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Nanotechnology in the High School Curriculum: From Energy Conversion to Science Ethics

REU (RET) Nanotechnology Symposium
23 July 2004 12-2:30 PM

Kenneth Bowles Apopka High School NSF: NANOPAC REU Site Host: AMPAC-UCF

What Is All the Fuss About Nanotechnology?
Any given search engine will produce 1.6 million hits
Nanotechnology is on the way to becoming the FIRST trillion dollar market

Nanotechnology influences almost every facet of every day life such as security and medicine.

Does Nanotechnology Address Teaching Standards?
Physical science content standards 9-12 • Structure of atoms • Structure and properties of matter • Chemical reactions • Motion and forces • Conservation of energy and increase in disorder (entropy) • Interactions of energy and matter

national. and global challenges .Does Nanotechnology Address Teaching Standards? Science and technology standards • Abilities of technological design • Understanding about science and technology Science in personal and social perspectives • Personal and community health • Population growth • Natural resources • Environmental quality • Natural and human-induced hazards • Science and technology in local.

Does Nanotechnology Address Teaching Standards? History and nature of science standards • Science as a human endeavor • Nature of scientific knowledge • Historical perspective .

Personal and Community Health Chemical Reactions Motion and Forces. pollution Population Growth. Abilities of technological design. Natural Resources Nanocrystalline Solar Cells i Nanocoatings resistive to bacteria and Personal and Community Health. Understanding about science and technology Conservation of Energy and increase in disorder (entropy).Does Nanotechnology Address Teaching Standards? Nanotechnology Idea The idea of “Nano” – being small Standard it can address Structure of Atoms Nanomaterials have a high surface area (nanosensors for toxins) Synthesis of nanomaterials and support chemistry (space propulsion) Shape Memory Alloys Structure and properties of matter. Interactions of energy and matter. Natural and human-induced hazards . Environmental Quality.

Nanocosmetics and nanoclothing Standard it can address Science and technology in local. national.Does Nanotechnology Address Teaching Standards? Nanotechnology Idea Nanomaterials. Science and technology in local. Feynman had a vision. national. Personal and Community Health Nanotechnology and Science Ethics . Historical perspective Science as a human endeavor. national. Feynman’s talk. Population Growth. such as MR (magneto-resistive) fluids in security Richard P. and global challenges Science as a human endeavor. Science as a human endeavor. Natural and human-induced hazards. Historical perspective. and global challenges Science and technology in local. Nature of scientific knowledge. “There is plenty of room at the bottom”. and global challenges.

An Example of a Nanotechnology Experiment. Dye 3. 2 electrodes . Nanolayer 2. Which Addresses the Standards: Constructing Nanocrystalline Solar Cells Using the Dye Extracted From Citrus Four main parts: 1. Electrolyte 4.

13. 9. 12. . raspberries. 7. 14.Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: The Materials: Materials 1. 11. green citrus leaves etc. Masking Tape Tweezers Filter paper Binder Clips Various glassware Multi-meter 6. 3. 2. 5. 8. 10. (2) F-SnO2glass slides Iodine and Potassium Iodide Mortar/Pestle Air Gun Surfactant (Triton X 100 or Detergent) Colloidal Titanium Dioxide Powder Nitric Acid Blackberries. 4.

3. . Stir and sore in a dark container with a tight lid. Electrolyte solution 1.127-g of I2 and add it to the ethylene glycol and stir.83 g of KI and add it to the same ethylene glycol. Add 2-ml of 2. 4.04-ml of titanium isopropoxide (Ti[(CH3)2CHO]4 to the solution and stir for at least 2 hours. Weigh out 0.88-ml of distilled water and stir for another 2 hours.4 – Pentanedione (C5H8O2) to 100-ml of anhydrous isopropanol [ (CH3)2CHOH ] and stir covered for 20 minutes. Add 2. the solvent must be evaporated off in an oven to collect the powder. 3. Since you now have a collodial suspension. Measure out 10-ml of ethylene glycol Weigh out 0. The solution must then age for 12 hours at room temperature. Add 6. 2. 4. 2.Preparation of Nanotitanium and Electrolyte Solution Nanotitanium 1. 5.

Nanocrystalline Solar Cells Main component: Fluorine doped tin oxide conductive glass slides Test the slide with a multimeter to determine which side is conductive .

Synthesis of the Nanotitanium Suspension Procedure: • Add 9 ml (in 1 ml increments) of nitric or acetic acid (ph3-4) to six grams of titanium dioxide in a mortar and pestle. • Grinding for 30 minutes will produce a lump free paste. • Suspension is then stored and allow to equilibrate for 15 minutes. . • 1 drop of a surfactant is then added ( triton X 100 or dish washing detergent).

. • A couple of drops if the titanium dioxide suspension is then added and distributed across the area of the mold with a glass rod. This is to form a mold.Coating the Cell • After testing to determine which side is conductive. • The slide is then set aside to dry for one minute. one of the glass slides is then masked off 1-2 mm on THREE sides with masking tape.

• This heating process should last 30 minutes. • The titanium dioxide layer needs to be heat sintered and this can be done by using a hot air gun that can reach a temperature of at least 450 degrees Celsius. .Calcination of the Solar Cells • After the first slide has dried the tape can be removed.

