THE WORLD URBAN FORUM 2006

Vancouver Working Group Discussion Paper

Dr. Rhodri Windsor Liscombe

University of British Columbia

Copyright  Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada and the University of British Columbia, 2004 March 2005

Aussi disponible en français

Turning Ideas into Action

In preparation for the 2006 United Nations World Urban Forum (WUF), the Vancouver Working Group (VWG) was created as a partnership of public and private agencies and civil society. It was mandated to initiate a series of research inquiries resulting in the Vancouver Working Group Discussion Papers for the World Urban Forum. These papers were prepared by members of the VWG with relevant experience and well-developed resources. It is hoped that these papers will contribute to the development of a thematic framework for WUF 2006 by articulating the concept and content of urban sustainability. WUF will focus on urbanization as an all-encompassing global phenomenon and attempt to recommend effective actions to achieve a sustainable process of global urban transformation by balancing social, economic, environmental and political goals: Turning Ideas into Action. The Vancouver Working Group Discussion Papers for the World Urban Forum are openended segments of a conceptual whole. Each of them will strive towards sustainability thereby transforming urban life into a productive, inclusive and environmentally balanced range of activities. These segments taken together will characterize sustainable human settlements. Sustainable urbanization can only be achieved through a mosaic of sustainable components that will add up to more than the sum of their parts. All papers received comments from independent peer reviewers and this contribution is gratefully acknowledged.

H. Peter Oberlander, O.C. Professor Emeritus, Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Editor

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
These papers continue the international dialogue on human settlements that began with the first UN Human Settlements Conference in Vancouver in 1976. They provide an initial analysis of diverse aspects of the current urban situation and create a basis for an informed discussion and development of ideas and relevant issues leading up to WUF 2006. The purpose of the Forum is to engage people worldwide in discussions about urban issues and to stimulate significant change across generations in the field of sustainable urban development. The United Nations has challenged Canada to develop a more interactive and participatory Forum. Consultation, dialogue and conclusions formed prior to and during the World Urban Forum will also contribute to Canada’s urban agenda and will help to create a long-term legacy of knowledge and action around sustainability issues in Canada and the World. The papers contributed to Canadian efforts in Barcelona at the 2004 WUF. Ministers and Canadian officials held informal consultations with domestic and international stakeholders while in Spain. The WUF 2006 Secretariat will take into consideration all input received from interested stakeholders to ensure that Canada meets the challenge from UN Habitat in making the WUF 2006 more interactive and participatory. These papers have been developed with the financial support of Western Economic Diversification Canada. The views expressed herein are solely those of the authors of this paper and do not necessarily reflect the official position of the Government of Canada. This paper was written with support of the University of British Columbia, the Dean of Arts, Liu Center for Global Issues and Department of Art History Visual Art and Theory. The research and the compilation of the knowledge resource accompanying the paper was accomplished with the assistance of Dorothy Barenscott, doctoral candidate in the Department of Art History, and Diana Cooper and Nicole Gjertsen in the Fine Arts Division of the Library at the University of British Columbia. Lastly I was greatly assisted in the preparation, drafting and editing of this paper by my wife Suzanne Windsor-Liscombe.

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FOREWORD
This paper is part of Turning Ideas into Action, a themed series created in preparation for the 2006 World Urban Forum. Together, this series forms a mosaic that sheds light on a common focus: the city. On a global scale, cities have become the dominant form of human settlement, socially, economically, environmentally and politically. The papers begin to examine how cities can continue to be dynamic and inclusive places in which to live and thrive. By illustrating explorations of the city with powerful stories of promising practices, the papers emphasize the assets from which cities draw their strength, and highlight dynamic participatory processes in action. Research for each paper draws on extensive experience in planning and managing cities. Selected lessons provide knowledge to achieve locally relevant solutions and supportive policies at the regional, national and global levels. They demonstrate the complexities of how cities evolve and transform, and challenge assumptions that are often taken for granted. Finally, the papers encourage the reader to view the world from different perspectives and discover successful and innovative solutions appropriate to their relevant conditions. WUF 2006 will build on Canada’s historic leadership in bringing the UN Conference on Human Settlements to Vancouver in 1976. It will also benefit from Canadian experience in improving human settlements at home and abroad. The 1976 UN meeting pioneered a participatory process of member nations and NGO’s, and created a worldwide focus for human settlements issues through the establishment of the UN Centre for Human Settlements in Nairobi, now known as UN-HABITAT. WUF 2006 is part of an historic trajectory of UN Conferences and represents the 30th anniversary of HABITAT ’76. These papers are intended to initiate an informed dialogue on the scope and scale of the evolving urban agenda through Turning Ideas into Action locally, regionally, nationally and across the world.

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This paper is one of a series of discussion papers prepared in anticipation of the World Urban Forum 2006. The papers in this series include: The Capable City The International Centre for Sustainable Cities This paper examines non-traditional forms of governance with an emphasis on consensus that has emerged in a Canadian context and responds to three questions. Are there models of cooperation across jurisdictions that might provide lessons for city regions that do not require mergers? Are there models for management of global common goods – such as watersheds, that do not involve legislative powers? Are there models based on consensus and voluntary agreements across sectors that show promise for influencing decision making related to sustainability? Three Canadian cases are presented: the Greater Vancouver Regional District; the Fraser Basin Council; and the National Round Table on the Environment and Economy. The models are assessed using UN-HABITAT’s criteria for good governance. The findings, along with pertinent literature and experience on governance and capacity building, yield observations and recommendations about their application to other cities. The Ideal City Department of Art History, Visual Art and Theory, University of British Columbia This paper explores the history and force of ideal city planning and the related literary and visual genres of Utopian -- and Dystopian -- speculation. The Ideal City represents a highly significant aspect of human thought and endeavour, usually conceived in response to actual problems as well as intended to effect substantive improvement in the daily social lives of individual citizens. Linked to a thematic knowledge resource intended to establish an interactive website, this paper reviews the main constituents of the Ideal City tradition, examines its impact on the design of urban settlement, including across Canada and in Vancouver, and indicates how such conceptual approaches to the building of a better civic environment and society can contribute to the creation of more sustainable, habitable and civilized cities in the 21st century. The Learning City Simon Fraser University The learning city is a city that approaches sustainable development as an ongoing educational process. This paper focuses particularly on the role of universities and colleges in the learning city, examining the different dimensions of sustainability education and best practices from British Columbia, across Canada and internationally. Lessons from this are applied to envisioning a new Centre for the Learning City in Vancouver’s new Great Northern Way Campus. The Livable City The International Centre for Sustainable Cities This paper is a case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) in Canada, the host region for the World Urban Forum 2006. Drawing on the literature on livable cities and the region’s efforts to bring this concept into practice, the paper poses two central questions: What key factors affect the livability of a city and how does livability relate to sustainability? Livability is defined as “quality of life” as experienced by the residents within a city or region, and the paper concentrates on a case study of iv

The paper provides lessons for other cities and regions. Action is called for to advance current concepts of capacity building. The Secure City Liu Institute for Global Issues. By enabling children and youth to participate fully in their own development and environment. The Youth Friendly City The Environmental Youth Alliance This paper explores what opportunities exist for the greater recognition of the rights and needs of children and youth in urban settings through a significantly enhanced role in urban governance and community building. this paper demonstrates the potential among youth for building capacity. UBC This paper focuses on three key issues: traditional pillars of urban security. The Resilient City Ministry of Community.planning for Greater Vancouver including the Livable Region Strategic Plan. preventive security and human security. the Sustainable Region Initiative. Examples of urban planning innovations and experimentations are drawn from a sample of cities and taken from the perspective of the urban planner who is usually a central actor in efforts to articulate. The Planning City The Canadian Institute of Planners This paper looks at sustainability as a dynamic. It summarizes how they have managed their transition from communities existing to serve resource exploitation exclusively to communities based on a different. and a research agenda to explore relationships between adaptive security. and the citiesPLUS 100-year vision for the GVRD. continuous process of sharing and exchanging knowledge and experiences. broader economy and suggests lessons from the Canadian experience that may be transferable to resource-based communities around the world. plan for and implement urban sustainability. The paper concludes with key findings. The Secure City sets a context for Canada’s emerging national urban agenda and a policy framework for global strategies to improve human security in cities throughout the world. Government of British Columbia This paper explores the resiliency of small Canadian communities dependent upon single resource industries by examining how they have coped with the economic and social pressures arising from the closure of their industries. structures and methods that could enhance the effort to achieve urban sustainability. sustainability and resiliency are three intertwined elements that together will define the quality of life of current and future residents. and offers direction about processes. resilient design and adaptive planning. and concludes that for Greater Vancouver. and for becoming insightful resources in developing strong and thriving local neighbourhoods and cities. v . It contributes to this learning process by reviewing key trends and challenges that confront those responsible for planning cities in Canada and overseas. and an enhanced role for individual responsibility and community participation to expand social capital is advocated. Aboriginal and Women’s Services. threats and forces shaping cities in the 21st Century. and of learning through action. livability. Integrated risk assessment that is responsive to community needs for prevention and precaution is recommended.

