2. lamp oven stove
3. toilet bathtub sink
4. sofa chair bed
5. carpet floor window
6. chair dresser radio
7. first floor second floor one-story
8. garage basement roof


2. You have a guest in your home. Give him/her answers, in Burmese, to the following
questions.

._¸¸.,.~ ~
yei-hcou:-gan: ga. be hma le:
..¸~ ~
mi:-bou-jaun ga. ba hma le:
,. ·,. ¸~
ei'-hkan: be hna hkan: shi. dha le:
~~,.~ ~
te-li-hpoun: ga. be hma le:
~¸,.~ ¸__~. _~¡~ _~.
ca-no you'-myin-than-ca: ci. lou. ya. ma la:
¸. ¸, ¡· ·.~
hka-mya: be a-hcein nya.-za sa: dha le:
¸. ,~ ¸, ~~
hka-mya: ma-ne' be a-hcein hta. dha le:
¸. ¸, ~ ~.~
hka-mya: be a-hcein a-lou' hsin: dha le:





160
Vocabulary List

Basement myei-au'-hkan: ._.~,.
Bathroom yei:-hcou:-gan: ._¸¸.,.
Bathtub yei:-hcou:-kan ._¸¸.~,
Bed ga-din ~
Bedroom ei'-hkan: ,.
Bookcase sa-ou'-sin ··
Chair ka-la-htain ~~.~
Closet a-wu' bi-dou ~ ¸
Table za-bwe: ·.
Dining room hta-min:-sa:-gan: ~.·.,.
Door da-ga: ~.
Dresser a-wu' bi-dou ~ ¸
Floor can:-byin _~._
Garage ka: gou-daun ~..
Kitchen mi:-bou-jaun ..¸
Lamp za-bwe:-tin-mi: ·.~.
Living room e.-gan: ƒ¡,.
Microwave oven mai'-ka-you-wei. mi:-bou ~~¸ . .
Office youn: gan: ¸.,.
One-story ta-hta' ~· ~
Radio rei-di-you ._
Carpet ko-zo: .~.~
Second floor du.-ti.-ya. da' ~ ~
Sink le'-hsei:-gan ~~.~.~,
Sofa hsou-hpa ~
Stove hlya'-si' mi:-bou ~¸·· .
Television you'-myin-than-ca: / ti-bwi ¸__~. ¸ ~
Toaster paun-moun. kin-za-ya ., ~·_
Toilet yei-ein ._
Two-story hna hta' · ~
Window ba-din:-bau' _~..~






161
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 2

1. E Bathroom yei:-hcou:-gan: ._¸¸.,.
2. G Bedroom ei'-hkan: ,.
3. I Dining room e.-gan: ~.·.,.
4. H Door da-ga: ~.
5. J Floor can:-byin _~._
6. L Window ba-din:-bau' _~..~
7. C Garage ka: gou-daun ~. .
8. D Living room e.-gan: ƒ¡,.
9. K Office youn:-gan: ¸.,.
10. A Basement myei-au'-hkan: ._.~,.
11. B Yard hcan _
12. F Kitchen mi:-bou-jaun ..¸

Exercise 3

1. .. .¨ ~,¸~
hkaun-mou: bo hma in-te-na shi. ba de
There is an antenna on the roof.
2. ¸.,. , ._¸¸.,. _~. ,. ¸~
youn:-gan: ne. yei-hcou:-gan: ja: hma ei'-hkan: shi. ba de
There is a bedroom between the office and the bathroom.
3. .¸ _ ¸~
ein shei. hma hcan shi. ba de
There is a yard in front of the house.
4. ƒ¡,. , ~.·.,. _~. ..¸ ¸~
e.-gan: ne. hta-min: sa: gan: ja: hma mi:-bou-jaun shi. ba de
There is a kitchen between the living room and the dining room.

Exercise 5

A Where is the bathroom? 6. The bathroom is next to the bedroom.
B. Where is the kitchen? 5. The kitchen is on the first floor.
C. Where is the bedroom? 2. The bedroom is next to the living room.
D. Do you have a dining room? 7. No, we don’t have a dining room.
E. Do you have a garage? 1. Yes, we have a small garage.
F. How many bedrooms do you have? 4. We have three bedrooms.
G. Do you have a basement? 3. Yes, we have a big basement.


162
Exercise 10

My name is Myin Sou. I live with my wife and two children in Yangon. We have a small two-
story house. My father lives with us. The house has two bedrooms on the second floor; one for
our two sons and one for my father. My wife and I sleep in the bedroom on the first floor. We
have two bathrooms. We have a large kitchen with a stove, oven, sink and refrigerator. In the
kitchen there is a large table where we eat. We do not have a dining room. Our living room has a
sofa, a table, two chairs, and a small television. In the evening after dinner, my family and I
watch television.

A. Where does the family live? Yangon.
A. .· .,~ _,~,
mi.-dha:-zu. ga. be hma nei dha le: yan-goun

B. How many people live in the house? Five.
B. ~ ·.~ .,~ ..~
ein hma lu be hna yau' nei dha le: nga: yau'

C. Is the house one story or two stories? Two-story.
C. ~ ~·~ ~. ·~ ~. ·~
ein ga. ta hta' la: hna hta' la: hna da'

D. How many bedrooms are there? Three.
D. ,. ·,. ¸~ .,.
ei'-hkan: be hna hkan: shi. dha le: thoun: gan:

E. How many bedrooms are on the first floor? Who sleeps there? One, husband and wife.
E. ~~ ,. ·,. ¸~ ~
pa-hta-ma. da' hma ei'-hkan: be hna hkan: shi. dha le: e:-di hma be dhu ei' tha le:
~·,. .~¸. , ,. ¸ ~ . ·.~
ta-hkan: yau'-ca: ne. mein:-ma. / lin ma-ya: hna yau'

F. How many bathrooms are there in the house? Two.
F. ._¸¸.,. ·,. ¸~ ·,.
ein hma yei-hcou:-gan: be hna hkan: shi dha le: hna hkan:

G. Where do they eat their meals? In the kitchen.
G. ~ ~. ·._~~ ..¸~
thu dou. be hma hta-min: sa: ja dha le: mi:-bou-jaun de: hma

H. What does the family do in the evening after dinner? Watch television.
H. ¡.,~ ¡· ·._.~ .·~ ~_~~ ¸__~. _~¡_~~
nya.-nei be' nya.-za sa: pi: de. a-hka mi.-dha:-zu. ga. ba lou' ca. dha le: you'-myin-than-ca:
ci. ja. de
163
End of Lesson Exercise 1

1. bathroom yei-hcou:-gan: 1. ._¸¸.,.
2. lamp za-bwe:-tin mi: 2. ·.~.
3. sink le'-hsei:-gan 3. ~~.~.~,
4. bed ga-din 4. ~
5. window ba-din:-bau' 5. _~..~
6. radio rei-di-you 6. ._
7. first floor pa-hta-ma. da' 7. ~ ~
8. roof hkaun-mou: 8. ..


164
Lesson 11
Weather and Seasons
_ ¡ ~ , _
Ya-dhi-u.-du. ne. ya-dhi


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Vocabulary related to weather, seasons, and climate
- How to ask for and give temperatures
- How to understand weather reports
- How to discuss the weather and climate in Burmese.


1. Listen to the weather terms as they are read aloud. Repeat the weather terms after the speaker.



Rain Sun Wind
mou: nei lei
. ., .~

Snow Fog Clouds
hnin: myu tein
. ¸¸ ~







165


2. Match the pictures with the correct weather terms. Check your answers with the answer key.






.~
lei

.,
nei

.
mou:

¸¸
myu


3. What do you hear? Circle the three terms you hear spoken by the native speaker.
Check your work with the answer key.

Play Audio

A. Rain Sun
B. Snow Wind
C. Clouds Fog

4. Familiarize yourself with the following terms related to the weather. Pause the recording as
many times as you need. Repeat after the speaker.

Temperature a-pu-jein ¸,
Fahrenheit hpa-yin-hai' _ ~
Celsius hsel:-hsi:-yes. ~~. ~. ·
Weather ya-dhi-u.-du. _ ¡ ~
Weather forecast ya-dhi-u.-du. hkan’-hman:-je' _ ¡ ~ , ,. ¸~
Weather report ya-dhi-u.-du. cei-nya-je' _ ¡ ~ ._~ ¡ ¸~
Winter hsaun:-(ya-dhi) .~. ¸_ ¸
Spring nwei-ou: -(ya-dhi) . ¡. ¸_ ¸
Summer nwei-(ya-thi) . ¸_ ¸
Fall hsaun:-u:-(ya-dhi) .~. ¡. ¸_ ¸
Clear ci-lin _~¡ ~
Cloudy tein-htu-hta' ~ ~ ~
Overcast mou:-oun. .
166
Windy lei-tai' / lei-htan .~ ~~ ¸ .~ ~,
Cold ei: ..
Low temperature a-pu-jein nein. ¸, ,
Freezing a-pu-jein yei-hke: hma' yau’ / a-lun-
ei:
(lit. temperature reaching freezing
point / very cold)
¸, ._ ~ ._~¸
~, ..
Below freezing a-pu-jein yei-hke: hma' au' yau'
(lit. temperature reaching below
freezing point)
¸, ._ ~ .~
._~
Warm nwe: ..
High temperature a-pu-jein myin. ¸, ¸
Hot pu
Dry hcau'-thwei. .¸~ .
Sunny ne:-tha .,
Rainy mou:-ywa / mou:-mya: . _ ¸ . ¸.

Grammar note:
The English coordinating conjunction “and” is translated as ne. and bi: in Burmese. If “and” coordinates (or
conjoins) between nouns or noun phrases, ne. is used in Burmese, e.g. ya-dhi ne. ya-dhi-u.-du. “weather and
seasons.” If “and” conjoins verbs or verb phrases (or the equivalent of English adjectives or adjective phrases)
bi: is used, e.g. ei: bi: hnin:-ca. de “cold and snowy.”

The concept of negation is expressed in Burmese by ma-VERB/ADJECTIVE-bu, e.g. thu ma-thwa:-ba-bu: “he
did not go.” In English, for yes or no questions, such as “did he go?” one word, “Yes” or “No” would be a
sufficient answer. But in Burmese, the answer to yes or no questions, like thu thwa: la “did he go?” requires
repetition of the whole sentence, e.g. thu ma-thwa: ba-bu: “No, he did not go.” In Burmese, there is not a single
syllable word which means “no.”

Burma has three main seasons: mou:-ya-dhi “rainy season;” hsaun:-ya-dhi “cold season;” and nwe-ya-dhi “hot
season.

5. Listen to the typical questions and responses about the weather. Repeat them after the speaker.

How is the weather in December? di-zin-ba-la. hma ya-dhi-u.-du.
be-lou shi. ba dha-le:
~ ~ _ ¡ ~
~ _ ~
It’s cold and snowy. ei: bi: hnin:-ca. ba de .. _. . ~¸ ~

How is the weather in April? ei-bi-la. hma ya-dhi-u.-du. be-
lou shi. ba dha-le:

. _ ~ _ ¡ ~ ~
_ ~
It’s warm and clear. nwei: bi: ci-lin de .. _. _~¡ ~ ~

167
How is the weather in July? zu-lain-la. hma ya-dhi-u.-du. be-
lou shi. ba dha-le:
~ ~ ~ ¡ ~ ~ _
~
It’s sunny and hot. nei-tha bi: pu ba de ., _. ~

How is the weather in October? au’-tou-ba-la. hma ya-dhi-u.-du.
be-lou shi. ba dha-le:

.~ ~ ~ _ ¡ ~
~ _ ~
It’s windy and rainy. lei-htan bi: mou:-mya: ba de .~ ~, _. . ¸. ~

6. Read the following short dialogues on weather and match each one to a picture below. Check your
work with the answer key.

1. ., _ ¡ ~ ~ _ ~
di-nei. ya-dhi-u.-du. be-lou shi. ba dha le:
. _. . _ ~
mou:-oun. bi: mou:-ywa ba de

2. ¸, .~~ _ ~
a-pu-jein be-lau’ shi. ba dha le:
¸. ~~. ~. · _ _ ~ ~, .. _. _~¡ ~ ~
hna-hse.-shi' hsel:-hsi:-yes. di-ga-yi shi. ba de! a-lun nwe: bi: ci-lin ba de

3. _ ¡ ~ ~ _ ~
hou-hma ya-dhi-u.du. be-lou shi. ba dha le:
. ~¸ _. ¸, ._ ~ .~ ._~ ~
hnin:-ca bi: a-pu-jein yei-hke: hma' au' yau' ba de

4. ., ~.
nei-tha ba dha la:
., . ¸¸ ~. _. .. ~
nei-ma-tha ba bu: myu hsain: bi: ei: ba de





168


A #____________ B #_______________



C #_____________ D #_____________

7. Work with a partner. Complete the dialogues according to the models in Exercise 5 and Exercise 6.
Use the vocabulary given below.


., . ¸. .. _~¡
~

ne:-tha mou:-
mya:
pu ei: ci-lin
¸¸ ~. . ~ ~
~
¸, ._
~ .~
._~
.. .¸~
.
myu-hsain:

mou:-
oun.
tein-
htu-hta'
a-pu-jein yei-
hke: hma' au'
yau'
nwe: hcau'-
thwei.






169

za-na-wa-yi-la hma ya-dhi-u.-du. be-lou shi. ba dha
le:
- ~, , _ ~ _ ¡ ~ ~ _ ~
ei: bi: myu-hsain: ba de - .. _. ¸¸ ~. ~


mei-la ma ya-dhi-u.-du. be-lou shi. ba dha le: - . ~ _ ¡ ~ ~ _ ~
ne:-tha bi pu ba de - ., _. ~

o:-gou'-la hma ya-dhi-u.-du. be-lou shi. ba dha le: - _ ~ ~ _ ¡ ~ ~ _ ~
mou:-oun. bi: mou:-mya: ba de - . _. . ¸. ~

nou-win-ba-la hma ya-dhi-u.-du. be-lou shi. ba dha
le:
- ~ _ ¡ ~ ~ _ ~
myu hsain: bi: ei: ba de - _¸ ~. _. .. ~


8. Work with a partner. Put the given words in a correct order so that you can ask a question and give an
answer about the weather in different places. Check your work with the answer key.

Model: hma / _, ~, _¸ yan-goun myou. / . _ ~. mou:-ywa ba dha la: (is it raining?) / ~
~ di-zin-ba-la./ . _ . mou:-ma-ywa ba bu: / . ~¸ ~ hnin:-ca. ba de / hma /

Grammar note:
A yes or no question is formed with a phrase: ~. ba dha la:, e.g. . ~¸ ~. hnin: ca. ba dha la:
“Is it snowing?” If the answer is yes, the sentence ends with VERB/ADJ ba de, e.g. . ~¸ ~ hnin:-ca. ba
de “it is snowing.” But if the answer is no, the sentence ends with ma-VERB/ADJ ba bu:, e.g. . ~¸ .
hnin:-ma-ca. ba bu: “It is not snowing.”

Student 1: ~ ~ _, ~, _¸ . _ ~.
di-zin-ba-la. hma yan-goun myou. hma mou:-ywa ba dha la:
Student 2: . _ . ~ ~ _, ~, _¸ . ~¸ ~
mou:-ma-ywa ba bu: di-zin-ba-la. hma yangoun myou. hma hnin:-ca. ba de

1) _, ~, _¸ yan-goun myou. / pu / hma / ~ ba de / ~, ~ zun-la / hma / _. bi / ., nei
tha /
2) _, ~, _¸ yan-goun myou. / hma / cold .. ei: / ~ nou-win-ba-la / ma- /
. ba bu: / _. bi / . . nwe: / hma / ma- / . ba bu: / .~ ~, lei-htan/
3) ~ ~ ma'-la./ . _ mou:-ywa / hma / ~ ba de / hma / _, ~, _¸ yan-goun myou./


170
9. Listen to the speaker and mark the statement that you hear. Check your work with the answer
key.

1. A. The weather in September is clear and sunny.
B. The weather in September is rainy and warm.
C. The weather in September is foggy and cold.

2. A. What is the temperature today? It is 22 degrees Celsius.
B. What is the temperature today? It is 22 degrees Fahrenheit.
C. What is the temperature today? It is 22 degrees.

3. A. Is it cold in spring? No, it’s warm and sunny.
B. Is it raining in spring? No, it’s warm and sunny.
C. Is it windy in spring? No, it’s warm and sunny.

4. A. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Overcast and cold.
B. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Cloudy and cold.
C. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Sunny and cold.

5. A. The summers are hot and rainy. The winters are cold and snowy.
B. The summers are hot and dry. The winters are cold and snowy.
C. The summers are hot and sunny. The winters are cold and snowy.


Grammar note:
In answering this kind of question in English, you do not need to repeat the subject of the sentence “the weather
forecast” and the verb “will be.” But Burmese requires a complete sentence, like “it will be overcast and cold.”


10. Familiarize yourself with the following terms related to weather and natural disasters. Pause
the recording as many times as you need. Repeat after the speaker.


Lightning Thunderstorm Tornado
hlya'-si: mou:-the'-moun-dain: lei-hsin-hna-maun:
~¸ ·. . ~ , ~. .~ ~ ..

171

Hurricane Flood
lei-byin:-moun-dain: yei-ji:-da
[lit. flooding]
.~ ¸. , ~. ._ _~. ~


11. What do you hear? Circle the three terms you hear spoken by the native speaker. Check your
answers with the answer key.

Play Audio

thunderstorm tornado lightning hurricane flood

12. Answer the questions. Check your work with the answer key.



A. mou:-the'-moun-dain: hou' ba
dha la:
B. yei-ji: hou' ba dha la: C. lei-byin:-moun-dain: hou'
ba dha la:
. ~ , ~. ~ ~.

._ _~. ~ ~ ~. .~ ¸. , ~. ~
~.
172


D. lei-sin-hna-maun: hou' ba dha la: E. hlya'-si: hou' ba dha la:
.~ ~ .. ~ ~. ~¸ ·. ~ ~.
































173

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following weather report for four different cities in Burma. In English, fill in the
chart below with the weather and temperature for each city. Pause or replay the audio if needed. Check
your work with the answer key.

PLAY AUDIO

_, ~, .~ _~. _ . . _¸ ¸. ~~ ._~ ¡ ¡ ¸ ¡ ~ ._~ ¡ ¸~ ~
.~ ~ ~ _~ · ., ., ~~ ¸· ~ _, ~, _¸ _ ¸, ~ .~ ¸¸ _ ~ _
.~~ _ _. ., ¸· ~ .~ _~. _¸ _ ¸, ~ .~ _ ~ _ .~~ _
_. ~ ~ ~ ¸· ~ _ _¸ _ ¸, ~ .~ _ ~ _ .~~ _ _. . _
¸· ~ . . _¸ _ ¸, ~ .~ ¸ _ ~ _ .~~ _ _. .~ ~, ¸·
~




City Weather Temperature
1.
2.
3.
4.






174
2. Listen to the following weather report and answer the questions below. Check your work with
the answer key.

PLAY AUDIO

_, ~, _¸ ~~ ¸ ¡ ~ ._~ ¡ ¸~ ~ .~ . _ ~ ¸ _~ . _~ ., ~~ ¸·
~ ., ¸ ¡ ~ ~ .~ . _ ¸· _. ¡ ., . .~ ¸. , ~. ~~ ~ .,
¸, _ ¸ ¡ ~ ~ .~ ,~ . . _. ¡ ., . ., ¸ · ~ .~ ~ ~,
¸· ~ ., _ ¸, ~ .~ , ~. . ~~. ~. · _ , ¸ ~. ¸. _ _ ¸·
~ · ., ., _ ¸, ~ .~ ¡ ., ¸ , _ ¸¸ _ _ _. , ~. ~ .~ ¸ _ _
¸· ~

yan-goun myou. a-twe' a-hku. ya-dhi-u.-du. ce-ngya-hke' ga. do. ei-bi-la. hna-se.ta-ye' thau'-ca-ne. a-twe' phyi'
pa de di ne. ya-dhi-u.-du. ga. do. mou:-ywa hma phyi' pi: ngya.-ne-bain: hma lei-byin:-moun-tain: tai' nain ba
de ma-ne.-phyan ye. ya-dhi-u.-du. ga. do. ma-ne.-bain: hma mou:-oun. bi ngya.-ne-bain: hma ne-tha hma
phyi' pa de di-ne. ye. a-pu-jein ga. do. a-nein.-hsoun: shi' hsel:-hsi:-yes. di-ga-yi ne. a-myin'-hsoun: hna-hse.-
shi' di-ga-yi shi. hma phyi' pa de sa-ne-ne. ye. a-pu-jein ga. do. ngya.-ne toun: na-yi hma hna-hse.-hni' di-ga-
yi shi. bi: a-nein.-hsoun: ga. do. hse.-hni' di-ga-yi shi. hma phyi' pa de

1. What city is the weather report for?
2. What is the date?
3. What day of the week is this?
4. What is the forecast for today?
5. What will be the high and low temperatures for today?
6. What is the forecast for tomorrow?
7. What will be the high and low temperatures for tomorrow?
8. What time of the day tomorrow is the high temperature expected?
9. Are the temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, or was it not mentioned?

3. Working in pairs or small groups, describe the pictures. Use the vocabulary you’ve learned in this
lesson to compose a story that will match the pictures. Include the season of the year, the name of the
month, the type of weather it seems to be, etc.





175





































176
Vocabulary List

Weather ya-dhi-u.-du. _ ¡ ~
Weather forecast ya-dhi-u.-du. hkan’-hman:-je’ _ ¡ ~ , ,. ¸~
Weather report ya-dhi-u.-du. cei-ngya--je’ _ ¡ ~ ._~ ¡ ¸~
Rain mou: .
Sun nei .,
Wind lei .~
Snow hnin: .
Fog myu ¸¸
Lightning hlya'-si: ~¸ ·.
Thunderstorm lei-byin:-moun-dain: .~ ¸. , ~.
Tornado lei-hsin-hna-maun: .~ ~ ..
Hurricane clouds lei-pin:-moun-dain: tein .~ ¸. , ~. ~
Rainy mou:-ywa / mou:-mya: . _ ¸ . ¸.
Sunny ne:-tha .,
Cloudy tein-htu-hta' ~ ~ ~
Freezing a-pu-jein yei-hke: hma’ yau’ /
a-lun-ei:

¸, ._ ~
._~¸ ~, ..
Clear ci-lin _~¡ ~
Temperature a-pu-jein ¸,
Fahrenheit hpa-yin-hai’ _ ~
Celsius hsel:-hsi:-yes. ~~. ~. ·
Hot pu
Cold ei: ..
Warm nwe: ..
Dry hcau'-thwe. .¸~ .
Overcast mou:-oun. .
Windy lei-tai' / lei-htan .~ ~~ ¸ .~ ~,
Winter hsaun:-(ya-dhi) .~. ¸_ ¸
Spring nwei-ou: -(ya-dhi) . ¡. ¸_ ¸
Summer nwei-(ya-thi) . ¸_ ¸
Fall hsaun:-u:-(ya-dhi) .~. ¡. ¸_ ¸
High myin. ¸
Low nein. ,


177

ANSWER KEY

Exercise 2

Wind lei .~
Sun nei .,
Rain mou: .

Exercise 3

A. Sun nei .,
B. Wind lei .~
C. Clouds tein ~

Exercise 6

A 4 It’s foggy and cold.
B 1 It is overcast and raining.
C 2 It is 28 degrees Celsius! It is very warm and clear.
D 3 It’s snowing and below freezing.

Exercise 8

1) Is it hot and sunny in Yangon in June? Yes, it is hot and sunny in Yangon in June.
~,~ _,~,_¸ _.., ~. zun-la. hma yan-goun myou. hma pu bi: nei-tha ba dha la:
~~ ~,~ _,~,_¸ _..,~ hou'-ke. zun-la. hma yan-goun myou. hma pu bi: nei-tha
ba de
2) Is it warm in Yangon in November? No, it is cold and windy.
~ _,~,_¸ ..~. nou-win-ba-la. hma yan-goun myou. hma nwei: ba dha la:
.,.. .._. .~~,~ ma-nwei: ba bu: ei: bi: lei-htan ba de

3) Is it rainy in Yangon in March? Yes, it is rainy in Yangon in March.
~~ _,~,_¸ .¸ ~. ma'-la. mha yan-goun myou. mha mou:-ywa ba dha la:
~~ ~~ _,~,_¸ .¸~ hou'-ke. ma'-la. mha yan-goun myou. mha mou:-ywa
ba de
Exercise 9

1.B The weather in September is rainy and warm.
·~ ~ ~ _ _ ¡ ~ ~ . ¸. _. .. ~
se’-tin-ba-la' ye. ya-dhi-u.-du. ga. mou:-mya: bi: nwe: ba de


178
2. B What is the temperature today? It is 22 degrees Fahrenheit.
., ¸, .~~ _ ~ ¸¸ _ ~ _ _ ~
di-nei. a-pu-jein be-lau' shi. ba dha le: hna-hse.-hni’ hpa-yin-hai' di-ga-yi shi. ba de

3. A Is it cold in the spring? No, it’s warm and sunny.
. ¡. _ .. ~. .. . .. _. ., ~
nwe-u:-ya-dhi hma ei: ba dha la: ma-ei: ba bu: nwe: bi nei tha ba de

4. C What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? It will be sunny and cold.
,~ ¸, ~~ _ ¡ ~ , ,. ¸~ ~ ~
., _. .. ¸· ~
ma-ne'-phyan a-twe' ya-dhi-u.-du. khan.-hman:-je' ga ba ba le:
nei-tha bi: ei: hma phyi’ ba de

5. C The summers are hot and sunny. The winters are cold and snowy.
. _ _. ., ~ .~. _ .. _. . ~¸ ~
nwe-ya-dhi hma pu bi nei-tha ba de hsaun:-ya-dhi hma ei: bi hnin:-ca. ba de

Exercise 11

thunderstorm mou:-the’-moun-
dain:
. ~ , ~.
lightning hlya’-si: ~¸ ·.
flood yei-ji:-da
[lit. flooding]
._ _~. ~

Exercise 12

A. Is it a thunderstorm? No, it is lightning.
. ~ , ~. ~ ~. mou:-the'-moun-dain: hou' ba dha la:
~ . ~¸ ·. ¸· ~ ma-hou' pa bu: hlya-si: phyi' ba de

B. Is it a flood? No, it is a tornado.
._ _~. ~ ~ ~. yei-ci: da hou' ba dha la:
~ . .~ ~ .. ¸· ~ ma-hou' pa bu: lei-hsin-hna-maun: phyi' ba de

C. Is it a hurricane? No, it is a thunderstorm.
.~ ¸. , ~. ~ ~. lei-byin:-moun-dain: hou' ba dha la:
~ . . ~ , ~. ¸· ~ ma-hou' pa bu: mou:-the'-moun-dain: phyi' ba de

D. Is it a tornado? No, it is a flood.
.~ ~ .. ~ ~. lei-hsin-hna-maun: hou' ba dha la:
~ . ._ _~. ~ ¸· ~ ma-hou' pa bu: yei-ci:-da phyi' ba de

179
E. Is it lightning? No, it is a hurricane.
~¸ ·. ~ ~. hlya'-si: hou' ba dha la:
~ . .~ ¸. , ~. ¸· ~ ma-hou' pa bu: lei-byin:-moun-dain: phyi' ba de

End of Lesson

Exercise 1

City Weather Temperature
1. Yangon sunny 75 Fahrenheit
2. Mon ywa rainy 100 Fahrenheit
3. Taung Gyi cloudy 60 Fahrenheit
4. Hakha windy 50 Fahrenheit

City Weather Temperature
1. _, ~, _¸ ., ¸¸ _ ~ _
2. _ _¸ . _ _ ~ _
3. .~ _~. _¸ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ _
4. . . _ ¸ .~ ~, ¸ _ ~ _

This is the weather report for Yangon, Taung Gyi, Mon Ywa, and Hakha for Saturday the 10
th
of March.
The temperature in Yangon will be about 75 degrees Fahrenheit, and the weather will be sunny. The
temperature in Taung Gyi will be about 60 degrees Fahrenheit, and the weather will be cloudy. The temperature
in Mon Ywa will be about 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and the weather will be rainy. The temperature in Hakha
will be about 50 degrees Fahrenheit, and the weather will be windy.

