Child’s Name: Chase C.

Child’s Age: 8 years old Child’s Grade: 3

Administrator: Miss. Beland Date(s) of Administration: October 2008- November 2008

Child’s academic background: Chase is currently in the third grade at Jerabek Elementary School. He has attended the school since kindergarten. Both of his parents, particularly his mother, are active in his education and in the classroom. Chase tends to perform at the basic to proficient level in most academic subjects. At this time, Chase’s parents have shown concern about Chase’s reading level and his lack of interest in reading.

I. Interest Inventory, Attitude Assessment, and Self-Anchoring Scale.
A. Interest Inventory: This inventory assesses a student’s interests about reading including the types of books the student prefers to read. The survey contains 14 prompts such as I like to read about... and I like to read aloud to…. Chase enjoys reading mysteries and playing outside. Chase seems to be intimidated by a book that is too hard or does not contain any pictures. He tends to like reading books about adventure and mystery without being scary. B. Attitudes toward reading: This assessment provides an indication of a student’s attitudes toward reading. The student responds to twenty questions on a scale of one (very unhappy) to four (very happy). The student’s score is measured against norms for his/her age and percentages are provided in three areas: 1.) Attitudes toward academic reading, 2.) Attitudes toward recreational reading, and 3.) A total attitude score about reading. Score Percentage Recreational: 24 17 Academic: Overall: 32 56 74 44

Chase has a low interest in reading recreationally. On the other hand, Chase has a relatively high interest in reading academically. After reviewing some of Chase’s responses, it appears that he would rather be pursuing other activities in his spare time (example-playing outside). While at home, he prefers to participate in more physical activities. Yet at school, he enjoys reading. His interest in reading correlates to his environment. Although he does like to read at school, he has low interest in reading out loud. This

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correlates to his confidence in reading at school. C. Self-Anchoring Scale: This assessment indicates a student’s feelings about their reading ability when compared to the worst and best readers they know on a scale of one to ten. After placing the best reader they know as a ten and the worst reader they know as a zero, they place their own reading ability somewhere in between. Best Reader: Dad Worst Reader: At first Chase said that he was probably the worst. I asked him to name someone else beside himself. He did not want to respond because he thought that was mean to say that someone was a bad reader. When prompted, we collaborated on a kindergarten student. He was still not fond of this idea. Student self-placement: 5- In between Dad and a kindergarten student. Chase automatically picked his Dad as the best reader he knows. We needed to discuss the worst reader that he knew in depth. At first, he wanted to say that he was the worst reader because he didn’t want to be mean and say anyone else. In order to avoid names, I helped him by offering some examples such as a baby, a kid in preschool, kindergarten student, etc. Finally after picking the worst reader, he put himself in the middle. He told me that he believes that one day he will be as good as his Dad but not yet.

II. Test Scores: Word Recognition:
A. Phonics: This assessment measures a student’s knowledge of all of the basic phonic skills. For example, students are asked to decode words containing consonants (i.e., b, p, t, v, s) short vowels (i.e., bit, bat, sat), long vowels, (i.e., bite, board, fewer), and properly separate syllables (i.e., si/lent, bat/tle, la/dle). Number of test items: 85 Number of correct responses needed to pass test: First grade: 60 Second grade and higher: 80 Chase’s score: 80 BPST Sub-tests and Total Number Student

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Score Consonant sounds Short vowel sounds Blending words with: Short vowels Consonant digraphs Consonant blends Final “e” (Long vowel) Long vowel digraphs r-controlled Other vowel digraphs (OVD) inflections 2 syllables affixes 3+ syllables Total Possible Score

Possible 21 5 10 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 85

Score 20 4 10 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 81

Chase had a strong understanding of consonant sounds. He missed the sound of “q.” In short vowel sounds, he was hesitant and missed the sound that “u” makes. Instead of the short “u” sound, he said the “oo” sound. When reading words with short vowels, he did not make this mistake. The words seemed easy for him in the blending words with short vowels. He continued to excel until he read the word “leak” and mistook the word for “lick.” When he reached the 2 syllable words, he became slower and more careful. He missed the word “ladder” and said it was “later.” He also missed the word “polite” and answered “pilot” but when asked to repeat the word, he selfcorrected himself. In the 3-4 syllable words, he also answered very slowly and had to go back and reread a couple of words. Chase could use more instruction in breaking syllables apart. Although he was able to answer many of these words correctly, it appeared that the words were mostly from memory. As there were more syllables, he appeared to become more unsure about his answers

D. High Frequency Words: This assessment measures a student’s knowledge of the 100 most frequent words found in the English language. For example, students are asked to read such words as: the, of, and, a, to, in, is. Number of test items: 120 Number of correct responses needed to pass test: 110 Chase’s score: 118 Page 3

