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In the Matter the Psychophysics-English-Gustav Theodor Fechner.

In the Matter the Psychophysics-English-Gustav Theodor Fechner.

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Preface. Well, after my, published in 1860, "Elements of Psychophysics", except for some points of which you may not be allowed to waive the since of all the pages it occurred, attacks can be regarded as discounted, the replacement offered views of the opponents but by their absentmindedness elude a slight overview and comparison, I share the same folgends so far and in such a compilation that a choice between them can be made behufs a new foundation of psychophysics, but at the same time looking at the probability that the choice between so manifold, contradicting each other no less than that first attempts views will be difficult to encourage the consideration of whether it is not preferable to finally return to the mine, and to turn my hand to all sides. This is, in short, if something expressed jokingly, but seriously understood the content and the purpose of this writing. Closer speaks here about the following entrance, while the resumé the content and summarizes the results shortly, after which I just have some, the font in question, vorzubemerken externals find here. Rather, it would probably already in many a suggestion to come to the issue of this writing, had not only dealing with the issue of another journal (pre-aesthetics), then repeated backsliding eye condition prevents it. Even now, however, after some happy consummated eye surgeries have allowed me a resumption of literary activity, I have to follow in the difficulty with but weak and irritable remaining eyes of the impacting this literature search an apology if I have overlooked this or that was what had to be considered. Important points should not have escaped me, and now Overlooked might be in one, this first issues still nachzuliefernden, second grudge. Although questionable whether it will come to the

situation of my age and the condition of my eyes even on such a. Should it be the case, then the same present except amendments of the type and the consideration of counter-remarks against the designs booklet, what it will be difficult for missing the opponents, some, from earlier deferred Tests regarding extensive and weight sensitivity with remarks about the measurement methods offer. Hienach only following the establishment of the text of the current font. Because of technical reasons, the content could not be according to the authors, to which reference was to take it, arranged so the headings to the various sections and the registrar will come together easier in the end, what matters to each particular. That could not accept a uniform character the whole of Scripture, as they really presents, I am sorry, but to give her such, I would have had to have only one enemy or a major consideration over. According to some, the writing at all introductory, sections I have the view of the strongly translucent objections prefixed to negotiate in the later sections with the enemies of their own views (in so far as not already the 4th section was said seemed sufficiently) and the present experimental situation of Weber's Law to explain. Parentheses within literal quotes mean activations folgends the part of the authors themselves, angular those which are inserted by me. - With p. I refer to page numbers in the writings of the authors, to those with S. In this document itself Regarding the Paginaverweisungen the names of authors without enclosing their writing or treatise to consider the remark in Section II - My "Elements of Psychophysics" I call in references by "Elem." - "Psycho-Physical" in the text several times by ps.ph. and "sensation" was abbreviated by E..

Content I. Input II I've established psychophysical laws and formulas to their representation will be mainly here, with the main objections against established III. Literature folgends preferably to be considered objections and conflicting views

IV About Clear demonstration of the opponents Helmholtz and Aubert Do Amber Plateau Brentano Delbceuf Herring Long V. objection that Weber's law was not correctly inferred from the experiments (Brentano, herring, long) VI. Objections of the experimental deviations from Weber's law (Aubert, Delbceuf, herring, long) VII teleological argument. Extensive comments on the sensations (herring) VIII aprioristic objection [Mach, Hering, Classen, Ueberhorst, Bernstein) IX. Question of the transferability of the threshold into the inner psychophysics X. Objections to the negative sentiment values. Further remarks on the threshold (Delbceuf, Langer, Preyer) XI. Remarks on Contrast sensation (Hering, Mach) XII. The difference view of sensation (Schneider, Delbceuf) XIII. The Oscillations and chemical hypothesis (herring) XIV . feeling about the situation of black and white, with an appendix on color theory Hering Hering notes about color theory and its own hypothesis XV . Bernstein's psycho-physical constitution XVI. Compilation of past, especially recent experimental results of Weber's Law immediately 1 Light intensity (without color change 2 Sound intensity (without changing pitch) 3 Taste 4 Weights 5 Temperature

6 Changes of color or pitch 7 Extensive quantities

XVII. Delboeufs light experiments XVIII. Herring weight tests XIX. v. experiments on tooth color combinations XX. Question of the basic dimensions of psycho-physical activity XXI. Resumé XXII. Epilogue.

I. entrance.
It has previously generally believed that although they can be found differences in the strength of sensations through inner perception that there was no principle but actually psychic dimension, namely such that one can say of a sensation, it was so-so or sovielmal heavily than another. Meanwhile, I have tried to show in my elements of psychophysics (I. 54 and II 191 general) that, though it is impossible to obtain such a degree by internal superposition of sensations in a similar way as you externally the length of a finished piece measures by the yard, but such a dependence based on the ratio of the strength of feeling of the strength of the stimulus that triggers the sensation, and such shaping the internal sense by an external Elle can be measured. Would this even be quite easy if you could just proportional to accept the strength of feeling of the strength of the stimulus, but impossible on closer investigation shows, however, it is sufficient to know the relationship of dependence between the two in order for the mass ratios of the stimulus to determine the sensation. This is the Cardo rei for obtaining the mental dimension. I have discussed the principles and rules attempt that may lead to the determination of this dependency relationship, and partly by foreign, partly own experiments made with respect to laws and formulas, which can be grasped under this dependency, situated. Now provides easy viewing illustrates that the external stimulus , which triggers a sensation, this is not directly, but by doing that he was a physical activity, I call it the psychophysical, in our nervous systems, triggers, of which the mental activity of sensation is directly dependent. You could even put the triggered by the stimulus psychophysical activity their dimensions to the charms its dimensions

according to proportional now, or any other relationship than the simple proportionality between the two are valid, those laws and formulas were first directly if both the dependency ratio apply between perception and psychophysical activity, second, if they do close to the same permit, hereby, except for the degree of sensation, an important contribution, so the first point of attack for an accurate study of the direct relationship between body and soul by quantitative side be given, and this to be so important and deeply engaging in Psychology from one side, Physiology of the other side, and even in the philosophy that if extend those laws and formulas, which are valid for sensory perception in relation to the underlying physical activity, their applicability up even higher should. And like so high ascend also a mental activity, are but the intensity of the activity of consciousness that is at all related in how the brightness of the images with which even the highest Bewußstseinstätigkeit still plays an attack point for the issue of dimensional relationships between mental and physical page that has been treated in relation to the phenomena of memory and attention up to certain limits from me. The previous thing that, I mean by "psycho-physics" at all an exact science of relationships, preferably dimensional relationships 1 ) between the spiritual, mental and physical, physical, physical side of existence, an accurate insofar as it based on observation, experiment and mathematical link of the facts is based, in short the same method with other than exactly applicable, comply teachings. Of course, their results are not progressed far at the same security as the mechanics, physics, chemistry, such as the following will just prove too much, and even the physiology like them inferior in this respect, which depends on large, its peculiar difficulties, but instead to exclude an exact method, but all the same powers challenge to overcome, however, it has since quite apart from the philosophical treatment of the same area of such a method. The relationship between quality of mental and physical form of the phenomena are not in principle excluded from psychophysics, but until now little studied.


But it shares so understood psychophysics into two main parts, which I distinguish as the outer and inner psychophysics, the first deals with the relationships between mental phenomena and external excitation means the same, so-called stimuli, but the others on the relations of mental phenomena the inner, so-called psycho-physical, physical activities subject them immediately. The first is based mainly on experiments, the other draws in Mitzuziehung anatomical, physiological and psychological consequences of the facts first. Which I developed from these general considerations to the "elements" principles, laws and formulas learned in general have this destiny. You

have awakened widely attention, and, apart from some philosophers to whom a psychophysics principle can not predict, you have it noted approvingly that has ever been attempted to address exakterem ways than before to the problem of the relationship of body and soul . Also, I do not know that the psychic from me prepared principle measure due to the functional relationship between stimulus and sensation, and deeper between psychophysical activity and sensation, of those who have engaged in such research since then, been contradicted, since rather even those who do not or agree with the view taken by my laws and formulas only partially, but bring up their own Maßformeln the same principle in the application. 2) And because founded on the possibility of such a measure, the possibility of psychophysics itself, the name this science arose only with it and since then is in fairly common use, even a mathematical psychology that have been missed mental level is offered, I could already be satisfied if they think of all my psychophysics only this principle with which Socialize ends because processing of experimental methods could, but which by no means the whole thing is held. would like an exception to this but make herring, because even though he has not raised an objection to the approach I principle psychological measure directly, seems to but such in his of mine entirely different reasons basic conception of the psychophysical conditions indirectly, and the way he has dealt with the perception of light, already pronounce, but without any of the, made before the publication of his prospect, can continue his psychophysical studies clearly see in this regard. In philosophical writings probably like some opposition to my physical Maßprinzip be charged, which is lost on me because I followed some of the more recent philosophical literature. In general, however, fall philosophical and psycho-physical research up to now together slightly. Admitted the cogency of the situated by me mental Maßprinzipes, namely taking the measurement itself a different shape and a different value, depending on whether one highlighted various laws and formulas for the functional relationship between stimulus and sensation in the outer psychophysics, and represents the relationship between intellectual and physical side represents itself differently in us, according as we understood the functional relationship between two different, while passing in a different way from the outer to inner psychophysics. In both relationship but I have to speak probably more of enemy as consenting assessing established by my views, laws, principles and formulas; yes there are so many sites and been raised from so manifold, partly theoretical and partly experimental point of objections against then to say that of all my, laboriously erected, psychophysical system so no stone would remain upon another.

Apart from one, already at the end of my items in a night Rage considered, Einwurfe of Helmholtz me are ever more or less profound objections known by Aubert, Mach, amber, plateau, Delbceuf, Brentano, herring, long. The most versatile and perhaps most translucent stir in any case of herring ago, and have not failed to make partly because of the respectable authority of its author, partly because of their ingenuity, partly because of the firmness with which they are expressed, a great impression. The principles laid down by myself as fundamental laws are hereafter not only a priori unlikely, but also inferred incorrectly from the facts are demonstrably wrong, yes, they were correct, they would justify a confused and rational teleology contradictory view of the outside world. The thing is from the ground up to handle differently. Long, which includes the number of opponents known to me, herring indicates fullness and sharpness of the objections by little, and finally comes to a Delbceuf though, with mine in the same form, in whole, in the meaning, but quite different, measurement formula, and summarizes, in his first essay (the Etude) raised opposition in the third (the Revue p 241st) itself as follows: The Fechner law (Maßgesetz) is untenable from a mathematical point of view. It leads to absurd conclusions, and the manner in which it is found (establish itself), not even granted the mind no clear idea of what may be the quantity of a sensation, therefore, how it can be represented by a number, "etc. After all 'I can my main opponents only be grateful, and equip them this hereby assign and if they do have insgemein initiated the opposition to my teaching with benevolent expressions, and in particular I feel Brentano and herring for committed, that in a she correspondence I, my quest to keep the discussion within the limits of a purely scientific controversy are done with them over their objections come to meet in friendly ways. But how do I make my part of the barrage of partially translucent factually devastating objections against the doctrine I represent over? - I do not mean yet that it is so bad then about the same as it would seem for the first sight. Yes, to the determination of my opponents, though bescheidnere something to counter decisively, I think after considering all I have become known objections that teaching in all fundamental points so far upright than I is most likely see that it has been set up can, and keep it at the same time, inthat it will continue to not change money. Express myself even harder to prevent the major difficulties of teaching, but I find them in any contrary view of the fundamental points greater than in the mine, and the confidence in this self has grown on me in that I find it, which does not prevent recognize the ingenuity of some objections - many others could have been due to some consideration and can save me - and to make concessions to each relationship. But we put the case that my doctrine, to which has directed all still

pretty much dispute as the starting point of all dispute until now, would really dismissed the objections raised against what would be the result? That the enemy now more so fought against each other, since their teachings more than the mine almost contradict each other, but almost all of the more or less evaded in different directions. Just read the fourth section. Thus, psychophysics would be in danger after only just over boasted about the exact name of a doctrine of philosophy, whose quarrel just to share. Now it would be nice if the new controversy by superfluous would be that the first would prove to be unnecessary, that it could be shown that no more adequately reason to leave basic views that the first structure of the teaching has supported. In the direction thereon is this scripture written and in this sense I take to the dispute with the opponents, but there renouncing to come back also on the dispute, in which I or about the common points of the doctrine of the relations between body and soul with this that philosophical direction and mostly located with the prevailing view. One is inclined not to allow the animation to humans and animals also. Dissolve the mental activities of a certain points go from the physical base. One thinks the soul sitting in a simple point in the brain. I'm in all these view points of others, but believe in some chapters of my items and my philosophical writings have already said enough about enough also to prove how far my views differ from materialistic and irreligious. The scope and design of psychophysics is by no means independent of the views on these points, but on the contrary, yet it does not push for now, going into details, because this doctrine does not proceed from the most general, but some very peculiar facts and laws. Against some opponents of the above way, I have been previously publicly or privately expressed myself so thoroughly against Aubert especially in the reports of sächs Soc. 1864 1 ff, provisionally against Delbceuf in a display of his Etude psychophysique in Jen. Lit-time. No. 1874. 28; also discussed in detail and compared against Brentano herring in a correspondence that I performed in several letters with them privately to contact me before the public discussion as much as possible with them. However, since it led to no stated agreement, so I have to consult now with my counter-objections to their objections to the general public, and which, I hope, that the said authors will not find any indiscretion in it when I'm on some, to complete their objections serving, written statements of the same folgends take with respect.