Exercise 2

1. What city is the weather report for? It is for Yangon.
2. What is the date? It is April 21.
3. What day of the week is this? It is Friday.
4. What is the forecast for today? It will be rainy with a chance of a thunderstorm this evening.
5. What will be the high and low temperatures for today? The high will be 18 and the low will be 8.
6. What is the forecast for tomorrow? It will be cloudy in the morning but sunny in the afternoon.
7. What will be the high and low temperatures for tomorrow? The high will be 22 and the low will be 12.
8. What time of the day tomorrow is the high temperature expected? 3:00 pm.
9. Are the temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, or was it not mentioned? Celsius.

This is the weather report for Yangon for Friday the 21
st
of April. Today’s weather will be rainy with a chance
of a thunderstorm this evening. Tomorrow’s weather will be cloudy in the morning but sunny in the afternoon.
It will also be windy. The low temperature for today will be 8 degrees Celsius with a high temperature of 18.
Saturday’s high temperature will be 22 at 3:00 in the afternoon and the low temperature will be 12 degrees.



180
_, ~, _¸ ~~ ¸ ¡ ~ ._~ ¡ ¸~ ~ .~ . _ ~ ¸ _~ . _~ ., ~~ ¸·
~ ., ¸ ¡ ~ ~ .~ . _ ¸· _. ¡ ., . .~ ¸. , ~. ~~ ~ .,
¸, _ ¸ ¡ ~ ~ .~ ,~ . . _. ¡ ., . ., ¸ · ~ .~ ~ ~,
¸· ~ ., _ ¸, ~ .~ , ~. . ~~. ~. · _ , ¸ ~. ¸. _ _ ¸·
~ · ., ., _ ¸, ~ .~ ¡ ., ¸ , _ ¸¸ _ _ _. , ~. ~ .~ ¸ _ _
¸· ~


181
Lesson 12
Personal Appearance
_ _¡ ¸
You'-ye a-thwin-a-pyin


This lesson will introduce you to:
- One’s physical features (hair color, weight, height, etc.)
- Articles of clothing
- Colors
- Description of a person’s physical appearance, including the clothing
- Appropriate ways to ask about someone’s appearance.


1. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the
descriptions of people’s appearances.




Tall Short Heavy Thin Young Old
a-ya'-myin' a-ya'-nein' wa' pein a-the'-nge a-the'-ci:
_ _¡ _ , ~ ~ _~.




Short Long Blond Red Gray
tou shei-(lya:) shwe-ou-yaun a-ni-yaun mi:-gou:-yaun
~ _¡ ¸~¸.¸ .¸ ._ , ._ . . ._





182
2. Look at the pictures below and listen to the descriptions of people’s appearances.






This woman is young. This man is also young.

¸¸. . ~ ~ ~ ¸¸. . ~ ~ ~
She is tall and thin. He has an average height and medium frame.

~ _ _¡ _. , ~ _ ~ , _ _. ~ ™ _ ·. ~
~ ~~ _ ~


3. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the
speaker and repeat as you follow along in the workbook.

Hair: Blond shwe-ou-yaun za-bin .¸ ._ ~
Brown a-nyou-yaun za-bin ¡¸ ._ ~
Red a-ni-yaun za-bin , ._ ~
Gray a-hpyu-yaun za-bin ¸¸ ._ ~
Curly kau' te. za-bin .~~ ~ ~
Straight hpaun. de. za-bin .¸ ~ ~

183


This young woman has short brown hair. This young man also has short brown hair.
di a-the'-nge de. a-myou-dha-mi: hma tou de. a-nyou-
yaun za-bin shi. ba de
di a-the'-nge de. a-myou-dha: hma lei:-be: tou de.
a-nyou-yaun za-bin shi. ba de
~ ~ ¸¸. . ~ ~ ¡¸ ._
~ _ ~
~ ~ ¸¸. . ~ ~ ~ ¡
._ ~ _ ~



The young girl has long blond hair. The old man has gray hair.
mein:-hka-lei: hma shei-lya: de. shwe-ou-yaun za-bin
shi. ba de
a-hpou:-ji: hma mi:-gou:-yaun za-bin shi. ba de
,. ~ .~. _¡ ~¸. ~ .¸ ._ ~ _
~
. _~. . . ._ ~ _ ~

Grammar note:
Burmese separates two kinds of hair, ~ za-bin 'head-hair' and . . a-hmwe: “body-hair.”












184

4. Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and describe each of the people. See if your partner can
correctly identify the body type, hair color, and style of hair from your description.





5. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the
speaker and repeat as you follow along in the workbook.


Ear Nose Eye Mouth Glasses Beard
na: hna-hkaun: mye'-loun: ba-za' mye'-hman mou'-hsei'
,. . . ¸~ ~. . · ¸~ , ~ ~ ~




Light Skin Medium Skin Dark Skin
a-tha:-hpyu a-tha:-nyou a-tha:-me:
. ¸¸ . ¡ ¸ .






185
Grammar note:

When one describes the skin color of a person in Burmese, the order of word-formation has a different pattern
from those of others. For example, “brown eyes” may be said either as ¡¸ ._ ¸~ ~. a-nyou-yaung
mye'-lun:, i.e. BROWN COLOR + EYES or ¸~ ~. ¡¸ ._ mye'-lun: a-nyou-yaung, i.e. EYES +
BROWN COLOR. But in order to say a “brown skin” only the pattern of SKIN + BROWN is possible, e.g.
. ¡¸ a-tha: nyou “brown skin.” Note also that the word “color” is omitted to describe a skin color in
Burmese.
Phrases with attributive adjectives (e.g. “long hair” in English where the adjective comes before the
noun) are often expressed in Burmese with a relative clause (i.e. “hair that is long” would be a rough English
equivalent). E.g. _¡ ~¸. ~ .¸ ._ ~ shei-lya: de. shwe-ou-yaun za-bin literally means “blond hair
that is long.” Note that ~ te./de. is a relativizer, i.e. a relative clause marker which is similar to “who” or “that”
in English.

6. From the lists above, choose the characteristics and adjectives used to describe each feature. Fill in the
chart below in Burmese. Check your answers with the answer key.

Hair Skin Height Frame Facial Features





. 7. In each line of text below, cross out the term that does not logically belong. Check your work with the
answer key.

¸ ._ ·. ._ , ¡¸ ._
a-pya-yaun a-sein:-yaun pein a-nyou-yaun
_ ¸~ , _ _¡ ,
a-ya'-pu. mye'-hman a-ya'-shei tha-man
.. ~ ~~ ¸~ ~.
hna-hkaun: mou'-hsei' wa' mye'-loun:
.¸ ._ . . ._ _ ._
shwe-ou-yaun mi:-gou:-yaun a-ya' a-me:-yaun


8. Listen to the descriptions of different people’s appearances while reading the following dialogues.
Answer the questions. Check your answers with the answer key.

1. , ~ _ ~ ._ ~ ~
¡¸ ._
, ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~. _¡ ~.
~ ~
186
, ~ _ ~ ~ .~~ ~. .¸ ~.
.¸ ~

2. ., ~ ~ ¸~ , ~ ~.
~ .
., ~ ¸~ ~. ._ ~ ~
¸ ._

3. ~,. ~ ~ _ _¡ ~.
_ ~ ,
~.
. , ~

Questions:

1. How many people were described?
2. What were their names?
3. What kind of hair does Ni La have?
4. Does Ne Lwin wear glasses?
5. Does Ne Lwin have brown eyes?
6. Is Htun Tin short and heavy?

9. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary on clothing and colors. Listen and repeat after the
speaker.

Black a-me:-yaun ._
Gray mi:-gou:-yaun . . ._
Green a-sein:-yaun ·. ._
Red a-ni-yaun , ._
Blue a-pya-yaun ¸ ._
Yellow a-wa-yaun ._
White a-hpyu-yaun ¸¸ ._




187
Red Coat Gray Suit Tan Pants Blue Jeans
a-ni-yaun kou'-ein:-ji mi:-gou:-yaun wa'-
soun
a-nyou-yaun baun:-bi a-pya-yaun jin:
, ._ ~~ ~¸ . . ._ ~ · ¡¸ ._ ..

¸ ._ ¸.

Green Jacket Brown Sweater Orange Shirt Blue T-Shirt
a-sein:-yaun a-po-ein:-
ji
a-nyou-yaun hswe-ta
(ein:-ji)
lein-mo-yaun
sha' (ein:-ji)
a-pya-yaun ti-sha'
(ein:-ji)
·. ._ .¨

¡¸ ._ .~
~ ¸~¸¸
~. ._ _
¸~¸¸
¸ ._ ~ _
¸~¸¸

Green Skirt Purple Dress White Sweat Suit Yellow Shorts
a-sein:-yaun sa-ka' hka-yan:-yaun ga-
wan (ein:-ji)
a-hpyu-yaun-hcwe:-
htein:-wa'-soun
a-wa-yaun baun:-bi-
tou
·. ._ · ~ _. ._ ,

¸¸ ._ .¸. ~,.
~ ·
._ ..
~


Brown Boots Blue Shoes Black Hat Gray Uniform
a-nyou-yaun bwa'-
hpa-na'
a-pya-yaun shu:-
hpa-na'
a-me:-yaun ou'-htou' mi:-gou:-yaun
¡¸ ._ ~
,
¸ ._ _¸.
,
._ ¡. ~ . . ._ ~ ¡
~ ·
188

Black Socks White Socks
a-me:-yaun hcei-ei' a-hpyu-yaun hcei-ei'
._ .¸ ~ ¸¸ ._ .¸ ~


10. Match each description with the corresponding picture. Fill in the blank with the correct letter. Note
that there could be more than one match. Check your work with the answer key.





A B C D E

1. ……. ~ . _~.
... ga. a-hpwa:-ji: ba
2. ……. .¸ ._ ~ _ ~
... hma shwe-ou-yaun za-bin shi. ba de
3. ……. _ ¡ ~¸. ~ ¡ ¸ ._ ~
_ ~
... hma shei-lya: de. a-nyou-yaun za-bin
shi. ba de
4. ……. ~ . . ._ ~ · ~ ~.
~
... ga. mi:-gou:-yaun wa'-soun wa' hta: ba
de
5. ……. ~ ¸ ._ .. ~
~. ~
... ga. a-pya-yaun baun:-bi wa' hta: ba de
6. ……. ~ ~ ~
... ga. a-the'-nge de. mi.-khin ba
189
7. ……. ~ _ _ ¡ _ . , ~
... ga. a-ya'-shei bi: pein ba de
8. ……. ~ ._ , ~¸ ~
~. ~
... ga. a-wa-yaun ga-wan-ein:-ji wa' hta:
ba de
9. ……. ~ ¸ ._ ~ _ ~ ~.
~
... ga. a-pya-yaun ti-sha' wa' hta: ba de
10…….. ~ ~
... ga. wa. ba de


11. Translate the following descriptions into English. Check your work with the answer key.

A. .¨ _~¸ _~¸ ~ _ _¡ _. , ~ ~ ~ ¸ ._ ._ ~ , ·.
._ ¸~ ~. _ _. . ¸¸ ~
do kyain-kyain ga. a-ya'-shei bi: pein ba de thu. a-the' ka. thoun:-ze ba thu. hma shwe-ou-yaun za-bin ne. a-
pya-yaun mye'-loun: shi. bi: a-tha: hpyu ba de

B. ¡. ,. .~ ~ _ _¡ _. ~ ~ ~ ,¸ ~ ~ . . ._ ~ , ¸
._ ¸~ ~. _ _. . ¸¸ ~
u: than:-hswe ga. a-ya'-shei bi: wa. ba de thu. a-the' ka. lei-ze.-nga: ba thu. hma tou de. mi:-gou:-yaun
za-bin ne. a-pya-yaun mye'-loun: shi. bi: a-tha: hpyu ba de

C. ·· . ~ ~ ._ ~ _ ~ ~ _ _. , ~
si'-tha: hma tou de. a-me:-yaun za-bin shi. ba de thu ga. a-ya'-pu. bi: pein ba de

D. ,. .~. ~ ~ · ~ _ _¡ _. , ~ _¡ ~¸. ~ ~ , ¡¸
._ ¸~ ~. _ _. . ~

Grammar note: “Fair skin” and “light skin” are expressed by the same skin-color term . ¸¸ a-tha:- hpyu
in Burmese.











190
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Describe the people you see in the pictures. For each person, include the approximate age, skin tone,
color and length of hair, and what he/she is wearing. Use the model:







2. Make up a simple description for each of the people listed below. (You may substitute any individual
you wish for those listed.) Be sure to include hair color and length, approximate height and age, eye color,
and skin tone.

Example:

My mother is 63 years old. She is tall and has a medium frame. She has short, gray hair and brown eyes. She
has light skin. She wears glasses.

A. Mother
B. Father
C. Co-worker
D. President of the United States
E. Your next door neighbor
191
3. Work in pairs. Pretend that you and your partner are roommates. When you went to the store,
someone came to visit you. Now you are back. Ask your roommate questions about that person’s
appearance. Your partner will describe the visitor. In Burmese, say how he/she looks (Is he/she tall or
short? Heavy or thin? What kind of hair does he/she have? What was he wearing? What colors were the
clothes?).





































192
Vocabulary List

Average tha-man ,
Beard mou'-hsei' ~ ~ ~
Black a-me:-yaun ._
Blond shwe-ou-yaun ._ ._
Blue a-pya-yaun ¸ ._
Blue jeans a-pya-yaun jin: ¸ ._ ¸.
Boots bwa'-hpa-na' ~ ,
Brown a-nyou-yaun ¡¸ ._
Color a-yaun ._
Curly kau' .~~
Dark a-me:-yaun ._
Dress ga-wan-ein-ji , ~ ¸
Ears na: ,.
Eyes mye'-loun: ¸~ ~.
Face mye'-hna ¸~
Frame kou-hkan-da-a-ywe-a-sa: ~ ™ _ ·.
Glasses mye'-hman ¸~ ,
Gray mi:-gou:-yaun . . ._
Green a-sein:-yaun · . ._
Hair (head)
Hair (body)
za-bin
a-hmwe:
~
. .
Hat ou'-htou' ¡ . ~
Jacket a-po-ein:-ji .¨ ~ ¸
Large ci: / ji: _~ .
Light a-hpyu-yaun ¸¸ ._
Man a-myou:-dha: ¸¸ . .
Medium a-le-a-la' ~ ~~
Mouth ba-za' . ·
Nose hna-hkaun: ..
Old a-the'-ci: ~ _~.
Pants baun:-bi . .
Red a-ni-yaun , ._
Shirt sha'-ein:-ji _ ¸~ ¸¸
Shoes shu:-pha-na' _ ¸. ,
Short (height)
Short (others)
a-ya'-pu.
tou
_
~
Skin a-tha: / a-yei-bya: . ¸ ._ ¸.
Skirt sa-ka' · ~
193
Small nge
Straight hpyaun. .¸
Suit wa'-soun ~ ·
Sweater hswe-ta (ein:-ji) .~ ~ ¸~ ¸¸
Sweats hcwe: . ¸.
Tall a-ya'-shei _ _ ¡
Thin pein ,
To wear wa' ~
T-shirt ti-sha' (ein:-ji) ~ _ ¸~ ¸¸
White a-hpyu-yaun ¸¸ ._
Woman a-myou:-dha-mi: ¸¸. .
Yellow a-wa-yaun ._
Young a-the'-nge ~































194
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 6

Hair Skin Height Frame Facial Features
~ . ¸¸ _ _¡ ,.
_¡ . ¡¸ _ , ..
._ ._ . ¸~ ~.
, ._ . ·
. . ._ ¸~ ,

Exercise 7

blue green thin brown
¸ ._ ·. ._ , ¡¸ ._
short glasses tall average
_ ¸~ , _ _¡ ,
nose beard heavy eyes
.. ~ ~~ ¸~ ~.
blond gray height dark
.¸ ._ . . ._ _ ._


Exercise 8

1. How many people were described? Three.
2. What were their names? Ni La, Ne Lwin, and Htun Tin.
3. What kind of hair does Ni La have? Short, straight, brown.
4. Does Ne Lwin wear glasses? No.
5. Does Ne Lwin have brown eyes? No, he has blue eyes.
6. Is Htun Tin short and heavy? No, average height and thin.

1. - What color is Ni La’s hair?
- Her hair is brown.
- Is Ni La’s hair long or short?
- It’s short.
- Is Ni La’s hair curly or straight?
- It’s straight.

2. - Does Ne Lwin wear glasses?
- No, he doesn’t wear glasses.
- What color are Ne Lwin’s eyes?
- His eyes are blue.

3. - Is Htun Tin tall?
195
- He is of average height.
- Is he heavy?
- No, he is thin.

Exercise 10

1. D is an old woman.
2. E has blond hair.
3. B has long brown hair.
4. A is wearing a gray suit
5. E is wearing blue pants.
6. C is a young mother.
7. C is tall and thin.
8. C is wearing a yellow dress.
9. B is wearing a blue t-shirt.
10. A is heavy.

Exercise 11

A. Daw Kyaing Kyaing is tall and thin. She is 30 years old. She has blond curly hair, green eyes, and
fair skin.
B. U Than Swe is tall and heavy. He is 45 years old. He has short gray hair, blue eyes, and light skin.
C. The soldier has dark short hair. He is short and thin.
D. A young girl is 10 years old. She is tall and thin. She has long brown hair, brown eyes, and dark skin.
















196
Lesson 13
Transportation
.~ ._.
the-yu-pou'-hsaun-yei:


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Verbs of motion
- Ways of asking questions regarding the different modes of transportation
- Different types of transportation available in Burma (Myanmar).

Cultural note:

The most common means of getting around in Burma is public transportation such as buses,
ferries, and trains. Quite a small number of people (probably less than 20 % of the population)
own their own transportation. Buses come in many sizes, and these are the most common means
of public transportation. These buses are used not only for intra-city (within the city)
transportation in many cities and towns, but also for inter-cities (long distance) transportation.
There are some railroads which connect larger cities, such as Yangon, Mandalay, Pyi, and
Taungyi. In terms of intra-city train, there is only one in Yangon which goes around the city.
There are a few flights among the larger cities also.
Trishaw (~ ~ ~. sai'-ka:) is a type of transportation used in Burma that is not used in
the U.S. These vehicles are common for short-distance transportation in the local areas of every
city and town. In the rural areas of Burma, bullock carts (. ~¡. nwa:-hlei:) and pony carts
(¸. ~¡. min:-hlei:) are still used extensively.



















197
1. Listen and repeat the following words as you read along.



Airplane Bicycle Ship Bus
lei-yin-byan se'-bein: thin:-bo: bas-ga:
.~ ¡ ¸ ·~ . . ~· ~.



Car Ferry Boat Helicopter
ka: ga-dou.-hlei ya-ha'-yin
~. ~. ~ .~˙ _ ~ ¡



Motorcycle Taxi Train Truck
sain-ke a-hnga:-ga: ya-hta: koun-tin-ga:
~ ~ ˙. ~. _ ~. ~, ~ ~.

Grammar note:
As already explained in Chapter 1, Burmese is a verb final language, i.e. the verb comes at the
end of the sentence. For example, in the sentence ., ~ , ~ ·. ~ thu ma-nei.-ga.
moun.-ti sa: de “yesterday, he ate Burmese rice noodle,” the verb ·. sa: “eat” comes after the
subject thu “he” and the object , ~ moun.-ti “Burmese rice noodle.” The word ~ de in
this sentence is a verb-sentence marker (aka 'realis') which indicates a general statement of
realized or non-future state.
Motion verbs follow the same pattern of word order, i.e. SUBJECT + OBJECT + VERB,
except the location of destination takes the slot for the OBJECT position. The following
examples illustrate how motion verbs are used. Note that an abbreviation “Lit.” stands for
“literally translated” which is usually known as “interlinear gloss.”

198

1. ., ~. · _~¡ ~~ ~ ~. .~¸~ . ~
thu ne.-dain: sa-ci.dai' kou lan:-shau' thwa: ba de
Lit. she everyday library to walk go polite realis
“Everyday, she walks to the library”

2. ., ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. .. . ~
thu ne.-dain: da'-si zain gou ka:-maun: thwa: de
Lit. he everyday gas station to drive go realis
“Everyday, he drives to a gas station”

3. ., ~. ~ ~ ·~ . ·. . ~
thu ne.-dain: ka.-bwe: gou se'-bein:-si: thwa: de
Lit. she everyday concert to bicyle-ride go realis
“Everyday, she rides a bicycle to a concert.”

Note that the second-verb . thwa: “go” (which comes just after the main verb) in the above
sentences indicates the notion of “going over there,” i.e. go to the destination (e.g. to the library)
by walking over there.

The location of the temporal adverb “everyday” is flexible. For example, in sentence #1 above, it
could appear at the beginning of the sentence (i.e. before thu “she”), or just after the subject
(i.e. after thu ‘she”), or just after the destination ((i.e. after · _~¡ ~ ~ ~ sa-ci.dai' kou
“to the library”).
Note also that absence of the polite marker pa/ba does not imply impoliteness,
especially if the subject is the third person (he, she, it, they).

















199
2. Listen to the different forms about using transportation. Repeat after the speaker
as you read along.

How do you go to work?

by car
~. , . ~

car
~. ·. . ~

by bus
~· ~. , . ~
bas-ga: ne. thwa: ba de
bus
~· ~. ·. .
~

by train
_ ~. , . ~

train
_ ~. ·. . ~
ya-hta: si: thwa: de
by bicycle
·~ . , . ~

bicycle
·~ . · . . ~

by boat
.~˙ , . ~

boat
.~ ·. . ~

by motorcycle
~ ~ , . ~

motorcycle
~ ~ ·. . ~

I go
~¸, .~¸
~¸,
ca-no
(male) /
ca-ma.
(female)
by truck
~, ~ ~. , .
~

I take the
~¸, .~¸
~¸,
ca-no
(male) /
ca-ma.
(female)
truck
~, ~ ~. ·. .
~

I walk
~¸, .~¸
~¸, ~.
.~¸~ ~

ca-no (male) /
ca-ma. (female)
lan:-shau' de

Grammar note:
In the above sentences, the verbs in Burmese need to come after the mode of transportation.
Therefore, in the boxes of “I go” and “I take,” only “I (male/female)” is included in Burmese.

Model: who + destination + mode of transportation + the verb of motion
.~¸. ~ · ~. · . . ~
thu kyaun: gou bas-ga: si: thwa: de
Lit. he school to bus ride go realis
“he rides a bus to school”

.~¸. ~ · ~. ·. . ~
thu kyaun: gou bas-ga: si: thwa: de
“he rides a bus to school”
200

3. Read each statement below and match it with the correct picture. Check your work
with the answer key.


1 2 3

4 5 6

A. ~¸, .~ ,~ ~. .~¸. ~ ~· ~. ·. . ~
ca-no ma-ne'-tain: kyaun: gou bas-ga: si: thwa: ba de
B. ·· . .~ ·· ~. ·. . ~
si'-tha:-dwei si'-ka: si: thwa: de
C. . ¸ ., ~ ~¸, .~ ~ ˙. ~. ·. . ~
mou:-ywa ne de. a-hka ca-no-dou. a-hnga:-ga: si: thwa: ba de
D. ~¸, .~ ~ ~ ~. .. . ~
ca-no a-lou' kou ka:-maun: thwa: ba de
E. ~¸, .~ ¸. ~ ~ ·~ . ·. . ~
ca-no. tha-nge-jin: a-lou' kou se'-bein: si: thwa: ba de
F. ~¸, .~ · ~ ~ ~ ·. ~
ca-no. a-kou sain-ke si: ba de


4. Practice creating complete sentences out of the words below. Use the following model.

Model: who + the verb of motion + mode of transportation + destination

Example: I ride a bus to school.




201
~¸,.~
¸ ~¸,
ca-no (M)/
ca-ma. (F)

~ ~
sain-ke
~¸, .~
· ~
ca-no.
a-kou
·.
si:
~
kou /gou
.~¸.
kyaun:
·~ .
se'-bein:
~¸,
.~ ~
.~
ca-no
tou. mi.-
ba.-dwei
~.
ka:



.~ ~
lei-zei'
~¸, .~
¸.
ca-no. tha-
nge-jin:
~
ka.-bwe:
· _~¡
~~
sa-ci.-
dai'
..
maun:
_ ~.
ya-hta:
˙.
~.
a-hnga:-
ga:

~.
bas-ga:
~.
.~¸~
lan:-
shau'

Grammar note:
In Burmese, the closest equivalent for the English phrase “excuse me,” (which is used to get
someone's attention), is ~ ~~ .~~ ¸ ta-hsei'-lau' hka-mya “excuse me.” This
expression may be literally translated as “please give me a moment!” The following mini-
conversation illustrates an exchange regarding a query about transportation.

- Excuse me; ~ ~~ .~~ ¸ ta-hsei'-lau' hka-mya
I want to go to the post office.
~¸, .~ · ~~ . ¸ ~ ca-no sa-dai' thwa: jin ba de
How do I get there? ~ . _ ~ be-lou thwa: ya. ma le:
- Take Bus number 14.
, ~ , ~· ~. ·. . nan-ba' hse'-lei: bas-ga: si: thwa: ba


-Thank you. .~¸. ~. ~ ~ cei:-zu: tin ba de

5. Listen to and read along with the following exchanges. Repeat after the speaker.

- Excuse me. I want to go to the library. How do I get there?
~ ~~ .~~ ¸ ~¸, .~ · _~¡ ~~ . ¸ ~ ~ . _ ~

- Take bus number 14.
, ~ , ~· ~. ·. .

- Thanks.
.~¸. ~. ~ ~

- You are welcome.
_ ~

202
- How do I get to the hospital?
.~. ¸ ~ ~ . _ ~

- Take a taxi.
˙. ~. ·. .