influence on social development. secure and youth-friendly a truly sustainable . making accessible complicated information and processes through visual and textual. The Ideal City constitutes a roadmap of possible ways to achieve the sustainable city by taking its ideas and turning them into meaningful actions. social and even economic background in the technical and popular discussions about 21st century urban development. vi . so the planners and peoples of actual cities will be reminded of the constant changes in the factors and aspirations affecting urban living. Sharing the problem ensures more effective and relevant solution.Executive Summary This position paper was written to bring together the diverse textual and visual record of Ideal City planning and Utopian thought.city for our times. mental and tactile interaction not only mirrors the communication of the Ideal City across time but also offers means to engage a grass-roots global audience. The so-called virtual reality of the computer web/internet. Additionally the resource is intended to initiate a series of interactive discussions. learning. political. And just as Ideal Cities continue to be imagined. Root causes from poverty or social inequality to racial prejudice and recurrent conditions such as inadequate sanitation or employment can be brought under the kind of close scrutiny at work in the writing or picturing of the Ideal City. Its screening of ideas by imagery and inclusion of people in the choice of value and form could involve ordinary citizens of whatever geographical. Such imaginary speculation provides important insights and potential strategies for creating the capable. and impact on actual urban design. philosophical and technical origins. livable. games and activities that will especially engage young people from around the world in the planning of the 21st-century city. The resource provides ready access to the written and image record of the Ideal City and Utopian perspective as well as to their religious. It consists of an extensive thematic bibliography that is linked to a web-based knowledge resource intended to inform and involve as wide a range of people as possible.

Attributes and Qualities of Ideal/Utopian City Design The Impact of the Ideal City Lessons from the Ideal City Can there be an Ideal City? Conclusion vii .Table of Contents Introduction: The Relevance of the Ideal City Today Purpose and Organization How the Ideal City Knowledge Resource is Accessed The Idea of the Ideal City Ideals and Ideas Confronting the Urban Problem Imagination and Technology The Motive for Change Town and Country A Vancouver Perspective The Story of the Ideal City Principles.

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essential to going beyond the level of limited utility. both developed mainly in Vancouver. and of secular social reform from Plato to Le Corbusier. ranging from Biblical to Vedic scripture. The story is summarized in this position paper and accompanying knowledge resource. reasserts their relevance to the particular situation.H. The story of the Ideal City can establish criteria and strategies for dealing with the huge and ongoing increases in urban populations and the new type and scale of problems they pose for town planning. Buddha. Kitimat in northern British Columbia was planned by Alcan as a model of urban settlement and echoed in Tumbler Ridge which was even planned to survive the termination of the resource development that had instigated its construction. For example. Christ or Marx. spearheaded by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. This yearning is expressed in the literature of faith. redefines the dynamic 1 . however. The vision of creating real improvements through imaginative planning resonates in just two of the names given to such schemes: the actual settlement of New Harmony in Indiana and the imaginary Broadacre City. The idea of sustainability itself owes a good deal to early 20th-century thinkers such as R. each of which is designed to enable people to contribute to thinking out the city of the twenty-first century. The Ideal City has always helped to illustrate how human habitation and society can be improved and to inspire effective action. The search for an Ideal City recurs in all cultures and at every level of expression from Thomas Moore’s Utopia to web-based learning tools like Quest or the video game Sim City.is obvious in the continuing impact of Aristotle. The power of ideas on society . including the abandonment of the social values and community facilities in its original form. the town development suffered what might be called the tragedy of planning: the slippage from the ideal during the implementation of the plan. economic system. expression and technological has played out with greatest intensity.including cities and company towns in Canada. Francé who promoted biocentrism: the relation of science. That idealism had helped change Canadian housing policy and especially the provision of affordable housing. The city is the place where the pulse of new political thought. Idealist thinking can get at the difficult questions and the complicated choices confronting us all. technology and society to organic processes. It reaffirms our values. The attempt to provide for all human needs and aspirations in an uplifting environment is highly organized in Le Corbusier's Radiant City project as against the less formal pattern of Ebenezer Howard's Garden City. This search is almost always associated with the criticism of existing conditions and the search for new solutions. social and spiritual sense is older than recorded history. Each shared extensive landscaping and each have set examples for much modern urban development . cultural. At Kitimat.The Ideal City Introduction: The Relevance of the Ideal City Today The yearning for better community in the material.and its major creation the city .

see the fundamental dependence of urban society on a healthy and productive natural environment. Inevitably flawed. They. the mural painting shows the extent to which sustainable urbanism involves the equitable use of all types of resources and arises from systems of governance that combine efficiency with equity. There. Indeed. In addition. water and sanitation. Both have. sustaining a diverse and productive community remained a potent benchmark against inferior as well as for superior development. For example. for example. and the citizens they organized and represented. which he also read. he inter-played universal ideal with local condition in plans for towns in France. Their varied response to timely difficulties is nevertheless a continuing call to plan better and pursue higher standards. Similarly. durable housing served by a wide range of services and facilities. They are the imprecise yet constant conscience of society and its experts from which emerge strategies as well as unforeseen variations. North Africa and India. on the advantages of communal rather than sectional enterprise. of the qualities and deficiencies of governance and civic society. modifying their form by using his intellectual and practical experience. food. and recalls the need to constantly rethink the nature of fundamental concepts like sustainability. Part of that persistence and power results from the detached yet profound viewpoint of Ideal City projects. Perhaps more valuable than the cities he redeveloped or built are the organizational and aesthetic paradigms he invented. His ideal scheme for rebuilding London after the Great Fire of 1666 adapted the principles and precepts of that tradition with the object of creating a distinctive but universally appreciable city. it has concentrated on those attributes and arrangements that could suit any one site without ignoring specific place. influenced the Concord Pacific development on the south shore of False Creek at Vancouver. This is only one example of the persistent effect and reforming power of the Ideal City. Christopher Wren was educated on the classical and biblical texts underpinning Moore’s Utopia (1516). on the provision of secure shelter. and countless modern tourists. the celebrated French architect Le Corbusier studied the Western European. the Ideal City record contains insights that overcome boundaries and counteract the tendency to impose either too strict parameters or too fixed solutions in urban development. city planners and private developers have learned by 2 . Lorenzetti prefigured the interactive thinking-up of better urbanism that happens in professional and popular computer gaming: the playing of imagination against reality to achieve actual improvement that prompts broad audience response and action. North African and South Asian Ideal City traditions when successively designing new solutions for 20thcentury urbanism. Painting over six centuries ago.The Ideal City relationships between the various components of urbanism. It became a constant reminder to Sienese politicians. The Ideal City quest anticipated our current identification of sustainability as an evolving matrix of concerns and objectives by which to attain stable human community on the global scale. Imagining a perfect city dwelling. His vision of handsome public spaces and buildings. The stimulus of the Ideal City legacy to practice is illustrated by the mural Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted on the theme of Good and Bad Government inside the Palazzo Pubblico (City Hall) at Siena 1339.

to how we both think about and experience urban living. The specific purposes of the paper are four-fold. equivalent to the search for the precious object or knowledge of sacred and mythic narrative. the city space of False Creek plays off its magnificent pacific coastal setting. pose tough questions about land tenure and use. however. design. Although contrasting man-made with natural composition (even in the more irregular or picturesque variants designed by Ebenezer Howard or Camillo Sitte). ideal thinking in pragmatic.and related literary and artistic representations of visionary human settlements . Those proposals. learning. For that reason the webpage component of the Ideal City knowledge resource is first entered through a series of sites linked to a thematic bibliography of activities which invite and enliven the process 3 . blue-sky. False Creek South also carries the imprint of Le Corbusier's idea of contemporaneous visual appearance. effective social inclusion and education. underline the force of abstract. The sheer towers and geometric layouts rework the rational order of Ideal Cities before and after Le Corbusier. livable. including production. down-to-earth. First to show the relevance of Ideal City plans . long-term employment opportunities and even about the implementation of sustainability in material and societal terms. How the Ideal City knowledge resource is accessed The Ideal City has always been a kind of quest. youth-friendly and resilient urban community . Fourth to identify those ideas. the buildings reflecting the uncluttered surfaces and inventive use of materials in the machines and appliances that both facilitate and complicate our lives. Inspiration and insight pushes and guides the searcher to travel beyond what they know or expect. secure. movies and commercial art. adaptive community services. have affected the towns and cities in which we live. issues and instruments of improved human settlement which should be considered in devising the capable. actual making of the cities of today's world. Thereby it points our attention to the interconnection between natural situation and sustainable urban settlement argued in the Ideal City proposals. Purpose and Organization This paper and knowledge resource are intended to stimulate a lively and interactive faceto-face and Internet discussion among people around the world and from all social and educational backgrounds. Third to recall how Ideal City books and designs.the sustainable city of the 21st century. Those and other aspects of what many now regard as Vancouver's unique revitalization of the urban core.The Ideal City his combination of vertical density and advanced technology infrastructure to retrieve as much as possible of the ground space for community activity and recreation. Second to indicate what is at stake for those who imagine ideal urban communities and for their potential inhabitants.

