A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—1

Contents ................................................................................ 1 Part I ...................................................................................... 3 Of Studies ............................................................................. 4 Machines and the Emotions ................................................ 6 On Reverence ..................................................................... 15 Taming Technology ........................................................... 18 Freedom .............................................................................. 34 The Man in Asbestos: An Allegory of the Future ............ 44 From a Liberal Education ................................................ 110 What is Beauty? ............................................................... 115 Shooting an Elephant....................................................... 129 Logic: Love is a Fallacy ................................................... 139 Part II ................................................................................. 155 1—The Sentence .............................................................. 156 II—Recognising Word Classes or Parts of Speech ....... 243

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—2

III—Tenses ........................................................................ 387 IV—Punctuation................................................................ 413 V—Miscellaneous Expressions in Usage ....................... 514


Perenial Themes —


Part I
Perennial Themes

Good name, in man or woman, dear my God, Is the immediate jewel of their souls. Who steals my purse, steals trash; ‘t is something nothing; ‘T was mine, ‘t is his, and has been slave to thousands; But he that filches from me my good name, Robs me of that which not enriches him, And makes me poor indeed.

William Shakespeare— Othello, Act III, Scene III

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—4

Of Studies
Francis Bacon
Born in London and educated at Cambridge, Sir Francis Bacon spent much of his life practicing law, but to the end of it he busied himself with philosophical pursuits, and will be known to posterity chiefly for his deep and clear writings on these subjects. His constant direction in philosophy is to break away from assumption and tradition, and to be led only by sound induction based on knowledge of observed phenomena. Among the distinguished names in English literature, none stands higher in his field than that of Francis Bacon. Reproduced here is a short essay by him which is a model of lucid, vivid, balanced and presice prose writing. Students will see that his essay is replete with short and pithy sententences and aphorisms. It also informs the reader of the significance of various facets of “studies”. To Bacon “Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man”.

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight is in privateness, and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business; for expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of the particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshaling of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies, is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar; they perfect nature and are perfected by experiencefor natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men condemn studies, simple men

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admire them, and wise men use them, for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man; and, therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets, witty; the mathematics, subtle; natural philosophy, deep; moral philosophy, grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend.

• How do you think studies can make a man perfect? • “To spend too much time in studies, is sloth”. Comment. • ‘Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention.” Elaborate.

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Machines and the Emotions
Bertrand Russell
The theme of this article is a familiar critique of the industrial culture, that is, impoverishment of the emotional life of man that it supposedly entails. The Pakistani readers should be familiar with this theme as summed up in an oftquoted line of Iqbal: Hay dil kay liyai mot mashino ki hakoomat. The author attempts to elucidate the impact of machines on human emotions within the framework of modern psychological thought, and postulates a link between the desiccated emotional life of modern man and the intensification of his passion for violence. This heightened propensity for violence could be reduced, the author thinks, if people were provided opportunities for exciting and hazardous adventures such as mountaineering. Bertrand Russell is a major intellectual figure of the 20th century. He has written voluminously on philosophy, logic, education, economics, politics, and has had great impact on the thinking of educated classes around the world. On occasions he was a center of intense controversies because of his unorthodox and iconoclastic ideas. His work in fields of philosophy and logic is of lasting importance. The Principles of Mathematics (1903) and Principia Mathematica (written in collaboration with A. N. Whitehead) have the status of classics of mathematical logic. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Peace.

Will machines destroy emotions, or will emotions destroy machines. This question was suggested long ago by Samuel Butler in Erewhon, but it is growing more and more actual as the empire of machinery is enlarged. At first sight, it is not obvious why there should be any opposition between machines and emotions. Every normal boy loves machines; the bigger and more powerful they are, the more he loves them. Nations which have a long tradition of artistic excellence, like the Japanese, are captivated by Western

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mechanical methods as soon as they come across them, and long only to imitate us as quickly as possible. Nothing annoys an educated and travelled Asiatic so much as to hear praise of the ‘wisdom of the East’ or the traditional virtues of Asiatic civilisation. He feels as a boy would feel who was told to play with dolls instead of toy automobiles. And like a boy, he would prefer a real automobile to a toy one, not realising that it may run over him. In the West, when machinery was new, there was the same delight in it, except on the part of a few poets and aesthetes. The nineteenth century considered itself superior to its predecessors chiefly because of its mechanical progress. Peacock, in its early years, makes fun of the ‘steam intellect society’, because he is a literary man, to whom the Greek and Latin authors represent civilisation; but he is conscious of being out of touch with the prevailing tendencies of his time. Rousseau’s disciples with the return to Nature, the Lake Poets with the medievalism, William Morris with his News From Nowhere (a country where it is always June and everybody is engaged in hay making), all represent a purely sentimental and essentially reactionary opposition to machinery. Samuel Butler was the first man to apprehend intellectually the non-sentimental case against machines, but in him it may have been no more than a jeu d’espritcertainly it was not a deeply held conviction. Since his day numbers of people in the most mechanised nations have been tending to adopt in earnest a view similar to that of the Erewhonians; this view, that is to say, has been latent or explicit in the attitude of many rebels against existing industrial methods. Machines are worshipped because they are beautiful, and valued because they confer power; they are hated because they are hideous, and loathed because they impose slavery. Do not let us suppose that one of these attitudes is ‘right’ and the other ‘wrong’, any more than it would be right to maintain that men

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—8

have heads but wrong to maintain that they have feet, though we can easily imagine Lilliputians disputing this question concerning Gulliver. A machine is like a Djinn in the Arabian Nights: beautiful and beneficent to its master, but hideous and terrible to his enemies. But in our day nothing is allowed to show itself with such naked simplicity. The master of the machine, it is true, lives at a distance from it, where he cannot hear its noise or see its unsightly heaps of slag or smell its noxious fumes; if he ever sees it, the occasion is before it is installed in use, when he can admire its force or its delicate precision without being troubled by dust and heat. But when he is challenged to consider the machine from the point of view of those who have to live with it and work it, he has a ready answer. He can point out that owing to its operations, these men can purchase more goodsoften vastly morethan their greatgrandfathers could. It follows that they must be happier than their great-grandfathersif we are to accept an assumption which is made by almost everyone. The assumption is, that the possession of material commodities is what makes men happy. It is thought that a man who has two rooms and two beds and two loaves must be twice as happy as a man who has one room and one bed and one loaf. In a word, it is thought that happiness is proportional to income. A few people, not always quite sincerely, challenge this idea in the name of religion or morality; but they are glad if they increase their income by the eloquence of their preaching. It is not from a moral or religious point of view that I wish to challenge it; it is from the point of view of psychology and observation of life. If happiness is proportional to income, the case for machinery is unanswerable; if not, the whole question remains to be examined. Men have physical needs, and they have emotions. While physical needs are unsatisfied, they take first place; but when they are satisfied, emotions unconnected with them become

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important in deciding whether a man is to be happy or unhappy. In modern industrial communities there are many men, women, and children whose bare physical needs are not adequately supplied; as regards them, I do not deny that the first requisite for happiness is an increase of income. But they are a minority, and it would not be difficult to give the bare necessaries of life to all of them. It is not of them that I wish to speak, but of those who have more than is necessary to support existencenot only those who have much more, but also those who have only a little more. Why do we, in fact, almost all of us, desire to increase our incomes? It may seem, at first sight, as though material goods were what we desire. But, in fact, we desire these mainly in order to impress our neighbour. When a man moves into a large house in a more genteel quarter, he reflects that ‘better’ people will call on his wife, and some unprosperous cronies of former days can be dropped. When he sends his son to a good school or an expensive university, he consoles himself for the heavy fees by thoughts of the social kudos to be gained. In every big city, whether of Europe or of America, houses in some districts are more expensive than equally good houses in other districts, merely because they are more fashionable. One of the most powerful of all our passions is the desire to be admired and respected. As things stand, admiration and respect are given to the man who seems to be rich. This is the chief reason why people wish to be rich. The actual goods purchased by their money play quite a secondary part. Take, for example, a millionaire who cannot tell one picture from another, but has acquired a gallery of old masters by the help of experts. The only pleasure he derives from his pictures is the thought that others know how much they have cost; he would derive more direct enjoyment from Christmas cards, but he would not obtain the same satisfaction for his vanity.

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All this might be different, and has been different in many societies. In aristocratic epochs, men have been admired for their birth. In some circles in Paris, men are admired for their artistic or literary excellence, strange as it may seem. In a German university, a man may actually be admired for his learning. In India saints are admired; in China, sages. The study of these differing societies shows the correctness of our analysis, for in all of them we find a large percentage of men who are indifferent to money so long as they have enough to keep alive on, but are keenly desirous of the merits by which, in their environment, respect is to be won. The importance of these facts lies in this, that the modern desire for wealth is not inherent in human nature, and could be destroyed by different social institutions. If, by law, we all had exactly the same income, we should have to seek some other way of being superior to our neighbours, and most of our present craving for material possessions would cease. Moreover, since this craving is in the nature of a competition, it only brings happiness when we out-distance a rival to whom it brings correlative pain. A general increase of wealth gives no competitive advantage, and therefore bring no competitive happiness. There is, of course, some pleasure derived from the actual enjoyment of goods purchased, but, as we have seen, this is a very small part of what makes us desire wealth. And in so far as our desire is competitive, no increase of human happiness as a whole comes from increase of wealth, whether general or particular. If we are to argue that machinery increases happiness, therefore, the increase of material prosperity which it brings cannot weigh heavily in its favour, except in so far as it may be used to prevent absolute destitution. But there is no inherent reason why it should be so used. Destitution can be prevented without machinery where the population is stationary; of this France may serve as an example, since there is very little destitution and

the great objection to the emotions. the rebellion of our instincts against enslavement to mechanism has hitherto taken a most unfortunate direction. of this we have examples in the industrial areas of England a hundred years ago and of Japan at the present day. And an ‘irregular’ life has come to be synonymous with a bad life. And. England and pre-war Germany. a man who has expensive plant must keep it working. conversely. as opposed to thought. The great trouble with the machine. but they liked and respected each other the whole time. and partly political conditions. The prevention of destitution does not depend upon machines. from the point of view of the emotions. England and France had innumerable wars. is their irregularity. namely spontaneity and variety. Officer prisoners joined in . in the past. exact. the value of increasing wealth is not very great. there may be much destitution where there is much machinery. In the eighteenth century. and contended for the hegemony of the world. In life.Perenial Themes — 11 much less machinery than in America. have the same intensity or virulence as it has in our day. but inspired by a wholesome dread of seeing men turned more and more into machines. As the machine dominates the thoughts of people who consider themselves ‘serious’. of course. machines deprive us of two things which are certainly important ingredients of human happiness. the highest praise they can give to a man is to suggest that he has the quality of a machinethat he is reliable. Meanwhile. to my mind. etc. from the point of view of the machine. The impulse to war has always existed since men took to living in societies. and their own insistent demands. but upon quite other factorspartly density of population. Machines have their own pace. is its regularity. And apart from prevention of destitution. wholly sound from an intellectual point of view. Conversely. Against this point of view Bergson’s philosophy was a protestnot. punctual. but it did not.

It is a mistake to attribute a vast upheaval like the late war merely to the machinations of politicians.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—12 the social life of their captors. punished him. The greater ferocity of modern war is attributable to machines. In the late war we should have knighted him. they make it possible to have larger armies. Thirdlyand this is the point that concerns usthey starve the anarchic. Many men would cease to desire war if they had opportunities to risk their lives in Alpine climbing. It is obvious that we cannot deal with this situation by abolishing machinery. producing an obscure discontent. a man came home from Africa with atrocity stories about the Dutch there. The only way of avoiding the evils at present associated with machinery is to provide breaks in the monotony. But in England. and is in any case impracticable. monotony. such an explanation would have been adequate. and for my part I believe that the modern increase in warlike instinct is attributable to the dissatisfaction (mostly unconscious) caused by the regularity. At the beginning of our war with Holland in 1665. A popular demand of this sort must have an instinctive basis. one of the ablest and most vigorous workers for peace that it has been my good fortune to know habitually spent his summer climbing the most dangerous peaks in the Alps. and every encouragement to high adventure during the intervals. they facilitate a cheap press. we (the British) persuaded ourselves that his story was false. which works underground. no Government could have withstood the popular demand for war. Secondly. In Russia. which flourishes by appealing to men’s baser passions. spontaneous side of human nature. If every working man had a month in the year . and imprisoned anyone who threw doubt on his veracity. to which the thought of war appeals as affording possible relief. and the United States (in 1917). and were honoured guests at their dinner-parties. that is one reason why Russia fought half heartedly. and tameness of modern life. Such a measure would be reactionary. Germany. perhaps. and published the Dutch denial. First. and made a revolution to secure peace. which operate in three different ways.

the popular love of war would become confined to women and invalids. Machines have altered our way of life. but it would not be comparable to the expense of war. or otherwise enabled to engage in some dangerous and exciting pursuit involving quick personal initiative. What we may accept from psycho-analysis is the fact that people will. Since spontaneity is what is most thwarted by machines. The whole psychology of the emotions and instincts is as yet in its infancy. Consequently there is maladjustment. The only adequate method is to discover what are the needs of our instinctive nature. Moral self-control. a beginning has been made by psycho-analysis. but only a beginning. and external prohibition of harmful acts. The reason they are inadequate is that these instincts are capable of as many disguises as the devil in medieval legend. and will thus throw light on average human nature. But orthodox psycho-analysis has unduly simplified our unconscious purposes. No doubt considerable expense would be involved. the use made of opportunity must be left to the initiative of the individual. It is to be hoped that social and political phenomena will soon come to be understood from this point of view. and then to search for the least harmful way of satisfying them. in action. he could be taught to work an aeroplane. pursue various ends which they do not consciously desire. and will have an attendant set of quite irrational beliefs which enable them to pursue these ends without knowing that they are doing so. Understanding of human .Perenial Themes — 13 during which. or encouraged to hunt for sapphires of the Sahara. but not our instincts. but I am convinced that a scientific psychology would find a method if it undertook the task in earnest. which are numerous. if he chose. are not adequate methods of dealing with our anarchic instincts. and some of these disguises deceive even the elect. the only thing that can be provided is opportunity. I confess I know no method of making these classes pacific. and differ from person to another.

as yet. it will be able to bring a happiness into our lives which machines and the physical sciences have failed to create.” Do you agree? • Is there any incompatibility between machines and human emotions? • How do the machines contribute towards heightening of modern man’s propensity for violence? • How exciting and hazardous pastimes reduce modern man’s craving for violence? • Explain and comment on Russell’s observation that machines have altered our way of life. but our own nature is much less understood. but not our instincts.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—14 nature must be the basis of any real improvements in human life. the value of increasing wealth is not very great. Science has done wonders in mastering the laws of the physical world. When science learns to understand human nature. • Why external restraints fail to ensure good human behaviour? . than the nature of stars and electrons. Discussion • Is insatiable craving for money a part of human nature? • How far social institutions can determine human behaviour? • Russell observes that “apart from prevention of destitution.

it is necessary that the men who are admired should be regarded as something that it is possible to equal by means of sufficient exertion. not as something outside our capacity. One of the most outstanding examples of the harm done by excessive reverence is the influence of Aristotle.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—15 On Reverence Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) In his writings on social and cultural issues. the achievements of predecessors are an encouragement and a proof of what is possible to achieve. can result in intellectual paralysis and cultural stagnation. Admiration of great men. This attitude is defended by those who adopt it. It is possible to use the great men of the past as an excuse for laziness. is a valuable emotion and a stimulus to useful activity. his writings . In “On Reverence” he shows how emotions of reverence. by assuming that what they thought was perfect for all time and need never be re-examined. ‘Reverence’ in this sense has been a misfortune to the human race. But if this good effect is to result from admiration. when invested thoughtlessly. who call it ‘reverence’ and condemn all modern initiative as disrespectful. both of our own time and of the past. To young men of vigour and enterprise. in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Bertrand Russell is at his best when he questions beliefs whose truth is taken for granted and attitudes which are hallowed by traditions. For a brief period. His lucid and incisive observations on the topic should provide food for thought to intellectuals who abdicate their role as critics of their societies because of non-discriminating reverence for their heroes and cult-figures. when the West rediscovered him through contact with the Arabs.

however. ‘Do you think you are wiser than so-and-so?’ says the indignant parent or teacher. ‘So-and-so’ is almost always a man who himself disagreed with his parents and teachers. ‘So-and-so’ lived in other circumstances and necessarily did not know all sorts of things that are known nowadays. Galileo could not induce professors of astronomy to look through his telescope at Jupiter’s moons. Throughout Galileo’s life he was as much criticised for disagreeing with Aristotle as for his supposed conflict with the Scriptures. In logic and aesthetics his influence has been. One way of being thought wise is to defend current prejudices in glowing and eloquent language so that rhetoric . when Darwin published Origin of Species. and no advance could be made except by showing the falsehood of what he had said. that is no reason for supposing that his opinions are to be accepted as a guide in the circumstances of the present day. because they knew from Aristotle that Jupiter has no moons. he was met by dogmatic assertion of Aristotle’s doctrine that each species was separately created. Aristotle’s influence belongs to the past. But very soon he became the canon of orthodoxy. even in their own day. men who have acquired great authority never were very wise. There is no subject upon which the opinions of a man who lived long ago can be accepted as dogmas absolving us from the necessity of fresh consideration in the light of our modern environment. In the main. however. Even if ‘So-and-so’ was just as wise as conservatives suppose. Two centuries later. exceedingly pernicious. Not infrequently.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—16 acted as an intellectual stimulus. and still is. Every young man or young woman whose opinions are not on all points those of the older generation is met with arguments inspired by this point of view. But the attitude of appealing to the authority of great men as unquestionable has by no means disappeared. but this fact is ignored.

Perhaps. the only way out lies in an educational system which cultivates an inquiring and scientific outlook. after another two or three centuries. however. Discussion • Why reverential attitude towards great men leads to intellectual stagnation? • What should be the proper attitude towards one’s revered heroes? • What are negative and positive aspects of reverence for great men? . the dangers of popular government would be much less than they are. this way out may be tried. this solution is impossible. As. Great writers and great orators have done incalculable harm in this way. If eloquence could be made illegal.Perenial Themes — 17 conceals the lack of reasoning power and the failure of sympathetic understanding.

no matter what psychic crutches we offer them. the shifting proportions of young and oldall play their part. One powerful strategy in the battle to prevent mass future shock. the society as a whole will still be caught on a runaway treadmill until we capture control of the accelerative thrust itself. no matter how we alter education. therefore. Alvin Toffler is amongst the best known contemporary American authors who has won acclaim as a social thinker and futurologist. indeed. Future shockthe disease of changecan be prevented. We cannot and must not turn off the switch of technological progress. Amongst other works.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—18 Taming Technology Alvin Toffler The selection has been taken from Future Shock. No matter how individuals try to pace their lives. and strains human adaptability to unmanageable limits. he is author of Future Shock and The Third Wavebooks which have had world-wide readership. urbanization. it may be the node that activates the entire net. even political action. The author pleads for a conscious regulation of technological growth to keep the pace of change within limits of human tolerance. involves the conscious regulation of technological advance. Population growth.” A state of nature is one in which infants shrivel and . a book which has greatly influenced contemporary thinking about the impact of technology on all spheres of life. It focuses particularly on the high acceleration of change induced by avalanche of technological advancements which disrupts and disorientates the whole spectrum of social institution. and received attention from planners and policy makers in many countries. Only romantic fools babble about returning to a “state of nature. Yet technological advance is clearly a critical node in the network of causes. The high velocity of change can be traced to many factors. But it will take drastic social.

Twisted automobile carcasses.Perenial Themes — 19 die for lack of elementary medical care. by which each forward step facilitates not one but many additional further steps. The speed-up of diffusion. who are we even to contemplate throwing away the key to economic advance?.. shoot them into outer spaces. the intimate link-up between technology and social arrangementsall these create a form of psychological pollution. In our haste to milk technology for immediate economic advantage.. aluminum cans.. we have turned our environment into a physical and social tinderbox. At the same time... Given that a majority of men still figuratively live in the twelfth century. To deliberately turn back the clock would be to condemn billions to enforced and permanent misery at precisely the moment in history when their liberation is becoming possible. We do not even begin to know what to do with our radioactive wasteswhether to pump them into the earth. a seemingly unstoppable acceleration of the pace of life. Pesticides and herbicides filter into our foods. To turn our back on technology would be not only stupid but immoral. in which malnutrition stultifies the brain. . the self-reinforcing character of technological advance. We clearly need not less but more technology. it is undeniably true that we frequently apply new technology stupidly and selfishly.. nonreturnable glass bottles and synthetic plastic form immense kitchen middens in our midst as more and more of our detritus resists decay. The psychic pollution is matched by the industrial vomit that fills our skies and seas. or pour them into the oceans...

An offshore drilling accident that pollutes 800 square miles of the pacific triggers a shock wave of indignation all over the United States. must not be permitted to fall into the hands of irresponsible technophobes. a political backlash mounts. Worse yet. could bring order to a field now in total shambles. In Washington. Additional evidences of deep concern over our technological course are turning up in Britain.. By 1980. Howard Hughes. France and other nations. We need a broad political grouping rationally committed to further scientific research and technological advancebut on a selective basis only. . Caught between these twin perils. Instead of wasting its energies in denunciations of The machine or in negativistic criticism of the space program. if comprehensive and well worked out.. At MIT. Such a set of goals.. scientists lay down test tubes and slide rules during a “research moratorium” called to discuss the social implications of their work. Cornell. we desperately need a movement for responsible technology. the Boeing Company fights growing public clamor against its plans to build a supersonic jet transport. nihilists.. and other universities. Students organize “environmental teachins” and the President lectures the nation about the ecological menace. prepares a lawsuit to prevent the Atomic Energy Commission from continuing its underground nuclear tests.. The incipient worldwide movement for the control of technology. A multimillionaire industrialist in Nevada. it should formulate a set of positive technological goals for the future.. In Seattle.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—20 Technological Backlash As the effects of irresponsibly applied technology become more grimly evident. however. public sentiment forces a reassessment of missile policy. reckless attempts to halt technology will produce results quite as destructive as reckless attempts to advance it. Wisconsin.

so far as much technology is concern. combined research and development expenditures in the United States and Europe will run to $73 billion per year. this “any thing goes” policy becomes wholly and hazardously .. With such large sums at stake. the Italian economist and industrialist. which was not there: a science policy. and as a result all kinds of new machines and processes are spewed into the society without regard for their secondary or long-range effects. no one is in charge. it tends to welcome without argument any technical innovation that promises to improve economic output or material welfare.. relating it to broad social goals. in fact.. Once the society begins its take-off for super-industrialism.” says Ralph Lapp. confessed: “We came to the conclusion that we were looking for something . and it can make for extremely rapid economic growth.. and insisting on strict accountability. “No onenot even the most brilliant scientist alive todayreally knows where science is taking us.” The committee could have looked even harder. The horrifying truth is that. himself a scientist-turned-writer.. however. It is hardly reassuring to learn that when the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development issued its massive report on science in the United States..Perenial Themes — 21 according to Aurelio Peccei. This level of expense adds up to three-quarters of a trillion dollars per decade. Nothing could be more mistaken. a tacit technological policy. This is. It is.. . one would think that governments would plan their technological development carefully. one of its authors. for anything resembling a conscious technological policy. a brutally unsophisticated policy. a former premier of Belgium. Selecting Cultural Styles So long as an industrializing nation is poor. and with still less success.

Similar lists are to be found elsewhere as well. This is a new fact in history. The old simple policy. confusing. the options multiply as well. instead of one at a time. and “human hibernation” for medical purposes. We need such policy criteria not only to stave off avoidable disasters. new airborne and submarine vehicles. subcults and life styles. At the same time overchoice comes to characterize technology itself. three-dimensional photography. Advanced technology helps create overchoice with respect to available goods. for the first time. In the past. new power sources. Apart from the increased power and scope of technology. In their book. By the application of conscious technological policyalong with other measureswe can contour the culture of tomorrow.” These range from multiple applications of the laser to new materials. In transportation. Increasingly diverse innovations are arrayed before the society and the problems of selection grow more and more acute. the society must now select its machines. but to help us discover tomorrow’s opportunities. a society today can consciously choose among alternative cultural styles. destabilizing. It must choose the way an individual chooses his life style. by which choices were made according to short-run economic advantage. proves dangerous. . services. just as an individual can exercise conscious choice among alternative life styles. cultural products. Today. It must make super-decisions about its future.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—22 inadequate. Today we need far more sophisticated criteria for choosing among technologies. culture emerged without premeditation. Herman Kahn and Anthony Wiener list one hundred technical innovations “very likely in the last third of the twentieth century. processes. The year 2000. we can raise the process to awareness. Faced for the first time with technological overchoice. techniques and systems in groups and clusters. Furthermore.

Another technological advance that could enlarge the adaptive range of the individual pertain to human IQ.. the complexities of choice are staggering.. Should biochemical treatments be used to raise mental defectives to the level of normals. flood the interior of Brazil to create an inland ocean the size of East and West Germany combined? We will soon. within the foreseeable future. Sweden and elsewhere.. be able to put super-LSD or an antiaggression additive or some Huxleyian soma into our breakfast foods. Widely reported experiments in the United States. strongly suggest that we may. In consequence. RNA and other manipulable properties are. It may be that the historic moment is right for such amplifications of humanness. correlated with memory and learning. But what are the consequences and alternatives? . A largescale effort to crack the intelligence barrier could pay off in fantastic improvement of man’s adaptability. We will soon be able to settle colonists on the planets and plant pleasure probes in the skulls of our newborn infants.Perenial Themes — 23 in communications.. as some quite seriously propose. in every conceivable field and some that are almost inconceivable. similar complex choices abound. in some still obscure way. we face an inundation of innovation. for a leap to a new super-human organism. should they be used to raise the average. Research in biochemistry and nutrition indicate that protein. be able to augment man’s intelligence and informational handling abilities.. no doubt. Should we throw our resources behind a crash effort to achieve low-cost nuclear energy? Or should a comparable effort be mounted to determine the biochemical basis of aggression? Should we spend billions of dollars on a supersonic jet transportor should these funds be deployed in the development of artificial hearts? Should we tinker with the human gene? Or should we. or should we concentrate on trying to breed supergeniuses? In quite different fields. But .

Indeed. Even sharper differences would develop between the society in which the pace of technological advance is moderated and guided to prevent future shock. scientists. along with LSD and pleasure probes. they affect us more deeply than most of the superficial political issues that occupy us today. and that which blindly snatches at the first opportunity that comes along. supersonic transports. Sharp differences would quickly emerge between the society that presses technological advance selectively. nuclear energy. and that in which masses of ordinary people are incapacitated for rational decision-making. They are political questions. Our choice of technologies in short. engineers or administrators who are unaware of the profound consequences of their own actions. We cannot permit them to be dictated by short-run economic considerations alone. political democracy and broad-scale participation are feasible. We cannot permit them to be made in a policy vacuum. . This is why technological questions can no longer be answered in technological terms alone.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—24 should we? Who is to decide? By what human criteria should such decisions be taken? It is clear that a society which opts for . instead. to raise intelligence.. independently of one another. This is why we cannot continue to make technological decisions in the old way. In one.. diffuse anti-aggression drugs and provide low-cost artificial hearts. We cannot permit them to be made haphazardly. will decisively shape the cultural styles of the future. And we cannot casually delegate responsibility for such decisions to businessmen. in the other powerful pressures lead towards political rule by a tiny techno-managerial elite. will develop a culture dramatically different from the one that chooses. macroengineering on a continental scale.

technological or otherwise. estimating. But it is not true that we are helpless. Technology cannot be permitted to rampage through the society. Moreover. we must attempt to determine how it will alter the delicate ecological balance upon which we depend for survival. The automobile is widely believed to have changed the shape of our cities. It is quite true that we can never know all the effects of any action. We must ask a whole series of unaccustomed questions about any innovation before giving it a clean bill of sale. sometimes possible to test new . Whether we are proposing a new form of power. and through it gain some influence over the accelerative thrust in general.. begin to submit new technology to a set of demanding tests before we unleash it in our midst. we must.. we must anticipate its indirect effects over great distances in both time and space. we must question the longterm impact of a technical innovation on the social. shifted home ownership and retail trade patterns. First.. to the degree possible. Where these effects are likely to be seriously damaging. cultural and psychological environment.Perenial Themes — 25 Transistors and Sex To capture control of technology. and much more complex. their nature. altered sexual customs and loosened family ties. strength and timing. therefore... bitter experience should have taught us by now to look far more carefully at the potential physical side effects of any new technology. Second.. or a new industrial chemical. a new material. It is.” We must attempt to anticipate them in advance. the rapid spread of transistor radios is credited with having contributed to the resurgence of Arab nationalism. In the Middle East. for example. We can no longer afford to let such secondary social and cultural effects just “happen. we must also be prepared to block the new technology. It is as simple as that.

. Third. it is still possible for us systematically to anticipate the distant effects of various technologies. special high-novelty communities in which advanced drugs.. But. too.. Survival in the future may depend on our learning to do so. Even when life-testing proves unfeasible. even subsidize. The same company will market test the product to ascertain whether it will sell. A corporation today will routinely field test a product to make sure it performs its primary function. how will a proposed new technology affect the value system of the society? We know little about value structures and how they change. if we were imaginative. studying its secondary impacts before releasing it for diffusion. Behavioral scientists are rapidly developing new tools. we may also wish to set aside. vehicles. an even more difficult and pointed question: Apart from actual changes in the social structure. cosmetics.make more informed judgments about the consequences of our actions. to help guide our technological decisions. even volunteer communities. Elsewhere I have proposed that we develop a new profession of “value impact forecasters”men and women trained to use the most advanced behavioral science techniques to appraise the value implications of proposed technology.... but there is reason to believe that they. We could. . appliances and other innovations are experimentally used and investigated. devise living experiments. among limited groups. no one post-checks the consumer or the community to determine what the human side effects have been.. are heavily impacted by technology.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—26 technology in limited areas. power sources. with rare exception.. from mathematical modeling and simulation to. we need but to make use of it. We are piecing together the conceptual hardware needed for the social evaluation of technology.

and the diversity of choice? Until we systematically probe these questions. our attempts to harness technology to social endsand to gain control of the accelerative thrust in generalwill prove feeble and futile. Today these consequences threaten to destroy us.Perenial Themes — 27 Fourth and finally. is not solely intellectual. we must pose a question that until now has almost never been investigated. We have taught ourselves to create and combine the most powerful of technologies. it is political as well. Here. or the ground effect machine. but the chain of innovations. nevertheless. the novelty ratio. however. We must learn. For each major technological innovation we must ask: What are its accelerative implications ? The problems of adaptation already far transcend the difficulties of coping with this or that invention or technique. is a pressing intellectual agenda for the social and physical sciences. not the supersonic transport. Our problem is no longer the innovation. or the breeder reactor. A Technology Ombudsman The challenge. investigated. absolutely crucial if we are to prevent widespread future shock. We have not taken pains to learn about their consequences. and for promoting or discouraging (perhaps . Does a proposed innovation help us control the rate and direction of subsequent advance? Or does it tend to accelerate host of processes over which we have no control? How does it affect the level of transience. and learn fast. and which is. but entire inter-linked sequences of such innovations and the novelty they send flooding the society. then. In addition to designing new research toolsnew ways to understand our environmentwe must design creative new political institutions for guaranteeing that these questions are in fact.

. Responsibility for doing so must be shared by public agencies and the corporations and laboratories in which technological innovations are hatched.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—28 even banning) certain proposed technologies. In Communist countries. need to be changed. In the latter. science and technology are never free in any absolute sense. as sociologist Amital Etzioni points out. decisions are private and pluralistically decentralized. in effect. the basic criterion for filtering out certain technical innovations and applying others remains economic profitability. In the West. not invention but application. Any suggestion for control over technology immediately raises scientific eyebrows. a machinery for screening machines. Theirs are the arguments once used to defend laissez-faire economics: that any attempt to control technology would stifle innovation and initiative.. Yet controls over technology need not imply limitations on the freedom to conduct research. “many liberals who have fully accepted Keynesian economic controls take a laissez-faire view of technology. In point of fact. Inventions and the rate at which they are applied are both influenced by the values and institutions of the society that gives rise to them. in effect. and the criteria on which selections is based. they are public and tightly centralized. Yet the consequences of lack of control may be far worse. the ultimate tests have to do with whether the innovation will contribute to overall economic growth and national power. The specter of hamhanded governmental interference is invoked. What is at issue is not discovery but diffusion. however. Ironically.” Warnings about overcontrol ought not be lightly ignored. In the former. We need. does pre-screen technical innovations before putting them to wide-spread use.. . Every society. The haphazard way in which this is done today.

Both tend to ignore all but the most immediate and obvious consequences of technology. rather than by specific industries. investigating. By calling press attention to companies or government agencies that have applied new technology irresponsibly or without adequate forethought. it is these non-immediate and non-obvious impacts that must concern us. . The decisions to launch detergents on the society were privately taken. Who should be responsible for correcting the adverse effects of technology? The rapid diffusion of detergents used in home washing machines and dishwashers intensified water purification problems all over the United States. Too often no agency.. There are many ways to allocate the cost. One step in the right direction would be to create a technological ombudsmana public agency charged with receiving. A technology ombudsman could serve as an official sounding board for complaints. Yet. But whichever way we choose. increasingly.Perenial Themes — 29 Both systems are now obsoleteincapable of dealing with the complexity of super-industrial society.. as is often the case. Perhaps it is sensible for de-pollution costs to be borne by the public as a form of social overhead. group or institution has clear responsibility. such an agency could exert pressure for more intelligent use of new technology. industries or government installations. the sources of pollution are traceable to individual companies.. and acting on complaints having to do with the irresponsible application of technology. Armed with the power to initiate damage suits where necessary. but the side effects have resulted in costs borne by the taxpayer and (in the form of lower water quality) by the consumer at large. The costs of air pollution are similarly borne by taxpayer and community even though. it is absolutely vital that the lines of responsibility are made clear.

. We might also create a “technological . The Environmental Screen But simply investigating and apportioning responsibility after the fact is hardly sufficient. it might require that funds be set aside by the responsible agency for correction of adverse effects should they materialize.. Where self-regulation fails. be required not merely to test new technology in pilot areas but to make a pubic report about its impact before being permitted to spread the innovation through the society at large. Research and Development. and we should not evade the responsibility. We must create an environmental screen to protect ourselves against dangerous intrusions as well as a system of public incentives to encourage technology that is both safe and socially desirable. in some cases. Much responsibility should be delegated to industry itself. In the United States. political control. This means governmental and private machinery for reviewing major technological advances before they are launched upon the public. The less centralized the controls the better. Corporations might be expected to set up their own “consequence analysis staffs” to study the potential effects of the innovations they sponsor. Daddario.. it is preferable to external. for example. however. has proposed the establishment of a Technology Assessment Board within the federal government. public intervention may well be necessary. as it often does. Chairman of the House Subcommittee on Science. If self-policing works. Congressman Emilio Q. Where the introduction of an innovation entails undue risk.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—30 it could become a significant deterrent to technological irresponsibility. The society might also set certain general principles for technological advance. They might.

the plan to flood the entire interior of Brazil is fraught with such instant and imponderable ecological effects that it should not be permitted at all until adequate monitoring can be done and emergency corrective measures are available. or to generate unrestrained accelerative pressures.. or to obtain an injunction forcing delay until full public discussion and study is completed. the probable strength of its social impact at different points in time. economists. might someday lead to salinization of the land on both banks of the Nile. For example. Where an innovation appears likely to entail seriously disruptive consequences. to the best of their ability. But such a process would not occur overnight. these facts need to be weighed in a social cost-benefit accounting procedure. This could prove disastrous.. Presumably. At the level of social consequences. sociologists. Certain large-scale ecological interventions might be delayed or prohibited altogetherperhaps in line with the principle that if an incursion on nature is too big and sudden for its effects to be monitored and possibly corrected. In this way. the society would not need to wait for disaster before dealing with its technology-induced problems. it should not take place. the technological appraisal agency might be empowered to seek restraining legislation. a new technology might be submitted for clearance to panels of behavioral scientistspsychologists. such innovations might still be released for diffusionprovided ample steps were taken in advance to offset their negative consequences. In the case of some high-impact innovations. therefore.. In other cases. . it can be monitored and prevented. it has been suggested that the Aswan Dam. far from helping Egyptian agriculture.Perenial Themes — 31 insurance pool” to which innovation-diffusing agencies might pay premiums. By contrast. political scientistswho would determine.

” Discuss what should be the criterion for such a choice. • What is the nature of technological innovations? long-term consequences of • What can be done to anticipate the distant effects of technologies? • “What needs to be controlled is not discovery but diffusion.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—32 Discussion • What is meant by “future shock”? How can it be averted? • How can we prevent technology turning our environment into a physical and social tinderbox? • What does the author mean by psychic pollution? • What should be the goal of “a movement for responsible technology”? • What is meant by ‘technological backlash’? What forms can it take? • What technological policy is followed at present by most of the countries? • What does the author mean by technological over-choice? What are its implications? • Technological questions can no longer be answered in technological terms.” Discuss. not invention. but application. Why? • “Society must now choose its cultural style as an individual chooses his life style. .