- Thank you very much.
.~¸. ~. ¸. _~. ~ ~

- You are welcome.
_ ~

- Please tell me how to get to the hotel from the airport?
.~¸. ~. ¸¸ _. .~ ~ ~ ., ~ ~ ~ . _ ~ ~ ~ .¸ ¸

- Take the train.
_ ~. ·. .

- What number?
, ~ ~

- Train number 22.
, ~ ¸¸ _ ~.


6. Work with a partner, and make up similar exchanges. Use the words from Exercise 5
and the pictures below to choose the destination.










203
7. Now listen to each dialogue and mark the statement that you hear. Check your
answers with the answer key.

1. A. Do you take a taxi to the concert? No, I take my car.
B. Do you take a bus to the concert? No, I take my car.
C. Do you take a train to the concert? No, I take my car.

2. A. What bus should I take to the post office? Bus number 18.
B. What street should I take to the post office? 18
th
Street.
C. What exit should I take to the post office? Exit 18.

3. A. My parents drive their cars to work, but we ride our bicycles.
B. My parents drive their cars to work, but we walk.
C. My parents drive their cars to work, but we take the train.

Grammar note:
The creaky tone in ~¸, .~ cano. “my” (see examples in #3 above) is a result of fusion in
Burmese. There is a possessive marker _ ye. which is extensively used in colloquial Burmese.
This marker is usually fused with the possessor, especially when the possessor-word ends with
sonorant finals (i.e. words that do not end with glottal stop, marked in these lessons as " ' ", e.g.
~ a-lou' “work,” and has neutral or heavy tone. As a result, only the tone of the possessive
marker remains with the possessor-word after the fusion. E.g. ~¸, .~ _ ca-no + ye. “I +
possessive” > ~¸, .~ cano. “my.”





















204

At a service station



8. Familiarize yourself with the following vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and
follow along in your book.


Gas da'-hsi ~ ~
Gas station da'-hsi zain ~ ~ ~
Service station ka:-pyin zain ~. ¸ ~
Diesel di-ze ~
Car wash ka:-yei-hsei:-da ~. ._ .~. ~
Oil hsi ~
Tires ta-ya-(dwei) ~ ¸.~¸
Air lei .~
Water yei ._
Flat tire bein:-bya: ta-ya . ¸. ~

Grammar note:
The gallon system is primarily used for liquid measurements in Burma. Below is a list of how
people would say such measurements.

~· ~ ta-ga-lan “1 gallon” = ¸ ¸.¸ thoun: da.-tha-ma. hkun-shi.-nga: li-ta “3.785 liters”
~· ~~ ta-kwa' “1 quart” = ¸, da.-tha-ma. kou:-lei:-hcau' li-ta “.946 liters”
~· ~ ~ ta-li-ta “1 liter” = ¸ hni' da.-tha-ma. ti' li-ta “2.1 liters”
~ ~ ~ hse-li-ta “10 liter” = ¸ ¸ hni' da.-tha-ma. hcau'-thoun: ga-lan “2.63 gallons”


205
9. Listen to the people at a service station and find out what each needs. Circle the
English equivalents of the terms you hear. Check your answers with the answer key.

A. Air Gas Diesel Tires Oil Car Wash

B. Air Gas Diesel Tires Oil Car Wash

C. Air Gas Diesel Tires Oil Car Wash

D. Air Gas Diesel Tires Oil Car Wash


10. Familiarize yourself with these terms identifying infrastructure.


Road lan: ~.
Highway a-wei:-byei: lan:-ma.-ji: .. .¸. ~. _~.
Freeway myou.-shaun-lan: _¸ .¸˙ ~.
Local road myou.-dwin:-lan: _¸ ~. ~.
Railroad ya-hta:-lan: _ ~. ~.





















206

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen and write down the responses to the questions below. Check your work with
the answer key.

A. - ~¸, .~ ˙ ~ ~ ¸˙ .~ . ~ ~ ~ ,. ˙ ~
- ca-no. hma da'-hsi ma-shi. do. bu: da'-hsi zain be na: hma le:
_____________________________________________________

B. - ~¸, .~ ~ ~· ¸· ., ~ ~ _ ~
- ca-no. ta-ya ta-hku.-hku. phyi' ne de ba lou' ya. ma le:
_____________________________________________________

C. - ~ ~ ~· ~ .~~ ~
- da'-hsi ta-ga-lan be-lau' le:
_____________________________________________________

D. - ¸. ~ ~ .~~ ~ ¸ ~
- hka-mya: da'-hsi be-lau' lou-jin ba dha le:
_____________________________________________________

Grammar note:
In sentence B above, 'to have a problem with the tire' is expressed in colloquial Burmese as 'to
have something happen to the tire'. Below is a full explanation in terms of its linguistic structure.

~¸, .~ ~ ~· ¸· ., ~
ca-no. ta-ya ta-hku.-hku. phyi' nei de
Lit. my tire something happen stay realis
'I have a problem with my tires' (Lit. something has been happening with my tires)

A literal translation of English into Burmese would be quite awkward, even if the meaning might
be understood. Note that the second verb ., nei 'stay' indicates that something has been
happening continuously.






207

Vocabulary List


Air lei .~
Airplane lei-yin-byan .~ ¡ ¸
Bicycle se'-bein: ·~ .
Boat hlei .~˙
Bus bas-ga: ~· ~.
Car ka: ~.
Car wash ka:-yei-hsei:-da ~. ._ .~. ~
Concert ka.-bwe: ~
Diesel di-ze ~
Ferry boat ga-dou hlei ~. ~ .~˙
Freeway myou.-shaun-lan: ¸¸ .¸˙ ~.
Gallon ga-lan ~
Gas da'-hsi ~ ~
Helicopter ya-ha'-yin _ ~ ¡
Highway a-wei:-byei lan:-ma.-ji: .. .¸. ~. _~.
Library sa-ci.-dai' · _~¡ ~~
Liter li-ta ~ ~
Local road myou.-dwin: lan: ¸¸ ~. ~.
Motorcycle sain-ke ~ ~
Oil hsi ~
Railroad ya-hta: lan: _ ~. ~.
Service station ka:-pyin zain ~. ¸ ~
School kyaun: .~¸.
Ship thin:-bo: .
Taxi a-hnga:-ga: ˙. ~.
Tire/tires ta-ya ~
Train ya-hta: _ ~.
Truck koun-tin-ga: ~, ~ ~.
Water yei ._
Work a-lou' ~







208
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 3

1. F My brother rides a motorcycle.
2. D. I drive my car to go to work.
3. E My friend rides his bike to work.
4. B Soldiers ride in an army truck.
5. C When it’s raining, we take a taxi.
6. A I take the bus to school every morning.

Exercise 7

1. A. Do you take a taxi to the concert? No, I take my car.
1. A. ¸. ~ ~ ˙. ~. ·. . ~.
˙. ~. ·. . . ~¸, .~ ~. , . ~
hka-mya: ka.-bwe: gou a-hnga:-ga: si: thwa: ba dha la:
a-hnga:-ga: ma-si: thwa: ba bu: ca-no. ka: ne. thwa: ba de
2. B. What street should I take to the post office? 18
th
Street.
2. B. · ~~ ~ ~. ~ . _ ~ . ~. ~
sa-dai' kou be lan: ga. thwa: ya. ma le: hse'-shi' lan: ga. ba
3. C. My parents drive their cars to work, but we take the train.
3. C. ~¸, .~ .~ ~ ~ ~. .. . ~
. ~¸, .~ ~ _ ~. ·. . ~
ca-no. mi.-ba.-dwei a-lou' kou ka:-maun: thwa: de
da-pei-me. ca-no-dou. ya-hta: si: thwa: ba de

Exercise 9

A. Air Tires
B. Gas Oil
C. Gas Car Wash
D. Diesel Oil

A. I need some air for my tires.
~¸, .~ ~ .~ ~. ~ ~
B. I need 10 gallons of gas and 1 quart of oil.
~¸, .~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~~ ~ ¸ ~
C. I need a car wash and gas.
~¸, .~ ~ ~ , ~. ._ .~. ~ ~ ¸ ~
D. I need diesel for my car and oil.
~¸, .~ ~. ~~ ~ , ~ ~ ¸ ~


209

End of Lesson

Exercise 1

A. I have no gas. Where is the gas station?
Two kilometers down the freeway.
B. I have a problem with my tire. What should I do?
I’ll put some air in the tires for you.
C. How much is the gas per liter/gallon?
$2.35 /gallon.
D. How much gas do you want?
12 /gallons please.

A. - ~¸, .~ ˙ ~ ~ ¸˙ .~ . ~ ~ ~ ,. ˙ ~
- ca-no. hma da'-hsi ma-shi. do. bu: da'-hsi zain be na: hma le:
- ¸¸ .¸˙ ~. ~ ~. . _ ¸ ~ ~ ~ ˙
- myou.-shaun-lan: ga. hsin: thwa: yin hna-ki-lou mi-da hma ba

B. - ~¸, .~ ~ ~· ¸· ., ~ ~ _ ~
- ca-no. ta-ya ta-hku.-hku. phyi' ne de ba lou' ya. ma le:
- ~¸, .~ ¸. ~ ~ .~ ,¡. ,¡. ~. ..
- ca-no hka-mya: ta-ya gou lei ne:-ne: htou: pe: me.

C. - ~ ~ ~· ~ .~~ ~
- da'-hsi ta-ga-lan be-lau' le:
- ~· ~ ~ .¨ ~ ¸ ¸¸
ta-ga-lan gou do-la hni' da'-tha-ma. thoun:-ze'-nga: ba

D. - ¸. ~ ~ .~~ ~ ¸ ~
- hka-mya: da'-hsi be-lau' lou-jin ba dha le:
- ¸ ~
- hse.-hna ga-lan ba










210
Lesson 14
Travel
_ . . ~ ¸ .
hka-yi:-thwa:-la-jin:


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Vocabulary related to travel
- How to buy a train, bus, or airplane ticket
- How to understand schedules
- Border crossing and roadblock procedures.




Cultural note:
Tickets for travel are usually bought ahead of time (at least two days) in Burma. Tickets for the train, bus, and
ferry are available at the respective stations. But airline tickets are not sold at the airport; you must go to private
ticket offices to purchase them.

For trains and ferries, there are two different kinds of tickets: upper class (first class) tickets and ordinary class
(second class) tickets. Tour buses are usually equipped with good facilities. They do not have different classes.
Domestic airlines have two classes, J (business) class, and Y (economy) class.

Foreign travelers in Burma usually pay travel-agencies to make all the arrangements such as tickets,
transportation, tour guides, etc. However, if you choose to travel on your own in Burma, you need to make all
the arrangements independently. This would require purchasing individual tickets at bus or train or ferry
stations, and airline tickets at private ticket offices in various cities. As a Foreign Independent Traveler, you
would face various restrictions since effort is made by the government to keep tourists away from the country's
poor.

211

1. Listen to the following dialogue about buying a ticket at a train station, and read along in the
workbook.

Soldier: Excuse me, ma’am.
·· . ~ ~~ .~~ ¸

Ticket Seller: Can I help you?
~~ ˙~ ._. ~ ¡ .. _ ~

Soldier: I need to buy a ticket to Mandalay.
·· . ~¸, .~ –.~. _¸ ~~ ~~ ˙~ ~· .· ¸ ~

Ticket Seller: Departing on what day?
~~ ˙~ ._. ., ~~ ~

Soldier: Today.
·· . .,

Ticket Seller: One-way or roundtrip?
~~ ˙~ ._. . ~. . ¸, ~.

Soldier: Roundtrip.
·· . . ¸,

Ticket Seller: First class or second class?
~~ ˙~ ._. ~ ~,. ~. ~ ~,. ~.

Soldier: Second class, please.
·· . ~ ~,. ¸

Ticket Seller: Returning on what day?
~~ ˙~ ._. ., ¸, ~ ~

Soldier: Friday
·· . . _~ .,

Ticket Seller: Morning, afternoon, or evening?
~~ ˙~ ._. ,~ . ~. ., ~¡ . ~. ¡ ., . ~.

Soldier: Afternoon
·· . ., ~¡ .


212
Ticket Seller: Twenty-two dollars, please. The next train leaves in one hour from platform number 5.
~~ ˙~ ._. ¸¸ .¨ ~ ~¸ ~ .,~ _ ~. ~· , _ ~. ˙~ ¸ · _~, ~ ~~


Soldier: Thank you. What is the train number?
·· . .~¸. ~. ~ ~ _ ~. , ~ .~~ ~

Ticket Seller: 76
~~ ˙~ ._. ¸

Soldier: Is this an express train?
·· . ¸, _ ~. ~.

Ticket Seller: Yes, it is an express train.
~~ ˙~ ._. ~ ~ ¸, _ ~.

Grammar note:
In Burmese, there are some motion verbs which are usually used for travel. E.g. ~~ te' 'to board'; ~~ htwe'
'to depart, to leave'; ._~ yau' 'to arrive'; ¸, ~ pyan-la 'to come back, to return.' Note that in Burmese,
there is no difference between depart and leave, as well as between come back and return. The notion of
obligation expressed by English auxiliary verb 'must' is expressed in Burmese by adding a second verb _ ya. to
the main verb. E.g. ~¸, .~ . _ ca-no thwa: ya. me 'I must go.'

2. Read the dialogue with a partner. Take turns being the Ticket Seller and Soldier.

3. Role-play the dialogue. You can substitute the name of a city where you need to buy a ticket to, the
time and day of arrival and departure, and the price of the ticket.


Grammar note:
Future tense is expressed in Burmese with a verb-sentence marker me which has the same sentential
position as that of ~ te/de. Note that the word ~ te/de also is a verb-sentence marker (aka 'realis') which
indicates a general statement of a realized or non-future state.











213
4. Listen to the following statements and read along in the workbook.

Attention, passengers! The next express train to Yangon will depart from platform 10 in 15 minutes.
_. ¡ ¸. ¸ ·~ ,. ~ _, ~, _¸ ~ . ¸, _ ~. ¸¡¸ ¸ ,· ~. ˙~ ¸
· _~, ˙ ~~

Attention, passengers! The next local train will arrive at platform 10 in 5 minutes.
_. ¡ ¸. ¸ ·~ ,. ~ .,~ _¸ ~ _ ~. ¸¡¸ ¸ ,· ~. ˙~ · _~, ~ ~~
._~ ~

Attention, passengers! Flight number 92 from Mandalay will be one hour late. Please check the schedule for
updates.
_. ¡ ¸. ¸ ·~ ,. ~ –.~. _¸ ˙ ~~ ~ ˙~ ¸¸ ~~ ~· , _ .,~ ~¸
.,~ ~. ~~ ¸, ¸~ ¸, ~ . ~ .~¸. ~. ¸¸ _. ·· .~.

Attention, passengers! The bus from Taunggyi will arrive at terminal 3 in 10 minutes.
_. ¡ ¸. ¸ ·~ ,. ~ .~ _~. _¸ ˙ ~~ ~ .~ ¡ ¸¡¸ ,· ~.
~ , ~ ˙~ ¸ ~ ~~ ._~ ~


Grammar note:
Note that the second verb ~ la 'come' (which comes just after the main verb ~~ ._~ sai'-yau' 'arrive') in
the above last sentence, indicates the notion of 'coming over here,' i.e. coming towards the location where the
announcement is made.


5. Match each picture with the correct Burmese term by writing the term below the correct picture.
Check your work with the answer key.





A__________ B__________ C__________


214

D__________ E__________ F__________




G__________ H ___________


hka-yi:-the-mya: _. ¡ ¸.
hka-yi:-zaun-ei' _. .~ ~
zin:-jan · _~,
a-hcein-za-ya: ¸, ~ .
le'-hma' ~~ ˙~
si'-hsei-yei:-kaun-ta ·· .~. ._. .~ ~
na:-nei-zaun ,. ., .~
gei' ~



6. Listen to the following statements and read along in the workbook.

You must have a ticket to board the train.
hka-mya: ya-hta: bo te' hpou. le'-hma' shi. ya. Me
¸. _ ~. .¨ ~~ ~~ ˙~ _ _

You must have a ticket to board the airplane.
hka-mya: lei-yin bo te' hpou. le'-hma' shi. ya. me
¸. .~ ¡ .¨ ~~ ~~ ˙~ _ _




215
Passengers for flight number 25 must go to gate 14.
hpa-lai' nan-ba' hna-hse.-nga: ne. lai' pa me. hka-yi:-the-mya: gei' se.-lei: gou thwa: ya. me
~~ , ~¸ ¸ , ~~ _. ¡ ¸. ~ , ~ . _

You must pay for your ticket.
hka-mya: le'-hma' hpou: pei: ya. Me
¸. ~~ ˙~ . .. _

Passengers have to wait in the waiting area.
hka-yi:-the-mya: na:-nei-zaun hma saun. ya. me
_. ¡ ¸. ,. ., .~ ˙ .· _

You have to wait for your luggage at the baggage claim area.
hka-mya: ye. hka-yi:-zaun-ei' gou hka-yi:-zaun-ei' ywei: de. nei-ya hma saun. ya. me
¸. _ _. .~ ~ ~ _. .~ ~ .¸. ~ ., _ .· _


7. Fill in the blanks with the correct term from the list below. Check your answers with the answer key.

Attention ga-yu.-sai' na:-hsin ba ¸ ·~ ,. ~
Baggage claim area hka-yi:-zaun-ei' ywei: de. nei-ya _. .~ ~ .¸. ~ ., _
Express a-myan ¸,
First class pa-hta-ma.-dan: ~ ~,.
Platform zin:-jan · _~,
Schedule a-hcein-za-ya: ¸, ~ .
Second class du.-ta-ya.-dan: ~ ~,.
Ticket window le'-hma' yaun: de. a-pau' ~~ ˙~ ._. ~ .~
Gate gei' ~


A. ~~ ˙~ ____________________ ~ .
le'-hma' we bou. ____________________ gou thwa: ba

B. ¸. _ _. .~ ~ ~ ____________________ ~
hka-mya: ye. hka-yi:-zaun-ei' gou ____________________ hma yu nain ba de

C. ____________________ _. ¡ . ~. · ~. .¨ ~~ ~~ ˙~ _ _
____________________ hka-yi:-the-mya: a:-loun: bas-ka: bo te' hpou. le'-hma' shi. ya. me

D. ¸. ~~ ¸, ~~ ~ ~ ____________________ ~ ·· .~.
hka-mya: hpa-lai' be hcein htwe' me hsou da thi. bou. ____________________ gou si'-hsei: ba



216
E. ¸, _______________ ~ ¸, ~ ¸· ~ ~ ~ .~ ~ ~ ~. _ .
a-myan _______________ ga. pou myan de ba-hpi'-lou.-le:-hsou-do. hma.-tain dain: hma
ma-ya' bu:

F. _ ~. ~· ·. · ~ _________________ ~ ¸. · ~~ ~
ya-hta: ta-zi: si ga. _________________ ta-hca: zi hma sai' te

G. _. ¡ ¸. ¸ ·~ ,. ~ ~~ , ~ ¸¸¸ ¸¡¸ _______________ ˙~ . ¸
~~
hka-yi:-the mya: ga-yu.-sai' na: hsin ba hpa-lai' nan-ba' khun-hni'-nga: (dhi) _____________
a-hma' ei hse.-khun-hni' hma. htwe' pa me


8. For each question below, there is a corresponding answer. Match them by writing the letter of each
question on the blank line in front of the appropriate answer. Check your answers with the answer key.

A. ~¸, .~ _¸ ~ _ ~. ~~ ˙~
˙ _ ~
1. ____ ~ ~ ~ ¸ ~
ca-no myou.-pa' ya-hta: le'-hma' be hma we
ya. ma le:
____ hou'-ke. lou jin ba de
B. –.~. _¸ ~ . .,~ ~·
~. ~ ¸, ~~ ~
2. ____ –.~. _¸ ~ . .,~ ~· ~. ~
,· ¸ ~. ~~
man:-da-lei:-myou. gou thwa: me. nau' bas-
ka: ga. be a-hcein htwe' ma le:
____ man:-da-lei:-myou. gou thwa: me. nau' bas-ka: ga. mi.-
ni' hna-hse a-twin: htwe' pa me
C. –.~. _¸ ~ . ~ ~,. ~~
˙~ ~· .· ~ .~~ ~
3. ____ ˙~ · _~, .. ,. ~ ~~ ˙~ ._. ~
.~ ˙
man:-da-lei:-myou. gou thwa: me. pa-hta-ma.-
dan: le'-hma' ta-zaun gou be-lau' le:
____ a-hma' ti' zin:-jan bei: na: ga. le'-hma yaun: de. a-pau'
hma ba
D. ¸. ¸ ~. .~ ,. ~ ~ ~
¸ ~.
4. ____ _ ~. ,· ~. ˙~ · _~,
˙ ~~
hka-mya: pya-din:-pau' na: ga. htain-hkoun
lou jin la:
____ e:-di ya-hta: hse-mi.-ni' a-twin: a-hma' hse.-hcau' zin:-
jan hma sai' pa me
E. –.~. _¸ ˙ ~ ¸, _ ~.
· _~, ˙ ~~ ~
5. ____ , ~¸
man:-da-lei:-myou. hma. la me. a-myan
ya-hta: be zin:-jan hma sai' ma le:
hcau'-se.-lei: ja. ba


9. Role-play the short dialogues from Exercise 8. Change the cities and numbers.







217

10. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and determine which statement is spoken. Check
your work with the answer key.

1. A. You must have a ticket to board the bus.
B. You must have a ticket to board the ferry.
2. A. I need a first-class roundtrip ticket to Tuanji.
B. I need a first-class one-way ticket to Tuanji.
3. A. The next express train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes.
B The next local train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes.



At border crossings and roadblocks





11. Listen to these new words and phrases.

Border , ·
Customs .~~ ,
Checkpoint ·· .~. ._. ~
Roadblock ~. , ~.
Passport ~. ~~ ˙~
Drivers’ license ¡ .. ~ ·
Documents .~~ ~. ˙~ ~.
Papers · ¸~ · ~.
ID card ~ . ~ ¸.
Show me ~¸, .~ ~ ¸
Give me ~¸, .~ ~ ..
Search ¸˙ .
Inspect ·· .~.
Inspection ·· .~. ¸ ·· .~. ¸.
218
Trunk (of a car) ¸~.¸ .,~ .
Proceed .¸˙ ~~ .
Rental (car) ˙. ~. ~ ¸~.¸
Citizen .


12. At roadblocks and border crossings, officials usually ask questions about driver identification and
vehicle documents. Try to match up the Burmese border crossing requests and questions with their
English equivalents. Check your work with the answer key.

1. ¸. ~. _ · ¸~ · ~. .~ ~¸,
.~ ~ ¸
A Give me your driver’s license.
hka-mya: ka: ye. sa-ywe'-sa-dan: dwe ca-no. gou
pya. ba


2. ¸. _ ~. ~~ ˙~ ~¸, .~ ~
..
B Do you have an ID card?
hka-mya: ye. nain-ngan-ku: le'-hma' ca-no. gou
pei: ba


3. ¸. ~ ~ C Why do you need to go there?
hka-mya: be ga. le:

4. ¸. ~ ._~ . ~ ~ D Show me your car papers.
hka-mya: e:-di gou ba-jaun. thwa: bou. lou dha le:

5. ¸. ¡ .. ~ · ~¸, .~ ~ ..

E Give me your passport.
hka-mya: yin-maun:-lain-sin ca-no. gou pei: ba

6. ¸. ˙ ~ . ~ ¸. ¸˙ ~. F Where are you from?
hka-mya: hma the'-thei-hkan ka'-pya: shi la:


13. Listen to and read the following dialogue at a border crossing, and then answer the questions
below. Try to guess the meaning of unknown words from the context. Check your work with the answer
key.

Customs Official:
.~~ , _ ¸˙ ¸. _ ~. ~~ ˙~ , ¡ .. ~ · ~¸, .~ ~
..
Car Driver:
¡ .. ~ ~


219
CO:
.~~ , _ ¸˙ ¸. . _ ~, . ~.
CD:
¡ .. ~ ~
CO:
.~~ , _ ¸˙ ¸. ˙ ~. _ · ¸~ · ~. .~ ¸˙ ~.
CD:
¡ .. ¸˙ ~ ˙. ~. ~ ~.
CO:
.~~ , _ ¸˙ ¸. . ~
CD:
¡ .. .~ _~. _¸
CO:
.~~ , _ ¸˙ ¸. ˙ .~~ _~ ~
CD:
¡ .. ~ _~
CO:
.~~ , _ ¸˙ ˙ ~ ~
CD:
¡ .. ~¸, .~ . · ~ ~¡ .
CO:
.~~ , _ ¸˙ ¸. ~. .,~ . ~ ¸ ~¸, .~ ~ ·· .~. ~
~
CD:
¡ .. ~ ~
CO:
.~~ , _ ¸˙ _ _ .~¸. ~. ~ ~ .¸˙ ~~ . _


A. Where is the driver from?
B. Does the driver own the vehicle he is driving?
C. Where is the driver going?
D. Why is he going there?
E. How long will he be there?
F. What does the guard ask the driver to do at the end?
G. Why?

14. Work with a partner. Take turns role-playing the Customs Official and the Car Driver.








220

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the answer key.

A. ~¸, .~ ¸¡. ,. _¸ . ¸, ~~ ˙~ ~· .· ~ ¸ ~
ca-no pyin:-ma-na:-myou. a-thwa:-a-pyan le'-hma' ta-zaun lou jin ba de

~¸, .~ ~ ¸ _~ ., ~~ _. ~ ~ ¸ _~ ., ¸, ~
ca-no nou-win-ba-la. hsei.-hna-ye' nei. htwe' pi: di-zin-ba-la. thoun: ye' nei. pyan la me

B. ¸, _ ~. ~.
di-ha a-myan ya-hta: la:

C. ¸¡. ,. _¸ . ~· ~. · _~, ~ ~~ ~
pin:-ma-na:-myou. gou thwa:-me. bas-ka: be zin:-jan ga. htwe' ma le:

D. _ ~. ˙~ ¸, ˙~ ¸ · _~, ˙ . ,· ~. ~~
ya-hta: a-hma' thoun:-ze.-lei: a-hma'-thoun: zin:-jan hma. nga:-mi.-ni' a-twin: htwe' pa me


2. Work with a partner or in a small group. Look at the pictures and make up a story. Do you think
these people are arriving or departing? Do you think they are on time? Is their flight late? Mention
their names, age, profession, what they are wearing, and where and why they need to fly or where they
are arriving from. Also, tell how they got to the airport (by car, by bus, by train).