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Dies ist der Cardo rei für die Gewinnung des psychischen Maßes.

II I've established psychophysical laws and formulas to their representation will be mainly here, with the main objections against

established. 1) Emerging Act (in Elem. I. 238 less apt referred to as the fact of the threshold) says that a sensation as a difference between sensations not only imperceptibly is for consciousness, when the stimulus or stimulus difference, they depend on a zero value of the action has come down, but even at a finite value of the same for consciousness fades. This finite value of the stimulus or stimulus difference, which must be exceeded for a distinction of sensation or sensations takes place, I call the threshold, difference threshold, respectively. But unless it continues after following laws on matters not so much that a certain absolute difference of the stimuli, but a to the charms of a certain standing relationship, short relative difference, or things related to it, a certain ratio of the stimuli would be exceeded in order a difference of stimuli is noticeable, one can speak of a ratio threshold of stimuli also instead of a difference threshold. Where now the stimulus, relative stimulus difference, the stimulus money to in the previous sense, is above or below the threshold, it is said also of the associated simple difference or feeling that she was on, over or under the threshold. 2) Weber's law (Elem. I. 134 ff, in II . 9 ff for smaller differences represented by the fundamental formula), so named by me because it is first expressed in a certain generality by EH Weber, refers to the dependence of the differences, changes or Zuwüchse a sensation of which the triggering stimulus it, and says that the differences or changes Zuwüchse of sensation to stay the same, not when the absolute, but if the relative differences, changes or Zuwüchse of the stimulus remain the same, by a relative increment in the absolute increment divided by the size of the stimulus to which the increment takes place, of course. Mathematics depends By previous laws together the following, and can therefore be equally valid pronounced as Weber's law: The difference of two stimuli appear equal in size to the sensation when the ratio of the stimuli remains the same, both may increase or decrease the absolute values of when it only happens just in the same proportion. . 3) Maßgesetz of sensation (in Elem II I2 ff by the mass formula represents), a mathematical way of Weber's law and emerging laws derived, refers to the dependence of the sensation magnitude itself of the size of the stimulus and says: that the Size of sensation is proportional to the logarithm of, dlividierten by its threshold stimulus, or if you take the threshold as a stimulus unit, simply proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus, which depends on the feeling grows. Decreases the stimulus below the threshold, so does the feeling (after the mass formula) negative, interpreted by me as unconscious values. . 4) Maßgesetz the sensation difference (in Elem H. 89 et seq, by the difference formula represents), states as mere inference of the previous

Act, that the degree of difference between two sensations proportional to the differences of the logarithmic degree of both sensations, and therefore - since the difference of the logarithms of two quantities is equal to the logarithm of the ratio of both quantities is - that it is the logarithm of the quotient of the two stimuli is proportional to the sensations which depend. Now it should be noted and Elem. ll. 82 discussed in detail that a difference between two sensations can exist without being perceived as a difference yet, so if the sensations fall into different people or fall into the same people at different times so that the first one is forgotten when the other occurs or is directed only to one of them the attention, or, finally, if the difference between the two stimuli is too small. To truly called as perceived difference or difference in perception, and contrast sensation from me to appear, ie specific conditions have to be fulfilled, which need not be met for the mere difference of two sensations, just feeling the difference, giving the following laws and the same expressive is formula room. 5) Maßgesetz the difference or contrast sensation (in Elem. II 96 ff through the Unterschiedsmaßformel represented), says that the size or strength of the difference in sensation, in so far as it depends on the size ratio of the stimuli, so the rest equated is proportional to the logarithm of a quotient, the numerator to be distinguished by the ratio of the two stimulus sizes whose denominator but by the threshold value of this ratio which is the value in which the perception of the difference vanishes, and above which it appears remarkably short by the ratio threshold is illustrated. Hot generally a sensation size γ , the stimulus area, which it depends β , the threshold value of the stimulus, wherein the sensation to exceed only be markedly occurs b,and may be K , k constants that are independent of the size of sensation and irritation . Where it is necessary to distinguish different sensations and stimuli, it is done by hanging dashes. Was also briefly the relationship between two stimuli , the threshold stimulus this ratio v and the size of the difference in sensation u, then the previous laws express in the following formulas: 1) threshold formulas: b == Const. , v == const. 2) fundamental formula for expression of Weber's law for sensation differences, changes, Zuwüchse of small size:

after an expression of the law, where ∂ γ , β ∂ very small changes mean, or generally, for any sensation and stimulus sizes

where f is a general function characters, after another form of expression.

3) Mass formula for mass of sensation size γ :

or when, what can happen under certain conditions, k = 1 and b = 1 is simply γ = log β

4) Difference formula for mass the size of a sensation difference

*) The constant k coincides with the constant K together the fundamental formula, if one uses natural logarithms, however, when applying ordinary logarithms , when with M is called the modulus of the common logarithmic system. From the fact that the logarithm of a true break is negative, followed by negative values of γ for values of β , which are smaller than the threshold.

5) Unterschiedsmaßformel, to the extent of difference or contrast sensation u

In regard to the derivation and mutual relationship previous laws and formulas may be noticed to, given in the elements, yet the following explanations. Weber's law is expressed in relation to perception differences, but the attempts relied on by Weber's law, just go directly to perceived differences or difference of sentiments in the sense of the above distinction (see above). However, it is likely entitled to that sensation differences would remain the same when the perceived differences remain the same and all that co-determines the difference sensations except the stimulus differences remains the same, what should be worn in the experiments in support of Weber's law. Without this natural condition, on the 5th Section will be the occasion to come back regarding an objection would be, not to pass from the experiments of a Maßgesetze of sensation.So while Weber's law in relation to perception differences (in its expression by the fundamental formula) with the threshold laws together is the mathematical basis for the derivation of other formulas, it is in its relationship to the difference sensations the experimental basis of which, by experiential of its validity has to close in recent relationship itself only on its validity in the first relationship. Depending on one or other relationship now you can from him by consultation of the threshold laws provide both the measurement formula, and thus solidarity difference formula as to reach Unterschiedsmaßformel as follows. The fundamental formula can be interpreted as an expression of Weber's law, regardless of the relationship both ways, also write

unless any size, including ∂ γ , can be taken mathematically replaced by a difference of two their similar sizes. This is of natural logarithms:

But you can Const. for two different cases determine different, first, by the simple threshold presupposes laws that γ ′ = 0 if ß to certain finite value b has what the mass formula

there, and if hereafter also

, is there a difference

formula , which is reckless on a comparison of both sensations for their real difference, and secondly, by for the case that its size by comparing both sensations, that can enter a new act of consciousness, presupposes the law of difference or ratio threshold that ′ γ - γ = 0, if a certain finite

value v has what Unterschiedsmaßformel are. Through the transition from natural to common logarithms eventually transformed (by the View Notes. Above) K in k Although the previous laws and formulas for the relationship between sensation and stimulus, that is, for the outer psychophysics, are pronounced, it explicitly noted that it is, for this relationship, apart from the ubiquitous signature threshold law, only with more or less approximation preferably, proven within the limits of ordinary sense use; hypothetical but by me as strictly valid for the relationship, between perception and psychophysical activity, - hereby viewed as fundamental to the inner psychophysics - so that the latter can be substituted for the charm in previous laws and formulas are. This is the one related to the psycho-physical activity, view threshold as an absolute constant for a given type of sensations in the outer psychophysics, but the one related to the stimulus threshold value only insofar as constant as the irritability itself receives constant, ie when the stimulus of the same thickness also always triggers the same psycho-physical activity; whereas according as the irritability decreases, exhausted, so less and less psycho-physical activity is triggered by the stimulus, the threshold value of the stimulus increases, if the stimulus itself must grow more and more to bring the psycho-physical activity on their constant threshold, which allows to use the mass formula, used to assess changes in excitability. Reasons mannichfacher kind, which can borrow a deviation from the established laws in experiments in the domain of express psychophysics, which will be enough opportunity to speak, ever fall off the inner psychophysics. So I now continue even make a distinction between of experimental and fundamental validity of laws and formulas, a difference which is unfortunately often neglected, it is to be understood as meaning that the validity expressed in the first sense to corroborability by observations or experiments in psychophysics, can be obtained in the second sense of accuracy for the inner psychophysics. The degree of sensation is not to be confused with a degree of sensitivity. As a measure of sensitivity for a given kind of stimuli is after

the clashes in the elements (I. 45 ff) the reciprocal of the stimulus, the noticeably appear the same for the sensation as a measure of the absolute difference in sensitivity of the absolute stimulus difference equal to noticeably appears as a measure of the relative difference in sensitivity, depending on whether one wants to believe it, the reciprocal value of the relative difference or the ratio of the stimuli, their difference appears equally noticeable. In so far as confirmed Weber's law, the absolute sensitivity of the absolute growth stimulus difference decreases more and more, however, the relative remains the same. As the main objections, which have asserted against the list of previous laws and formulas, the following should be emphasized: 1) That these laws and formulas do not agree with the facts, it is that they are derived from the same inaccurate (Abschn.V) is it that the experiments rather than deviations arise confirmation was Minister of Education (XVI) was. Especially in these relationships has experienced challenges Weber's law, but this law falls, so fall as well as derived laws. 2) That, can still speak of an experimental confirmation of the laws in question, so for the outer psychophysics to the extent that the same are yet transferred untriftig into the inner psychophysics by a logarithmic dependence of the sensation of her immediately underlying psychophysical activities, such as Such consists of the mass formula for the sensation regarding the stimulus, a priori, is unacceptable. Instead, as is done by us, the perception of the psycho-physical activity log to think of these stimuli in a simple proportion depends, rather, the reverse is to be assumed (VIII). 3) That our laws and formulas include conceptual and mathematical Untriftigkeiten, and especially the negative sentiment values, which leads to our mass formula for stimulus values below the threshold are not permitted (X). 4) The fact that a clear conception of the conditions of the outside world and rational teleology with our laws can not stand (VII VIII). 5) That hereafter to leave, the mathematical expression of the psychophysical laws established by me either formulas or modify it, or if its form, maintain, significantly different than done of me to suggest, let (IV). Part of the opponents share in these objections, some of them meet each other there, without, however (apart from about Plateau and Brentano) to meet the established positive counter views.