Perenial Themes — 33 • What institutions are proposed by the author for regulating technology? • Who should bear the costs of de-polluting environment? • What can be done to create an environmental screen? • Discuss the role of behavioural scientists in ensuring responsible technology. .

whether we are monarchs with a thousand servant or humble labourers with no servants but their . we must all sleep for one-third of our lifetime. Shaw that he gave on 17 June 1935. we must spend nearly as much in getting about from place to place. The address. Now remember. Let us come to business. He was also one of literature's great letter writers. and that which is still to come. one of a series on the subject. we must spend a couple of hours eating and drinking. Reproduced below is the text of a broadcast address by G. B. ladies and gentlemen. Well there is no such person. For half the day we are slaves to necessities which we cannot shirk. What is perfectly free person? Evidently a person who can do what he likes. The essay is sure to provide material to the students for hard thinking. is typically Shavian. wash and dress and undress. George Bernard Shaw. both as a term and as a trait has often been used perfunctorily by scholars and the general people alike. the present order. Here he has challenged the old order. tonight. I have no time to talk the usual old nonsense about freedom. Whether we like it or not. and there never can be any such person. In addition to being a prolific playwright (he wrote 50 stage plays) and novelist. is regrarded as the most significant British dramatist since Shakespeare. he was also the most trenchant pamphleteer since Jonathan Swift and the most readable music critic and the best theatre critic of his generation. when he likes and where he likes. the Irish-born writer.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—34 Freedom George Bernard Shaw (1895-1940) Freedom. or do nothing at all if he prefers it. It raised the storm of argument and controversy which invariably followed Shaw’s utterances. It is all the more important to know its meaning and its spirit and then esteem it as such.

though for you it is merely the key of the street. Now. they promise that in future you shall govern the country for yourself. or even by teaching them that it is their religious duty to sacrifice their freedom to yours. These natural jobs cannot be shirked. They enforce your slavery and call it freedom. to get the upper hand of you. or one master.Perenial Themes — 35 wives. But the object of most actual Governments. When you complain. It you like honey you can let the bees produce it by their labour. But they involve other jobs which can. food and houses and clothes can be produced by human labour. you could do it quite comforably in half the time or less. So beware! If you allow any person. and then steel it from them. if you had only yourself and your family to provide for. as we must walk through the streets we must have clothes to cover our nakedness. and you will find yourself working from eight to fourteen hours a day when. and another. But they also regulate your slavery. I regret to say. And what you do to a horse or a bee you can also do to a man or woman or a child if you can get the upper hand of them by force or fraud or trickery of any sort. When chattel slavery of the negro sort costs more than wage slavery. or class of persons. is exactly the opposite. as we must sleep we must have beds and bedding in houses with fireplaces and coals. The object of all honest Governments should be to prevent your being imposed on in this way. If you are too lazy to get about from place to place on your own legs you can make a slave of a horse. they abolish chattel slavery and make you free to choose between one employment. And the wives must undertake the additional heavy slavery of child-bearing if the world is still to be peopled. keeping the greed of your masters within certain bounds. But when they are produced they can be stolen. they will shift all that part of their slavery to Nature that can be shifted on to your shoulders. They redeem this promise by giving you a vote. As we must eat we must first provide food. and this they call a glorious triumph for freedom. and having a .

” The slavery of man to man is the very opposite of this. held that we shall never have a peaceful and stable society until this struggle is ended by the abolition of slavery altogether and the compulsion . At the election. We must sleep or go mad: but then sleep is so pleasant that we have great difficulty in getting up in the morning. But the newspapers assure you that your vote has decided the election. We write sentimental songs in praise of them. Nature is kind to her slaves. A tramp can earn his supper by singing “Home.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—36 general election every five years or so. organized as trade unions on one side and employers’ federations on the other. instead of resenting our natural wants as slavery. Our poets do not praise it: they proclaim that no man is good enough to be another man’s master. we take the greatest pleasure in their satisfaction. a gentleman named Marx. she makes eating and drinking so pleasant that when we can afford it we eat and drink too much. two of their rich friends ask for your vote. The latest of the great Jewish prophets. You can see for yourself that it produces a state of continual civil war—called the class war— between the slaves and their masters. spent his life in proving that there is no extremity of selfish cruelty at which the slavery of man to man will stop if it be not stopped by law. It is hateful to the body and to the spirit. If she forces you to eat and drink. and that this constitutes you a free citizen in a democratic country. as it does not reduce your hours of labour by a single minute. Saint Thomas More. Now mark another big difference between the natural slavery of man to Nature and the unnatural slavery of man to man. And firesides and families seem so pleasant to the young that they get married and join building societies to realize their dreams. and you are free to choose which of them you will vote for to spite the other—a choice which leaves you no freer than you were before. who has just been canonized. The amazing thing about it is that you are fool enough to believe them. Thus. Sweet Home.

and the Wages Board. and often it is made a criminal offence to buy or sell their books. through its Parliaments. Whenever famous writers protest against this imposture—say. If their disciples make a revolution. makes the most desperate efforts to prevent us from realizing our slavery. Austrian. and that our freedom was won for us for ever by our forefathers when they made King John sign Magna Charta—when they defeated the Spanish Armada— when they cut off King Charles’s head—when they made King William accept the Bill of Rights—when they issued and made good the American Declaration of Independence—when they won the battles of Waterloo and Trafalgar on the playing fields of Eton—and when. murderers and scoundrels. and what more could any reasonable man ask for? We are reminded that the rich are taxed a quarter.Perenial Themes — 37 of every one to do his share of the world’s work with his own hands and brains. we are told that all our miseries are our own doing because we have the vote. Russian and Ottoman empires into republics. and the . of their incomes. Karl Marx and Lasselle in the nineteenth. or atheists and libertines. England immediately makes war on them and lends money to the other Powers to join her in forcing the revolutionists to restore the slave order. Naturally the master class. a third. they quite unintentionally changed the German. only the other day. From our earliest years we are taught that our country is the land of the free. or even a half and more. and free education. When we say: “What good is the vote?” we are told that we have the Factory Acts. and the dole. and not to attempt to put it on any one else. When this combination was successful at Waterloo. and the New Deal. but the poor are never reminded that they have to pay that much of their wages as rent in addition to having to work twice as long every day as they would need if they were free. or Cobbett and Shelley. When we grumble. schools and newspapers. Voltaire and Rousseau and Tom Paine in the eighteenth century. the victory was advertised as another triumph for British freedom.

continue until the revolutionized State grows into a first-rate military Power. But the great mass of our rack-rented. believed it all and cheered enthusiastically.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—38 British wage slaves. followed by a public school and university course. underpaid. When the revolution wins. A gentleman whose mind has been formed at a preparatory school for the sons of gentlemen. Now though this prodigious mass of humbug is meant to delude the enslaved class only. such as we are now passing through. because the gentleman’s education teaches him that he is a very fine fellow. have to do a right turn and invite them to dinner. carry his parcels. he honestly believes that the system which has placed him in such an agreeable situation and done such justice to his merits is the best of all possible systems and that he should shed his blood. and yours. In hard times. after having for years denounced the revolutionary leaders as the most abominable villains and tyrants. and as he thoroughly agrees with this view of himself. The facts are too harshly against it. superior to the common run of men whose duty it is to brush his clothes. it ends in deluding the master class much more completely. their disgust and despair sometimes lead them to kick over the traces. and who has the courage and brains and energy to jump at the chance. cast-off-on-the-dole workers cannot feel so sure about it as the gentleman. and earn his income for him. Then our diplomatists. to the last drop in its defence. the lies. But the slaves who give three cheers for the emperor might just as well have made a cross on a British or American ballot paper as far as their freedom is concerned. but the abuse. the fighting stops. treated-as-inferiors. upset every thing. the calumnies. and have to be rescued from mere gangsterism by some Napoleonic genius who has a fancy for being an emperor. as it did in Russia in 1922. . instead of going into mourning like Lord Byron. is much more thoroughly taken in by the falsified history and dishonest political economy and snobbery taught in these places than any worker can possibly be.

Now this. On the other hand. it is with the greatest difficulty that a few of them can be persuaded to vote for members of their own class. Always remember that though nobody likes to be called a slave. I am never controversial over the wireless. it does not follow that slavery is a bad thing. that they must be made very rich without any other obligation that to produce an impression of almost godlike superiority on the minds of common people. it is contended. and controversy would not be fair when you cannot answer me back. They elected only one woman—a titled lady of great wealth and exceptionally fascinating personality. natural and historical facts.Perenial Themes — 39 So far I have mentioned nothing but plain. for that would lead me into controversy. I do not even ask you to draw your own conclusions. off course. have held that law and order and government would be impossible unless the persons. like Aristotle. we are reminded that although nine out of ten voters are common workers. it is maintained that human nature is the easiest thing in the world to change if you catch it young enough. is human nature. When women were enfranchised and given the right to sit in Parliament. travelling in firstclass carriages or the most expensive cars or on the bestgroomed and best-bred horses. To prove this. you must make men ignorant idolaters before they will become obedient workers and law-abiding citizens. And this means. and never cleaning their own boots or doing anything for some common person to do it. it is said. and you cannot change human nature. Great men. speaking with a special accent. In short. the first use they made of their votes was to defeat all the women candidates who stood for the freedom of the workers and had given them years of devoted and distinguished service. robed and uniformed. and that the idolatry of the slave class and the arrogance of the master class are themselves entirely artificial . I draw no conclusion. the people have to obey are beautifully dressed and decorated. for you might draw some very dangerous ones unless you have the right sort of head for it.

If the laws are reasonable and are impartially . The practical question at the bottom of it all is how the income of the whole country can best be distributed from day to day. Wipe out from your dreams of freedom the hope of being able to do as you please all the time. enforced by the police. and here again Nature will kill you unless you either earn your living or get somebody else to earn it for you. if you go too far. consequently.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—40 products of education and of a propaganda that plays upon our infants long before they have left their cradles. the product may be so great that an equal distribution of it would provide enough to give the unskilled labourers as much as the managers and the men of the scientific staff. be produced by a contrary education and propaganda. kill you. and to pay rates and taxes. and industrially in huge electrified factories full of machinery that a girl can handle. For at least twelve hours of your day Nature orders you to do certain things. and matches. by drawing nitrogen from it to increase and improve the quality of our grass—and. If you live in a civilized country your freedom is restricted by the laws of the land. who oblige you to do this. Very young children will eat needles and matches eagerly—but the diet is not a nourishing one. which we can neither eat nor drink nor wear. of our cattle and milk and butter and eggs—Nature may have tricks up her sleeve to check us if the chemists exploit her too greedily. This leaves twelve hours for working. it is argued. and will kill you if you don’t do them. and not to do that. that this marvellous increase includes things like needles and steel pens. You can turn the point over in your mind for yourself. An opposite mentality could. And though we can now cultivate the sky as well as earth. But do not forget that when you hear tales of modern machinery enabling one girl to produce as much as a thousand men could produce in the reign of good Queen Anne. If you do not obey these laws the courts will imprison you and. If the earth is cultivated agriculturally in vast farms with motor ploughs and chemical fertilizers. do not let me prejudice you one way or the other. And now to sum up.

Your landlord may refuse to let you live on his estate if you go to chapel instead of to church. as the police in this country will not allow you to starve on your employer’s doorstep. it would extinguish the human race in a week. if completely carried out. And the workers would be the first to perish. colour and condition of your clothes. at a football match.Perenial Themes — 41 administered you have no reason to complain. The general strike is trade unionism gone mad. his power over you is far greater than that of any political dictator could possibly be. subject to the laws of the land and your possession of money enough to buy an interesting book or pay for a seat at the pictures. But even here Nature will interfere a good deal. as well as your hours of work. with all the other trades working overtime to support it. which is only the old Oriental device of starving on your enemy’s doorstep until he does you justice. Now let us put the case in figures. there is another far more intimate compulsion on you: that of your landlord and that of your employers. But as society is constituted at present. In short. you have no freedom at all. Now. If you have to work for twelve hours a day. and disorder generally. because they increase your freedom by protecting you against assault. If you work eight hours a day you have four hours a day to do what you like with. or. you must starve on your own—if you have one. and when you get home you want to spend your four hours . as. for if your eight hours work has been of a hard physical kind. He can turn you into the street at any moment to join the melancholy band of lost spirits called the unemployed. Your employer may dictate the cut. The extreme form of the strike—the general strike of all workers at the same moment —is also the extreme form of human folly. or if you practise osteopathy. or if you vote for anybody but his nominee. highway robbery. Sane trade unionism would never sanction more than one big strike at a time. or if you open a shop. on a half holiday. or whatever your fancy may be. Your only remedy at present is the trade union weapon of the strike.

and keep clamouring for more leisure and more money to enjoy it in return for an honest share of work. I will. and that this is why we listen to wireless talks about it. What are we going to do with them? I was taught in my childhood that Satan will find mischief still for idle hands to do. Always call freedom by its old English name of leisure. Until we do. for whatever political name he may give himself.” until we make it true. then. because the people of England in the lump don’t know what freedom is —never having had any. that nine out of ten of us desire more freedom. If you had your choice. you will find yourself fast asleep in half a minute.” But as we get very little money into our purses on pay day. and finally. therefore. he is sure to be at bottom an anarchist who wants to live on our labour without being taken up by the police for it as he deserves.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—42 in reading my books to improve your mind. would you work for eight hours a day and . Iago’s advice is not very practical. leave you with a conundrum to think over. And let us stop singing “Rule. I have seen men come into a fortune and lose their happiness. let us never vote for a parliamentary candidate who talks about our freedom and our love of liberty. their lives by it as certainly as if they had taken daily doses of rat poison instead of champagne and cigars. And now suppose we at last win a lot more leisure and a lot more money than we are accustomed to. their health. and all the rest of the week other people are taking money out of it. It is not at all easy to know what to do with leisure unless we have been brought up to it. and your mind will remain in its present benighted condition. Britannia. I take it. We must change our politics before we can get what we want. and meanwhile we must stop gassing about freedom. As long as we go on as we are—content with a vote and a dole—the only advice we can give one another is that of Shakespeare’s Iago: “Put money in thy purse.

Perenial Themes — 43 retire with a full pension at forty-five. Daniel George . or would you rather work four hours a day and keep on working until you are seventy? Now. Oh freedom what liberties are taken in thy name. If yes how and in what respect? • Do you think man can ever be “free” in the real sense of the term. don’t send the answer to me. Discussion • What does the term “freedom” mean to you? • Has the reading helped you modify your interpretation of the term. please: talk it over with your wife.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—44 The Man in Asbestos: An Allegory of the Future Stephen Leacock (1869-1944) The world of The Man in Asbestos promises to be a utopia from which all human suffering and toil have been eliminated. To begin with let me admit that I did it on purpose. I wanted to do that too. an anti-utopia in which life has lost all meaning and charm. the unceasing toil of its working classes. I still am a passionate student of social problems. its strife. However. but is better known as a writer of humorous stories amongst which are Nonsense Novels and Frenzied Fiction. I loved to think of it. and I longed to see it. I always had been. its cruelty. The world of today with its roaring machinery. Stephen Leacock was a political economist. I love to think of the time that must come some day when man will have conquered nature. So I set about the thing deliberately. the reader soon discovers that this world is. appals me as I look at it. its war. The author uses the vehicle of science fiction very effectively to raise and answer some fundamental questions about human life. . Perhaps it was partly from jealousy. and the toil-worn human race enter upon an era of peace. It seemed unfair that other writers should be able at will to drop into a sleep of four or five hundred years and to plunge head first into a distant future and be a witness of its marvels. its poverty. in fact. and in which scientific advancements have conquered all known human problems.

. Where was I? Well might I ask myself. I bought all the comic papers that I could find. for two or three hundred years at least. then sat back in the bed and read the comic papers one after the other. In the room across the hall there was a man singing. It was. straight suicide. that had been loud. and wake and find myself in the marvel world of the future. Finally. not as it were gradually. I found myself lying. and looked about me. I reached out my hand for the London Weekly Times. even the illustrated ones.Perenial Themes — 45 What I wanted to do was to fall asleep after the customary fashion. I woke up. sat up. on a broad couch. Dimly I could feel the days go past. editorial page before my eye. and dilapidated in its general appearance. I could feel my senses leaving me. some kind of museum. I made my preparations for the sleep. and then the long passage of the centuries. gloomy. then the years. came fainter and fainter through the transom. as I felt the awful lethargy stealing upon me. I was in a great room. I carried them up to my room in my hotel: with them I brought up a pie and dozens of doughnuts. but I did it. the deep immeasurable sleep in which the very existence of the outer world was hushed. from its glass cases and the suffered figures that they contained. in a way. or rather sitting up. I ate the pie and the doughnuts. and apparently. I fell into a sleep. Then. and held up the. dim. but quite suddenly. clear. His voice.

but nobody has kept track of them for so long. I should think it must be at least that within. “What a queer. “Ah. “Tell me. is it the year 3. excited way you have of speaking. “Quick” I said. “Why. it’s hard to say.” “Don’t you keep track of them any more?” I gasped. His face was hairless. and Food. He wore clothes that looked like the grey ashes of paper that had burned and kept its shape. showing for the first time a sort of animation in his talk. but neither old nor young.” he continued. “We used to. but with no particular surprise or interest. “I myself can remember that a century or two ago there were still a number of people who used to try to keep track of the year.” I said again. “but. “Good God!” I repeated.” he said. But I was saying that after we had eliminated Death. sitting upright. but it died out along with so many other faddish-things of that kind. after we eliminated death “ “Eliminated death!” l cried.” said the man. really I haven’t the faintest idea.” he said. we had practically got rid of Events and“ .000. “Good God!” “What was that expression you used?” queried the man.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—46 Beside me sat a man. and Change. is this the year 3000?” “I think I know what you mean. He was looking at me quietly. eager to begin. or what is it?” He drew in his breath with a look of annoyance on his face. “what was the use of it? You see. “where am I? Who are you? What year is this. “never heard it before.” he said. a hundred years or so.

Go on then and ask questions. “that’s a policeman!” “Really. if anybody wants a new one”. But here. looking at one figure in blue clothes with a belt and baton. they stood at the corner of the street. “Why. “Tell me one thing at a time.” said my new acquaintance. if you don’t mind.” I got down. What used they to be used for?” “Used for?” I repeated in perplexity.” “Ah. “Thank you “ I answered. “Now tell me where I am?” “You are in a museum.” he continued.” Oddly enough the first question that sprang to my lips was “What are those clothes made of?” “Asbestos.” he said. “I see. just as few as possible. You must excuse my ignorance. my brain reeling. “ so as to shoot at the people. you must have been asleep a long time. “They last hundreds of years.” he said. get off your platform and come out on Broadway and sit on a bench. “By Jove!” I said. Only. I looked curiously at the figures in the cases. “is that what a policeman was I’ve often wondered. yes. and there are billions of them piled up.” “Humph!” he ejaculated.’ answered the man. We have one suit each. As we passed through the dim and dust-covered buildings. The figures in the cases are specimens like yourself. I see. and please don’t get interested or excited. “if you want really to find out about what is evidently a new epoch to you. “as to some of your social .Perenial Themes — 47 “Stop!” I said.

there passed slowly to and fro human figures dressed in the same asbestos clothes as my acquaintance. and I stood riveted in astonishment. There were no wires overheadno sound of life or movement except. Broadway! Was it possible? The change was absolutely appalling! In place of the roaring thoroughfare that I had known.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—48 customs in the past. the sides of them coated over with a growth of fungus and moss! The place was soundless. Great buildings fallen into ruin through the sheer stress of centuries of wind and weather. This picture of what seemed desolation on the ruins of our civilization rendered me almost speechless. I do not know why. but the stuff they used was very inferior. . When I took my education I was operated upon for social history. for at the moment we came out upon the street. Good heavens? And was this the era of the Conquest that I had hoped to see! I had always taken for granted.” said the man in asbestos. moss-grown desolation. “Improved. Not a vehicle moved. I gasped out a question. this silent. There were little benches placed here and there on the street. We sat down. and the same look of infinite age upon them. with the same hairless faces. “since the days when you remember it?” He seemed to speak quite proudly. but had no time to question him. here and there. isn’t it. that humanity was destined to move forward.” I didn’t in the least understand what the man meant.

“it died out of itself.” I said after a pause. done away with long ago. Machinery killed it.” he answered. It’s finished. “But how do you get about?” “We don’t.Perenial Themes — 49 “Where are the street cars and the motors?” “Oh. I realized that if I was to unravel this new and undreamed-of-future. The last of it was all done centuries ago. “that momentous things have happened since my time. “There isn’t any work. Then I turned and looked again at the grey desolation of the street with the asbestos figures moving here and there. and would explain it to me bit by bit.” I looked at him a moment open-mouthed. I wish you would let me ask you about it all systematically. The noise of them!” and his asbestos clothes rustled with a shudder. First. I must go at it systematically and step by step. “But how do you get back and forwards to your work?” “Work!” he said. you had a certain amount of machinery even in your time. If I remember rightly.” he said. I tried to pull my senses together. “how awful they must have been. A thousand question surged into my mind at once.” .” He looked at me with an infinity of dreariness in his face. though I think radial energy had hardly as yet been put to use. made a good beginning with electricity. I asked one of the simplest. what do you mean by saying that there is no work?” “Why” answered my strange acquaintance. “Why should we? It’s just the same being here as being anywhere else. “I see. You had done very well with steam.

that’s all. then. in a hundred years it was all done. You cried out. “But you found it did you no good. they called them. Heavens! the simplicity of it. probably almost two hundred years after your time the Era of the Great Conquest of Nature. “Conquered it.” answered the Man in Asbestos. as you knew it. The better your machines. “that part of my education was very well operatedI see you do not know what I mean. After the invention of Chemical Food we piled up enough in the emporiums in a year to last for centuries.” I said “How do you know it all?” “Oh. the harder you worked. Never mind. the whole thing was easy. None of you could see the end. The more things you had the more you wanted. Eating and all that goes with it. the final victory of Man and Machinery. And in your time thousands of millions of people tilled and grubbed at the soil from morning till night. Nowadays one takes a concentrated pill every year or so. I can tell you that later. then faster and faster.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—50 I nodded assent. In fact. was a clumsy thing that had been bloated up like a set of bagpipes through the evolution of its use!” . The pace of life grew swifter and swifter. Chemical food came first. but it would not stop. I’ve seen specimens of themfarmers. The whole digestive apparatus. there came.” he said “beat it out! Fought it to a standstill! Things came one by one. houseworkall ended.” “That is quite true. You were all caught in the cogs of your own machine. with a thrill of the old hope in my veins again. domestic labour.” “They did conquer it?” I asked quickly. just as soon as mankind turned its energy to decreasing its needs instead of increasing its desires. Well. Agriculture went overboard. There’s one in the museum.

the ocean full of salt. great wet masseswhat did you call them?cloudsflying through the air. That was wonderful! In one year humanity made enough suits to last for ever and ever.” he answered. or practically killed.Perenial Themes — 51 I could not forbear to interrupt.” said the Man in Asbestos. “no stomachno apparatus?” “Of course we have. altered the composition of the sea so that the top became all more or less gelatinous. Chemical Food came first: that cut off almost one-third of the work. rainhow awful!” “Sometimes. “Have you and these people.” I said. as it is an operation that I never took at school.” “Have the Fashions gone. “that insane. Better let me go on as I was. But how did you alter it?” “Killed the weather!” answered the Man in Asbestos. “but we use it to some purpose. was it not?tossed and torn by the wind. of course. could never have been if it hadn’t been connected with the revolt of women and the fall of Fashion. “Simple as anythingturned its forces loose once against the other. That. I don’t think that in your day you properly understood how much of your work was due to the shifts of what you called the weather. “it was very beautiful. the changes of climate. as you see it. when my eye rested on the moving figures in asbestos. but it made the sky grey. How dreadful it must have been in your daywind and storms. “All gone. . extravagant idea of “ I was about to launch into one of my old-time harangues about the sheer vanity of decorative dress. “Then next to that we killed. hail.” I asked. and I stopped. It meant the need of all kinds of special clothes and houses and shelters. snow thrown all over everything.” I said. and then came Asbestos Clothes. I really can’t explain it. a wilderness of work. Mine is largely filled with my educationbut there! I am anticipating again.

” I said. But they’ll last for centuries yet. It cut out fuel and houses and an infinity of work with them!” He paused a moment.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—52 and the sea gum-coloured. Of course. Presently my eyes looked upward: dangling at the top of a mossgrown building I saw what seemed to be the remains of telephone wires. I began to realize something of the course of evolution that had happened. they’re falling downslowly. Just what was it for ?” “Why. I think for the first time.” I said. “nothing left. and how much of the texture of life itself had been bound up in the keen effort of it.” he answered. “So.” he said. Go out and take them.” Then I realised. waving his hand. call up anybody and talk at any distance. very slowly.” said the Man in Asbestos.” I said with enthusiasm.” said the Man in Asbestos. “What became of all that. was it? I knew that it had been suppressed centuries ago. “the conquest of nature meant that presently there was no more work to do?” “Exactly.” . There they are. “by means of the telephone we could talk to anybody. “ the telegraph and telephone and all the system of communication ?” “Ah. just what work had meant in the old life. “that was what a telephone meant.” “Houses and clothes?” “All you like. nobody need bother. the weather all the same.” “Food enough for all?” “Too much.

and which you were still hunting for. in one sense there’s been no death for centuries past. “Yes. We found them one by one. the bigger ones?” I nodded.” he said. Well. like scarlet fever and smallpox. There was no sense in it. Disease and death were simply a matter of germs. one or two of the easier. Not.” said the Man in Asbestos. How awful! What a dreadful age yours was. “I suppose it’s what you would call being dead. that you called ultra-microscopic. Take the railroad. Anyway. I think that even in your day you had found. to be sure. the telephone and all the rest of it. and. When work stopped and commerce ended. you had found diphtheria and typhoid. and the weather killed. “it was dangerous !” “So!” I said. with a quick look of apprehension and a change in voice.” he said. So it was all terminated. You see. yes.Perenial Themes — 53 “And anybody could call you up at any time and talk?” said the Man in Asbestos. what good was that? It brought into every town a lot of people from every other town. if I am right. there were some outstanding. what you don’t realize is that people after your day became gradually more and more reasonable.” “What do you mean. “there’s always the danger of getting broken. we hunted them down one by one and destroyed them. Of course. with something like the horror. Who wanted them? Nobody.” I asked. we cut that out. all the transportation and intercommunication was cut out and forbidden. it was foolish to move about. “Dangerous! You still have danger?” “Why. and food was needless. and others that you didn’t even suspect. Strange that it never occurred to any of you that Old Age was only a germ! It . “Why.” he added.

Yes. then I put two or three rapid questions. empty street. yes. That happens sometimes. aeroplanes. I know what you mean. “that nowadays you live for ever?” “I wish. The risks of your time. the very millennium of happiness.” We sat silent for a long time. I pondered. with a shiver of his asbestos clothes. of course. we’re just a little brittle still. somehow. “we live for ever.” I answered. street traffic. “he continued. “Is there any war now?” . we get broken.” said the Man in Asbestos impatiently. “but we thought it part of the duty of brave people to“ “Yes. “must have been awful. unless. the downfall of change and deathnay. and so on. the monotone.some remnant. And yet. I looked about me at the crumbling buildings. I don’t mind saying that accidents.” he said. and snap ourselves.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—54 turned out to be quite a simple one. and the dreary.” “And you mean to say. It was quite irrational. of this sort were the most distressing feature of our civilization till we took steps to cut out all accidents. In fact. of the Old Age germand we have to be careful. you speak as if everything mattered so tremendously. unchanging sky. please don’t get excited. with a new kind of pride in my generation that I had never felt before.” he said. here was the elimination of work.” I ejaculated in amazement.” he continued. then. the end of hunger and of cold. the cessation of the hard struggle. but it was so distributed in its action that you never even thought of it.” “They were. I mean that we may fall over a high place or bump on something. Here. I suppose. there seemed something wrong with it all. hardly waiting to reflect upon the answers. “that you hadn’t that peculiar. looking at the Man in Asbestos. was the fruit of the Conquest. We forbid all street cars. excitable way of talking. You see.

wars and accidents and work and death. When these went newspapers went too. an operation of a few minutes would suffice to let in poetry or foreign languages or history or anything else that one cared to . “you seem to have been something of social reformer. “Listen. only things that happen. You hadn’t the sense to see that what you really did was to slowly remodel.Perenial Themes — 55 “Done with centuries ago. Strange that in your time nobody realized that education was simply a surgical operation. Then came the invention of surgical educationthe simple system of opening the side of the skull and engrafting into it a piece of prepared brain. At first. but you didn’t see the full consequences.” continued the Man in Asbestos. You knew that. How used your people to spend all the early part of their lives. “our first fifteen years or so were spent in getting education.?” “Why. I suppose. curve and convolute the inside of the brain by a long and painful mental operation. They took to settling international disputes with a slot machine.” he answered. After that it was a mere nothing. the brains of dead people. and that was ghastly”—here the Man in Asbestos shuddered like a leaf“but very soon they found how to make moulds that did just as well. they had to use.” “Exactly. Look at it this way. of course.” I said. Everything learned was reproduced in a physical difference to the brain. But what is in them.” “Are there any newspapers now?” “Newspapers! What on earth would we want them for? If we should need them at any time there are thousands of old ones piled up. and yet you don’t understand the new life at all. Why have them? Everybody thinks foreigners awful. “now notice how we improved on all that. After that all foreign dealings were given up. Education in our day is done by surgery. You don’t understand how completely all our burdens have disappeared. anyway.

” “And she did not work?” . towards falling in love and finding some woman to share one’s life. Tell me.” “Ah. We lodge themthings like philosophy and metaphysics. the digestive apparatus. for instance. rather painful. to continue. Then went on: “Well.” “And she became what you called your wife?’ “Yes. with real interest. Here. “is the mark where I had my spherical trigonometry let in. “Yes. but other things. They fill it admirably. what used to occupy your time and effort after your education?” “Why.” “He paused a moment. of course. then.” said the Man in Asbestos. can be inserted absolutely without the least suffering. and then. a great part of one’s time and feeling was devoted toward the other sex.” “And you worked for her?” asked the Man in Asbestos in astonishment. of course. Oddly enough.” I said. I admit. to work. to tell the truth. barbarous methods of education through the ear. but never quite understood them. “I’ve heard about your arrangements with the women. “one had.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—56 have. such as English poetry or history. we have found lately that for a great many things there is no need to use the head. When I think of your painful.” he added pushing back the hair at the side of his head and showing a scar beneath it. I shudder at it. and so onin what used to be. That was. you say you selected some woman?” “Yes.

dazzling colours made of dead things all over them? And they laughed did they not.” He sat shivering slightly. and . “they’re here just the same. with the same timid look in his face as before. said my acquaintance. no. “are there no women now? Are they gone too?” “Oh. everything has been changed now. Some of those are women. were they not? Covered with feathers and skins and.Perenial Themes — 57 “No.” “And half of what you had was hers?” “Yes. It all came as part of their great revolt. all had looked alike. “they were beginning to ask for votes and equality. “How dreadful!” said the Man in Asbestos “I hadn’t realized the horrors of your age till now. Your women. “Tell me. I believe.” answered the Man in Asbestos. Had that begun in your time!” “Only a little. their desire to be like the men.” I said. Only you see.” I answered.” “And she had the right to live in your house and use your things ?” “Of course. “of course not. Then it suddenly struck me that of the figures on the street.” I answered. were something awful.” I answered.” “That’s it. “I couldn’t think of the word.

suddenly. This dull. “Asbestos!” I said. . I see its value! I know its worth! Give me no rest. “Asbestos. Suddenly my sleep had gone. heaven-created. and I flung wide my arms to the dull air. with their ash-barrel suits. “the old life of danger and stress. do you think that those jellybag Equalities out on the street. “this. is your coming civilisation. “where are the children? Are there any?” “Children. did they not? Like funguses ! I believe they were longer each year than they had been the last.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure—58 had foolish teeth. another thought flashed into my mind “The children. and“ I rose. with its hard toil and its bitter chances.” he said. For the old strugglemere stagnation. your millennium. unreformed. and cried constantly! And grew. ‘I cried aloud“Yes. hobble-skirted women of the twentieth century?” “Then. there. with the work and the burden gone out of life and with them all the joy and the sweetness of it. and in place of danger and death.” I said (I knew no other name to call him). and at any moment they could inveigle you into one of those contracts! Ugh!” He shuddered. the dull monotony of security and the horror of an unending decay! Give me back. “no! I have never heard of there being any such things for at least a century. “Asbestos. as I turned on him in wrath. can be compared for one moment with our unredeemed. Horrible little hobgoblins they must have been ’ Great big faces.” I said. dead thing. then. but give a rest to the rest of the corridor”! cried an angered voice that broke in upon my exultation. “I cried. and its heart-breaks.

Do you agree with this view? . Discussion • What are main features of the utopian world delineated in The Man in Asbestos? • What is the author’s attitude towards that world? What is your attitude towards it? • Is it a credible picture of the world that advancements in science promise to create? • Has the story helped you in clarifying your assumptions regarding the nature of human happiness? • All utopia are. in fact. with the hum of the wicked busy old world all about me. you infernal blather-skite.” he was calling. “Come down to earth” I came. a comment on real life. “Quit your blatting. and loud in my ears the voice of the indignant man across the corridor.Perenial Themes — 59 I was back again in the room of my hotel.

depend upon his winning or losing a game of chess.” To Huxley. to prepare the child to receive Nature’s education.” Thomas Henry Huxley. or the state which allowed its members. and to understand the symptoms of pleasures.” Suppose it were perfectly certain that the life and fortune of every one of us would. to grow up without knowing a pawn from a knight? . upon the father who allowed his son. nor with willful disobedience. in the address which he delivered at the South London Working Men’s College in 1868. and is only meant to “make good…defects in Nature’s methods. under which name” he includes “not merely things and their forces. Man-imparted education. who applied “scientific methods of investigation to all the problems of life”. neither incapably nor ignorantly. according to Huxley. and the fashioning of the affections and of the will into an earnest and loving desire to move in harmony with those laws. one day or other. but men and their ways. Don’t you think that we should all consider it to be a primary duty to learn at least the names and the moves of the pieces. is one which is artificial. to have a notion of a gambit.From a Liberal Education A Game of Chess Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) Education does not just mean the training of mind through formal means. failing which they are bound to be “plucked” and to him “Nature’s pluck means extermination. and a keen eye for all the means of giving and getting out of check? Do you not think that we should look with a disapprobation amounting to scorn. education is the instruction of the intellect in the laws of Nature. but also implies that learning which nature has in store for man. has prompted his audience to enhance their capbability to learn from nature.

do depend upon our knowing something of the rules of a game infinitely more difficult and complicated than chess. more or less. with that sort of overflowing generosity with which the strong shows delight in strength. Anything which professes to call itself education must be tried by the standard. and would rather lose than win—and I should accept it as an image of human life. strong angel who is playing for love. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. the pieces are the phenomena of the universe. and the happiness of every one of us. to our cost. and if it fails to stand the test. the highest stakes are paid. or makes the smallest allowance for ignorance. The chessboard is the world. and patient. education means neither more nor less than this. the rules of the game are what we call the laws of Nature. just. or of numbers. For me. In other words.Perenial Themes — 111 Yet it is a very plain and elementary truth that the life. The player on the other side is hidden from us. under which name I include not merely things and their forces. the fortune. what I mean by Education is learning the rules of this mighty game. whatever may be the force of authority. . and the fashioning of the affections and of the will into an earnest and loving desire to move in harmony with those laws. but without remorse. that he never overlooks a mistake. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Well. education is the instruction of the intellect in the laws of Nature. upon the other side. My metaphor will remind some of you of the famous picture in which Retzsch has depicted Satan playing at chess with man for his soul. but men and their ways. and. as we say. And one who plays ill is checkmated—without haste. But also we know. Substitute for the mocking fiend in that picture a calm. of those who are connected with us. I will not call it education. To the man who plays well. We know that his play is always fair.

a new and greater world. long before we were susceptible of any other mode of instruction. How long would he be left uneducated? Not five minutes. be he as old as he may. And Nature is still continuing her patient . that of social and moral phenomena. would be thorough. shaping our actions in rough accordance with nature’s laws. Nature would begin to teach him. there is no such thing as an uneducated man. in other words. though there would be no extras and very few accomplishments. and then left to do as he best might. better still. pleasure and pain. the touch. through the eye. To every one of us the world was once as fresh and new as to Adam. and as full of untold novelties for him who has the eyes to see them. the properties of objects. compared with which all others might seem but faint shadows. For every man the world is as fresh as it was at the first day. nature took us in hand. would spring from the new relations. Happiness and sorrow would take the place of the coarser monitors. but conduct would still be shaped by the observation of the natural consequences of action. Joys and woes. and every minute of waking life brought its educational influence. Take an extreme case. the ear. in the full vigour of his faculties. would be revealed. Suppose that an adult man. in strictness. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. And then. as Adam is said to have been. could be suddenly placed in the world. an Eve. by the laws of the nature of man. if narrow.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 112 It is important to remember that. and adequate to his circumstances. And if to this solitary man entered a second Adam or. Pain and pleasure would be at his elbow telling him to do this and avoid that: and by slow degrees the man would receive an education which. or. real. Nor should I speak of this process of education as past for anyone.