221
Vocabulary List

Arriving/Arrivals hsai' (yau') ~~ ¸._~¸
Attention ga-yu.-sai' na:-hsin ba ¸ ·~ ,. ~
Baggage hka-yi:-zaun-ei' _. .~ ~
Border ne-za' , ·
Bus station bas-ka: gei' ~· ~. ~
Checked si'-hsei: ·· .~.
Checkpoint si'-hsei yei: gai' ·· .~. ._. ~
Citizen nain-ngan-dha: .
Customs a-kau-hkun .~~ ,
Delay/ed nau'-ca / hnaun.-hnei: .,~ ~¸ ¸ . ..
Departing/Departures htwe' (hkwa) ~~ ¸¸
Documents a-htau' a-hta: hma'-tan: .~~ ~. ˙~ ~.
Driver’s license yin maun: lain-sin ¡ .. ~ ·
Express a-myan ¸,
First class pa-hta-ma.-dan: ~ ~,.
Flight hpa-lai' ~~
Fly lei-yin si: .~ ¡ ·.
Give me … ca-no. gou pei: ba ~¸, .~ ~ ..
ID card the'-thei-hkan-ka'-pya: ~ . ~ ¸.
Inspect si'-hsei: ·· .~.
Inspection si'-hsei: bou./ si'-hsei: jin: ·· .~. ¸ ·· .~. ¸.
Inspector si'-hsei: thu ·· .~.
Late nau'-ca. .,~ ~¸
One-way a-thwa: (hka-yi:) . ¸ _.¸
On-time a-hcein-mi ¸,
Papers sa-ywe'-sa-dan: · ¸~ · ~.
Passenger hka-yi:-the _. ¡
Passport nain-ngan-ku: le'-hma' ~. ~~ ˙~
Platform zin:-jan · _~,
Proceed shei.-se'-thwa: ._ ~~ .
Rental car hnga:-hta:-de. ka: ˙. ~. ~ ~.
Roadblock lan: a-han.-a-ta: ~. , ~.
Roundtrip a-thwa:-a-pyan (hka-yi:) . ¸, ¸ _.¸
Schedule a-hcein-za-ya: ¸, ~ .
Second class du.-ta-ya.-dan: ~ ~,.
Show me …. ca-no. gou pya. ba ~¸, .~ ~ ¸
Terminal ta-mi-na gei' ~ , ~
Ticket le'-hma' ~~ ˙~
Ticket window le'-hma' yaun: de. a-pau' ~~ ˙~ ._. ~ .~
222
To board te' ~~
To leave htwe' (hkwa) ~~ ¸¸
To return/come back pyan-la ¸, ~
Train station bu-da-youn ~ ¸
Trunk (of a car) ka: nau'-hpoun: ~. .,~ .
Update nau'-hsoun: htou'-pyan-je' .,~ ~. ~~ ¸, ¸~
Waiting area na:-nei-zaun ,. ., .~
Window seat pya-din:-pau'-na: ga. htain-
hkoun
¸ ~. .~ ,. ~ ~





























223
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 5

A Schedule ¸, ~ . a-hcein-za-ya:
B Check-in counter ·· .~. ._. .~ ~ si'-hsei:-yei: kaun-ta
C Platform · _~, zin:-jan
D Ticket ~~ ˙~ le'-hma'
E Passengers _. ¡ hka-yi:-the
F Baggage _. .~ ~ hka-yi:-zaun-ei'
G Gate ~ gei'
H Waiting area ,. ., .~ na:-nei-zaun

Exercise 7

A. ~~ ˙~ ._. ~
.~
le'-hma' yaun: de.
a-pau'
Go to the ticket window to buy the tickets.
B. _. .~ ~ .¸.
~ ., _
hka-yi:-zaun-ei'
ywe: de. nei-ya
You can get your baggage at the baggage claim area.
C. ¸ ·~ ,. ~ ga-yu.-sai' na:-
hsin ba
Attention! All passengers must have a ticket to board the bus.
D. ¸, ~ . a-hcein-za-ya: Check the schedule to find out when your flight departs.
E. ¸, a-myan The express train is faster because it does not make local stops.
F. · _~, zin:-jan Each train arrives at a different platform.
G. ~ gei' Attention, passengers! Flight #725 is departing from gate
A17.

Exercise 8

1. D Do you want a window seat? Yes, please
2. B. When is the next bus to Mandalay? The next bus to Mandalay departs in 20 minutes.
3. A. Where can I buy a local train ticket? You can buy one at the ticket window next to platform one.
4. E. At which platform is the express train from Mandalay arriving? That train will arrive at platform 16 in ten
minutes.
5. C. How much is a first class ticket to Mandalay. It is 64 dollars.










224
Exercise 10

1. A. You must have a ticket to board the bus.
¸. ~. .¨ ~~ ~~ ˙~ _ _
hka-mya: ka: bo te' hpou. le'-hma' shi ya. Me
2. B. I need a first-class one-way ticket to Twanji.
~¸, .~ .~ _~. _¸ ~ . ~ ~,. . ~~ ˙~ ~· .· ~ ¸ ~
ca-no taun-ji:-myou. gou thwa: bou. pa-hta-ma.-dan: a-thwa: le'-hma' ta-zaun lou jin ba de

3. A. The next express train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes.
.,~ ¸, _ ~. ,· ~. ˙~ ¸ ·_~, ˙ ~~
nau' a-myan ya-hta: hse mi.-ni' a-twin: a-hma' hse.-nga: zin:-jan hma. htwe' pa me

Exercise 12

1. D
2. E
3. F
4. C
5. A
6. B

Exercise 13

A. Where is the driver from? From the U.S.
B. Does the driver own the vehicle he is driving? No, it is a rental car.
C. Where is the driver going? Taunggyi
D. Why is he going there? To visit family
E. How long will he be there? Ten days
F. What does the guard ask the driver to do at the end? Open the trunk
G. Why? To do an inspection.

Customs Official: Give me your passport and driver’s license.
Car Driver: OK
CO: Are you a U.S. citizen?
CD: Yes.
CO: Do you have papers for this car?
CD: Yes. It is a rental car.
CO: Where are you going?
CD: City.
CO: How long will you be there?
CD: Ten days.
CO: What will you do there?
CD: I will visit my family.
CO: Please open the trunk. We need to do an inspection.
CD: OK.
CO: OK, thank you. You may proceed.

225
Exercise 1

A. I need to buy a roundtrip ticket to Pyinmana, please.
I leave on November 12 and return on December 3.
I want a window seat.
B. Is this an express train?
C. What platform does the bus to Pyinmana leave from?
D. Train 34 is departing from platform three in five minutes.


.




226
Lesson 15
At School
· .~¸. ˙
Sa-thin-caun: hma


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Vocabulary related to classroom activities
- Vocabulary related to being a student
- The education system in Burma.




Cultural note:
There is no such thing as compulsory education in Burma. As long as a student passes his or her
yearly examination, the government freely provides basic education up to high school.
Subjects in Mathematics, basic sciences (e.g. Chemistry, Physics, and Biology), Burmese,
History, and Geography are taught at the primary levels of education in Burma.

Grades are divided into three levels: Primary School ( ~ ~,. .~¸. mu-la.-dan:-caun:)
which includes grades from Kindergarten through 4th grade, Middle School ( ~ ~, .
.~¸. a-le-dan:-caun:) which is comprised of 5th grade through 8th grade, and High School
( ~~ ~,. .~¸. a-hte'-tan:-caun:) which includes the 9
th
and 10
th
grades. In order for a
student to continue on to college or university, he or she needs to pass the matriculation
examination which is usually held at the end of the 10th grade. The average level of education in
Burma is about 10th grade.
227
1. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and read the
following text under each of the pictures.


A student writes on the
blackboard with chalk.
A student raises her hand
to ask a question.
A teacher teaches students
math.
.~¸. ~ .~¸~
,. .¨ ˙ .¸ ¸¸ , · ._.
~
.~¸. ~ .. ,. ..
~~ ~ .¸~
~
~ _ ~ .~¸. . .~
~ ¸ .. ~

Students study chemistry in
middle school.
First grade students read a
textbook.
Students will study art in
this class.
.~¸. . .~ ~ .
~ ~ ~,. ˙ .~
~ _~. ~
~ ~,. .~¸. .
.~ ¸ ¸,. · ~
~
.~¸. . .~
¡ ~ · ,. ˙
.~ ~ _~.

There is a book, a
notebook, and a calculator.
There is a desk and a chair
in the classroom.
Students write with pens
and pencils.
· ~· ˙~ · ·
~· , ~,. ..
·~ ~· ¸˙ ~
· ,. ~ ˙ ·.
~· ~. , ~ ~. ~ ~·
~. ¸˙ ~
.~¸. . .~ ~ .~
~ .~ ~ .~ , · ._.
~
228
Grammar note:
The generic word for students is: caun:-dha: dwe 'students;' this include all students, both male
and female. But for females it is: caun:-dhu dwe 'female students.'

2. Work with a partner. Look around the classroom. Name the items you see.

class sa-thin-gan: · , .
desk za-bwe: ·.
chair ka-la-htain ~ ~. ~
blackboard cau'-thin-boun: .~¸~ ,.
chalk myei-byu .¸ ¸¸
pen ka-laun-dan ~ .~ ~
pencil hke:-dan ~
notebook hma'-su.-sa-ou' ˙~ · ·
computer kun-pyu-ta ~, ¸¸ ~
printer pa-yin-ta _ ~
keyboard ki:-bou' ~. ~
monitor mo-ni-ta . , ~
teacher (M)
teacher (F)
(caun:) hsa-ya
(caun:) hsa-ya-ma.
¸.~¸.¸ ~ _
¸.~¸.¸ ~ _
student (M)
student (F)
caun:-dha:
caun:-dhu
.~¸. .
.~¸.

3. Working with a partner, name the items you bring with you to class and the items found
in your classroom.


~, ¸¸ ~
kun-pyu-ta
.~¸~ ,.
cau'-thin-boun:
~ ı ~.
ga-ba-loun:-poun
229

¸ ¸,. ·
pya.-htan: sa-ou'
~,. .. ·~
ga-nan:-paun:-se'
. ~~ .
a-than-thwin:-tei'-hkwei


4. Listen to the dialogue while you read along in the workbook. Underline the new
vocabulary.

What is your name? My name is Maung Maung
hka-mya: na-me be-lou hko ba dha le
(Lit. how is your name called?)
ca-no. na-me maun maun ba

¸. , ¡ ~ .¨ ~

~¸, .~ , ¡ . .
How old are you? I am 16 years old.
hka-mya: a-the' be-lau' le: ca-no. a-the' hse.-hcau' hni' shi. ba bi
¸. ~ .~~ ~

~¸, .~ ~ ˙· ¸˙ _
What grade are you in? I am in 10
th
grade.
hka-mya: be-hna-tan: le: ca-no hse-dan: ba
¸. ˙· ~,. ~

~¸, .~ ~ ~,.
What subjects do you study? Math, biology, music, literature, and history.
hka-mya: be ba-tha-ya' twei thin-ca:-lei.-la dha le: thin-hca zi-wa.-bei-da. tei:-gi-ta. sa-pei ne. tha-main: ba
¸. _ .~ _~. .~ ~
~

¸ ~ . .~. ~ · . , .
What is your favorite subject? My favorite subject is biology.
hka-mya: a-cai'-hsoun: ba-tha-ya' ka. ba le: ca-no. a-cai'-soun: ba-tha-ya' ka. zi-wa.-bei-da. ba
¸. _~¸~ ~. _ ~ ~

~¸, .~ _~¸~ ~. _ ~ ~ .
Are you a good student? Yes, I‘m a good student.
hka-mya: htu:-jun de. caun:-dha: ta-yau' la: hou' pa de ca-no htu:-jun de. caun:-dha: ta-yau' pa
¸. ~. ¸, ~ .~¸. . ~· .~ ~. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ ~. ¸, ~ .~¸. . ~·
.~
What will you do after school? I will go to the college; I want to be a doctor.
hka-mya: caun: pi:-yin ba lou' ma le: ko:-lei' hse' te' me ca-no hsa-ya-wun hpyi' hcin ba de
¸. .~¸. _. _ ~ ~ .~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~¸, .~ ~ _ , ¸· ¸
~
230
What do you like to do after school? After school I like to listen to music.
hka-mya: caun: ga. pyan-la yin ba lou' ta cai' tha le: ca-no caun: ga. pyan-la yin tha-hcin: na:-htaun da cai' pa
te
¸. .~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ~ ~ _~¸~
~
~¸, .~ .~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ¸. ,. .~
~ _~¸~ ~


5. Listen to and read along with some of the new words you should have underlined
in Exercise 4

grade a-tan: ~,.
subject ba-tha-ya' _
favorite a-cai'-hsoun: _~¸~ ~.
math thin-hca ¸
biology zi-wa.-bei-da. ~ .
music tei:-gi-ta. .~. ~
literature sa-pei · .
history tha-main: .
college ko:-lei' .~ ~
like cai' _~¸~
listen to na:-htaun ,. .~

Grammar note:
In forming the model who + the form of to like + infinitive in Burmese, the infinitive phrase in
English is expressed with a nominalizer particle ~ ta/da in Burmese, i.e. this particle which
make the verb phrase into a noun phrase is added at the end of the phrase. The sentences below
illustrate the model. Note that NOM stands for nominalizer.

1. ~,. . ¸ _~. .~ ~ ~ _~¸~ ~
hsan:-maun thin-hca thin-ja:-lei.-la da cai. ba de
Lit. San Maung math study NOM like polite realis
'San Maung likes to study math'

2. ~ .~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ¸. ,. .~ ~ _~¸~ ~
pi-da caun: ga. pyan-la yin tha-hcin: na:-htaun da cai' ba de
Lit. Peter school from return after song listen NOM like polite realis
'Peter likes to listen to music after school'

3. ·Œ ¡ ., . · ~ ~ _~¸~ ~
san-da nya.-nei-bain: hma sa-hpa' hta cai' pa de
Lit. Sanda evening in read NOM like polite realis
'Sanda likes to read in the evenings'
231

4. ~¸, .~ ~ ~,. ~ · ~. .¸ ~ _~¸~ ~
ca-no dou. a-tan: de: hma ba-ma za-ga: pyo: da cai' pa de
Lit. we class inside in Burmese speak NOM like polite realis
'We like to speak Burmese in our class'

6. Work with a partner and make up a dialogue similar to the one in Exercise 4. List your
favorite subjects, say how good you think you are at each of them, tell what profession you
are going to choose, and say what you like to do after school.

7. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker as you go
over the dialogue.

A. Listen to the recording and take notes.
a-than thwin: hta: da gou na:-htaun pi: do. hma'-su. yei: ba
. ~. ~ ~ ,. .~ _. .~ ˙~ · ._.

B. Put your pencils down.
hke:-dan dwei gou hca. hta: ba
~ .~ ~ ¸ ~.

C. Write your answer on the blackboard.
a-hpyei gou cau'-thin-boun: bo hma yei: ba
.¸ ~ .~¸~ ,. .¨ ˙ ._.

D. Open your textbooks.
pya. htan: sa-ou' dwei gou hpwin. ba
¸ ¸,. · .~ ~

E. Raise your hand if you have a question.
mei:-hkun: mei: za-ya shi. yin le' hmyau' pa
.. ,. .. · _ ¸˙ _ ~~ .¸~

F. Write down your homework, please.
cei-zu:-pyu.-pi: ein-sa dwei gou hca. yei: ba
.~¸. ~. ¸¸ _. · .~ ~ ¸ ._.


8. Role-play as a teacher and have the students follow your directions. Use the expressions
from Exercise 7.



232
9. Listen to the following questions and mark the answers that you hear. Check your
answers with the answer key.

1. ¸. .~¸. ˙ ~ ~
hka-mya: caun: hma ba lou' le:
A. I read the textbooks at school.
B. I write letters and numbers in Burmese.
C. I study many subjects.

2. ¸. ˙· ~,. ._~ _ ~
hka-mya: be-hna tan: yau' pi le:
A. I am in 5
th
grade.
B. I am in 6
th
grade.
C. I am in 8
th
grade.

3. ¸. _ .~ _~. .~ ~ ~
hka-mya: be ba-tha-ya' twei thin-ca:-lei.-la dha le:
A. Math, Burmese, science, geography, and English.
B. Math, history, science, geography, and English.
C. Math, chemistry, science, geography, and English.

4. ¸. _~¸~ ~. _ ~ ~
hka-mya: a-cai'-hsoun: ba-tha-ya' ka. ba le:
A. English
B. Geography
C. Science

5. ¸. ~. ¸, ~ .~¸. . ~· .~ ~.
hka-mya: htu:-jun de. caun:-dha: ta-yau' la:
A. I’m very good at English, but I’m bad at math.
B. I’m very good at geography, but I’m bad at math.
C. I’m very good at chemistry, but I’m bad at math.


10. Work with a partner, and come up with similar dialogues using expressions from
Exercise 9.








233
11. Working in small groups, describe the following pictures. Come up with ages for the
students and the teacher, their names, the subjects they study/teach, what they’re doing
right now, what they are wearing, if they seem to like their class and their teacher, etc.





12. Listen to and read the following text about the student’s schedule, and then
answer in English the questions below.

PLAY AUDIO

~¸, , ¡ ~
~¸, ~ ~˚ ~ .~¸. ~· ¡.
~¸, ~ · _~. .~ ~ ~
~¸, · ~. ¸, ¸· ¸ ~
~¸, ~ ¸. ~
~ , ~ ., ™ . ., , . _~ ., .~ ˙ .~¸. ~ . , _ ˙ . ~
.~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ¡ ., , , _ ˙ ~ ~ . ~
~¸, ·. .~ ~ ˙ ·. ~. ~ ~
~ ¸. ~ ¡ , _ ˙ ¸, ~
., , _~ .~. ., .~ ˙ .~¸. ~ , ,~ , _ ˙ . ~
.~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ¸ , _ ˙ · _~¡ ~~ ~ . ~
~¸, ., ~¡ . ˙ ¸ , _ .~~ · _~¡ ~~ ˙ · _~¡ ~
~¸, _ · .~ ~ · ., ., ~ , . ., , ,~ . .~ ˙ ~ ~

A. What is the student’s name?
B. Where does she go to school?
C. What does she study?
D. What is her school schedule on Monday, Wednesday and Friday?
E. What is her schedule on Tuesday and Thursday?
F. What job does she have and when does she work?
G. When does the student do homework?
H. What does the student want to do after finishing school?
234

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Go over the text from Exercise 12 again. Tell the class about your schedule. Use the
questions after the text as an outline for your story.

2. Look at the pictures and tell a story about what you see. Include the grade the students
are in, the subjects they are studying, what the teacher is doing, what the students and
teachers are wearing, etc.




















235

3. Read and compare the following texts, and find the errors in the English translations.
Make corrections so that the translation is accurate. Check your work with the answer
key.


1. A. ~¸, .~ , ¡ ·. . ~¸, .~ _, ~, ~ . ¸¡. ,. ˙
., ~ ~¸, .~ .¸~ ~,. ._~ _ ~¸, .~ ~ · ~ ~
, ~ · ~~ . ~ ·. ~ ~ _~¸~ ~
B. My name is Aung Win. I’m from Hakha, but now I live in Yangon. I’m in fifth grade.
I have many friends. I like music, reading, and basketball.

2A. ~¸, .~ , ¡ . .. ~¸, .~ – .~. ~ . .~ _~.
˙ ., ~ ~¸, .~ ¸ , ~ _~¸~ ~
B. My name is Thein Lwin. I’m from Kalemyo, but I live in Sagaing.
I like math and geography.

3. A. ~¸, .~ , ¡ ,. .¸ ~¸, .~ ~ ¸.¸ ˙· ƒ _ ~ . _~ ., ˙ ..
~
~¸, .~ . ~,. ._~ _ ~¸, .~ .~. ~ ¡ , ~ ¡ .~ ~
_~¸~ ~ ~¸, .~ ¡ . ˙ ~ ~ _ , ˙ ~ ~
~ _ ¸· ¸ ~
B. My name is Chit Hlaing. I was born on August 4, 1989. I’m in 9
th
grade.
I like music class and photography. I want to be a doctor, or a photographer.





















236
Vocabulary List


Art a-nu.-pyin-nya ¡
Basketball ba'-sa-ka'-bo ~ · ~~ .
Biology zi-wa.-be-da. ~ .
Blackboard cau'-thin-boun: .~¸~ ,.
Busy a-lou'-mya: ~ ¸.
Chair ka-la-htain ~ ~. ~
Chalk myei-byu .¸ ¸¸
Chemistry da-du.-be-da. ~ .
Class sa-thin-gan: · ,.
College/University ko:-lei' / te'-ka-thou .~ ~ ¸ ~ ~‡ ~
Computer kun-pyu-ta ~, ¸¸ ~
Desk za-bwe: ·.
Elementary School mu-la.-dan: caun: ~ ~,. .~¸.
English in-ga-lei'-sa ~ ·
Grade a-tan: ~,.
High School a-hte'-tan: ~~ ~,.
History tha-main: .
Homework ein-za ·
Literature sa-pei · .
Math thin-hca ¸
Middle School a-le-dan: ~ ~,.
Music tei:-gi-da. .~. ~
Notebook hma.-su- sa-ou' ˙~ · ·
Pen ka-laun-dan .~ ~
Pencil hke:-dan ~
Photography da'-poun pyin-nya ~ ¡
Reading sa-hpa' ta / sa-hpa' hcin: · ~ ~¸ · ~ ¸.
student (M)
student (F)
caun:-dha:
caun:-dhu
.~¸. .
.~¸.
Subject(s) ba-tha-ya' (twei) _ ¸.~¸
Tape recorder a-than-thwin:-se' . ·~
teacher (M)
teacher (F)
(caun:) hsa-ya
(caun:) sa-ya-ma.
¸.~¸.¸ ~ _
¸.~¸.¸ ~ _
To like cai' _~¸~
To read sa-hpa' · ~
To study lei.-la-thin-ca: .~ ~ _~.
To write sa-yei: · ._.
Listen to the recording a-than thwin: hta: da gou . ~. ~ ~ ,.
237
and take notes. na:-htaun pi: do. hma'-su.
yei: ba
.~ _. .~ ˙~ · ._.
Put your pencils down. hke:-dan dwei gou hca.
hta: ba
~ .~ ~ ¸ ~.
Write your answer on the
blackboard.
a-hpyei gou cau'-thin-
boun: bo hma yei: ba
.¸ ~ .~¸~ ,. .¨ ˙
._.
Open your textbooks. pya.-htan: sa-ou' dwei gou
hpwin. ba
¸ ¸,. · .~ ~
Raise your hand! le' hmyau' pa ~~ .¸~
Write down your
homework, please
cei-zu:-pyu.-pi: ein-sa
dwei gou hca. yei: ba
.~¸. ~. ¸¸ _. · .~ ~ ¸
._.


































238
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 9

1. What do you do at school?
C. I study many subjects.
C. ~¸, .~ _ .~ ¸¸. ¸¸. _~. .~ ~ ~
ca-no ba-tha-ya' twei a-myou:-myou: thin-ca:-lei.-la ba de

2. What grade are you in?
B. I am in 6
th
grade.
B. ~¸, .~ .¸~ ~,. ._~ _
ca-no hcau' tan: yau' pa bi

3. What subjects are you studying?
A. Math, Burmese, science, geography, and English.
A. ¸ ¸, · ~ , ~ ·
thin-hca myan-ma-za thei'-pan pa-hta-wi ne. in-ga-lei'-sa ba

4. What is your favorite subject?
B. Geography
B. ~
pa-hta-wi ba

5. Are you a good student?
C. I’m very good at chemistry, but I’m bad at math.
C. ~¸, .~ ~ . ˙ .~ ~ . ¸ ˙ ¡ ~
ca-no da-du.-be-da. hma to ba de da-bei-me. thin-hca hma nyan. de

Exercise 12

A. What is the student’s name?
Her name is Thu Za
B. Where does she go to school?
She goes to Dagon University
C. What does she study?
She studies English.
D. What is her school schedule on Monday, Wednesday and Friday?
She goes to school from 8:00am until 4:00pm.
E. What is her schedule on Tuesday and Thursday?
She goes to class at 10am, and then at 12:00 she goes to the library to study for three hours.
F. What job does she have and when does she work?
She works as a waitress in a restaurant from 4:00 to 10:00pm on Monday, Wednesday and
Friday.
G. When does the student do homework?
239
She does homework on weekends and in the mornings.
H. What does the student want to do after finishing school?
She wants to be an interpreter.

My name is Thu Za. I am a student at Dagon University. I study English. I want to be an
interpreter. I have a busy schedule. On Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, I go to school at 8:00.
After school, at 4:00pm, I go to work. I work at a restaurant as a waitress. After work, at 10 pm,
I go home. On Tuesday and Thursday, I go to class at 10am. After school, at 12:00, I go to the
library. I study at the library for three hours in the afternoon. I do my homework on the
weekends and in the mornings.


End of Lesson
Exercise 3

Your English translation should be as follows. The corrected errors are in bold.

1. My name is Soe Win. I’m from Yangon, but now I live in Pinmana. I’m in sixth grade.
I have many friends. I like English, reading, and basketball.
2. My name is Maung Aye. I’m from Mandalay, but I live in Taunggyi.
I like math and science.
3. My name is Than Swe. I was born on April 8, 1989. I’m in 8
th
grade.
I like music class, art, and photography. I want to be an artist, doctor or a photographer.




















240
Lesson 16
Recreation and Leisure
, . .¸ ¸ . , . ~ ¸ ,
a-pan:-hpei jin: ne. a:-la'-hcein


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Vocabulary related to recreational and leisure activities
- Ways to discuss hobbies in Burmese.

1. Read the sentences with the new vocabulary and try to guess the meaning of any
unknown words.


a-myou:-dha: ne. a-myou:-dha-mi:
ka. ja. de da thu-dou. wa-dha-na ba
thu ga. gi-ta. pyin-nya-shin ba
san:-da-ya: hsa-ya ga.-pwe ta-
hku. hma san:-da-ya: ti: ba de
di a-myou:-tha: da'-
poun yai' pa de
thu ga. da'-poun hsa-
ya ba
¸¸. . , ¸¸. . ~ _~
~ ~ ,
~ ~ ¡ ¸˙ · ˜
. ~ _ ~ ~· ˙ · ˜
. ~. ~
¸¸. . ~
¸~ ~ ~
~ ~ _

da en-da-yu: ba thu ga. bo:-loun: ga-
za: da wa-dha-na pa de
a-myou:-tha: taun bo hma hnin:-
sho:-si: ba de
thu ga. hnin:-sho:-si: da
wa-dha-na pa de
ca-no. tha-nge-jin:
san-di nya.-nei dain:
a-tan: pyi: yin pyei:
ba de
¸. ~ . ~. ~
·. ~ , ~
¸¸. . .~ .¨ ˙ ˙.
.~¸ ·. ~ ~ ˙.
.~¸ ·. ~ , ~
~¸, .~
¸. · ˜˜ ¡ ., ~.
~,. ¸. _ .¸.
~
241

ca-no. a-kou bou:-lin: ga-za: da cai'
te da thu. wa-dha-na ba
nwei-ya-dhi hma ya-dhi-u.-du.
tha-ya yin hka-lei: dwei nei.
dain: yei-ku: ja. de
lu-nge ta-yau' tin:-ni'-
kwin: hma tin:-ni' ga-
za: ba de
~¸, .~ · ~ . ~. ~ ·.
~ _~¸~ ~ ,
. _ ˙ _ ¡ ~
_ ~ .~. .~ ., ~.
._ ~. _~ ~
~ ~· .~
~. ,· ~. ˙ ~.
,· ~ ·. ~



ca-no. a-ma ga. ba-ji hswe: da
cai' te
si'-tha: dwei ywe'-hpyin-te: de:
hma hpe: ga-za: ja. de thu-dou.
hpe: ga-za: da cai' te
thu-dou. lin-ma-ya:
nya.-nei dain: lan:-
shau' ca. de
~¸, .~ · ~ ,. ¸ ~ ~
_~¸~ ~
·· . .~ ¸~ ¸ ~ ~ ˙
~ ·. _~ ~ ~ ~
·. ~ _~¸~ ~
~ ~ . ¡
., ~. ~. .~¸~
_~ ~




si'-tha: hna-yau' si'-tu.-yin ga-za: ja. de
da thu-dou. wa-dha-na ba
di a-myou:-dha: gi'-ta ti: pi: tha-hcin: da-
bou' hsou ba de
·· . . · .~ .~ ·· ~ _ ~ ·. _~
~ ~ ,
¸¸. . · ~ ~. _. ¸. ~·
~ ~

242
Grammar note:
In colloquial Burmese, the word , wa-tha-na 'hobby' usually goes with a verb pa
'participate' to indicate a person's hobby. A linguistic analysis of a Burmese sentence is provided
below.