III. Literature folgends preferably to be considered objections and conflicting views. Where to find future annexed to the name of an author, a Paginaverweisung, it refers to the folgends designated essay or copy thereof, in particular herring where none of his communications is particularly referred to the first asked, mainly to be considered treatise. A drawback with citation of the papers from the Vienna meeting reports is that the separate copies of these papers, which are sent by the authors to professional colleagues, are paginated all from 1 to, hereafter not agree in the number of pages in general with the volumes of the Proceedings, worein they include, as an evil that would prevent my opinion. I will quote separately for the deduction, after which the course, which only the volumes of reports are available to bids that Paginaverweisungen can not find provoking. Helmholtz , "physiologist. appearance" p. 312 ff of this, published only in the year 1867 I was already works in 1860, approached the upcoming first issue considered here by kindness of the author, so I put it here ahead of time by. Aubert , "Physiology of the retina," 1865. p. 49 ff Mach , no 1 "Over time the meaning of the ear," in Proceedings of the Vienna. 51st Vol 1865, and no 2 "On the physiological effect of spatially distributed light stimuli" ebendas. 68th Bd in 1868. Bernstein, no.1 - "The Theory of Fechner's law of sensation" in the Reichert-Dubois'schen archive in 1868. p.388 ff and no.2, a special font: "Studies on the process of excitation in nerve and muscle systems", 1871. p. 166 ff Plateau , Bulletin de l'Acad. de Belgique. T. XXXIII . , 1872, thereof in Poggendorfs Ann. CL. St. 3 In 1873. p. 465th - An earlier note in Comptes rendus. T. LXXV. p .677 In 1872. - A later report on Delbceuf's Étude psychophysique in the first Bulletin 2 Ser. p. 250 ff Delbceuf , no l Étude psychophysique, Bruxelles, F. Hayez. In 1873. (Also T. XXIII Mém. I'Acad de. Roy. De Belgique). - No 2 Theory gener, de la sensibilité. Bruxelles, Hayez. 1876 -. 3 no A treatise "La loi psychophysique, herring contre Fechner" in the Revue Philosophique de la France et de I'Etranger par Ribot, Paris. Bailiiére. In 1877.p. 225 ff I'm above three short treatises as floor, Theor. quote and rev. Brentano , "Psychology from an empirical standpoint." Th 1 In 1874. p. 9, 87 ff Herring , "On Fechner's psychophysical law" in Vienna. Report 72 Bd in 1875. This the hereafter preferably to be considered treatise. But are also

more or less in Mitrücksicht following, by the author as messages "to the teaching of the light sense" designated and numbered according to their chronological order, all in the Vienna meeting reports contained essays: no 1 "On successive light induction" 66 Band. 3 Abth. 1872 -. No.2 "by the simultaneous contrast of light." 68th Band. In 1873. - No 3 "On simultaneous induction light." 68th Band. In 1873. - No 4 "on the so-called intensity of the sensation of light and the sensation of black." 69th Bd in 1874. - No 5 "Outline of a theory of the light sense." 69th Bd 1874.-no. 6 "Outline of a theory of color perception." 69th Bd in 1874. Long , "Fundamentals of psychophysics, a critical examination." In 1876. Jena, Dufft.

Ich werde nach den Separatabzügen zitieren, wonach dann freilich die, welchen nur die Bände der Berichte zu Gebote stehen, die Paginaverweisungen nicht stimmend finden können.

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IV Clear demonstration of the opponents (Helmholtz, Aubert, Mach, amber, plateau, Brentano, herring, long). After seeing the close of the second Section provides an overview of the main objections that have been directed against those responsible, laws and formulas here, I let the overview of opponents, of which these objections are assumed to follow order of time. As far as can be done in relative brevity, I share here each author directly at what's coming to him both of interjections as positive views, and reply, which I find to say to that, in so far as it requires further remarks, is to refer to the sequence . The formulas that provide the opponent for the mine are listed in activations. Unless something else is explicitly noted, the degree of sensation is everywhere with γ , the dimension of the stimulus with β known, and are c , k , K to understand the stimuli independent constants. In general, the terms used by the authors in their formulas are Buchstabenbezeichungen amended several times (with indication).

Helmholtz and Aubert. Helmholtz and Aubert argue that the experimental deviations from

Weber's law in the areas of light sensation after their attempts to go much further than I after all antecedent trials had reason to accept what it Helmholtz does not prevent the approximate character of the law, on which it in the only thing that matters express psychophysics to establish conclusions about the inner essential to recognize, whereas Aubert law ever declared not applicable. Meanwhile, I have already shown the above places that Aubert's own tests still prove the approximation of the law beyond the limits of ordinary eyes beyond use, and will in the 16th Section with specific information back to that. About the established formulas of Helmholtz and Aubert following activation are accountable. Helmholtz's first and foremost (p. 313) to cover the bottom, ie, after the kiddies stimulus values towards taking place, experimental deviation from Weber's law one with the drawn up by myself for this purpose formula (Elem. II 195) matching formula, but in order to cover the top, to the greater stimulus values towards taking place, along with deviation, as it provides differential formula (only with use of other letters) to the following formula: (1) where c , a , A are constants independent of stimuli, a particular a small value, which measures the stimuli independent from the inner emotion, and against considerable values of β noticeably disappears, A a very large value, against which values of β that are not are very large (more so a disappearing). Where now a to β , while β against Adisappears, this formula goes over into our simple fundamental formula by our K represents. Taking into account only the lower deviation, ie neglected β to A , we arrive at our above mentioned representative, this deviation formula in Elem. II 195 By integration we obtain from (1) the following mass formula

For extremely large values of β , where not only a , but also A disappears, however, occurs Const. as the maximum of sensation γ on, what if this maximum G is,

Further, let g , the value of γ , the virtue without the charm only the inner excitement a takes place, one has on the other hand, I notice in


what are

after which there is an expression of the difference between maximum and miminum of sensations

the coefficient

but a to A can be ignored. , ie the geometric mean which, according to

The maximum value of the relative difference in sensitivity is found in accordance with the above formulas between a and A by the ratio of

(1) is taking, and of these known pathways investigated in the maximum value. Aubert p. 68 his results sought empirically within certain limits to represent the assumption that the values (by Aubert as designated) that are just noticeably, in the inverse ratio of the logarithms of β are when the logarithm of β at a certain lowly values of ß as the associated value of puts, and, starting from this lowly values of β , it is in two tables of two series of experiments a comparison of observation and statement, from the simple to the 100-fold β -rich, with the remark that the differences between observation and calculation does not exceed the limits of error of monitoring across to get you. However, one can see that in this comparison, the differences of an almost regular way with increasing β from the negative to positive transition, and at the highest contemplated β , instead of the required calculation , values

to occur. Finally to remember is that in the one adopted by Aubert as a unit, weak output value of β so impossible as it happens by the brightness of the inner eye black could be neglected 1) , wanted to come to a rational formula. Also Aubert himself admits (p. 56) that his

assumption for very small values of β not zureicht, and are therefore the same as explicitly only one, for that limited portion of his attempts empirically useful.


In fact, in one of two tables

, in the other

as a unit of the

just noticeable accepted will receive at light intensities β , a white board which was lit by one, at the distance of 2 meters which located stearin.

In order to formulate it (followed by Aubert not be admitted), you would put:

and by Const. through, with a Const. c multiplied small, even constant sensation of just noticeable difference ∂ γ , as of ∂ β , β and log. β dependent, replaced,

thereof, after setting of . Allowed to apply the threshold principle, according to which γ , == 0 if β is equal to the finite threshold b , we finally obtained as the mass formula , which differs from our mass formula (see above) only differs in that log. β and log. b are raised to the square. - The empirical maximum of the relative difference in sensitivity is given by the Aubert's formula for as little as ours. Mach. Mach makes my basic formulas for the outer psychophysics in areas of intense sensations essentially apply, and is even a special little pamphlet

(lectures on psycho-physics. Vienna, Summer, 1863) received a more detailed discussion of the same, but denies in no 2 of I transferability of the formulas adopted in the inner psychophysics due to a theoretical assumption, but after the discussions that I can not find it under VIII binding. He also does not take after his treatise no one based on his own experiments Weber's law applicable to the extensive time sensations, however, but the same after the 16th Section following compilation of his and Vierordtscher attempts namely with respect to time sensations equally as well with regard to all sensations, a lower experimental deviation is subject to higher and higher but approximate enough so, that one can hardly fail to attribute a fundamental importance to the law in this area. - The set up in no 2, in the 11th To be discussed in sections, formulas of the author about contrast sentiments I agree with like, unless they prove that no experimental errors for the provability of Weber's Law are to be feared from the effects of the contrast. Bernstein. Although Bernstein accepts the shape of my measurement formula, but gives her a completely altered design. Instead of feeling γ in logarithmic function of the strength of the stimulus or the psychophysical action β to set, it sets simply proportional to the number of brain nerve cells through which as oscillation operation imaginary energization on the occurrence of the stimulus in the brain of propagating or, assuming a uniform dispensation of these cells, simply proportional to the size of the space S , in which these cells are present, multiplied by the density α in which the space is filled by the cells, by assuming that a certain space around the entry point of excitation, no progression of, with the spread and by the resistors become more and more slowing, agitation, ie that the space S , absorbed. Irradiationsraum, as a limited viewing. But it depends on its deduction α S according to the same formula of the size of the stimulus β with which the excitation occurs in the brain, and the threshold b in the sense of the author, with whom she terminates at the boundary of the Irradiationraumes, from when to us the sensation of β and b according to our version, which has the same shape of the mass formula based. So one has the sense of the author

where k is one of the specific resistance, which the ganglion cells of the propagation of the excitation oppose dependent, depending on the sensitivity of the different individuals for different stimuli is constant. The derivation of Bernstein's mass formula is based on some conditions that are not obvious, but since it can not speak soon, so I refer

to it from here, especially relating thereto, 18 Section. For my part, I would be able the view of the author mainly not to share the following two reasons: first, because I have a degree of sensation by the spread of the excitatory process, of which the sensation depends, without taking the strength of excitation at each point in the measurement with not concede would be able, and secondly, because I can not find adequate reasons for the limitation of the finite Irradiationsraumes by the deduction of the author. However, detailed here on the 15thSection and some remarks at the end of the 18th Plateau. Plateau without making definite objections asserted against me says (p. 471): "Fechner's formula leads to the conclusion that if the Community illumination varies, the differences of perception remain constant, it has given me to explain the constancy of the general. impression an engraving of natural seemed, a priori, to assume the constancy of these ratios and not the differences between the sensations, "and he does in this relationship of approaching following fact asserted:" Everyone knows that an engraving remains pretty much the same, you like him at sunlight, considered by gaslight or even in the sunshine. these so different lights bring any substantial change in the relationships between the light and dark parts out. " By means of an analysis that I'm here, then plateau comes to the following, its corresponding condition. Maßformel where k and p are constants, of which p to plateau's remark may be less than 1, and must be accepted unquestionably less, to be told that the sensation in slower conditions increases as the stimulus. From previous formula follows, after setting of kp = K , which our fundamental formula would be to replace, and

Helmholtz interpreted the fact of fairly constant impression of a copper engraving at different luminance levels rather in my as Plateau's senses, however, will be through subjective perceptions and authorities decide nothing, but there is an objective Mtttel of decision in trials, such as those for the examination of Weber's Law serve. Also plateau that very well seen, and, indisputably the previously applied methods or their results, mistrusting, even given a new (lower short to be called) test method, which in fact psychophysical methods can be regarded as an inestimable asset, also has its practical feasibility and usefulness checked provisional and proven found, but as he (in consideration of his eye

condition) the examination of the law itself does not perform, directed to be carried out on a by means only of Delbceuf this method examination, after which he closes his subsequent relevant essay with the following words "If the results are to be published, you will know which of the three formulas of Fechner worthy of Delbceuf [which under the heading Delbceuf], or the preference of mine." In the proposed platform, later executed by Delbceuf, method, it is essential to forge, three adjacent light areas A , B , C in their physical brightness as to grade each other, that in the judgment of the sensation of brightness difference between C and B exactly just as large as between A and B appear, and carry this out through a larger scale of light intensities, after which the bill has to do their part to test whether the ratios of these intensities paste the formula to be tested sufficiently. That the assessment of the point where the equality of the two differences between A and B , B and C occurs for the performance, not subject to great uncertainty, it is plateau had already convinced of several test subjects, and is confirmed by Delbceuf's experiments. Also occur already the star size estimates basically under this principle. Well, the trials Plateau's method have since been made and published by Delbceuf. You decide to plateau's formula for Weber's law, and if Delbceuf in his first treatise (Étude) still believed to represent on the basis of these experiments a modification of Weber's law, which in fact equally good, but not better than the law itself agrees with his experiments, he accepted it in his late essays pure Weber's Law, by doing a course other fundamental interpretation, as it happens to me, there. Finally plateau itself has withdrawn a report on Delbceuf's Étude on the basis of the tests his formula with the following words: "Quant à ma formule par cela seul qu'elle differe de celle de M. Delbceuf il est évident, qu'elle est inexacte. " 2)


I quote sent to me by a perfect message this point because I have not read plateau's report itself. Meanwhile remains plateau's conception of interest, provided that Other (Brentano, Ueberhorst) have come only from other sides on factors which lead back to the plateau's formula, how to discuss with the inscription "Brentano." Secondary one can notice that plateau's formula contains no threshold, after which everything speaks to Section IX for the fundamental detention of the same, at the same time argues against Plateau's formula.