The other its potential to generate widely accessible interactive computer games: Virtual City. The doorway of the temple-like church in the right background invites viewing of the extensive image and plan record of the Ideal City. Hidden in the schematically drawn scene are "Easter Eggs". Europe. The smaller windows in the upper section are keyed to the discourse associated with or emanating from the Ideal City. written in 1979 and now among his papers at the National Archives of Canada. beginning with the broad concept of the Ideal City but distinguishing the Dream City. plan. Lived City. The categories of the Ideal City theorized in this paper are keyed to the island towns. That bibliography can then be retrieved in a geo-cultural matrix linked to each of the columns of the building: Americas. Middle Eastern. the format also has links to two compelling attributes of the Ideal City. is accessed via the marble paved foundation platform. are formatted on the most famous early illustration of Thomas Moore’s island of Utopia (Splash Page 1). These categories try to capture the range of types of idealized cities. "with electric circuitry the trend in education is from instruction to discovery. listed chronologically and alphabetically. The lower windows link to major texts of utopian human settlement and themes within or about the imaginary and real city. They also enable exploration of the philosophical-theological sources and the techniquetraining built into and built from Ideal City planning. Dystopic City. The horizontal entablature atop the windows and columns log onto the discussion of utopian writing and creating. web pages and comparable compendia of information on ideal." Splash Page II substitutes temporal for spatial aspects. the larger town on the mainland is linked to the next web-page (Splash Page II. As the Canadian theorist and thinker Marshall McLuhan declared in his unpublished essay "The Future of Art". Africa/Oceania. The figure of ship and traveler represent the dynamic of ideas to change viewpoint and context . and classical ornament recall Plato's description of the concentric Atlantis and the recurrence of the Ideal City vision in western tradition stemming from its ancient Classical and JudeoChristian origins. tholos. Virtual City and 21st Century City and Habitations. The island situated in the ocean fronting the imaginary mainland and occupied by a series of different habitations suggests the variety of Ideal Cities. preparatory to other mental journeys. The conical roof and lantern provide access to readings on both the representation and realization of the Ideal City. We move from one leg of our voyage. Asia.The Ideal City of data search. 4 . The main entrance leads to those bibliographies. linked to quotations or images showing aspects of the Ideal City. or keyed learning choices. and to important related economic and cultural factors. The thematic organization of the large bibliography on the Ideal City is formatted onto the central section of Piero della Francesca's painting of an Ideal Renaissance City. The Architecture of the Ideal City Literature Review). Its circular. Arctic. These sites.and the association of Ideal Cities with new technologies as much as nature. The total bibliographic resource. Lost City. actual and represented cities. Capable of including other sub-types. One is its persuasive and often poetic language: Wording the City. like the person shown standing on the deck of the sailing ship in the foreground.

The Ideal City 5 .

The Ideal City 6 .

7 . "What is the City but the People?" Additionally these purposely introduce existing American and Asian alongside European settlement. Splash Page IV (Force of Ideas) has an array of imaginary and actual urban plans and places that further illustrate the force of ideal or abstract idea. These deliberately include the relation of human with civic form as expressed in William Shakespeare's telling question. The whole set underscores how much ideas effect the everyday environment of our lives. exemplified by William Blake's impassioned advocacy of the empowering and liberating capability of human imagination. to the contained and monumental urban grids of Moll or Le Corbusier.from the circular and angled plans originating in the writings of Plato or Vitruvius. Each also carries over excerpts from the wording of (Ideal) City. Splash Page III (Formal Plans and Schemes for Ideal Cities) has images of imagination's power to summon new urban settlement .The Ideal City That figurative architecture of the written and imaged Ideal City is connected to five other web pages. These draw out materials from the bibliography that explore various conceptual aspects. contrasted with the organic and anarchic plans of Lloyd Wright or Constant Nieuwenhuys.

The Ideal City 8 .

The Ideal City 9 .

The first (V. the final page. including those many planned company towns typified by the lofty vision but more mundane reality of Kitimat developed in northern British Columbia from 1952. illustrating modern high technology city projects. Witness Fritz Lang's 1926 film Metropolis. Splash Page VIII (Discourses of Ideal City). This leads onto Splash Page VI (Utopia/Dystopia as a Dynamic). In this schema the various themes now centre on consideration of what has been created by the Ideal City rather than its creation. or Margaret Atwood's dystopic novel Oryx and Crake (2003). Among them is also a visualization of the proposed International Space Station. or by the ancient Arabian city of Ubar and the modern-day ideal community of Auroville in India. being a quasi utopia of universal human habitation at a remote location attainable but far distant. This mobilizes the spirit of Felix Guattari's provocative statement. Metabolists or promoters of Metacity/Datatown versus the dispersed garden city invented by Ebenezer Howard. Some of the difficulties confronted by the less privileged are structured into computer games like Sim City 3000. offers a completely different analytic. these were intended to institute practical improvement in daily city living especially for low income citizens. it will be a question in the future of cultivating disensus. The Station demonstrates the continuation of ideal planning into science fiction. Their legacies resonate across Canada. Exemplified by Ludwig Hilberseimer's 1928 Berlin Development Plan or Leonard Marsh's 1949-1950 Strathcona Redevelopment Scheme for Vancouver. Ideal Plans versus Realized Plans) contrasts idealized with realized town plans as exemplified by 17th and 20th century planning of Beijing. It highlights the two dominant paradigms of the concentrated high-rise cities of Ferris. V-VII. Splash Page VII (Rationalist or Organic) returns to the core proposition: that the Ideal always interacts with the Real City.The Ideal City The comparison between the thought-up and built-up continues through the following three pages Splash Pages. Adding another dimension to the quest for understanding. Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932). 10 ." Consequently Joseph Gandy's 1820 circular plan for a village made up of circular workers' houses provides a re-configurative schema for accessing the knowledge resource. But such disparities are more fully investigated in the fictional and cinematic depiction of later industrial-age popular culture. Le Corbusier. by Ledoux's late 18th century schemes for the salt-works at Arc et Senans and his imaginary town of Chaux. "Rather than looking for some stupefying and infantilizing consensus.

The Ideal City 11 .

The Ideal City 12 .

The Ideal City 13 .

The Ideal City 14 .