~ . ~. ~ ·. ~ , ~
thu ga. bo:-loun: ga-za: da wa-tha-na pa de
Lit. s/he Topic football play NOM hobby participate realis
'his hobby is soccer'
(lit. as for him he participates in the hobby of playing soccer.)

2. Now listen to the speaker. Repeat the new words as many times as you need to feel
comfortable with the pronunciation.


Play (sport) ~ ·.
Play (music) ~.
Cards
To ski ˙. .~¸ ·.
Hobby ,
To dance ~
Tennis ~. ,·
Tennis Court ~. ,· ~.
Play piano · ˜ . ~.
Musician ~ ¡ ¸˙
To take photos ~ ¸~
Photographer ~ ~ _
To play guitar · ~ ~.
To sing ¸. ~
Songs ¸. .~
Chess ·· ~ _
To walk ~. .~¸~
To swim ._ ~.
Swimming pool ._ ~. ~,
To run .¸.
To bowl . ~. ~ ·.
Soccer . ~.
To paint ,. ¸ ~ ¸ .~. ¸


243
3. Listen to the dialogues as you read them.

1. What will they do after school? A. They will swim after school.
~ .~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ~ _~
~
~ .~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ._ ~. _~
B. They will dance after school.
~ .~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ~ _~

C. They will sing after school.
~ .~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ¸. ~ _~

2. What sports does he play? A. He plays soccer and basketball.
. ~ ·. ~ ~ ·. ~ . ~. , ~ · ~~ . ~ ·. ~

B. He plays soccer and volleyball.
. ~. , . ~ . ~ ·. ~

C. He plays soccer and tennis.
. ~. , ~. ,· ~ ·. ~

3. What does she do today? A. She sings songs.
., ~ ~ ¸. .~ ~ ~

B. She paints pictures.
,. ¸ ~ ~

C. She takes pictures.
~ ¸~ ~

4. Do you play chess? A. Yes, I play chess.
¸. ·· ~ _ ~ ·. ~. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ ·· ~ _ ~ ·. ~


Do you play guitar? B. No, I play the piano.
¸. · ~ ~. ~. ~¸, .~ · ~ ~. . ~¸, .~ · ˜ . ~.
~

Do you play piano? C. Yes, I play the piano.
¸. · ˜ . ~. ~. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ · ˜ . ~. ~

5. What are your hobbies? A. I like to run and take pictures.
¸. .~ , ~ ~¸, .~ .¸. ~ , ~ ¸~ ~ _~¸~ ~

244
B. I like to read and swim.
~¸, .~ · ~ ~ , ._ ~. ~ _~¸~ ~

C. I like to walk and play soccer
~¸, .~ ~. .~¸~ ~ , . ~. ~ ·. ~
_~¸~ ~


4. Work with a partner and take turns reading the dialogues in Exercise 3.

5. Work with a partner or in a small group and make up exchanges using the models and
phrases from Exercise 3.

6. Reconstruct the questions in Burmese. Check your work with the answer key.

A. - …………………….?

- Yes, I play chess.
hou'-ke. ca-no si'-tu.-yin ga-za: ba de
~ ~ ~¸, .~ ·· ~ _ ~ ·. ~
B. - …………………….?

- Yes, I play the piano.
hou'-ke. ca-no san:-da-ya: ti: ba de
~ ~ ~¸, .~ · ˜ . ~. ~
C. -……………………?

- My hobbies are running and taking photos.
ca-no pyei: da ne. da'-poun yai' hta cai' pa de
~¸, .~ .¸. ~ , ~ ¸~ ~ _~¸~ ~
D. - ……………………?

- He plays soccer and basketball.
thu bo:-loun: ne. ba'-sa-ka'-bo: ga-za: pa de
. ~. , ~ · ~~ . ~ ·. ~
E. - ……………………?

- My hobbies are reading and swimming.
ca-no sa-hpa' hta ne. yei-ku: da wa-dta-na pa de
~¸, .~ · ~ ~ , ._ ~. ~ , ~
F. - …………………….?

- She likes to walk and play guitar.
thu lan:-shau' hta ne. gi'-ta ti: da cai' pa de
~. .~¸~ ~ , · ~ ~. ~ _~¸~ ~
245
7. Read and translate the following text, noting the new vocabulary. Do you understand
all the words in bold? Check the grammar note for some explanations.

Grammar note:
Interval distance or time is expressed in Burmese with a conjuction phrase, ~ ., ga.-nei
'from…' ~ a-hti ' 'to…'

Burmese has only one word ~¡. le: for "also" and "too."
~¸, .~ , ¡ ,. .~
~¸, .~ .~ _~. _¸ ¸˙. ¸¡ , ~
~¸, .~ ¸˙. ¸¡ , .~ _~. _¸ ˙ ¸˙ ~ .~ _~. .~ ~ ˙ ~~ ~
~¸, .~ ~,. ~·Œ .~ , ~·Œ .~ , ~ _. ¸. ~
~¸, .~ ~, ¸¸ ~ .~ ~ _~. _. ~ ~˚ ~ . ~. . ˙ . ~.
~ ·. ~
~¸, .~ ~,. ~ ., ~. . , _ ¸ ~ ., ,. ~ ¸ , _ ~ ¸˙ ~
.~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ., ~. , , _ ~ ., , _ ~ . ~. .~ ~¸ ~
~¸, .~ . ~. ~ ·. ~ _~¸~ ~
~¸, .~ ¸. .~ , · ., ~ , . ~. ˙ ~¡. ~ ·. ~
~¸, .~ ._ ~. ~ , · ~ ~. ~ ~ ~¡ . _~¸~ ~
~¸, .~ · ~ ~. ~ .~. .
· ., ~ , . ˙ ~¸, .~ ¸. .~ , ¸˙. ¸¡ , .~ _~. _¸ . ~·.
~. ˙ ~ ~ ~ . _~
~¸, .~ ~ _~¸~ ~. ~ .~ ¸. ~
~¸, .~ ~ ~ _. ~ ·. .~ ~ . _. ¡ · ·. _~

ca-no. na-me thein:-zo ba
ca-no taun-ji:-myou. shan:-pyi-ne ga. ba
ca-no shan:-pyi-ne taun-ji:-myou. hma shi. de. taun-ji: ko:-lei' hma te' pa de
ca-no kun-pyu-ta thei'-pan lei.la-thin-ca: bi: te'-ka-thou bo:-loun: a-thin: hma bo:-loun: ga-za: ba
de

ca-no a-tan: kei'-sa. dwei wa-dta-na kei'-sa. dwei ne. a-lou' a-yan: mya: ba de
ca-no. a-tan: ga. nei. dain: shi' na-yi thoun:-ze ga.-nei mun:-lwe: thoun: na-yi a-hti. shi. ba de
caun: ga. pyan-la yin nei. dain: lei: na-yi ga.-nei hcau' na-yi a-hti bo:-loun: lei.-cin. ba de
ca-no bo:-loun: ga-za: da cai' te
ca-no. tha-nge-jin: dwei ne. sa-nei ta-nin:-ga-nwei dain: hma le: ga-za: ba de
ca-no yei-ku: da ne. gi'-ta ti: da gou le: cai' pa de
ca-no gi'-ta ti: da thei' ma-kaun: bu:
di sa-nei ta-nin:-ga-nwei hma ca-no. tha-nge-jin: dwei: ne. shan:-pyi-ne taun-ji:-myou. a:-ga-za:-
gwin: hma lou' me. ka.-bwe: gou thwa: ja. me
ca-no-dou. a-cai'-hsoun: a-hsou-do tha-hcin: hsou me
ca-no-dou. ka.-bwe: pi: de. a-hka sa:-thau'-hsain thwa: bi: nya.-za sa: ja. me

246
8. Now read the text as many times as you want and mark the following statements as
either True or False. Check your work with the answer key.

A. _____,. .~ Thein Zaw is from .~ _~. _¸ Taunggyi
¸˙. ¸¡ , Shan State

B. _____He is a high school student at .~ _~. .~ ~ Taunggyi college
in .~ _~. _¸ Taunggyi ¸˙. ¸¡ , Shan State

C. _____ ,. .~ Thein Zaw studies chemistry.

D. _____ ,. .~ Thein Zaw plays on the university soccer team.

E. _____ He has class every day from 8:30 to 3:00.

F. _____ ,. .~ Thein Zaw likes to swim and play the piano.

H. _____After the concert ,. .~ Thein Zaw will go home to do his homework.

9. Work with a partner or in a small group, and make up a description of a busy schedule.
Use the statements from Exercise 8 as an outline for your story. The pictures given below
can help you choose the activities to describe.














247














The above picture shows _ ~~ a-nyin.-zat-bwe:, a popular Burmese musical play (a
type of stage-show).

10. Listen to the vocabulary as you look at the pictures. Try to match the Burmese
words with the pictures. Check your answers with the answer key.


1 2 3


4 5 6










._ ~. ~, yei-ku:-gan
. ~. ~. bo:-loun: gwin:
~. ,· ~. tin:-ni' kwin:
. ~. ~ ·. ~. bou:-lin: ga-za:-gwin:
. ~ ·. .~ ~¸ ._. ,. a:-ga-za:-lei.-cin.-yei:-hkan:-ma.
. ~ ·. ~. a:-ga-za:-gwin:
248

11. Read the statements below and think about their meanings. Cross out the words or
phrases that do not make sense, and replace them with an appropriate word from the list
below. Check your work with the answer key.


. ~ ·. .~ ~¸ ._. ,.
a:-ga-za:-lei.-cin.-yei:-hkan:-ma.
. ~. ~ ·. ~.
bou:-lin: ga-za: gwin:
._ ~. ~,
yei-ku:-gan
. ~ ·. ~.
a:-ga-za:-gwin:
~. ,· ~.
tin:-ni' kwin:
~ ·. ~.
ga-za:-gwin:


A. .~¸. . .~ ~. ,· ~. ˙ . ~ . ~ ·. _~ ~
caun:-dha:-dwei tin:-ni' kwin: hma bo-li-bo: ga-za: ja. de
B. ~ .~. .~ . ~ ·. ~. ˙ ._ ~. _~ ~
hka-lei'-dwei a:-ga-za:-gwin: hma yei-ku: ja. de
C. ,. .~. .~ .~ .¨ ˙ . ~. ~ ·. _~ ~
mein:-hka-lei:-dwei taun-po hma bou:-lin: ga-za: ja. de
D. ~¸, .~ ¸. .~ . ~. ~ ·. ~. ˙ .¸. . _~ ~
ca-no. tha-nge-jin:-dwei bou:-lin: ga-za: gwin: hma pyei: bou. thwa: ja. de
E. . ~¸. ~ .~. .~ ._ ~. ~, ~ ˙ . ~. ~ ·. _~ ~
yau'-ca: ga-lei:-dwei yei-ku:-gan de: hma bo:-loun: ga-za: ja. de


12. Listen to the statements and mark the ones that you hear.

1. A. She will swim after school.
B. She will dance after school.
C. She will sing after school.

2. A. He likes to play soccer and basketball.
B. He likes to play soccer and volleyball.
C. He likes to play soccer and tennis.


249
3. A. She doesn’t sing, but she plays piano.
B. She doesn’t paint pictures, but she takes photographs.
C. She doesn’t dance, but she sings.

4. A. Do you play chess? No, I play checkers.
B. Do you play guitar? No, I play piano.
C. Do you play piano? Yes, I play piano.

5. A. What are your hobbies? I like to run and sing.
B. What are your hobbies? I like to read and dance.
C. What are your hobbies? I like to walk and play cards.


13. Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and make up dialogues about someone’s
hobbies. Use the models and phrases from Exercise 12.












250
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Answer the following questions in Burmese.

A. What is your favorite sport or recreational activity?

B. How often do you participate in your activity?

C. What is your favorite hobby?

D. What did you do last weekend?

E. What will you do next weekend?

2. Work with a partner or in a small group. In Burmese, describe the pictures below,
using the vocabulary you have learned in this lesson.











251

Vocabulary List


Bowling alley bou:-lin: ga-za:-gwin: . ~. ~·. ~.
Bowling bou:-lin: . ~.
Cards hpe:
Chess si'-tu.-yin ·· ~ _
Computer science kon-pyu-ta-thei'-pan ~, ¸¸ ~
Gymnasium a:-ga-za:-lei.-cin.-yei:
hkan:-ma.
. ~ ·. .~ ~¸ ._. ,.
Hobby wa-dha-na ,
Paint pictures ba-ji hswe: ,. ¸ ~
Playing field ga-za: gwin: ~ ·. ~.
To bowl bou:-lin: ga-za: . ~. ~ ·.
To dance ka. ~
To play chess, cards; play
soccer, volleyball; play a
piano, a guitar
si'-tu.-yin, hpe: ga-za: ;
bo:-loun:, bo-li-bo: ga-
za: ; san:-da-ya:, gi'-ta ti:
·· ~ _ ~ ·. . ~.
. ~ . ~ ·. · ˜ .
· ~ ~.
To run pyei: .¸.
To sing tha-hcin:-hsou ¸. ~
To ski hnin:-sho:-si: ˙. .~¸ ·.
To swim yei-ku: ._ ~.
To take pictures da'-poun yai' ~ ¸~
Soccer field bo:-loun:-gwin: . ~. ~.
Songs tha-hcin:-dwei ¸. .~
Stadium a:-ga-za:-gwin: . ~ ·. ~.
Swimming pool yei-ku:-gan ._ ~. ~,
Tennis tin:-ni' ~. ,·
Tennis court tin:-ni' kwin: ~. ,· ~.













252

ANSWER KEY

Exercise 6

A. Do you play chess?
¸. ·· ~ _ ~ ·. ~.
hka-mya: si'-tu.-yin ga-za:
la:
B. Do you play the piano?
¸. · ˜ . ~. ~.
hka-mya: san:-da-ya: ti: la:
C. What are your hobbies?
¸. .~ , ~
hka-mya: ba dwei wa-dha-
na pa dha le:
D. What sports does he play?
. ~ ·. .~ ~ ·. ~
thu be a:-ga-za:-dwei ga-za:
dha le:
E. What are your hobbies?
¸. .~ , ~
hka-mya: ba dwei wa-dha-
na pa dha le:
F. What does she like to do?
~ ~ _~¸~ ~
thu ba lou' hta cai' dha le:

Exercise 7

My name is Thein Zaw. I am from Taunggyi, Shan State. I go to college at Taunggyi College in
Taunggyi, Shan State. I am very busy with my classes and my hobbies. I study computer
science, and I play on the university soccer team. I have class every day from 8:30 to 3:00 in
the afternoon. After school I have soccer practice every day from 4:00 to 6:00. I like to play
soccer. My friends and I play on the weekends too. I also like to swim and to play the guitar.
I’m not very good at the guitar. This weekend my friends and I will go to a concert at the
stadium in Taunggyi, Shan State. Our favorite singer will sing. After the concert we will go to a
restaurant and have dinner.

Exercise 8

A. T Thein Zaw is from Taunggyi, Shan State.
B. F He is a high school student at Taunggyi college in Taunggyi, Shan State.
C. F Thein Zaw studies chemistry.
D. T Thein Zaw plays on the university soccer team.
E. T He has class every day from 8:30 to 3:00.
F. F Thein Zaw likes to swim and play the piano.
H. F After the concert Thein Zaw will go home to do his homework.

Exercise 10

1. Bowling Alley bou:-lin: ga-za:-gwin: . ~. ~ ·. ~.
2. Gymnasium a:-ga-za:-lei.-cin.-yei:-hkan:-ma. . ~ ·. .~ ~¸ ._. ,.
3. Soccer field bo:-loun:-gwin: . ~. ~.
4. Stadium a:-ga-za:-gwin: . ~ ·. ~.
253
5. Swimming pool yei-ku:-gan ._ ~. ~,
6. Tennis court tin:-ni' kwin: ~. ,· ~.

Exercise 11

A. .~¸. . .~ . ~ ·. .~ ~¸ ._. ,. ~ ˙ . ~ . ~ ·. _~ ~
caun:-dha:-dwei a:-ga-za:-lei.-cin.-yei:-hkan:-ma. hma bo-li-bo: ga-za: ja. de
A. The students play volleyball in the gymnasium.

B. ~ .~. .~ ._ ~. ~, ~ ˙ ._ ~. ~
hka-lei'-dwei yei-ku:-gan de: hma yei-ku: ja. de
B. The children swim in the swimming pool.

C. ,. .~. .~ . ~. ~ ·. ~. ~ ˙ . ~. ~ ·. _~ ~
mein:-hka-lei:-dwei bo:-lin: ga-za:-gwin: de: hma bo:-lin: ga-za: ja. de
C. The girls go bowling in the bowling alley.

D. ~¸, .~ ¸. .~ . ~ ·. ~. ~ ˙ .¸. . _~ ~
ca-no. tha-nge-jin:-dwei a:-ga-za:-gwin: de: hma pyei: bou. thwa: ja. de
D. My friends go for a run in the stadium.

E. . ~¸. ~ .~. .~ ~ ·. ~. ~ ˙ . ~. ~ ·. ~
yau'-ca: ga-lei:-dwei ga-za: gwin: de: hma bo:-loun: ga-za: ja. de
E. Boys play soccer on the playing field.

Exercise 12

1. C She will sing after school.
.~¸. ~ ¸, ~ _ ¸. ~
2. A He likes to play soccer and basketball.
. ~. , ~ · ~~ . ~ ·. ~ _~¸~ ~
3. B She doesn’t paint pictures, but she takes photographs.
,. ¸ ~ . . ~ ¸~ ~
4. B Do you play guitar? No, I play piano.
¸. · ~ ~. ~.
~¸, .~ · ~ ~. . · ˜ . ~. ~
5. B What are your hobbies? I like to read and dance.
¸. .~ , ~
~¸, .~ · ~ ~ , ~ ~ _~¸~ ~



.
254
Lesson 17
Health and the Human Body
~¸, . ._. , ~ ™ ~
can:-ma-ye: ne. lu. hkan-da-kou


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Vocabulary related to the human body
- Asking questions about a person’s state of health
- Answering questions about health conditions
- Typical exchanges at the doctor’s office.

1. Listen to the new vocabulary and repeat after the speaker.

Abdomen wan:-bai'
. ~
Arm le'-maun:
~~ ..
Back nau'-co:
.,~ .~¸
Chest yin-ba'
_ ~
Chin mei:-zei.
.. .·
Ear na-ywe'
,. ¸~
Elbow da-daun-zi'
~ .~ ~·
Eye mye'-si.
¸~ ·
Face mye'-hna
¸~ ˙
Fingers le'-hcaun:-dwei
~~ .¸. .~
Foot/Feet hcei-hpa-wa:/
hcei-hpa-wa: dwei
.¸ .¸.¸ . .~
Genitals myou:-pwa:-in-ga-
dwei
¸¸. . .~
Groin paun-jan
. _
Hair za-bin
~
Hand le'
~~
Head gaun:
..
Heart hna-loun:
˙ ~.



255
2. In Burmese, name the body parts that come in pairs. Check your work with the answer
key.

3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate body part in Burmese. Check your answers with
the answer key.

¸~ ·
.~
,. ¸~
.~

.~~
.~
.¸ . .. ~~ ~¡ . . ·
mye'-si.-
dwei
na-ywe'-
dwei
hcei-dau'
-dwei
hcei-hpa-
wa:
gaun: le' le-bin: ba-za'

A. I use my ____________ to read a book.

B. I listen to music with my _____________.

C. Walking is good for my ____________.

D. I wear shoes and socks on my _____________.

E. In the winter, I wear a hat on my __________, gloves on my ___________, and a scarf
around my __________.

F. I eat and drink with my __________________.


Grammar note:
The word ·. hkan-za: 'to feel' is not usually used to express a feeling of sickness in colloquial
Burmese. The sentence, "I feel sick" in English would be said best as ~¸, .~ ¸. ., ~
ca-no hpya: nei de which literally means "I am sick" in Burmese. Note that the word ., nei 'stay'
is usually used as a second-verb (i.e. adding to the main verb) to express such a feeling, since
sickness normally indicates a continuous state.



256
How do you feel? I feel sick.
hka-mya: be-lou nei le: ca-no hpya: nei de
¸. ~ ., ~ ~¸, .~ ¸. ., ~
I feel weak.
ca-no a:ne: nei de

~¸, .~ . ,¡. ., ~
I feel bad.
ca-no nei ma-kaun: bu:

~¸, .~ ., .~. .

What symptoms do you have? I have a sore throat.
hka-mya: hma ba yo:-ga-le'-hka-na ga. dwei
shi. le
ca-no le-jaun: na de
¸. ._ ~~ˆ~ .~ _ ~ ~¸, .~ ~¡ .¸. , ., ~

I have a fever.
ca-no. hma a-hpya: shi. de

~¸, .~ ¸. _ ~
I have a headache.

~¸, .~ .. ~~ ., ~
ca-no gaun:-kai' nei de

Where does it hurt? My left ankle hurts.
be nei-ya na le: ca-no. be-be' hcei-jin:-wu' na nei de
., _ , ~ ~¸, .~ ~ .¸ ¸. ~ , ., ~

My back hurts.
ca-no. nau'-co: na nei de

~¸, .~ .,~ .~¸ , ., ~
My stomach hurts.
ca-no. bai' na nei de

~¸, .~ ~ , ., ~




257
4. Listen to the following questions and answers, and read along in the workbook.

A. How do you feel? I feel sick.
hka-mya: be-lou nei le: ca-no hpya: nei de
¸. ~ ., ~ ~¸, .~ ¸. ., ~

B. What is the matter with her? Her leg hurts.
thu ba phyi' nei da le: thu hcei-dau' na nei de
¸· ., ~ ~ .¸ .~~ , ., ~

C. How do you feel? My head hurts.
hka-mya: be-lou nei le: ca-no. gaun: na nei de
¸. ~ ., ~ ~¸, .~ .. , ., ~

D. Are you in pain? Yes, my arm is broken.
hka-mya: na nei la: hou' ke. ca-no. le'-maun: cou: nei ba de
¸. , ., ~. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ ~~ .. ~¸¸. ., ~

E. Where does it hurt? My stomach hurts.
be na: na le: ca-no bai' na nei de
,. , ~ ~¸, .~ ~ , ., ~

F. Are you sick? No, I’m pregnant.
hka-mya: hpya: nei la: ma-hou' pa bu: ca-ma. kou-wun shi. nei da ba
¸. ¸. ., ~. ~ . ~¸, ~ , ¸˙ ., ~

5. Work with a partner, and role-play the dialogues from Exercise 4.

5a. Practice creating complete sentences out of the words below.

Hip tin-ba:
~ .
Knee du:-gaun:
. ..
Leg hcei-dau'
.¸ .~~
Mouth ba-za'
. ·
Neck le-bin:
~¡ .
258
Nose hna-hkaun:
˙ ..
Pelvis tin-ba:-you:
~ . _.
Shoulder pa-hkoun
.
Stomach bai'/(a-sa-ein)
~¸¸ · ¸
Toes hcei-jaun:- dwei
.¸ .¸. .~
Tooth/Teeth thwa:/thwa:-dwei
.¸. .~
Waist hka:
.

6. Match each picture with the corresponding statement. Check your work with the
answer key.


A B C

1. ¸ ~ ¸¸. . ¸. ., ~ ~ . ~ , ¸˙ ., ~
di nge-ywe de. a-myou:-dha-mi: phya: nei da ma-hou' pa bu: thu kou-wun shi. nei da ba
2. .~ .~. ¸. _ _. ~¡ .¸. , ., ~ _. .~ ~ ~~ ~~
., ~ _. .~ ˙ .¸ _. .¸ ~. ., ~ ~.~. ., ~
gaun-ma.-lei a-hpya: shi. bi: le-jaun:-na nei de pi:-do. kou-le' kai'-hke: nei de pi:-do. hna-
hce bi: hcaun:-hsou: nei de thu tou'-kwei:-mi. nei de
3. .~ .~. , ¸ _. ~ , ., ~
gaun-lei an-jin bi: bai' na nei de

Grammar note:
To have the flu is expressed in colloquial Burmese as 'to catch a flu' as in ~.~. ., ~
thu tou'-kwei:-mi. nei de 'she has a flu' (lit. "she catches a flu").



259
7. Work with a partner and role-play as the doctor and patient. Use the questions from
Exercise 5 as a model. Use the phrases from Exercise 6 to describe your symptoms.

8. Read the list of the typical symptoms for each ailment.

Flu tou'-kwei
~.~.
Fever a-phya:
¸.
Congestion hcwe:-ca'-ta
¸ ~¸ ~
Sore throat le-jaun:-na-da
~¡ .¸. , ~
Body aches kou-le' kai'-hke:-da
~ ~~ ~~ ~
Sneezing hna-hcei-da
˙ .¸ ~
Coughing hcaun:-hsou:-da
.¸. ~. ~

Head cold hna-sei:-da
˙ .·. ~
Congestion hcwe:-ca'-ta
¸ ~¸ ~
Sore Throat le-jaun:-na-da
~¡ .¸. , ~
Sneezing hna-hcei-da
˙ .¸ ~
Coughing hcaun:-hsou:-da
.¸. ~. ~
Severe Pain a-yan:-na-da
_. , ~

Broken Bone a-you:-cou:-da
¸. ~¸¸. ~
Swelling yaun-da
._ ~
Bruise a-nyou-a-me:
-swe:-da/pun: -pe.-da
¡¸ ¡. · ~¸
,. ~
Bleeding thwei:-htwe'-da
.. ~~ ~

Sprain a-hsi'-mye'-da
~· ¸~ ~
Bruise a-nyou-a-me:
-swe:-da/pun: -pe.-da
¡¸ ¡. · ~¸
,. ~
Swelling yaun-da
._ ~
Pain na-cin-kai'-hke:-da
, ~¸ ~~ ~




260
9. Look at the chart of symptoms in Exercise 8. Work with a partner or in a small group
and develop questions the doctor can ask about one’s symptoms to be able to diagnose the
problem. Use the following model to create a dialogue.