What the objections concerned, the plateau recently raised in his treatise "Sur les Couleurs accidentelles ou subjectives" (Bruxelles, Hayez 1875) against my views on the subjective colors, so is their consideration not here, and I only mention briefly that I the same from the following aspects not add too would be able: I mean that in the Nachbildsversuchen not only on the light dust and other light phenomena that happen to the Black mix in itself, but mainly on the inner light (the inner psychophysical excitation), which through the face phenomenon Eye black is self-represented, is to take into account that this may decrease due to internal reasons, especially in the circumference of afterimages bright objects on a dark ground, increasing its brightness far beyond its intermediaries value only by virtue of an organic device, not below a certain threshold, and that in the same sense that one can speak of a decomposition of the externally applied and internally excited by the same light in color, no less dismantled and dismantling these must be considered in all experiments on subjective complementary colors. Also, I've been in my treatise on the subjective complementary colors in Pogg. Ann. XLIV. Pp. 517 ff significantly pronounced in this sense, only there to one side as proof that regardless of express light stimuli may be an inner subjective light development, the more random light phenomena with which the eye black can be interspersed, pointed, with which one certainly not sufficient to explain many phenomena, and against this, however, I could see an opposition rights. However, I have. Both in the Elem., As in, in the mountains d sächs Soc. 1860 contained treatise on contrast perception clear enough about the light value, which I enclose the eyes Black himself says. - That the, with red and green paper salaried test, the plateau p. 10 does, only then something could mean when the red and green of simple homogeneous in nature would be, should be clear: he would not itself be conclusive for this case, if one may assume that each objective simple ink-jet a composition of color rays triggers internally , a view with respect to the Helmholtz Young's hypothesis pronounce, however, I kind of just in another sense, in the 14th Section represent. There are reasons for that, anyway. Brentano. Brentano does (p. 90) a, to be considered by me V, objection against my reasoning way of Weber's Law, where he will meet with other opponents, and replaced by one that differs from mine, view of the facts on which I this law reasons, the same by the following: Meanwhile, according to Weber's law, each increment of a sensation is equally noticeable when the growth of sensation stimulus retains the same relation to the stimuli by Brentano each increment of sensation is equally noticeable, which reserves to the intensity of the sensation, to which he added occurs, an equal ratio , and the relative increase in the feeling of, if the relative increase in physical stimulus is the same the

same. Much the same thing but it comes out when Ueberhorst in his book: "The emergence of visual perception of Göttingen in 1876." Due to purely psychological discussions, and assuming that the sensations of nerve to go simply proportional, prepares the sentence: "Similar sentiments, which are still discernable always differ by an equal fraction of its own strength from each other. " Brentano has not expressed its law into mathematical symbols, but it is done in the following intervention by me, and through correspondence with him, I've made sure that that the sense in which he knows his act is really made. It turns out that this formula and therefore the law of the author entirely on the Plateausche formula that Plateausche law returns, therefore, all that is said against this, also applies to the Brentano's application, without which I had needed to return to it. Be as always γ the sensation β the stimulus, p is a constant, so this is the fundamental law of the author:

which the mass formula log γ = p log β + Const.

leads. If we now set γ = 1 for β = B , where log. γ = 0, we obtain Const. = - p log. B , so in general:

and from this


is set.

In support of his law Brentano does not the same facts as the Plateau, but only facts asserted which are otherwise generally interpreted in favor of Weber's law, as such: "The fact that the increase of an inch to a line equal noticeable than the increase of foot around the same size. " Of course, I must confess that my derivation manner of his law has become completely clear either through his writing, even from the run with him correspondence from such facts, and it would like to see it, and seem the

same from others remarks 3) that the point of view from to distinguish which physical and psychological variables in psychophysics on the one hand, andrerseils has not clearly been present with each other to put it into a functional relationship. Over here some remarks are turned on.

So if he p. 91 claimed by my method will not both a psychic measured as a physical phenomenon. I believe that the distinction we have to make in this regard, and even make out the psychophysics implicitly everywhere, this refers to physical sizes are either directly measurable by external measures, or where difficulties of direct measurement are available, but principally attributable to such recoverable amount , psychological variables are not directly as measured, but only internally for equality and inequality, greater and lesser inequality, comparable, however, they do psychophysically as a function of the physical variables on which they depend on the basis of laws which exist for this dependence, even subject to a degree which, though rarely experimentally feasible, but in principle exists everywhere. To illustrate the distinction to be made at least by way of example, serve as follows: After an interesting remark of herring seem to be two on the paper in a certain horizontal distance distanter of each mounted points when a number of points between them mounts, as if you leave the space between them empty, as everyone can immediately convince when an empty and interspersed with dots horizontal distance with the same circle distance attaching to each other. Provided they meet the same circle distance, they are physically the same, however they are mentally equal. Now you might the psychological size impression with the physical dimensions thereby put into a functional relationship that we enlarged the empty distance as long or with dots fulfilled so long reduced until both the eye immediately appeared, and so shall gain a functional relationship between mental equality, which can be judged mentally and physical inequality that can be measured externally. Depending on the greater or lesser absolute length of the lines, greater or lesser number of points you would undoubtedly find in this regard, various conditions, and so one can even a psychophysical investigation judge it, under what amendments, conditions, physical, di externally measurable, values an equality that depend on mental values continuously receives or recovers (as is indeed the case of test of Weber's Law happens) which, although not directly a psychological level, but rather a functional relationship between the two is, from which such a measure is in principle derivable.

The author makes also the following general remarks against my counter psychophysical measurement gauge: "Once - he says (p. 90) - to restrict the ability of the measurement of intensities by the method described by Fechner entirely on such phenomena, which are produced by external stimulation of the sense organs for all mental phenomena, which in in physical processes inside. of the organism have their basis, ie a measure of the intensity still lack. " - But it is missing, we therefore not derivable from experiments in the domain of outer psychophysics principle of measuring psychological variables according to their functional dependence of physical quantities, which is psychologically the most important thing, hereby not the possibility of inner psychophysics, which the author denies seems to provide. "But more - adds the author (p. 91) added - the sensations themselves do not depend solely on the strength of the external stimulus, they also depend on mental conditions, such as on the degree of attention from it. will therefore be necessary to eliminate this influence, for my sake, by requiring the case of the highest and fullest attention. then arises but, if not otherwise Inconvenientes, go at least a new and significant limitation. " But it is not true that the strength of a sensory phenomenon appears, still depends on the degree of attention, if the phenomenon is not only escapes at all the attention.Over here in the Elem. H. 452 ff said enough, and everyone can see immediately that a white or gray paper is not bright, not a sound appears louder, like you, a more or less intense focus attention on it. But why did he disappear quite out of consciousness, if you do not aim? Well, you have my explanation for the 42nd Section of the elements, and shortly I come back to it under IX. How to find an explanation for the enemy, they may see themselves. Delbceuf. Delbceuf takes his three, (see above), designated as short floor, Theor. Rev. and to be distinguished treatises 4) a peculiar and fluctuating position against my theory.According to the above statement (see above), you should locate one of the most outspoken opponents against the same in him. Nevertheless, his attempts are (in La.) only a very welcome confirmation of Weber's Law, in an approximation, which goes much further than to the Aubert's experiments, how to, his attempts to be discussed from the 17 Section is convincing. Also recognizes Delbceuf in his first treatise (Et p. 22 46) the approximate character of Weber's law, and only believes, partly for theoretical reasons, partly to the, in his experiments as everywhere still remaining experimental lower deviation to cover from Weber's law, it must be modified slightly, however, he drops in his later treatises such modification 5) .


In addition to these papers, which concern us here alone, Delbceuf, an excellent of experimental and philosophical researchers in Belgium, also studies on treatment has logicalmathematical problems, such as published by optical illusions. His last published writing bears the title "Logique algorithmique Essai sur un Systeme de signes appliqué à la logique avec une introduction ou sont les traitées questions générales relative à l'emploi dans les sciences of notations.." Bruxelles, Muquart, in 1877.

If Delbceuf in his first paper (Et) could be accused of the same from the result of my attempts formula for Weber's law, the lower deviation, which presents not the modification of the law adopted by him there, it is merely because he ignored has that brings to me to represent this deviation, for the small value of c, which he ß as an addition to stimulus into account the value of the brightness of the eyes Black comes as such additional penalty, the Delbeouf certainly not understood by his c, which but the calculation is indifferent.

And the same goes even as a consequence of, erected by him Maßgesetze permits, the formula in the form completely coincides with my logarithmic measurement formula. However, introduced by me in this threshold is replaced by a different value understood, which they, however, also for the application is a significantly different (see below). By him, even in his later treatises held, theoretical objections mainly relate to my preparation and interpretation of negative values and sense of solidarity so that threshold, which I'm under IX and X. Because now Delbceuf just make herring objections to Weber's law and the dependent logarithmic measurement formula as good as me, is Delbceuf even from the opponent in the Étude an ally in the Revue in so far for me, as he having his own objections therefore give up, but at the last herring objections opposed relationship, though generally from other points of view, as it will be done by me. To own positive view Delboeufs to describe briefly, in which he not only mine, but is stopped by him earlier (in Et) prepared against such aims in his last papers (Theor. and Rev.) after him which, as oscillatory process presented, activity in which the sensory nerves are understood and their size it with p referred, with the stimulating of external activity, the stimulus, the size of it with p to set called 'equilibrium, it is sensation place as long as the balance is not achieved, positive sense (as of heat,

light) as long as the stimulus is predominant, negative (of cold, dark) in the opposite case. In any case, the effect of that sensation diminishes by striving for constant stimuli preserved until equilibrium is reached, after which the sensation is silent as long as the stimulus does not change. Thereafter Delboeufs is Foundational Formula

where γ the degree of sensation, p 'the voice of the stimulus, p the inward activity is the (theoretical p. 26 30). However, it is not a static moment, what to Delbceuf the sensation depends, but if I understand correctly otherwise the author of the of me to taken together passages from his more recent essays, it is this: The particles of the nerves them a naturally rightful position (Rev. p. 246) and of course they are in a zukommenden vibrational states at this location (theoretical p. 25-26, Rev. p. 245). Also, the outer stimulus is generally (at least explicitly by Rev. p. 246) viewed perceived as the vibrational states. Under the influence of the p 'designated force (force) 6) of the external stimulus changes the internal state of vibration, and that the position of the particles. The change of the internal vibrational state goes after one, by the author (theoretical p 27). Formulated laws 7) so continued until his, with p labeled force the p 'is the express vibrational state become equal, and changes the position of the particles to counter a resistance they encounter when leaving their natural position, until the growing resistance to the deviation has come into equilibrium with the changing force. In theory, the author refers to the change of the internal vibrational state, in the Revue (p. 246) to change the situation. In any case, the condition of the nerve under the influence of a stimulus with which it has set itself back into balance, a state of tension is comparable. But the sensation is proportional to the work (travail) T , with this change of the internal vibrational state and the position of the particles takes place (theoretically P. 47, Rev. P.246), and this work T is (theoretically p. 47), comparable to that at which the change in the pressure p and volume V a, enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston, gas mass takes place at a constant temperature, when the pressure Pin the pressure p 'and v to v 'is converted by this

where c is a constant. 8)

In so far as I can follow the author, here is the force brought into

play only by the effects which he ascribes to her, and characterized by comparisons of him. That he understands the vital force of vibrations below, I do not say, but is probably to think of nothing Andres.

Let p 'is constant, and p force weaker than initially = p ° have

been, then the time t , in which p ° to p went up, its where k is constant.

Namely: "Let p the pressure, v is the volume (expressed by the height of the gas when it is enclosed in a cylinder), one has [Mariottischem by law]: pv . Be = const t work, it is be "

from which it draws:

and by v with respect to its function p replaced:

Without the action of a stimulus p 'is (by theor. p. 31), the sentient beings in a natural state of equilibrium (équilibre naturel), comparable to that in which a, outspread on a violin string is when it is left to itself. This state of the string, but must be distinguished from the state of the voltage u of the equilibrium (équilibre de tension), where the string is located, if it is kept away by an external force from its natural position, and with letzterm state is the state of sentient being comparable if p by the action of p has set 'with this balance. Now there is a maximum and minimum of p , which can not be exceeded by one and the other, without the body suffers, as the string breaks when you too stressed by removal from their natural position. The natural state of equilibrium is located in the middle between the two boundaries. The sensual sensation is (according to theor. 31 34 43 ff) accompanied either by a feeling of fatigue, exhaustion of pain, or a feeling of well-being, pleasure, according as it is more of a two limits, or more to the natural state approaches. This feeling is mixed (.. According to theor p 32) always with the feeling and is usually quite masked by them, but if the former feeling is too strong, it masks itself the sensation, it disappears then so to

speak, and makes the pain area. Developed for this feeling, the author of theoretical views formulas (p. 32 ff), but what I do not want to go into here. Is built by wesentlichst Delboeufs basic view and a formula to the very fact that the sensation at constant stimuli is diminished, and this can even go up to the extinction of the sensation 9) , explains, or rather they naturally covers this fact excellent, but met however other so difficulties.