Chase has a strong understanding of high frequency words and sight words. Chase missed the word “were” and answered “where.” He also missed the word “through” and answered with “thought.” Chase seems to have a strong foundation in high frequency words and sight words. His identification of words appears to be from memorization rather than decoding. F. Spelling The Developmental Spelling Inventory consists of thirty-five words that assess students’ knowledge of English spelling rules. Students in grade 1 are given words 1-15, grade 2 students are given words 1-24, and students in grades 3-6 are given words 1-35. The words follow the developmental order in which students normally learn to spell English words. The test determines the number of spelling rules students know. Grade Level Norms: First grade 7 words Second grade 13 words Third grade 16 words Fourth grade 22 words Fifth grade 24 words Sixth grade 26 words Student’s score: 26 Grade level: 6

Chase knows how to spell words with cvc and short vowels, blends, digraphs, “r”controls, final “e,” vowel digraphs, and dipthongs. Chase exceeds grade level expectancy. Chase could use more assistance in spelling words with inflected endings, sound families, and multi-syllable words. After analyzing the words that Chase missed, I think most of his spelling errors came from a lack of understanding in how to break multi-syllable words. For example, Chase wrote “stoped” for “stopped.” With more instruction in double consonants, Chase would understand the double consonants would make the “o” in “stopped” a short vowel sound rather that the hard vowel sound in “stoped.” He also misspelled “nature” by spelling the word “naturur.” He seems to understand the first syllable but cannot indentify the second syllable. His understanding of sound families could use some more reteaching. Again, Chase misspelled the word “vision” with “Vishon.” Here, Chase is able to indentify both syllable sounds but does not know the sound family (-sion) for “vision.” Lastly, Chase missed the word “invitation.” Here he spells the word, “ivitaion.” Chase is clearly overwhelmed by the syllables and amount of letters. He also appears to understand the sound family (-ion) but is not able to apply his knowledge due to the amount of syllables in this word.

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III. Comprehension Tests:
A. Vocabulary test This assessment measures a student’s knowledge of the meanings of words. For example, the students are given the word carpet. Then, they are given 3 more words: sky, rug, chair. The student must choose the word that has the closest meaning to the word carpet. They should underline the word rug. Number of test items: 20 Number of correct responses needed to pass test: 18 Highest grade level tested: Fall 3rd grade Chase’s score: 19 Chase meets the expectations of a 3rd grade student in vocabulary. He answered the questions quickly and confidently. When asked to define “tales,” he responded with “poems” rather than “stories.” All in all, Chase at least meets the grade level expectations in vocabulary for a third grader. B. Basic Reading Inventory This assessment consists of 4 different measures of a student’s ability to comprehend text. 1. Word Recognition-Isolation: This test consists of lists of 20 words that are arranged by grade level. A student continues to read the lists until s/he reaches his/her frustration level. Chases’s: Independent Grade Level: 3rd grade Instructional Grade Level: 4th grade Frustration Grade Level: 7th Grade 2. Grades Passages-Reading Accuracy: This test consists of passages of text arranged by grade level. Students are scored according to the number of words they decoded accurately. A student continues to read passages until they miss more than 10% of the words. Chases’s Independent Grade Level: 3rd Grade

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Instructional Grade Level: 4th Grade Frustration Grade Level: 6th Grade 3. Passage Comprehension: This test consists of passages of text arranged by grade level. A student is asked to read a passage then answer comprehension questions about it. Students continue to read passages of increased difficulty until they reach their frustration level. Students: Independent Grade Level: 3rd grade Instructional Grade Level: 3rd/4th Grade Frustration Grade Level: 5th grade

4. Overall Summary of Student’s Reading Performance: Students: Independent Grade Level: 2nd/3rd grade Instructional Grade Level: 4th grade Frustration Grade Level: 5th/6th grade

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Summary of Student’s Reading Performance Grade Word Recognition Comprehension Context: Passages Isolation Form A (Accuracy) (Word Lists) Sight PP P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 19 20 14 16 17 12 Analysis 0 0 2 2 3 4 Total 19 20 16 16 17 12 Level Ind. Ind. Inst. Inst. Inst. Frus Miscues 2 3 9 1 13 Questions Level Missed Ind. 0 Ind. Ind. 3 Inst. Ins/Frus 2 Inst. Ind. 4 Frus. Frus. Estimate Reading Grade Levels Level