Model: - Do you have fever?
- No, I don’t.
- Do you have a cough and body aches?
- No, doctor.
- That’s very good. You don’t have flu. It’s a cold.
- Thank you, doctor.
- You are welcome.

~~ ta le'-ma. '1 inch' = ¸ ¸ · ~ ~ hni' da.-ta-ma. nga: sin-di-mi-da '2.5 cm'
. ta pei '1 ft' = ¸ · ~ ~ thoun:-ze: sin-di-mi-da '30 cm'
· ~ ~ taya sin-di-mi-da '100 cm' = ~ ta -mi-da '1 meter'
. ta paun '1 lb' = ,¸, ~ ~ _ thoun-nya. da.-ta-ma lei-nga:-lei: ki-lou-ga-yan.
'0.454 kg'

- How tall is he, and how much does he weigh?
thu. a-ya' be-lau shi le: pi:-do. kou-a-lei:-jein be-lau' shi. le:
_ .~~ ¸˙¡ ~ _. .~ ~ .~. ¸, .~~ ¸˙ ~
- He is 70 inches tall and weighs 185 pounds.
thu. a-ya' ka. le'-ma. hkun-hna-she shei bi: kou-a-lei-jein ga. paun ta-ya.-shi.-hse-nga: shi. ba de
_ ~ ~~ ¸ ¸˙¡ _. ~ .~. ¸, ~ . .¸ ¸˙ ~
- How tall are you? How much do you weigh?
hka-mya: a-ya' be-lau shei le: hka-mya: kou-a-lei:-jein be-lau' shi. le:
¸. _ .~~ ¸˙¡ ~ ¸. ~ .~. ¸, .~~ ¸˙ ~
- I am 66 inches tall and weigh 120 pounds.
ca-no. a-ya' ka. le'-ma. hcau'-hce-hcau' shei bi: kou-a-lei-jein ga. paun ta-ya.-hna-hse shi. ba de
~¸, .~ _ ~ ~~ ¸˙¡ _. ~ .~. ¸, ~ . ¸ ¸˙ ~

10. Work with a partner. Take turns asking each other about your height and weight. Do
not forget to use the units of measure appropriate for Burma.


261
11. Listen to the speaker while you read the statements below. Translate each
exchange. You can check the English translation in the answer key.

A. ¸. ~ ., ~
hka-mya: be-lou nei le:
~¸, .~ ., .~. . , ¸ ~
ca-no thei' nei ma-kaun: bu: an-jin de

B. ¸. ~ ., ~
hka-mya: be-lou nei le:
~¸, .~ ., .~. ~ . ,¡. ,¡. , ¸ ~
ca-no nei gaun: ba de da-bei-me. ne:-ne: an-jin de

C. ¸. ~ ., ~
hka-mya: be-lou nei le:
~¸, .~ ., .~. . . , .~ , ¸ .
ca-no thei' nei ma-kaun: bu: da-bei-me. an do. ma-an-jin bu:

D. ~¸, .~ .¸ .~~ ~¸¸. . ~ ~ ~ .~¸. ~. ¸¸ _. ~ , ~ ~. .¨ ..
ca-no. hcei-dau' cou: thwa: de htin de ce:-zu:-pyu.-bi: lu-na-tin-ka: hko pei: ba

E. .¸ .~~ ~¸¸. . ~ ~ ~¸, .~ ~ ~ .~¸. ~. ¸¸ _. ~ , ~ ~. .¨ ..

thu. hcei-dau' cou: thwa: de lou. ca-no htin de ce:-zu:-pyu.-bi: lu-na-tin-ka: hko pei: ba

F. .¸ .~~ ~¸¸. . ~. ~¸, .~ ~ ~ .~¸. ~. ¸¸ _. ~ , ~ ~. .¨ ..

thu. hcei-dau' cou: thwa: la: ca-no din hta be: ce:-zu:-pyu.-bi: lu-na-tin-ka: hko pei: ba






262
12. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark each statement that you
hear. Check your work with the answer key.

1. A. Where does it hurt? My stomach hurts.
B. Where does it hurt? My back hurts.
C. Where does it hurt? My neck hurts.
2. A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a headache.
B. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a stomachache.
C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and my body aches.
3. A. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I’m nauseous.
B. How do you feel? I feel fine, but I’m a little nauseous.
C. How do you feel? I don’t feel well, but I’m not nauseous.
4. A. I think I broke my leg. Please call an ambulance!
B. I think he broke his leg. Please call an ambulance!
C. Did he break his leg? I think so, please call an ambulance!


















263
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Ask and answer the following questions in Burmese. Check the answer key for a
translation of the questions.

A. When you have the flu, what are your symptoms?
B. Are you taking any medications?
C. Have you ever broken a bone? If yes, which one(s)?
D. What is your height and weight?
E. How often do you see a doctor? Every month? Every year? Every 3 years?

2. Tell the class what you do in order to keep a healthy weight? Do you exercise? What
types of exercise do you do? How often and for how long do you exercise? Do you have a
special diet? What kind? What do you eat and not eat? Give an example of your menu.
What do you order when you eat out? How does it affect your diet the next day?

3. Work with a partner or in a small group. Describe the picture below.





264
Vocabulary List

Abnormal poun-hman ma-hou'-da
˙, ~ ~
Allergies ta-hku.-gu. ne. ma-te.-da
~· , ~¡ ~
Ambulance lu-na-tin-ka:
~ , ~ ~.
Arm le'-maun:
~~ ..
Chest yin-ba'
_ ~
Chin mei:-zei.
.. .·
Are you in pain? hka-mya: na ne la:
¸. , ., ~.
Are you taking any
medication?
hka-mya: hsei: thau' la:
¸. .~. .~ ~.
Body aches kou-le' kai-hke: da
~ ~~ ~~ ~
Broken bone cou:-nei-de. a-you:
~¸¸. ., ~ ¸.
Bruise a-nyou-a-me:-swe:-da / pun: -
pe.-da
¡¸ ¡. · ~¸ ,.
~
Call an ambulance! lu-na-din-ga: hko lai'
~ , ~ ~. .¨ ~~
Congestion cwe:-ca' hta
¸ ~¸ ~
Coughing hcaun:-hsou:-da
.¸. ~. ~
Ear na-ywe'
,. ¸~
Elbow da-daun-hsi'
~ .~ ~·
Eye mye'-si.
¸~ ·
Fingers le'-hcaun:-dwei
~~ .¸. .~
Foot hcei-hpa-wa:
.¸ .
Feel hkan-sa: / nei
·. ¸ .,
Fever a-hpya:
¸.
Flu/Influenza tou'-kwei
~.~.
Hand le'
~~
Head gaun:
..
Hip tin-ba:
~ .
Knee du:-gaun:
. ..
Help! ku-nyi ba
~ ¡
How do you feel? hka-mya: be-lou nei le:
¸. ~ ., ~
Hurt na
,
Leg hcei-dau'
.¸ .~~
Mouth ba-za'
. ·
Nose hna-hkaun:
,. ..
265
Neck le-bin:
~¡ .
Medicine hsei:
.~.
Nausea an-jin da
, ¸ ~
Pain na da/ kai-hke: da
, ~¸~~ ~
Pregnant kou-wun shi.
~ , _
Shoulder pa-hkoun:
.
Toes hcei-jaun:-dwei
.¸ .¸. .~
Waist hka:
.
Sick hpya:
¸.
Sneezing hna-hcei-da
˙ .¸ ~
Sore throat le-jaun:-na-da
~¡ .¸. , ~
Stomach bai'/(a-sa-ein)
~¸¸ · ¸
Stomach cramps bai' aun. da
~ . ~
Strain mye' hta
¸~ ~
Swelling yaun-da
._ ~
Symptoms yo-ga-le'-hka-na-dwei
._ ~~ˆ~ .~
What is the matter? ba hpyi' da le:
¸· ~ ~
Where does it hurt? be na: na le:
,. , ~

















266
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 2

ears ,. ¸~ .~
na-ywe'-dwei
elbows ~ .~ ~· .~
da-daun-zi'-dwei
eyes ¸~ · .~
mye'-si.-dwei
feet .¸ . .~
hcei-hpa-wa:-dwei
hands ~~ .~
le'-dwei
knees . .. .~
du:-gaun:-dwei
shoulders . .~
pa-hkoun:-dwei
arms ~~ .. .~
le'-maun:-dwei
legs .¸ .~~ .~
hcei-dau'-dwei
hips ~ . .~
tin-ba:-dwei

Exercise 3

A. eyes ¸~ · .~
mye'-si.-dwei
B. ears ,. ¸~ .~
na-ywe'-twei
C. legs .¸ .~~ .~
hcei-dau'-twei
D. feet .¸ . .~
hcei-hpa-wa:-dwei
E. head, hands, neck .. ~~ .~ ~¡ .
gaun:, le'-twei, le-bin:
F. mouth . ·
ba-za'

Exercise 6

A. 2 The little girl has a fever, a sore throat, and body aches, and she is sneezing and coughing.
She has the flu.
B. 1 The young woman is not sick. She is pregnant.
C. 3 The little boy is nauseous and has a stomachache.






267
Exercise 11

A. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I’m nauseous.
B. How do you feel? I feel fine, but I’m a little nauseous.
C. How do you feel? I don’t feel well, but I’m not nauseous.
D. I think I broke my leg. Please call an ambulance!
E. I think he broke his leg. Please call an ambulance!
F. Did he break his leg? I think so. Please call an ambulance!

Exercise 12

1. B. Where does it hurt? My back hurts.
be na: na le: ca-no. nau'-co: na nei de
,. , ~ ~¸, .~ .,~ .~¸ , ., ~
2. A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a headache.
hka-mya: ye. yo:-ga-le'-hka-na ga. ba dwei le ca-no a-hpya: shi. bi: gaun:-kai' pa de
¸. _ ._ ~~ˆ~ ~ .~ ~ ~¸, .~ ¸. _ _. .. ~~ ~
3. A. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I’m nauseous.
hka-mya: be-lou nei le: ca-no thei' nei ma-kaun: bu: an-jin de
¸. ~ ., ~ ~¸, .~ ., .~. . , ¸ ~
4. C. Did he break his leg? I think so, please call an ambulance!
thu. hcei-dau' cou: thwa: dha la: ca-no htin hta be: ce:-zu:-pyu.-bi: lu-na-tin-ka: hko pei: ba
.¸ .~~ ~¸¸. . ~. ~¸, .~ ~ ~ .~¸. ~. ¸¸ _. ~ , ~
~. .¨ ..

End of Lesson Exercise 1

A. When you have the flu, what are your symptoms? ¸. ~.~. ~ ¸. _ ._
~~ˆ~ ~ .~ ~
B. Are you taking any medications? ¸. .~. .~ ~.
C. Have you ever broken a bone? If yes, which one(s)? ¸. _. ~¸¸. . ~. ~¸¸. .
_ _. ~
D. What is your height and weight? ¸. _ , ~ .~. ¸, .~~ ¸˙ ~
E. How often do you see a doctor? Every month? Every year? Every 3 years? ¸. ~ _
, ~ ~ ~ ¸ ~ ~ ~. ~. · ~. ~. ¸ · ~· _~ ~.

268
Lesson 18
Political and International Events
._. , ~ ~ ¸· ¸~ ¸.
nain-ngan-ye: ne. nain-ngan-da-ka a-phyi'-a-pye' mya:


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Vocabulary associated with politics and international issues
- How they are reported in the Burmese news
- How to read and understand political events written in the Burmese newspapers.

Cultural note:
Burma has been ruled by a military government since 1988. In the 1990’s an election was held
and the National League for Democracy (NLD) party, the party of Aung San Suu Kyi, won that
election. But the military government did not honor the results of the election. Instead, many
members have been arrested and imprisoned, and Aung San Suu Kyi has been under house arrest
until now.

The current leader of Burma is Senior General Than Shwe. There are about 20 political parties in
Burma. But these parties are not allowed to exercise their rights, such as freedom of speech,
freedom to assemble, and freedom to advocate their political ideologies.

The main problem in Burma is a lack of representative government. The military is the sole and
only authority in the country. The despotic decisions of the generals are final in all matters. As a
result, there have been abuses of human and religious rights, and racial oppression.

In a way, the military government itself is a radical political party since it holds the power of the
government at gunpoint in Burma.

















269
1. Familiarize yourself with these political terms.


Government a-sou:-ya. ·. _
Prime minister wun-ji:-jou' , _~. ¸¸
President tha-ma-da. ~
Leader gaun:-zaun .. .~
Dictator a-na-shin ~ ¸˙
Parliament u.-pa-dei-pyu.-hlwa'-to ¡ . ¸¸ ~~ .~
Ministry wun-ji:-hta-na. , _~. ¸ ,
Election ywei:-kau'-pwe: .¸. .~~
Officials a-ya-shi.-dwei _ ¸˙ .~
Political Party nain-ngan-yei: pa-ti ._. ~
Vote hsan-da.-me: ~ ˜
Republic tha-ma-da.-nain-ngan ~
State pyi-ne ¸¡ ,
Democracy di-mo-ka-yei-si ~ ._ ·
Democratic di-mo-ka-yei-si sa-ni. ~ ._ · · ,·
Term of office tha'-hma' ka-la. ~ ˙~ ~ ~
Policy mu-wa-da.
Human Rights lu.-a-hkwin.-a-yei: ~ ._.
Religious ba-tha-yei: ._.
Racial lu-myou:-yei: ~ ¸¸. ._.
Radical a-swan:-yau' ·,. ._~
World ga-ba ~ ı
Conflict pa-ti.-pe'-hka. _ ~ˆ
War si'-pwe: ··
Invade cu:-co-tai'-hkai' ~¸¸. .~¸ ~~ ~
Nuclear weapons nyu-ka-li:-ya: le'-ne' dwei ¡¸ ~ ~. . ~~ ,~ .~


2. Listen to and read the following statements. While reading, note the use of new
vocabulary.

The Iraqi leader i-ya' gaun:-zaun _~ .. .~
The Russian officials ru.-sha: a-ya-shi. dwei ¸ ¸˙. _ ¸˙ .~
The South African
government
taun a-hpa-yi.-ka. a-sou:-ya. .~ _ ~ ·. _
Religious differences ba-tha-yei: kwe:-bya: mu. dwe ._. ~ ¸. ˙¸ .~
270
Middle East conflict a-shei. a-le-bain: pa-ti.-pe'-hka. .¸˙ ~ . _ ~ˆ
The war in Iraq i-ya' si'-pwe: _~ ··
The radical political party a-swan:-yau' nain-ngan-yei: pa-ti ·,. ._~ ._. ~
Islamic fundamentalism i'-sa-lan a-swan:-yau' wa-di ·Œ ~ ·,. ._~


The President of the United States is George Bush.
a-mei-yi.-kan pyi-htaun-su. ye. tha-ma-da. ga. jo.-bush ba
. _ ~, ¸¡ .~ · _ ~ ~ .¸ ¸˙

Japan and Great Britain have prime ministers.
ja-pan ne. byi.-tein nain-ngan dwei hma wun-ji:-jou' twei shi. ba de
¸ , , _ ~, .~ ˙ , _~. ¸¸ .~ ¸˙ ~

This was the first political election in that country.
da e:-di nain-ngan ye. pa-hta-ma. hsoun: a-cein ywei:-kau'-pwe: ba
_ ~ ~. _~ .¸. .~~

Human rights are a very important issue in the world today.
ya-nei. ga-ba hma lu. a-kwin.-a-yei: ha a-lun a-yei: ci: de. kei'-sa. ba
., ~ ı ˙ ~ ._. ~, ._. _~. ~ ~ ·Œ


Cultural note:
In Burma, political news is reported only by the government news agency. The size of the
picture, where the picture appears (front page or elsewhere, etc.) indicates the ranking of a
particular government official. For example, the picture of the country’s leader, Senior General
Than Swe, would take half of the front page of a newspaper.

The newspapers and the media are totally controlled by the military government in Burma. There
are several steps of censorship before a news item will appear in the newspaper and media.

3. Listen to and read the following news report from Burma. Then answer the
questions that follow. Check your work with the Answer Key.

PLAY AUDIO

_ ~ ~ ¸ _~ ¸

~ ¸¸ ˙¸. _~. ,. .¸ ¡ ~. , _~. ¸¸ ~ ~ ¸˙ , . ¸,
_¸ .~ · ., ¸¡ .~ ~ ., ¡ ., . ¸ ~~ .~ ~ ¡ ~. , _~. ¸¸
~ ~ ˙ ~ ¸. ._. , _~. ¸ , , _~. ~, ~ ~ , ,. ~
·~ ¸¸. ._. , _~. ¸ , , _~. ~ _~ ~ _ , _. ¸· ˙ ~ ,.
271
~¸ ~,. . ._. , _~. ¸ , , _~. , ~ ~ _~ ˙ ~. ~ .~ ·· ¡.
·. ¸¸ ~ ¸¸ _~. ~, , _~ ~ ~ ~¡. ., ~· ~ _. ~¡ ~ ~
._~ _~ ¡


1. What is the date of this news report?
2. Who meets Thai caretaker Prime Minister, Thaksin?
3. Where do they meet?
4. When does the meeting take place?
5. Who was with Thaksin, and what is their official status?


4. Work in small groups. Pretend that you are a crew working for a news program.
Come up with a short description of a political event. Use the questions from Exercise 3 as
an outline for your report.

5. Work in a small group or with a partner. Go over the information on the political
system in the Burma one more time. Recall the information in the Burmese Language.
Report to your teacher and to the class.

International Geography




6. Read the information about Burma and answer the questions. Check your work in the
Answer Key.



The flag of the Union of Myanmar

272

Burma and its neighbors A map of Burma


¸, ¡ ƒ _ · ~ _,. .. ¸¸. ~¸ ,. _. .¸˙ ~ ~
~ ˙ ~. .,~ ~ ~ ~. .¸˙ .¸˙ .¸~ ~ ~
~ ¸~ .,~ .¸~ ~ ~ ˜ ~ ~¡ ¸˙ _. .,~ .~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ˙ ~. ~ . ~ ,. _ ~¸~ ¸˙ ~ ¸, ·
~ ¡. ._ ˙ ¸¸ ,. .~¸ ¸˙ _. _¸ .~ ˙ ., ¸¡ .~ ¸· ~

1. Where are Laos and Thailand in relation to Burma?
2. What country is on the west side of Burma?
3. Where is China in relation to Burma?
4. What is the capital of Burma?




273
7. Listen to the speaker and follow along in your book.


Afghanistan/Afghani a-hpa-gan-ni'-sa-tan nain-ngan/
a-hpa-gan-ni'-sa-tan lu-myou:
, , ·Œ ~, ¸
, , ·Œ ~, ~ ¸¸.
Canada/Canadian ka-nei-da nain-ngan/
ka-nei-da lu-myou:
~ ., ¸
~ ., ~ ¸¸.
China/Chinese ta-you' nain-ngan/
ta-you' lu-myou:
~ ¸~ ¸
~ ¸~ ~ ¸¸.
Denmark/Danes dein:-ma' nain-ngan/
dein:-ma' lu-myou:
,. ~ ¸ ,. ~ ~ ¸¸.
Egypt/Egyptian i-ji' nain-ngan / i-ji' lu-myou: ¸· ¸ ¸· ~ ¸¸.

England/English in-ga-lan nain-ngan/
in-ga-lei' lu-myou:
~, ¸
~ ~ ¸¸.
Finland/Finns hpin-lan nain-ngan/
hpin-lan lu-myou:
~, ¸
~, ~ ¸¸.
France/French pyin-thi' nain-ngan/
pyin-thi' lu-myou:
¸ · ¸
¸ · ~ ¸¸.
Germany/German ja-ma-ni nain-ngan/
ja-man lu-myou:
¸ , ¸
¸ , ~ ¸¸.
Great Britain/British byi.-ti.-sha. nain-ngan
byi.-ti.-sha. lu-myo:
_ ~ ¸ ¸
_ ~ ¸ ~ ¸¸.
India/Indian ein-di.-ya. nain-ngan/
ein-di.-ya. lu-myou:
˜ ¸
˜ ~ ¸¸.
Indonesia/Indonesian in-dou-ni:-sha: nain-ngan/
in-dou-ni:-sha: lu-myou:
,. ¸˙. ¸
,. ¸˙. ~ ¸¸.
Iran/Iranian i-yan nain-ngan/
i-yan lu-myou:
_, ¸
_, ~ ¸¸.
Iraq/Iraqi i-ya' nain-ngan/
i-ya' lu-myou:
_~ ¸
_~ ~ ¸¸.
Ireland/Irish ain-ya-lan nain-ngan/
ain-ya-lan lu-myou:
~, ¸
. ~, ~ ¸¸.
Israel/Israeli i'-sa-yei: nain-ngan/
i'-sa-yei: lu-myou:
·Œ ._. ¸
·Œ ._. ~ ¸¸.
Italy/Italian i-ta-li nain-ngan/
i-ta-li lu-myou:
~ ~ ¸
~ ~ ~ ¸¸.
Japan/Japanese ja-pan nain-ngan/
ja-pan lu-myou:
¸ , ¸
¸ , ~ ¸¸.
274
Jordan/Jordanian jo-dan nain-ngan/
jo-dan lu-myou:
.¸ , ¸
.¸ , ~ ¸¸.
Korea/Korean ko-yi:-ya: nain-ngan/
ko-yi:-ya: lu-myou:
~ _. . ¸
~ _. . ~ ¸¸.
Kuwait/Kuwaiti ku-wei'-nain-ngan/
ku-wei' lu-myou:
~ ~ ¸
~ ~ ~ ¸¸.
Mexico/Mexican me'-hsi-kou nain-ngan/
me'-hsi-kou lu-myou:
~˚ ~ ~ ¸
~˚ ~ ~ ~ ¸¸.
Netherlands/Dutch ne-tha-lan nain-ngan/
ne-tha-lan lu-myou:
, ~, ¸
, ~, ~ ¸¸.
Norway/Norwegian no-wei: nain-ngan/
no-wei: lu-myou:
., .. ¸
., .. ~ ¸¸.
Pakistan/Pakistani pa-ki'-sa-tan nain-ngan/
pa-ki'-sa-tan lu-myou:
~ ·Œ ~, ¸
~ ·Œ ~, ~ ¸¸.
Philippines/Filipino hpi.-li'-pain nain-ngan/
hpi.-li'-pain lu-myou:
~· ¸
~· ~ ¸¸.
Russia/Russian ru.-sha: nain-ngan/
ru.-sha: lu-myou:
¸ ¸˙. ¸
¸ ¸˙. ~ ¸¸.
Saudi Arabia/Saudi hso-di-a-yei-bya. nain-ngan/
hso-di-a-yei-bya. lu-myou:
.~ ._ ¸ ¸
.~ ._ ¸ ~ ¸¸.
Scotland/Scot sa-ko.-ta-lan nain-ngan/
sa-ko.-ta-lan lu-myou:
· .~ ~ ~, ¸
· .~ ~ ~, ~ ¸¸.
South Africa/South
African
taun a-hpa-ri.-ka. nain-ngan/
taun a-hpa-ri.-ka. lu-myou:
.~ _ ~ ¸
.~ _ ~ ~ ¸¸.
Spain/Spanish sa-pain nain-ngan/
sa-pain lu-myou:
· , ¸
· , ~ ¸¸.
Sweden/Swede hswei-din nain-ngan/
hswei-din lu-myou:
~ ¸
~ ~ ¸¸.
Syria/Syrian hsi:-yi:-ya: nain-ngan/
hsi:-yi:-ya: lu-myou:
~. _. . ¸
~. _. . ~ ¸¸.
Thailand/Thai htain: nain-ngan/
htain: lu-myou:
~. ¸
~. ~ ¸¸.
Vietnam/Vietnamese bi-ye'-nan nain-ngan/
bi-ye'-nan lu-myou:
~ , ¸
~ , ~ ¸¸.
Wales/Welsh wei-la. pyi-ne/wei-la. ne-tha: . ~ ¸¡ , ¸ . ~ , .
North America myau' a-mei-yi.-ka. .¸~ . _ ~
Central America a-mei-yi.-ka. a-le-bain: . _ ~ ~ .
South America taun a-mei-yi.-ka .~ . _ ~
Western Europe a-nau' u.-yo:-pa. .,~ ¡ ._
Central Europe u.-yo:-pa. a-le-bain: ¡ ._ ~ .
275
Eastern Europe a-shei. u.-yo:-pa. .¸˙ ¡ ._
Middle East a-shei. a-le-bain: .¸˙ ~ .
Southwest Asia a-nau'-taun a-sha. .,~ .~ ¸˙
Southeast Asia a-shei.-taun a-sha. .¸˙ .~ ¸˙
Africa a-hpa-yi.-ka _ ~
Australia o-sa-tei:-lya. _ · ._~. ~¸
Eastern Asia a-sha. a-shei.-bain: ¸˙ .¸˙ .
Arctic a-tei' ~~
Antarctica an-ta-ti.-ka. – ~ ~
Pacific Rim pa-si.-hpei' pa'-le nain-ngan dwei ·Œ ~ ~ ~¡ .~

Grammar note:
For the name of a country, a word nain-ngan “country” is suffixed to the given name. E.g.
¸ , ja-pan nain-ngan “Japan,” (lit. "Japan country"). For the nationality, the word ~ ¸¸.
lu-myou: “people” is suffixed to the name. E.g. ¸ , ~ ¸¸. ja-pan lu-myou: “Japanese” (lit.
"Japanese people"). Burmese usually has its own way of calling for the names of its neighboring
Asian countries. But for the names of other world countries, it usually translates them from
English.


8. Listen to and read the dialogues about nationality. Note the ways to determine
one’s nationality.

Are you from Syria? No, I’m from Egypt. I’m an Egyptian.
hka-mya: hsi:-yi:-ya: nain-ngan ga. la: ma-hou' pa bu: ca-no i-ji' nain-ngan ga. ba
ca-no i-ji' lu-myou: ba
¸. ~. _. . ~ ~. ~ . ~¸, .~ ¸· ~
~¸, .~ ¸· ~ ¸¸.

Are you American? No, I’m Canadian.
hka-mya: a-mei-yi.-kan lu-myou: la: ma-hou' pa bu: ca-no ka-nei-da lu-myou: ba
¸. . _ ~, ~ ¸¸. ~. ~ . ~¸, .~ ~ ., ~ ¸¸.

What are you? I’m Vietnamese.
hka-mya: ba lu-myou: le: ca-no bi-ye'-nan lu-myou: ba
¸. ~ ¸¸. ~ ~¸, .~ ~ , ~ ¸¸.