And it demonstrates that ideas are inseparable from technique and ultimately concerned with the practical." The song expressed the wish of belonging anywhere and everywhere. Popular music abounds with such sentiment. Its fabric is made of words and images charged with the desire to re-make the major invention of humankind . The significance of such exercises in hopeful forward-thinking is proved by their reappearance in philosophy. a good part of the idea and actuality of city. That is a fundamental goal of every Ideal City. stressed the popular dimensions of the good town. economics. of being a singular person yet connected with all society. including systems of knowledge and organization.the city . lies within the complex system of our own mental space. culture. Quite literally. But its force exists in those more mundane plans and schemes that aim to improve the urban environment and the architectural scenery of everyday life. gender. the Greek thinker who imagined many features of modern democratic society and thus helped create modern urbanism. its legacy intends to be the enhancement of nature through the quality of its artifice. Over and over again those who imagine or try to realize the Ideal City remind us that the chief component of urban life is we citizens.The Ideal City The Idea of the Ideal City The Ideal City stands at the crossroads between imagination and experience. the Ideal City seeks a wider amelioration of human settlement across the boundaries of time. While mainly the product of educated or expert people. The Ideal City intends pragmatic improvement just as much as the betterment of the individual citizen and of civic society. where the mind reconstructs ordinary living into harmonious community. Similarly. One instance is the reference to the "wide universal skies" in a hit song from the 1960s by the Canadian group The Birds . ethnicity. It is a virtual place that can correct or change what seems deficient in contemporary conditions by recovering the effective in past practice and revealing previously undefined improvements in organization and appearance. pictures and designs inspired by imagination or reason and recurs across history and geography. Its vision can be seen in children's and adult fiction as well as in science-fiction and scientific fact.through technological aptitude. politics. What is more. custom and location. as of all aspects of life. poetry and popular song. To be good it had to improve what existed in terms of personal experience in the physical and spiritual sense. It confirms the power of thought over material state and of aspiration over convention. So the Ideal City is made and re-made in books. Plato reflected the eastern Mediterranean ideology that regarded 15 . It is an expression of exasperation and of hope.ironically the name the Greek playwright Aristophanes gave to his satire of ideal city planning as "cloud cuckoo land. it inspires those who build and inhabit cities and whose lives make the total social order. Plato. in pursuit of transcendent values. gifted with extraordinary powers of creativity but troubled by inner anxieties and negative impulses no less than external difficulties.

watching the enslavement of many. written. and therewith his ability to change it. based on one view of the present and past in looking toward the future. gives that improvement definition in peoples' minds. "I would wish for neither wealth nor power. and imposes an individual's vision on the collective.The Ideal City moral human community as the highest objective of material organization. Hence the famous definition of the city voiced with the greatest force by the ancient Greeks including Plato. it is the tangible fabric from the intangible fabrics of political." Their rhetoric reminds us that the solution to our current worries about terrorism or criminality. imaged." Mannheim's sentence. "The strength of the city lies not in its walls but in its people. informed but constrained by one set of conditions in space and time. Søren Kierkegaard wrote early in the 19th century. and often paraphrased as. And. Contemplation in Blake's 16 . and. eternally young. built. legal social and cultural interchange. eternally burns with the longing to see possibility. it is always emerging from backward and forward-looking speculation. So the city is always as much imagined. William Blake yearned for the "Fiery chariot of … contemplation. spoken as planned. but the passion of possibility. usually built upon a wide knowledge of others' thinking and experimentation. it is the consequence of conscious composition and unconscious neglect. This first was uppermost in the mind of Karl Mannheim when he wrote critically in 1929 on the subject of ideology and utopia: "With the relinquishment of utopias. contagion or environmental degradation cannot be found in structure or system alone. Pericles. It also speaks to our increasing concern at the millennium with inclusivity. which. It is the real construction of mental constructions. this attaches the dynamic of change to a single outcome which implies that all problems have a particular solution. On the other hand. On the one hand this opens up the possibility of improvement in what is known." Living in London during its marvelous yet awful growth in the late eighteenth-century. "If I could wish for something". it is the result of sectional as well as opportunist social and economic forces and self-seeking groups and individuals. to fabricate a city of remarkable functional attributes. economic. altered and experienced." Only this could lift him out of what John Bunyan had called the "Slough of Despond" in The Pilgrims Progress (1678). it is the enterprise of passionate individuals wanting to bring into being pleasurable society. I would wish only for an eye which. Ideals and Ideas The ideal is a type of idea. man [sic humankind] would lose his will to shape history. Lycurgus and Thucydides. nonetheless also illustrates how the nature and application of the ideal changes over time. moreover. especially children. like all inspired thinking contains a diverse range of assumptions and insights that once again emphasize how things depend on thought. But it is the result of individual mental activity.

Soon the city streets will gleam like white walls. "Utopia. Augustine. The impulse for imag[in]ing the Ideal City survives the chaotic even cataclysmic change it grows from. Like Zion the holy city. Then we will be fulfilled. Each believed in the possibility of civic community that could answer Simone Weils' assertion that "the first of the soul's needs. he wrote about a better present. Loos and Mannheim were cited in the insightful lecture Edward Rothstein gave in 2000 at the New York Public Library in conjunction with a major international exhibition curated by Ruth Eaton. 17 . Libellus vere aurlas. beyond time and destruction. In 1908 the Austrian architect Adolf Loos mixed idealist and ironic attitudes when writing. From radically different mentalities. Augustine looked to the City of God as humanity's true habitation. "Look the day is at hand." Weil." Not without significance the exhibition framed the utopic and ideal in society as a whole rather than just the city. But its difficulty has compounded with the advent of the techniques and technologies that began to come into use when Utopia was published. the one which touches most nearly its eternal destiny. observing the replacement of the medieval by the modern world. Yet in imagining that transcendent place. The journey of the body through the mind's eye enabled by his imaginative writing charted the way to build a social environment that functioned better and was more enjoyable to inhabit. nec minum salutaris quam festivus de optimo republicae statu. thinkers and writers by virtue of its overwhelming presence in their lives. And he spanned the heavenly and earthly realms using language that was intended to reach an universal audience. the capital of heaven. deque nova insula Utopian. The challenge of the modern city.The Ideal City mind alone could lead to the correction or alleviation of the social ills structured into the modern metropolis. Witnessing the collapse of the urbanized Roman Empire in the 5th century. Over four hundred years earlier a pious lawyer turned politician." Loos reflected the influence of St. Thomas More began the utopian literary genre but simultaneously spurred on an even greater production of ideal city planning. our fulfillment is waiting. is order. The Latin words of the title alike speak of the separateness yet attainability of the better city. together with Kirkegaard. Confronting the Urban Problem The urban problem is as old as human settlement. increasingly stimulated architects. each considered that improvement in human society was concentrated in the city/town and even village. and it continues to counteract the cynicism attending purely utilitarian or materialist regime. composed Utopia. He prefigured those Spaces of Hope (2000) summoned up in a recent book by the social geographer David Harvey. The Search for the Ideal Society in the Western World. an early Christian Bishop ministering in North Africa.

That mix of responsible attitudes. Part of this doubled-faced quality (represented by the Roman God Janus always shown looking to the past and to the future). cultural and bureaucratic mechanisms that exert a dominant but less visible influence on the urban landscape. education. planned massive geometrical conurbations with roadways to accommodate every mode of transportation. The visionary almost always intends some level of practical application. housing or community stimulate corrective as well as reiterative thinking on the city. An interesting example of these complex characteristics is the automobile. Le Corbusier. including social and cultural values. and on the countless individual lives the city supports. design and town planning regarded the automobile as a literal engine of personal liberation and democratic social efficiency. The verbal and visual language of the Ideal City actually implies criticism of the existing. His faith in the possibility of accommodating machine with humane and pleasant civic environment is indicated in Le Corbusier's choice of names: Radiant and Green Cities. Many associated with the 20th century Modern Movement in architecture. is summed up by the term sustainability. Another. Charlie Chaplin or Margaret Atwood.The Ideal City The most intriguing feature of ideal planning is the intermixture of the visionary with the ordinary. The stimulus is often defective urban and social condition. The want of adequate sustenance. the Ideal City is as much situated as detached from actual circumstance. financial. follows from the double potential in each idea for liberation or limitation and in each urban settlement for civilized existence or civic regimentation. From that dystopic reality nonetheless stems much of the contemporary argument for ecological responsibility.more prevalent in the wake of totalizing or totalitarian practices . sanitation. a concept central to the 2006 World Urban Forum. Imagination and Technology Consequently the story of the Ideal City is as vivid as it is varied.is articulated from the experience of such commentators as H. especially in the conservation or replacement of fossil fuels. In interacting with actual time and space through one person's observations. security.G. Wells. In turn these and other concerns of the day enter the debates about those technological. Ideal schemes often provide models for people with different agendas whether building suburban subdivisions or establishing life-style communes. Usually ideal speculation exposes unforeseen social or technical problems that re-invigorate the utopic mission. fascinates or repels. Even the dystopic side of that equation . Neither foresaw the congestion and pollution exacerbated by actual auto-focussed planning which fuelled the [anti] Freeway Debates in Vancouver and Toronto. 18 . envisaged a spreading rural-cum-urban Broadacre City giving each family one-acre of ground and an auto-gyro. Frank Lloyd Wright. transportation. determines. One.