Independent: 2nd/3rd Instructional: 4th Frustration: 5th/6th

In terms of Word Recognition in an isolated list of words, Chase scored very high. In terms of isolated words, he scored at the 5th/6th grade instructional level. His trouble areas appeared to be in multi-syllable words. He was usually able to answer the first syllable and then guess on the rest of the syllables. There was no strategy in trying to decode the word. If he did not know the word, he just said he did not know and did not try to decode. In terms of Word Recognition in a passage, he also scored above grade level. His overall independent level was 3rd grade. His Instructional level was 4th grade and his frustration level was 5th/ 6th grade. The word recognition in a passage was lower than the word recognition in a word list. After reviewing the passages, it appears that most of Chase’s errors come from substitutions. The word that he reads aloud tends to be very similar to the word in the passage. Occasionally he will omit the word or reverse 2 words. After reading the passages, we tested on comprehension. This is where I saw the most struggle. While reading, Chase is able to identify more words that he is able to comprehend. For example, Chase scored at and Instructional level in fifth grade word recognition in the same passage yet in terms of comprehension, the passage was at a frustration level. Chase was not able to answer many questions that called for inference. He was also not able to recall details. His interest level was very low about the topics that we read about and he never

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seemed excited about any of the stories. His summary of the story was always very minimal and rarely included important details. At the 5th grade level, it became too frustrating and he did not understand the solution of the story. Overall, Chase appears to have a much higher level in terms of word recognition than he does with comprehension. IV. Writing A. Description of writing prompt: The writing prompt was “Describe a trip or a family activity that relates to you.” B. Student’s response to the prompt. (See attached writing) Student was excited to write about a trip that he took with his family. He loves to play outdoors and hike so this trip was very fun for him. He has talked about this trip a couple of times in class. In terms of his writing, it is obvious that he was very excited to go on this trip with his best friends. It was eventful to him because of the unique experience that he had with a wasp. Other than that, he does not describe why this is a very important or meaningful trip to him. I know that this trip is meaningful because of my prior knowledge about activities that he likes to do. C. Coherence and cohesion (logical, organized) In terms of coherence, Chase stays on topic. It is clear in his writing that the story is about a trip to Yosemite. He gets right to the point and writes about it. The story is very logical in terms of order. He tells the setting and some characters on the trip. The he tells what the problem is. There is no clear solution or ending in his story. It ends very suddenly. In terms of cohesion, his story is not organized in terms of sentences or paragraphs. The story is one big long sentence. He does not stop to brainstorm or create an outline of any sort. In terms of the story elements, his story is cohesive but not in terms of writing. D. Grammar, punctuation, vocabulary and spelling. His sentences tend to be one long run on sentence. He rarely separates his sentences with a period. If his sentences were separated into periods, there would be a clear subject and predicate in each sentence. Often times, he forgets to include certain words that are necessary to understand the sentence. In terms of elaborated sentences, he uses the sentence, “not one not 2 not 3 not 4 not 5 not 6 but 7 ours.” He is trying to describe that this was a long trip that they had to take. He also uses the phrase, “hit the road.” Other than those sentences, there are very minimal adjectives, adverbs, phrases, and clauses. Chase does not use a variety of sentence types such as declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, or imperative. For the most part, Chase uses declarative sentences throughout his story.

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In terms of vocabulary choice, he uses a minimal amount of advanced vocabulary. Some descriptive words that he uses are banging, swarm, and stung. For the most part he “tells” the story and does not “describe” the story. Lastly, Chase misspells several words. He misspells: hours, finally, unpacked, settled, small, across, other, sticks, started, swarm, packed, and road. After asking Chase to review over his spelling, he only corrects a few words. V. Overall assessment of child’s reading and writing skills. Overall, Chase seems to be performing at an appropriate grade level in terms of reading, vocabulary, and comprehension. He is able to read high frequency words and identify letter sounds. Areas that could be improved would be comprehension and writing. In terms of spelling, Chase is performing well on spelling tests but when it comes down to applying spelling in a writing piece, his spelling is very weak. He also lacks organizational skills in his writing. He does not apply sentence structure or paragraph structure to his writing. He also lacks description in his writing. In terms of comprehension, Chase is not able to remember details within the story or retell the story in detail. His inability to retell a story in detail is most likely affecting his writing as well. Instructional suggestions for reading and writing improvement The first topic to address is Chase’s comprehension. In order for Chase to understand more details within the stories that he reads, I would recommend that he use a small flashcard that ask questions such as “Who, What, Where, When, Why, How” and other flashcards such as “Setting, Characters, Problem, Resolution, Summary.” These would be cards that Chase should look at after each paragraph or page that he reads. As he reads, he should answer these questions in order to comprehend some of the details. I think it is also important for Chase to make visual images of what he is reading. He told me that he feels intimidated by books that do not have pictures in them. I would allow Chase to continue to read those books that have images on every couple of pages at an independent level. At an instructional level (either with a teacher or parent), I would recommend that he not read books with pictures. Instead, I would ask the instructor to co-create mental images about the story in order to encourage Chase to create his own “pictures.” After reading the story, I would encourage Chase to use a graphic organizer to reflect on certain parts of the story such as setting, characters, problem, resolution, summary, and theme. The next topic to address is Chase’s writing and spelling. Before writing, I would recommend Chase use a graphic organizer for writing. I would vary the graphic organizers into bubbles, outlines, etc. After picking a topic to write about, I would encourage Chase to write about some ideas about the topic and then some details for those ideas on the graphic organizer. Next, I would encourage Chase to write in a paragraph frame. The paragraph frame would provide a structure for him to follow in the beginning of his writing. In order to allow Chase to write, I would not focus on spelling