According to us this fact depends on the fact that under the influence of a continuous stimulus of the source of the psychophysical activity can be triggered by more and more exhausted, so that under these circumstances - because generally, for example in the Lichteinpflndung, it is even not the case - can be pushed down to the threshold, and even up under the same. Applicability of Delboeufs view and formula on the inner psychophysics seems excluded in principle from the outset, because all sensation of changes in an interior p by an external p is' dependent; also is Delbceuf not deal with such an application, but may herein unless are essential difficulty, so you might as well by external irritation of the nervous system within our body, namely, to speak of the other organic systems here, and make thereof such as, without existence of objective stimuli arising, depending on subjective feelings. However Delboeufs formula can miss the threshold, whereas we compare the remarks under IX. - It also brings temperature sensations with light and sound sensations under such a common viewpoint that follows, information to be made between, difference does not come into its own. Between the sensation of cold and heat, there is a state of zero temperature sensation, not just as between the sensation of black and white a zero state of the sensation of light, nor between the sensation of silence and noise, a zero state of sensorineural. I mean, the dependencies of temperature sensation of the temperature expressed are factually different from the express to light and sound stimuli to impose conditions on the dependence of the light-and sensorineural them the same formula. However, the main objection seems to lie in following me. The gray light always gives us a positive feeling that we may pass from prolonged viewing of white or black to it, and indeed, except that if the first eye is fatigued as second rate, the same positive light sensation. By consequence of view and Delboeufs formula but gives us the first gray if a sensation from the opposite second character as appropriate, if a negative first, second, if a positive feeling. Because in order to have the sensation of white, this hasp of the eye 'to the White approach, the more

so the longer the white was considered, so that it finally about the p p 'must have ascended the later considered gray, which the condition of a negative perception of the gray is. In the transition from black to gray All in the opposite direction. Well you will certainly really feel in transitions from white to gray, that the gray a loss of brightness against the whites, and in the opposite direction of the transition that has an increase of brightness against the black, but that's just a matter of feeling a difference. The perception of brightness of the gray itself remains the same, the same number as 2 remains, one may of 1 or 3 above go to when they have found it to 1 in the positive, compared to negative 3. Now Delbceuf can reply that he did but set only contrast sensations; however, I mean, it was a sensation in their own strength, and to distinguish the ratio of plus and minus its power to other sensations. For where is the ratio between the plus and minus take place when you fail the sensations themselves a strength, there is nothing to it since then. In fact Delbceuf but it seems to me that what is the only thing difference sensation with what is a matter of absolute sensation to be confused, or mixed. I have for the Unterschiedsmaßformel that, for this simple measurement formula. Delbceuf has only one formula for both. By previous following is related: Since there is no light still poorer available under the blackest black, to which one could go from there, then the sensation of pure black, where it exists, to Delbceuf only ever a negative character through their relationship with the sensation of a greater brightness which has acted sooner have, but follows up the very weak, but still positive, value of the sensation of light, the black on untern has end of the spectrum of light sensations with continuous transitions through shades of gray to white, not to his rights . One problem I find is that I am able to give me any real idea how ever there can be a lasting sensation of black to Delbceuf, and the sensation of black is still a distinct feeling of nothingness. Set, it is to me pitch dark, but I can make the sensation of black still conditional upon the inner, I agree, moreover, the eyes, a light stimulus from the outside world is not as p my visual apparatus of p and 'in the environment differed the transitions from p to equilibria with p 'came the sensation of black. But it can not last forever, until it occurred; why I drive it away forever, black to see why does the sensation not the same at least, since After falling equilibrium stop the sensation and is to diminish in the transitions. Delbceuf course gives examples to be felt that a continuous continuous continuous uniform noise finally stops, but his explanation of it should be adequately, they would just fit both light and sound. Yes, why is it that we can feel its brightness for a whole day? Delbceuf explained it, I understand him to theor. p. 39 right to do so. There are around us objectively brighter and darker, and we say simple observation half white and black. Would the eye quite motionless in the same

proportion to it, and did not change the outward brightness relations themselves, the sensation of white as the black would gradually stop using the p at any point of the eye with the p sat 'of the voice falling on the light balance . But the eye is changing from white to black and vice versa over and over, or even black and white change externally in their relation to the same locations of the retina, and so it is not a permanent balance and changes of positive and negative character of the sensation of light to the same place. But this should be possible, then we would have in the transitions between positive and negative states repeatedly nothing or almost nothing to do with this and see those places of the retina, however, we see it with any part of the retina during an entire day something. (See also Section XII of this.) Wants to be, however, the contrast makes itself felt, for example neighborly between white and black, in my opinion just as much considered, and finally I find the contrast of Delbceuf only a sensation with the sensation as previous account of influence on the value of sensation . These are difficulties that made me reckless Delboeufs on theoretical premises from which I can simply say that I find nothing Binding fact hinder its mass formula and the exploitation manner concur. Since its Delbceuf so estimable attempts in the 17th Will be to commemorate section has discussed with relation to its earlier view in the Étude, will therefore not be avoided, even on our side of being referred to, the following may be mentioned in brief above. Also in the Étude assumes Delbceuf that each sense organ, apart from a voice stimuli, already is internally excited, but leaves this inner turmoil, the size of it with c known to play a very different role than to its current view of p plays. In itself this inner excitement granted c after him no sensation, but provides merely "to fond vivant et sensitive" for the emergence of such, according to which he c not, as happens in the visual sensation of me with the brightness of Black eyes, from which he wants to know about all abstracts identified. Instead, that the p of the modern view of the outward stimuli is highly variable and may increase it up to equivalence, Delbceuf leads rather c as an always small remaining constant in its formulas, with the concession that the constancy in Try not to completely stands the test. To comply with avoiding threshold and negative sentiment values to the observations as possible, is hereafter Delbceuf (Étude p 34, 35).:

where K is a constant. Herring. Hering's objections are so versatile that according to the very general summary of the latter (see above) to a specific Demonstration same refrain here only in the following sections - and almost over and in each of them you will find his name - going into details. In fact, he has all the psychophysical perception theory - so far, in particular concerning the area of the sensations of light, but with the prospect of enlargement asked - trying to redesign from the ground up, and is therefore also positiverseits came into conflict with my views. In his fifth and 6 Msgs. He is a chemical theory of light sensations, and if indeed the quite well represented by the discussions under the XIII, by me, Oszillationsansicht tolerate, but it is not after the manner of the author's version. But predominantly makes the contradiction of his views against the mine in the manner claimed, as he (in s 4 msgs.) Conceives the relation of the sensations of black and white, where the sensation of black to him just as positive as that of the White, and the different degrees of brightness perception are representable by composition of various degrees of sensation of black and white. In so far herring at all the concept of intensity still holds on perception of light and other sensations to be applicable, it sets it (to p. 21 of his folgends mainly to be considered treatise), simply proportional in accordance with Mach and so many others, the underlying psychophysical activity instead, as is done in logarithmic dependence of me. On the one directly related to my views and objections herring formulas I go to a majority of the following sections (V. VI VII VIII.) One, on his views on the sensations of black and white under XIV, XVIII tests under his weight. The most common aspects of herring chemical theory can be found in his own words in the following activation, Spezialeres in the Appendix to XIV, while I give the floor to my XIII and XIV, which differs considerably, View. Own psychophysical formulas to my knowledge has not been established if you do not want to count his ideal formulas for the composition of the sensation of gray from those of black and white such as herring. "The two qualities of sensation, which we refer to as white or light and a black or dark correspond (according to Hering's 5th Mitt p. 9), two different qualities of chemical events in the visual substance, and the different ratios of clarity or intensity with which those two feelings in the individual transitions between pure white and pure black and prominent, or the circumstances in which they appear mixed to match the same ratios of the intensities of these two psychophysical processes. " . . . "We need to take a substance in the nervous Sehapparate, which undergoes a change under the influence of the incident light, and this

change, it may can be characterized physically as they wanted, lies in how the nervous physiology must assume both a chemical process. has the effect of light stopped so returns the modified (more or less "" tired, "") substance earlier or return later in their original condition. This return can again be nothing else than a chemical change in the opposite direction. If you want the under interpret the direct influence of light occurring chemical modification of the excitable substance as a partial consumption, it must be called a return to the former condition as a restitution, you want to the former as a fission process, one must latter regarded as a synthetic process, the last process , replaced by which the living organic matter loss suffered by excitement or activity again, you wont be described as assimilation, and I want to keep this expression. During arousal or activity now forms every living excitable or organic matter is generally assumed certain chemical products. The development of these products I will describe as analogous to the process of dissimilation. " . . . "The sensation of the White or Bright now corresponds dissimilation, the sensation of black or dark assimilation of visual substance .... What comes to us as a visual sensation to consciousness is the mental correlate of the conscious expression or metabolism of the visual substance." About the further execution of these sentences is to Hering's 5th and 6 Mitt salvation itself and to refer the Annex to Section XIV. Long. Langer joins several times the objections of Helmholtz, Aubert and herring, performs those according to some relations further and adds his own objections, especially to my view of the negative sentiment values and threshold, added, after which he indeed leaves a logarithmic measurement formula still apply, but these significantly different shape, as has been done by me. Entering into a subject in later sections (V. VI. X) such objections Langer's, which he more or less coincides with other opponents, I believe it now for only those in the eye, which are peculiar to him. 1) As a very fundamental objection he raises against those flowing from my Maßformel, negative sentiment values for stimulus levels below the threshold of the following: "The negative sentiment values must be those that additively combined with equally large positive, enter the value 0 in all circumstances;., This only corresponds to the terms of the antithesis of the positive and negative - would think it is a finite stimulus, the sensation γ out were calling, and another stimulus, less than the threshold, the sensation - γ out were calling, we should have the simultaneous effect of both stimuli evoke the sensation of 0 if the relationship should exist at all, and

each contrast this approach comes into its own, because it definition. represents the antithesis of the positive and negative magnitudes. " Now it is true, if I have the two stimuli β = nb and β = where n is arbitrary, b is the threshold, let act for themselves, they give (in my Maßformel together as nb + sensation ) the sensations + γ and - γ , if I do but let act, instead of feeling 0, but the that is greater than each of the two

sensations k log n and k log for themselves. But it is not a strange demand that they should give zero to the formation of negative feeling towards the positive values as a function of β to find justified. Not when the correct definition of the contrast of positive and negative (in absolute value by the same) variables is that both together give zero, it follows however that in functional dependence of the same of other values, the function of the sum of these values is equal to zero was. For example: The trigonometric functions cos. 0 ° and cos. 180 ° are in the mathematical opposites as +1 and - 1, by going along 0th Now we add the angle 0 ° to 1800, and take the cosine of the result, we have not 0, as long calls, but 1 So one may also not demand that mathematical in contrast, that the stimulus nd with the stimuli together, give the sensation of zero. are , taken