once the bounding system has been repudiated and renounced. state of oneness with the whole creation . as the 19 . as well as the self-sustaining comprehensive religious communities exemplified in the Asias by Angkor Wat or in Europe by the Abbey of St. The "urge to symmetry in cultural instincts impels some people to remake everything. she flew across the ancient yet sophisticated African city now known as the Great Zimbabwe. But the essence of progress is time." In some secular and most religious thought that can be a return to paradisal.the type of cosmological unity that inspired the perfect spiritual place of the Western Paradise in Chinese philosophy or the carefully organized monumental urban centre in Mayan and Aztec civilizations. Her voice is worth listening to because she admired technological invention and traditional society. an eschatological moment in human experience that announces the New Order. Gall. However in The Story of Utopia (1922) he also declared that "A map of the world that does not include utopia is not worth even glancing at. on hot days. During another flight. and we cannot only wait. Later. and the shores of Lake Victoria would be dotted with pleasure resorts. all redolent. of the subtle aroma of European culture. a keen student and advocate of socially and aesthetically ideal urbanism. Revolution opens up new space and discloses endless vistas … Revolution is Revelation. inaugurating solo flight west to east across the Atlantic. linked to Nairobi and the coast by competitive railways probably advertising themselves as the Kavivondo or Kikuyu Lines. acknowledged the barren quality of much utopian literature. "the best laid plans of mice and men gang awry. the New World. The undeveloped and 'savage' country would be transformed form a wasteland to a paradise of suburban homes and quaint urban popular beaches. to paraphrase Robert Burns. or Edenic. Such a perception of larger order benefiting civic order and individual behaviour affected the widely different Greek and Roman approaches to urban development. the New life. and how." Lewis Mumford." The Motive for Change The motivation for Utopian Ideal Cities was neatly expressed in the introduction Richard Stites wrote to Revolutionary Dreams. Nevertheless.The Ideal City The interconnections between the Actual and the Ideal City was humorously expressed by Beryl Markham." She supposed "in that case the road to Nungawe would be wide and handsome and lined with filling stations. incidentally landing in Nova Scotia. Utopian Vision and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution (1989). marveling at the natural landscape of East Africa she pondered what might happen if the African population acquired "cunning equal to that of their white brethren." Markham's astute overview underlines the extent to which one person's dream can be another's nightmare. author of West with the Night (1942). She emigrated with her father to Kenya and became one of the first women pilots.

Contrariwise. Ferriss asked: "How are cities of the future really going to look? Heaven only knows!" His clever parody of the divine inspiration frequently read into the Ideal City. "The City could be made in the image of [Wo]Man who is made in the image of God. published at the time of the disastrous collapse of the New York Stock Exchange in 1929. Vanity Fair (1847-1848). I shall be amongst gentlefolks. William Cowper and others in the western European tradition contrasted the corrupt city." Town and Country The moment of harmony sought in every Ideal City has to occur in recognizable spatial and temporal place. concrete and most evocatively glass -. William Thackeray in his brilliant satire of society.a state of complete harmony. Almost at the end of the book comes this sentence. the novel's chief protagonist. the creation of Cain. In The Metropolis of Tomorrow. remark upon leaving London for Sir Pitt Crawley's country house. with the purity of the country. commerce or ethnicity have been seen as capable of suppression through mental and material techniques such as imagined in the Ideal City. the divisive effects of religion.for the moment . was echoed in his preoccupation with magnificent structural and technical achievement. apparently in the same vein as his commercial artwork for firms like United States Steel active in the commercial redevelopment of New York. the Welshman Robert Owen and the Frenchman Charles Fourier. and not with vulgar city people. in free poetic form. He defined his idea of civic values in a diagram captioned.the age of steel.Ferriss yearned for "BUILDINGS like crystals/Walls of translucent glass/Sheer glass blocks sheathing a steel grill. the city of the utopian tradition is as variable as the definition of the city is paradoxical. However. Hugh Ferriss drew a sublime high-technology city from his daily observation of Manhattan. Reminding us of how much depends on standpoint and representation.The Ideal City Canadian architect Melvin Charney has depicted (1988) in a chilling coupling of the monastic with Nazi concentration camp plans. " … at least. Minority Report (2002) and The Matrix (2000). roads and motor traffic. the creation of God. had Becky Sharp. His illustrations recall the mega-cities drawn by the Italian Futurist Sant 'Elia and anticipate the huge metropoli. is the language of scripture and of reformist politics placed in an advanced urban environment that symbolizes openness and anti-sectarianism. "In the city which is monumentally before us the many and the varied religious denominations have achieved . feelings and senses. But Ferriss’s fascination with the mechanistic is directed to celebrating not only science and business but also the arts and citizens' thought. crammed with traffic pictured into recent movies like Star Wars I (2000) and II (2002). The inhabitants of his metropolis are dwarfed by the huge scale of buildings." Clearly aware of turn-of-the-century German theory on urban society in relation to the late industrial revolution -. tried in 20 . benign ideas can be corrupted utterly." Here." During that same era. Not many years later. ideology.

community facilities and include commercial services. supply. A Vancouver Perspective In Vancouver the sense of ownership. One example is the huge housing barracks built to alleviate the tremendous influx into Hong Kong of refugees from Maoist China during the late 1940s and early 1950s. however.and people . most wanted to relieve. Owen would in his short-lived New World commune of New Harmony in Indiana (1825) try to construct a home for society. undertook a thorough analysis. They could not. The preservation of natural landscape and productive farmland lies behind current proposals for the vertical concentration of buildings . He played upon a vision of village urbanism that would recur in Le Corbusier's high-rise Ville Verte (1930) project and Unité d'Habitation built at Marseilles (1947-1953). emasculated comprehensive plans for the rebuilding of the depressed Downtown Eastside (1944). has surmounted professional enthusiasm for rationalist or idealist urban projects in many parts of Asia. It resembles a very large early Victorian British country house in the same way that Fourier's Phalanstery (c. and their professional peers. from schools to churches and parks. and about which the sociologist Leonard Marsh. This called for dispersed. ironically exploited by very different economic and political resistances to central authority. Those factors were contagious overcrowding and the loss of the individual person in mass humanity. There was to be a wide range of facilities. together with a diversity of accommodation.termed FARMAX. retrieve Patrick Abercrombie's initial post-war master plan for Hong Kong. from low-rise blocks for young families to high-rise apartments for retired people especially from the large local male 21 . or the New Towns established as satellite communities for overpopulated London after 1945. The romanticization of the village reflects two of the negative factors Ideal City planners.The Ideal City different ways to repair the rifts between urban and rural in pursuit of healing the deepening rifts in society caused by the division of labour and competitive industrial capitalism. Out of his findings came a striking Modernist plan (1950) for redevelopment. Still. These comprised the Strathcona slums that the Vancouver painter Bert Binning and his artist-architect colleagues considered a reproach to the city. the desire for individual home ownership. low-rise and landscaped urban reconstruction. Like many of his generation Marsh was preoccupied with quantifiable facts of deprivation and less concerned with understanding the wants and expectations of those deprived residents he wanted to assist. active in the foundation of its United Nations. of kinship and long-term habitation. Several decades later Ebenezer Howard advocated removing the healthy part of the city to the country protected by a Greenbelt and an outer moat of agricultural production. 1814) recalls the former Royal palace of Versailles. most often in a suburban vision of Howard's Garden Suburb. Quickly the colonial and municipal authorities determined to increase the minimum standards of space.

In late medieval London this referred to the area south of the City called the "stews" where prostitution. Those linkages and the diversity of urban issues discussed in the other position papers are central to the concept of sustainability inspiring the World Urban Forum. especially from the First Nations. They wanted to renew the city by enhancing the material circumstance of the socially disadvantaged. barter and criminality thrived. The vision of Marsh. The Neo-liberal. recovering the appreciation of the intricate linkage between natural resource and human habitation. the greatest weakness of this convention of social criticism and futurism. sustainability is an evolving set of values and objectives . The vision suppressed people's innate preoccupation with difference.a dynamic interrelation of all the components that are essential or contribute to sustaining human settlement and 22 . including land designated for agricultural and recreational use. The lyrical terminology of many Ideal Cities. summoned up a quite different civil society . Ecological and environmental inquiry has further consolidated this strategy. the expansion of community facilities. The narrative of Utopia and the Ideal City has always addressed issues underlying the physical organization of urban society. together with policies to address prejudice. The inner city has become the focus of much socio-economic disparity and destructive behaviours once identified with the unregulated suburbs. concentrated on the provision of the infrastructure for sustainable social life. exemplified by Howard's Garden Suburb (1882) or Lloyd Wright's Broadacre City (1934-1935). and his designer Enrico di Piero. But there was little variety in formal organization and appearance. drug use and exploitation of young people at risk. Indeed the isolation of Utopias is. recreation and transit. Patrick Geddes took a different line by retrieving geographical and socio-cultural location as part of the strategy for better town development. the push for the revitalization of the downtown core for civic as much as commercial purposes. gambling. or more properly Neo-conservative. a preoccupation that compounded with the relaxation of wartime mobilization and growth of consumerism. arguably. Whatever the politics of urban development. They were less concerned with maintaining former patterns of urban ethnicity and living. The rise of the consumer society re-emphasized the construction of the city as a competitive interplay of property and monetary investment regulated rather than initiated by municipal governance.even if it masked the complexity of both human and urban interaction. This legacy of ethical thinking influenced the establishment of the Vancouver Planning Department in 1956. ethos of both PostModernism and New Urbanism has tolerated urban sprawl and the encroachment of the city on the surrounding region. In company with the Ideal City story and with the position papers. including proximity to employment and entertainment.The Ideal City population of former resource industry workers. the argument about the moral nature of the city will continue. poverty. the defeat through the 1950s and 1960s of inner city auto routes.