Those who won’t learn at all are plucked. like all compulsory legislation. are the really great and successful men in this world. Ignorance is visited as sharply as willful disobedience—incapacity meets with the same punishment as crime. It is left to you to find out why your ears are boxed. And a liberal education is an artificial education which has not only prepared a man to escape the great evils of disobedience to natural laws. but the blow without the word. neither incapably nor ignorantly. without waiting for the box on the ear. and to understand the preliminary symptoms of her pleasure. But. Her bill on that question was framed and passed long ago. The great mass of mankind are the “Poll. to prepare the child to receive Nature’s education. In short. and then you can’t come up again. all artificial education ought to be an anticipation of natural education. Thus the question of compulsory education is settled so far as Nature is concerned. who learn the laws which govern men and things and obey them. Nature’s discipline is not even a word and a blow.Perenial Themes — 113 education of us in that great university.1 Those who take honours in Nature’s university. that of Nature is harsh and wasteful in its operation. and the blow first. of which we are all members—Nature having no Test Acts. Nature’s pluck means extermination. the universe.” who pick up just enough to get through without much discredit. 1 . The object of what we commonly call education—that education in which man intervenes and which I shall distinguish as artificial education—is to make good these defects in Nature’s methods. nor with willful disobedience. but has trained him to appreciate and to seize upon Legislation (repealed in 1854) which excluded from Oxford and Cambridge any student who would not profess faith in the 39 Articles of the Church of England.

and does with ease and pleasure all the work that. she as his ever beneficent mother. who has learned to love all beauty. like a steam engine. ready. her conscious self. and in smooth working order. and to respect others as himself. he as her mouthpiece. what do you mean by education. it is capable of. whether of Nature or of art. I conceive. Discussion • State briefly. with all its parts of equal strength. • What does the author mean by artificial education? What purpose do you think artificial education serves? • What is the difference between Nature’s education and the artificial education? How do the two co-relate? . her minister and interpreter. in harmony with Nature. has had a liberal education. I think. is full of life and fire. They will get on together rarely. That man. but whose passions are trained to come to heel by a vigorous will. to hate all vileness.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 114 the rewards which Nature scatters with as free a hand as her penalties. as completely as a man can be. for he is. logic engine. as a mechanism. one who. He will make the best of her. whose intellect is a clear. Such a one and no other. the servant of a tender conscience. and spin the gossamers as well as forge the anchors of the mind. cold. has had a liberal education who has been so trained in youth that his body is the ready servant of his will. no stunted ascetic. to be turned to any kind of work. and she of him. whose mind is stored with a knowledge of the great and fundamental truths of Nature and of the laws of her operations.

” said Anatole France . “I believe. If we go forward it must be with the understanding that in philosophy there are many “Absolutes. was published in 1917. Durant makes complex subjects easily understood by the average reader. has brought philosphy from the desk of the literati to the door step of the laity by making it a pleasure without effecting its enlightening characteristics. Will Durant. the American historian.Perenial Themes — 115 What is Beauty? Will Durant (1885-1981) Beauty has been the subject of philosophical examination and literary citation through ages. The idea behind including this essay in the course is to develop among students the habit of critical and informed evaluation of terms and ideas which we take for granted. That he succeeded in this is proved by the success of The Story of Philosophy (1926). William James Durant was educated at Saint Peter's College and Columbia University. “that we shall never know exactly why a thing is beautiful. and in 1917 he taught philosophy at Columbia University. Philosophy and the Social Problem. whose works on philosophy and world history have been read by millions. In his writings. From 1907 to 1911 he taught at Seton Hall College.” but no certainties. of which millions of copies were sold in more than a dozen languages. Whether it mothers love or is mothered by love is a question discussed comprehensively by Will Durant in the essay excerpted below from his Pleasures of Philosophy. Extensively benefiting from the wisdom of philosophers both (classical and modern) on the subject Will Durant provokes the reader to question the established notions and to form a mature judgement. . His doctoral dissertation.” This judgement of a great artist and a great scholar might counsel us to turn our backs upon the problem we have set ourselves.

people have been moved by beauty of some sort. and it has small excuse for being dull. but few minds wonder why. and something irrational in it which left the sceptical intellectualist unmoved. and seeks a niche in wisdom. the Greek found it in youth. which repelled religious men. and at all times. Meannwhile philosophy is privileged to rush in where science fears to tread. There was something pagan in it. the Renaissance found it in colour. or in sculptured symmetry and calm. and have left it for the most part in a primitive obscurity. The savage sees beauty in thick lips and livid scars. apologized for including so undignified a subject-matter among the . as every science leaves to philosophy the problems it cannot solve.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 116 It is strange enough that this question has not found a larger place in philosophy and psychology. not till the biological approach finds further acceptance in psychology will the esthetic problem fall into its proper place. and the modern soul finds it in music and the dance: everywhere. (Hence most important problems belong to philosophy. Baumgarten. Every heart hears the call of the beautiful. But only philosophers have been anxious to understand its nature and to discover the secret of its power. sublimity. and even the dry bones of metaphysics tremble and thrill a bit as beauty for a while replaces truth. the Roman found it in order. but the psychologists have left it to philosophy.) The physical emphasis of modern science. and the first to give it the terrible name of esthetics. the first thinker to recognize the nature of beauty as a distinct realm of inquiry. and have spent many lives in seeking it. have left it helpless in dealing with such elusive (if not always intangible) realities as beauty. Nevertheless the philosophers have not taken readily to the alluring subject. and power. The question belongs to psychology. its passion for laboratories and experiments. its tendency to seek mathematical and quantitative formulas for all phenomena.

sought to define beauty in spatial and quantitative terms: music was a regularity of sounds. proportion. The pre-Socratic Greeks. and plastic beauty was a regularity of proportions. and he blushed at the possibility. beauty is symmetry. and the temptation to systematize and formulize is here almost irresistible. or carved and painted marble. and except for the pedagogical uses of music (even then. they coddled with verse man’s memory of dates and kings). should delight the soul—here is a question that lures us beyond our formulas. and an organic order of parts in a united whole. like pre-Darwinian scientists. there was to be a minimum of art in the Master’s paradise. and took their lead too readily from the oppressive Greeks. being. But why symmetry and proportion. Winctelmann and Lessing added little to these answers. Art was to be a part of ethics. who was nothing if not a moralist (anxious to halt the decadence of his people). Plato. Beauty remained an affair of structure and form. order and unity. and merged the beautiful in a sublime identity with the good. Pythagoras began the game of aesthetics by reducing music to a mathematical relation. Even where beauty was most honoured and most produced—in ancient Greece—philosophers were helpless to pierce the secret of its lure. doubtless he feared that even under the repellent label which he had put upon it the problem would make his readers think of statues and fair women. In Aristotle we find the typical Greek answer to our question. went to another extreme. That a statue .Perenial Themes — 117 mansions of philosophy. and temples rising serenely on the hills. under the domination of physics and mathematics. it was a quality almost indigenous to the Parthenon and its frieze. and ascribing a subtle harmony to the spheres. it seems. It is a conception that pleasantly accords with that “co-operation of the part with the whole” which has echoed through these chapters.

and not its child. and that the secret of beauty might better be sought in the original than in the copy. it is the sole origin of that primary beauty which is of persons and not of things. or Platonic Ideas. . The instinct to get food becomes the general instinct of acquisition. then. Love. the conquest of matter by form. and realizes those eternal forms. which constitute the outward aspects of the universal Will. as well as primary and original. the intellect is for a moment emancipated from desire. meanings. Schopenhauer would have it. more classic than the Greeks. In this objective and impartial perception. found little welcome in these stern and academic minds. eager for anything of value. to her attitudes and forms. the sensuous manifestation of some metaphysical ideal. No wonder the dullest books in the world are those which men have written about Beauty.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 118 imitated some warm and living loveliness. But how shall we account for myriad objects which seem beautiful to us and yet have no apparent connection with love? How shall we explain the endless beauty of the external world? As so many words in our lexicons have secondary and acquired. esthetic appreciation and artistic genius lie. In Kant and Schopenhauer a new note sounds: beauty becomes that quality whereby an object pleases us regardless of its use. So the aesthetic emotion (part of that “tender emotion” which accompanies the instinct of love) may overflow from the person desired to the objects attached to her. to her manners of action and speech. a disinterested happiness. so every instinct has primary as well as secondary objectives and satisfactions. stirring in us will-less contemplation. is the mother of beauty. But in Hegel we are back once more with the Greeks: beauty is again unity in variety. The instinct to fight for food or mates spreads into a general instinct of pugnacity in which fighting is its own reward.

Haydn did greater service to the Hapsburgs than any general. Schonberg. and even the bilateral symmetry of the body. . dancing. and help to capture escaped lunatics. verse. stimulate love. But that was because Thoreau was a revolutionist. and not love only but all the soul is pleased. antistrophes. It may enable the soldier to march into the jaws of death with some rhythmic satisfaction. and yet some increase. dispose us to the rhythmic rise and fall of sounds. Thoreau thought there was nothing so revolutionary as music. It enabled the Jesuits of Paraguay to bring some alleviation. and only under protest does he submit to the social necessity of bearing with Stravinsky. antitheses and extremes. to the work of their Indian slaves. Music soothes us with its rhythm and lifts us on its lullaby to worlds less brutal than the earth. It may relieve pain. why should one seek to charm an animal that has been captured and tamed? The male who roared and mewed behind his fiancee loses his musical propensities when matrimony lays its dire compulsions upon him.Perenial Themes — 119 and to anything that is hers by possession or resemblance. improve digestion. and Richard Strauss. Inspiration and expiration. Music has spread afar on all sides from this amorous origin. the systole and diastole of the heart. the pleasure of rhythm enters as an independent element. All the world comes to partake of the fair one’s splender. and marveled that our institutions could withstand it. and no one knows how much of the Imperial Russian army’s unquestioning courage came from their powerful national hymn. and no lass can love without it. But love alone does not explain enough in these derivative fields of auditory beauty. we like rocking. but it is still bound to its mother. We make a rhythm from the impartial ticking of the clock and the even stamp of marching feet. The girl who woos with music seldom goes to the piano after a few years of marriage.

So song and dance. more persistent in creating it.” The old Russian Puritan would have agreed with Plato. “Where you want to have slaves. “there you should have as much music as possible. who discovered the Alps for the modern soul.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 120 music may lull us into passivity as well as arouse and stimulate us to action. but with the same purpose of attracting the eye. more passionate in desiring it. Music dulls the mind. the colours passed from the body to the raiment. Contrast with their male indifference the feminine sensitivity of Rousseau. and red was kept as the colour that most stirred the blood. and flaunts before the eyes of the selecting mate. Hannibal and Caesar made no comments (at least for posterity) on the sublimity of the Alps.” said Tolstoi to Gorki. The sublime. but only because the secret of its power lies not in the beautiful but in the sublime. as we have seen. When clothing came. he did not have to lead armies across those desolate heights. its delight comes not from the desired loveliness of woman. and man is more susceptible to beauty—keener to use it. But Rousseau was safe. music and poetry and many forms of sculpture flower out of love. by animal or man. The bird ornaments its nest with bright objects. but from the admired strength of man. of the colours which nature develops on bird and beast in the mating season. in whose Utopia no man would have followed music after he had reached sixteen. Art seems to have its origin in the deliberate imitation. Woman is probably more susceptible to the sublime than man. Sublimity is related to beauty as male to female. Architecture alone seems to be independent. as Burke showed is the powerful and dangerous to one who is secure. and man adorns his body with vivid colours that fan desire. to them they were a terror rather than a scene. Perhaps (as Sergi argues) the Greeks failed to produce landscape painting because nature was .

which spreads from persons to things. of tenderness and devotion. and the very old. and beautifies the very soil we tread on. among men. Much of the joy which natural scenery gives us is due to masculine sublimity. man carries its picture in his memory. When the years dull us with repetition. or the gay splendor of the stars. and love’s passion dies away. and the tokens. having once known beauty. But let love lay its warmth and passion on the soul. like the very young. the appreciation of nature ebbs. Yet even here there are subtle bonds.Perenial Themes — 121 still too uncontrolled a danger in their lives to let them stand aside and see its grandeur. or the undiscourageable fingers of the rising sea. It is in the appreciation of landscape that beauty wanders farthest from its source in love. Here is a Corot: green waving field. shadegiving oaks. Across all the glory of earth and sky Eros has left his trail. only by imitation and instruction does it thrill to them. and yet those flowers too are symbols and means of generation. This overflow of love. and brooks that ramble leisurely beneath overhanging boughs: where does woman’s beauty lurk in this natural delight? Cherchez la femme. Flowers are fair above everything else that nature gives us. the lover pours out upon trees and streams and bright cool dawns the overflow of his affection and his happiness. and weaves from many fair things seen an ideal beauty that binds into one vision the partial perfections of them all. A child is for the most part insensitive to the beauty of the earth and sky. but much of it comes from a restful beauty akin to the warm repose which every fair bosom promises. and suddenly every natural thing seems beautiful. . are not moved by the charm and fragrance of the woods. reaches at last to the creative fury of art.

On ordinary days he is content with a few spots of colour in his cheeks. red and yellow paint. but in time of war he daubs his flesh with bizarre designs calculated to discourage the enemy. The Australian native. For both of these games—war and love—red is the favorite colour. and the savage. Along the Torres Straits the men bear such scars on their shoulders like commanding epaulets. skin and flesh are cut. shake their ear-rings in horror. or mutilation of the body among savage tribes. to renew their supply. piercing himself at a thousand points with a needle that deposits the pigment underneath the skin. and the scar enlarged by filling the wound with earth for a while. clothing. He takes to tattooing. The Botocudo gets his name from the botoque. which is inserted into the lower lip and into the ears in early youth. some tribes so value it that they undertake great expeditions. and on festive and amorous occasions he illuminates his entire body with paint to catch the eyes of the girls. according to Groos. When the bower-bird build the first bower for his pleased and fluttering mate art was born. art arises in the decorative painting. lasting several weeks. But paint gets washed away. Historically. Worst of these primitive arts is incision. and repeatedly replaced by a larger plug until the openings are as much as four inches in diameter. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 122 Biologically. The men paint more than the women. Civilized ladies. Very frequently he resorts to scarification. and in some localities unmarried women are sternly forbidden to colour their necks. reading of such barbarism. and in their efforts to enhance with artifice that efflorescence of colour and form with which nature marks the season of love. like the Greek (who scorned painting for its quick decay) seeks some more lasting art. always carries in his sack a provision of white. or plug. art arises in the song and dance of mating animals.

the most ancient architectural monuments in the world—the Pyramids— are tombs. the native joyfully tore the bright garment into strips. and from similar beginnings came those fairest works ever reared by man. A pagan element of splendid flesh intruded into the holiest pictures of the Renaissance. and modern drama. whose alters. was artistic rather than utilitarian. but still. To the days of the sceptical Euripides it remained a sacred thing at Athens. When Darwin. Johns were tender Adonises. the most secular of contemporary arts. and distributed these among his fellows. the St. Sebastians were candid studies in the nude. The Madonnas became plump Venuses. and painting reached its zenith under the inspiration of Christianity. From these beginnings came the proud temples raised by the Greeks to Pallas Attene and the other gods. From this delightful sacrifice of utility to beauty how small a step there is to the modern girl who wears furs in summer and bares her neck fearlessly to the winter wind! Architicture began with tombs that housed the dead. in pity for a freezing Fuegian. apparently. like those early tombs. in Westminster Abbey. who bound them round their limbs as ornaments. harbor the relics of the holy dead. But even in the service of religion art showed its secret bondage to love.Perenial Themes — 123 The first use of clothing. When the . Churches began as shrines to the dead and places for worshipping them. gave him a red cloth to wrap about his body. the graves of great ancestors are within the church. began in the Mass and in the pious parades which pictured for the medieval mind the life and death of Christ. and the St. the Gothic cathedrals. Drama seems to have come from religious ritual and festal processions. Sculpture found a new splendor in the adornment of the cathedrals. Gradually the burial-place was taken out into the neighbouring ground.

they are sensitive. and in which sex and art. Because desire is a torment in them. Rhythm enters. Byron. forever suffering. the painting. Shelley. Rousseau and Verlaine. Strindberg. though designed as an allegory of human life. reason flourishes. But in other artists the flood of sex is damned. It is they who create the poetry. Artxybasheff and Tchaikovsky: these are of the type in which imagination dominates intellect. Hugo. the extreme. so with every other element that enters into the creation of beauty. Combine rhythm and imitation with the love-motif and you have nine-tenths of literature. the exotic and the strange lure them everywhere. the music and the philosophy of love. but at once associates itself with love to generate the song. the dance. It is this subterranean river of erotic energy that feeds the creative passion of the artist. drawing riotously from the same source. and channeled almost wholly into creation. Keats and Swinburne. but very soon it is love. and intellect dominates everything. Love loses its power. and imaginative beyond restraint. Petrarch. and from this union the romantic type of genius comes. emotional. that determines the object which imitation makes. Sappho. Bruno and Giorgione. Heine and Poe. becomes in the end a lyric of love. even the divine song of Dante. Schumann. consume the artist and leave him physically or spiritually dead before his youth is ended. As even religious art drinks at the fount of Eros to sustain itself. and helps to beget sculpture and painting.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 124 Renaissance passed from Rome to Venice the pagan element triumphed. and every lover cherishes them. and sacred yielded to profane love. Alexander and Lucretius. filial or sexual. Out of this immense sublimation comes the classic genius: . Schubert and Chopin. Imitation enters. and poetry. emotion is controlled. Schiller. In some the relationship takes the form of a rapid development of sex and art at once.

Archimedes. that “the principle of goodness reduces itself to the law of beauty. who have mastered desire and lifted their chaos into a dancing star. derives its power ultimately from that same reservoir of creative energy which renews the race perpetually. but his voice will soon be stilled. Goethe. Beauty would be again.Perenial Themes — 125 Socrates. and love would be the best eugenics. “A man’s genius. All genius. Aristotle. Anatole France. like all beauty and all art. achieve a tardy fame. Leonardo. “is a vampire”: it burns him up in its flame. and we should arrive at Plato’s conclusion. Renan. and achieves the immortality of life. and if both consume a man at once he will speak passionately and brilliantly.” said Nietzche. or Aphrodite’s . but from that fund they draw little nearly all for art. Flaubert. These are calm men. they speak and act with measure and restraint. Hegel. Beethoven and Napoleon were supreme because in them both types of genius were fused into an almost superhuman unity. Titian. Galileo.” The master hesitated in this matter and did not know just where to bend the knee—to stern Athene’s wisdom. Michelangelo. Bach. Newton. our sense of beauty would be biologically right. they develop slowly. Giotto. Turgenev. create better after thirty than before. Milton. it would make once more for the good of the race and not for its enfeeblement. rather than with inspiration: and passion. the flower and herald of health. and the guarantor of perfect children. as nature wished it to be. They work slowly with resolution and patience. ethics and esthetics would coincide. Bacon. Caesar. They do not excel the romantic type in that fund of superior energy which is the common dominator and source of all genius. Sophocles. Hobbes. Kant. But so does love. If our instincts were not deceived by cosmetics or perverted by finance. and live for the most part to a great old age.

But sovereign poetry Remains. in what respects? . but age withers it and time decays. and beauty as we have it now could hardly be made the prop and basis of a perfect state. Art without science is poverty. but science without art is barbarism. The marble bust Outlives the state: And the austere medallion Which some toiler finds Under the earth Preserves the emperor. beauty. Even divine philosophy is a means. strong art alone Can know eternity. Everything is gone of Egypt but the colossal grandeur which it lifted from the sand. Let Gautier speak: All things pass. everything is gone of Greece but its wisdom and its art.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 126 smiling loveliness. Living beauty is greatest. And a philosophy that is not stirred by loveliness is unworthy of a man. unless we broaden its flight to cover all the coordinated significance. Even the gods must die. But of what use is wisdom if it does not make us love the beautiful and create new beauty fairer than nature gives? Wisdom is a means. of body and soul. Stronger than death. only the artist can seize the passing form and stamp it in a mould that resists mortality. instrumentalities and values of the fullest life. Discussion • What was your view of “beauty” before reading the essay? • Has the essay helped you modify your concept of the term? If yes. is an end. Perhaps he was wise to hesitate.

Perenial Themes — 127 • Do you think that beauty is the child of love or vice versa? • Do you feel that the subject deserves the amount of deliberation on the part of philosophers and psychologists. it is given? .

George Eliot . and to gain applause which he cannot keep. Johnson There is no creature whose inward being is so strong that it is not greatly determined by what lies outside it. Dr.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 128 Almost every man wastes part of his life in attempts to display qualities which he does not possess.

As a police officer I was an obvious target and was baited whenever it seemed safe to do so. There were several . in lower Burma. In Shooting an Elephant he focuses on the dehumanizing impact of tyranny not only on its victim but also on the tyrant himself. This happened more than once. The young Buddhist priests were the worst of all. the crowd yelled with hideous laughter. got badly on my nerves. George Orwell has a lasting place amongst English novelists because of Animal Farm (1945) and 1984. and in an aimless. In it the author demonstrates the rare ability of rising above the assumptions. petty kind of way antiEuropean feeling was very bitter. When a nimble Burman tripped me up on the football field and the referee (another Burman) looked the other way. and insight than George Orwell. prejudices and rationalizations of one’s group. No one had the guts to raise a riot. The story is an excellent piece of self-exploration. In Moulmein. In the end the sneering yellow faces of young men that met me everywhere.Perenial Themes — 129 Shooting an Elephant George Orwell (1903-1950) Few people have written about the inhumanity of colonial rule with greater sensitivity. I was hated by large numbers of peoplethe only time in my life that I have been important enough for this to happen to me. and judging one’s own conduct in terms of universal human values. compassion. I was subdivisional police officer of the town. but if a European woman went through the bazars alone somebody would probably spit betel juice over her dress. and helped their compatriots to shed the white man’s-burden complex and to see the dark side of imperialism. the insults hooted after me when I was at a safe distance. He was a leading figure amongst the British writers who re-interpreted the imperialist era in humanistic terms.

I was all for the Burmese and all against their oppressors. For at that time I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing and the sooner I chucked up my job and got out of it the better. All I knew was that I was stuck between my hatred of the empire I served and my rage against the evilspirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible. the gray. if you can catch him off duty. upon the will of prostrate peoples. Theoreticallyand secretly. but it gave me a better glimpse than I had before of the real nature of imperialismthe real motives for which despotic governments . Feelings like these are the normal by-products of imperialism. In a job like that you see the dirty work of Empire at close quarters. But I could get nothing into perspective. still less did I know that it is a great deal better than the younger empires that are going to supplant it.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 130 thousands of them in the town and none of them seemed to have anything to do except stand on street corners and jeer at Europeans. with another part I thought that the greatest joy in the world would be to drive a bayonet into a Buddhist priest’s guts. cowed faces of the long-term convicts. One day something happened which in a roundabout way was enlightening. All this was perplexing and upsetting. The wretched prisoners huddling in the stinking cages of the lock-ups. as something clamped down. It was a tiny incident in itself. As for the job I was doing. the British. the scarred buttocks of the men who had been flogged with bamboosall these oppressed me with an intolerable sense of guilt. I hated it more bitterly than I can perhaps make clear. I did not even know that the British Empire is dying. I was young and ill-educated and I had to think out my problems in the utter silence that is imposed on every Englishman in the East. With one part of my mind I thought of the British Raj as an unbreakable tyranny. ask any Anglo-Indian official. of course.

but had taken the wrong direction and was now twelve hours’ journey away. We began questioning the people as to where the elephant had gone and. I took my rifle. but the nearer you get to the scene of events the vaguer it becomes. It was a very poor quarter. a labyrinth of squalid bamboo huts. a wild elephant. but I thought the noise might be useful in terrorem. a story always sounds clear enough at a distance.Perenial Themes — 131 act. some said that he had gone in another. as tame elephants always are when their attack of “must” is due. killed a cow and raided some fruit-stalls and devoured the stock. Its mahout. That is invariably the case in the East. but a tame one which had gone “must. stuffy morning at the beginning of the rains. winding all over a steep hillside. also it had met the municipal rubbish van and. had turned the van over and inflicted violences upon it. of course. but on the previous night it had broken its chain and escaped. thatched with palm-leaf. I remember that it was a cloudy. Early one morning the sub-inspector at a police station at the other end of the town rang me up on the phone and said that an elephant was ravaging the bazaar. Would I please come and do something about it? I did not know what I could do. The Burmese population had no weapons and were quite helpless against it. It was not. some professed not even to have heard . but I wanted to see what was happening and I got on to a pony and started out. as usual. It had already destroyed somebody’s bamboo hut.” It had been chained up. had set out in pursuit. and in the morning the elephant had suddenly reappeared in the town. failed to get any definite information. the only person who could manage it when it was in that state. The Burmese sub-inspector and some Indian constables were waiting for me in the quarter where the elephant had been seen. an old 44 Winchester and much too small to kill an elephant. when the driver jumped out and took to his heels. Some of the people said that the elephant had gone in one direction. Various Burmans stopped me on the way and told me about the elephant’s doings.

not wanting it to go mad with fright and throw me if it smelt the elephant. and his face had scored a trench a foot deep and a couple of yards long. scandalized cry of “Go away. (Never tell me. but it was different now that he was going to be shot. violently shooting away a crowd of naked children. The orderly came back in a few minutes with a rifle and five cartridges. It . evidently there was something that the children ought not to have seen. the eyes wide open. a black Dravidian coolie. As soon as I saw the dead man I sent an orderly to a friend’s house nearby to borrow an elephant rifle. I had already sent back the pony. He was lying on his belly with arms crucified and head sharply twisted to one side. almost naked. put its foot on his back and ground him into the earth. There was a loud. Most of the corpses I have seen looked devilish. This was the rainy season and the ground was soft. the teeth bared and grinning with an expression of unendurable agony. They had seen the rifle and were all shouting excitedly that I was going to shoot the elephant. and he could not have been dead many minutes. by the way. Some more women followed. I had almost made up my mind that the whole story was a pack of lies. They had not shown much interest in the elephant when he was merely ravaging their homes. His face was coated with mud.) The friction of the great beast’s foot had stripped the skin from his back as neatly as one skins a rabbit. when we heard yells a little distance away. He was an Indian. clicking their tongues and exclaiming. The people said that the elephant had come suddenly upon him round the corner of the hut. caught him with its trunk. child! Go away this instant!” and an old woman with a switch in her hand came round the corner of a hut. and meanwhile some Burmans had arrived and told us that the elephant was in the paddy fields below.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 132 of any elephant. only a few hundred yards away. I rounded the hut and saw a man’s dead body sprawling in the mud. that the dead look peaceful. As I started forward practically the whole population of the quarter flocked out of the houses and followed me.

As soon as I saw the elephant I knew with perfect certainty that I ought not to shoot him. It made me vaguely uneasy. with the rifle over my shoulder and an evergrowing army of people jostling at my heels. But at that moment I glanced round at the crowd that had followed me. and then go home. besides. when you got away from the huts. beating them against his knees to clean them. He took not the slightest notice of the crowd’s approach. I decided that I would watch him for a little while to make sure that he did not turn savage again. as it would be to an English crowd. and stuffing them into his mouth. He was tearing up bunches of grass. They were . I looked at the sea of yellow faces above the garish clothesfaces all happy and excited over this bit of fun. looking and feeling a fool. I marched down the hill. I thought then and I think now that his attack of “must” was already passing off. It was an immense crowd. they wanted the meat. It blocked the road for a long distance on either side. in which case he would merely wander harmlessly about until the mahout came back and caught him. And at that distance. It is a serious matter to shoot a working elephantit is comparable to destroying a huge and costly piece of machineryand obviously one ought not to do if it can possibly be avoided. I had merely sent for the rifle to defend myself if necessaryand it is always unnerving to have a crowd following you. his left side toward us. Moreover. all certain that the elephant was going to be shot. the elephant looked no more dangerous than a cow. there was a metalled road and beyond that a miry waste of paddy fields a thousand yards across. I did not in the least want to shoot him. not yet ploughed but soggy from the first rains and dotted with coarse grass. I had no intention of shooting the elephant. peacefully eating. At the bottom. I had halted on the road.Perenial Themes — 133 was a bit of fun to them. two thousand at the least and growing every minute. The elephant was standing eight yards from the road.

was one long struggle not to be laughed at. every white man’s life in the East. the conventionalized figure of sahib. posing dummy. the futility of the white man’s dominion in the East. And suddenly I realized that I should have to shoot the elephant after all. that was impossible. I had got to shoot the elephant.” and so in every crisis he has got to do what the “natives” expect of him. but with the magical rifle in my hands I was momentarily worth watching. The crowd would laugh at me. having done nothingno. standing in front of the unarmed native crowdseemingly the leading actor of the piece. the white man with his gun. irresistibly. I perceived in this moment that when the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys. And it was at this moment. I watched him beating his bunch of grass against his knees with that preoccupied grandmotherly air that elephants have. but in reality I was only an absurd puppet pushed to and fro by the will of those yellow faces behind. For it is the condition of his rule that he shall spend his life in trying to impress the “natives. Here was I. At that age I was not squeamish about killing animals. he has got to appear resolute. A sahib has got to act like a sahib. The people expected it of me and I had got to do it. and his face grows to fit it. But I did not want to shoot the elephant. to know his own mind and do definite things. He becomes a sort of hollow. To come all that way. with two thousand people marching at my heels. as I stood there with the rifle in my hands. It seemed to me that it would be murder to shoot him. They did not like me.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 134 watching me as they would watch a conjurer about to perform a trick. that I first grasped the hollowness. I had committed myself to doing it when I sent for the rifle. rifle in hand. and then to trail feebly away. And my whole life. I could feel their two thousand wills pressing me forward. but I had never shot an elephant and never wanted to (Somehow it always seems worse to kill a large . He wears a mask.

I was not afraid in the ordinary sense. If he charged. as I would have been if I had been alone. But also I knew that I was going to do no such thing. The rifle was a beautiful German thing with cross-hair sights. it would be safe to leave him until the mahout came back. They all said the same thing: he took no notice of you if you left him alone. The sole thought in my mind was that if anything went wrong those two thousand Burmans would see me pursued. the elephant was worth at least a hundred pounds. I shoved the cartridges into the magazine and lay down on the road to get a better aim. That would never do. I was a poor shot with a rifle and the ground was soft mud into which one would sink at every step. For at that moment. and asked them how the elephant had been behaving. twenty-five yards of the elephant and test his behavior. It was perfectly clear to me what I ought to do. caught. And if that happened it was quite probable that some of them would laugh. but he might charge if you went too close to him. But even then I was not thinking particularly of my own skin. breathed from innumerable throats. trampled on. I turned to some experienced looking Burmans who had been there when we arrived. he isn’t frightened. happy sigh. in general. There was only one alternative. I did not then know that in shooting an elephant one . he would only be worth the value of his tusks.) Besides. say. I could shoot.Perenial Themes — 135 animal. But I had got to act quickly. and reduced to a grinning corpse like that Indian up the hill. there was the beast’s owner to be considered. I should have about as much chance as a toad under a steam-roller. If the elephant charged and I missed him. with the crowd watching me. and so. They were going to have their bit of fun after all. The crowd grew very still. dead. only of the watchful yellow faces behind. A white man mustn’t be frightened in front of “natives”. I ought to walk up to within. as of people who see the theater curtain go up at last. if he took no notice of me. Alive. and a deep. five pounds possibly. low.

I got up. It was obvious that the elephant would never rise again. His mouth slobbered. actually I aimed several inches in front of this. even for the bullet to get there. One could have imagined him thousands of years old. his great mound of a side painfully rising . his trunk reaching skyward like a tree. I dare sayhe sagged flabbily to his knees. his belly toward me. But in falling he seemed for a moment to rise. An enormous senility seemed to have settled upon him. immensely old. He trumpeted. In that instant. That was the shot that did for him. I ought. He was breathing very rhythmically with long rattling gasps. with a crash that seemed to shake the ground even where I lay. for as his hind legs collapsed beneath him he seemed to tower upward like a huge rock toppling. terrible change had come over the elephant. but every line of his body had altered. a mysterious. for the first and only time. shrunken. to have aimed straight at his ear-hole. He neither stirred. At the second shot he did not collapse but climbed with desperate slowness to his feet and stood weakly upright. At last. with legs sagging and head drooping. nor fell. in too short a time. but he was not dead. When I pulled the trigger I did not hear the bang or feel the kickone never does when a shot goes homebut I heard the devilish roar of glee that went up from the crowd. as though the frightful impact of the bullet had paralyzed him without knocking him down. You could see the agony of it jolt his whole body and knock that last remnant of strength from his legs. And then down he came. I fired a third time. after what seemed a long timeit might have been five seconds. I fired again into the same spot.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 136 would shoot to cut an imaginary bar running from ear-hole to ear-hole. one would have thought. The Burmans were already racing past me across the mud. as the elephant was sideways on. therefore. thinking the brain would be further forward. He looked suddenly stricken.

I sent back for my small rifle and poured shot after shot into his heart and down his throat. . legally I had done the right thing. Besides. for a mad elephant has to be killed. the tortured breathing continued without a pause. I felt that I had got to put an end to that dreadful noise. the younger men said it was a damn shame to shoot an elephant for killing a coolie. but in some world remote from me where not even a bullet could damage him further. The tortured gasps continued as steadily as the ticking of a clock. The older men said I was right. if its owner fails to control it.Perenial Themes — 137 and falling. The owner was furious. because an elephant was worth more than any damn Coringhee coolie. but his breathing did not weaken. but still he did not die. Afterward. there were endless discussions about the shooting of the elephant. very slowly and in great agony. Among the Europeans opinion was divided. And afterward I was very glad that the coolie had been killed. I waited a long time for him to die. Finally I fired my two remaining shots into the spot where I thought his heart must be. I often wondered whether any of the others grasped that I had done it solely to avoid looking a fool. and I was told they had stripped his body almost to the bones by the afternoon. It seemed dreadful to see the great beast lying there. In the end I could not stand it any longer and went away. He was dying. His mouth was wide openI could see far down into caverns of pale pink throat. but he was only an Indian and could do nothing. I heard later that it took him half an hour to die. The thick blood welled out of him like red velvet. it put me legally in the right and it gave me sufficient pretext for shooting the elephant. of course. Burmans were bringing dahs and baskets even before I left. and not even to be able to finish him. His body did not even jerk when the shots hit him. like a mad dog. They seemed to make no impression. powerless to move and yet powerless to die.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 138 Discussion • Why do the experiences as a police officer in Burma upset and perplex the author? • What does the author mean by “dirty work of Empire”? • Why silence was imposed on all Englishmen working in the colonies as part of the imperial machinery? • What awakened the author to the hollowness of white man’s rule in the East? • Why had the imperial officials to wear a mask while in the colonies? • How does the colonial setting dehumanize the colonial functionaries? • What impression do you form about the character of the writer? • It is said that during the colonial period Englishmen underwent a metamorphosis while crossing the Suez Canal. After reading the story can you guess why it was so? .

Petey Burch. are the very negation of reason. “Don’t move.” he mumbled thickly. you understand. Fads. Unstable. Not. perspicacious. Worst of all. and ending in a well-deserved fiasco. “Don’t take a laxative. to surrender yourself to idiocy just because everybody else is doing itthis. my room-mate at the University of Minnesota. A sensitive awareness of these fallacies should save us from a lot of pointless controversies and irrational attitudes. Andthink of it!I was only eighteen. Keen. acute and astuteI was all of these. It should also be of interest to see the narrator trying to play the Pygmalion. however. Cool was I and logical. “Raccoon?” I said. I submit. My brain was as powerful as a dynamo. . to me. a faddist. but nothing upstairs. pausing in my flight. I’ll get a doctor. as penetrating as a scalpel.” “Raccoon. to Petey. To be swept up in every new craze that comes along.Perenial Themes — 139 Logic: Love is a Fallacy Max Schulman This fascinating story with sparkling wit and dramatic dialogues could be seen as a pedagogical device to explain some of the logical fallacies we tend to commit in our thinking and argumentation. is the acme of mindlessness. same background. Same age. for example. Take. but dumb as an ox. Emotional type. Impressionable. One afternoon I found Petey lying on his bed with an expression of such distress on his face that I immediately diagnosed appendicitis.” I said. A nice enough fellow. as precise as a chemist’s scales. calculating. It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect.

naming a place not frequented by Big Men on Campus. Anything” My brain. They“ “You don’t understand. “Well. It’s the thing to do. why? Look at it rationally. “that people are actually wearing raccoon coats again?” “All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Don’t you want to be in the swim?” “No. but mental. and now I can’t get a raccoon coat. I do. pounding his temples.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 140 “I want a raccoon coat.” he said passionately. Where’ve you been?” “In the library. He leaped from the bed and paced the room. Raccoon coats are unsanitary.” I said. They smell bad. “Anything?” I asked. I perceived that his trouble was not physical.” I said incredulously. slipped into high gear.” he declared. “I should have known they’d come back when the Charleston came back. They’re unsightly. Like a fool I spent all my money for textbooks. that precision instrument. “I’d give anything for a raccoon coat. looking at him narrowly.” he interrupted impatiently. “I’ve got to!” “Petey. They shed. .” he cried.” I said truthfully.” “Can you mean. “I’ve got to have a raccoon coat. They weigh too much.” he wailed. “Why do you want a raccoon coat?” “I should have known it.

Polly fitted these specifications perfectly. a girl who excited the emotions. I was well aware of the importance of the right kind of wife in furthering a lawyer’s career. but I felt sure that time would supply the lack. At table her manners were exquisite. . to be sure. I had long coveted Polly Espy. She was. rule my head. chopped nuts. I stroked my chin thoughtfully. gracious. were almost without exception. She already had the makings.Perenial Themes — 141 “Anything” he affirmed in ringing tones. it lay now in a trunk in the attic back home. My father had had one in his undergraduate days. She was not yet of pin-up proportions. He didn’t have it exactly but at least he had first rights on it. Gracious she was. intelligent women. married to beautiful. I refer to his girl. Polly Espy. The successful lawyers. It also happened that Petey had something I wanted. With one omission. an ease of bearing. gravy. In a few years I would be out in practice. I had observed. It so happened that I knew where to get my hands on a raccoon coat. and a dipper of sauerkrautwithout even getting her fingers moist. I had seen her at the Kozy Kampus Korner eating the speciality of the housea sandwich that contained scraps of pot roast. I was a freshman in law school. entirely cerebral reason. Beautiful she was. She had an erectness of carriage. but I was not one to let my heart. I wanted Polly for a shrewdly calculated. By gracious I mean full of graces. Let me emphasize that my desire for this young woman was not emotional in nature. a poise that clearly indicated the best of breeding.

