Air conditioning

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The term air conditioning refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal comfort. In a broader sense, the term can refer to any form of cooling, heating, ventilation or disinfection that modifies the condition of air.[1] An air conditioner (often referred to as AC or air con.) is an appliance, system, or mechanism designed to stabilise the air temperature and humidity within an area (used for cooling as well as heating depending on the air properties at a given time), typically using a refrigeration cycle but sometimes using evaporation, most commonly for comfort cooling in buildings and motor-cars.

Air conditioning applications
Air conditioning engineers broadly divide air conditioning applications into comfort and process. Comfort applications aim to provide a building indoor environment that remains relatively constant in a range preferred by humans despite changes in external weather conditions or in internal heat loads. Air conditioning makes deep plan buildings feasible, for otherwise they'd have to be built narrower or with light wells so that inner spaces receive sufficient outdoor air via natural ventilation. Air conditioning also allows buildings to be taller since wind speed increases significantly with altitude making natural ventilation impractical for very tall buildings. Comfort applications for various building types are quite different and may be categorized as • Low-Rise Residential buildings, including single family houses, duplexes, and small apartment buildings • High-Rise Residential buildings, such as tall dormitories and apartment blocks • Commercial buildings, which are built for commerce, including offices, malls, shopping centers, restaurants, etc. • Institutional buildings, which includes hospitals, governmental, academic, and so on. • Industrial spaces where thermal comfort of workers is desired. In addition to buildings, air conditioning can be used for many types of transportation motor-cars and other land vehicles, trains, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. Process applications aim to provide a suitable environment for a process being carried out, regardless of internal heat and humidity loads and external weather conditions. Although often in the comfort range, it is the needs of the process that determine conditions, not human preference. Process applications include these:

Since humans perspire to provide natural cooling by the evaporation of perspiration from the skin. but also humidity. and the like. air quality and air movement from space to space. A specific type of air conditioner that is used only for dehumidifying is called a dehumidifier. and the entire unit is placed in the environment that is intended to be conditioned (in this case dehumidified). In food retailing establishments large open chiller cabinets act as highly effective air dehumidifying units. Although temperatures are often in the comfort range. The air next passes over the condensor coil re-warming the now . drier air (up to a point) improves the comfort provided. Facilities for breeding laboratory animals. some specialist procedures such as open heart surgery require low temperatures (about 18 °C. Cleanrooms for the production of integrated circuits. (much like an ice-cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass). Humidity control Refrigeration air conditioning equipment usually reduces the humidity of the air processed by the system. pharmaceuticals. The relatively cold (below the dewpoint) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air. dehumidified air. A dehumidifier is different from a regular air conditioner in that both the evaporator and condensor coils are placed in the same air path. rather than requiring the condensor coil to be outdoors. holding them in rooms at which conditions mirror spring all year can cause them to reproduce year-round. Since many animals normally only reproduce in spring. The comfort air conditioner is designed to create a 40% to 60% relative humidity in the occupied space. in which air is filtered to high levels to reduce infection risk and the humidity controlled to limit patient dehydration. sending the water to a drain and removing water vapor from the cooled space and lowering the relative humidity. in which very high levels of air cleanliness and control of temperature and humidity are required for the success of the process. Data processing centers Textile factories Physical testing facilities Plants and farm growing areas Nuclear facilities Chemical and biological laboratories Mines Industrial environments Food cooking and processing areas In both comfort and process applications the objective may be to not only control temperature. The evaporator (cold) coil is placed first in the air path. dehumidifying the air exactly as a regular air conditioner does. Having the condensor coil in the same air path as the evaporator coil produces warm.• • • • • • • • • • • • Hospital operating theatres. 82 °F). 64 °F) and others such as neonatal relatively high temperatures (about 28 °C.