2 Long suppressed (p. 58) that, by our fundamental formula (see above)

Weber's law expressed only with other characters and the same as in any other position of u=kβ where u the just noticeable stimulus difference ∂ β , and k the, for constant constant value ∂ γ our formula represents, and finds the law of the experiments, in particular

inadequate, both because the value

by Aubert, with increasing β for a certain value of β a minimum value (hereby the relative difference in sensitivity has a maximum value) is obtained, secondly, "because the law is in contradiction with the fact of the threshold, as the just noticeable stimulus difference must pass the threshold, if β is the smaller of the just noticeable stimulus difference u visual stimuli. " What now arrives Erstres so of course does not cover the Weber's law, established as fundamental for inner psychophysics, the occurrence of that minimum value, but before you entering this makes itself fundamentally against Weber's law must in any case to examine only whether or not to the experimental deviations heard that can not even cover the fundamental law. Against my 6th Section held view that it belongs to is debatable, however. Now, if even just long had the intention to establish an experimental formula true, what one remains in doubt, but could have been much more than the fact that recording is in its formula to it to justify experimental, but just so much more than is found in Langer, to make the non-inclusion of that fact in the empirical, as fundamentally established, Weber's law against the same law. As to the second, then the fact of the threshold contradicted by Weber's law only after a concept of threshold, which significantly differs from ours, and related to Langer's objections against our negative sentiment values, about which a few words in the following activation. The demand Langer's that for β = 0, the value u equal to become the threshold, so that with the fact that he does not, how does a zero value of the feeling of us at a finite value of β , but the zero values of β assumed, ie in sense above his throw-statuiert no negative feeling values, however, in my opinion, with a negative perception threshold values are solidarity. What is called Langer threshold and how we interact with b known, though ruled after him conscious of unconscious feelings, but feelings are unconscious to him but also very small sensations, and the distinction he makes between his conscious and unconscious feelings (p. 54 ) has not become quite clear to me, you may even read about it long. See more comments about the 10th Section. 3) On p. 21 provides long a consideration of, from which he concludes, should just noticeable difference sensations belong really the same difference sensations, one would have to assume that "the uncertainty with which one remembers a past sensation size, the size to which one of the assessment may differ seen by the memory of the true feeling, from the size of the sensations is completely independent, "which indeed to accept the theory of love hypothetically possible, but nothing is less than likely. - Well I mean but, since the difference in sensations such simple sensations psychophysical occur as a function of stimulus differences and stimuli that the discussion of the relevant

influence of the memory not as done by Langer, held in pure sensation areas, but out of consideration for the stimuli must be, and ask to meet her the following brief consideration. Left to the law to that stimulus differences are estimated at different heights of the stimulus scale by the sensation equal if they have an equal relationship with her charms, as well as the average error, which can, under otherwise identical conditions (avoiding or eliminating constant error) be must penalized for direct estimation of two stimuli at different levels of the stimulus scale, a similar proportion to its charms have (followed by the method of intermediaries error based), and it is this so shall also the estimation errors that one commits due to insufficient memory, if only be apart of the modified size of the stimuli, the other conditions of which the durability of memory depends, kept the same, so the attention always, or in many trials for each stimulus level on average, kept at the same level, and the interval between the stimulus effects always is respektiv average, kept the same. Under this, but essentially, and of myself always preserved, but condition may occur by the estimation error from faulty memory no fault of the above law, because they themselves comply with the above law. 4) These are some little things: How long can say (p. 4), "that I have referenced the deviations of the numbers of Weber's law in my [weight] experiments in the series of errors of observation," I do not understand because my did not occur, in fact, what the discussion of these tests in the Elem. can leave no doubt. - No less mistaken Langer when he says (p. 35): "the validity of Fechner his psychophysical law has been pronounced for the extensive sensations in the same way as for all other stimuli," because of Elem. II 336 (see also Section VII folgends) shows just the opposite. - Finally, I do not know what my lack of weight tests Langer (p. 84) refers to the fact that should have prevented him herring. What the formulas concerned, which substituted Langer mine, he proceeds from those two conditions, 1 that the just noticeable stimulus relative difference minimum at some finite stimulus values, and has a

2 that for β = 0 the value of u equal to the threshold b (in Langer's sense) will, and requires the simplest expression of both conditions (p. 58) u=kβ²+b where k is a constant, as the simplest possible assumption for the dependence of the mental on the physical change (p. 60) but "that the change of sensation differences in their size according to the size of the stimuli that make up the just noticeable stimulus interval is directly

proportional was" . Due to these conditions, he comes by a running analysis to the following mass formula (p. 62):

which the following fundamental formula related:

This means b the constant threshold in Langer's sense, k , k other constants. Of course, these formulas represent the theoretical assumptions of the author, together with the experimental fact that minimum unless they are founded on no proof that those conditions are stable, and that this fact for the inner psychophysics, for which a fundamental formula to apply equally has, as is the outer psychophysics. Numerically compared with observations, they are not by the author. In any case, no one will probably see it from the outset that such complicated formulas have a fundamental significance for the relationship between mental and physical values. Besides the above mass formula developed Langer (p. 65) demgemäßer means of determining the integration constant is another in the event that you just want to pull conscious sensations in his mind, where the stimulus exceeds the threshold value b Langer's, considering what you have

For β <0 this formula negative, useless hereby by Langer, values of γ .

V. objection that Weber's law is incorrect inferred from the experiments (Brentano, herring, long). With the emerging law and Weber's law my psycho-physical system would ever fall, provided the other main laws are based on the same. Now will experimentalerseits hardly be argued against the former law something, the more objection was raised against the second, and so a fundamental question for the durability of the whole system is whether the objections to this law are right. After earlier saying of the Weber's law, the same based on the fact that, given stimulus differences Reizzuwüchsen associated sensation differences Empfindungszuwüchse remain the same when the stimulus differences, Reizzuwüchse, the same proportion to the stimuli between

what the difference is, what the growth is taking place, keep short if the relative stimulus difference remains the same, or even when the stimuli to keep the same ratio to each other without it being necessary to the absolute size of the stimulus differences and charms. But, it turns on (Brentano, herring, long) of such laws say but, generally related to small differences in sensation, Empfindungszuwüchse, no facts from which the law is supposed to be derived. They merely say that the sensation difference always remains just noticeably when the relative stimulus difference remains the same, but that just noticeable sensation differences for different stimulus levels are always equal to each other, is a very arbitrary assumption, and yet the fundamental formula is based as an expression of Weber's Law, and consequently the mass formula on this assumption. Then I have to answer the following: If we in the experiments with just noticeable differences not specifically paying attention that they appear the same as for the sensation, however, is so natural that it will not be the case, but it has seemed to me self-evident that you make sure. Meanwhile, I have this more explicitly pronounced than in the elements where I think of the measurement methods only briefly in my lectures about these methods with the following sentence: "Experience teaches us that we agree with the attempts to speak with yourself about the feeling of a small, but still not sure perceived, difference, this, if not absolutely, but reproduce near exactly in various experiments, and by duplication of tests can obtain a reliable average result. " Now I can not assure you that all observers procedures in the experiments so it seems to me, that is to proceed, the method should not at all be an illusion. Herring insured of course me in the run between us correspondence that he and the experiments had moved from his students do not proceed that way, and not be an assessment of the equality perceived smaller differences at different stimulus levels possible, although I think and think for me, but that it is possible up to certain limits, and each must be admitted that the inequality of sensation differences also at various stimulus levels over certain limits can not exceed without being recognized as a difference. But all the same, there is little attention to, because if even one deviation from the zero sensation of a difference using different stimulus levels must look really keep the same as my opinion, the application of the method, it can be but show easily that inequality this deviation from the experiments that can be inferentially law does not interfere significantly, as long as it remains itself only very small one ) , as it is in terms of the method of just noticeable differences. Because then the variation can even be twice as

large as the anderemal, and it is necessary to implement the conclusions that we will draw it into my version of the tests on the validity of the law, nothing more mean even less than in experiments in other areas is a double random errors of observation; without observation error but it comes nowhere away.


In very small I mean so small that the deviation of the difference from zero sensation associated differences in growth stimulation of a small difference in relation to differences in stimulus itself, which corresponds to the exact sense of the difference is zero. And this is actually the cardinal point of the method. In fact, we back it disappear once with weight experiments, a difference of 5 grams, another time, with stronger weights of 10 grams, while possible, held Apart circumstances exactly the feeling the listener is both appropriate for the method of just significant differences have to increase the physical difference a little to find it still safe to noticeably, either to remain in the territory of the imperceptible, yet to fall into the other to be treated method of right and wrong cases. Was not successful because of this now once equality estimate to 0.1 grams, and at another time by 0.2 or 0.3 grams, so it is but just only commit an error of the order of the observation error, if one says: I found the difference noticeable equal to 5.1 at once, the anderemal at 10.3 grams, because it does not close in the trials for the stated purposes of the size ratio of 0.1 to 0.3 but from 5.1 to 10.3 grams, and one may assume, moreover, that the estimation error of the just noticeable difference are themselves under the influence of Weber's law. You could of course take the threshold of difference in all experiments accurately, it would be so much the better, and now it is approached with the method of just noticeable differences this case. In all, this method is not the most accurate, but only convenient, other methods and is mainly related to, without therefore all the results obtained with them are discarded, which I have already spoken out in the elements. However, Weber's law is based not only on the method of just noticeable differences can be rather rely first and foremost in the realm of sensations of light with the star size estimates. The stellar magnitudes denoted by integers, but are so far away, only to depart just noticeable differences from each other, that astronomers even turn tenths of sizes in between. In a similar principle applies plateau method returns. In greater generality, but the law is based with the results of the method of average error and the right and wrong cases, which, comparisons were so far been possible with those of the method of just perceptible differences have shown unanimously, and under the elimination constant error appropriate measures are much more free from subjective estimation

errors, as the method of just noticeable differences. The objections to the derivation of Weber's law from the results of the method of just noticeable differences, they should be preserved at all, so would still be fruitless, as long as they are not able to extend to the other methods. Now lets However, against all methods raise with the inclusion of the method of just noticeable differences, an objection from one point of view, the Brentano (p. 88) in the eye 2) if it admits though, that just noticeable Zuwüchse the sensation equally noticeable are, therefore, not yet, that they are equal, argues the herring in correspondence with me besonderm weights, and on the (as to the power of memory) also comes to speak (p. 23 ff) long. May the objection here is to explain weight experiments. You lift a weight, it brings a certain sense, after some time you lift more weight, it gives a stronger sensation. These sensations are given, the difference of these sensations is given, is a very specific and fixed, regardless of how it seems to me, if I judge him with the concurrence yes no secure memory by comparing the second weight lifted with the first. Depending on the mean of the elevations, depending on the attention I applied, depending on the mounting method of the weights, according to subjective moods, even after various supporting circumstances I will use the distinction differently, can zero find clear or indistinct, while but in a certain size one and the same remains, and in any case the real difference of sensations is (sensation difference to me) must only have a certain size to be recognized as existing (as perceived difference or difference in perception for me) at all, while still much minor differences do exist already.

That this is the case, I can see clearly from the correspondence with him as himself from his works Now you ask, at least I can somewhat less clearly expressed objection only interpret this: how can you say that the real differences between the two sensations your feeling differences, are equal, if the apparent differences, your perceived differences are equal, while but this can have a completely different size in the same real differences? But your whole psychophysical formula based on this building is not only unproven, but downright false premise. Against this the following: I assume, and I think it's a pretty obvious condition that the size, which seems to have the tests to me the difference of two dependent: first, the size of the real sensation of difference, secondly of adverse circumstances, such as the above is intended. Hereby I connect the second condition, again the most natural,

which can make that if variable stimulus sizes, the attendant circumstances are in the experiments kept the same, the constancy of the apparent sensation difference may depend only on a constancy of true, in short, that the real difference remains constant sensation when the apparent or perceived remains constant, and if the incidental circumstances remain constant and do not, in fact, probable or what ever other condition I will ever provide. Task of any good series of experiments in this field, however, the constraints that may have influence on the perceived difference amendment, through the whole series of experiments. modified stimulus conditions as constant as possible to get through, or inequalities that can not be avoided, to be compensated by opposition in equinumerous experiments, and hereby to eliminate constant errors, and you can elements of my theory I. p. 99 convinced that I myself have spared no diligence in this regard with the weight experiments, however, have a look at other observers at least the obvious precautions of course as taken in this regard. But if not all observers have watched everything necessary in this regard, and especially toward the trials of unilateral dependent constant errors not everywhere sufficiently avoided, nor the attempts of which are employed in an appropriate manner elimination, I think that this is rather only to the empirical deviations from the law, as to which, but on the whole sweeping, approximate confirmation of the law on the trial has ways to contribute. Wonders if not against this new objections remain. Of course you can modified the size of the main weight does not make itself as a secondary circumstance asserted that old barrier assessing the sensation difference, but just when it is necessary to examine the dependence of the difference in perception of the modified stimulus conditions.Herring assumes that the real weight sensation grows proportionally to the weights, so that the increase 1 to the weights 1, the sensation of weight 1 to 1, with increases for weights 2 1 2 let the feeling grow again by 1. In experiments with small Gewichtszuwüchsen using a modification of the main weight to this law confirmed by Hering's own experiments (see XVIII) does not work and you wanted to take, it would depend on the size of the weight of old barrier judgment on the size of the sensation difference, so one would naturally ask why this is not in line with major Zuwüchsen of 1 to 1, from 1 to 2 is the case, so how could pass the Hering's law so that, in short, latter will become an inner contradiction. Meanwhile, taking a throw-in, to me herring part in his work, mostly made by letter, but the phrase that with changes in the main weight in weight experiments, the light intensity at light experiments, basically everywhere, changes in addition to circumstances that really count as such, be conjured up, which can not pass the prerequisite constant obtained incidental circumstances despite the fact related care, and explain the deviation of

the experimental results of the law of proportionality equally as reasons for the apparent approach to Weber's law. In this respect, Herring noted first and foremost (p. 28) regarding the light experiments in pursuit of some, here initially not impacting, Views: that firstly the pupil with increasing illumination of visible things resize as you gain with decreasing, thus the light respektiv less or more access permit, but secondly also the nervous apparatus of the eye, the altered lighting adaptiere, ie the sensitivity of the same with increased lighting pick up, as long proved resounding facts carefully examined recently by Aubert and finally subjected by him also a physiological explanation had been, and concludes (p. 29) with the following remark: "Fechner, as he discussed the validity of his law for the sensations of light, taken on the adaptation neither the pupil nor the retina that required consideration." The latter now I can in no way concede rather seems to me that to what I have in neither Aubert Herring 12 Section of my elements (Th I. p. 300) on the adaptation (if not under that name) have explained to foreign and our own experiments, have taken necessary consideration, from which discussion shows that in experiments on contrast sensitivity as to Justification of Weber's Law include the so-called adaptation comes as disturbing only in so weak express the influence of light into account that the inner brightness of the eyes black a significant relationship to gaining 3 ) , which enters it into the so-called lower deviation from Weber's law and at the same is to blame. The same applies to the changes in the pupil width, and the common point of this is that the two components, the difference being observed by the enhancing or debilitating influence of the adaptation, or pupil change (respectively inwardly or outwardly) can be affected to the same conditions.