What are you getting at?” “Nothing. nothing. but we both have other dates. It is. if you were out of the picture. it was worth a try. “In other words. At any rate.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 142 Intelligent she was not. he replied. . the field would be open. “Where are you going?” asked Petey. easier to make a beautiful dumb girl smart than to make an ugly smart girl beautiful. “but I don’t know if you’d call it love.” I asked. “are you in love with Polly Espy?” “I think she’s a keen kid”. But I believed that under my guidance she would smarten up. “any other man for whom she has a particular fondness?” “Not that I know of.” I said. We see each other quite a bit.” I threw a few things into the bag.” I said innocently.” I asked. “Petey. Why?” “Do you. she veered in the opposite direction. Is that right?” “I guess so. Why?” I nodded with satisfaction. after all. “Home for the weekend. Why ?” “Is there. In fact. “have any kind of formal arrangement with her? I mean are you going steady or anything like that?” “No. and took my suitcase out of the closet.

could you. I shrugged. I guess it’s your business. gamy object that my father had worn in his Stutz Bearcat in 1925. I said with a mysterious wink and closed my long bag and left. clutching the greasy pelt to him. you couldn’t get some money from your old man. Then he turned away but with not so much resolution this . Then a canny look came into his eyes.” He flung the coat from him.” I said. He was a torn man.Perenial Themes — 143 “Listen. and lend it to me so I can buy a raccoon coat?” “I may do better than that”. He plunged his hands into the raccoon coat and then his face. with even more longing in his face. “What do you want for it?” “Your girl.” he said. “Holy Toledo!” he repeated fifteen or twenty times. First he looked at the coat with the expression of a waif at a bakery window. “Would you like it?” I asked. “You want Polly?” “That’s right. “Holy Toledo!” said Petey reverently.” I said to Petey when I got back Monday morning. “Polly?” he said in a horrified whisper. Then he looked back at the coat. I threw open the suitcase and revealed the huge. “Never. “Okay. hairy. If you don’t want to be in the swim. yes!” he cried. mincing no words. clutching my arm eagerly.” he said stoutly. Then he turned away and set his jaw resolutely. but out of the corner of my eye I kept watching Petey.” I sat down in a chair and pretended to read a book. “Look. “Oh. “while you’re home.

I took her first to dinner.” she said as she bade me good night. desire waxing. Then I took her to movie. Back and forth his head swiveled. or me to Polly?” “Not a thing. This was in the nature of a survey. He complied. “Fits fine. I rose from my chair. The coat bunched high over his ears and dropped all the way down to his shoe tops. resolution waning.” he said happily.” “That’s right.” he said and shook my hand. I had a sensaysh time.” I murmured.” said I. I went back to my room with a heavy heart. And then I took her home.” she said as we left the restaurant. “What’s Polly to me. I had my first date with Polly the following evening. extending my hand. that was a delish dinner. that’s all. He looked like a mound of dead raccoons.” he said thickly.” “Try on the coat. Finally he didn’t turn away at all. He swallowed. “Gee. “Gee that was a marvy movie.” said I. “It isn’t as though I was in love with Polly. he just stood and stared with mad lust at the coat. I had gravely underestimated the size of my task. This girl’s lack of . “Gee. “Or going steady or anything like that. I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard required.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 144 time. “It’s a deal.” she said as we left the theater. “Is it a deal?” I asked. “It’s just been casual kickjust a few laughs.

By all means. This loomed as a project of no small dimensions. and at first I was tempted to give her back to Petey. clapping her hands delightedly. But then I got to thinking about her abundant physical charms and about the way she entered a room and the way she handled a knife and fork. “What are we going to talk about?” she asked. she urged. “First let us examine the fallacy called Dicto Simplicitor”.” I said to her when I picked her up on our next date. One thing I will say for this girl: you would go far to find another so agreeable. but went bravely on. as a law student.” I said. We went to the Knoll. I winced. I gave her a course in logic. I went about it. It happened that I. clearing my throat. First she had to be taught to think.Perenial Themes — 145 information was terrifying. “is the science of thinking. “Magnif. we must first learn to recognize the fallacies of logic.” “Oo.” she said.” She thought this over for a minute and decided she liked it. the campus trysting place. “Polly. batting her lashes eagerly. systematically. “tonight we are going over to the Knoll and talk. These we will take up tonight. was taking a course in logic myself.” “Wow-dow!” she cried. and I decided to make an effort. as in all things. . Before we can think correctly. so I had all the facts at my finger tips. “Logic. terrif. “Logic. and she looked at me expectantly. and we sat down under an old oak. Nor would it be enough merely to supply her with information.” she replied.

” she confessed.” I fought off a wave of despair. exercise is bad. Do more! Do more!” “It will be better if you stop tugging at my sleeve. I continued. Otherwise you have committed a Dicto Simpliciter. absolutely nowhere. I . Exercise is good is an unqualified generalization. “Nobody” I hid my exasperation. I am nothing if not persistent.” “Polly. I mean it builds the body and everything. or exercise is good for most people. Therefore everybody should take exercise. For example: Exercise is good. I can’t speak French.” “I agree. “Next we take up a fallacy called Hasty General-ization. Do you see’?” “No.” said Polly earnestly. amazed. “But this is marvy. not good. if you have heart disease.” I said gently. Still. You must qualify the generalization. “the argument is a fallacy. Listen carefully: You can’t speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French. “I mean exercise is wonderful. You must say exercise is usually good. There are too few instances to support such a conclusion. The generalization is reached too hastily. “This is more fun than dancing even. Many people are ordered by their doctors not to exercise. it’s a fallacy.” “Really?” said Polly. For instance.” “Know any more fallacies?” she asked breathlessly.” I told her. and when she desisted. I was getting nowhere with this girl.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 146 “Dicto Simpliciter means an argument based on an unqualified generalization. “Polly. Petey Burch can’t speak French.

empty head. her name is. “Yeah. I frowned.” she replied promptly. “I’m all confused. She has no connection with the rain.” “All right. let’s. Listen to this: Let’s not take Bill on our picnic.” “Yes. He can lift the stone. It never fails.” “I know somebody just like that.” “I’ll never do it again.” I reminded her. Every single time we take her on a picnic“ “Polly. it rains. “A girl back homeElua Becker.” “Then tell me some more fallacies. “Well. but plunged ahead. “Here’s an example of Contradictory Premises: If God can do anything can He make a stone so heavy that He won’t be able to lift it?” “Of course.” she admitted. .” she exclaimed. Eula Becker doesn’t cause the rain. then I guess He can’t make the stone. She scratched her pretty. “But if He can do anything. “Are you mad at me?” I sighed deeply.” I pointed out. “No. Next comes Post Hoc.” I said sharply. “it’s a fallacy. Every time we take him out with us. I’m not mad. You are guilty of Post Hoc if you blame Eula Becker.” she said thoughtfully. Polly.” she chirped. Let’s try Contradictory Premises.” she promised contritely.Perenial Themes — 147 continued.” “But He can do anything. blinking her eyes happily.

where she assured me that she had had perfectly teriff evening. But then I reconsidered. and you go over all the things you’ve learned. It seemed clear that my project was doomed to failure. I had wasted one evening. If there is an irresistible force. The girl simply had logic-proof head. For a moment I considered waking him and telling him that he could have his girl back. We’ll have another session tomorrow night.” she said eagerly. Petey lay snoring in his bed. the raccoon coat huddled like a great hairy beast at his feet. the wife is a helpless cripple. there can be no irresistible force. there can be no immovable object. “A man applies for a job. I’ll take you home now. May be somehow I could fan them into flame. Get it?” “Tell me some more of this keen stuff. and I went glumly home to my room. the children have nothing to eat. Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope. “I think we’d better call it a night. I consulted my watch. no coal in the cellar. a few embers still smoldered. I might as well waste another. no shoes on their feet. Seated under the oak the next evening I said. If there is an immovable object. but I decided to give it one more try.” I said. there are no beds in the house. “Listen closely. no clothes to wear. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are. and winter is coming. Who knew? May be somewhere in the extinct crater of her mind.” She quivered with delight. Because when the premises of an argument contradict each other.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 148 “Of course you are. there can be no argument. “Our first fallacy tonight is called Ad Misericordiam. he replies that he has a wife and six children at home.” .” I deposited her at the girls’ dormitory.

” was Polly’s reaction. and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned. “Yes it’s awful.” said Polly.Perenial Themes — 149 A tear rolled down each of Polly’s pink cheeks. He committed the fallacy of Ad Misericordiam. but students are.” “Sounds yummy. shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbook during an examination ?” “There now. Doggedly I pressed on. lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial. “Nuts. Instead he appealed to the boss’s sympathy. The man never answered the boss’s question about his qualifications.” “I still think it’s a good idea. awful. surgeon have X-rays to guide them during an operation. “Oh. The situations are altogether different.” I agreed. “but it’s no argument.” I said in a carefully controlled tone. “we will discuss False Analogy. Do you understand?” “Have you got a handkerchief?” she blubbered. I said testily. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. “is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years. After all. carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. . “Next. Doctors. Why. lawyers. and you can’t make an analogy between them. this is awful.” she sobbed. “the argument is all wrong. “Next we’ll try Hypothesis Contrary to Fact. then.” “Polly.” she said enthusiastically.” I muttered. I handed her a handkerchief and tried to keep from screaming while she wiped her eyes.

“It’s not a bit fair.” said Polly. “Did you see the movie? Oh.. ‘My opponent is a notorious liar. “Two men are having a debate.” “They ought to put Walter Pidgeon in more pictures. “The next fallacy is called Poisoning the Well. Polly. true. You can’t start with a hypothesis that is not true and then draw any supportable conclusion from it. What chance has the second man got if the first man calls him a liar before he even begins talking?” .. think. What’s wrong?” I watched her closely as she knit her creamy brow in concentration.” “True..” “If you can forget Mr. May be any number of things would have happened.” she said with indignation.” “How cute!” she gurgled. The first one gets up and says. it just knocked me out. Now.” One more chance. I decided.. “I hardly ever see him any more. Suddenly a glimmer of intelligencethe first I had seen . May be somebody else would have discovered it. You can’t believe a word that he is going to say’ . came into her eyes. “It’s not fair.” said Polly. I mean he fractures me. May be Madame Curie would have discovered radium at some later date. Think hard. But just one more. “I would like to point out that the statement is a fallacy. the world today would not know about radium. nodding her head. There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 150 “Listen: If madame Curie had not happened to leave a photographic plate in a drawer with a chunk of pitchblende. Pidgeon for a moment.” I said coldly. That Walter Pidgeon is so dreamy.

Quite the contrary. She was worthy of me at last. Polly. a proper hostess for my many mansions. The first man has poisoned the well before anybody could drink from it. pointed out flaws.” “Fireaway. so I loved mine. My job was done. It was like digging a tunnel.. I’m proud of you. The time had come to change our relationship from academic to romantic. I determined to acquaint her with my feelings at our very next meeting.” she murmured. Heartened by the knowledge that Polly was not altogether a cretin. and finally I was rewarded. kept hammering away without let up. .” “Pshaw. Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he had fashioned. But I persisted. my dear. I had taught her to think. these things aren’t so hard. It must not be thought that I was without love for this girl.. let’s review everything we have learned. I had made a logician out of Polly.Perenial Themes — 151 “Right !” I cried exultantly. She was a fit wife for me. lt’s not fair. a suitable mother for my wellheeled children. And then the chink got bigger and the sun came pouring in and all was bright. I had no idea when I would reach the light.. or even If I would.” she said with an airy wave of her hand. I pounded and clawed and scraped. Thinkexamineevaluate. Five grueling nights this took but it was worth it. blushing with pleasure. I saw a chink of light. At first everything was work. patient review of all I had told her. Come now. Over and over and over again I cited instances. “One hundred percent right. “You see. All you have to do is concentrate. sweat and darkness. He has hamstrung his opponent before he could even start. I began a long.

It is clear that we are well matched. “How can you say that we are well matched on the basis of only five dates?” I chuckled with amusement.” she said. favoring her with a smile. I decided to change tactics. a shambling. I paused for a moment while my massive brain chose the proper words. patting her hand in a tolerant manner. you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know that it’s good.” I said. I will languish. gee.” “Hasty Generalization.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 152 “Polly. Obviously the best approach was a simple.” “False Analogy. Please. “Hasty Generalization.” she repeated. After all. “we have now spent five evenings together.” said Polly promptly.” . and the moon and the stars and the constellations of outer space. “I’m not a cake. life will be meaningless. my darling. say that you will go steady with me.” I said when next we sat beneath our oak. for if you will not. You are the whole world to me. The dear child had learned her lessons well. direct declaration of love. We have gotten along splendidly. I’m a girl. “My dear. The dear child had learned her lessons perhaps too well. Then I began: “Polly. I will refuse my meals. hollow-eyed hulk.” said I. disappointed. “Five dates is plenty. “tonight we will not discuss fallacies. “My dear.” I said. “I beg your pardon.” “Aw. I love you.” I chuckled with somewhat less amusement.” said Polly brightly. strong. I will wander the face of the earth.

I leaped to my feet. forcing a smile. I was not Pygmalion.” “Hypothesis Contrary to Fact. “Ad Misericordiam. wagging her finger at me playfully.” she said. “Polly. I mean this is just classroom stuff. So you do owe me something. don’t you my dear? If I hadn’t come along you never would have learned about fallacies.” “You’re darn right. folding my arms that ought to do it.” she said instantly.” she said with a vigorous nod. bellowing like a bull. Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me.” “Dicto Simpliciter.” “That’s right. “And who taught them to you. You know that the things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life. I was Frankenstein. “you certainly have learned your fallacies.” said Polly. “Will you or will you not go steady with me?” “I will not. “Well. I thought. Polly?” “You did. “you mustn’t take all these things so literally.” she replied.” I croaked. I ground my teeth. That did it. and my monster had me by the throat. Polly.” I said.Perenial Themes — 153 There. . I dashed perspiration from my brow. At all costs I had to keep cool.

“He’s got a raccoon coat. “You’re a logician.” I reeled back overcome with the infamy of it. What makes Logic Love is a Fallacy a very interesting story? • What fallacies do you come across most frequently in discussions with your friends? Give examples. a guy who’ll never know where his next meal is coming from. How could you choose Petey Burch over me? Look at mea brilliant student a tremendous intellectual. Look at Peteya knothead.” Discussion • What impression do you form about the character of the narrator of the story? • Explain significance of the title of the story. He’s a cheat. “and stop shouting.” declared Polly. “All right. a jitterbug. “Because this afternoon I promised Petey Burch that I would go steady with him.” “Poisoning the Well. I modulated my voice.” said Polly. He’s a liar. Let’s look at this thing logically. “You can’t go with him.” I said. He’s a rat. a man with an assured future. I think shouting must be a fallacy too. . Polly.” With an immense effort of will.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 154 “Why not?” I demanded. after he shook my hand! “The rat” I shrieked. kicking up great chunks of turf. after he made a deal. After he promised. Can you give me one logical reason why you should go steady with Petey Burch?” “I certainly can.

“I just might be selling grammar books.Perenial Themes — 155 Part II Structure “I don’t need none”. “How do you know. shouted the lady of the house before the young man at the door had had a chance to say anything." . lady?” he said.

Stop! (The subject ‘you’ is understood).g. usually consisting of a subject and a predicate. ask a question. pronoun ‘you’. It normally occurs before the verb in sentences: e. the complete subject includes the noun or noun substitute alone. In some sentences the subject is understood. is the subject) . Generally though.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 156 1—The Sentence The sentence is a sequence of words capable of standing alone to make an assertion. or give a command. (the noun ‘woman’ is the subject) Where are you going? (the noun substitute. The woman in the frilly pink dress came into the room. e. The Subject of a sentence is the person or thing the subject is about. without any of its modifiers.g.

(verb phrase) A compound predicate has two or more main verbs: The clown joked. The predicate expresses the action or condition of the subject. (verb+complement) Little girls cry very easily. (verb+modifier) .Perenial Themes — 157 The Predicate of a sentence consists of the verb and its modifiers and complements. (main verb) The children were swimming in the sea. danced and sang. Predicates may be simple or compound: The simple predicate is the main verb or verb phrase in the predicate: She visited Switzerland last year. (3 main verbs) He should have bought more fish.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 158 Complements: While some verbs are complete in themselves (Birds fly). means something that is needed to complete a grammatical construction. The term complement. The predicative adjective is an adjective in the predicate referring to the subject: Akram was cheerful. She celebrated birthday yesterday. other verbs need a noun. . the her The object complement follows the direct object and refers to the same thing. The direct object is the noun which indicates the receiver of the action: My brother plays organ. usually after verbs of naming or calling: The director appointed Miss Sarah as personnel officer. then. or a predicative nominative. an object complement. Complements may be a direct object. noun substitute or adjective to complete their meaning. a predicative adjective.

Thus it has one main clause which may have word or phrase modifiers (adjectives or adverbs or prepositional phrases): My father was born in India. according to the number of clauses included and whether the clauses are independent (main) clauses or dependent (subordinate) clauses. A compound sentence expresses two or more main ideas in two or more independent (main) clauses: My father was born in India but he came to .e. Types of sentence structure Sentences can be divided into three kinds according to the way they are built. i. The predicative nominative is a noun or noun subject in the predicate naming or referring to the subject: Those women are dentists. A simple sentence expresses one main idea. All of my sons have been scouts.Perenial Themes — 159 My brother is quite fat.

Thus it contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses: My father came here from India when he was a small boy. . Main idea (1) main idea (2) A complex sentence expresses one main idea and at least one subordinate idea. main idea subordinate idea A compound-complex sentence is a combination that includes at least one dependent clause and at least two independent clauses: Although the tickets had been bought.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 160 Pakistan when he was a boy. Tom didn’t reach on time.

such as dialogue in a narration. their use in formal expository writing is unacceptable. . Avoiding these problems will give them a definite advantage as they strive to improve their communication skills.Perenial Themes — 161 (subordinate clause) (independent clause) and we missed the train. Most unwarranted fragments in students’ writings result from confusion of main and subordinate clauses or of verbs and verbals. Sentence Fragments A sentence fragment is a part of a sentence used as though it were a whole sentence. However. (independent clause) Common Sentence Problems Students frequently experience some common problems with sentence construction. The fact that for literary effects. good writers occasionally use sentence fragments should not be taken as a justification for those which result merely from inadequate command of the language. and are sometimes used in informal expository writing. Sentence fragments are not uncommon in colloquial writing. In formal writing it is treated as a serious grammatical mistake though it is accepted in conversation and in writing which imitates the patterns of speech.

Although he does nothing to improve them. Because I had been up late last night and needed sleep. He is always complaining about his grades.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 162 He entered each missspelled word in a notebook. Which he kept for that purpose. To return to university or to accept the job. It was difficult to decide which choice to make. . I refused to go to the concert.

The Pakistani team scored 13 runs in the last over. First by learning what it is and then by practising it. Thus tying the score. Fragmentary sentences may be corrected either by changing the faulty period to comma. .Perenial Themes — 163 It was a wonderful week. thus incorporating the separated phrase or subordinate clause within the sentence to which it belongs. Exercise Logical thinking is a skill that can be developed. Fishing and swimming every day and going to movies every night. or by expanding the fragment into a main clause so that it can stand as an independent sentence.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 164 I am answering your advertisement for experienced draftsmen. Which appeared in a recent issue of The News. This spring my brother had to make a very difficult decision. Whether to sell his business and . I would like to be considered for one of those positions. everything seems to go wrong. When. This has been one of those days we all have once in a while. no matter how careful we are.

my dear friend. Two of the most unforgettable characters in my life are my parents. Unforgettable not only because of our affectionate bond but also because of the striking differences in their personalities. Or to remain here where all his friends and relatives are.Perenial Themes — 165 move to Karachi. . One which cannot be answered without much thought. It is an important question.

National elections and student elections may be compared as closely as an . Facilities that would fill the spare time of the teen-ager and keep him occupied. Especially when they are packed with daunting statistics and couched in esoteric jargon. The possible solution to the problem of juvenile delinquency could be more and better recreational facilities.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 166 Government budgets are difficult to understand.

Then the game began to move faster. The judge said that the court was not inclined to show mercy. Deserted by those who had once sung his praises and borrowed his money. The only difference being in size.Perenial Themes — 167 object and its photograph. This being the third time the defendant had been convicted of the same. He died alone and in poverty. Almost .

After I had done some hard thinking. Its glow smothered by a haze.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 168 immediately after Shahid's move came our first goal. Treaties of peace are seldom observed for long . Now we are all happier than we had been. I realised that many of my brother's decisions were in my best interest. the sun hung low. over the opposite bank of the river. Beyond the high buildings.

consideration for others. This being the lesson of history. and good grooming. Statistics are not yet available to show the actual decrease in accidents.Perenial Themes — 169 periods. . A popular person usually has three good personality traits. A sense of humour. Since this program is still in the process of being completed and traffic has doubled in the past few months.

Will you accompany him to the town? Comma Splice The use of a comma.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 170 The whole area is honeycombed by caves. in college it means two days in which . Many of which are still unexplored. instead of a period or semicolon. between two main clauses not joined by a connective is called a comma splice or comma fault. What he wants to know is. When in high school a weekend meant two days of nothing to do. The meeting seemed to last for hours. nothing was accomplished.

although the answer is not in sight.Perenial Themes — 171 you have to work to catch up. it can be obtained by patient and persistent work. The difficulties are great but not insuperable. the only requirement is that they must be registered with the Authority. In all the three plans there is free choice of doctors. and hospitals. dentists. In the past college education was a privilege .

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 172 for a few people. This is not a book to be tossed aside lightly it should be thrown with great force. Fused or Run-on Sentences When two sentences run together without any separating punctuation or without an intervening connective. today it has become a necessity for many. I knocked on the door when the man came I gave him my most ingratiating smile. they are said to be fused. Why do you ask what concern is it of yours? .

nothing was accomplished.Perenial Themes — 173 In a situation such as this one there is no way of reaching a compromise unless both sides are willing to make concessions the dispute will become a stalemate. . I will not object on the other hand don't expect me to lend you any support on this issue. Ways to eliminate the error The meeting seemed to last for hours.

Exceptions When two main clauses are short and closely related they may be separated by a comma only. and nothing was accomplished. . Laws grind the poor.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 174 The meeting seemed to last for hours. nothing was accomplished. Exercise The following sentences contain one or more errors: Write correct versions. The meeting seemed to last for hours. the rich rule the laws. furthermore. The meeting seemed to last for hours because nothing was accomplished.

Proper names sometimes become common nouns that are used to name one of a class of things. Non-fiction is the presentation of factual . While the plumber peered into the pipes black mouth and explained the problem in words that only plumbers understand. an example of this kind of language evolution is the word maverick.Perenial Themes — 175 My mother stood by helplessly.

. Shifting under our feet as we walked. There was no sound but the faint hiss and crunch of the packed snow. bringing a car to a full stop from 70 miles an hour generates enough heat to melt a pound of iron. It was a hushed. Far more heat than most of us realise. The brakes of an automobile generate heat. fiction is storytelling.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 176 material. for example. empty world through which we moved.

. even by the most liberal-minded person. most of this cannot be defended. There is a great amount of detrimental reading material on the magazine shelves.Perenial Themes — 177 The art of putting things off sometimes takes strange forms. somehow. it seems to thrive on the feeling that things will turn out all right. Even when putting them off is the very thing that will keep them from turning out all right.

we caught glimpses of them through the train window. There are two wires sticking out from two small holes in the centre of the board. Driven by the brisk March wind. green and white waves raced across the surface of the river. . they have to be crossed to turn on ignition.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 178 It will cost a great deal of money. there is no guarantee that the plan will succeed.

But this does not mean that men have solved the problem of fog. ships and aeroplanes can "see" in fog as clearly as in broad daylight.Perenial Themes — 179 Thanks to radar. I believe that the expression of a newspaper's opinions should be confined to its editorial page. Where the reader can judge the opinions for themselves. . fogbound ships fall behind their schedules. airports close down during a fog.

there are acts that are enjoined and acts that are forbidden. even the crew of a pirate ship.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 180 Slanted news is sometimes worse than no news at all. he is not a "good" pirate. Acts that are applauded and acts that are reprobated. A pirate must show courage in attack and justice in the distribution of spoils. if he fails in these respects. In every community. Many companies are looking for experts in .

It must be realised that every word which is not performing any function in a sentence impedes communication. Wordiness Wordiness means using more words than are needed.Perenial Themes — 181 pollution control. similarly. removing wordiness does not mean adopting the style of telegrams or classified advertisements. This is a very common weakness in students’ writings and is a major cause of reducing their quality. no reader has the patience to cut through a jungle of useless words or constructions to get at the message of the writer. No one likes to listen to a speaker who talks too much and says so little. this is a rapidly expanding field. Here are a few instances: . However. Deadwood is a term used for a particular kind of wordiness: lazy words and phrases that clutter up a statement without adding anything to its meaning. It only means cutting out words which are contributing nothing to the meaning or effect of a sentence.

. she missed the first two weeks of the classes. Tests were run for a period of three weeks. the better the result will be as far as the tone of the instrument is concerned.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 182 Anyone acquainted with violin construction knows that the longer the wood is seasoned. Because of the fact that she had been ill.

Perenial Themes — 183 The control is exercised by means of the steering wheel. We are in receipt of your letter of June 14. . His gossip was of a sordid and ugly character. Anyone interested in the field of Mughal history should take this course. He seldom talks on any subject of a controversial nature. He glanced at the document in a suspicious manner.

As a contrast examine the following sentences: . I like him. Trimming them away improves readability and lucidity of writing. However. and I believe it is incumbent upon us. to build our road for the next. Here is an excerpt from a speech: There is an old Chinese proverb saying that each generation builds a road for the next. in our generation. Redundant words or expressions are those which are repeated unnecessarily. one should discriminate between repetition which lends force and vitality to a statement. and repetition which is a mere distraction. Notice how the words road and generation are repeated for integration and coherence of thought.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 184 In spite of the fact that he is lazy. The road has been built for us.

Perenial Themes — 185 In the modern world of today time has a meaning different from what it had when transportation was slow. but the resultant effect was not what he had anticipated. and they add a sinister note to the painting. The hazy figures in the background are vague and indefinite. . He painted the wall bright red.

The bench was lying horizontal to the ground. The advantage of getting a broader view of life through travel is only one of the advantages of . The problem of feeding our ever-increasing population is one of our most serious problems. He is a distinguished scholar of eminence in his field.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 186 Behind the house was an enclosed court which was rectangular in shape.

. he was miraculously restored back to health. But after wearing the amulet given by pir sahib and slaughtering four black lambs to ward off evil spirits.Perenial Themes — 187 spending the summer vacation travelling through some foreign countries. I have a friend of mine who works as an agent of this firm. The doctors had given him up as a hopeless case.

He is a shrewd businessman and knows the value of money. . It covered the countryside. The snow covered the countryside like a blanket. Reducing a sentence or a clause to a phrase or a single word The snow lay like a blanket. The snow which lay like a blanket covered the countryside. The snow blanketed the countryside.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 188 Deadwood and redundant expressions have to be excised straight away. But some constructions need to be recast to achieve economy of words.

The door was opened stealthily by the burglar. he knows the value of money.Perenial Themes — 189 A shrewd businessman. . Using active voice The students were instructed by the teacher to complete their assignment by the due date. People who work hard often achieve their goals. The teacher instructed the students to complete their assignment by the due date.

in others to revise a phrase or rewrite the sentence. it was found necessary by the plant superintendent to hire four additional assemblers. Exercise Identify words or phrases of low information content in the following sentences. In an effort to increase production.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 190 The burglar opened the door stealthily. In some cases you may have to delete deadwood. The purchase of new machine would result in a . Measure the current with the aid of an ammeter connected to test points 9 and 14.

Perenial Themes — 191 reduction of the operating expenditure to the tune of about a million rupees per month. please feel free to contact Mr. A stability test did in fact prove that the damaged instruments were a contributing factor in . Khan at any time. We wish to state that if you have any further queries regarding this matter. The end result was in the form of a mixture that required further analysis.

. Reading is in relation to mind what exercise is with respect to body. In my opinion. We are in agreement with the committee’s decision to make an effort to encourage greater student participation in activities conducted by the community. I think the situation has grown worse.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 192 reducing measurement accuracy.

. A consideration of the following sentences would explain this cardinal principle of writing. Dentists advise brushing the teeth after each meal and to avoid too much sugar in the diet. Einstein liked mathematical research more than to supervise a large laboratory. a writing which violates parallelism puts off even a very determined reader. Parallelism Parallelism means expression of similar ideas in similar grammatical structures. A writing which observes parallelism is easy to read and comprehend and the reader does not lose his way in long and complex sentences.Perenial Themes — 193 He was elected unanimously by all the members. On the other hand.

and costs very little. This product is sturdy. The company guaranteed increases of salary and that the working day would be shortened The student wanted to know what the calculus problems were and the due date for turning in the assignments. She said that you would need both a down payment . light.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 194 To chew carefully is as necessary for good digestion as eating slowly.

When the professor went to the university for his honorary degree.Perenial Themes — 195 and to have a loan approved. reliable. wined and dined by his old colleagues. he was cheered wildly by admirers. and . and ought to be promoted. In my opinion Hamid is capable. Gathering sales information and to present all the statistics in wellwritten reports are a part of her job.

Exercise to the The following sentences observe parallelism. and uncrowded slopes. . duplicators. The ideal conditions for skiing are sunshine. This corporation manufactures copiers. and selfcorrecting typewriters. speedily. Underline the elements that are parallel in form. and noiselessly. powdery snow.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 196 gave interviews press. These typewriters work easily.

you should try to think in the language and to speak the language as much as possible. If the supply of oil drops and if the demand increases alternative fuels will have to be found.Perenial Themes — 197 If you want to learn a foreign language well. . at home. or in the foreign country where the language is spoken. You can learn a foreign language in the classroom.

His mind was filled with artistic projects.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 198 At an international seminar. and vague ideas about social reform. schemes for outwitting his creditors. participating countries discussed who the major producers of oil were and how much they would export. direct vast resources to rehabilitating their physical environment and improving what has come . The high technology nations must in coming years.

” The passengers may now choose a jet on which the food.Perenial Themes — 199 to be called “the quality of life. Or he may select the “Old English” flight on which the girls are called “serving wenches” and the decor is that of an English pub. the magazines. . the music. the movies. and the stewardess’ miniskirt are all French. He may choose a “Roman” flight on which the girls wear togas.

Parallelism violated The instrument not only requires mechanical repair. Parallelism restored The instrument requires not .. ... or nor but It should be ensured that each part of a correlative construction is followed by an expression of the same grammatical form... but also it will have to be realigned electrically..A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 200 Parallelism in correlative constructions Parallelism is particularly important when joining parts of sentences with one of the following co-ordinating conjunctions: either neither not only also . .

Hamid has a reputation for being both honest and to be fair. . The president must not only represent his own political party but also the entire nation. Either Hamid will fly to Peshawar or drive there. Exercise He has been not only successful as a store owner but also as a stock analyst.Perenial Themes — 201 only mechanical repair but also electrical realignment.

neither had scientific equipment. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 202 A physician in a small town must not only be proficient in general medicine but surgery as well. Francis Bacon. the great inductive thinker. Parallelism in sub-paragraphs Three tests were conducted to isolate the fault. nor knowledge of experimentation.

The second test consisted of voltage measurements taken... A continuity tester was connected to the unit for test 3 and. To be parallel the sub-paragraphs should start in the same way...... In the third test a continuity tester was. In the second test a series of.. ....Perenial Themes — 203 In the first test a matrix was imposed upon the face of the cathode ray tube...... An improved version is indicated below: In the first test a matrix was....

ii. iii. what type of fuel is required. use one side of each card only. and iv. put all direct quotations in quotation marks. . and. Write improved versions. an evaluation of the compressive strength with the use of the test cylinders for various designs. These are easy to read and grasp if put in parallel forms.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 204 Parallelism in listing of items In business and technical writing. determining both the theoretical and actual material costs per cubic yard. pressure and temperature of the boiler. ii. to redesign the mix for the concrete slabs. Exercise The following sentences lack parallelism. enumeration of lists of items occurs quite frequently. ii. iii. iv. the amount of oxygen. iii. 3. fuel temperature. 2. get all the information accurately the first time you consult a source. In this particular case following are the important variables: i. include only one major point on a single card. This report addresses the following tasks: i. Examine the following examples: 1. You can avoid a good deal of tedious and unnecessary work by following these simple rules: i.

without hope. I hope you will reject the offer. and in the interest of your future. Studies of men in isolated Antarctic outposts. and having no assurance that people would understand the significance of what he was trying to do. experiments which have been carried out on sensory deprivation. your parents. without pleasure. . For the sake of your friends.Perenial Themes — 205 He continued his work.

Riding on the rollercoaster and to spin the wheel of luck were his two greatest pleasures at the carnival. . In college you will be both required to study on your own and to take extensive notes. all show a falling off of mental and physical abilities in response to under-stimulation.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 206 investigations into on-thejob performance in factories.

making the product attractive. Many immigrants came here to seek their fortune or because they desired freedom of worship. and that the product be fairly inexpensive. .Perenial Themes — 207 The advertising experts place great emphasis on arousing need for a product. The frightened soldier did not know whether he had been ordered to stand trial for disorderly conduct or because he had disobeyed.

g. Our intellectuals try explaining most of our problems in terms of conspiracies by our enemies. and it violates fundamental human rights. injustice. Modifiers Adverbs and adjectives (and phrases or clauses acting as adverbs and adjectives.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 208 The practice of bonded labour should not be legalised because of its immorality. and thus fail to focus on our own moral failures which in most cases are their real cause. e. prepositional phrases) are modifiers. They .

) Eight a. My brother carefully repaired the radio.) The girl plays the guitar. (Adjectives modify nouns. Thus they are used to make ideas more exact and clear.) My brother repaired the radio.Perenial Themes — 209 limit. He threw a stone. is an unusually busy time. or identify the words they modify. The naughty boy threw a sharp stone. (An adverb modifies a verb. .m. Eight a. (An adverb modifies an adjective. describe. is a busy time.m.

A careless use of modifiers results in vagueness. ambiguity and confusion which reduce the readability and effectiveness of a . The orchestra. Kill not the goose that lays the golden egg. (A prepositional phrase modifies a noun. consisting largely of amateur musicians. played a selection of old songs.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 210 The girl in the red dress plays the guitar.) Problems related to modifiers A part of a sentence which modifies any other part is called a modifier. Nothing grows well in the shade of a big tree.

the two-way and the dangling modifiers.Perenial Themes — 211 writing. We listened breathlessly to the story of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves munching our peanuts and crackers. Misplaced Modifier: As a matter of general principle a modifier should be placed close to what it modifies. . You can order a dress that will be delivered to you by telephone. They were delighted to see a field of daffodils climbing up the hill. Otherwise it is likely to be mistaken to modify some other element in the sentence leading thus to confusion and reduced readability. The problematic modifiers can be divided into three classes: the misplaced. Modifiers which can be misinterpreted because of their inappropriate placement in a sentence are termed as misplaced modifiers.

Many of our grandparents came to this country from . The small businessman finds it difficult to compete with the large corporations having limited funds. quoting from the statutes.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 212 Exercise My uncle wore the brilliant red scarf around his neck which he had just bought in London. The presiding judge reprimanded the hesitant witness.

the composer played his composition for piano and orchestra. The salesman tried hard to sell us the new car with glowing words of praise. The orator thanked his listeners for applauding his speech with charm and tact. On this July night. dripping with perspiration. One politician is said to have posted his campaign .Perenial Themes — 213 other lands filled with a desire for a better life.

the war Who was impressed? The opening phrase needs something to modify. There is a bracelet in the Taxila Museum that is four thousand years old. The investigators spotted the wreckage of the plane peering through the binoculars. Examine the following sentence: Impressed by newspaper stories. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 214 cards to his voters pinned together with a thousandrupee note. seemed inevitable. Dangling Modifier: A dangling modifier is one which has nothing in the main clause to modify and is thus left dangling.

A sentence with a dangling verbal phrase may be revised either by re-wording the main clause or by expanding the opening phrase into a subordinate clause. Dangling Modifier: After recording the information and filling the forms. . Impressed by the newspaper stories. or infinitiveand are left hanging because the originally intended subject is not retained in the main clause. we felt that war was inevitable. gerund. the Dean checked the papers to see if I had followed the instructions. Correct Version: To qualify for the position you must pass a rigorous examination. Correct Version: When I had recorded the information and filled in the forms. the Dean checked the papers to see if I had followed the instructions. Two-way Modifier: A two-way modifier may refer to more than one person or thing which makes it difficult to understand what the writer means. The dangling modifiers which occur most frequently in students’ essays begin with a verbal phraseparticiple.Perenial Themes — 215 The following version gets rid of this difficulty by making we the subject of the main clause. a rigorous examination must be passed. Dangling Modifier: To qualify for the position.

. The President said in the press interview his opponent spoke like a gentleman.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 216 Drivers who speed often have accidents. The mayor said when the city council met he would discuss the proposed budget. Galileo declared after considerable pressure he would recant his views.

the priest received me in the church most graciously. the book was now ready for the printer. Having written the last poem. Although a Muslim.Perenial Themes — 217 Exercise While correcting papers. While digging for change. his car hit the toll booth. the message came from the principal. The blaze was put out before any damage was done by the local fire department. .

and that was the end of the session for me. the cashier said that the bank was about to close for the day.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 218 Having run five blocks to cash my weekly cheque. both fame and fortune had abandoned the oncecelebrated poet. my ankle twisted. . rage and despair filled the heart of the captive. Fastened to the tree stump. While running with the ball. Ailing and near starvation.