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at this point. Once Chase is finished writing, I would recommend that he take a highlighter and highlight every word that he was unsure about in the spelling. He could then take those words to an instructor, classmate, or a dictionary to check the spelling. I would also recommend using quick writes with Chase. Chase needs more meaningful experiences with writing. By using a variety of topics in a quick write, Chase will get over his fear of writing. He should do the quick writes at home and at school. In terms of Chase’s lack of interest in reading outside of school, I would recommend creating a designated time during the day in which Chase would read at home. This would create continuity and structure in which Chase could get adjusted to. I would recommend this be at night, sometime before bed, in order for Chase to not feel as though he is missing out on a physical activity at outside. I would also allow Chase to pick a book based on his interest. In addition to setting a designated time, I would recommend that a parent or sibling read with him. While Chase reads aloud, make sure that Chase is reading every word. Depending on the difficulty of the book, stop at either paragraphs, pages, or chapters to allow Chase to summarize what is happening. If Chase does not include any details, remind Chase of those details and show him the details in the book as a reminder. Continue to do this until you and Chase feel that he can read the book independently.

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VI. Reflections on Case Study: A. Reflect on what you now know about the student that you didn’t know at the beginning. In comparison to the class, Chase tends to perform at the lower level. Because of this, I often thought that Chase’s reading level was much lower than in actually is. I was very impressed by the Chase’s reading, spelling, phonemic awareness, phonics, and high frequency words. I am impressed by his “knowledge” in these aspects of reading but I do not feel that he is at a high level of acquisition. When using Bloom’s Taxonomy as a reference, I am able to infer that Chase meets the lower level objectives of knowledge and comprehension yet he does not meet application, analysis, synthesizing, or evaluation. This became most apparent when analyzing his spelling on a spelling test and then in a writing piece. Chase does have knowledge and strategies in order to spell yet when applied in a writing piece, he does not use those strategies. I knew that Chase’s writing level was low from examples in class, but I did not realize that it went so far as his organizational skills. Chase has shown that he understands proper sentence structure in class, yet when writing a story, he struggles to use periods or paragraphs. He clearly has knowledge of writing strategies from his reading level, yet his has not reached the objective level of application and beyond. In class, I have also seen Chase’s high interest in reading. Yet at home, I did not realize how low is interest in reading was. His mother has addressed her concern about his interest in reading outside of the home.

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B. Reflect on additional information you would like to know about child or questions you have about instructing the student. I understand the Chase does not like to read at home and I would like inquire why he does not like to read at home. He has voiced that his mother puts a lot of pressure on him to read. He also does not feel very confident about his reading level. I would like to learn why he does not feel so confident and how I could build his selfefficacy level in reading. I would also like to learn how I could help Chase apply his knowledge in spelling to the spelling in his writing. Sometimes it seems as though his interest level reflects how well he applies his knowledge. I would like to learn how to help children apply their knowledge about topics that they might not be fully interested in. I think this is important because there are going to be many times in their future that they have to write about things that do not interest them, yet they need to apply their knowledge of writing to those topics. I would also like to learn how well Chase is able to communicate orally. For example, I would like Chase to tell me a story orally and then see how well he is able to apply that story in a writing piece. I believe that his organizational skills might encompass more than writing and might include listening and speaking skills. C. Other reflections, questions, or comments you would like to make about the Case Study experience. I have learned a significant amount about how a child might be very strong in one aspect of reading and very weak in another aspect of reading. For example, Chase is able to read a story with great accuracy but comprehend little about the story. It is important to test all aspects of reading in a child because many times these struggles can be connected. I also had a question about the extent of this reading test. I was wondering whether or not it would be beneficial to test the students listening and oral skills as well. If this test were being administered on an English Language Learner, I would also want to learn more about how they communicate through oral language in the classroom verses outside of school. I think that relationship could effect their reading and writing abilities if their oral and listening skills were low.

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