Aubert experiments on adaptation are in fact employed in very low light influence. It is quite otherwise with experiments on the absolute sensitivity, where the adaptation plays an important role, but it seems to me that you have both not clearly distinguished from asserting the objection. Had the way the adaptation is not too low light intensities the great influence in the experiments on the difference in sensitivity, which Aubert and herring you attach so yes Aubert in, whichever held by him, try to influence the same as considered and eliminated, what is p . 68 is an indication of his writing, and he could not even attempt to settle the values of its tables, the importance he attaches to them, if he does not, as such, which are as free as possible from interference by adaptation, would. Where, then, but, of course, Aubert not highlighted, but the following from his experiments, large approximation of the results of

Weber's law, which I in the 16th Section remember when you just are not up to his attempts even to small intensities among ordinary eyes tracked down use, which Mitberücksichtigung certainly makes the law seem quite wrong. In regard to the weight of trials following remarks from a letter herring may find me in verbatim court. 1 "If we are to each other for the purpose of distinguishing raise two different weights of the same, so we give our muscles at two elevations same impulse of will, becausewe do not know from the outset what weight would require more muscular effort. The lighter weight is now more rapidly than the heavier in the air, and we distinguish very well the rapid movement of the upper arm of the slower. because any movement of the arm gives us a whole series of so-called sensations of movement, which now follow faster when the easier weights than in the schwerern . We have a motion control for each muscle sense. For the muscles of the extremities control is mediated by the sensations of movement, which as some of deeper parts occur in the sensory nerves of the skin, especially in the joint areas. " 2 "We feel the effort that we needed to keep the weight at all, because first we have to consider it before we can lift it. We also feel the muscular effort which is necessary to lift themselves, finally that which we spend need to keep the balance of the whole body or at least at the seats of the upper body during the lifting. " 3 "This results in weight lifting sensations of pressure and train to the skin, with which the load is held and at which engages the same as it. These sensations are the stronger and the more spread-the greater the weight. They change during the raising very important and the way they change is when a heavy weight easier than others. " "This is just a rough sketch of the varied sensations which come into consideration here. Now it all depends on the size of the weights, the type of elevation, position of the body, etc., whether we use our attention while lifting one or more of the another group of sensations turn. Anyway, the whole complex of sensations is becoming much more spread-membered and the greater the weight lifted. " "Proceed somewhat summarily grasp all this great variety of sensations summarily under the terms of the intensity and together the most diverse changes in the sensation complex in composition, time series, spatial distribution, etc. summarily described as intensity changes." "Because, as I mentioned, always superadded new sensations when the weight becomes heavier, and the overall feeling takes more and more complicated and more new skin and muscle districts, it seems to me

extremely probable from the outset that, so to speak, the clarity of perception and safe view of the same, more and more suffering, and that increasing differences of sensation complex and correspondingly larger weight differences are necessary to obtain the same degree of noticeability of the diversity and the same relative number of correct decisions. Thus, explains that »" intense "," weight sensations even more »» Inlensitätsunterschiede «« call when the noticeability of the difference should remain the same. " Against this feature. Of a part of, any raised in the preceding, accompanying circumstances my own, in the elements listed, weight tests are not taken in any case. I have not lifted the heavier weight more slowly than the lighter, but time and amount of improvement determined by the designated time and room dimensions are kept equal, the weights not only held for a while before I lifted, but to each, by the counter certain time lifted directly from the ground. (You can see here on my items.) What herring otherwise noted, generally relates to a composition of sensations which increase with the weights at the same time because, at the same time increase the physical changes of which they depend. So if Weber's law has a certain generality, it is no fault of this complication may arise thereof, it will just cover the whole complication. Here, no disturbing side Konstatierung circumstances for the law are generally, but this just the same specialization prevented for each site. But I admit that with all 'what is not so indiscriminately to coordinate my opinion, as it happened of herring remains conceivable that really with increased emphases incidental circumstances change, without that we can with all the care prevent this change and my only back that as the errors in the handling methods may be suitable rather flat, the same laws as the approximate confirmation to explain the experimental deviations by experiments. Now, of course, believes herring by direct experiments with weights to prove the Untriftigkeit of Weber's law: but even I'm in the 18th A particular section.
Nach früherem Ausspruche des Weberschen Gesetzes beruht dasselbe darin, daß die, gegebenen Reizunterschieden, Reizzuwüchsen zugehörigen Empfindungsunterschiede, Empfindungszuwüchse einander gleich bleiben, wenn die Reizunterschiede, Reizzuwüchse, dasselbe Verhältnis zu den Reizen, wozwischen der Unterschied besteht, wozu der Zuwachs stattfindet, behalten, kurz wenn der relative Reizunterschied sich gleich bleibt, oder auch, wenn die Reize dasselbe Verhältnis zu einander behalten, ohne daß es dabei auf die absolute Größe der Reizunterschiede und Reize ankommt.

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VI. Objections of the experimental deviations from Weber's law (Aubert, Delbceuf, herring, long). If the laws of the 2nd Section are taken as strict as fundamental, just

for the dependence of the perception of the psycho-physical activity to complete, it can be confirmed by experiments on the dependence of the sensation of external stimuli only in so far as one can assume, 1 that the external stimulus triggers a proportional him psychophysical activity; 2 that is not already inside a certain psycho-physical arousal can be triggered by the nature of the stimulus is independent of the external stimulus effect available that would actually be attributed to this. But in fact find obvious problems of experimental corroborability of Weber's law instead of two causes. If the stimulus effect is so strong that the organ is destroyed or suffers approach to it, the proportionality between stimulus and psychophysical arousal can not wait, yes, because the source of the psychophysical power that belongs to the emergence of a sensation, undoubtedly just so limited in people is how the source of kinetic energy, which belongs to the emergence of muscle movement, so you can not find strange is when even more before the organ suffers, remains triggered by increasing stimulus levels of psychophysical activity behind the proportionality with the stimuli . 1 ) From other side is proven by various facts that the second cause of the deviation is not missing. In every sense areas hallucinations can occur depending on internal excitation, it is at least very probable that this is the strengthening of a weak everywhere already existing grade (below the threshold) is merely inward excitement. The Black Watch of the eye at the close or in complete dark of night (quite different from not seeing the finger), proves to the eye even a normally already existing inner excitement, what is more detailed discussions in Elem. I. p. See 165 ff. Also belongs here, that upscale with arm weights already, except for the weights, a weight has now.


In the Elem. I merely pointed to the first point (disease of the organ), but the second, which should earn even more important consideration in the treatise against Aubert (1860) asserted. The first reason for the deviation must be so strong noticeable in experiments with external stimuli, the higher one ascends to the stimulus effect, which I briefly refer to as upper deviation from the law, the second, the deeper one descends with what I as a lower deviation denote , however, already expressed in massive stimulus degrees internal weak against the external excitation can be considered almost negligible. By virtue of the lower deviation takes the just noticeable, in the sense

of the previous section immediately noticeable, relative stimulus difference so as to more the more you get the stimulus effect of the lower limit, where only the inner excitement remains, approaches, by virtue of the upper, the higher one with the stimulus effect, which carries that into your average limits a minimum of just noticeable relative stimulus difference, hereby takes place after the (above) given explanation, a maximum of the relative difference in sensitivity, around which the approximation to Weber's law, the is as accurate as possible, and it is not disputed in the sense of, otherwise observed in the organism, usefulness tendency that finds this greatest approximation to the legal behavior with the largest relative difference in sensitivity within the limits of ordinary sense use. If Weber's law for the outer psychophysics are no reasons for the deviation, it would not be a minimum of just noticeable relative stimulus difference, but the same remain constant throughout the stimulus scale, but you get the experimental minimum as a necessary consequence of the direction which the have lower and upper deviation to view. In addition to the designated here made, I think, pretty clearly present, causes of deviations can it possibly be others that are less safe only. The attraction could possibly only have to overcome a certain inertia of the nerve molecules before it triggers a vibration of the same, and so the threshold that makes itself felt even in the physical areas between some causes and effects play a role. It is also thought to be under VIII (p. 77), a circumstance which, whether in the under or upper deviation, or both, might have to share. Finally themselves can not substantial, reasonable only in expressing experimental conditions, deviations depend on that to compare stimuli not space or time location are presented in the same, or that the comparison is always made for smaller or vice versa in a biased direction from the larger, on what circumstances based the so-called constant error, which must be compensated either by opposition of trying documents, trial directions in repeat experiments or eliminated by invoice, unless considerable disturbances of legality to emerge from it. All this has been discussed already in the elements. Now it can me only strange when several hand, as especially little or no distinction of Aubert, Delbceuf and Langer, between the demands as conditions of outer and inner psychophysics, objections are raised as fundamental, which is characterized by consideration of the necessary deviations either almost done or found by considering the possible execution possible, without more explanation of formulas are set up, how far they are to apply to the outer or inner psychophysics. Herring but only sees the splitter, it should ever be such without looking in my eye, the beam in their own eye, when he says (p. 38): "One can, however, get the idea that the deviations from Weber's laws, which in most areas are indeed

very large, only by special bodies in the different senses are related exceptions one nevertheless generally applicable law. But as long as not either the causes of these exceptions are clearly stated, or the necessity of the law theoretically with clear is established, as long as the exceptions are rather more numerous than the confirmation of the alleged rule can only apply as long as a highly uncertain hypothesis and the Weber set. " Everything herring accused in this respect the hypothesis of Weber's law applies, even his own hypothesis of simple proportionality of sensation with the stimulus or the psychophysical activity in much higher degree, yes I think it can ever impose any simple hypothesis that is not affected in higher degree of it. But that it (the Aubert's experiments not excluded) with the exceptions that herring has in mind is not too bad, is located in the 16th Can show section. Herring itself makes numerous pleas, which can discriminate a pure success of the experiments (see Section V), but he has not proved and it may be hard for him to show that by such an approximation to the Weber's law disputed by him rather caused, as they may be disturbed. But we hear it even further when he says (p. 38): "Also, remember that the just quoted employed on various sensory areas [for consideration of Weber's Law] attempts among themselves are not quite comparable. The compared sensations were soon spatially adjacent to each other, soon they were spatially and temporally more or less widely . the alleged Insensitätsverschiedenheiten of sensation turn out on closer examination, both as qualitative differences. 2) ] The deeper one penetrates into the matter, the more concern there appears a so struck by the same yardstick to see Miscellaneous, and if you also want to admit that from the colorful variety of the facts recited maybe once a general law can be abstracted, and they shall Weber's sentence for the time being should not be regarded as a truly justified. "


This refers to the common ground, in the 14th Sections to be discussed, how herring conceives the brightness differences in the areas of light sensation. But just the fact that under such differing from each other, not mutually comparable translucent, may, in such diverse areas as one in 16 Section shall, Weber's law always approximate seen again, it seems to me, if anything, to indicate that it represents the common fundamental core of truth among and between all deviations from it, and I confess not to understand how these basic could be to make claims against the law for a reason. If the objections to Weber's law can become important because of the

differences at all, would have to be demonstrated that the asserted of me causes the lower and upper deviation are not permitted, or those attributed to them by me, effect can not have, and that the significant approximation to Weber's law, which is determined for a considerable interval of intensities in a majority of areas, a more likely interpretation allows, as it is the approximation to a, by the ratios of outer psychophysics only disturbed fundamental law of the inner. Of all 'the nothing has happened so far. Perhaps one can notice that, since we have no direct means of observation and only more or less uncertain conclusion means to recognize the relationship between psychological and psycho-physical activity and track, but rather observation means to track the relationship between the external stimulus and sensation, thereto alone practical interest depends, and it was best to take care of that relationship, hereby request an internal psychophysics not, and such a view seems vorzuschweben some opponents when they content themselves with laws and formulas, which, as well as it now like just going to take the experimental deviations from a pure simple legality as such to require psychophysics for the foundations of the inner self and to cover search, and why should such formulas not be accepted in so far as they achieve their purpose, and as they should not replace fundamental formulas for the inner psychophysics or be thrown together with such insignificant to clear. It will be but to put the less weight on such empirical formulas, as they have failed required different according to the difference of the test subjects, experimental conditions and sensory areas. Anyway enters the practical interest, whatever may enclose the outer psychophysics and the appropriate matched for them formulas, far back to the, already touched in the introduction, deeper scientific interest in what the inner psychophysics of Psychology, Physiology and Philosophy wins in that they ground rules for the relationship between body and soul has, and the attempts of external psychophysics can this interest only by serving that they justify probability conclusions for preparation of these provisions, but then of course regret that limited by experimental deviations of the kind discussed the safety of such circuits will.