Perenial Themes — 219 Be sure to purchase enough material to finish your article before you start. By getting your purpose clearly in mind at the . a letter was written to the Chairman. While cleaning his eye glasses. his car skidded dangerously into the curb. Without expecting a reply. A firm in Lahore has developed a bullet-proof helmet for soldiers made of plastic.

The best fruit he likes is peaches. the scientific acumen of the chemist was appreciated. . After making many discoveries. The students counted twelve shooting stars sitting on the porch last night. my wallet must have dropped out of my pocket. While running for the bus.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 220 beginning. the actual writing will be easier.

My room-mate. forming one very long sentence. so and because. Stringy Sentences In a stringy sentence too many clauses are connected. Such sentences are monotonous to read and tax the attention of the reader. usually with and. but. There may also be impairment of meaning because all ideas or statements stringed together appear to have equal importance. . Hamid goes to the college and from the beginning of this semester until last week. The leader of the safari promised in the morning we would see a herd of elephants.Perenial Themes — 221 He advertised for a second-hand sewing machine in his usual highflown language.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 222 he had not studied at all and the reason was that he had no exam during that period. But the day before yesterday. Stringy sentences can be corrected by subordinating some ideas. I was astonished because I saw him studying and later on he told me he had studied all day long and the reason was that he was going to have an exam the next day and he wanted to get a good grade in the exam. or by reducing co-ordinate clauses to compound predicates. . by dividing them into more than one sentences.

At Peshawar University. Hamid studied sociology which he liked so much that he urged his friends to take it.Perenial Themes — 223 Subordination of ideas Hamid went to Peshawar University to study sociology and he liked it much and urged his friends to take it also. The small cars are less expensive and they are more manoeuvrable in parking and travel more miles on the gallon. .

Fleming was studying a colony of . While Dr. Fleming was studying a colony of bacteria and he noticed that a substance in the dish was impeding the growth of bacteria and he continued his investigations and discovered penicillin. travel more miles on gallon. which are less expensive and more manoeuvrable in parking. Division into more than one sentences Dr.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 224 The small cars.

he noticed a substance impeding its growth. After further study he discovered penicillin. The professor built a hut near the lake. .Perenial Themes — 225 bacteria. Reduction of co-ordinate compound predicate clauses to a The professor built a hut near the lake and he furnished it simply and settled down for a life of contemplation and writing. furnished it simply and settled down for a life of contemplation and writing.

.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 226 Exercise Given below are some stringy sentences. and he makes a generalisation. division into more than one sentence. It is easy to complain of our petty discomforts and forget that people all over the world are so much worse off and so we should really be grateful. A true scientist studies all available facts. and in time these generalisations may become a law. Revise them by one of these methods: subordination. and reduction of co-ordinate clauses to a compound predicate.

Suburban life has made many men into clockwatchers and trainwatchers. Asmat was a college teacher and it is believed that her short story “Aarzoo” was based on an experience in her college. and it is a very moving story. and this development has not .Perenial Themes — 227 Many museums offer special services to the school children and these include lectures and guided tours.

The mayor was an astute politician. The engineer examined the blue print carefully and then said that the bridge . so he refused to commit himself on the issue until after the elections. For proper comprehension it is wise to read that material quickly at first and then to see the main points and finally to prepare its mental outline.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 228 helped either their peace of mind or their digestion.

During the past two decades hotels have sprung up along the motorways and they have encouraged travel by car so that more people are seeing the country.Perenial Themes — 229 could never be constructed that way. . By the year 2010 our colleges will have twice as many students as they have now and this increase will require a tremendous building programme.

. The basis for this principle is simple: separation of related parts puts extra burdens on the reader and makes his task difficult. feeling that it represents something intractable in human nature. he has some strong compulsion to read it through. such as. are distrustful of ambition. verb and complement. of course. Many people. Split constructions are one of the major factors which reduce readability of written works. or modifier and its referent.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 230 Separation of Related Elements In a sentence there should usually be no unnecessary separation between related elements. subject and verb. We hold these truths that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights to be self-evident. A report or article in which split constructions abound tires the reader soon and he is likely to toss it aside unread unless.

The evidence shows. .Perenial Themes — 231 The manager. acts though his course was the only one I am taking. withheld his approval. after considering what the visit would cost and how long it would take. that the manger was involved in the fraud. Everyone of my instructors. I am firmly of the opinion. if you examine it carefully and objectively.

He said while he did not object to our going to the theatre that he would like to stay home. admit that he was first in losing temper. I was until yesterday of this opinion. even those who are his blind supporters. His friends. The travel agent promised that he would well in time get the tickets.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 232 Exercise Revise the following sentences to eliminate any unnecessary separation. .

as they are responsible for creating intolerance. We should have.Perenial Themes — 233 We have since his dismissal had no more trouble. The student organisations. . comprehensive educational reforms. This involves a thorough revision by eminent scholars and educationists of the present curricula in which democratic values find no place. if democratic culture is to be promoted.

The students unions should continue to exist and their elections held regularly. Incomplete comparisons: Statements involving comparisons should be written out in full particularly if any misunderstanding is likely to arise through shortening one of the terms: . One can easily get rid of this problem by exercising a little care. Faulty Comparisons Faulty comparisons are a common feature of students’ writings. But the student organisations which have degenerated into gangs of criminals must not be allowed to participate in them or to manipulate them.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 234 should be banned from educational campuses. The most common faults are pointed out below.

. Clearer: He admires Iqbal more than he does other modern poets or He admires Iqbal more than other modern poets do.Perenial Themes — 235 Ambiguous: I owe him less than you. Clearer: I owe him less than I owe you. Ambiguous: He admires Iqbal more than other modern poets. or I owe him less than you do.

Advertisers frequently state that a certain product is better or more durable without telling us with what the product is being compared. He is a much stronger man. Habib Bank serves you better.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 236 There is another category of incomplete comparisons in which one term of the comparison is omitted. “Finer quality at greater savings” is a popular slogan. Such incomplete comparisons are acceptable only in advertising. . There can. One has to exercise one’s judgement to determine whether the sentences given above are acceptable or need correction. He has better understanding of the national political scene. She will be much happier in Lahore. be contexts in which it may not be necessary to state a complete comparison because it is obvious. however.

Comparing a thing with a group of which it is a part: Include the word other or else when comparing a thing with the group of which it is a part. How would you remove it? . and so on. The economies of some Far Eastern countries are stronger than many European countries (economies and countries are not comparable). Examine the following sentences and point out the logical defect in them.Perenial Themes — 237 Comparing comparable things. apples with apples. Some people consider the cultural policies of the present government as poor as the previous government. buildings with buildings. Only things of the same category can be compared: people with people.

. Ahmad was a faster 100-meter runner than any boy in his class. Exercise Our library is better for research than the State College. Trains in Pakistan are more reliable than India.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 238 After training hard for a year. Most highways in the US are wider than Europe. The economy of Malaysia is growing faster than that of any Asian country.

Swimming in the sea is harder than a lake. Avoid run-on sentences they are hard to read. . Summary of Sentence-Level Problems Given below are rules which cover some of the sentence-level faults found in students’ writings. The clock in the gym is faster than the office.Perenial Themes — 239 The ideas of educated people are different from the uneducated people. The automobiles of today are more powerful than ten years ago. Read them carefully and see if you have any comments to make.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 240 Use the semicolon properly. you will find on rereading that a great deal of repetition can be avoided. always use it where it is appropriate. . Verbs has to agree with their subjects. and never where it isn’t. that are not necessary. Avoid commas. If you reread your speech. Competent writers who always avoid sentence fragments.

Perenial Themes — 241 Don’t use contractions in formal writing. to their antecedents. dangling participles must be avoided. A writer must not shift one’s point of view unless it is justified by the logic of your subject. Place pronouns as close as possible. . Writing carefully. especially in sentences which tend to be long and complex.

should not be separated. do not use it when it is not needed.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 242 Apostrophe has it’s proper uses. . Closely related elements of a sentence. unless it is absolutely unavoidable. Passive voice should be used sparingly. Put similar ideas in grammatical forms which are similar.

(verb) After one he broke his fast. Conjunctions. Minor Word Classes: These are Pronouns. (adverb) Naseem is a fast worker. For example. Prepositions. a word may belong to any word class without changing its form: He will fast during the month of Ramadan. Determiners. Articles.II—Recognising Word Classes or Parts of Speech In English it is usual to classify words into word classes. Main Verbs. (adjective) We can distinguish between major and minor word classes: Major Word Classes: Adjectives and Adverbs: These are Nouns. and Interjections. Auxiliary Verbs. (noun) She types fast. but at the same time it is important to remember that it is the function of a word in a sentence which determines what part of speech a word is. .

Classification Nouns may be broadly classified as follows: B. A. take. as subject of verb Ali mangoes. or the. sell.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 244 Major Word Classes Noun A noun can be easily identified because it is usually modified by a. owe. bring. as object of verb direct object indirect object (after verbs like buy.Functions of Nouns Function Examples Position 1. Leila of She took them After from Ali. pay) 3. loves Before the verb After the verb After the verb 2. an. Ali sent flowers. give. write. preposition a (in a prepositional phrase) . as object preposition Ali loves Leila.

Usually at the beginning of a sentence 6. appear. become) Leila is secretary. that magazine. gave a speech. Ali. 5. consider. as noun adjunct Ali waited at the Before a noun bus-stop. in direct address C. They elected nominate. After a noun Ali. Germany. come here. Singular nouns comprise: 1. as complement subjective complement (after verbs like be. that advertisement.Nouns and Number: In English. Proper nouns: Jonathan.Perenial Themes — 245 4. nouns can have either singular (one) or plural (more than one) number. 2. choose) Leila secretary. Mass (uncountable) nouns: the tea. chairman of After a noun the committee. this flower. . name. as appositive 7. Those denoting ‘one’: a shoe. 3. our democracy. the After the verb objective complement (after verbs like appoint. seem.

Singular . thief thieves. church sounds spelled with s. statistics.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 246 Usually plural count nouns (denoting ‘more than one’) are the only nouns which occur in the plural: two flowers. and news etc.g. people. roof roofs.Rules of forming plural nouns Rule 1: Nouns are regularly Day days. sh churches. subject names. deer. cattle. billiards. trout. beliefs. knife Exception: chiefs. measles. baby babies. and x: curry curries. linguistics. Generally the plural is formed by adding—s or—es to the singular. box boxes. arms. ch.g. (ii) D. scissors. Some nouns only ever occur in the plural e. shoe made plural by the addition shoes of—s: Rule 2: Other nouns are made plural by adding—es: Nouns ending in sibilant (‘s’) Bus buses. dish dishes. and stairs etc. but there are two exceptions: (i) Some nouns ending in—s are actually singular and not plural e. monkey monkeys a consonant: y is changed to i (s only is added if y is preceded by a vowel): One-syllable nouns ending in a single f or fe: f is changed to v: Leaf leaves. safes. knives handkerchiefs. roofs. key Nouns ending in y preceded by keys. these chopsticks. those shoes.

foot feet. woman women. breakdowns. the Passers-by. mangoes Bamboo bamboos. mouse mice. radios. oxen —en ending Tooth teeth. ending—s is added to the last assistant directors.Perenial Themes — 247 Nouns ending in o: -es only: -s only: Buffalo buffaloes. Brothers-in-law. man men. commanders-inpluralization occurs to the first part: Chief foreign/regular plurals Englishmen. stepfathers. check-ups. policemen Sometimes internal changes occur: vowel . part: doorbells Both hangers-on. internal vowel change Rule 4: The compounds: plural In most compounds the Grown-ups. goose geese of Boyfriends. With a few compounds. piano pianos mango radio Rule 3: Other nouns have other types of plural: Children.

women doctors first and the last part in the plural: Rule 5: Foreign plurals: There are two ways of pluralising foreign words that have become part of the English Stimulus stimuli/stimiluses language: by the addition of the regular—s Virus /viruses plural by the addition of a foreign Cactus plural (usually in technical cacti/cactuses writing) Nucleus Some foreign words take both nuclei/nucleuses the regular and the foreign Radius plural. radii/radiuses Larva Curriculum curricula/ Index indices/indexes Crisis Neutron crises/ larvae/ .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 248 A few compounds have both the menservants.

her.) The common gender refers to nouns that are of either sex. biology (and is used with it. mistress. parent. person. etc) The neuter gender refers to nouns that are neither masculine nor feminine. democracy. feminine. table. that is. etc. its. neuter. masculine or feminine: Baby. bird . master poet (and is used with third person pronouns he. poetess (and is used with she. happiness. they are inanimate: Book. him. bull. and common: The masculine gender is used when the noun refers to males (persons and animals): man.Perenial Themes — 249 /neutrons Bureau Plateau plateaux/plateaus bureaux/ Nouns and Gender Every noun in English belongs to one of four genders: masculine. his etc. water. cow.) The feminine gender is used when the noun refers to females (persons or animals): Woman.

babies and very young children are often referred to as it: The baby is crying for its milk.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 250 Note these exceptions: He and she can be used for animals whom we consider as having human qualities. especially family pets: Has Blackie had her milk yet? Conversely. The feminine gender is shown in three ways in nouns: . ships and cars. She is occasionally used for inanimate objects when we consider them to have animate qualities. for example. and sometimes countries: What a beautiful yacht! What have you named her? Malaysia is celebrating her national day next month.

press) or irregular (drink. e. that is. hostess by a word in front of another word. Regular Verbs: The great majority of English verbs are regular. though irregular verbs are not completely irregular. the existence of a state etc.g. Main verbs are either regular (play.g.Perenial Themes — 251 by the suffix—ess. niece. billygoat. Main verbs Verbs are a class of words that serve to indicate the occurrence or performance of an action. nanny goat by a totally different word. Kinds of Verbs There are two types of verbs in English: Main Verbs and Auxiliary Verbs.g. mistress. nephew. buy). e. like. they have four forms: The base (the uninflected or unchanged form) play . e.

. the past participle) are identical: let—let—let. There are three types of irregular verbs: Verbs in which all three parts (the base. They resemble regular verbs in having regular—s and—ing forms. the past.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 252 The—s form plays The—ing form playing The—ed form played Irregular Verbs: The irregular main verbs in the English language are small in number but important in function. but they differ from regular verbs in that sometimes the base form changes in the past form and/or past participle form.

Linking Verbs: In this pattern. Verbs in which all three parts are different: speak—spoke—spoken. Verb Patterns There are six basic verb patterns in English and a larger number of sub-patterns.Perenial Themes — 253 Verbs in which two of the three parts are identical: build—built—built. together with examples: a. These are listed below. the verb is a linking verb. Such verbs usually describe a state or condition: Appear (satisfied) stay (young) grow (old) Feel (ill) smell (sweet) fall (sick) .

Noun: The complement is a He became a Professor of noun phrase or nominal Physics. The meeting lasted two hours. . clause. Verb + Necessary Adverbial: The verb is She leaned out of the window.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 254 Look (pretty) sound (angry) run (wild) Seem (happy) taste (sour) turn (bitter) Linking verbs form the following patterns: Verb + Noun or Verb +(to She is a very attractive be) woman. He seems (to be) a very bright child. (to be) Adjective: The complement it an adjective. Verb +Adjective or Verb + Your hair looks nice. followed by an adverbial. He sounded furious over the phone. Mother is at home.

She tidied the house. They decided to go for a Verb + -ing form: The verb swim. Verbs with One (Transitive Verbs) Verb +Noun: The object is He poisoned the cat. cost one b. Such verbs include: She disliked going to . Verb + Bare Infinitive: The May I verb is used with a bare dishes? infinitive (i.Perenial Themes — 255 The flowers dollar. a noun phrase. is followed by an—ing form. Everybody sang national anthem.infinitive.e.infinitive: The She agreed to write to her object is a to. without to) help with Object the the Verb +to. He denied causing the accident. aunt.

word: The verb will come. I admit (that) he is a good lecturer.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 256 Avoid consider finish deny enjoy music lessons. He still doesn’t know how where. Verb: Decide Guess forget doubt discuss wonder . understand Admit discover Feel recommend Demand insist doubt forget require I wonder if/whether she Verb + wh. who.word: how. whether. Verbs: You forget (that) I am your Accept claim father.clause: The verb has a that. if. why. to tie his shoelaces. Admit postpone Dislike risk Verb + that.clause (where that can be omitted). has a clause introduced by a wh.

without to.): Shall I help you carry that These transitive verbs have box? an object which is followed We felt the house shake. Infinitive: The verb and object are followed by an infinitive She asked the maid to wash the floor.Perenial Themes — 257 (c) Verbs with Object + Verb(+…. Verb + Object + Bare You made me spill my tea. by another verb. Verb + Object infinitive: Verbs: Ask Get advise allow + to- cause forget tell intend They saw the thief running away. Can you smell something burning? Require teach Urge order . They advised us to stay in our seats.

dollars. She gave the gloves to her mother. (d) Verbs with two Objects: May I ask you a favour? She owed him a thousand Verb + Noun + Noun: Verb + indirect object + direct She gave her mother the object. the house I want the work finished by noon. We found deserted.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 258 Verb + Object + -ing form: She could feel her heart beating. Verb + Object + -ed form: He couldn’t make himself heard. She gave the door a hard kick. Verbs: ‘to’ verbs: She cooked her father a . gloves.

omitted): Verbs: Assure persuade Remind inform convince tell Tell me what your name is.clause): . wanted more money. may be replaced by a direct object + to/for + noun The workers told the employers that they phrase. owe She cooked a meal for her father. send teach show write ‘for’ verbs: cook learn find make get save I convinced him that I was innocent.Perenial Themes — 259 bring offer promise read take give hand meal. I can’t decide what to do next. We must remind him that Note: The above pattern he’s on duty tonight. Verb + Object + a thatclause (where that is often She told me why she had come. This shows how wrong you were. Verb + Object + a wh. clause (or how.I’ll enquire how to get there.

the apartment .infinitive: a She made her mother a new dress. Can you spare me a few minutes of your time? He found her (to be) a very hardworking colleague.word He ordered himself bottle of wine. (e) Verbs with Object and Object Complement Verb + Noun + Noun Phrase (where the complement is a noun He left phrase): filthy.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 260 I showed her where to sit. They appointed him (to be) the tennis coach. + to. Verb + Object + wh.

Perenial Themes — 261 He painted his car black. Many students thought the exam (to be ) unfair. They kept their daughter indoors. OR Verb + Noun + (to be) Noun: ‘to be’ may appear before the noun phrase complement. Verb + Noun + Adjective (where the complement is an adjective): Verbs: Paint Make serve keep leave wash Please put the milk in the refrigerator. Verbs: Appoint found Consider think imagine suppose They imagined him (to be) crazy. OR The detective followed the .

Verb + Object + Necessary Adverbial: The verb has an adverbial following the object. Adjective: ‘to be’ may She cried. (f) Verbs without Object or Complement (Intransitive Verbs): . Verbs: Feel Imagine suppose think know believe The heater blew up. appear before the adjective The dress fits. The fugitive gave up. object = They went jogging. Zubair (understood cigarettes) smokes. complement. She came visiting.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 262 Verb + Noun + (to be) suspect for two hours.

(ii) The missing object is understood. Verb + -ing Form: Transitive and intransitive verbs: A sentence typically contains a noun or a pronoun as its subject and a verb (or verb phrase) as its simple predicate. For example: The manager wrote the letter.infinitive: Verbs with no object or complement. It lacks the information about what the manager wrote and therefore needs an object of the transitive verb wrote—a word that tells us what the manager wrote. Note (i) It may be a phrasal verb without an object.Perenial Themes — 263 Verb + to. That word group is not a meaningful thought. the mere presence of both a noun and a simple predicate does not necessarily make a meaningful sentence. However. For example: The manager wrote. .

A verb that does not require an object for meaning is called an intransitive verb because the action is complete in itself and the action in the verb does not transfer from the subject through the verb and to the object of the action. Akram drives his car twice a week. A verb that requires an object for meaning is called a transitive verb because the action transfers to the object. ask yourself whom? or what? after the verb. The manager travels. For example: John wept. do not require objects. Henry likes…whom? Nancy. The verbs wept and travels do not have objects. To determine the object of a verb.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 264 Letter is the direct object of the verb wrote because letter tells us what the manager wrote. . For example: Transitive Jack sent the report today. Nancy is the object of Henry’s liking. of course. Many verbs. For example: The manager wrote…what? The letter.

Perenial Themes — 265 Ali attended yesterday.rise and raise are as follows: Present Past Past participle lie lay sit set lay laid sat set lain laid sat set . Akram drives on the left side of the road. set. This discussion about transitive and intransitive verbs can help us use correctly the principal parts of six troublesome verbs: lie. The principal parts of lie. lay. sit. The key to understanding and using these verbs properly is in knowing the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs. rise. Ali attends on Tuesday only.set. sit. Intransitive: the class Jack sleeps on a waterbed. lay. and raise.

I lay the book on the desk each morning. I lay on the couch yesterday. I had laid the book on the desk.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 266 rise raise rose raised risen raised Lie and lay have different meanings. To lie means to recline and is intransitive. I had lain on the couch two days until you arrived. I laid the book on the desk yesterday. as you directed. For example: I lie on the couch. and to lay means to place and is transitive. .

. it always requires an object to complete its meaning. He sets the manual on my credenza. it never requires an object to complete its meaning. Set always requires an object because it is transitive-.Perenial Themes — 267 Because lie is intransitive. Because lay is transitive. and to set means to place and is transitive. For example: The boys normally sit on the north end. Sit never requires an object because it is intransitive.it requires a word that tells us what was set. The boys sat on the south end yesterday. The boys had sat on either the north end or south end until they got 50-yard seats. To sit means to be seated and is intransitive.

Rise. and to raise means to lift and is transitive.m. For example: I rise by 7 a. always requires an object to complete its meaning-. every morning until my alarm clock broke.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 268 He set the manual on my credenza yesterday.m. . He had already set the manual on my credenza before you told him not to do so. most mornings. I had risen before 7 a.m. a transitive.to tell the reader what was raised. never requires an object to complete its meaning. as an intransitive verb. I rose at 6 a. To rise means to get up and is intransitive. yesterday. Raise.

Salman raised the windows today. there are a few situations which leave even experienced writers somewhat uncertain. a plural form of the verb is required. When two or more singular subjects are connected by and. Generally students have no difficulty in following this principle. 1. Subject-Verb Agreement The basic principle governing subject-verb agreement is simple: singular subjects take singular verbs and plural subjects take plural verbs. We had raised the windows every morning until we were told to keep them closed. The following rules cover most of such situations.Perenial Themes — 269 I raise the windows myself. . A fool and his money are soon parted. However.

(ii) When the two singular subjects refer to the same person. Five and five are ten. Here. the singular form of the verbs is used. every man and woman seeks selffulfilment by serving the community. Five and five is ten. (iii) Mathematical computations may take a singular or a plural verb. This usage is most frequent after each or every. . Exceptions (i) When each of the singular subjects is considered individually.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 270 He and his brother are identical twins. My brother and boss has something to say about this matter.

Perenial Themes — 271 2. Neither Iqbal nor his lawyers were present in the court when the judgement was announced. or but. nor. Neither Ahmad nor Iqbal has a clean record. the verb agrees in number with the nearer one. 3. When one of the two subjects connected by or. is singular and the other is plural. Ahmad or Iqbal is to represent the country. nor. or but. a singular form of the verb is required. Not Ahmad but Iqbal was involved in the forgery case. Not only the students but also their teacher was . When two or more singular subjects are connected by or.

in addition to. no less than. . the verb agrees with the nearer. The husband as well as the wife needs advice. Neither Ahmad nor I am to blame. A singular subject followed immediately by as well as. Ahmad or you are to clear up this muddle. including. with. 5. When two subjects connected by or or nor differ in person. in the 4. together with or a similar construction requires a singular verb. This invention.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 272 feeling drowsy afternoon class. as well as its commercial applications. was the result of this research effort.

therefore. to avoid the construction altogether and use alternative ones. . This convention sometimes seems illogical. 6. A singular subject followed by a plural modifier requires a singular subject.Perenial Themes — 273 The coach together with his assistants was credited with the outstanding performance of the team. The attitude of these men is definitely hostile. There is a tendency. The coach and his assistants were credited with the outstanding performance of the team. Both the husband and the wife need advice.

anyone. Anybody who does that is just reckless. no one. None is expected to come during the vacation. nobody. . Such indefinite pronouns as anybody. Nobody in the office accepts responsibility for this. and some body generally require a singular verb. each other. Somebody has been raiding my refrigerator. everybody. neither. The pronouns any and none take either singular or plural verbs. None are expected to come during the vacation. 7. 8.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 274 A list of the names of all survivors is available.

Perenial Themes — 275 9. 10. When the subject is a relative pronoun. When a sentence is introduced by the expletive there or the adverb here. One of the girls who sing in the drama is being married. the verb agrees with the following subject. . Here is your money. not with the introductory word. This is one of those problems which defy any solutions. Here are the receipts for your deposits. (The one-of-those-who cases) He is one of those men who never care for the feelings of others. the verb agrees with the antecedent of that pronoun.

When the word order is inverted. 12. no second 11. Our chief trouble was the honey bees that swarmed around us on the trip. What annoys me about them is their unending complaints. When a sentence is introduced by the expletive it. A verb agrees with its subject and not with its complement. the verb is always singular. It is we whom they want.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 276 There are chances. The black flies that swarmed about us on our trip were our chief trouble. 13. regardless of the number of the subject. care must be taken to make the verb agree with its subject and not with some other word. .

The jury are divided in their opinions. 14. .Perenial Themes — 277 Throughout the story appear thinly disguised references of author’s past association with the anarchist groups. a plural verb when the members of the class are considered individually. Accompanying the senator were his secretary and other numbers of his staff. The jury has completed its deliberations. A collective noun takes a singular verb when the class it names is considered as a unit.

Ten years is too long to wait. and it is better to substitute a clearly plural subject (the committee members. the jury members) 15.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 278 The committee has already held its first meeting of the year. A million dollars is a great deal of money. . Sentences like the last one often sound unnatural. Plural numbers take a singular verb when they are used in a phrase to indicate a sum or a unit. The committee are arguing amongst themselves.

are) two mistakes in your work. No news is good news. Economics has been called the dismal science. There (is. Semantics is the study of meanings. He is one of those people who (is. Exercise Identify the subject of each of the following sentences and select the verb form that agrees with it. All (is. are) well.Perenial Themes — 279 16. are) always making trouble. . Certain names which are plural in form but singular in meaning generally take a singular verb.

The gangster. are) a piece of cake and a glass of milk. are) an apple and an orange for each child. with all his henchmen. There (is. are) to blame. are) there two pictures like that? . (were. Two hundred pounds (were. was) his best weight. was) arrested.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 280 The father no less than the children (is. (Is. Here (is.

Exercise Rewrite the following sentences to remove any subject-verb disagreement. were) in bad shape. Some sentences may be satisfactory as they are: Neither of the applicants are fully qualified.Perenial Themes — 281 The engine in addition to the body (was. He is one of those men who is seen at all functions and parties in the town. clothing. and household goods have risen so steeply during the last couple of years. or to improve any awkward construction caused by following established conventions too closely. The cost of food. .

I believe. two or three things we must check while employing a domestic servant.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 282 There is. Not only his grades but even his behaviour were much below the required standards. The extent of his injuries are yet to be determined. The Gymkhana Club led the league at the beginning of the season and are now at the third place. Either Ahmad or I am going to represent the .

The works of such a poet contains something for each one of us. There has never been any reports which were made public. One of the students who scores A grades in all the courses will be awarded a scholarship. . This is one of those questions that has more than one correct answers.Perenial Themes — 283 Institute in the Punjab University debates.

Somebody. have reported the accident to the police. All of the wheat produced in the world belong to one of the fourteen species. The hockey team buy their own uniform. Upon the students rest the responsibility of keeping their hostels clean. perhaps Ahmad or Hamid.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 284 Neither the students nor their teacher find the timetable very convenient. .

Perenial Themes — 285 Physical fitness. an adverb and even a whole clause or sentence. (modifies the adjective “tired”) She spoke fairly slowly. (modifies the adverb “slowly”) . They walked quickly. as well as psychological health. (modifies the verb “walked”) He was very tired. Adverbs An adverb is a word that modifies a verb. an adjective. are taken into account while recruiting cadets for the air force.

(Time) He stood there alone. frequency or degree. (Manner) We often eat out. (Place) Everyone worked diligently. manner. place. (Frequency) She almost slipped on the pavement. . They arrived soon.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 286 Thus he was punished. there are also relative and interrogative adverbs. (Degree) Besides the kinds of adverbs above. (modifies the sentence “he was punished”) Adverbs usually express time.

Perenial Themes — 287 Relative adverbs This is the time when cherry blossoms come out. Show me the spot where the accident happened. . Interrogative adverbs When are you leaving? Where do you live? Why do you look so sad? Exercise Fill in each blank with a suitable adverb of the type indicated in the brackets. We don’t know the reason why he left.

(Manner) He seemed…………..A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 288 All the speakers presented their points………….. (Degree) . (Frequency) Her reaction was a ………… unexpected one. (Place) The plans will be finalised…………. (Degree) You need to sign your name……….able to sit up.(Time) It is ………… that we find such faithful friends.

speak English. for clues.Perenial Themes — 289 The police searched the place…………. (Place) Adverb particles are words which have the same form as prepositions but function as adverbs. They talked on (adverb particle) .. (Manner) We have …………not discovered the answer. (Frequency) Most people……….given us any trouble. Adverb particles follow verbs and express place or direction of movement. (Time) He has …………. 1a. Unlike prepositions they do not introduce a phrase ending with a noun or pronoun.

hardly. high/highly and late/lately do not have the same meanings. deep/deeply. hard/hardly. loud/loudly and quick/quickly may be used interchangeably. one without and the other with ly. He sat close to the stage. I have no faith in him. highly and lately.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 290 1b. (preposition) Some adverbs end in ly. . hard. (preposition) 2a. His father suddenly walked in. high and late can be used either ad adjectives or as adverbs. Close. (adverb particle) 2b. He went on a trip. 1a. those in pairs like close/closely. Generally the form with ly is used more idiomatically. but they must not be confused with adjectives which end in ly too. likely and brotherly. such as lovely. Some adverbs have two forms. and when used as adverbs they are different from the adverbs closely. The words in pairs like cheap/cheaply. However.

The students try hard. . Watch closely what he does. She held fast to her decision despite attempts to make her change her mind. They found it a tight squeeze having so many people in one small room. 2b. Exercise Say whether the word in bold print in each sentence is used as an adjective or an adverb.Perenial Themes — 291 1b. She could hardly see anything in the dark. 2a.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 292 She is always quick with her answers. The discussion went on well into the night. His thesis fell short of expectations. The report was submitted too late for the preliminary hearing. Everyone in the room was hard at work when I entered. The alarm was so loud that she woke up with a start. She considers it lowly to serve at tables. .

Her lively personality gained her many friends.Perenial Themes — 293 Shortly after. he left his hometown for good. The proposals have to come in early if they are to be discussed at the meeting. It is necessary to delve deep into the matter in order to find out the truth. This substance would be deadly if taken in large doses. .

quite. describe or limit the meaning of the noun or pronoun. As such. fairly. they are placed after the determiners but before the noun which is head of a phrase. the meaning of a noun or pronoun. Kinds of Adjectives and their Functions Attributive (or Descriptive) Adjectives As the name suggests. Characteristics of Adjectives The majority of adjectives can be both (i) attributive or descriptive (He’s an intelligent child).e. clear) or physical states of size. age. shape. colour. very. rather. It may point out. as well as proper adjectives referring to nationalities. temperature. Attributive adjectives include those that are generally descriptive. e. Adjectives An adjective is a word that modifies. assign qualities (beautiful. attributive adjectives attribute some quality to a person or thing. i. or changes. geographical . intelligent.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 294 The lecturers will leave on a study tour in early March. Most of them can also be modified by intensifiers. Most can also take comparative and superlative forms when used for degrees of comparison. and (ii) predicative (All her children are intelligent).g.

etc. a big liar. e. holidays.e. find. as object complements after verbs like believe. the late prime minister.g.. criminal law. a hard worker. consider They considered him the best architect. e. before a noun adjunct or a noun. Christian beliefs. an occasional drink. Parisian styles. i. Patent leather is smooth and shiny. dates. pay-day.g. a former tenant. look. Although most adjectives can be either attributive or predicative. Some attributive adjectives are derived from nouns. Predicative Adjectives Such adjectives act as complements of verbs: as subject complements after linking verbs like be. names titles. e. the weather forecast. airmail. a flower garden. some can only be used in the attributive position. a Buddhist monk. religions. . feel You look happy this morning. a law school.Perenial Themes — 295 places. seem.g. Italian food. an atomic scientist.

the park as a complement to a subject which is a finite clause or nonfinite clause Whether the mail will come is unclear. as object complements to clauses Most parents consider their children goodlooking. e. Riding a skateboard isn’t as easy as you may imagine. health adjectives—She felt ill. Some groups of adjectives can only be used in the predicative position.g. He felt faint. Post-modifying Adjectives .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 296 We found delightful.

e.modifiers (i. . they follow the word they modify): As a reduced relative clause Was there anything (which was) interesting on the news? The people (who were) involved were punished. are sometimes post.Perenial Themes — 297 Adjectives. in particular predicative adjectives. She seemed satisfied with my explanation. Such adjectives can also be attributive: his astonishing ideas. As post-modifiers in compounds Court martial. postmaster general Participle Adjectives A large number of adjectives have the same form as—ing or— ed participles: His ideas on religion are astonishing.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 298 Compound Adjectives Look at the forms occurring in the examples below: A two-drawer file cabinet hand-held computers The hyphen is necessary to connect the adjective parts into one unit of description. Note the use of singular forms in the transformations: She gave me five dollars. She gave me a five-dollar bill. She has a six-year-old son. . The hard-hitting boxing champion often wins. Her son is six years old. The boxing champion hits hard and often wins.

Here are some common compound adjectives using the—ed form: Broad-shouldered.Perenial Themes — 299 And with physical description. narrow-shouldered Bow-legged Dark-haired. . fair-haired Empty-headed Level-headed Flat-chested Mean-spirited Add to this list as you find more. He is a left-handed tennis player. note the form derived from a noun + -ed: He plays tennis with his left hand.

She has a daughter with blue eyes and fair hair. They bought a house that is sixty years old. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 300 Exercise Rewrite the following sentences by making a compound adjective out of each underlined phrase: He made a request at the last minute. She wrote a report of ten pages. They want to hire a secretary who works hard. There will be a delay of twenty minutes.

They bought a car at a high price. Adjectives as Heads Some adjectives can function as heads of noun phrases: i) adjectives denoting a class or group of people (plural) The rich can afford to eat meat every day. . We needed a rope that was ten feet long to get the cat out of the tree. The unemployed suffer most in times of inflation.Perenial Themes — 301 She has a cat with three legs. He provided a meal that was cooked well.

clause A that clause is used as a complement following: . Adjectives + that. Doctors say that milk is good for you. pleased about. Usually the preposition is fixed by an idiom but there may be a choice of preposition. You must be more accurate in your work. angry with.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 302 Note that a definite article precedes such adjectives. Adjective + prepositional phrase The meaning of an adjective is often completed by the use of a prepositional phrase: afraid of. Adjective Patterns There are three main types of adjective patterns: A. aren’t you? B. ii) adjectives denoting an abstract quality Many people study the supernatural in folklore. You are interested in yoga. etc.

clauses: sure. confident. certain. annoyed. Note: Other adjectives and participles that take that. shocked. proud. pleased. Adjective + to. The house was difficult to find. It was difficult to find the house. glad.Perenial Themes — 303 personal subjects: Are you sure that he’s honest? She’s surprised that you’re going abroad. C. Some can be recomposed. .infinitive: The adjectives used in this pattern are followed by a toinfinitive. sad alarmed. Introductory ‘It’ as the subject: It’s sad that he is so ill. It’s fortunate that he only took her radio.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 304 It’s easy to please father. three adjectives modifying one noun phrase seem to be the limit in English. The accompanying box shows an acceptable scheme of adjective order. As a rule. yellow bristles of grass (two adjectives of physical description) . Two or. If you want to use a comma. The short. Father is easy to please. If you can. test to see if you could use the word and between adjectives. It’s good to eat fresh peaches again. Position of adjectives in a series: Adjectives in a series tend to occur in a certain order. at the most. avoid long strings of adjectives. a comma would be acceptable. You can choose to use a comma between two adjectives only if the adjectives belong to the same category. but you can use this framework for guidance in your own writing. though there may be many exceptions. She was careful not to step in the puddle. You will find exceptions.

depressing room ORDER OF ADJECTIVES Dete rmin er Obser Physical Description vatio n Origi n and But never use a comma between the last adjective and the noun it modifies. use comma between the items in the series: a messy. expensive French meal (no comma between expensive and French) When three adjectives of the same category are used in a series with and. Mater Qualifie ial r Hea d Nou n Siz Shap e e four her lovel y short Ag e Ol d Colo ur Tree s Blac k silk Business suit .Perenial Themes — 305 A delicious. dirty.