and the invention of Utopian literature. One of the most remarkable texts on human history is Ibn Khaldun's 1377 book The Maguaddimah (An Introduction to History). the ideal motive is evident not only in the related Islamic culture but also those markedly different originating in the Americas. This was reinforced through association with the ancient literary and philosophical systems. and with ordering as both a public and private activity.'" The Story of the Ideal City The story of the Ideal City is thus the desire to resolve all that is lacking in our everyday communal life and environment. and Africa. It is an enduring theme in the oral and written tradition of all cultures. the mathematician and the saint repeat to the human city the same plea and the same warning: 'We must love each other or we must die. since it mixed religious with secular aspiration. Islamic and other non-Western cultures have the appreciation of cosmological pattern as a paramount motive for the planning and building of cities. Khaldun elevated the social status and cultural significance of the architect (a central agent in the Ideal City narrative) in defining the city as proof of civilization. was the conviction that a combination of individual with collective initiative. It uses text as much as image because words and design capture imaginative idea but also determine practical policy. Urban form in each 23 . one source-book and one set of behavioural directives. the [wo]man of learning and the poet. Khaldun discusses city design at length. In 1976. Those systems were especially concerned with origins. and aesthetic with technical expertise. Urban and architectural scenery figure strongly in The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (English translation. "The scientist and the sage. Egyptian. Towns should provide dwelling. culture and human value. shelter.The Ideal City urban community. security. the historian Barbara Ward published The Home of Man to coincide with the 1976 Habitat Conference sponsored in Vancouver by the Canadian government and United Nations. Greek and Roman. Not surprisingly also. At the heart of those novel approaches to art and society. sociability and tranquility reflective of diverse social values while answering to human need of utility and liking for luxury. the phenomenon was defined as Humanism. Not surprisingly. occurred during the ideological marriage of the Judeo-Christian with the Classical traditions in the Renaissance. usually regarded as the beginning of the modern age. However. but paramount in the Judeo-Christian perhaps because of the centrality of concepts of unity and universality: one god. the first concentration of Ideal City planning. Macchu Pichu shares the extraordinary technical sophistication of ancient Persepolis. Her final sentence declares. including nostalgia for a golden age. The particular contribution of the Ideal City has been to place urban issues and aspiration within the realms of nature. while the radial plans of Cusco or Benin Efi once matched the geometrical regularity of the Heavenly City of imperial Beijing. could better society as a whole. 1885). Asia.

the 17th century painter Shitao even sited utopia in the peach blossom spring." 24 . also corresponds with Moore’s Utopia. Disneyland.The Ideal City case exhibits belief system and establishes an environment for its expression in state ceremony as well as in ordinary social practices. Bacon. including the socialist rather than transcendent books of Bellamy and Morris. Attributes and Qualities of Ideal/Utopian City Design With their legacy in mind it is useful to outline the principles. and one of tremendous significance. These will be seen to prefigure the ideas and policies described in the position papers that follow. Amid all these speculations. and of the ties between production and consumption. Yet to many. St. but concentrated on general form rather than particular appearance. Country living was celebrated by Chinese painters and poets in reflection of the aristocratic values of their patrons. First was comprehensive planning of the built environment. That role distinguishes the works inspired by Plato. such features coincide with the dystopias narrated by Butler. Orwell or Skinner. and its recurrence in the writing of Andrae. however crass to some. is the absence of a vision for environmental and communitarian improvement in which the individual citizen plays an active role. That partially explains Lewis Mumford's odd comment in 1922 that the classic literature of utopia constituted "a singularly barren trait of mind. Augustine or More. The sense of a higher order was not so clearly articulated nor. Wells. was the design of the Chinese city so much a part of ideological dispute or imaginative creation. Disney themes include elements of the Ideal City and especially the transitory impression of security. or the formulation and execution of policy. But especially in China the distinction between town and country was less pronounced and the organization of cities around governmental and commercial facility more consistent. daily attracts countless numbers of almost all the world's population to its saccharine utopia. high and low culture. Campanella or Cabet. The geo-cultural breadth of the Ideal City narrative can also be explained through newer interpretations of human mind and culture. community. The chief difference. The level of explicit and implicit control. Principles. professional designers still draw schemes for better habitation and ordinary people continue to be fascinated by stories of future survival or by popular spectacles of idealized (even scary) existence. enjoyment and commonality. plus the removal from the habitual. Psychoanalytic and Marxian thought especially have heightened our awareness of the intersections of the conscious with the subconscious. attributes and qualities of ideal urban living. and matters of symbolism and utility. until the modern era. One poem by Xi Zhou Sheng entitled the 'Tale of Marriage Destinies' calls up the Confucian idea of a lost utopia while also claiming that utopian conditions can be achieved now. This embraced the public and private domain.

can be found in indigenous African and American settlements. This acknowledges the extent to which all material system is on the one hand limited in effect and on the other dependent upon compliance. In turn. those new forces would worsen the urban problem but intensify the will for its solution. the authors pictured a society freed from divisions imposed by possession. commercial and imperial development. The main threat is seen as coming from external sources. organization and community of personal expectation and aspiration. though not their strict polygonal and circular geometry. Lastly there is the protection of the ideal community. That assumption explains the quite rapid transference of ideal/utopian city schemes into the design and building of fortified towns during the long Renaissance (arguably stretching from the early 1400s into the early 1700s).The Ideal City Second was a complete -. since all the dis-equilibrious and even deceitful ploys of legal process lurk behind its façade of fair judgement and treatment. Again generality predominated over detail especially with regard to changing economic and political system.N. The Ideal City is to cultivate the self and the society. The reaction against industrial pollution reinforced that aspect of 19th and 20th century utopianism. From rights to responsibilities of citizenship. Thereby he condoned the colonial presumption dramatized by Shakespeare in The Tempest (1609-1611) and increasingly enacted by the European powers. Fortifications based on ideal models proliferated with the rise of competitive industrial.view of societal function. One result is preoccupation with conservation of the bio-ecology in responsible contemporary planning. The central proposition. Ideas and policies to reverse these effects are examined by Robert Home and Hilary Lim in Demystifying the Mystery of Capital: Land Tenure and Poverty in Africa and the Caribbean (2004). More. The appeal was to virtue deriving from philosophical or spiritual tenet. such as the writing-off of West Africa as a graveyard. for example saw no contradiction in the suppression of the aboriginal inhabitants of Utopia to create his ideal society. Thus sixth is the constructive use of natural as well as social resources. either by restitution of earlier patterns (A. was justice. At the height of European imperialism literature was used to invent dystopic place at sites of colonial exploitation. their concentric arrangement.W. The third principle of Ideal/Utopian City design is the assumption of entirely equitable relations between all social subjects such that even those granted authority to ensure effective administration had no advantage over those they administered. Fifth is fulfillment: the satisfaction through facility. Of course as much is obscured as stated in that word. 1470) and its derivative at Neuf Brisack in modern Germany (1699-1702). felt to be reflected in the rationalist geometry of plans and architecture. service and community. What is at stake here might be described as the bitter within the better. Interestingly. The outstanding examples are Filarete's project for Sforzinda (c. The collapse of imperialism into globalization has only exacerbated the problems of land ownership and economic disparity.we might now cynically say totalizing -. 25 . Fourth is the expectation of citizen compliance.