Where are you from? I’m from India. I’m Indian.
hka-mya: be ga. le: ca-no ein-di.-ya. nain-ngan ga ba
ca-no ein-di.-ya.lu-myou: ba
¸. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ ˜ ~
~¸, .~ ˜ ~ ¸¸.
276

Are you Indonesian? Yes, I’m Indonesian. I live in Jakarta.
hka-mya: in-dou-ni:-sha: lu-myou: la: hou' pa de ca-no in-dou-ni:-sha: lu-myou: ba
ca-no ja-ka-ta hma nei ba de
¸. ,. ¸˙. ~ ¸¸. ~. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ ,. ¸˙. ~ ¸¸.
~¸, .~ ¸ ~ ~ ˙ ., ~

Are you from Afghanistan? I live in Afghanistan, but I am Pakistani.
hka-mya: a-hpa-gan-ni'-sa-tan nain-ngan
ga. la:
ca-no a-hpa-gan-ni'-sa-tan nain-ngan hma nei ba de
da-bei-me. ca-no ga. pa-ki'-sa-tan lu-myou: ba
¸. , , ·Œ ~, ~ ~. ~¸, .~ , ,·Œ ~, ˙ ., ~
. ~¸, .~ ~ ~·Œ ~, ~ ¸¸.

9. Create questions in Burmese that are appropriate to the answers provided. Check your
work with the Answer Key.

1. - …………………………..?
hou' pa de ca-no bi-ye'-nan lu-myou: ba
~ ~ ~¸, .~ ~ , ~ ¸¸.
2. - ……………………………?

ca-no a-mei-yi.-kan lu-myou: ma-hou' pa bu: ca-no ka-nei-da lu-myou: ba
~¸, .~ . _ ~, ~ ¸¸. ~ . ~¸, .~ ., ~ ¸¸.
3. - …………… or ……………..?

ca-no pa-ki'-sa-tan nain-ngan hma nei ba de da-bei-me. ca-no a-hpa-gan-ni'-sa-tan
lu-myou: ba
~¸, .~ ~ ·Œ ~, ˙ ., ~ . ~¸, .~ , ,·Œ ~, ~ ¸¸.
4. - ……………………………..?

hou' pa de ca-no-dou. i-ya' lu-myou: ba
~ ~ ~¸, .~ ~ _~ ~ ¸¸.


10. What do you hear? The speaker will read one word from each line of text. Mark
the word that you hear. Check your answers with the answer key.

1. , , ·Œ ~, ~ ·Œ ~, _, ˜
2. ~, ~. , ~, ~,
3. ~ , ,. ¸˙. ¸ , ~ ¸~
4. .~ ._ ¸ ~. _. . ·Œ ._. .¸ ,
5. ~ ~ _~ ¸· ¸ ¸˙.

277

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Translate the following headlines into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.

.¨ . ~,. · _~¡ ˙, .~. ~ ˙¸ ~ ¸. ¸.
¸ ~ ~ ~. ¸ ~~ ~~ _ ~¡ ˙ ~ ._~. ~ .. .~
¸. ~ .¸ _~. ¸.
¸ _ ~. ~ .¸. .~~ ~ _ ¸˙ ._~. _ ¸˙ ¸. ~ .¸ _~. ¸.
, ., ~. , , ·Œ ~, ·· ~ ¸˙. , ¡ ~.
¸ ~ · ~ .. .~ ~ ¸. _. . .~ ¡ ¸~ ~¸ _ ~ . ~. . ¸.
~ ¸~. ˙ ,. ._. _ ~ ~˚ ~ ~ ~ ¸¸. ¸. ., ~ _ _¸ .¸ .¸ ¸.

2. Listen to and read the following news report from Burma, then answer the
questions that follow. Check your work with the Answer Key.

PLAY AUDIO

~. , _~. ¸¸ ~ ~ ¡ ~ ¸¸ ˙¸. _~. ,. .¸ ˙ .~ ~ _. .,~ ~.
.~~ ¸. ˙ .~ ~ _ ~ ~ ., ˙ ~ ˙¸ ._. ~ ·Œ _ .~ ·. . ._. ,
._. ~ ·Œ _ .~ ˙· ¸. , ¸. ~~ ~ ._. ~ ·Œ _ .~ ~ · · _
_ ¸¸ . .~¸~ _ ._~. ~¸, .~ ., , .. ·~ .¸ ..
._~. .¸ _~. ¡ ¸, ~ . ¸. .¸. .¸ ~ ~ ˙¸ , , ·
¸~ .~¸ ~ _. ,. .˙ ._. ˙¸ ~ ·Œ _ ¸. ~ ~ .~. .. _~
._~. ~. ~. .~~ ¸. ~ ˙ ~. _ ¸˙ ¡ . , ._. . ¸. ~ ~.
, _~. ¸¸ ~ ~ · _. ·¡ ¡ „. · ~ ·. . ._. ~ ·Œ _ ¸. ~ .~
_, . ._~ ¸. ¸· ._~. ~¡. .¸ _~. ~

1. Who meets in this news report?
2. What issues did they cover in their meeting?
3. Did Thaksin give a detailed account?
4. What issues were the focus of the meeting?
5. What did the critics say about Thaksin's trip?







278
3. Work with a partner or in a small group. From the list of the countries above, choose
one and give a briefing on its location and political system. Pretend that you are giving a
press conference. Your classmates will role-play as news reporters by asking you
questions.

The following questions may help you in your work:

1. Does this country have a president? Who is the current president?
2. How many political parties are there in this country?
3. Is there a war in this country now?
4. Does this country have a parliament?
5. Is there a democracy in this country?
6. Does this country have a prime minister?
7. Is the leader of this country a dictator?
8. Is this country a republic?
9. What is a specific geographical feature of this country?






























279
Vocabulary List

Conflict pa-ti.-pe'-hka. _ ~ˆ
Democracy/
democratic
di-mo-ka-yei-si /
di-mo-ka-yei-si sa-ni'
~ ._ ·¸ ~ ._ · · ,·
Dictator a-na-shin ~ ¸˙
Dispute a-nyin:-a-hkoun ¸ .
Election ywei:-kou'-pwe: .¸. .~~
Government a-sou:-ya. ·. _
Human Rights lu. a-hkwin.-a-yei: ~ ._.
Invade/invasion cu:-co-tai'-hkai' ~¸¸. .~¸ ~~ ~
Leader gaun:-zaun .. .~
Ministry wun-ji:-hta-na. , _~. ¸ ,
Nuclear weapons nyu-ka-li:-ya: le'-ne'-dwei ¡¸ ~ ~. . ~~ ,~ .~
Official a-ya-shi. _ ¸˙
Parliament u.-pa-dei-pyu.-hlu'-to ¡ . ¸¸ ~~ .~
Policy mu-wa-da.
Political Party nain-ngan-yei: pa-ti ._. ~
President tha-ma-da. ~
Prime minister wun-ji:-jou' , _~. ¸¸
Racial lu-myou:-yei: ~ ¸¸. ._.
Radical a-swan:-yau' ·,. ._~
Religious ba-tha-yei: ._.
Republic tha-ma-da.-nain-ngan ~
State pyi-ne ¸¡ ,
Term of office tha'-hma' ka-la. ~ ˙~ ~ ~
To kill tha' ~
To vote hsan-da.-me:-pei: ~ ˜ ..
To invade cu:-co-tai'-hkai' ~¸¸. .~¸ ~~ ~
War si'-pwe: ··
World ga-ba ~ ı










280
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 3
August 02, 2006
Senior General Than Shwe meets Thai caretaker Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra in Burma’s
new capital Naypyidaw this evening. Thaksin makes the surprise half-day visit with a high-level
delegation that includes Foreign Minister Kantathi Suphamongkhon, Agriculture Minister
Sudarat Keyuraphan, Natural Resources and Environment Minister Yongyuth Tiyapairat, and
army chief, General Sonthi Boonyaratglin.
1. _ ~ ~ ¸ _~ ¸
2. ~ ¸¸ ˙¸. _~. ,. .¸
3. ¸, _¸ .~ · ., ¸¡ .~
4. ¡ ., .
5. ¸. ._. , _~. ¸ , , _~. ~, ~ ~ , ,. ~ ·~ ¸¸. ._. , _~.
¸ , , _~. ~ _~ ~ _ , _. ¸· ˙ ~ ,. ~¸ ~,. . ._.
, _~. ¸ , , _~. , ~ ~ _~ ˙ ~. ~ .~ ·· ¡. ·. ¸¸ ~ ¸¸ _~.
~, , _~ ~

1. August 2, 2006
2. Senior General Than Shwe
3. Burma’s new capital Naypyidaw
4. Evening
5. Foreign Minister Kantathi Suphamongkhon, Agriculture Minister Sudarat Keyuraphan,
Natural Resources and Environment Minister Yongyuth Tiyapairat, and army chief, General
Sonthi Boonyaratglin.

Exercise 6

Burma covers 261,218 square miles, and it is sandwiched between Laos and Thailand to the east,
Bangladesh to the west, China to the north-east, India to the northwest, and Bay of Bengal and
Andaman Sea to the south. The population of Burma is over 53 million, and the capital is now
Naypyidaw.

1. .¸˙ ~
2. ~. .¸˙
3. .¸˙ .¸~ ~
4. ., ¸¡ .~





281
Exercise 9

1. Are you Vietnamese? 1. ¸. ~ ,
~ ¸¸. ~.
hka-mya: bi-ye'-nan
lu-myou: la:
2. Are you American? 2. ¸. . _ ~,
~ ¸¸. ~.
hka-mya: a-mei-yi-kan
lu-myou: la:
3. Are you Pakistani? 3. ¸. ~ ·Œ ~,
~ ¸¸. ~.
hka-mya: pa-ki'-sa-tan
lu-myou: la:
4. Are you Iraqis? 4. ¸. _~ ~ ¸¸.
~.
hka-mya: i-ya' lu-myou: la:

Exercise 10

1. India ˜ ein-di.-ya. nain-ngan
2. England ~, in-ga-lan nain-ngan
3. Indonesia ,. ¸˙. in-dou-ni:-sha: nain-ngan
4. Israel ·Œ ._. i'-sa-yei: nain-ngan
5. Russia ¸ ¸˙. ru.-sha: nain-ngan

End of Lesson Exercise 1

1. Aung San Suu Kyi Denied Regular Medical Assistance.
2. Thaksin Can’t Land in Thailand, Says Coup Leader.
3. Brazil's president wins in landslide, officials say.
4. Is NATO Losing the Real Battle in Afghanistan?
5. Muslim leader among those killed in Nigerian plane crash.
6. Riot police move into Mexican town.

Exercise 2

Thaksin tells reporters, after the unusual meeting with Than Shwe: “We covered everything from
social issues and economics and politics to bilateral and multilateral issues. I can’t go into
details.” Thai media reports that the meeting also focuses on issues of Burmese migrant workers
and cross-border drug trafficking, while critics say the trip has more to do with Thaksin’s
personal business concerns.

1. ~. , _~. ¸¸ ~ ~ , ~ ¸¸ ˙¸. _~. ,. .¸

2. ~ ˙¸ ._. ~ ·Œ _ .~ ·. . ._. , ._. ~ ·Œ _ .~ ˙· ¸. , ¸.
~~ ~ ._. ~ ·Œ _ .~

3. .. .

282
4. ¸, ~ . ¸. .¸. .¸ ~ ~ ˙¸ , , · ¸~ .~¸ ~ _. ,.
.˙ ._. ˙¸ ~ ·Œ _ ¸.

5. . , ._. . ¸. ~ ~. , _~. ¸¸ ~ ~ · _. ·¡ ¡ „. · ~ ·.
. ._. ~ ·Œ _ ¸. ~ .~ _, . ._~ ¸. ¸· ._~. ~¡. .¸ _~. _~
~
283
Lesson 19
The Military
·· ~
si'-ta'


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Basic military vocabulary
- The rank structure of the U.S. Army and Burmese military forces
- Names of weapons and army vehicles.


1. What do soldiers do? What do soldiers use? What do soldiers wear? The pictures
will help you guess the meaning of unknown terms.






·· . .~ , .. ~ _~ ~
~ _ .¸ .~~ ˙ ~ , ~ _. .. ˙ .~ .~. _~ ~
.~ ~ ~ _ .. ~ .¸~ ~¸¡ ~, , .~ ~ ~~ ~ ·Œ¡. .~ ~
., ~ ~ .. ~
·· . .~ ~~ ~ ˙ ~~ ,~ .~ ¸˙ ~

si'-tha: dwei yu-ni-hpaun: wu' ca. de
thu-dou. ye. hcei-dau' hma bu'-hpa-na' wu' pi: gaun: hma than-hka-mau' hsaun: ja. de
than-hkamau' ka. thu dou. ye. gaun: gou amyau' ci-zan ne. pau'-kwe: ta' te. pyi'-si: dwei ga.-
nei ka-kwe pei: de
si'-tha: dwei le' hte: hma le'-ne' twei shi. de



284



di si'-tha: thu. yain-hpe ne. pyi'-hka' te
di si'-tha: thu. ta'-hmu:
gou hse'-thwe-yei:-se' ne.
za-ga: pyo: de
di si'-tha: hma doun:-
pyan-laun-hca shi. de
·· . ¸ , · ~ ~
·· . ~ ˙¸. ~
~~ ._. ·~ , ·
~. .¸ ~
·· . ˙ . ¸
.~ ¸ ¸˙ ~


2. Now listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.

Soldier si'-tha: ·· .
Uniform yu-ni-hpaun: , ..
Boots bu' hpa-na' ~ ,
Helmet than-hkamau' .~
To protect ka-kwe ~ ~
Artillery amyau' .¸~
Ammunition ci-zan ~¸¡ ~,
Explosives pau'-kwe ta' te. pyi'-si: dwei .~ ~ ~~ ~ ·Œ¡. .~
Weapons le'-ne' twei ~~ ,~ .~
Radio hse'-thwe-yei:-se' ~~ ._. ·~
Commander ta'-hmu: ~ ˙¸.
To fire pyi'-hka' · ~
Rifle rain-hpe ¸
Rocket launcher doun:-pyan-laun-hca . ¸ .~ ¸





285
Grammar note:
Some Burmese words in this lesson are loan words from English. E.g. ¸ yain-hpe 'rifle'.
Interestingly, Burmese also borrowed the word ._ yei-di-you 'radio' from English. But in
the military, a different word ~~ ._. ·~ hse'-thwe-yei:-se' is used for 'radio'. This word
literally means communication machine.
“To fire a gun” is expressed in Burmese as "to fire with a gun," i.e. to fire by means of a
gun, as illustrated below:

·· . ¸ , · ~ ~
Lit. di si'-tha: thu. yain-hpe ne. pyi'-hka' te
this soldier his rifle with fire realis
This soldier fires his rifle (lit. "This soldier fires with his gun").

In using the word ¸˙ sha 'search' in colloquial Burmese, a phrase ¸˙ ¸˙ shi.-ma-shi.
'whether one has or not' usually precedes the verb in order to clarify the action.

3. Read the statements and match each one with the correct picture. Check your answers
with the answer key.



1. 2. 3.

A. ~ _ . ˙ ~~ ,~ ¸˙ . ˙ ~ .~. .~ ¸˙ ~
thu ga. a-ya'-tha: ba thu. hma le'-ne' ma- shi. bu: thu. hma hka-lei: dwei shi. de

B. ~ ·· . ˙ ~~ ,~ ¸˙ ~
thu ga. si'-tha: ba thu. hma le'-ne' shi. de

C. ·· . ~ _ . ~ ~~ ,~ ¸˙ ¸˙ ¸˙ ~
si'-tha: ga. a-ya'-tha: gou le'-ne' shi.-ma-shi. sha de


286
4. Listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.



1. 2. 3.
These vehicles are HUMMVEE’s.

Self-propelled Missile
Launcher
di yin dwei ga. han:-bwi: yin dwei ba pe.-htein: doun:-ci laun-hca
¡ .~ ~ . . ¡ .~ ~,. . ~¸¡ .~ ¸

4. 5. 6.
Tank Self-propelled Gun Armored Vehicle
tin.-ka: pe.-htein: si'-tha-na' than-ja'-ka-yin
~ ~. ~,. ·· . ,~ ¸ ~ ¡


5. Now cover the names of the vehicles with a sheet of paper and name them. Repeat
Exercise 4 as many times as you need to feel comfortable with the new terms.

1. ……………………..
2. ……………………..
3. ……………………..
4. ……………………..
5. ……………………..
6. ……………………..





287
6. Listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.



1

2

3

4

5

6

7 8

8


1 Mortar sein-byaun: ·,._. 5 Mine main: .
2 Rifle yain-hpe ¸ 6 Pistol pi'-sa-tou ·Œ ~
3 Machine
gun
se'-tha-na' ·~ .
,~
7 Missile doun:-ji . ~¸¡
4 Grenade le'-pi'-boun: ~~ · . 8 Weapons cache le'-ne'-tai' ~~ ,~ ~~



288
7. Look at the pictures in Exercise 6. Cover the Burmese translations and the English
words in Exercise 6. Match each term with the correct picture. Replay the sound as many
times as you need. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. mine main: .
B. missile doun:-ji . ~¸¡
C. grenade le'-pyi'-boun: ~~ · .
D. weapons cache le'-ne'-tai' ~~ ,~ ~~
E. pistol pi'-sa-tou ·Œ ~
F. mortar sein-byaun: ·,._.
G. machine gun se'-tha-na' ·~ . ,~
H. rifle yain-hpe ¸

8. In the following groups of words, cross out the one word out of each group that does not
logically belong. Check your answers with the answer key.

1. ~ ~. ~~ · . ·· ~. . . ¡
2. ¸ .¸~ .~ ·~ . ,~
3. , .. ·· . _ . ~ ˙¸.
4. ~~ ._. ·~ .¸ . ~. ~~ ,~
5. .~ .¸~ , .. ~ ,
6. _ ¸˙ ·· . _ . ~ ˙¸.

9. Translate the following statements into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. ·· . .~ .~ ~ ~¸¡ ~, ~ ., ~ ~ .~. _~ ~
si'-tha:-dwei than-hkamau' kou ci-zan ga.-nei ka-kwe bou. hsaun: ja. de

2. ·· . .~ .~ ~ .~ ~ ~~ ~ ·Œ¡. .~ , .¸~ ~ ., ~ ~ .~.
_~ ~
si'-tha:-dwei than-hkamau' kou pau'-kwe ta' te. pyi'-si: dwei ne. amyau' ka.-ne ka-kwe bou. hsaun: ja.
de

3. ~¸, .~ ~ _ . .~ . ~. ~ ~~ ,~ ¸˙ ¸˙ ¸˙ ., ~
ca-no dou. a-ya'-tha: dwei a:-loun: gou le'-ne' shi.-ma-shi. sha nei ba de

4. ~¸, .~ ~ _, ·· . .~ . ~. ~ ~~ ,~ ¸˙ ¸˙ ¸˙ ., ~
ca-no dou. yan-thu si'-tha: dwei a:-loun: gou le'-ne' shi.-ma-shi. sha nei ba de




289
10. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statement that you hear.
Check your work in the Answer Key.

1. A. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives.
B. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from ammunition and artillery.

2. A. We are searching all civilians for weapons.
B. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.


11. Listen and repeat the new words after the speaker.

Army base si'-a-hcei-sai'-sa-hkan: ·· .¸ ·~ · ,.
Be careful! dha-di.-hta: ~ ~.
Curfew nya.-ma-htwe'-ya.- a-mein. ¡ ~~ _ ,
In charge of … ta-wun-hkan ~ ,
Minefield main:-kwin: . ~.
Roadblock lan: a-han.-a-ta: ~. , ~.
Checkpoint si'-hsei:-yei:-gei' ·· .~. ._. ~
Identification the'-thei-hkan-ka'-pya: ~ . ~ ¸.
Patrol kin:-ta'-hpwe. ~. ~
Base a-hcei-sai'-sa-hkan: .¸ ·~ · ,.
Barracks si'-tan:-lya:-dwei ·· ~,. ~¸. .~

12. Fill in the blanks with the correct word from the vocabulary list above. Check your
answers with the Answer Key.

A. ~. ~ _ ____________________ ~ ~. ~ .. .~
kin:-ta'-hpwe' ye. _____________________ be thu le: kin:-ta'-hpwe' gaun:-zaun ba

B. ___________________ ¸˙ ~. ¸˙ ~ ¡ . , _ ~ ., ,~ , _ ~
____________________ shi. la: shi. ba de nya. shi' na-yi ga.-nei ma-ne' hcau' na-yi a-hti ba

C. ___________________! ~. ~ ˙ ___________________ ¸˙ ~
___________________! lan: hou be' hma _______________ shi. de

D. ~ ~. ~ _ __________________ ~ __________________ ¸ _
lu-dain: thu-dou. ye. _______________ gou _______________ hma pya.ya. me

E. _______________ ˙ ~ .¸ ·~ · ,. _ ~ ~ ˙
_______________ be hma le: a-hcei-sai-sa-hkan: ye. ta-hpe' hma ba

290

13. Work with a partner and take turns reading and role-playing the dialogues from
Exercise 12.

14. Work in a small group, and come up with similar dialogues, and then role-play them.

15. Study the list of U.S. Army ranks. Compare them with the Burmese military
equivalents.

Enlisted si'-mu.-htan: ·· ˙¸ ~ .
Private you:-you: si'-tha: ¸. ¸. ·· .
Corporal ta'-ca' ~ _~
Sergeant ta'-ca' ci: ~ _~ _~.
Sergeant Major du.-ta'-ca' ~ _~

Officer a-ya-shi. _ ¸˙
Lieutenant bou ~
Captain bou-ji: ~ _~.
Major bou-hmu: ~ ˙¸.
Lt. Colonel du-ta-ya. bou-hmu:-ji: ~ ~ ˙¸. _~.
Colonel bou-hmu:-ji: ~ ˙¸. _~.
General bou-jou'-ci: ~ ¸¸ _~.






















291

End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Work with a partner or in a small group. In Burmese, make up a caption for each
picture below.




1. …………………………………………………… .

2. …………………………………………………… .

3. …………………………………………………… .


2. a) Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer
Key.

A. ~~ ,~ ~~ ˙ ~
le'-ne'-tai be hma le:
B. ~. ~ _ ~ , ~ ~
di kin:-ta'-hpwe' ye. ta-wun-hkan ga. be thu le:
C. ¸. ·· .~. ._. ~ ~ ¸~ _ ¸. _ ~ . ~ ¸. ~ ¸ _
hka-mya: si'-hsei:-yei:-gei' kou hpya' yin hka-mya: ye. the'-thei-hkan-ka'-pya: gou pya.
ya. me
D. _ . . ~. ~~ ,~ ¸˙ ¸˙ ¸˙ . ~ _
a-ya'-tha: a:-loun: le'-ne' shi.-ma-shi. sha-hpwei da hkan ya. me
E. ¡ ~~ _ , ~ ¡ ¸ , _ ˙ · ~ ¸ , _ ,¸ ¸˙ _ ¸.
¸, .
nya.-ma-htwe'-ya.-a-mein. ga. nya. kou: na-yi hma sa. ba de a-gu. kou: na-yi lei:-ze.-nga:
shi. bi hka-mya: ein pyan thwa: ba
F. ·· . .~ ·· .¸ ·~ · ,. ~ ~ ~ _ ~
si'-tha: dwei be: si'-a-hcei-sai'-sa-hkan: de: gou win lou. ya. de

292
b) Work with a partner or in a small group. Come up with situations where you can
use sentences C, D, E, and F as a reply. Create the first part of the conversation so that you
have short dialogues. Role-play them.

3. a) Translate the following into Burmese. Compare your translation against the Answer
Key.

A. Please step out of the car. We must search the vehicle for weapons.

B. It is after curfew. You must come with me for questioning.

C. The weapons cache is on the other side of Checkpoint Delta.

D. Be careful. There is a minefield east of the railroad.

E. Every soldier needs to have a radio and a map.

F. You must know all the checkpoints and roadblocks in this area.


b) Work with a partner or in a small group. Make up situations where you can use these
sentences as a reply. Create the first part of the conversation so that you have short
dialogues. Role-play them.























293

Vocabulary List
Ammunition ci-zan ~¸¡ ~
Army base si' a-hcei-sai'-sa-hkan: ·· .¸ ·~ · ,.
Artillery a-myau' .¸~
Barracks si'-tan:-lya:-dwei ·· ~,. ~¸. .~
Base a-hcei-sai'-sa-hkan: .¸ ·~ · ,.
Be careful! dha-di.-hta: ~ ~.
Boots bu'-hpa-na' ~ ,
Checkpoint si'-hsei:-yei:-gei' ·· .~. ._. ~
Civilian a-ya'-tha: _ .
Commander ta'-hmu: ~ ˙¸.
Curfew nya.-ma-htwe'-ya.-a-mein. ¡ ~~ _ ,
Enemy yan-thu _,
Explosive pau'-kwe:-ta'-te.-pyi'-si: .~ ~ ~~ ~ ·Œ¡.
Grenade le'-pi'-boun: ~~ · .
Gun tha-na' . ,~
Helmet than-hka-mau' .~
In charge
(of a patrol, base)
ta-wun-hkan ~ ,
Machine gun se'-tha-na' ·~ . ,~
Map myei-boun .¸
Military si'-ta' ·· ~
Mine main: .
Minefield main:-kwin: . ~.
Missile doun:-ji . ~¸¡
Mortar sein-byaun: ·,._.
Officer a-ya-shi. _ ¸˙
Protection ka-kwe (da) ~ ~ ¸~¸
Radio hse'-thwe-ye:-se' ~~ ._. ·~
Rank ya-du: _ ~.
Rifle yain-hpe ¸
Roadblock lan: a-han.-a-ta: ~. , ~.
Rocket doun:-byan . ¸
Rocket launcher doun:-byan laun-hca . ¸ .~ ¸
Search sha-(hpwei) ¸˙ ¸.¸
Soldier si'-tha: ·· .
Tank tin.-ka: ~ ~.
294
Uniform yu-ni-hpaun: , ..
Weapons le'-ne'-twei ~~ ,~ .~
Weapons cache le'-ne'-tai' ~~ ,~ ~~
Enlisted si'-hmu.-htan: ·· ˙¸ ~.
Private you:-you: si'-tha: ¸. ¸. ·· .
Corporal ta'-ca' ~ _~
Sergeant ta'-ca'-ci: ~ _~ _~.
Sergeant Major du.-ta'-ca' ~ _~
Officer a-ya-shi. _ ¸˙
Lieutenant bou ~
Captain bou-ji: ~ _~.
Major bou-hmu: ~ ˙¸.
Lt. Colonel du.-ta-ya. bou-hmu:-ji: ~ ~ ˙¸. _~.
Colonel bou-hmu:-ji: ~ ˙¸. _~.
General bou-jou'-ci: ~ ¸¸ _~.





























295
ANSWER KEY

Exercise 3

1. C. The soldier searches the civilian for weapons.
2. B. He is a soldier. He has a weapon.
3. A. He is a civilian. He does not have weapons. He has children.