(Its is not used as a possessive pronoun. and them. Possessive pronouns: They are used to express possession. his. and they while those which function as objects are me. Mine. we. hers. she. her. it. and theirs are possessive pronouns. Different kinds of pronouns are: Personal pronouns: They replace nouns which refer directly to persons and are of two kinds. you. ours. he. us. those functioning as subjects and those functioning as objects in sentences. it. that is. they can function as the subject or object of a clause. yours.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 306 some Delici ous Inexp ensiv e our that Comf ortabl e big litt le litt le roun d Ol d Chine se food Engli sh Mexi can oak Dining Rocking table chair Seve ral Ivory bead s Minor Word Classes Pronouns Pronouns are words that are used in place of a noun or noun phrase. only as possessive adjective. The personal pronouns which function as subjects are I.) . him. you.

(reflexive pronoun) Demonstrative pronouns: These point to the nouns they replace. and themselves. It may come immediately after the subject or at the end of the clause or sentence. They are myself. Demonstrative pronouns are this. yourself. (emphatic pronoun) 2. A reflexive pronoun functions as the direct object of a sentence and refers to the same person as the subject. An emphatic pronoun emphasises the noun which is the subject of the sentence and which it refers to. Relative pronouns: A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate adjective clause and relates it to a noun or pronoun in the main . that. itself. herself. these. himself.Maria reminded herself to make that important telephone call. ourselves.Perenial Themes — 307 Emphatic and reflexive pronouns: These have the same form but not the same function. (emphatic pronoun) 3.Tom will plan the whole programme himself.Tom himself will plan the whole program. and those. yourselves. 1.

Who.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 308 clause. 3. 1. 4. whom.Any person whose membership has lapsed will have to reapply to become a member.I have briefed the student who is to lead the discussion. . whose.Please list the names of the candidates whom you have interviewed. 2. that and which are relative pronouns.The arrangements that have been made for the visitors’ accommodation are adequate.

Among the common indefinite pronouns are someone. something. several. more. and which. Who initiated the scheme? Whom can we consult about the matter? Whose is this bright idea? What has been done for the unprivileged in society? Which is the shortest route to the campus? Indefinite pronouns: They are used to refer to people or things in a very general way. others. much. all.This plant. anyone. and so on. two. few. everything. three. what. none.Perenial Themes — 309 5. many. some. thrives in dry conditions. Interrogative pronouns: These pronouns are used to ask questions and they are who. both. whose. whom. . nobody. each. one. anything. anybody. somebody. little. which is a species of cactus. other. less. nothing.

Everything that needs to be done has been done. Anybody who will not work to earn a living deserves to go hungry. Several of us have applied for the scholarship. Others will be affected if you make a mistake. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 310 Someone must have tampered with the lock. None among those involved wishes to make a complaint. Much needs to be done to improve conditions.

All the staff members compete with one another for the annual awards. Pronoun Reference A common cause of ambiguity in writing is lack of clarity about the relationship between pronouns and their antecedents. . scored Reciprocal pronouns: They refer to two or more nouns in a reciprocal relationship. Tahseen that he was increasing his workload. One should take special care to avoid ambiguous. These two friends do not trust each other. or general reference. The two reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another.Perenial Themes — 311 Among many three have distinctions. students. weak. The manager told Mr.

the manager’s or Mr. The manager increased Mr. .) We are returning the unsigned cheques to the customers. (Which--the cheques or the customers. so we are sending them back. The customers did not sign the cheques. Tahseen’s workload?) Mr.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 312 (Whose. Tahseen’s workload. Tahseen was given an increased workload by the manager.

No one should make such a statement about our President unless he tries to destabilise the elected government. . When the children brought the dusty rugs out to the garden. the teacher beat them. General reference occurs when a pronoun refers to an antecedent expressed in terms too general to be clear. Hamid smiled at Iqbal when he was awarded the silver cup.Perenial Themes — 313 Ambiguous reference occurs when a pronoun refers to two antecedents so that the reader does not know at once which antecedent is meant.

it was an interesting experience. it exists only in the mind of the writer. Although the professor lectured for over an hour. Weak reference occurs when the antecedent has not been expressed.is implied but not stated. which is a shame. the lecture was an interesting experience. .lecture. (The antecedent of it.) Although the professor talked for over an hour.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 314 More than twenty percent of those who enter college fail to graduate.

but doesn’t believe that they know all the answers.Perenial Themes — 315 He was a very superstitious person. Exercise Rewrite the following sentences after correcting faulty pronoun references. some . Father is very much interested in psychiatry. and one of these was that walking under a ladder would bring bad luck. They worked very hard. but it made them neither rich nor comfortable. After the barbers had cut the children’s hair.

it should be made smaller. If this hat does not fit your head. When the aeroplane struck the hangar.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 316 of them looked as if they had been scalped. . at best. it burst into flames. which means that I will be on probation next semester. another D in accountancy. I expect to receive D in history and.

Perenial Themes — 317 The loyal forces fought the guerrillas until they were almost entirely destroyed. it had to be made smaller. When Hamid brought Majid to the conference we asked for his credentials. Some of the eye-witnesses described the man as short. others said he was . it had to be postponed. Since the concert was scheduled for the same night as the debate. To make the gate fit the opening of the fence.

and yet others said he was about average. improved the appearance of the room. and we hired a man to paint the wall and ceiling. Not only will its repairs cost more but its gasoline consumption will be greater. That. certainly.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 318 tall. . The bigger car will be expensive to operate. Mother bought us a new rug and new curtains. It confused the police investigators. You should take this into account.

He does not have a good word to say for anybody. a nice home and family. his colleagues are conceited. good friends. and enough money to buy a few luxuries. This makes me discount anything he tells me about a person. Such is my ambition. his friends are selfish. His parents are oldfashioned.Perenial Themes — 319 To have a decent job. and his boss is arrogant. the trail to the top of the mountain . After the storm.

. and he makes them available to his friends. he has never himself written one.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 320 was washed out in some spots and was littered in many places with fallen branches. Although he is fond of poetry. but a strong wind blew them out. The famous author has an enormous library. It made the ascent nerve-wrecking. They were having their dinner outdoors by candlelight.

Exercise Review the pronoun-antecedent relationship in the following passage.Perenial Themes — 321 Because modern artists have an idiom of their own. This assumes quite serious proportions in the semester system which has frequent tests after short intervals of time. For most of the students examinations are a cause of great tension. it leads to much misunderstanding. and propose improvements where necessary. Because of this those who are of nervous disposition tend to .

it may create aversion for learning. Others think that examinations divert their attention away from . Those who have positive views about them think that they prepare them for the rigours of practical life in which one has to face examination-like situations recurrently. Because of this. merit of examinations as an educational tool has been an issue of debate amongst educationists.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 322 develop psychological problems. In others.

will. should. might. shall.Perenial Themes — 323 real learning and force them to focus on strategies for tackling examinations. The two types are illustrated below: Primary Modal do can. could be very different or even antithetical activities. These two. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs are commonly called ‘helping verbs’ because they are always followed by a main verb in the verb phrase. they emphasise. have could. There are two types of auxiliaries: Primary Auxiliary Verbs and Modal Auxiliary Verbs. may. . By themselves they cannot form a verb phrase.

(ii) as a substitute verb for the whole of a clause: I can speak French as well as he does. must. used to. be) Do ‘Do’ performs many functions: (i) as a main verb with the meaning of ‘perform’: I do my homework every night. She does her washing in the evenings. have. (=as he speaks French) A: Who wants to come with me to town? .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 324 be would. dare The Primary Auxiliaries (do. ought to. need.

and (b) the past participle done: What have you been doing all weekend? I have done all the exercises in my science book. . The auxiliary do has the full range of tense forms like other main verbs. a dummy operator has to be introduced for forming questions and negatives. it contains no word that can act as an operator for the purpose of forming yes-no questions and negative sentences with not: I like mangoes. He needs a haircut.construction.Perenial Themes — 325 B: I do (n’t). Do you like mangoes? I don’t like mangoes. When a verb phrase contains no auxiliary verbs. (iii) as a dummy operator in the do. For such verbs. including (a) the present participle doing.

i.e. a form of have is followed by a verb in the past participle form: . I have coffee and toast for breakfast. (ii) The do-construction is used for interrogative and negative sentences with have as main verb: Do you have much jewellery? Does he have sugar in his coffee? Did you have a good time last night? (iii) The auxiliary have is used to form the perfect aspect.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 326 Have ‘Have’ has the following functions: (i) as a main verb meaning ‘posses’: I have a new antique watch.

) The past perfect progressive (She had been baking cakes all day and felt tired.Perenial Themes — 327 The present perfect (I have baked several cakes for my friends.) (iv) In the construction of have + to. only the finite (present and past) forms of have can be used: She has to look after her baby sister. .infinitive.) The present perfect progressive (She has been baking cakes all morning.) The past perfect (I had baked three cakes by midday.

were. and (b) negative imperatives: Do be quiet! Don’t be silly. Be is used as an auxiliary even when it functions as a main verb: I am a boy/ She is a girl. have/has/had to. In the construction of be + to.constructions unlike have.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 328 They have to sit for their written test on Monday. Be The Auxiliary be has eight different forms: be. I had to repeat my question. Note that in such construction. are.construction in (a) imperative sentences.carries the same meaning of necessity as must. is. It normally has no do. only the finite (present and past) forms of be can be used: .infinitive. been. although the main verb be may have the do. was. am. being.

(b) The passive (be + -ed past participle) the Many students injured in the clash.—ed participles.) to the meaning of the main part of the verb. or—ing forms. may. possibility. Can. permission. etc. but the rest of the modal auxiliaries do not. . shall and will have special past forms.) The main function of the auxiliary be is in the construction of: (a) The progressive aspect (be + -ing present participle) He is opening exhibition now.Perenial Themes — 329 The motor rally is to start tomorrow. They do not have—s forms. The Modal Auxiliaries were Modal auxiliaries help to add a variety of special meanings (such as ability. Not (The motor rally will be/ is being to start tomorrow.

’d Must Ought to Used to Need Dare Un-contracted negatives Contracted negatives Cannot. and is mostly used in British English. ’ll Would. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 330 Nonnegative (all persons) Can Could May Might Shall Should Will.Mayn’t is rarely used. can not Could not May not Might not Shall not Should not Will not ( ‘ll not) Would not ( ‘d not) Must not Ought not to Used not to Need not Dare not Can’t Couldn’t Mayn’t Mightn’t Shan’t Shouldn’t Won’t Wouldn’t Mustn’t Oughtn’t to Didn’t use(d) to Usedn’t to Needn’t Daren’t Note 1.

Ought usually has the to-infinitive in questions and negative sentences. It may take the do-construction with used to: She didn’t use (d) to smoke so much. Did she use (d) to work for your father? Dare and Need can be constructed in two ways: i) as model auxiliaries ( with bare infinitive and without the inflicted forms dares / needs .dared/ needed). or ii) as main verbs (with to. Bare infinitive: You oughtn’t drink so much. 4.infinitive.Perenial Themes — 331 2.Shan’t is rare in American English. 3. .Used to always takes the to-infinitive and occurs only in the past tense. -s inflections and past forms). Toinfinitive: You oughtn’t to drink so much. but occasionally the bare infinitive is used.

Interrogativ Need she wash her Does she need to wash her e hair? hair? Negative interrogativ e Needn’t she wash Doesn’t she need to wash her hairs? her hair? As with the auxiliary verb do. her hair. . She needs to wash her hair.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 332 Dare and need as auxiliaries are mainly used with negative and interrogative sentences. other auxiliaries can act as substitute for a whole or part of a sentence following the auxiliary: She can mend a puncture as well as he can (=mend a puncture). She needn’t wash She doesn’t need to wash her hair. A: He is working hard on his model boat. whereas as main verbs they can be used in all forms: Need Positive Negative As a auxiliaries model As a main verb.

You can write in this workbook but you mustn’t (=write) in that text.Perenial Themes — 333 B: yes he is (=working hard on his model boat). Learned ability: She can type. Special meanings of Modal Auxiliaries Can (past could) Physical ability: Can you reach the top shelf? I can lift that box by myself. .

Can=’sometimes’: . Requesting permission (informal): Can I borrow your car? I wonder if I could speak to you for a while.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 334 He could read when he was three years old. Have the power to: This factory can produce dozens of cars a day. (tentative possibility): can be He could have left his car keys in his office. Possibility: (in theory): The roads improved.

Could=suggestions: You could peel potatoes for me. Can’t=prohibition or negation of Permission: You can’t go swimming today. May (past might) Requesting permission (formal/ polite): May I see you tonight? Might I borrow your car? Possibility: . Could=permission in the past: those When I was at university.Perenial Themes — 335 Electrical storms can be dangerous. I could get cheap air fares.

May not=can’t/ prohibition: You may not stay out until midnight.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 336 The Monsoon rains may damage the wheat harvest. Suggestion (polite): Might I suggest that we continue our discussion another day? You might check the errors in this paper. Shall (past should) Probability/expectation: . The missing child might have been kidnapped.

They should be home by now. Improbability (negative form) There shouldn’t be any trouble. Obligation: insistence(restricted to formal documents and regulations) Nine people shall be elected to the committee. Suggestions: Shall we go and see the films.Perenial Themes — 337 The train should be here any moment. —which may not be fulfilled: You should hand in your essays next Friday. .

Prohibition (negative advice): You shouldn’t be so rude. Who will lend me five dollars until tomorrow? Prediction: . I shouldn’t have left the door unlocked. You should stay in bed if you are unwell. Will (past would) Willingness: The maid will help you with your bags.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 338 Advisability: She should eat less if she wants to loose weight.

Perenial Themes — 339 Faisal will have arrived in New York by now. Predictability: A dog will attack a child if it is teased. Request: Will you take my court to the cleaners? Would you carry this upstairs for me? Invitations: Would you like to come with me to town? .

Promise: I promise I won’t (will not) ask for more money. They wouldn’t come over for supper. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 340 How would you like to come to Penang with my family? Will you be free to come to dinner tomorrow night? Offers: Would you like another glass of milk? Refusal (negative forms): She won’t follow my advice.

Obligation/compulsion: You must be back by three o’clock. Must (=have to) Certainty (about an event): There must be some mistake. I must leave right away.Perenial Themes — 341 I will give you the book as soon as I’ve read it. . Inference (about an event in the--or present): There must be a fire near by. There must have been a thousand people at the wedding.

Mustn’t =prohibition (negation of permission): You mustn’t smoke in here.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 342 He must return the money immediately. . Obligation (which may not be fulfilled): I ought to go to the library tonight (but I probably won’t). Advice not to do something You mustn’t keep your mother waiting. Ought to (=should) Probability: My friend ought to be here soon.

Prohibition (=negative advice): You oughtn’t spend so much time on the golf course. Advice: You ought to clean the air conditioner at least once a year.Perenial Themes — 343 You ought to do your homework every day. Used to Past habit or custom: . Everyone ought to go to the dentist every six months.

. We used to eat meat every day when it was cheaper. Need Need= must (in questions and negatives) i.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 344 He used to play tennis very often but now he’s too busy.e. obligation and necessity Need he have a reason for marrying her? Does he need to attend the orientation programme? Lack of necessity/compulsion: He need not worry about his grades.

Determiners Determiners precede nouns and modify them by determining or defining them.Perenial Themes — 345 They needn’t go to the lecture hall yet. genitives. demonstrative adjectives. possessive adjectives. Dare Threat/warning: Don’t you dare slam the door in my face! Don’t you dare talk about my brother like that! Dare=have the courage: No soldier dare disobey his commanding officer. Determiners include articles. I wouldn’t dare enter his room without permission. interrogative .

. what. most. Quantifiers include every. The interrogative adjectives are whose.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 346 adjectives. few. the girls’. numerals and ordinals. fewer. three and so on. one. and an with one starting with a vowel sound. more. two. each. its. that. a little. The demonstrative adjectives are this. third and so on. an and the definite article the. half. quantifiers. Genitives are possessives formed of nouns. General ordinals include next. another and further. either. any. no. these and those. many. little. a with a noun starting with a consonant sound. whatever and whichever. second. her. both. enough. Articles The indefinite article is used with singular countable nouns in a general or indefinite context. Examples are Robert’s. some. The articles are the indefinite articles a. The ordinals are first. If an adjective comes between the article and the noun. The possessive adjectives are my. his. They are also quantifiers. several. all. fewest and least. James’s. other. The ordinal numerals are one. less. which. the article used is according to the initial sound of the adjective. neither. the boy’s. a few. your. much. last. our and their.

The definite article is used in a more specific reference with all kinds of nouns.Perenial Themes — 347 a bicycle a union a clever answer an animal an hour an interesting story The indefinite article can also be used with proper nouns as illustrated below: A Mr. Brown from the audience offered a suggestion. except most proper nouns. This is often the case with places. seas. An Einstein appears only once. rivers and mountains. for example. countable and uncountable. Proper nouns usually carry the definite article only if they include a word which is generally a common noun. singular and plural. countries. the United Kingdom (compare “England”) .

.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 348 United States (Compare “North America”) the Indian Subcontinent (Compare “India”) the Black Sea the Atlantic (meaning “the Atlantic Ocean”) the Himalayas (meaning “the Himalayan Mountain”) the The definite article is used with a noun which is: unique or is the only one of its kind in the context.

Perenial Themes — 349

the second or later reference to a particular noun, qualified by a phrase or clause. He is the leader. A student won the prize. The student was very pleased with himself. The progress of this student is excellent.
No article is used for an indefinite reference to a plural noun or an uncountable noun. The determiner all or some may sometimes be used instead, according to the meaning intended.

1a. Boys like soccer. 1b. All boys like soccer. 2a. Salt must be added.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 350

2b. Some salt must added to the soup.


No article is used in expressions involving the special function of a noun, such as bed, school, hospital, prison.

1a. I always go to bed early. 1b. The man lay dying on the bed. 2a. The children go to school in the afternoon. 2b. There is a celebration held at the school.
No article is used in referring to ordinary meals, but an article has to be used for a meal which is a special function or gathering.

1a. It’s time for lunch.

Perenial Themes — 351

1b. Everyone was invited to the lunch for the new representative. 2a. Please stay for tea. 2b. A tea was held in his honour.
No article is used in expressions referring to means of transport or the time of the day.

1a. We always go to work by bus. 1b. The bus was very crowded. 2a. He stays up late at night. 2b. The baby woke up late in the night.
No article is necessary in certain common phrases.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 352

1a. He was suspicious of friend and foe. 1b. I met a friend yesterday. 2a. They strolled arm in arm in the park. 2b. The victim lost an arm in the accident. 3a. The sorting is done by machine. 3b. A machine is used to sort out the articles.
No article is necessary in expressions involving one’s special responsibility or job in a particular or known context.

1a. The society made him chairman.

Perenial Themes — 353

1b. He was the chairman of a large firm. 2a. He was elected leader. 2b. The leader of the group was away.
Functions of prepositions

The function of prepositions is to connect a noun structure to some other word in a sentence. This noun structure may be:

1. a noun The salesman showed the pots and pans to his wife. 2. a pronoun: The salesman showed the pots and pans to her. 3. a gerund phrase:The salesman did not mind

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 354

showing the pots and pans to her. 4. a noun phrase: The salesman showed the pots and pans to whoever might want to buy them.
Prepositions also have special functions as: part of a verb (verb-preposition combinations):

look over (=review); get up (=wake up)
an adverb (mostly adverbs of place and direction):

They sit down. (down=adverb) They went down the steps. (down=preposition)
Forms of prepositions

Prepositions may consist of one, two or three parts:

Perenial Themes — 355

Examples of single part prepositions:

about before for on to above below from over under after beside in past until along between into since up around by of till with at down off through without
Examples of two part prepositions:

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 356

according to because of out of along with due to owing to as for except for up to away from
Examples of three part prepositions:

by means of in relation to in comparison with on top of in front of
Positions of prepositions:

Generally a preposition comes before its noun object:

Perenial Themes — 357

He gave the book to the teacher.
However, it may appear in final position in:

1. a question Which school does he go to? 2. an adjective clause There is the school that he goes to. 3. A noun clause I don’t know which school he goes to.
Meanings of Prepositions

Concepts of Time, Place, Direction and Distance, etc. can be expressed by prepositions. Such prepositions normally have an adverbial position in a sentence. Preposition of Time These can express:

one point in time:

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 358

at—with noon, night, midnight; with the time of day. Periods of time: on—with days. in—with periods longer or shorter than a day; i.e. with parts of the day, with months, with years, with seasons. Extended time (duration): since, for, by, from…..to, from……until, during, (with)in, while.

She has been away from school for two weeks.Perenial Themes — 359 Examples They are getting married on Saturday at 4 o’clock in the evening. He has not felt well for a long time. He has been away from home since 16 March. . ever since his accident. The reception will be on Sunday at 3 o’clock in the afternoon. World War II lasted from 1939 to/until 1945.

Note At can be used for indefinite periods such as: at night. at Easter. that. My parents are going overseas this year.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 360 I’ll ring you again within the month. or for short holiday periods: at the weekend. Prepositions of Place These can express: i) the point itself: in. I’ll bring the photos next time I come to your house. today. next. Prepositions are almost always omitted before phrases beginning with last. tomorrow: Did you attend the lecture yesterday? I saw that film last week. yesterday. this. at lunchtime. inside—for something contained: .

There’s a ‘Beware of Dogs’ sign on the gate. Please play inside. at—a general vicinity: . My father owns a cottage in the country. It’s too hot outside. on. You will find some stamps in the second drawer of my desk.Perenial Themes — 361 There is plenty of food in the refrigerator. on(to)—the surface: A coconut tree fell on to the roof of his house.

Turn left at the next intersection. We are still living at 64 Primrose Avenue. . ii) Away from the point: away (from)—general places or vicinities: I came (away) from the library. Please sit at the table when you eat! I stayed at my cousin’s house last night.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 362 I’ll meet you at the Majestic Hotel. I stayed away from the haunted house.

The Channel Islands are off the coast of France. The marble rolled off the table. across.Perenial Themes — 363 He drove away from the scene of the accident. . over. through. off—at a distance from the point: The car ran off the road when it knocked the signpost. He walked across the park to his office. along—moving from one place to another: He kicked the ball through the window.

into. They went along the railway line looking for the missing child. iii) Towards the point: to. out of—moving from a bounded area: The gunmen were persuaded to come out of the old house. They chased the dogs out of the school compound.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 364 The boy jumped over the fence to get away from the angry bull. . towards—movement towards a particular place: I went to South America last year.

through. past—movement towards a place and then away from it: He walked across the bridge on his way to the shops. round. . by. The people crowded into the streets to watch the National Day celebrations. The car went slowly into the tunnel. iv) Towards and then away from the point: behind. The ambulance sped towards the entrance of the hospital.Perenial Themes — 365 He went to the airport to get his mother. across.

down. along. over—movement in relation to a direction: The old man walked slowly across the street. The students ran by the judges as they crossed the finishing line. Two schoolboys walked along Manchester Street. v) Vertical and horizontal movement from the point: up. The dog followed his master across the road.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 366 The car skidded round the corner. . across. They drove past the new Town Hall.

The boy skated down the road on his new skateboard. The planes fly over the city to get to the airport. The ball rolled over the grass. vi) Higher than the point: over—generally higher than the point: There is a thick fog over the entire city.Perenial Themes — 367 She crossed over the road to post a letter. The elderly couple climbed slowly up the steps. over—directly above: .

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 368 The doctor leaned over the patient. You’ll find a bottle of ink on top of my desk. on a higher level: We flew above the clouds. sometimes touching: The tourists put their bags on top of the bus. vii) Lower than the point: . above—directly higher than the point. A lamp hung over the dining-table. There was a dark cloud above the bank. He had a deep cut over his eye. on top of—close to the point.

sometimes touching: She wore a pretty dress underneath her thick coat. beneath. There is a small stream under that bridge. near: He sat by the river reading a book. beside. next to—at the side of . at a lower level: The police found the body beneath a pile of wood. underneath—close under. . below—directly under.Perenial Themes — 369 under—directly below: The boy hid the money under a rock in the garden. viii) Neighbouring the point: by.

I don’t like wool next to my skin. amid—in the middle of (several objects): . John likes to sit beside his father in the car. They live in a small village beside the sea. among. between—relating the positions of one object to more than two objects: In the photograph Maria was standing between her father and mother. He sits at the desk next to the door.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 370 She was standing by the window looking at the rain.

opposite—facing: She sits opposite her friend in the school library. all round: She put a frame around the painting. in front of—at the beginning (in relation to the point): He was standing in front of a long queue. around—surrounding. We sat around the table and discussed the film. I live among the mountains. .Perenial Themes — 371 She found her gold chain amid the ruins of the burnt house.

clauses. contrast. etc. Conjunction The work of a conjunction is to join words. but. or sentences. it can also express certain idea or notions such as time. nor: I looked for the dictionary on the shelf and in the cupboard. not far from the point: I like to have my bed near (to) the window. Types of Conjunctions There are two main kinds of conjunctions—co-ordinate and subordinate: Co-ordinate Conjunctions join together words. But while doing so. reason.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 372 A three-wheeled car was in front of my car. near—close to the point. phrases. There are two types of co-ordinate conjunction: Simple Co-ordinate Conjunctions: and. (phrases) . or. phrases and clauses of equal rank.

(clauses) Subordinate Conjunctions join clauses of unequal rank. (clauses) Correlative Co-ordinate Conjunctions (i. they join sub-clauses to main clauses: Main clause clause sub- . those that go in pairs): either … or. (phrases) He’s not only a talented pianist but also a good painter. i.e. not only … but also: Neither wheat nor groundnuts grow well in this soil. neither … nor. both … and.Perenial Themes — 373 The thunder rolled and the lightening flashed.e.

such that. given (that). until. (al)though.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 374 I can buy a car when I have saved a thousand dollars more. considering (that). whereupon. once. since. for all that. before. where(ever). Subordinate conjunctions are of three kinds: Simple Subordinate Conjunctions: After. till. in order that. whilst. because. if. supposing (that). that. . so that. granting (that). how(ever). provided (that). as. whereby. while. when(ever). Compound Subordinate Conjunctions: except that. unless. in order + to infinitive. in that. providing (that). But (that). like. whereas. now (that).

seeing (that). admitting (that). such … (that). in case. so … as. but..e. whether … or. until. assuming (that). more/less/-er … that. as … as. (al)though … yet/nevertheless. As for as. like. rather than. so … (that). according to. such … as. as though. immediately (that). Sooner than. the … the. after..Perenial Themes — 375 granted (that). then. till. Function of Conjunctions Co-ordination of words . those that go in pairs): if. • Correlative Subordinate Conjunctions: (i. As if. no sooner … than. in-so-far as. as soon as. presuming (that). as long as. before. since. Note: Some subordinating conjunctions are also prepositions: as. so as (+ to infinitive).

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 376 (of the same word class): Nouns The violin or the cello is a suitable instrument for her. Arshad is a . Adjectives The house is beautiful but old-fashioned Conjunctions If and when the electricity is installed. Co-ordination of Clauses (or parts of clauses) Maria plays the guitar and she also sings in three languages. we can move to the house. Adverbs He works slowly but skilfully.

You may study French or you may take Dutch. Verb Phrases: . and I bought some limes.Perenial Themes — 377 bright student but he makes little effort.) Subjects: I bought some apples. Co-ordination of Parts of Clauses: (Note: This occurs where repeated items may be omitted. mangoes. Rashid and his sister are frequent visitors to London.

however) Adeel is intelligent but lazy. or used to write. to her pen-friend every month.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 378 She writes. The special meanings of Conjunctions The following examples will show that conjunctions are also used to express certain ideas in English: To express contrast (but. . still. Adverbials: I can mend the hole in your dress by hand or by sewing machine. yet. nevertheless. Complements: He is tall but skinny.

To express deduction or conclusion (for. Mr Hamid is a strict headmaster. Either you will obey the rules or you will be sent home. either … or. still we are not showing a profit. We had to pay a high price or (else) he would have sold it to someone else. neither … nor.Perenial Themes — 379 We opened the factory a year ago. therefore. To express choice (or lack of choice) (or. so) . else) We shall spend our vocations either in France or in Spain. nevertheless the pupils like him.

To express time (when. till. while. before. after. Mrs Ahmad wept after she received the bad news. I’ll pass on your message whenever I see him. therefore we had to take the old road.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 380 The road was blocked by a landslide. as. since. whenever) My mother has got thinner since I last saw her. . until. The business is improving so we can give larger bonuses this year. She expected to receive free medical treatment for she was a poor widow.

Wherever the cat goes. If I win the welfare lottery. as if. the football match will be postponed. because. wherever) She found her purse where she had left it in the bus. I’ll go for a trip around the world. since) . as … as. as though. To express condition (if. so … as. than) He is nearly as tall as his father. unless) Unless the rain stops. To express manner or comparison (as.Perenial Themes — 381 To denote place (where. To express reason (as. her kittens follow.

in order that) We took a taxi to the stadium so that we wouldn’t be late for the game. A note was sent to all the classrooms in order that every boy would know to wear a tie on Mondays.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 382 The man was sent to prison because he had committed a crime. that. such … that) . Since the test is on Friday. To express result (so …that. To express purposes (so that. you should be reading your books.

There was such a crowd at the theatre that the police had to be called.Perenial Themes — 383 Mr Munir is so busy with his work that he has no time for his family. French and Spanish. Often the conjunctions are omitted before the adverbs then. Geography. the conjunction is usually omitted (or left out) before all items except the last one. Omission of conjunctions When several items are linked together. an egg sandwich and a bottle of coke. Please bring me a tomato sandwich. so and yet: . This year she is studying History.

The car hit the kerb (and) then bounced across the road divider.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 384 My income is low (and) yet I still manage to live on it. Interjections can express such emotions as: surprise Oh. that’s much neater essay! . Her mother is seriously ill (and) so she has to visit the hospital every day. Interjections When we wish to express our feelings we some time use an interjection—a word of exclamation whose only function is to express emotion or feeling. What a lovely present! satisfaction: Ah.

.Perenial Themes — 385 great satisfaction: Aha those are the books I’ve been looking for. did you see that goal? pain: Ouch. you’re treading on my foot! Ow. pain: Ooh. the water’s lovely and cool. I’ve hurt myself. grandfather is coming to visit us! disgust: Ugh. pleasure. excitement/delight: Yipee. great surprise: Wow. what a filthy kitchen.

aches terribly. my back .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 386 Ooh.

which tells us that the action named by the verb is a continued or progressive action. Here in this chapter we shall concentrate on those forms of tenses that students mostly find confusing. we use three simple tenses (Present. Simple past/present perfect We use the simple past tense (was. and Future) to express an action that is simply occurring. Each of the six tenses has a companion form called the progressive form. We use the present perfect (have + past participle) about a past event when what happened is more important than when it happened. In English. wanted.III—Tenses As their main function. However. The effect of the event on the present is also important. Past. verbs describe an action or a state of being on the part of the subject. The progressive consists of the present participle (the—ing form of the verb) plus the proper form of the verb to be. or when we do not know the time it happened. verbs also tell “when” an action took place or when the state of being existed— and this property of the verb is the tense of a verb. Write the verbs in these sentences in the simple past(when the time is stated) or in the present perfect(if the time is not stated): . taught etc) about a past event when we know the time it happened or when the time is important. And we use three compound tenses—called perfect—to express an action that we consider to be completed.

I never (work) with computers. I (train) to be a secretary. I (obtain) an EFL diploma in 1975. . Exercise I (see) your advertisement in the Star of 12th November. I met him on Tuesday. I have met him. I (teach) English in Spain. When I left school.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 388 I (meet) him. I (meet) him on Tuesday.

Perenial Themes — 389 I (use) a telephone switchboard before. Make sentences in the present perfect progressive from these prompts: a-working there How long have you been working there? b-five years I have been working there for five years. I (go) to university when I was eighteen. Present perfect progressive The present perfect progressive tense (have been verb-ing) describes something which started in the past and which is still happening. . I (see) from your CV that you (study) engineering.

thinking about the job b-all day Past perfect tense We use the past perfect tense (had + past participle) to refer to something which happened before something else in the past.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 390 Exercise a.three years astudying computer science b. .working in your present job b.eighteen months awaiting b.twenty minutes a.six months ateaching English b.

I trained for three years and then I left the country. I left St John’s College and then I went to Brown’s College. I retrained as an accountant.Perenial Themes — 391 I failed my examination and then I retrained as an accountant. . Exercise Rewrite these sentences using the past perfect: I taught in London and then I was a teacher in Spain. After I had failed my examination.

Rewrite the sentences in the above Exercise. After verb-ing Instead of using the past perfect tense. like this: . I did a secretarial course and then I worked for Greenalls. I talked to the employment officer and then I decided to start my own business. we sometimes use the construction after verb-ing. My children grew up and then I went back to work.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 392 I studied in Paris and then I left the country. My business failed and then I started to work for Mitchell Electronics.

After failing my examination. .Perenial Themes — 393 I failed my examination and then I retrained as an accountant. and the other indicates a specific point in time in the past: They had been trying to reach us by phone all day. The past perfect continuous tense The past perfect continuous tense expresses duration of a single event or happening up to the past time. I retrained as an accountant. They had been planning for a long time to move to the city. In other words it occurs with two signals: one indicates the length of the activity in progress.

We will need two bathrooms. Do you think Jonathan will be all right? .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 394 She had been studying for several hours before she realised she was hungry. I won’t be a moment. Will The ‘will + infinitive future’ (negative-will + not = won’t) is sometimes used when you make an immediate decision about the future and sometimes used when you predict (give your opinion about) the future. Exercise Identify as to which kind of ‘will’ future the following sentences are: I will go and look in the files.

You answer the door and I answer the phone. I am going to visit my mother. How will I spend all the extra money? I will find out the details tomorrow. I will send you details of my suitable flats. my mother may be surprised) .Perenial Themes — 395 Of course he will be all right. The Future: present progressive/going to The ‘going to + infinitive future’ expresses a plan or intention. the present progressive (with a future time expression)is used when there is a definite arrangement. (My intention.

Junaid (to stay) with his grandmother. . He (to see) the careers adviser this week.) Exercise Write the verbs in these sentences in the present progressive or with going to.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 396 I am visiting my mother tonight. (We have a definitive arrangement. she is probably prepared a special meal. She (to be) a ballet dancer. He (to leave) school next year.

Since there is no tense more past than past perfect an original verb in that tense does not change.” . What are you (to do) when you leave school? I (to meet) the personnel officer at 11 am. An original present tense form becomes past and original past form becomes past perfect. Conversion of direct to indirect discourse: In converting direct to indirect discourse the tenses of the original quotation are whenever possible pushed one stage further into the past. She (to start) work next week.Perenial Themes — 397 He (to move in) on Saturday. Special Problems in Use of Tenses Students often make mistakes or feel uncertain in some uses of tenses. “I want to visit Japan. He said. Some of these uses are clarified here.

He said. “I wanted to visit Japan. He said. Discrimination between the use of past and present prefect tenses: Examine the following sentences: .” He said he had wanted to visit Japan before the imposition of the visa restrictions.” He said he had wanted to visit Japan.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 398 He said he wanted to visit Japan. “I had wanted to visit Japan before the imposition of the visa restrictions.

Perenial Themes — 399 Ahmad was an orthopaedic surgeon for ten years. . I finished reading the book yesterday. I have finished reading the book. Do these two sentences mean exactly the same thing? I have finished reading the book yesterday. Exercise I (went or have gone) to the concert yesterday. Ahmad has been an orthopaedic surgeon for ten years.

I (am working or have been working) here a month. I (already did or have already done) it. I (made or have made) that point when I expressed my .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 400 I (didn’t get or haven’t got) my parcel yet. He (is or has been) in this country for two years. I (know or have known) him for more than twenty years.

Perenial Themes — 401 disagreement with the proposal. . When he (move) to Rawalpindi. Exercise In the sentences that follow. one took place before the other. when he (come). I (wait) there an hour. I (have or have had) an account in the bank for the past twenty years. I (know) him for five years. I (join) the Institute after he (graduate). Past or past perfect: The past perfect is used to indicate that. use the past or past perfect tense for the verbs in parentheses. of the two past actions.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 402 The commandant of the academy (explain) in an interview the circumstances in which the tragic incident (take) place. the disturbance (be) settled. By the time the police (arrive). . The teacher (leave) the classroom when this incident (take) place. The committee members (conclude) that the statues recovered from the tourist (be) authentic.

Consistent use of tenses: One should be consistent in the use of tenses. Before many minutes past I heard a great deal of noise down on the floor bellow me. I never (fail) before the last term. a water fight is in progress. Ahmad (play) the game for forty-five minutes when he (replace) by a substitute. Examine the following passage and note the inconsistent use of tenses: I sit down at my desk with intention of studying for the next four hours.Perenial Themes — 403 I (feel) deeply hurt because he (betray) my trust. I .

Exercise The following sentences contain errors in the use of tenses.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 404 forgot about studying for half an hour. . If Ahmad would have sent his application earlier. for it is quite impossible to concentrate on mathematics in the midst of all this commotion. After things quieted down I began studying again but had hardly started when a magazine salesman comes into my room. he would have been accepted. Remove them.

This report deals with conditions that have been corrected a long time ago. The general principal. In writing. The principal is pleased to see that the hockey team had done so well. not correctness. is to use active voice unless the situation .Perenial Themes — 405 The building was evacuated before the fire company had arrived. choosing between the voices is a matter of style. His boss always indicated that he has the utmost confidence in him. in most circumstances the passive voice is less forceful than the active. active and passive. However. The Active-Passive Issue English verbs have two voices. therefore. which show whether the subject performs or experiences the action indicated by the verb.

. This weekend my roommate did cooking and I did shopping. My father solved our transportation problems by loaning us his car. Avoid weak and awkward passive constructions. This weekend cooking was done by my room-mate and shopping was done by me. Some guiding principles are given below.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 406 justifies the use of the passive. Our transportation problems were solved when his car was loaned to us by my father. Use the passive voice sparingly.