and usually for the better. and the scene of corruption and contagion. Dickens. For instance. Each has contributed to the architectural. These schemes led to a variety of economically and politically driven proposals for ideal modern communities exemplified by those of J-B Godin. Some were financially motivated. share. tomorrow. infra-structural. 1971) capture the hopes of the Ideal City in every day words: peace. Their thinking was still charged with the idealist reaction against the depredations caused by industrialization and uncontrolled urban sprawl. Gradgrind in Hard Times (1854). neither possession nor difference. like Saltaire. Part of that reaction was also activated by contemporary art and literature. Others were motivated by the more liberal social justice objectives of Bourneville. Its principles and projects have re-formed the facilities and governance of urban living. New Delhi in India translated the utopian paradigm into vainglorious British imperialism even if the buildings were transferred to Indian control within a decade of completion (1913-1931). Nevertheless the energy within ideas survives and evolves to the extent that. sociological and cultural dimension of the city through theoretical debate and practical policy. for an entirely different instance. Alongside developed paternalistic schemes to raise the living standards of ordinary working people. the model factory town constructed from 1851 in Britain by Sir Titus Salt. Yet if commerce and industry initiated the urbanization of the world they also have been involved with the alleviation of its harsh conditions.The Ideal City Pugin's early Victorian dream of restoring medieval urbanism) or by the substitution of entirely new forms (Kenzo Tange's 1960 schemes for floating cities in Japan). The Impact of the Ideal City The Ideal City has consistently changed the ordinary city. whom Dickens satirized as Mr. Hugo and Zola narrated the city as the foul scene of divisive social and economic system. the company town constructed from 1889 for 26 . Those who planned the New Towns in the United Kingdom to relieve overcrowding in wardamaged London repeated Thomas Moore’s idea of optimum population when designing their neighbourhood units. The possibility of real improvement projected by Ideal City design can be put to more questionable use. belong. When ideas are given permanent form they become fixed in time or subject to substantial alteration. This is Howard's To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898). Underpinning the ideal of security was the realization that it required the attainment of social and political peace. dream. Hence the choice of title for perhaps the most significant document on the application of ideal principles to the real city. the lyrics of John Lennon's song Imagine (c. Architects like CharlesNicholas Ledoux drew up plans for completely new towns when social reformers like Robert Owen were building improved residential and social facilities for industrial workers. not least by successively enlarging our understanding of the urban problem.

intended to express ideals of social regulation and relationships that could be a template for less privileged settlements.C. both boosted private house ownership and public housing and community planning from the major southern cities to the aboriginal settlements in the Arctic. or Capilano Highlands in North Vancouver.The Ideal City cocoa and chocolate manufacture by the Cadbury family. Jane Drew or Oscar Niemeyer combined rational organization of buildings and transport systems with extensive landscaping and communal spaces. from the Town of Mount Royal in Montreal. The display of authority usually predominated over the provision of the basic human requirements for habitation. New Delhi and Brasilia exemplify the monumental planning most associated with the French Beaux Arts school of design but originating in ancient Classical practice and eventually reconstituted by Modernist precept. Those humane requirements preoccupied the original supporters of Modernist town planning. to Don Mills in Ontario. Despite their contrasting vision. British Columbia. and innumerable entrepreneurial subdivisions worldwide. accommodating public and private activity. Strict geometrical plans distinguished several 19th-century proposals aimed at correcting social conflict or collapse through well organized built environment typified by James Silk Buckingham's ideal town of Victoria (1849). partly to correct what he regarded as the utilitarianism of the Linear City invented in 1882 by Soria y Mata. Other variations that connect the entirely imagined or partly realized are the monumental and geometric cities.H. An equally powerful pattern was more informal. It also influenced communitarian schemes such as Arco Santi established in the 1960s by the architect Paolo Soleri. Le Corbusier invoked the spiritual and natural dimension of the Ideal City. C. The Cadburys would later support the democratic and organic principles Ebenezer Howard created in his famous Garden City project. The layout is most usually a regular pattern of streets and spaces. The Garden City became the model for countless company towns including a series in Canada of which the Alcan facility at Arvida in Quebec (from 1925) is a notable example. This picturesque approach was preferred by Ledoux and the more opportunistic John Nash who laid out the Regent's Park development in London (1815-1833). the outcome of both tended to be standardized functional urbanism. Paris. Still the idealistic Modernist vision of a democratic and pleasant urban environment impressed Canadians like the Art in Living Group who promoted the New Community scheme to reconstruct Vancouver's blighted downtown Eastside in the 1940s. An epitome is the 16th-century Indian city Fatephur Sikri. work and leisure. a comparable development in Canada is Shawinigan Falls built in northern Quebec from 1899 by the Shawinigan Water and Power Company. Although subject to the 27 . Their idealism entered Canadian public policy during the post-1945 Reconstruction era with the foundation in 1947 of the Central [later Canada] Mortgage and Housing Corporation.M. Québec. Architects like Ernst May. All Ideal City plans involve a preconceived idea of best layout and facilities. reflecting the variety of natural scenery.

mentor of Moshe Safdie who designed Habitat. Their cities would grow out local climate.of their capability to transpose ideal into practical improvement -. putting form to pre-existing instead of preconceived patterns of human settlement. One outcome is the series of projects. Another was the contemporary collaboration between the University of British Columbia and the Kumasi College of Technology in Ghana to train African planners in their own environment.inspired John Bland. Skeena Terrace and Raymur Place) during the 1960s. She stands among several city commentators. They have not so much an ideal as a goal of urban development growing out of negotiated but pluralist practice. How is this legitimated and how can it be challenged as well as sustained? Who is to be included in the process of designing. including 28 .The Ideal City preconceptions and constraints of their times. Otto Koenigsberger and Christopher Alexander were advocates of radically different interpretations of the Ideal City. most notably Edward Soja and Michael Sorkin. Patrick Geddes. Their attempt to use technology to supply decent lifestyle for everyone became intensified in later HighTech and Plug-In City schemes. who prefer the discovered to the imposed pattern of civic life.M. custom and culture. the major low-income housing schemes C. But the mechanistic ideal encountered harsher criticism as authoritarian and de-humanized by the Situationist and Superstudio groups. let alone building a city plan? What level of control should be given those who own the resources. A different ideal has accompanied the Modernist project. Their city accommodates qualities and modes of social interchange that recognize difference but resist exploitation or suppression by any one group. Once again these have influenced Canadian practice. secure and satisfying urban community. in particular about the legitimate exercise of supposedly superior expertise. developed in conjunction with the Inuit and immigrant inhabitants). are testimony to the socially ameliorative potential of planned urbanism. Lessons from the Ideal City The long history of the Ideal City and Utopian thought underscores the multiplicity of factors that must be addressed in building sustainable. Conviction in the positive social agency of architecture and town planning -. Montreal (Jeanne Mance). the prefabricated lowincome housing complex for the 1967 Montreal Exposition. A major advocate was Jane Jacobs who moved to Toronto in order to oppose the building of a multilane expressway through its historic centre. There is also a Canadian dimension to the promotion of a socially generated urbanism.C. Toronto (Regent Park South) and Vancouver (McLean Park. Such speculative projections onto the future raise profound questions about authority. for indigenous settlements including Ralph Erskine's plans for Resolute Bay in the Canadian arctic (from 1967. admittedly politically problematic in retrospect.H. completed in Halifax (Mulgrave Park).

" Values. subdivided and managed? Who will regulate the services and systems sustaining its population in relation to the requirements of the commerce and manufacture contributing to its economy? Imagining the best organization of infrastructure and architecture also highlights political and cultural value. The danger of confusing altruistic intervention with authoritarian direction was demonstrated with particular visual drama by the Superstudio 1971 project. But how can we avoid falling into the trap of becoming too attached to particular solutions or unlikely goals? Maybe McLuhan was correct when in his 1979 essay he argued that the eradication of the automobile would enable the city to "be redesigned as a human neighbourhood. seldom addressing such matters as the difference between public and private interests. The twelve deliberately dystopic schemes parody rationalist and technocratic idealization but also overlook nature and human society. topography and visceral experience inevitably constitute the urban environment. Can the ideal or idealized plan deal with the mobility of mind and situation involved in the observation and analysis of urban problems. 29 . In this regard Ideal City and Utopian plans have assumed a largely uniform nature for society.The Ideal City property and investment." There can be no doubt that the defeat of the urban expressway project in Vancouver paid dividends. and how can the possibility of ongoing change be assured? Architectural and town planning became increasingly professionalized and subject to conventionalization after the Second World War. And the definition McLuhan tacked onto his assertion would not fit everyone's idea of the city: "The purpose of the city is to accelerate human transactions in as many different areas as possible. chance occurrence. It was not only the preservation of heritage buildings. The very act of articulating the ideal can constrict the range of decision and certainly the relation between technical and social factors or between communal and individual quality of life. The exciting dream can become the dreary dogma quite apart from giving a false impression of the effectiveness and resilience of systems and structures. The creation of neighbourhood involves a changing set of conditions that apply and modify technology. must. Inevitably those processes have tended to impose precepts and techniques formulated under past and oftentimes only partly relevant conditions. That act raises the problem of time. let alone improve urban society is limited. technology and taste quite apart from the issue of civic identity. necessary to create the city? How should the city be located. Conditions change and alter the usefulness of ideas. and the power of architecture and town planning to reconstitute. local communities and their cultural memory or a greater variety and humanity of scale but also the reduction of inner city pollution and the demonstration that people and not automobiles made civic life work: autopia cannot lead to utopia! Nevertheless personal mobility has become remarkably widespread and its consequences including harmful levels of emission pollution. "The City of the Book". as well as alternative transit technologies. be factored into the design of cities.