Exercise 7

A. 5 mine . main:
B. 7 missile . ~¸¡ doun:-ji
C. 4 grenade ~~ · . le'-pyi'-boun:
D. 8 weapons cache ~~ ,~ ~~ le'-ne'-tai'
E. 6 pistol ·Œ ~ pi'-sa-tou
F. 1 mortar ·,._. sein-byaun:
G. 3 machine gun ·~ . ,~ se'-tha-na'
H. 2 rifle ¸ yain-hpe

Exercise 8

1. Tank Grenade Truck Humvee
1. ~ ~. ~~ · . ·· ~. . . ¡
2. Rifle Mortar Helmet Machine Gun
2. ¸ .¸~ .~ ·~ . ,~
3. Uniform Soldier Civilian Commander
3. , .. ·· . _ . ~ ˙¸.
4. Radio Map Minefield Weapon
4. ~~ ._. ·~ .¸ . ~. ~~ ,~
5. Helmet Artillery Uniform Boots
5. .~ .¸~ , .. ~ ,
6. Officer Soldier Civilian Commander
6. _ ¸˙ ·· . _ . ~ ˙¸.

Exercise 9

1. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from ammunition.
2. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives and artillery.
3. We are searching all vehicles for weapons.
4. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.




296
Exercise 10

1. A. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives.
si'-tha:-dwei than-hka-mau' kou pau'-kwe ta' te. pyi'-si: dwei ga.-nei ka-kwe bou. hsaun: ja. de
·· . .~ .~ ~ .~ ~ ~~ ~ ·Œ¡. .~ , ~ ., ~ ~ .~. _~
~

2. B. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.
ca-no-dou. yan-thu si'-tha: dwei a:-loun: gou le'-ne' shi.-ma-shi. sha nei ba de
~¸, .~ ~ _, ·· . .~ . ~. ~ ~~ ,~ ¸˙ ¸˙ ¸˙ ., ~

Exercise 12

A. Who is in charge of the patrol? The patrol leader.
kin:-ta'-hpwe' ye. ta-wun-hkan ga. be thu le: kin:-ta'-hpwe' gaun:-zaun ba
~. ~ _ ~ , ~ ~. ~ .. .~

B. Is there a curfew? Yes, from 8:00pm to 6:00am.
nya.-ma-htwe'-ya.-a-mein. shi. la: shi. ba de nya. shi' na-yi ga.-nei ma-ne' hcau' na-yi a-hti ba
¡ ~~ _ , ¸˙ ~. ¸˙ ~ ¡ . , _ ~ ., ,~ , _ ~

C. Be careful! There is a minefield across the road!
dha-di.-hta:! lan: hou be' hma main:-kwin: shi. de
~ ~. ~. ~ ˙ . ~ . ¸˙ ~

D. Everyone must show their identification at the checkpoint.
lu-dain: thu-dou. ye. the'-thei-hkan-ka'-pya: gou si'-hsei:-yei:-gei' hma pya.ya. me
~ ~. ~ _ ~ . ~ ¸. ~ ·· .~. ._. ~ ¸ _

E. Where are the barracks? On the other side of the base.
si'-tan:-lya:-dwei be hma le: a-hcei-sai-sa-hkan: ye. ta-hpe' hma ba
·· ~, . ~¸. .~ ˙ ~ .¸ ·~ · ,. _ ~ ~ ˙

End of Lesson Exercise 2a

A. Where is the weapons cache?
B. Who is in charge of this patrol?
C. You must show your identification when you pass the checkpoint.
D. All civilians must be searched for weapons.
E. Curfew starts at 9:00pm. It’s 9:45 now. Go back to your home.
F. Only soldiers may enter the army base.




297
Exercise 3a

A. .~¸. ~. ¸¸ _. ~. .¨ ~ ~. ~¸, .~ ~ ~. ~ ~~ ,~ ¸˙ ¸˙ ¸˙ _
ce:zu:-pyu.-bi: ka: po ga. hsin: ba ca-no-dou. di ka: gou le'-ne' shi.-ma-shi. sha ya. Me

B. ¡ ~~ _ , .~¸ . _ .. · _ ¸˙ ~ ¸. ~¸, .~ , ~~ _

a-gu. nya.-ma-htwe'-ya.-a-mein. co thwa: bi mei: za-ya shi. lou. hka-mya: ca-no ne. lai' ya. Me


C. ~~ ,~ ~~ ~ . ~ ·· .~. ._. ~ _ ~ ~ ¸. ˙ ¸˙ ~
le'-ne'-tai' ka. dei-ta si'-hsei:-ye:-gei' ye. ta-hpe' hcan: hma shi. De

D. ~ ~. _ ~. ~. _ .¸˙ ~ ˙ . ~. ¸˙ ~
dha-di.-hta: ya-hta: lan: ye. a-shei.-be' hma main:-kwin: shi. Be

E. ·· . ~. ~~ ._. ·~ , .¸ ¸˙ ~ ~
si'-tha: dain: hse'-thwe-ye:-se' ne. myei-boun shi. bou. lou de

F. ¸. ,. ~ ~ ˙ ¸˙ ~ ·· .~. ._. ~ , ~. , ~. . ~. ~ _

hka-mya: di na: ta-wai' hma shi. de. si'-hsei:-yei:-gei' ne. la:n a-han.-a-ta: a:-loun: gou thi. ya.
me

298
Lesson 20
In the Hospital
.~. ¸ ˙
hsei:-youn-hma


This lesson will introduce you to:
- Vocabulary related to medical emergencies and life-saving measures
- Terminology related to internal organs
- Ways to ask questions about vital signs.





Cultural note:
In Burma, the public health care system is mostly controlled by the government. Hospitals and
medical schools are under the control of the Ministry of Health. Private clinics are allowed, and
many healthcare providers have their own clinic, in addition to their jobs at the government
owned hospitals.

A system of medical insurance has not been established in Burma. Every citizen has the right to
have access to local hospitals and healthcare provided by the government. But such hospitals
often lack the medicine that the patients need. As a result, patients in the governmental hospitals
end up buying their own medicines, which are available in private drug stores.

Emergency Rooms exist in many governmental hospitals. But the equipment is very poor, and
only nurses are assigned in those rooms, not doctors. Ambulances are very rare, and they are
normally used to transport patients. Many people rely on private clinics for emergencies, rather
than the ER in the hospitals.
299

Yangon General Hospital in Yangon, Burma.


Grammar note:
Phrases which indicate “help,” (~ ¡ ku-nyi ba ) and others in this lesson are useful for
medical emergencies. A request, such as “please call an ambulance” (.~. _ ._. .¨ ~.
.¨ hsei:-youn a-yei:-po-ka: hko ba ), is not practical since an ambulance will never arrive to
the scene in time. Words and phrases such as “hide,” ( , . poun: !); “run,” (.¸. pyi: !); “is there
anyone who has red-cross training?” (_~~ .¸ , ~,. . _ ~. ce'-hcei-ni thin-dan:
aun shi. la:); or “please do not crowd around here!” ( ~ · _~ , di hma la ma-su.-
poun ja. ba ne.) will be useful in the event of accidents, natural disasters, or armed conflicts, or
when someone needs to participate in delivering medical assistance.


In Lesson 17, you learned the names of human body parts, how to ask questions about a person’s
state of health, and how to describe health conditions and symptoms of sickness. You also know
how to handle a visit to the doctor’s office. In this lesson, you will familiarize yourself with the
vocabulary used for emergencies or life threatening health conditions, such as heart attacks,
gunshot wounds, severe bleeding, or head injuries.



300
1. Go over the text with the pictures. Try to guess the meaning of the words in bold from
the context.

1 2

¸¸. . ˙ ~~ .. ~ _ ¸˙
~
¸¸. . ~~ .. .¨ ˙ ~ _
¸˙ ~
di a-myou:-tha: hma le'-maun: dan-ya shi.
de
di a-myou:-tha-mi: le'-maun: po hma dan-
ya shi. de
3 4

¸¸. . .¸ .~~ ~ _ _ ~ ¸¸. . ~¡ . ~ _ _ ~
di a-myou:-dha: hcei-dau' dan-ya ya. de di a-myou:-dha: le-bin: dan-ya ya. de

Did you understand the words in bold ~ _ / ~ _ _ and ~ _ / ~ _ _ ?

~ _ dan-ya means wound
~ _ ¸˙ ¸_ dan-ya shi/ya. means wounded
~ _ dan-ya means injury
~ _ ¸˙ ¸_ dan-ya shi/ya. means injured

Grammar note:
Wound and injury have the same meaning in Burmese when they are used in a noun-verb pair,
i.e. wound/wounded and injury/injured. ~ _ _ dan-ya ya. literally means "to get injured."
The English equivalent of "to have injury" may be expressed in two ways in Burmese: (1) ~
_ _ dan-ya ya. “to get injured” or (2) ~ _ ¸˙ dan-ya shi. “to have injury.” These two
expressions are almost always interchangeable.
301

2. Look at the pictures in Exercise 1 and match the number of the picture with the correct
definition below. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

A. .¸ .~~ ~ _ hcei-dau' dan-ya picture number _____.

B. ~¡ . ~ _ le-bin: dan-ya picture number _____.

C. ~~ .. ~ _ le'-maun: dan-ya picture number _____.

D. ~~ .. ~ _ le'-maun: dan-ya picture number _____.


3. Tell your classmates, in Burmese, if you ever had an injury or wounds.

4. Listen to and read the dialogue between the doctor and the nurse in the emergency
room of a military hospital. Note the use of new vocabulary.

Doctor: How does Sergeant Thu Ya feel?
dau'-ta ta'-ca'-ci: thu-ya. be-lou nei le:
.~ ~ ~ _~ _~. _ ~ ., ~

Nurse: He feels bad, Doctor Soe Naing.
thu-na-pyu. thu to-to hpya: nei de dau'-ta sou:-nain
, ¸¸ .~ .~ ¸. ., ~ .~ ~ ·.

Doctor: What is the matter with him?
dau'-ta thu ba hpyi' hta le:
.~ ~ ¸· ~ ~

Nurse: His leg hurts.
thu-na-pyu. thu. hcei-dau' na nei de
, ¸¸ .¸ .~~ , ., ~

Doctor: Is it injured?
dau'-ta thu dan-ya ya. da la:
.~ ~ ~ _ _ ~ ~.

Nurse: Yes. He has a gunshot wound. He is bleeding.
thu-na-pyu. hou' pa de thu tha-na' dan-ya ya. hta: de thu thwei: htwe' nei de
, ¸¸ ~ ~ . ,~ ~ _ _ ~. ~ .. ~~ ., ~


302
Doctor: Does he have a fever?
dau'-ta thu. hma a-hpya: shi. la:
.~ ~ ˙ ¸. ¸˙ ~.

Nurse: Yes, he does.
thu-na-pyu. hou'-ke. a-hpya: shi. ba de
, ¸¸ ~ ~ ¸. ¸˙ ~

Doctor: Is he taking any medications?
dau'-ta thu hsei: thau' hta: thei: la:
.~ ~ .~. .~ ~. .. ~.

Nurse: Yes, antibiotics and painkillers.
thu-na-pyu. hou'-ke. pa-ti.-zi-wa.-hsei: ne. a-kai'-a-hke:-pyau'-hsei: thau' hta: ba de
, ¸¸ ~ ~ _ ~ .~. , ~~ .¸~ .~. .~ ~.
~


5. Work with a partner. Role-play the dialogue from Exercise 4.

6. Match each of the pictures with the corresponding statement. Try to guess the
meanings of unknown words from the context. Check your answers with the Answer Key.



A B C

1. ¸¸. . ~~ .. ~ _ ˙ ~ ~ . ·¡ . ~. ~
di a-myou:-tha: le'-maun: dan-ya hma pa'-ti: si: hta: de

2. ¸¸. . ¡. ~ .~. . ., _. ~ ¸˙ ~
di a-myou:-tha: ou'-htou' ma-hsaun: bu: di-nei. a-yan: pu de a-gu. thu a-pu sha' te

3. ·· . .¸ .~~ ˙ ~ _ ¸˙ ~
di si'-tha: hcei-dau' hma dan-ya shi. de




303
Did you understand the meaning of the words in bold?

¸˙ means heat stroke
~ ~ . ·¡ . means dressing


7. Listen to the speaker and read along in your textbook. Use the Answer Key to
check the meaning of unknown words.




.~ ~ ~ ~. , .~. ~ · ~ .~
di-ha-dwei ga. pa'-ti: ne. hsei:-pa-la-sa-ta-dwei ba
¸. .~ ~ , _ ~ ~ ~ _ .~ ~ ~ ~. ·¡. ~
~
hka-mya: di-ha-dwei gou a-na-sha'-da da-hma.-ma-hou' dan-ya dwei gou pa'-ti:-si: bou. lou-a' pa
de
.~ ~ . ~ ~. _. . .~ ¸· _
di-ha-dwei ga. pou: tha' hta: pyi:-dha: dwei phyi. ya. ba me

8. Familiarize yourself with some new medical terminology. Listen as the speaker
recites the names of internal organs. Repeat after the speaker.




1 2 3 4 5

1. heart hna-loun: ˙ ~.
2. brain oun:-hnau' ¡. .˙~
3. lung a-hsou' ~~
4. kidney cau'-ka' .~¸~ ~
5. liver a-the: ¡.
304

9. Fill in the blanks, in Burmese, with the appropriate name of the organ. Check your
answers with the Answer Key.

˙ ~. ¡ . ~ ~ .~¸~ ~ .~ ¡ . .˙~

A. The human ____________ is in charge of all body system functions.

B. The _________ is a very important organ because it helps our body get rid of fat.

C. Exercising is very important for my ____________.

D. Smoking can cause ____________cancer.

E. Drinking a lot of water is necessary for the ___________ .



10. Listen to and read the dialogue between the doctor and a patient in a military
hospital emergency room.


In the Military Hospital Emergency Room








Doctor: Hello, Major Soe Thein.
dau'-ta min-ga-la ba bou-hmu: sou:-thein:
.~ ~ ~ ~ ˙¸. ·. ,.

Major: Good morning, Doctor Thein Han.
bou-hmu: min-ga-la ba dau'-ta thein:-han
~ ˙¸. ~ .~ ~ ,. ,

Doctor: What happened to you?
dou'-ta - hka-mya: ba hpyi' hta le:
.~ ~ ¸. ¸· ~ ~



305
Major: I don’t know. I didn’t feel well. I had chest pain, a headache, and dizziness.
bou-hmu: ca-no ma-thi. bu: ca-no thei' nei ma-kaun: bu: yin-ba' aun. te gaun:-kai' pyi: gaun:
mu: nei de
~ ˙¸. ~¸, .~ . ~¸, .~ ., .~. . _ ~ . ~ ..
~~ _. .. . ., ~

Doctor: For how long did you have your symptoms?
dau'-ta hka-mya: di-yo:-ga-le'-hka-na-dwei hpyi' hta be-lau' ca byi le:
.~ ~ ¸. ._ ~~ˆ ~ .~ ¸· ~ .~~ _~ _ ~

Major: For about 2 days.
bou-hmu: hna ye' lau' shi. ba bi
~ ˙¸. ¸ _~ .~~ ¸˙ _

Doctor: Did you take any medications?
dau'-ta hka-mya: hsei: thau' hta: thei: la:
.~ ~ ¸. .~. .~ ~. .. ~.

Major: Yes, I took painkillers.
bou-mu: hou'-ke. ca-no a-kai'-a-hke: pyau'-hsei: thau' hta: ba de
~ ˙¸. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ ~~ .¸~ .~. .~ ~. ~

Doctor: For how long?
dau'-ta be-lau' ca bi le:
.~ ~ .~~ _~ _ ~

Major: For about 2 days… What happened to me, doctor?
bou-mu: hna ye' lau' shi. ba bi ca-no ba hpyi' hta le: dau'-ta
~ ˙¸. ¸ _~ .~~ ¸˙ _ ~¸, .~ ¸· ~ ~ .~ ~

Doctor: Well, when you came into the ER, you couldn’t breathe. We had to do CPR.
dau'-ta hka-mya: a-yei:-po-hkan: yau' to. a-the'-shu ca' nei de ca-no dou. si-pi-a lou' ya. de
.~ ~ ¸. ._. .¨ ,. ._~ .~ ~ _ ~¸ ., ~ ~¸, .~ ~
· ~ _ ~

You had abnormal blood pressure. It was 230 over 180. You had a heart attack.
hka-mya: thwei:-paun-jein ga. poun-hman ma-hou' bu: a-po-thwei: hna-ya. thoun:-ze ne.
au'-thwei: ta-ya.-shi'-hse shi. de hka-mya: hna-loun: lei hpya' hta ba
¸. .. . ¸, ~ ˙, ~ . .¨ .. ¸¸ , .~ .. . ¸˙ ~
¸. ˙ ~. .~ ¸~ ~

What symptoms do you have now?
hka-mya: hma a-gu. ba yo:-ga le'-hka -na-dwei shi. le:
¸. ˙ ._ ~~ˆ ~ .~ ¸˙ ~
306

Major: I feel weakness.
bou-hmu: ca-no a:-ne: nei de
~ ˙¸. ~¸, .~ . ,¡. ., ~

Doctor: Are you allergic to any medications?
dau'-ta hka-mya: hma ma-te. de. hsei: dwei shi. la:
.~ ~ ¸. ˙ ~¡ ~ .~. .~ ¸˙ ~.

Major: Yes, I’m allergic to penicillin.
bou-hmu: hou'-ke. ca-no pa-na-sa-lin ne. ma-te. ba bu:
~ ˙¸. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ , · ~ , ~¡ .

Doctor: Do you have any kidney, liver, lung, or brain diseases? Diabetes? Cancer?
dau'-ta hka-mya: hma cau'-ka' a-the: a-hsou' oun:-hnau' ne. pa'-the' te. yo:-ga dwei shi. la:
hsi:-jou yo: shi. la: kin-hsa yo: shi. la:
.~ ~ ¸. ˙ .~¸~ ~ ¡. ~~ ¡. .˙~ , ~ ~ ~ ._
.~ ¸˙ ~. ~. ¸¸ ._ ¸˙ ~. ~ ~ ._ ¸˙ ~.

Major: No, I don’t.
bou-hmu: ca-no. hma e:-di yo:-ga dwei ma-shi. ba bu:
~ ˙¸. ~¸, .~ ˙ ._ .~ ¸˙ .

Doctor: Do you smoke?
dau'-ta hka-mya: hsei:-lei' thau' la:
.~ ~ ¸. .~. ~ .~ ~.

Major: No, I don’t.
bou-hmu: ca-no hsei:-lei' ma-thau' pa bu:
~ ˙¸. ~¸, .~ .~. ~ .~ .

Doctor: Do any members of your family have heart disease, or have any had a heart attack?
dau'-ta hka-mya: mi.-tha:-zu.-win dwei de: hma hna-loun: yo:-ga da-hma.-ma-hou' hna-loun:
lei-hpya' hta myou: shi. la:
.~ ~ ¸. . · .~ ~ ˙ ˙ ~. ._ ˙ ~ ˙ ~. .~ ¸~ ~ ¸¸.
¸˙ ~.

Major: Yes, my father died three years ago from heart disease.
bou-hmu: hou'-ke. shi. ba de ca-no. a-hpei lun-ge. de. thoun:-hni' ka. hna-loun: yo:-ga ne.
hsoun: thwa: ba de
~ ˙¸. ~ ~ ¸˙ ~ ~¸, .~ . ~, ~ ¸ ˙· ~ ˙ ~. ._ , ~. .
~

Doctor: Well, I think you must stay in the hospital and rest for a few days.
307
dau'-ta kaun:-byi hka-mya: a-na:-yu bou. hsei:-youn hma ye' a-ne:-nge nei ya. me
.~ ~ .~. _ ¸. ,. .~. ¸ ˙ _~ ,¡. ., _

Major: But I need to get back to my unit!
bou-hmu: da-bei-me. ca-no ta' kou pyan ya. oun: me
~ ˙¸. . ~¸, .~ ~ ~ ¸, _ .

Doctor: No, you have to stay in the hospital, rest, and take aspirin.
dau'-ta pyan-lou. ma-ya. bu: hka-mya: a-na:-yu bou. hsei:-youn hma nei ya. me pyi:-do.
a-kai'-a-hke:-pyau'-hse: thau' ya. me
.~ ~ ¸, ~ _ . ¸. ,. .~. ¸ ˙ ., _ _. .~ ~~
.¸~ .~. .~ _


11. Work with a partner. Pretend to be a doctor and a patient and role-play the dialogue
from Exercise 10.

12. Match the questions and answers. Check your work with the answer Key.

A. ¸. ~ ., ~ 1. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ ~~ .. ˙ . ,~ ~
_ _ ~
hka-mya: be-lou nei le: hou'-ke. ca-no. le'-maun: hma tha-na' dan-ya ya. ba de

B. ¸. ¸· ., ~ ~ 2. ~¸, .~ . ,¡. _. .. . ~
hka-mya: ba hpyi' nei da le: ca-no a:-ne: pyi: gaun:-mu: de

C. ¸. ¸· ~ ~ 3. ~¸, .~ ~ _ .. ~~ ., ~
hka-mya: ba hpyi' hta le: ca-no. dan-ya thwei:-htwe' nei de

D. ¸. , ., ~. 4. ~¸, .~ ~ , ~
hka-mya: na nei la: ca-no bai' na de

E. ,. , ~ 5. ~ ~ ~¸, .~ _ ~ , _. ~ ¸˙¸
~¸ ~
be na: na le: hou'-ke. ca-no yin-ba' na pyi: a-the'-shu ca' te

F. ¸. ~ _ _ ~ ~. 6.~ ~ ~~ .¸~ .~. .~ ~.
~
hka-mya: dan-ya ya. hta la: hou'-ke. a-kai'-a-hke:-pyau'-hsei: thau: hta: ba de

G. ¸. .~. .~ ~. 7. ~¸, .~ .~ .~ ¸. ., ~
hka-mya: hse:-thau' la: ca-no to-to hpya: nei de

308

13. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statement that you hear.
Check your answers with the Answer Key.

1. A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my arm.
B. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my leg.
C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my neck.

2. A. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I have a chest pain.
B. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I feel dizziness.
C. How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I can’t breathe.

3. A. Is there a doctor here? This man just had a heart attack.
B. Are you a doctor? This man just had a heart attack.
C. I am a doctor. This man just had a heart attack.





























309
End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Practice answering the following questions in Burmese:

A. What is your normal pulse?
B. What is your normal blood pressure?
C. Are you allergic to any medications?
D. Have you ever had a head injury?
E. Have you ever had heat stroke?


2. Work with a partner or in a small group. Look at the picture and say, in Burmese, what
you think has happened with a patient. You might want to mention the following things: Is
the patient a man or a woman? What is his/her age? Is he/she a soldier? Is he/she
wounded? Is he/she injured? Is he/she in pain? Does he/she have bleeding? Does he/she
have a fever? Will he/she need to stay in the hospital? Does he/she have high blood
pressure? Does he/she have chest pain? Is he/she having a heart attack? Can he/she
breathe? Will he/she need CPR? Is he/she allergic to the medications? Does he/she take
any medications?















310

Vocabulary List

Abnormal poun-hman ma-hou'-hta ˙, ~ ~
Aspirin a-kai'-a-hke:-pyau'-hsei: ~~ .¸~ .~.
Bandage pa'-ti: ~ ~.
Band-aid hsei:-pa-la-sa-ta .~. ~ · ~
Bleeding thwei:-htwe' .. ~~
Brain oun:-hnau' ¡. .˙~
Breathing a-the'-shu ~ ¸˙¸
Cancer kin-hsa ~ ~
CPR si-pi-a ·
Cut a-na-sha. , ¸˙
Diabetes hsi:-jou yo:-ga ~. ¸¸ ._
Dressing pa'-ti: si: ~ ~. ·¡.
ER a-yei:-po-gan: ._. .¨ ,.
Gunshot wound tha-na' dan-ya . ,~ ~ _
Head injury gaun: dan-ya .. ~ _
Heart hna-loun: ˙ ~.
Heart attack hna-loun: lei-hpya' hta ˙ ~. .~ ¸~ ~
Heart disease hna-loun: yo:-ga ˙ ~. ._
Heat stroke a-pu sha' ¸˙
High blood
pressure
thwei:-paun-jein te' hta .. . ¸, ~~ ~
I am allergic
to…/
Are you allergic
to…
ca-no .... ne. ma-te. bu:
hka-mya: hma ma-te. de.
.... shi. la:
~¸, .~ .... , ~¡ .
¸. ˙ ~¡ ~ .... ¸˙
~.
Injured dan-ya ya./shi. ~ _ _¸_
Injury dan-ya ~ _
Kidney cau'-ka' .~¸~ ~
Liver a-the: ¡.
Lungs a-hsou'-twei ~~ .~
Organs kou-in-ga a-sei'-a-pain:
dwei
~ ·~ . .~
Painkillers a-kai'-a-hke:-pyau'-hsei: ~~ .¸~ .~.
Penicillin pa-na-sa-lin , · ~
Pulse thwei:-hkoun-hnoun: .. , ˙¸,.
Sterile pou:-tha' hta . ~ ~
To die thei

311
To stay nei ,

Wound/
Wounded
dan-ya / dan-ya ya. ~ _ ¸ ~ _ _










































312

ANSWER KEY

Exercise 2

A. 3 Wounded leg
B. 4 Injured neck
C. 1 and/or 2 Wounded arm
D. 1 Injured arm

Exercise 6

A. 3 This soldier has an injured leg.
B. 2 This man didn’t wear his hat. It was very hot today. Now he has heat stroke.
C. 1 This man has a dressing on his wounded arm.

Exercise 7

These are bandages and band-aids. You need them to make a dressing for a cut or wound. They
have to be sterile.

Exercise 9

A. ¡. .˙~ oun:-hnau'
B. ¡. a-the:
C. ˙ ~. hna-loun:
D. ~~ a-hsou'
E. .~¸~ ~
.~
kyau'-ka'-dwei

Exercise 12

A. How do you feel? 7. I feel really bad.
B. What is the matter with you? 3. My wound is bleeding.
C. What do you feel? 2. I feel weak and dizzy.
D. Are you in pain? 5. Yes, I have chest pain. I can’t breathe.
E. Where does it hurt? 4. My stomach hurts.
F. Are you injured? 1. Yes, I have a gunshot wound in my arm.
G. Are you taking any medication? 6. Yes, painkillers.






313
Exercise 13

1. C What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my neck.
hka-mya: ye. yo:-ga-le'-hka-na dwei ga. ba le ca-no hpya: pyi: le-bin: na de
¸. _ ._ ~~ˆ ~ .~ ~ ~ ~¸, .~ ¸. _. ~¡ . , ~

2. A How do you feel? I don’t feel well. I have chest pain.
hka-mya: be-lou nei le: ca-no thei' nei ma-kaun: bu: yin-ba' na de
¸. ~ ., ~ ~¸, .~ ., .~. . _ ~ , ~

3. B Are you a doctor? This man just had a heart attack.
hka-mya: hsa-ya-wun la: di a-myou:-dha: you'-ta-ye' hna-loun: lei-hpya' thwa: lou. ba
¸. ~ _ , ~. ¸¸. . ¸~ ~ _~ ˙ ~. .~ ¸~ . ~