• The dye is then filter through tissue or a coffee filter and collected. the dye can be purified by crushing only 2-3 berries and adding 10-ml of methanol/acetic acid/water (25:4:21 by volume) .Dye Preparation • Crush 5-6 fresh berries in a mortar and pestle with 2-ml of de-ionized water. • As an optional method.

• Once the slide has cooled. determine which side of the second slide is conducting. place the slide face down in the filtered dye and allow the dye to be absorbed for 5 or more minutes.Dye Absorption and Coating the Counter Electrode • Allow the heat sintered slide to cool to room temperature. •While the first slide is soaking. •This will coat the second slide with a carbon catalyst layer . •Place the second slide over an open flame and move back and forth.

• Binder clips can be used to keep the two slides together. the two slides are placed in an offset manner together so that the layers are touching. •One drop of a liquid iodide/iodine solution is then added between the slides. it is quickly rinsed with ethanol to remove any water. It is then blotted dry with tissue paper. • Quickly. Capillary action will stain the entire inside of the slides .Assembling the Solar Cell • After the first slide had absorbed the dye.

The electrolyte in turns obtains an electron from the catalyst coated counter electrode. The electron is quickly replaced by the electrolyte added.How Does All This Work? 1. Dye = photochemical pump . The dye absorbs light and transfers excited electrons to the TiO2. Iodide = electron donor. TiO2=electron acceptor. 2. 3.

Classroom Ideas With the Cell • Ohm’s law • Electrochemistry • Verification of Kirchhoff’s voltage law with cells in series. • Charging capacitors • Measuring current and power density • Measuring internal resistance • Powering small “no-load” motors .

Voltage/Current probe. Pasco RC Circuit Board . Graphical Analysis for Windows. Logger Pro. Vernier LabPro.Using the Cell to Measure the Time Constant for an RC Circuit Materials: solar cell.

Using the Cell to Measure the Time Constant for an RC Circuit Capacitor Basics: V(t) = terminal voltage. t = time. e = EMF ( maximum voltage) . R = resistance(15KW). C = capacitance(1000mF) t = time constant = RC =(15x103)(1000x10-6)=15 seconds Equation for discharging a Capacitor .

Using the Cell to Measure the Time Constant for an RC Circuit Re-arranging the equation algebraically to represent the slope formula. What this basically says is that if you plot the natural log of the ratio of potentials versus the time the slope will equal the inverse of the time constant for this particular RC circuit. .

Using the examine function we can get various voltage and time data points from the graph.Using the Cell to Measure the Time Constant for an RC Circuit The capacitor was first fully charged then allowed to discharge. The EMF was determine to be The voltage at t=0. . The natural log function can then be applied mathematically.

5 V battery For the solar cell .Using the Cell to Measure the Time Constant for an RC Circuit For a normal 1.

Using the Cell to Measure the Time Constant for an RC Circuit For the solar cell For the battery Conclusion: The nanocrystalline solar cell could easily be used in a physics classroom to study capacitors as well as introduce the idea of harnessing the sun’s energy using nanotechnology. .

Nanotechnology Curriculum Overview Summary of teaching modules in a Teacher’s Guide for nanotechnology • Measurement activity called measuring the visible understanding the invisible • Understanding surface area kinetics • Electrical applications of solar cells • Reading in nanotechnology • 15 week science ethics forum .

Reading Apopka oasis reading café • Michael Crichton’s “prey” • John Robert Marlow’s “Nano” .Nanotechnology Curriculum Overview .

.Nanotechnology Curriculum Overview .Reading Each activity is accompanied by a nanotechnology article which includes: • Pre-reading activities such as an anticipation guide • Reading strategies such as questioning and prediction verification • Post reading strategies such as the “One Sentence Summary.

Nanotechnology 5. Automation 10. 1. Pharmaceutical Enrichment ( Brave New World) 7. Enhanced humans and Immortality 11.Nanotechnology and Science Ethics Based on a course offered at Yale Week Overview (Feynman’s “There is plenty of room at the bottom”) 2.Robot) 9. Strategies for Global Security ( I. Life Extension and Cryonics 6. Super intelligence 4. Threats to Global Security 8. . From Fenyman to Funding: The Mighty Dollar 3. Environmental Effects of nanotechnology 12. The Gap between science and ethics.

Various Nanocoating experiments using bacteria . Making Ferro Fluids to simulate the manufacture of projectile repellant materials. 3. Making magnetic tiles to simulate “self assembly”. 2.Planned Nanotechnology Activities Activities: 1. Residual Stress on Nanolayers due to Thermal Heating 6. A Microfluidic Nanofilter: Filtration of Gold Nanoparticles to simulate nanosensors. 5. Using Decanethiol Monolayer on Silver to simulate nanoparticles that resist stains and water absorbance. 4. Various Shape Memory Alloy Experiments 7.

Special Thanks Dr. Aldrin Sweeney – UCF College of Education AMPAC Karen Glidewell . Materials & Aerospace Engineering –NSF RET Site Funding Dr. Kumar and Dr. Sudipta Seal. Peterson – UCF Mechanical.Nano Initiative Coordinator for UCF – NSF REU(RET) Site Funding Dr.AMPAC Administrative Offices .

com • Download this presentation • Download Teaching Modules .For More Information Please visit: www.bowlesphysics.

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