Use the passive voice when right distribution of emphasis requires it. The older people sat and talked. Which versions would you prefer? . the younger ones danced and sang songs. Use the passive voice when the subject is obvious or unknown or is not to be disclosed.Perenial Themes — 407 Do not use the passive voice when it results in an awkward shift in sentence structure. Examine the following two sentences. The president was elected by a huge majority. each one in two different versions. The jewels were stolen last might. An error has been found in the statement of accounts supplied by the bank. and games were played by the children.

he was denounced as a heretic by numerous ulema because of it. The NWFP Government granted charter to the GIK Institute in 1993. Although love for the Muslim Ummah glows in every line of Allama Iqbal’s “Shikwa”. numerous ulema denounced him as a heretic because of it.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 408 Although love for the Muslim Ummah glows in every line of Allama Iqbal’s “Shikwa”. .

He was not prepared for the test.Perenial Themes — 409 The GIK Institute was granted charter by the NWFP Government in 1993. . consequently. Exercise Would you like any change of voice in the following sentences? In letters to his father. requests for money were frequently made by him. only half of the questions were answered. The building which is sixty years old has been condemned.

The city needs money to provide adequate civic amenities to its inhabitants. A distinction is made by the political scientists between political and economic rights.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 410 The Lahore-to-Islamabad motorway will be completed by the end of this year. and it will probably be raised by imposing new taxes. .

work was begun by the bricklayers.Perenial Themes — 411 The judge said that the verdict would be given by him later. It is required that the applicants should be over twenty-one years in age. the idea of special courts has been disapproved by the judiciary. . According to the press reports. After the carpenters had finished.


. A large number of students exhibit palpable deficiencies in this respect. It needs to be realised that a writer with inadequate command of punctuation rules denies himself immense resources of English language for effective and elegant expression. The two passengers.IV—Punctuation Ability to use punctuation marks correctly. Which indicates (of the two sentences) that there were only two people in the car? The two passengers who were seriously hurt were taken to a nearby hospital. who were seriously hurt. To help them brush up and increase their knowhow about punctuation. a quick review of the main punctuation marks is provided in this section. were taken to a nearby hospital. Exercise A consideration of the following pairs of sentences should help you to appreciate the big difference a small comma can make in the meaning of a sentence. according to the accepted conventions is an indispensable part of writing skills. that is.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 414 2. I know. Which sentence has cannibalistic overtones? We are going Ahmad. 4. Which is a matter of identification? to eat. He is the one I believe. proceed to eat proceed He is the one. 5. Which is the dedication of self-confessed polygamist? . has a secret ambition. before we further. We are going Ahmad before we further. 3. In which has the speaker pried into the private lives of his friends? Everyone I know has a secret ambition. I believe. Everyone.

In which case is the Prime Minister probably feeling more alone? The Prime Minister. 6.Perenial Themes — 415 I dedicate this book to my wife. Mary. for constantly reminding me of the uselessness of a scholarly career. who was recently ousted by the masses and his wife. . arrived in London yesterday. I dedicate this book to my wife Mary for constantly reminding me of the uselessness of a scholarly career.

eagerly awaits the spring. She. and his wife arrived in London yesterday. Which sentence shows extraordinary powers of persuasion? . my friends listen to me. 7. 8. In which case has the speaker managed to change his friends’ attitude towards him? Now. 9. too. who was recently ousted by the masses.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 416 The Prime Minister. Which is the neurotic personality? She too eagerly awaits the spring. Now my friends listen to me.

12. 11. 10.Perenial Themes — 417 I left him convinced he was a fool. Which makes certainty seem an objective hard to attain? It’s sometimes a difficult to be sure. Which expresses sincere regret? . to be sure. Khan is a pretty generous woman. generous woman. Khan is a pretty. Khan? little little Mrs. I left him. convinced he was a fool. It’s sometimes a difficult. Which is more flattering to Mrs. Mrs.

Which is a libel on the fair sex? Thirteen girls knew the secret. Thirteen girls knew the secret. 15. a bullet in his leg. I’m sorry. all told.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 418 I’m sorry you cannot come with us. 13. Which is denial that politics had anything to do with Ahmad’s appointment? . Which convict has a hollow leg? The escaping convict dropped a bullet in his leg. all told. 14. you can’t come with us. The escaping convict dropped.

or awkward reading. Use of Comma The comma is used to make the internal structure of the sentence clear.Perenial Themes — 419 Ahmad didn’t get the appointment. Ahmad didn’t get the appointment because he is Congressite. because he is Congressite. . ambiguous. and. Hamid our milkman has been hurt. (3) by marking words out of normal order. To prevent a confused. (2) by setting off interrupting constructions. Separation of elements which might otherwise seem to run together 1. It does so in three general ways: (1) by separating elements which might otherwise be confused.

A hundred yard below the bridge was flooded. our milkman. . nor. The real purpose of this convention is to prevent possible misinterpretation on first reading. has been hurt. To separate two main clauses joined by a co-ordinating conjunction (and. or. Hamid. but). I do not care for money isn’t everything. When we had finished eating the cigarettes were passed around. our milkman has been hurt.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 420 Hamid.

Comma is not used. toil. It is said of Akbar that he was first in war. To separate elements in a series He promised them only blood. and first in the hearts of his people.Perenial Themes — 421 He sprained his ankle and his temper was ruined. . 3. and tears. when the subject of the first clause is understood as the subject of the second: I discussed the question with the family and then made my decision. sweat. He sold his car and his wife was angry. first in peace.

not angry. not drunk. Some books are to be tasted. construction.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 422 We were tired. and some few to be chewed and digested. To separate contrasted elements in this. . To separate two or more adjectives that modify the same noun. 5. others to be swallowed. and disconsolate. We were disgusted. not harshness. 4. not that. and enterprising person. This problem needs handling with sympathy. He is a young. energetic. He is sick. hungry.

B. and place names. At the end of the salutation in informal letterDear Hamid. To separate elements in dates. 150. . 290. The meeting of the senate was held on Tuesday. Zahid. To separate direct quotations from such constructions as He said.Perenial Themes — 423 6. 1. She replied. addresses. 7.743.22.000. M. August 15. In the following miscellaneous constructions: In figures .745. I’ll do it. 1997.000.D. etc. 8. In names followed by titlesA. After introductory yes or noyes.

. The room was a clutter of discarded clothing. The students sat tensely while the question papers were being distributed and then began to write feverishly. Below the town glittered with a million lights. I cannot stay longer for my brother will be expecting me to meet him at the station.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 424 Exercise In the following sentences insert commas where they are needed for ease of reading or are conventionally required. Some of the sentences may be satisfactory as they are.

He praised the food and the waitress seemed pleased. Throughout the game was hopelessly one-sided. He broke his wrist and his right ankle was discoloured and swollen. The correct sum is 4550 not 6550. .Perenial Themes — 425 scattered books and newspapers overflowing ashtrays and dirty dishes. After all his plans were too ambitious.

may be called an interrupting construction. The man you want has gone. has to be made between constructions which actually interrupt and those which come between related elements without interrupting them. II. has retired. however. To set off an appositive. An appositive is an identifying word or phrase (a noun or pronoun and its modifiers) which is considered grammatically equivalent to the noun or pronoun it identifies. Use of commas to set off an interrupting construction Any construction which comes between subject and verb. or between any two elements not normally separated.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 426 He traded his car and his wife was angry. . Hamid. you say. The man. 1. A distinction. verb and complement. has gone. the champion.

you and me. 2. S. so that strictly speaking they are not always interrupters. middle.Perenial Themes — 427 His father. Hamid. . that you had better leave. They want us. madam. Such nouns may occupy the beginning. A noun of address is a proper or common noun used to name the listener when we are speaking to him directly. but without either its head or its point. the president of the company. I went to see Dr. Sir. or end of a sentence. I think. will be responsible. the English professor. To set off nouns of address. you are like a pin. to go.

that we could get away with it. You must try. To set off conjunctive adverbs and other transitional markers. We thought. first of all. . All the students who were absent will be required to do an additional assignment. it is said to be non-restrictive. Hamid. 3.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 428 I wish I were going with you. to consider it objectively. 4. A modifier is said to be restrictive when it specifies a particular member or members of a group. To set off a non-restrictive modifier. moreover. When a modifier does not limit a class to a particular group or individual but modifies the whole class.

who represent a superior intellectual group. must be asked to accept the responsibility of leadership. Non-restrictive modifiers. Compare the following revisions of the examples quoted above. Soldiers.Perenial Themes — 429 College students. can be omitted without significant change in basic meaning. Restrictive modifiers are so much a part of the whole subject that they cannot be omitted without changing the basic meaning of a sentence. Soldiers who have flat feet had better stay out of the infantry. on the other hand. . who are selected by physical fitness tests. should show a lower sickness rate than that of the total population.

will be required to do an additional assignment. Soldiers. . because they are felt to be essential part of the element they modify.. had better stay out of the infantry. should show a lower sickness rate than that of the total population.. College students. Restrictive modifiers are not set off by commas.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 430 All students. Nonrestrictive modifiers are felt to be similar to the interrupting constructions and are therefore enclosed by commas.... Soldiers... must be asked to accept the responsibility of leadership..

Hamid driving a bus was charged with obstructing the traffic. Girls who hate cooking are poor matrimonial risks. Set off the non-restrictive modifiers by commas. Boys who are physically frail should not be subjected to strenuous athletic programmes. The man driving the car is Hamid. .Perenial Themes — 431 Exercise Distinguish between restrictive and non-restrictive modifiers in the following sentences.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 432 Salesmen who don’t argue with customers make more money. His father satisfied with the decision wisely kept quiet. The pilot who radioed for instructions is no more in contact with the tower. Salesmen most of whom are young men lead an unsettled life. . The pilot realising his plight radioed for instructions.

. They questioned the man who reported the robbery. The man at the back of the room was told to leave. The man who reported the robbery is not traceable. The man evidently hurt seriously was taken to the hospital. The fighters who were quite obviously stalling were disqualified.Perenial Themes — 433 His father resentful of his extravagance asked for monthly rendition of accounts.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 434 Exercise In the following sentences provide commas to set off appositives. The man wearing the jinnah cap is his uncle. and nonrestrictive modifiers. Do you think Hamid that we could have a game of . Sheikh the new maths instructor was born in Swabi. nouns of address. Mr. The tall man who happened to be wearing a jinnah cap said he had never seen an elephant in his life. conjunctive adverbs. Some sentences may require no additional punctuation.

Perenial Themes — 435 chess after finishing this work. Is this your umbrella Mr. The doctor looking grave came towards us. The woman evidently on the edge of tears could hardly finish her story. I thought however that things would be different this time. Sheikh? The suit that he bought two years ago fits him better than the one he bought last winter. .

I had a talk with the man who witnessed the accident. First turn on the gas and oil. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 436 Sir may I interrupt you for a while? My father who is an electronic engineer helps me with my assignments. second set the choke. third pull the rope. The dog which had been evidently trained sat beside the table and begged for food.

Hamid who lives on the Masson Road. I hear that Hamid the leader of the expedition was badly hurt in the blizzard.Perenial Themes — 437 I had a talk with his father who is not so crotchety as you led me to believe. consequently the people in our neighbourhood are planting maples. This disease is killing off most of the old elms. . No I mean Mr.

Use of commas to mark an inversion 1. To emphasise an inverted element. Hamid our next door neighbour has a son who was second in the All Pakistan Declamation Contest. III. Mr. That however may be a rumour only.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 438 A scientist called Hamid was chiefly responsible for this project. . There is some talk that he has been selected to represent Pakistan in the contest to be held in London.

I will vote in favour of it. it is conventional to use a comma between this element and the main clause. Yesterday I had a bad time of it. But if the inversion is so common as to seem normal.Perenial Themes — 439 Myself. Except for physics. In the following sentences the verbs are underlined. To separate a long introductory phrase or an adverbial clause preceding the main clause. 2. When a sentence opens with a long phrase or adverbial clause. the comma is usually omitted. Pulling over to the curb at the first opportunity. my courses are quite easy. I .

smile. Dissatisfied with our performance the director announced extra sessions of practice. The general principle is to use the comma if it makes the sentence clearer and reader’s job easier. When you say that.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 440 waited for the fire engine to pass. you will be sorry. for writers sometimes feel that a particular introductory construction is so closely related in meaning to the main clause that the separating comma is undesirable. I could say nothing. Exercise In the following sentences insert commas to set off inversions and introductory constructions where desirable. Being ignorant of the facts of the situation. This convention is not universal. . If I go.

. Just the other day I saw his mother. As far as I know that is the answer. On learning that his wife had never formally renounced her share of the property and could still block its sale we told the real estate agent that we were no longer interested. If you want it take it.Perenial Themes — 441 In a last desperate effort to score the team went into a spread formation.

Do not use a comma instead of a period between independent sentences. a. Angry my roommate threw the tickets in the fire-place.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 442 Whoever he is he should be helped. Misuse of the commas Too many commas are far more annoying than too few. The following rules should be carefully observed. . Knowing that he had a tendency to make a tenminute speech in five minutes Hamid timed his delivery with a stop-watch. If he objects tell him to talk with me.

My car. as I listened. further negotiation was impossible. I had the impression that he was speaking to himself. He said.Perenial Themes — 443 He spoke very quietly. he would try. b. not disguise it. . The comma should reveal the structure of a sentence. Do not use a comma between closely related elements except to mark an interrupting construction. Closely related elements (subject-verb or verb-object) are unnecessarily separated if a single comma is placed between them. is at the service station. There was nothing more to be said. when they took that attitude.

in a dilapidated. it is not. old Honda. There are times when slavishly following the rules will chop a sentence into pieces. and brought me home. The modern tendency is to keep punctuation to a minimum. desirable.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 444 The student who lost this money. in my opinion. . Excessive use of commas One should be as frugal in the use of commas as possible. picked me up. leave it out. may need it. It should not be assumed that a comma must be used in a particular sentence because convention recommends it. The following jingle offers sound advice about use of a comma: When in doubt. Hence it is usual to avoid commas which serve no recognisable purpose. old lady. Yesterday a little. However.

Perenial Themes — 445 Exercise Prof. Mr. The owner will not . It is the pressure of getting work done on time not the work itself that gets on my nerves. Khan’s office the one at the end of the lecture theatres contains most if not all the books you need. Khan the principal of our school is a strict disciplinarian. Protected from wind rain and cold an underground house will have low fuel bills.

.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 446 have to pay for exterior painting which is necessary every few years on a surface house. If the country ever decides that people should move underground. In my walk through the streets of my home town I was depressed to find apartment houses and supermarkets in places where there used to be playgrounds and fruit gardens. I’ll be the first to go.

A majority of the graduating class fifty five . The dull dreary morning sky looked ominous to the members of the expedition. Infinite patience an enquiring mind and a sense of humour are assets in any profession.Perenial Themes — 447 Semantics which is concerned with the meanings of words and their effects on human behaviour is a proper study for university students.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 448 percent in fact aspires for jobs in foreign companies. . Musicians don’t retire they stop when there is no more music in them. England is a paradise for women and hell for horses Italy a paradise for horses hell for women. This two storey structure was built in the 1950s. A hiker who is lost in the woods should remember these rules carry a compass know how to use it and don’t panic.

Exercise Will it be correct to use commas at the places marked with brackets? Give reasons for your choice. Sometime students who have attended preparatory schools [ ] have trouble adjusting to large public universities. Hyphens function in two ways to form compounds and to divide words at the end of the line.Perenial Themes — 449 Mr. It is often noticed [ ] that a person’s physical . Burkbaaz the well known actor was murdered in august 1993.

He wanted more time for study [ ] and contemplation. The sharp command of the coach to the payers in the . Student who do not do well in engineering studies [ ] may have talent and aptitude for some other field.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 450 characteristics influence his personality. Primitive agricultural tools [ ] and bits of clay pottery were found buried in the river bed.

Use commas to separate two or more adjectives that modify the same noun. Use commas to set off nonessential clauses and nonessential participial phrases..Perenial Themes — 451 back field [ ] was drowned out by the cheering crowed. yet when they join independent clauses. why etc. but. After an introductory participial phrase. Use a comma after certain introductory elements: After words such as well. or nor. Use a comma before and. . when they begin a sentence. for. Summary of the uses of the commas Use comas to separate items in a series. no. yes.

Use a comma in certain conventional situations: To separate items in dates and addresses. Parenthetical expressions. Use commas to set off expressions that interrupt the sentence: Appositives. . After the salutation of a friendly letter and the closing of any letter.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 452 After a succession of introductory prepositional phrases. After an introductory adverb clause. Words in direct address.

The semicolon is a mark of separation. and they cannot be used interchangeably. A statesman is a politician who places himself at the . Use Semicolons to separate closely related independent clauses not connected by a conjunction. out of quarrel with ourselves we make poetry.Perenial Themes — 453 Do not use unnecessary commas. Use of Semicolons and Colons Both semicolon and colon are quite commonly used marks of punctuation. the colon a mark of anticipation directing the reader’s attention to what follows. she is afraid he might get hurt. Their functions are different. Out of quarrel with others we make rhetoric. His mother won’t let him.

they are lively and hauntingly real. it affords an easier transition between statements than the period. it is. on the contrary. these characters are not dull and insipid. the children can take care of themselves. A semicolon provides a more emphatic separation than the comma. even though grammatically independent. therefore. In these sentences a period could be used instead of the semicolon. a politician is a statesman who places the nation at his service. Take care of the adults. . are felt to be so closely related that a period makes too sharp a separation. But the clauses.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 454 service of the nation. the most appropriate punctuation to balance two contrasted ideas parallel in form. But however immature they are.

however. It won’t work. His argument has some merit. . His eyes went bad. it was the constant monotony of the work. Use a semicolon to separate elements in a series when they contain internal punctuation. he goes too far. therefore there is no sense in buying it. Use a semicolon before a transitional connective (conjunctive adverb) between two main clauses.Perenial Themes — 455 It was not the hours or the wages that discouraged me. consequently he had to resign his position as a proof-reader.

Mr. Mr. Kazi. Misuse of Semicolon Do not use a semicolon as the equivalent of a colon. . Mr. Do not use a semicolon as the equivalent of a comma. Hamid. A. Hadi. My record shows that the following students have not handed in the assignment.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 456 Among those who attended the meeting were Dr. the Chairman of Electrical Engineering Department. Z. X. Y. the Registrar of the University. and Dr. and Mr. A. the Director of Research and Extension Services. G.

I never seem to use the right punctuation. but a semicolon cannot be substituted for a comma between a main clause and a subordinate construction. Although I seldom have trouble with grammar or spelling. The semicolon and the period have different functions and should not be used interchangeably. The normal punctuation between independent statements is the period but if a writer wishes to relate their contents more closely than a period would permit. a semicolon is a stronger mark and is used between grammatically independent statements. but he carried with him his . A semicolon may be substituted for a comma between main clauses joined by a conjunction when more emphatic punctuation is desired. The nomad of the past moved through blizzards and parching heat. Avoid indiscriminate substitution of semicolons for periods.Perenial Themes — 457 A comma is an internal punctuation and is used only within a sentence. he may use a semicolon. always pursued by hunger.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 458 buffalo-hide tent. he carried his social setting with him and. especially after expressions like as follows and the following. their entire setting.” Before a list of items. The application for the membership of the Hockey . the physical structure that he called his home in contrast the new nomads of today leave behind their physical structure and. but for the family. The Colon Use colon to mean “note what follows. his family and the rest of his tribe. as often as not.

airconditioners. . deep freezers.Perenial Themes — 459 Club asked the following questions: (i) how well do you play hockey? (ii) were you member of the college or school team? and (iii) have you ever played in any major tournament? There will be special discount on the following items during the next two months: refrigerators. etc. micro ovens.

formal statement or quotation. as for me. give me liberty. God. . The President concluded his revolutionary speech with these ringing words: “Is life so dear as to be purchased at price of chains and slavery? I know not what course others may take. (ii) to separate items in a series. O.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 460 Before a long. but. or give me death!” Here are the four main uses of the comma: (i) to prevent misreading.

witty dialogues. and a powerful theme. Between independent clauses when the second clause explains or restates the idea of the first.Perenial Themes — 461 (iii) to set off expressions which interrupt the sentence. (i) The prisoner refused to make a request for parole: he felt safe and comfortable in the prison. . (ii) The reasons for the success of the play are obvious: it has an engaging plot. and (iv) to set off introductory phrases and clauses.

Use colon in certain conventional situations (i) Between minutes hours and . (iv) Communism is like prohibition: it’s a good idea but it won’t work. (v) Politicians are the same everywhere: they promise to build bridges even where there are no rivers.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 462 (iii) The human brain is a wonderful organ: it starts to work as soon as you are born and doesn’t stop until you get up to deliver a public speech.

Perenial Themes — 463 3:30 A. (ii) Between chapters and verses in referring to passages from the holy books Genesis 4:2 (iii) Between volumes and numbers or between volume and page number of a periodical Forum 22:4 Engineer 22:110-115 (iv) After salutation of a business letter Dear Sir: Dear Madam: .M.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 464 Gentlemen: Dear Ahmad: Exercise Mr. Mr. Punctuate the following sentences. . Khan is a graduate of three celebrated Pakistani educational institutions Cadet College Hassan Abdal Government College Lahore and Lahore University of Business Management. Fazal Khalid and Dr M. The other members of the delegation are Dr. M A Qureshi Dr. Mujahid. Some of them call for semicolons or colons and some need other punctuation marks.

Perenial Themes — 465 Every new study reaches the same grim conclusion the world is on a treadmill when it comes to feeding the growing populations of developing countries. The evidence is incontrovertible therefore I urge you to act. . Think of all that has happened in the last five decades spaceships and penicillin computers and dish washers air conditioners and atomic power five day workweeks and internets.

.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 466 The humanities are the study of man his languages his literature his philosophy and his culture.

Let me not pretend to learning I do not have though I studied literature and philosophy in college most of it to my shame has gone with the wind. The sceptics admit something must have been seen the question to be answered is what it was.Perenial Themes — 467 The building inspectors found no major violations nevertheless they insisted on the installation of brighter electric lights in the hallways. .

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 468 Television is in the middle of a new controversy over the old problem how good are its programmes and who should make them better. We are enclosing the information requested . In most espionage projects there are three elements the individual who has access to secret material the contact man who persuades him to steal it and the agent who transmits it to where it is wanted.

. The revival of the old marriage rituals has some positive aspects it seems to fulfil the need of the urbanites to recapture feelings of community life which they miss in the big cities. Their aim and ideals seem admirable their methods however are questionable.Perenial Themes — 469 however our backlog of mail address is so greater that we cannot promise delivery of goods before December 1997.

Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line. If possible do not divide a word so that only two letters are carried over to the next line. 1. a. play-ed played b. Hyphenation Hyphens are used for two purposes: to divide a word at the end of line. and to join two words as a compound. Divide a word between pronounceable parts only. . Do not divide a word so that a single letter stands alone. Onesyllable words should never be divided. i-solate democra-cy democ-racy iso-late c.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 470 Knowledge without commitment is wasteful commitment without knowledge is dangerous. A word having double consonants should be divided between the consonants.

wedding ring) are nearly always written as separate words. still others (father-in-law. A self-made man An off-the-cuff judgement . Use a hyphen between elements of a compound. a. but in general a hyphen is preferred in the following types. Hyphenate a compound modifier preceding a noun. Some compounds (blackboard. others (dirt cheep.Perenial Themes — 471 control-ling lion bil- d. Words having prefixes and suffixes should be divided between the prefix and the root of the word or between the roots of word and the suffix. e. Hyphenate compound words between the elements of the compound arm-chair blackbirds sail-boat 2. There is an increasing tendency to write compounds as solid. especially in an informal style. steamship) are written solid. ready-made. up-to-date) are usually hyphenated.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 472 A round-by-round report A tear-jerking story b. It is a specialised punctuation mark which serves the following purposes: a. Anti-Hitler Russian c. The dash should not be used as a general utility mark to substitute for a comma. semicolon. a period. Hyphenate most compounds beginning with self self- But selfless and selfsame are written solid. To stress a word or a phrase at the end of a sentence . or colon. Hyphenate a compound consisting of a prefix and a proper name. Hyphenate compounds of ex and a noun Pro- ex-wife president self-satisfied conceit Dash ex- d.

Khan.B. He uses statistics as a drunken man uses lamppostsfor support rather than illumination.Perenial Themes — 473 In the whole world there is only one person he really admireshimself. An after-dinner speech should be like a lady’s dresslong enough to . And now it is my pleasure to present a man we all know and admire and to whom we are all deeply indebtedProf. A.

. to feel that the state is the servant of its people. When used in pairs. to enjoy the right to think and speak as we like. To sum up or complete an involved sentence. to set off a pronounced interruption. to be a partner in the conduct of the affairs of the nationall this is what democracy means to us. c.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 474 cover the subject and short enough to be interesting. b. To live as free men in a free country. To mark an interrupted or unfinished quotation “I’d like to” he said. but I’m“ d.

his efficiency. e. To mark a sharp turn in thought He is a humble manwith a lot to be humble about. He praised Hamid’s intelligence. his high sense of responsibility. This answerif we can call it an answeris completely meaningless.Perenial Themes — 475 There will never again beyou may be sure of thisso glorious an opportunity. his hardworkand then .

Still we do must cruelties fanaticism burning.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 476 promoted his junior colleague. Capitalise the first word of a direct quotation. and witch- Capitalise the first word of each sentence and of each line of regular poetry. I know two kinds of audience onlyone coughing and one not coughing. f. To enclose parenthetical element (to give greater emphasis to elements that could also be set off with commas). Capitalisation condemnwe condemnthe of slavery. .

God His Lord He Capitalise names of offices only when they are used as titles. American Pakistani Capitalise nouns or pronouns referring to deity. south. They live in the East. east and west and their derivatives only when they refer to geographical areas.Perenial Themes — 477 Capitalise proper nouns. . Capitalise adjectives formed from proper nouns. Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Liaqat Ali was the first prime minister of Pakistan. Capitalise north.

Punjab University A university in Punjab Capitalise all important words in the names of organisations. magazines. plays and the headings of chapters or sections of work. buildings etc. The North. business firms.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 478 The east side of the field is wet. Capitalise titles of books. House of Representatives Department of Interior . The northern side of the town. A common noun or adjective is not capitalised unless it is part of a proper noun.

Topi Russian Greek Sanskrit mathematics bookkeeping Mathematics I Bookkeeping II of & Do not capitalise the names of school subjects except for proper nouns and adjectives. French-speaking students God-given rights anti-American feeling .Perenial Themes — 479 GIK Institute Engineering Sciences Technology. Capitalise the parts of a compound word as if each part stood alone.

if Galileo had not been a highly knowledgeable amateur theologian he would not have gotten himself into serious trouble: the professionals resented his intrusion. Do not capitalise it if the sentence is closely related to the preceding clause.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 480 Afro-Asian Solidarity Indo-European languages Anglo-American block Capitalise the first word of a sentence after a colon if the writer wants to give it emphasis. Quite a few teachers in the department of science . Indeed.

My father wants me to be a University Professor but .Perenial Themes — 481 would tell their students: We scientists deliver the laws of nature to the philosophers who have to interpret them. Exercise Remove unnecessary capitalisation in the following sentences: He is a four-star General in the Pakistan Army. The Rector advised the new entrants how to make the best use of their stay at the campus.

Modern Universities developed from the European Monastery schools of the Middle Ages. His father is an Air Vice Marshall in the PAF.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 482 I personally like to join a multi-national. . each one being under the supervision of a separate Dean. Go East for about 2 miles and turn North. The University of Engineering and Technology has fourteen Faculties.

an international association of countries created after world war I. under the leadership of the late president of the united states woodrow wilson. The league of nations.Perenial Themes — 483 We have to take two courses in Applied Psychology. in geneva. has been compared with the united nations. . Exercise In the following passages identify the words that should be capitalised. 1920. The league was formed in january.

She asked. “what makes the things hold together”. Dr. an estate in wahsington.c. Khan chairman department of science has notified that students who wish to qualify for advanced-standing courses in chemistry or physics must maintain eighty-five percent score in earth science I or biology I. . d.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 484 The charter of the united nations was developed from proposals agreed upon at a conference held at dumbarton oaks.

works of art.Perenial Themes — 485 The greeks called their chief god zeus. (i) The Pakistan Times (ii) Herald Note: The use of quotation marks for titles is generally limited to short compositions such as stories or parts of books such as chapters or articles. Use underlining (italics) for words and letters referred to as such and for foreign words. periodicals newspapers. . Ayub Khan secured confirmation as the president through manipulated votes of an electoral college. the romans called him jupitor. Underlining (Italics) Use underlining (italics) for titles of books. etc. ships.

212 candidates took the test for award of the scholarships. Hyphenate all compound (two-word) numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine. Two thirds of the students deserves first-class marks. Two hundred and twelve candidates took the test for award of the scholarships. He won by a two-thirds majority. This event took place thirty-two years back. Do not hyphenate a fraction unless it is used as an adjective.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 486 Conventions about numbers Do not begin a sentence with a numeral. .

forty-first etc.Perenial Themes — 487 Spell out numbers of one or two words. The office is located at 56th street. etc. . 41st. Write out numbers like third. 12.) The nation is celebrating the fiftieth year of its independence. Exception: Street numbers are generally written as numerals with letter endings. all numbers are generally written as numerals. Quotation Marks Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotationa person’s exact words. F-6/1. Write numbers of more than two words as numerals. rather than writing them as numerals with letter endings (3rd.776 ten cents 1857 seventy-nine Exceptions: In statistical and technical writing.

Now he has flashes of silence that makes his conversation perfectly delightful. just as men . “Women represent the triumph of matter over mind.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 488 English historian George Macaulay was noted for his garrulity as much as for his wisdom. “He is certainly more agreeable since his return from India. An acquaintance once remarked.” A direct quotation should begin with a capital letter. The professor said.

“without being tempted to hit below it.” he said.” remarked Thatcher. “In less than five minutes. the second part begins with a small letter.” . it begins with a capital letter. “We are expecting some guests. “the messenger will be here for the package.” “John cannot see a belt.” When a quoted sentence is divided into two parts by an interrupting expression such as she said or I asked. “Come back soon.” If the second part of a broken quotation is a new sentence.” Ahmad assured.Perenial Themes — 489 represent the triumph of mind over matter.

observed a Chinese student. place quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph and at the end of the entire passage. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 490 If the quotation is only a fragment of a sentence it does not begin with a capital letter. Do not place quotation marks at the end of any paragraph but the last. Single quotation marks are used to enclose a quotation within a quotation. his speech appeared to be “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings. are “athletic associations in which certain opportunities for study are provided for the feeble-bodied” When a quoted passage consists of more than one paragraph. Having little substance or coherence.” The American universities.

other parts of books or magazines. short stories. His article “Sources of Renewable Energy” was . In his poem “Shikwa” Iqbal pours out his anguish over the pathetic conditions of the Muslims. and songs.Perenial Themes — 491 “What do you suppose Ahmad meant when he said ‘you bore me’?” Hamid said plaintively. Use quotation marks to enclose titles of chapters’ articles. short poems.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 492

published in June, and it greatly influenced the thinking of the national planners and policy makers.
Quotation marks to set off words. Words used in some special way within a sentence are often set apart by quotation marks or by italics. A word used as word. A word used as a word or as an example rather than for its meaning is italicised or enclosed in quotation marks.

People often confuse the meanings of “affect” and “effect” Some writers use its in place of it’s and vice versa.
Apologetic use of slang and colloquial expressions: In serious writing, a colloquial expression is sometimes put in quotation marks to show that the writer knows it is not considered appropriate in formal usage.

Perenial Themes — 493

The speeches in the conference indicated that many nations consider us little more than “fall guys.”
Words used Derisively: Sometimes a writer may use quotation marks around a term to show that it is being used derisively or sarcastically.

This remarkable piece of “art” consists of a large canvas covered with mud. He is so “genteel” that he avoids any reference to human body.
When used with quotation marks, the other marks of punctuation are placed according to the following rules: Commas and periods are always placed inside the closing quotation marks.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 494

“I pay the school master,” said the philosopher, “but it is the schoolboys who educate my son.”
semicolons and colons are always placed outside the closing quotation marks.

Universities are “the cathedrals of the modern age”; they shouldn’t have to justify their existence by utilitarian criteria.
Question marks and exclamation points are placed inside the closing quotation marks if they belong with the quotation; otherwise they are placed outside.

“Is the intellect always fooled by the heart?” asked the student.

Perenial Themes — 495

Did he say, “we are going”? Did he ask, “Are we going?”

Ellipsis /.../
An ellipsis is used to perform the following functions. To indicate any omission in quoted material: The use of three spaced periods, called an ellipsis (plural, ellipses) indicates that one or more words have been omitted from quoted material. If an ellipsis comes at the end of a sentence, the sentence period is retained.

Nothing and no one can destroy the Chinese people.... They yield... but they never break.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 496

I would die for my country... but I would not let my country die for me.
To indicate that an entire paragraph or an entire line or more of poetry has been omitted. A full line of ellipsis is used

.............................................. .............................................. .................
To indicate interruptions in thought or hesitation in speech.

The fact that an opinion has been widely held... is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd. He fainted again, and when he came to, he uttered his last sentence,

Perenial Themes — 497

“Tell... mother I... died... for my country.” Apostrophe
An apostrophe (‘) is used to mark contractions, the plural form of some expressions, and the possessive case of nouns.

Apostrophe in contractions
When a contraction is appropriate in writing, an apostrophe is used to indicate the omission of one or more letters.

can’t I’ll don’t I’m O’clock The ‘93 class highlights of ‘97


An apostrophe is used with dates from which the first figures are omitted.

The apostrophe, it may be noticed, always falls at the exact place at which a letter or letters have been omitted.

Apostrophe in possessive forms

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 498

To form the possessive case of a singular noun, an apostrophe and an s are added.

Hamid’s book heaven’s sake the boss’s office


N. B. when a word of more than one syllable ends in an s sound, the singular possessive may be formed by adding the apostrophe alone.

the witness’ testimony for conscience’ sake
To form possessive case of plural noun ending in s, only an apostrophe is added.

the scholars’ lodge the soldiers’ marching songs
A few plural nouns that do not end in s form the possessive by adding an apostrophe and an s just as singular nouns do. In hyphenated words and names of organisations only the last word is possessive in form.

Perenial Themes — 499

father-in-law’s business Zafar Law Associates’ office
The words minute, hour, day, week, month, year, etc., when used as possessive adjectives require an apostrophe.

this year’s crop a week’s delay Apostrophe in plurals of letters and figures There are two S’s two l’s in this word. That happened back in 1940’s. The answer should have two 8’s in it.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 500

The last exercise had more +’s than-’s.
Punctuate the following passages

Aristotle the great greek philosopher was tutor to the future king alexander the great. One day they were doing a lesson in mathematics which required many calculations. alexander always impatient suddenly threw aside his work and exclaimed why must I go through these little steps why cant I get the answer

Perenial Themes — 501

immediately I m the future king. There is no royal road to knowledge answered his tutor A well known bore was seated opposite Prof. Cyprian at a dinner party. During a lull in the conversation he leaned toward the professor and said you know Prof. cyprian I passed your house this morning. Thank you said Prof. Cyprian quietly. Thank you very much.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 502

Clare Luce former American ambassador to Italy tells about a big reception in Rome when the handshaking line suddenlystopped leaving a flustered american girl standing in front of the ambassador. Oh Mrs. Luce she said its so wonderful to be over here in Rome seeing all these old romantic ruins and you too. Dorothy Parker asked by an annoying guest at a party if she had ever had

Perenial Themes — 503

her ears pierced murmured no but I have often had them bored. A man of mediocre intellect who had become a prominent politician in Ceylon once amazed parliament with a brilliant speech. As he sat down amid thunderous applause a single voice in the opposition cried out Author author. It is not easy to be natural before an audience. actors know that. When you were a child say four years old

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 504

you probably could have mounted a platform and talked naturally to an audience. But when you are twenty-four or fortyfour what happens when you mount a platform and start to speak. Do you retain that unconscious naturalness that you possessed at four? You may but it is almost certain that you will become stiff and stilted and mechanical and draw back into your shell like a snapping turtle. The

Perenial Themes — 505

problem of training adults in public speaking is not one of superimposing additional characteristics it is largely one of removing impediments of getting people to speak with naturalness. An employment office was checking on an applicants list of references. How long did this man work for you a former employer was asked. About four hours was the quick reply. Why he told us he had been there a long time said the

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 506

caller. Oh yes answered the ex-employer he was here for two years.
Punctuate the following passage:

Failure is probably the most fatiguing experience a person ever has. There is nothing more enervating than not succeeding being blocked not moving ahead. It is a vicious circle. Failure breeds fatigue and the fatigue makes it harder to get to work which compounds the failure.

Either because it is too tedious or too difficult we shirk it. Such start up fatigue is very real even if not actually physical not something in our muscles . In the former case we keep putting off a task that we are under some compulsion to discharge.Perenial Themes — 507 We experience this tiredness in two main ways as start up fatigue and performance fatigue. And the longer we postpone it the more tired we feel.

though perhaps not easy to apply an exertion of will power. The remedy is obvious. The moment I find myself turning away from a job or putting it under a pile of other things I have to do I clear my desk of everything else and attack the objectionable item first. To prevent start up fatigue always tackle the most difficult job first.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 508 and bones. Years ago when editing Great Books of the Western World I undertook to write .

Applying my own rule I determined to write the essays in strict alphabetical order from angel to world never letting myself skip a tough idea.Perenial Themes — 509 102 essays one on each of the great ideas discussed by the authors of those books. The writing took me 2½ years working at it among my other tasks seven days a week. I would never have finished if I had allowed myself to write first about the ideas I found easiest to expound. .