air conditioning. They are also sometimes used in hot. such as Legionella pneumophila. air conditioning can save the lives of the elderly.the output air is warm rather than cold.. [11] In serious heat waves. This is the inverse of adding water to the room with an evaporative cooler. Therefore all of the power consumed by the dehumidifier is energy that is input into the thermodynamic system (the room). . Health implications A poorly maintained air-conditioning system can occasionally promote the growth and spread of microorganisms. Conversely with a dehumidifier. Conversely. no energy is transferred out of the thermodynamic system (room) because the air conditioning unit (dehumidifier) is entirely inside the room. cooling. outdoor air path (as in a regular air conditioner) results in two consequenses-. a dehumidifier will actually heat a room just as an electric heater that draws the same amount of power (watts) as the dehumidifier. or thermophilic actinomycetes. instead they refer to the phases of the refrigeration cycle. safe. can be used to provide a clean. and remains in the room (as heat). The engineering of physical and thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor mixtures is named Psychrometrics. In addition. the amount of heat needed to boil that water has been added to the room. hypoallergenic atmosphere in hospital operating rooms and other environments where an appropriate atmosphere is critical to patient safety and wellbeing.dehumidified air. the infectious agent responsible for Legionnaires' disease.[10] but as long as the air conditioner is kept clean these health hazards can be avoided. without a need to have the condensor outdoors. Note that the terms "condensor coil" and "evaporator coil" do not refer to the behavior of water in the air as it passes over each coil. especially in basements. Dehumidifiers are commonly used in cold. Air conditioning can have a positive effect on sufferers of allergies and asthma. humid climates for comfort because they reduce the humidity which causes discomfort (just as a regular air conditioner. etc. and the unit is able to be placed anywhere in the environment to be conditioned. disinfection. if the condensed water has been removed from the room. Some local authorities even set up public cooling centers for the benefit of those without air conditioning at home. but without cooling the room). damp climates to prevent mold growth indoors. Unlike a regular air conditioner. including filtration. A regular air conditioner transfers energy out of the room by means of the condensor coil. which is outside the room (outdoors). Having the condensor coil in the main air path rather than in a separate. This is a thermodynamic system where the room serves as the system and energy is transferred out of the system. humidification.

the indoor evaporator coil switches roles and becomes the condensor coil. This is due to the problem of the outdoor unit's coil forming ice. and marketed as. The air conditioner's energy consumption will increase by 50 watts to compensate for this. Note that it is typical for air conditioners to operate at "efficiencies" of significantly greater than 100%. and produces cold air (colder than the ambient outdoor air). because heat pumps become inefficient in more extreme cold. To compensate for this. and the air conditioner has an efficiency of 200%. producing heat instead of cold in the indoor environment. a reverse cycle air conditioner. This increase has the effect that for each unit of energy input into the system (say to power a light bulb in the closed system) requires the air conditioner to remove that energy. In order to do that the air conditioner must increase its consumption by the inverse of its efficiency times the input unit of energy.[citation needed] Properly functioning air conditioners are much quieter. As an example. producing heat. the air flow (draught) caused by an otherwise clean air conditioning system of a car may cause acute sinusitis. Some home-owners elect to have a heat pump system installed. which blocks air flow over the coil. the heat pump system must temporarily switch back into the regular air conditioning mode to switch the outdoor evaporator coil back to being the condensor coil so that it can heat up and de-ice. These levels are similar to the exposure of living near a busy highway or airport for a considerable length of time. Energy use It should be noted that in a thermodynamically closed system. When the heat pump is enabled. In many people. Heat pumps Heat pump is a term for a type of air conditioner in which the refrigeration cycle is able to be reversed. Heat pumps are more popular in milder winter climates where the temperature is frequently in the range of 40-55°F (4-13°C). which is actually simply a central air conditioner with heat pump functionality (the refrigeration cycle is reversed in the winter). see Coefficient of performance. if exposures are endured over a long term[citation needed].Poorly operating air conditioning systems can generate sound levels that contribute to hearing loss. any energy input into the system that is being maintained at a set temperature (which is a standard mode of operation for modern air conditioners) requires that the energy removal rate from the air conditioner increase. Using an air conditioner in this way to produce heat is significantly more efficient than electric resistance heating. presume that inside the closed system a 100 watt light bulb is activated. thus making the 100 W light bulb utilise a total of 150 W of energy. A heat pump system therefore will have a form of electric resistance heating in the indoor air . They are also commonly referred to. The outdoor condensor unit also switches roles to serve as the evaporator.

A unit that has true heat pump functionality will be indicated in its literature by the term "heat pump". the heat pump is used efficiently during the milder temperatures. a window unit that has a "heat" selection is not necessarily a heat pump because some units use electric resistance heat when heating is desired.path that is activated only in this mode in order to compensate for the temporary air conditioning. The icing problem becomes much more prevalent with lower outdoor temperatures. so heat pumps are commonly installed in tandem with a more conventional form of heating. . which would otherwise generate undesirable cold air in the winter. which is used instead of the heat pump during harsher winter temperatures. However. such as a natural gas or oil furnace. and the system is switched to the conventional heat source when the outdoor temperature is lower. In this case. Some more expensive window air conditioning units have the heat pump function.