radically different from the collectivized urban solution of both recent and historical tradition. is evident in the recent redevelopment of the False Creek district of Vancouver. The questioning and testing must take into account the extraordinarily diverse weft and warp of geography. The pursuit of difference in the face of religious. Utopian thought affords a matrix for the radical and comprehensive envisioning vital to the making of the 21st century city. The choice factor. environmental. In Africa. Amidst the rapid and chaotic changes occurring in our late modern era. despite the often dreadful conditions of habitation and lifestyle for the majority. South America and Asia. But both are ultimately oriented toward a market model of civic construction. the greatest lesson from the Ideal City story is the need for ongoing questioning of our assumptions about urban living and the effectiveness of our planning.The Ideal City Realizing the significance of the changes affecting the problem of city design is almost as important as getting to grips with the complex mix of demographic. political and cultural change affecting urban society. especially of the natural environment. plus its hidden limitations. But that aim is pursued in innumerable ways. It can stimulate participatory dialogue about city design and governance at every level of society and give peoples of all 30 . Each has proven extraordinarily popular and has satisfied an array of requirements. the migration to the city has become inexorable. Consequently the record of history and imaginative analysis and invention of urbanism in the Ideal City tradition is worth examining. then. economic. Whatever financial or administrative system or even appearance of cities they attract constantly growing pollution. resources and production in the world cities. from the local to the regional and even continental scale. religion. Similarly does the belief in one approach to city planning lead to real improvement and does it encourage citizen participation in creating responsible urbanism? How can we use computer games like Sim City to counteract the violent and despondent picture of urban life in such virtual reality computer games as Grand Theft Auto? Perhaps. political or economic collectivity reiterates the conundrum of city living: to be apart in being part of. Emergent megalopoli are intensifying historical anxieties about contagion. corruption and excess consumption. In contemporary Shanghai those able to purchase property gravitate to entrepreneurial landscaped suburbs. Each has involved at least a reasonable level of debate and mediation of the opposing demands of investor bureaucrat and consumer. population. The northern section replicates the village-like clustering of historical Europe. They use income largely generated by the massive high-rise development of the urban core to purchase detached houses in private enclaves. people seek meaningful community. The southern section consists of landscaped high-rise residential and commercial buildings that recall the vertical villages recommended by Le Corbusier to increase density while decreasing loss of land to building.

the electronic media (first understood critically by the Canadian theorist Marshall McLuhan) have the potential to realize the idealistic planning template proposed in Project '58.The Ideal City backgrounds data and strategies to attain habitable urban community. municipal official. in concert with the Greater Vancouver Regional District (exemplified by the Cities Plus initiative). They did not detail consultative or regulatory procedure. But how can we develop truly democratic and innovative methods that will ensure socially responsible. The GVRD and City have also fostered citizen and community pressure groups exemplified by the Downtown Eastside Residents Association. however. Its members have helped introduce practical improvements in the daily lives of those disadvantaged by the workings of the new urban economy. environmentally sustainable. Electronic technology already has the potential to mirror the omnipresence of the divine and the involvement of every person along lines frequently invoked in Ideal City and Utopian text. and to redirect systems of economy and authority. upon the centenary of the establishment of the Province of British Columbia. be ideals of process and objective that can determine fair and flexible practice. In the wider arena of public opinion and popular preference. and visually no less than physically pleasant cities for the new century? Before suggesting specific trajectories that could bridge imagined and actual city. investor. proposed a new mechanism for devising future development in Vancouver. but Vancouver. Project '58 envisaged a downtown storefront facility for bringing together citizen. technological and sociological perspectives that are nonetheless under constant modification. to equitable and sustainable city building. Despite problems of universal access. a group of local architects and planners.especially if data on. secure and satisfying urban living are introduced into the daily thinking and playing of young people. One is the questioning of the presumptions about planning and building human settlement. politically equitable. The virtual can become the real -. The transcendent and abstract qualities in the Ideal City represent a dynamic coming together of aesthetic.as in the Ideal City/Utopian genre -. has instituted effective means to ensure at least a balanced resolution of private with public interests. and choices for sustainable. Canadian experience has much to offer here. There can. The libertine motive behind the Ideal City is necessary to challenge the status quo. design professional and building contractor around the building of Vancouver. economically robust. The other is the identification of fundamental issues at stake. Can there be an Ideal City? The Ideal City is the creative conscience and critical measure of the built city but there can be no one Ideal city. In 1958. the technology is even more capable of allowing 31 . Their example can work best at two levels. the larger process of participatory dialogue and decision-making has to be addressed.

Fifth is the resolution of the opposing demands of community and privacy. and get people thinking. The web should be further used to build the widest possible world audience through interactive discussion and gaming. or of mobility and equity. Specifically what technological practices ranging from modes of governance to media of communication effect social ethos? Second come questions of property and production. Besides relating to all the themes developed in the position papers. values and culture as well as historical tradition. via the Internet. planners and citizens including instruments to enable meaningful dialogue. bring new issues and information to its discussion. The Ideal City prompts us to think about a number of issues and factors. examples and critical strategies to stimulate participatory debate across all boundaries of place and background. it reminds us how much of urban life depends upon ideas. what among the dynamics of change whether natural. The issues and opportunities raised by the Ideal City (in conjunction with the knowledge resource) should be open to worldwide discussion involving the other papers. local and individual situations and wants. technological or cultural must be understood to ensure the social justice and sustainable community in the world's cities? The Ideal City therefore can lead to action by stimulating greater awareness and appreciation of what needs to be done to achieve sustainable urbanism . Any amount of material improvement will only bring partial success without consideration of those human and social factors. of individuality and inclusivity. The ideal perspective can help assess the success of planning policy. How can comprehensive planning be matched with corporate or individual ownership and be made capable of incorporating volatile changes in taste especially around everyday appearance and identity? Third is the definition of community in terms of cultural no less than political and economic consideration. First is careful consideration of temporal and geographical location. Sixth is the durability of the urban scenery central to the sense of belonging.and especially how we can ensure the relevance of our plans to regional. or optimum actual. It will 32 . One final level of speculation is possible. The ideas and strategies most relevant to the problems of 21st century urbanism can be clarified through the same. city of the 21st century is likely to exhibit the following range of features. The ideal.The Ideal City everyone everywhere informed participation in renewing and building the 21stcentury city. Conclusion The Ideal City genealogy has much to offer in realizing the objectives of the World Urban Forum. It has principles. How can change to the civic environment retain artifacts of civic memory that are both representative and inclusive? Seventh. What does urban citizenship require and how should it be encouraged through planning? Fourth is the education of architects.

As for Metropolis.H. It will depend as much on the expression of communal values (the Canadian ethic of multiculturalism being an apposite example) as upon either acquisitive economic speculation or preconceived paradigms of design or governance. Her speeches impress me little. The governance of the city will thus need to incorporate an equally broad awareness of natural environment. 1949) 33 . Auden. It will maximize land use and associated resource consumption through the critical application of technology.The Ideal City comprise active participatory debate and democratic decision-making about the conception and construction of the urban fabric and infrastructure. centred on reflexive analysis of the effects of planning and development. social equity and cultural value. her statistics less. to all who dwell on the public side of her mirrors. (W. It will re-construct the built environment in response to the changing condition. resentments and no peace. Memorial for the City June. that too-great city. her delusions are not mine. At the place of my passion her photographers are gathered together. reduced energy use and ecological damage. Buildings may follow uniform organization but will exhibit a variety of scale and form generally arranged in more compact configurations to allow for landscaped private and public precincts. but I shall rise again to hear her judged. It will be undertaken as a continuous rather than end game practice.

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