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 510 And I always started the days work with the difficult task of essay writing. Performance fatigue is more difficult to handle. Its difficulties appear insurmountable and however hard we work we fail again and again. Experience proved once again that the rule works. That mounting experience of failure . Here we are not reluctant to get started but we cannot seem to do the job right.

with a lighter accent (´). if any.Perenial Themes — 511 carries with it an ever increasing burden of mental fatigue. argue minister molecular alternate peculiar photography exponent alternative indicate tribute initial exodus . In dictionaries strongly stressed syllable of a word is marked with a heavy accent mark (´) and a weaker stress. This information provided by all good dictionaries is indispensable to know the correct pronunciation of words. In such a situation I work as hard as I can then let the unconscious take over. Given below is a list of commonly usedand commonly mispronouncedwords. Here are a couple of entries from the Chambers English Dictionary: Immediately after the main entry in bold face there is phonetic respelling of the words which indicate where the main accent falls. Stress Pattern of Words All English words with more than one syllable have a stress pattern. Consult your dictionary to find out the syllable which carries the main accent in each case.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 512 monogamy immovable opinion orchestra omelette origin oxygen ozone parabola transfer transformable extrapolate cement interim magnitude majesty Radar Notice Africa enthusiasm operate algebra topography preface periodicity indefinite extempore canvass principal cathedral calculate precipitate perpendicular thermodynamics arithmetic thermometer minimum cemetery duplicate peripheral geography purpose metallurgist lyceum equivalent impossible plasticity mobile metallography trigonometry agent popular immortal premeditate prestige infantry triangle incomparable sociology hydrogen eighteen centenary examinable volunteer purview general patience parallel variable dissect elephant diagonal .

Perenial Themes — 513 Window peninsula October penalty incinerate legitimate separable parameter particle energy impermeable scientific iron electricity hippopotamus illustrate January temperature passenger components diagram extraordinary deformation informative conceptual interesting beginning satellites machine cucumber vector vocabulary homogeneity unanimity dynamic insignificant generate interest generate occur fitness although cassette however career library pattern .

If we play tennis. . you will have to make a good impression. Note Should can be a present or a future form.V—Miscellaneous Expressions in Usage First or open conditions First conditional sentences with if refer to a possible or a probable happening in the future. The future form of must is will have to. Exercise Write the verbs in these first conditional sentences in the right tenses. If you apply for a job with an important company like Int. I will win. Air. Its structure comprises if + present and will + infinitive.

Second conditions In these type of sentences we use special tenses with if when we are talking about unreal situation—things that will probably not happen. If you (to join) us. I would tell you. If I knew her name. you (to spend) a fortnight in London.Perenial Themes — 515 We (to let) you know if you (to be) on the short-list. You (to work) as part of a team if you (to get) the job. In these cases we use would and past tense to ‘distance’ our language from reality. If you (to be) short-listed. situations that are untrue or imaginary. . you (to have) another interview. past events that did not happen. and similar events.

If I were rich. Note that were is not normally used instead of would be in polite requests. If my nose were a little shorter. and many people consider it more correct. If I were etc We often use were instead of was after if. What would you do if you lost your job? This structure can be used to make a suggestion sound less definite (for example if you want to be more polite). I would spend all my time travelling. I would be quite pretty. The grammatical name for this use of were is ‘subjunctive’. In a formal style it is much more common than was. This is common in both formal and informal styles.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 516 He would be perfectly happy if he had a car. . especially in American English.

Perenial Themes — 517 We should be grateful if you would be so kind as to let us have your cheque as soon as possible. (not …if you were so kind. I would be grateful if you could give me further information about the post. Exercise Rewrite these requests. using this form: Please give me further information about the post. .) Polite requests I would be grateful if you could is used in business letters to make polite requests.

which will never really be true. I want you to give me a description of the post. Please tell me what qualifications you require. I want you to tell me how much the salary is. Please send me details of the job you advertised.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 518 Please send me an application form. For example: . Wishful thinking Sometimes we say something in the same second condition structure. Please return my curriculum vitae.

and so more polite. What would you do if I was /were to lose my job. It can be used to make a suggestion less direct.Perenial Themes — 519 If I had a camera. If I were the prime minister. I would change the whole history of photography. I would eliminate poverty from the country. If the boss was/were to come in now. we’d be in real trouble. . If…was/were to This is another way of talking about unreal or imaginary future events.

(Stopping smoking is a condition of . This structure is not used with state verbs: If I knew her name I would tell you. But we use if…will when we are talking about later results rather than conditions. we could all sit down. (not were to know) Future in if—clauses We normally use a present tense with if (and most other conjunctions) to refer to future. I’ll phone you if you have time. 100 if you stop smoking.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 520 If you were to move your chair a bit. I’ll give you Rs.

Perenial Themes — 521

getting the money- it must happen first.) I’ll give you Rs. 100 if it’ll help you to go on a holiday.(The help is a result- it follows the gift of money.)
If…should; if…happen to
We can suggest that something is unlikely, or not particularly probable, by using should (not would) in the if- clause.

If you should run into Junaid, tell him he owes me a letter.
If you happen to has a similar meaning.

If you happen to pass a supermarket, perhaps you could get some eggs.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 522

Should and happen to can be used together.

If you should happen to finish early, give me a ring.
Would is not normally used in the main clause in these structures.

If he should be late, we’ll have to start without him.(not would)
Impossible past or third conditions
We use the third conditional about past events where the condition cannot be fulfilled because the action in the if clause did not happen. Notice how the third conditional is formed: Would (not) + have + past participle; if + had (not) + past participle

They wanted to see you again because you did well at your first interview. They wouldn’t have wanted to see you again if

Perenial Themes — 523

you hadn’t done well at your first interview.
Express these sentences in the third conditional:

I didn’t go to university because I didn’t have the opportunity. I moved because I didn’t have a good job. Because my father died I left school at sixteen. I missed the train because there was a traffic jam. She didn’t get the job because she wasn’t qualified.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 524

Because you weren’t on Scale III, you didn’t have four weeks’ holiday.
If only
We can use if only to say that we would like things to be different. It means the same as I wish but is more emphatic. The clause with if only often stands alone, without a main clause. We use the same tenses after if only as after I wish.
Past, to talk about the present

If only I knew more people. If only I was/were better looking.
Would + infinitive to refer to the future

If only it would stop raining, we could go out. If only somebody would smile.

Perenial Themes — 525

Past perfect (had + past participle) to refer to the past

If only she hadn’t told the police, everything would have been all right.
Unless has a similar meaning to if not, in the sense of ‘except if’.

Come tomorrow unless I phone. (=…if I don’t phone/except if I phone.) I’ll take the job unless the pay is too low. (if the pay isn’t too low.) I’ll be back tomorrow unless there is a plane strike.
When unless cannot be used

Unless (except if) can be used instead of if not when we refer to exceptional circumstances which would change a situation (see

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 526

above examples). We do not use unless to refer to something negative that would be the main cause of the situation that we are talking about.

My wife will be very upset if I don’t go back tomorrow. (not unless I go back)
If the speaker doesn’t get back, this will be the main cause of his wife’s unhappiness- if not doesn’t mean except if.

I’ll be surprised if he doesn’t have an accident soon. (not unless) She’d look nicer if she didn’t wear so much make-up. (not unless)
Special use of ‘get’
Get + past participle

Get can be used with a past participle. This structure often has a reflexive meaning, to talk about things that we ‘do to ourselves’.

Perenial Themes — 527

Common expressions are get washed, get dressed, get lost, get drowned, get engaged/married/divorced.

You have five minutes to get dressed. She is getting married in June.
Get + past participle is also used to make passive structures, in the same way as be + past participle.

My watch got broken while I was playing. He got caught by the police while driving very fast.
This structure is less often used to talk about longer, more deliberate, planned actions.

Our house was built in 1872. (not got built) Parliament was opened on Thursday. (not got opened)

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 528

Get + object + past participle

This structure can be used to mean “finish doing something’. The past participle has a passive meaning.

It will take me hour to get the done. After you have children dressed, make the beds?

another washing got the can you

Another meaning is ‘ arrange for something to be done by somebody else’.

I must get my hair cut. You ought to get your watch repaired.
We can also use the same structure to talk about things that happen to us. In this case, get means ‘experience’.

We got our roof blown off in the storm last week.

Perenial Themes — 529

I got my car stolen twice last year.
Get…ing;get + infinitive

Get…ing is sometimes used informally to mean ‘start…ing’, especially in the expressions get moving, get going.
We’d better get moving—it’s late.

Question tags
In conversation we frequently add tags to a statement to make a question. Rewrite these questions using question tags.

Are you enjoying it? You’re enjoying it, aren’t you? I hope they haven’t made a mistake? They haven’t made a mistake, have they?

Is that what you wanted?

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 530

Do I need a new cheque book? Will you send me a monthly statement? I hope that doesn’t stop you spending it? Do you want to come with him? I hope they haven’t got the amount wrong?
Would like
The expression Would you like (to do) can be used to offer something or to ask someone’s preference. Write sentences from these notes using Would you like….

What/drink What would you like to drink?

Reply using I’d rather (do) or I’d prefer to (to do) Would you like to work in a factory? (rather/office) .Perenial Themes — 531 Something to drinkWould you like something to drink? Where/work Coffee or tea Something to eat Travel by train or plane What time/come How/travel When/leave Work in a factory Rather or prefer to These sentences offer you a choice or ask about preferences.

Would you like to go to the cinema? (rather/theatre) Would you like to travel abroad? (prefer/stay at home) Would you like to go to university? (rather/get job) .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 532 I’d rather work in an office. Would you like to work in a factory? (prefer/office) I’d prefer to work in an office.

The war seriously affected petrol prices. Effect is usually a noun meaning ‘result’ or ‘change’. It means ‘cause a change in’ or ‘influence’. .Perenial Themes — 533 Would you like to be a secretary? (rather/manager) Would you like to go shopping on Wednesday? (prefer/wait until Thursday) Affect and effect Affect is a verb. The expression to have an effect on is similar to affect. The war had a serious effect on petrol prices. The cold weather affected everybody’s health.

I’m afraid = I’m sorry I am afraid (that) often means ‘I am sorry to tell you (that). (Not don’t fear. . It is used to introduce apologetic refusals and bad news. be afraid is more common than fear. I’m afraid (that) I can’t help you. Afraid afraid and fear In an informal style.) Are you afraid of the dark? She is afraid that I might find her.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 534 In a formal style. We did not effect much improvement in sales last year. Don’t be afraid. meaning ‘carry out’. effect can also be used as a verb. ‘cause to happen’.

’ Not used before a noun Afraid is one of the adjectives that are not usually used before a noun in ‘attributive position. I’m afraid so. especially when I’m afraid means ‘I’m sorry to tell you. .’ I’m very much afraid he’s out. ‘Can you lend me a pound?’ ‘I’m afraid not.’ ‘It’s going to rain.) We often use very much instead of very before afraid.’ John’s afraid. (not an afraid man.Perenial Themes — 535 I’m afraid that there’s been an accident.’ ‘Yes. John is a frightened man.

She not only sings. She not only sings. and) we have meetings on Sundays as well. She not only sings. and too 1. but they do not go in the same position in clauses. depending on the meaning. As well is less common in American English. as well and too have similar meanings. she plays the piano as well. . Position Also. Consider the sentence ‘we have meetings on Sundays as well. This can mean three different things: (Other people have meetings on Sundays. as well. she plays the piano too. as well and too usually go at the end of a clause.Reference These words can refer to different parts of a clause. she also plays the piano. in mid-position.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 536 Also. 2. Also usually goes with the verb.

please. and) we have meetings on Sundays as well. Imperatives and short answers As well and too are used in imperatives and short answers.Perenial Themes — 537 (We do other things on Sundays. (We have meetings on other days. and) we have meetings on Sundays as well. Give me some bread as well. (More natural than Also give me…) . but not usually also. we show the exact meaning by stressing the word or expression that also/as well/too refer to. When we speak.

it needs a lot of repairs. .’ ‘Me too. Too in a formal style In a formal or literary style. Also referring to whole clause Also can be used at the beginning of a clause to refer to the whole clause.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 538 ‘She’s nice. but it’s very small. too can be placed directly after the subject. ‘I’m going home. but not I also.’(More natural than ‘I also have. Also.’ More formal equivalents are So am I or I am too.’) In very informal speech.’ ‘I’ve too.’(More natural than also) ‘I’ve got a headache. we often use me too as a short answer.’ ‘Her sister is as well. It’s a nice house.

his electricity was cut off. so we’ll have to stay at home.Perenial Themes — 539 I. in an informal style. since and for All four of these words can be used to refer to the reason for something. the same ideas are often expressed with so. They are not used in the same way. As it’s raining again. Since he had not paid his bill. as and since: as and since are used when the reason is already known to the listener/reader. As.and since-clauses are relatively formal. because. have experienced despair. too. we’ll have to stay at home. As. It’s raining again. As. or when it is not the most important part of the sentence.and since-clauses often come at the beginning of sentences. .

’ A because-clause can be used at the end of a sentence to say how one knows something. . Because I was ill for six months. It can also stand alone. the because-clause usually comes at the end. Why am I leaving? I’m leaving because I’m fed up! (Not…. Since and as cannot be used like this. I lost my job. and most often introduces new information which is not known to the listener/reader.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 540 Because Because puts more emphasis on the reason. When the reason is the most important part of the sentence. I’m leaving as/since I’m fed up!) ‘Why are you laughing?’ ‘Because you look so funny.

and cannot stand alone. is most common in a formal written style. used in this sense. For-clauses never come at the beginning of sentences. For. I decided to stop and have lunch— for I was feeling hungry. as if and as though meaning as if and as though mean the same. . (=…. but suggests that the reason is given as an afterthought. because I found the money in your room. We use them to say what a situation seems like.Perenial Themes — 541 You didn’t tell me the truth. A for-clause could almost be in brackets. I know because I found…) for For introduces new information. It looks as if/though it’s going to rain.

Compare: She looks as if she’s rich. This shows that a comparison is ‘unreal’. Why is she looking at me as though she knew me? I’ve never seen her before in my life. (But he is not) You look as though you know each other.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 542 I felt as if/though I was dying. She was acting as if/though she was in charge. tenses We can use a past tense with a present meaning after as if/though. (Perhaps she is rich. .) He talks as if he was rich.

This is not considered correct in a formal style. we do not use a past perfect for a past unreal comparison. like is often used instead of as if/though. He talks as if he were rich. informal use of like In an informal style. He talked as if he was rich. He sat there smiling like it was his birthday.as if he had been rich…. Had better . were can be used instead of was in an ‘unreal’ comparison. but he wasn’t. (NOT…. This is normal in American English.) In a formal style. especially in American English. It seems like it’s going to rain.Perenial Themes — 543 However.

there’ll be trouble. (order/threat) Had better refers to the immediate future. Had better may suggest a threat. Compare: Could you help me. Compare: . It is not used in polite requests.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 544 Meaning We use had better to give strong advice. I’d better put the meat in the oven. It’s seven o’clock. It is more urgent than should or ought. You’d better turn that music down before your Dad gets angry. If you don’t. if you’ve got time? (request) You’d better help me. or to tell people what to do (including ourselves).

After had better we use the infinitive without to.Perenial Themes — 545 ‘I really ought to go and see Fred one of these days.’.’ ‘Well.You have better…) (NOT….You had better hurrying/to hurry…) . The structure means ‘It would be good to ….’.. not ‘It would be better to…. but the form is always past (have better is impossible).’ Note that had better does not usually suggest that the action recommended would be better than another one that is being considered—there is no idea of comparison. (NOT…. you’d better do it soon—he’s leaving for South Africa at the end of the month. It’s late—you had better hurry up. forms Had better refers to the immediate future.

better….? Is possible.’ ‘You better had. We normally make the negative with had better not + infinitive. ‘I promise I’ll pay you back. better can come before had for emphasis.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 546 In British English. (You hadn’t better wake me… is possible but very unusual. You’d better not wake me up when you come in. Hadn’t we better tell him the truth? Normal un-emphatic short answer forms are as follows: .) A negative interrogative form Hadn’t….

Happen Happen can be used with a following infinitive to suggest that something happens unexpectedly or by chance.Perenial Themes — 547 ‘Shall I put my clothes away?’ ‘You’d better!’ ‘He says he won’t tell anybody. ask her to phone me. and she turned out .’ Had is sometimes dropped in very informal speech. I better try again later.’ ‘He’d better not. One day I happened to get talking to a woman on a train. If you happen to see Joan. You better go now.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 548 to be a cousin of my mother’s. Lest Lest has a similar meaning to in case or so that…not. It is very rare in modern British English. the idea of by chance can be emphasised by using should before happen. Let me know if you should happen to need any help. In sentences with if. Lest can be followed by a subjunctive verb in a formal style to emphasise the importance of the action/idea. and is found mostly in older literature and in ceremonial language. It is a little more common in formal American English. We must take care lest evil thoughts enter our hearts. lest the . They kept watch all night lest robbers should come. The government must take immediate action.

with the same meaning. Although and though Although + clause + clause Clause + (al) though + clause Clause + though 1. . He hid in the woods for fear that the soldiers would find him.Perenial Themes — 549 problem of child poverty grow worse. In informal speech. For fear that is used in a similar way. though is more common. and is also unusual in modern English. Conjunctions Both these words can be used as conjunctions.

We use even though to emphasise a contrast. (al)though it is a bit late. (Al)though I don’t agree with him. I think he is honest.’ ‘Yes.) Even though I didn’t understand a word.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 550 (Al)though the government refuses to admit it. I kept smiling. its economic policy is in ruins. Though used as an adverb We can use though as an adverb. Bit cold though.’ . I’d quite like to go out. ‘Nice day. to mean ‘however’. 2. (Even although is not possible.

How much of the roof needs repairing? You can have as much of the milk as you like. I don’t know many of your friends. though. . Much and many 1.Perenial Themes — 551 The strongest argument. She didn’t stay for as many days as she had intended. is economic and political. many is used with plurals. I haven’t got much time. The difference Much is used with singular nouns.

g. personal and geographical names. Much/many of + determiner + noun .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 552 2. We do not generally use of when there is no other determiner (e. (not many of…. She didn’t eat much breakfast. much of can be used without a following determiner in a few cases. for instance. Much/many + noun We can use much and many before noun phrases as determiners.) There aren’t many large glasses left. (not much of…. I have seen too much of Howard recently.) However. Not much of Denmark is hilly. article or possessive). 3.

Much/many without a noun We can drop a noun after much or many. How much of the house do you want to paint this year. You haven’t eaten much.g. the. my. You can’t see much of a country in a week. . we use much of and many of.Perenial Themes — 553 Before determiners (e. How many of you are there? 4. this) and pronouns. a. if the meaning is clear. I won’t pass the exam: I have missed too many of my lessons. You didn’t eat much of it.

Much as adverb We can use much as an adverb.’ Note that much and many are only used like this when a noun has been dropped. There was not much (food). Many people think it’s time for a change.) Because you couldn’t say the food wasn’t much food. (Not Many think.…) 5. They are not used as the complements of nouns: other structures are used. That’s too much (food). . (But not the food wasn’t much.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 554 ‘Did you find any mushrooms?’ ‘Not many. Many is not usually used alone to mean ‘many people’.

We much prefer the country to the town. . Could I have a small notebook. preference and similar ideas. I much appreciate your help. especially in a formal style.Perenial Themes — 555 I don’t travel much these days. Small and little Small simply refers to size. It is the opposite of big or large. Janet much enjoyed her stay with your family. please? You are too small to be a policeman. Much can come before some verbs expressing enjoyment.

What’s that nasty little boy doing in our garden? Tell the little beast to go out. They’ve bought a pretty little house in the country.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 556 Usually. but also expresses some emotion. Little finger the little hand of a clock A little while a little way Until 1. the adjective little not only refers to size. Poor little thing. Until and till .come here and let me look after you. In a few fixed expressions. little is used in the same way as small or short.

) We can also use to when counting the time until a future event. I’ll wait until/till I hear from you. The new timetable will remain in operation until June 30. This happens after from… I usually work from nine to five. (OR from nine until/till five. 2. They mean exactly the same. .Perenial Themes — 557 These two words can be used as prepositions and conjunctions. till is the preferred informal spelling). Until/till and to To can sometimes be used as preposition of time with the same meaning as until/till. then. Till is informal in British English (in American English. I won’t expect you until/till midnight. OK.

(Not till the edge…) .) 3. up to is also used to talk about quantity. to is not generally used. We walked as far as/up to the edge of the forest. Place and quantity: until/till not used Until and till is used only to talk about time.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 558 It’s another three weeks to the holidays. To talk about distance. we use to. (Not I waited for her to six o’clock. as far as or up to. (OR…until/till the holidays.) In other cases. but she didn’t come. I waited for her until six o’clock.

) Present and past perfect tenses can emphasise the idea of completion. It is sometimes possible to use until/till before a place name in the sense of ‘until we get to…’ You drive until the park and then I’ll take over. 500 a week in this job.Perenial Themes — 559 The minibus can hold up to thirteen people. . (Not until she will get here. (Not until thirteen…) You can earn up to Rs. I’ll wait until she gets here. Tenses with until Present tenses are used to refer to the future after until. 4.

Not until that evening was she able to recover her self-control. 5. I waited until the rain had stopped. Not until I left home did I begin to understand how strange my family was. using inverted word order in the main clause. .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 560 You are not going home until you have finished that report. Structure with not until In a literary style it is possible to begin a sentence with not until….

That piano must be worth a few pounds. What/how much is that painting worth? 2. either what or how much can be used. I don’t think their pizzas are worth the money.Perenial Themes — 561 Worth 1.’ In questions about the value of something. five pounds’ worth of A possessive structure can be used before worth in measurement expressions. ‘Shall I talk to Rob?’ ‘It’s not worth the trouble. Worth a few pounds Worth can be followed by a noun phrase which describes the value of something. .

‘Shall we take the car?’ ‘No. (Not…Talking to Junaid is worth. please? 3.) It’s worth talking to Junaid.) Is it worth visiting Leicester? It can be used to refer to an action mentioned earlier. It’s worth talking to him When we talk about the value of an activity. but we often use a structure with preparatory it. The—ing clause cannot be the subject. (This structure is more common in British than in American English. we can use an—ing form with worth. it’s not worth it.’ .A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 562 Could I have a few pounds’ worth of petrol.

The car isn’t worth repairing.’ Is it worthwhile visiting Leicester? . 5. the car. Leicester) is made the subject of the sentence.Perenial Themes — 563 4. (Not…The car isn’t worth repairing it/worth to be repaired.) Is Leicester worth visiting? She is not worth getting angry with. worthwhile (or worth while) is sometimes used instead of worth. He’s worth talking to Ideas like the ones in No. Junaid’s worth talking to. 3 above can also be expressed by a structure in which the object of the—ing form (Junaid. particularly to express the idea ‘worth spending time. Worthwhile In structures with—ing forms.

We thought it might be worthwhile to compare this year’s accounts with last year’s. Leicester’s visiting. Well worth Worth can be modified by well. Note also the structure worth somebody’s while.) 6.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 564 Infinitives are also possible after worthwhile. worth…) well worth (Not…very . (=…I’ll pay you enough. Would you like to do some gardening for me? I’ll make it worth your while.

the winner is the person who travels the least distance in one minute without falling off or turning round. and the opposite of most. In a ‘slow bicycle race’. used before plural abstract nouns.’ Any…at all The least can have a similar meaning to ‘any…at all’. Note also the expression the least of (=smallest of).Perenial Themes — 565 Least and fewest 1. it is the superlative of little (=not much). The least as superlative of little determiner: The least is used before uncountable nouns as a determiner referring to quantity. This happens mostly before singular abstract nouns in ‘non-assertive’ . ‘What will your mother think?’ ‘That’s the least of my worries.

Do you think there’s the least chance of Labour winning the elections? ‘What’s the time?’ ‘I haven’t got the least idea.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 566 contexts: for instance in questions.’ She is not the least bit afraid of horses. 3. negative clauses and ifclauses. The fewest as determiner: superlative of few The fewest is used before plural nouns as the superlative of few. . especially in an informal style. Least is often used instead of fewest before plural nouns (…the least mistakes). The translation with the fewest mistakes isn’t always the best. Some people feel this is incorrect.

The least expensive holidays are often the most interesting. but with the opposite meaning. She always arrives when you least expect it. 5. I’m least happy when I have to work at weekends. Don’t give the job to Keith: he’s the least experienced. .Perenial Themes — 567 4. (the) least with adjectives: the opposite of (the) most or (the) …est (The) least is used before adjectives in the same way as (the) most or (the)…est. Least as adverb Least can be used as an adverb (the opposite of most).

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 568 I don’t much housework. 7. At least At least means ‘not less than (but perhaps more than). We lost everything in fire. Not in the least .’ like like ‘How old do you think he is?’ ‘At least thirty.’ He has been ill at least eight times this year. even if everything else is unsatisfactory. But at least nobody was hurt. and I cooking least of all. 6. We can also use at least as a discourse marker to suggest that one thing is certain or all right.

American and British English These two varieties of English are very similar.Perenial Themes — 569 We can use not in the least in a formal style to mean ‘not at all’. He is just gone home. Or He’s just gone home. but most American and British speakers can understand each other without great difficulty. Modern British English is heavily influenced by American English. Pronunciation is sometimes very different. especially when talking about personal feelings and reactions. She did not mind working late in the least. Note that in many cases two different forms are possible in one Varity of English. while only one of the forms is possible or normal in the other variety. so some of the contrasts are disappearing. Grammar Here are examples of the most important differences. and rather more differences of vocabulary and idiom. American English British English He just went home. I was not in the least upset by her bad temper. . There are a few differences of grammar and spelling.

I may (do). (formal) It looks as if/like it’s going to rain. I’ve never really got to know her. US mad= angry). And very . Hello. He looked strangely.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 570 Do you have a problem? Or have you got a problem? Have you got a problem? I’ve never really gotten to know her. Besides get and fit some other irregular verbs have different forms in British and American English. Some times the same word has different meanings (GB mad=crazy. I can see a car coming. Will you buy it? ‘I may’. is that Susan? (on the phone) Hello. Or He has probably arrived. Vocabulary There are very many differences. (Very informal) or He looked at me really strangely. I (can) see a car coming. is this Susan? It looks like it is going to rain. He has probably arrived by now. at me really He probably has arrived by now. He looked at me real strange.

Here are a few examples.Perenial Themes — 571 often. American English British English airplane anyplace. anywhere apartment area code attorney lawyer busy cab/taxi call collect can candy check/bill coin-purse cookie . sweet crib crazy cuffs aeroplane anywhere flat/ apartment dialling code (phone) barrister. cracker corn. solicitor engaged (phone) taxi reverse the charges (phone) tin sweets bill (in a restaurant) purse biscuit corn. with very brief information about the words and their meanings. different words are used for the same idea (GB lorry = U S truck). maize cot mad turn-ups (on trousers) .

eraser autumn tap (indoors) torch flat tyre. motorway bonnet (on a car) crossroads angry post . freeway hood intersection mad mail nappy doctor’s surgery stupid lift rubber . stupid elevator eraser fall . puncture chips rubbish dustbin. tap flashlight flat(tire) french fries trash. autumn faucet. garbage garbage can.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 572 diaper doctor’s office dumb. rubbish bin petrol gear lever (on a car) main road. trashcan gas(oline) gear shift highway.

film one-way (ticket) pants. handbag (potato) chips railroad raise rest room round trip schedule. faucet stand in line stingy store.Perenial Themes — 573 mean movie. trousers pavement pitcher pocketbook. purse. shop nasty film single (ticket) trousers road surface jug handbag crisps railway rise (in salary) public toilet return (journey/ticket) timetable pavement trainers (=sports shoes) tap (out doors) queue mean (opposite of ‘generous’) shop . timetable sidewalk sneakers spigot.

color/colour). lorry boot (of a car) fortnight.g. two weeks holiday(s) windscreen (on a car) zed (the name of the letter ‘z’ zip Expressions with prepositions and particles American English British English Different from/than Check something (out) Do something over/again Live on X street On a team Monday through/to Friday Different from/to Check something Do something again Live in X street In a team Monday to Friday Spelling A number of words end in—or in American English and—our in British English (e. center/centre).g.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 574 subway truck trunk two weeks vacation windshield zee zipper underground van. Many verbs which end in—ize in American . Some words end in—er in American English and—re in British English (e.

Some of the commonest words with different forms are: American English English Aluminum Analyze Catalog(ue) Center Check Color Defense Honor Jewelry Labor Pajamas Practice.Perenial Themes — 575 English (e.g. realize) can be spelt in British English with—ize or—ise. practise Program Realize Theater Aluminium Analyse Catalogue Centre British Cheque (issued by a bank) Colour Defence Honour Jewellery Labour Pyjamas Practise (verb) Programme Realise/realize Theatre .

) Some words written with a + consonant (e. like the vowel in caught. and /oυ/ in American English. many different regional accents in both Britain and America. off. So words . dog. (This vowel is also pronounced rather differently in British and American English. The vowel in home. open is pronounced /∂υ/ in standard southern British English. gone. lost. like the first vowel in father. after) have different pronunciations: with /a:/in standard southern British English. r is only pronounced before a vowel sound. In standard southern British English. r is pronounced in all positions where it is written in a word. The most important general differences between American and British speech are as follows: Certain vowels are nasal (pronounced through the nose and mouth at the same time) in some varieties of American English.g. and it changes the quality of a vowel that comes before it. and with /æ/ in American and some other varieties of English. go.) British English has one more vowel than American English. fast. got. or with /‫כ‬:/. In most kinds of American English. This is the rounded short 0 (/α/) used in words like cot. In American English these words are pronounced either with /‫כ‬:/.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 576 Tire Trave(l)ler Whiskey Tyre (on a wheel) Traveller (scotch) whisky. (Irish) whiskey Pronunciation There are. of course. stop. The two vowels sound very different.

t and d both have a very light voiced pronunciation /d/ between vowels—so writer and rider. -ery. .g.Perenial Themes — 577 like car. Secretary US /'sekr∂teri/ GB /'sekr∂tri/ Borough and thorough are pronounced differently. offer sound very different in British and American speech. In British English they are quite different: /’rait∂(r)/ and /’raid∂(r)/. Fertile US /’f3:rtl/ (rhyming with turtle) GB /’f3:tail/ (rhyming with her tile) Some long words ending in—ary. some are pronounced with /l/ in American English. can sound the same. These are words in which th. senile) are pronounced with /ail/ in British English. t or n (and sometimes s or l) are followed by u or ew/ Enthusiastic US/in´θu:zi´æstik/ GB / in´θju:zi´æstik// Duty Tune New Illuminate US/’du:ti/ US/tu:n/ US /nu:/ US /I’lu:mineit/ GB /’dju:ti/ GB /tju:n/ GB /nju:/ GB /I’lju: mineit/ Words ending in unstressed—ile (e. or—ory are pronounced differently. fertile. d. for example. turn. with one more syllable in American English. Some words which are pronounced with /u:/ in most varieties of American English have /ju:/ in British English. missile. In many varieties of American English. reptile.

A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 578 US /'bΛroυ. 'θΛr∂/ Words borrowed from French are often stressed differently. Paté Ballet US /pæ'teI/ GB /'pæteI/ US /bæ'leI/ GB /'bæ . 'θΛroυ/ GB /'bΛr∂. The final vowel is usually stressed in American English but not in British English. especially if their pronunciation ends with a vowel sound.

75 Newton. 135 Conjunction. 12 Hugo. 143. 108. 75 France. 74 Herman Kahn. 120. 89 Michelangelo. 76 Emilio Q. 10. 15 Brazil. 23 Giorgione. 207. N. 136. 171. 74 King Charles. 74 Athens. 70. 131. 63 Erewhon. 37 King John. 7 Lasselle. 30 England. 7. 152. 283. 67 Lucretius. 75 Cambridge. 25 Milton. 246. 75 Nonsense Novels. 128. 167. 6. 74 Giotto. 143. 75 Bacon. 171. 68. 181. 37 Keats. 190. 37 Leonardo. 75 Goethe. 23. 16. 255. 231 Adjectives. 6 active voice. 203. 44 Future Shock. 4. 111. 37 Colon. 6 Faulty Comparisons. 44 . 264. 292. 65. 128. 72 Hegel. 110 complement. 251. 75 Aristotle. 74 Magna Charta. 11. 20. 74 Hyphenation. 38. 175. 131 Dante. 15. 88 Byron. 176. 66. 73 Deadwood. 239. 216 Africa. 107. 22 Hobbes. 128. 151. 129 Moulmein. 34 George Orwell. 18 American Declaration of Independence. 297. 117. 21 Bach. 177. 179. 119. 6 Kant. 143. 65 Animal Farm. 293. 37. 202 Artxybasheff. 74 Caesar. 254 Comma Splice. 144. 70 Greece. 67. 10 Chopin. 4. 110. 176. 151. 75 Heine. 216 Adverbs. 67. 75 Middle East. 129 MIT. 291. 11. 152. 176. 231 Active-Passive Issue. 74 Alvin Toffler. 20 Dangling Modifier. 22 Archimedes. 75 Articles. 37 Lake Poets. 12 Alexander. 76 Greek. 18 Galileo. 180. 75 Karl Marx. 37 Anatole France. 16. 76 George Bernard Shaw. 182. 303 Cobbett. 42. 290. 72 Groos. 214 Cornell. 202 Egypt. 75 Misplaced Modifier. 120. 113 Common Sentence Problems. 68. 241 compound predicate. 254. 16. 180. 143. 74 clause. 79 Anthony Wiener. 302. 63 Capitalisation. 11. 215. 180. 138 Flaubert. 79. 75 Gautier. See wordiness Determiners. 75 Beethoven. 74 Darwin. 79 Germany. 247. 284.Perenial Themes — 579 A. 37 Max Schulman. 75 Gorki. 177. 130. 79 Napoleon. 73 Aurelio Peccei. 109. 74 Burma. Daddario. 143. 20 Modifiers. 130. 75 Nietzche. 75 Lessing. 67. 75 Holland. 12. 31 Bruno. 220 Iqbal. 262 China. Whitehead. 75 Frenzied Fiction. 183. 259 Interjections. 39. 75 Bertrand Russell.

166. 248. 74 Philosophy and the Social Problem. 128. 160. 165. 235. 130. 40 Ralph Lapp. 16 Oxford. 161. 140 Shakespeare. 161. 131. 107 Prepositions. 167. 164. 114 Russia. 137. 10 participle. 193. 232. 68 Schubert. 67 Queen Anne. 223. 223. 67. 163. 109. 248. 260. 298. 253 sentence. 74 Predicate. 30 Utopia. 302. 37. 21. 304 Sentence-Level Problems. 207. 141. 152. 176. 70. 167. 304 Origin of Species. 63 Parallelism. 163. 169. 185 Pronouns. 124. 107. 207. 226. 149. 286 Peacock. 183. 180. 241. 60 Titian. 107. 112. 160. 307. 108. 189. . 65 Poe. 29. 231. 131. 118. 285. 74 Semicolon. 213. 268. See . 74 Schumann. 195. 263. 163. 74 Schiller. 223. 74 verb. See Pronunciation. 141. 166. 261. 207. See . 6. 242. 120. 168. 272. 65 Samuel Butler. 74 Tenses. 241. 107. 61 Rome. 107. 108. 108. 237. 111. 160 Socrates.A Textbook of English Prose and Structure— 580 noun. 117. 168. 133 subject. 191. 165. 223. 145. 314 Punctuation. 175. 161. 264. 231. 182. 152. 228. 151. 144. 171. 88 Swinburne. 143. 251. 183. 163 Suez Canal. 70. 70 Tom Paine. 284. 239. 75 Spanish Armada. 3. 228. 136. 6 Principles of Mathematics. 70 Venice. 299. 130. 254. 128. 224. 44 Strindberg. 303 object. 34. 291. 7 Sappho. 107. 74 simple predicate. 143. 248. 128. 302 Test Acts. 262. 37. 38 Saint Peter's College. 75 Retzsch. 238. 270. 144. 37 Stephen Leacock. 182. 190. 261. 179. 206. 266. 65 Plato. 12. 192. 143. 74 Schopenhauer. 20. 125 Paris. 75 Tolstoi. 290. 151. 267. 75 Pleasures of Philosophy. 136. 114. 75 Sophocles. 304 Subject-Verb Agreement. 290. 205. 232. 207. 18 Thomas Henry Huxley. 225. 171. 161. 205. 293. 241. 292. 176. 202. 182. 178. 160. 129. 6 Pronoun Reference. 247. 241. 140. 74 Stringy Sentences. 167. 74 Run-on Sentences. 65 The Third Wave. 12. 239. 66. 145. 246. 271. 181. 7 Petrarch. 251. 204. 191. 74 Rousseau. 148. 169. 160. 183. 283. 260. 255. 42 Shelley. 63 The Story of Philosophy. 183. 242. 74 Tchaikovsky. 289. 206. 167. 144. 133. 206. 23. 73 Renan. 108. 143. 205. 303. 131 United States. 75 Two-way Modifier. 286. 269. 209 Principia Mathematica. 173. 136. 152. 151. 110. 7. 195. 162. 203. 135. 145. 173. 21 Renaissance. 193. 37 Turgenev. 235 Pythagoras. 130. 121. 160. 37 Trafalgar.

151 verbals. 20 Word Classes. 37 Westminster Abbey. 313 Verb Patterns. 297. 143. 74 Vocabulary. 117 . 67 Wisconsin. 37 Waterloo. 7 Winctelmann. 182 Wordiness. 110 Verlaine.Perenial Themes — 581 248. 73 Will Durant. 289. 290. 65 William Morris. 309 Voltaire.

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