Wenn die Reizeinwirkung so stark wird, daß das Sinnesorgan zerstört wird, oder in Annäherung daran leidet, läßt sich die Proportionalität zwischen Reiz und psychophysischer Erregung nicht mehr erwarten; ja, da der Quell der psychophysischen Kraft, die zum Zustandekommen einer Empfindung gehört, unstreitig eben so beschränkt im Menschen ist, wie der Quell lebendiger Kraft, die zum Zustandekommen der Muskelbewegung gehört, so kann man es nicht befremdend finden, wenn selbst noch, bevor das Sinnesorgan leidet, die durch steigende Reizgrade ausgelöste psychophysische Tätigkeit hinter der Proportionalität mit dem Reize zurückbleibt. 1 ) Von anderer Seite beweist sich durch mancherlei Tatsachen, daß auch

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VII teleological argument and extensive comments on the sensations (herring). Herring makes in several places (pp. 12, 13, 23, 24, 30) as claimed by beating almost completely alone against the principles advocated by me psychophysical basic laws that followed the mental conception of the relation between two physical, it is extensive, it was intense variables β , β , must change if both are proportional to their size, and thus enlarged or reduced in the same proportion, which not only empirically inaccurate but also teleological inadmissible by if it were the case, thereby confusion in our view would come the conditions of the outside world. "How - he says among other things (p. 22) - the soul can perceive the conditions of the outside world properly if there is no proportionality between the things and events of the outside world and those of our inner world, when the measure which creates the soul to external things namely the size or strength of their feelings, does not fit on this external things? " Now what regards the extensive sensations, so I can continue to be made to the remarks to be taken objection therefore a priori not accept, but herring extends the objection to intensive sensations, and here first and foremost to the following. Even the measure of sensation that a single stimulus β awakens, is actually not merely by a relation to the stimulus itself, but by a ratio of the same to his threshold bdetermined shortly after my discharge is 1 ) = k log . Rather than the threshold value b but, after the manner of the derivation itself every other stimulus value β , enter the formula. In short, the impression that the stimulus money makes the sensations is, by k = log measured. Like now both stimuli in measured,

relation m rise or fall, so the impression is thereafter through

with k log is the same, so remains unchanged. I would think that hereby the Hering's designs would be met easily enough at least to one side. Prevention, however, some confusion or misunderstanding that could easily make it, I add some additional remarks in a closing at the end of this section added.


Occasionally, this remark that I have not, as Herring (p. 19) says, adding the logarithmic mass law as a "hypothesis" to Weber's law, adopted by me, but as a mathematical consequence of Weber's law and emerging legislation derived. It certainly remains true that neither the individual sensations still feeling changes

to the criteria established by my laws and formulas to stimuli and stimulus changes are simply proportional, only the impression that the ratios of the stimuli do with common conception of them, then when the stimuli remains the same; change in the same proportion, which is to keep both apart in fact. 2 ) But regardless of whether those presented by my laws exist or do not exist, it is with them or without them virtually no proportionality between stimuli and sensations, irritable changes and sensation changes, and the teleology knows that to get along, so why accuse our laws that the teleology that could not get along, it would be the case if a proportionality bogus, which is in fact not exist?


The ratio of the feelings which are awakened by two stimuli, namely just as little to be confused with the sensation which is awakened by the ratio of the stimuli, as the difference of the feelings which are awakened by two stimuli, with the sensation of the difference of these stimuli (s.Vorh. Concluding remarks and this section). If I bring a light in a dark room, what a tremendous increase of brightness to my eye, I'll take a second added, that will double the physical brightness, yet the brightness is doubled for my eye, but grows relatively very little. This is consistent with our laws, but even if it did not agree with it, so it was true just as little with the proportionality. A light in the mirror seems to me almost as bright as the light in front of the mirror, despite the very considerable loss to the Lichtverschluckung has produced through the mirror. You see Aubert experiments in the light areas on, with which one thinks he can beat Weber's law, if they do not hit the far more ideologically required proportionality. This is now indeed so obvious that herring even his teleological argument expressly does not apply to light intensities, but after some preliminary discussions in this regard (p. 26) notes, "it appears from the outset quite immaterial whether we light quantities, which of different things and be thrown back at different illumination of the same things in their proper proportions, ie according to the law of proportionality between stimulus and sensation may think of ", while" the proportionality between the actual room sizes and room sizes of sensation, and also between the true weights and the sizes of the weight sensations seem essential if we otherwise perceive the outside world properly, and by means of our movements are controlled. " Well, so our laws would at least light sensations and should not be less safe in sound sensations before the teleological immigration. But now you see Hering own weight attempts I in the 18th Section may impart, whether they agree better than the light attempts to laws of proportionality. Gewichtszuwüchse, which should then be equal to behave once as 12: 28, sometimes even as 0.7: 25.5. But what it means to make a teleological claim against a law in favor of another law claims when in fact this is not true now. A millionaire is the appreciation of its assets by 100 Thaler worth no more than a

poor man to 1 Thaler. It weighs no more for him, you can say short. If you want to fight for themselves whether this relationship between the allure of money and its estimate is teleologically appropriate, or not, although I think it will be easier to opt for the former than the latter, it is at any rate in the world, so why not something corresponding between the outward stimuli, be it light weight stimulus or stimulus, and its estimation by sensation. Such a great friend you may be of the teleology, and I count myself to these friends, it is yet to follow their ways rather than their prescribing such. With all 'which I readily admit that one can ask in in the subject of the sensitivity weight sizes, in fact, from the beginning, if the same laws apply it as a purely receptive sensitivity, because in some ways, there are other conditions for many things in This field remains blank at all, which I in the 16th and 18 Sections come back. Yes I would consider myself very much to the same fundamental laws for this area than for the light and sound to complete, if not the attempts herring itself (in the 18th section), so far they can count here, no less than my previous, by a completely different method employed, seemed to speak for me. In regard to the teleological point but consider this one another, in the following sections to be made, Remarks. Anyway, you can not make a conclusion without further subject from one sphere to another, other conditions, areas, and on that note I turn from the intense sensations, for which everything previous was to the extensive sensations to my above statement that I Hering's objection in relation to this from the outset can not accept to motivate. Who can first and foremost say that we do not know to find our way in the world of three dimensions, nevertheless, that all spatial dimensions seem to move in us, and vary the ideological conditions in changing the fullest way from proportionality with the real space conditions, so each piece a curved line which is not in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the eye, this proportionality contradicts of other ways. So even necessary should also have the proportionality which is demanded for convenience, not theirs, it is rather only that the Nichtproportionalität was not lawless. But ruthless to all teleology, we hereby wish to leave behind, it is in herring objection to a factual question. With the tacit assumption of a fixed eye position and firm position of a straight line in front of the eyes, where you can really speak of proportionality in the sense indicated, holds Herring (p. 12) as compiled by me laws against that "disproportionately the apparent length of a line with to their actual length grows, the sensation size proportionally to the stimulus size zunehme ", twice as long a line that is twice as long appearing, and what in fact laid down by me laws as much contradicts than the one represented by Hering, laws proportionality corresponds, and he builds it in correspondence with me the question, he did not know why it should behave differently with the areas of intense feelings in these relationships, as with that of the extensive. That could very well be, therefore, because it is still something very different, look for a law in the event that a stimulus is reinforced on the same nerve points or that it

spreads over a number of such. Only by analogy one can conclude from a trap on the other, without any guarantee that the analogy for the significantly different conditions is true, and I must, therefore, in the elements even after I already made the same (p II 336th) have reasons that made Herring contends recognized that the applicability of Weber's law to the field of extensive sensations was precarious, explain me, however, that from a invalidity of the law in this area, I have admitted as much possible, an objection to my representation of the same in another, significantly deviating, going hergenommen areas, and that any objections with respect to both areas are mixed. 3 )


Delbceuf (Rev. p. 250) provides even a "regrettable factual and linguistic confusion" is to speak of sensations of time and extension, and "to designate the same need for the extensive expression of feeling." Herein, but I would, because I myself need this expression, then just give it right, if not explicit declarations (such as Elem. I. 15) avoiding the confusion. But the extensive sensations, what I call so many intense feelings under a common phrase to summarize and differ only by the adjective is, in any event before the main subject, that, if no common measure, but common Maßprinzipien and methods for specifying that it is often necessary to be able to refer to both together shortly. And Delbceuf even want to after he first blamed the common use of the word sensation for extensive and intensive sensations there are attributed to such a when he would have been just as admitted to the measure of one like the other and connected in a would have to speak of psychophysics. You just have to examine each area for themselves in this regard. I have found but the applicability of Weber's law to the extensive sensations, in spite of that apparent contradiction, however, but only precariously, without a decision to find it, for the following reason. It has (according to Elem II. 336) much to recommend it, to assume that if the number of sensory circles in extensive sensations to represent the strength of the stimulus for intensive, one smaller and larger stimulus not by a smaller and larger part of the expansion retina, but can only be represented by a smaller and larger whole retina, but we can not produce in our experiments, however, the nature of such has made in the eyes of different animals. This would be quite well tolerated, that each part of the retina of the same seems large for the total number of the actual ratio of incoming to him sensory circles, yes it would really unsolvable contradictions arise when the size of apparitions of the parts of the retina not sum the size appearance of the whole wiedergäben retina. Also by an intense light stimulus wears naturally each fraction in relation to the whole intensity to determine the size of the total sensation or how can you grasp it otherwise - without that, therefore, the total sensation is even in a simple ratios to the total intensity, and it is only the difference the case of extensive sensations that so extensive as that of the separately auffaßbare sensations give the parts of the stimulus, not just intense. So I think that two animals whose

retinas as a to a ' behavior, have fields of view to them in the ratio of log a to log a ' appear great, however they each fraction of their retina to its relationship to the whole retina appears large , but admit that this hypothetical mode of conception. What applies to the extensive visual sensations, would be spread to the extensive tactile sensations. If Herring (p. 22) says: "I would have made to the eye, the auxiliary hypothesis that for the same by virtue of a peculiar device, the confusion that would cause the psychophysical law in vision,'ll prevented", then you against this easily notice that with my hypothesis of a "peculiar institution" of the eye, but of the possibility that Weber's law is in relation to the eye to understand besondrer way, was the question. First, of course, may seem contradictory to my own previous opinion and people's Augenmaßversuche (I. 211 ff Elem.), unless it is proven that Weber's law is not on whole retinas, but in straight lines on the retina. This probation is, in fact, is very decided and can not be eliminated by herring objections. To lift but the contradiction seems to be here for us, a dual interpretation is possible. Once can imagine that we in these experiments with small differences of the compared lines both lines virtue not compare demgemäßer direction of attention, in fact, with the whole retina, but only with each other, however, we no cause for such comparison every part estimate of the retina as a fraction of the entire retina, but secondly, that these experiments, as in Elem. I. 234 H. 336 recalls, rather like the unused muscle movement or feeling refer to as a direct extensive Maßempfindung. The latter is therefore more likely because so beautiful in the Augenmaßversuchen, probation of Weber's law at appropriately employed by me Tastversuchen on the skin, the sense of movement is not exercised, not finds (Elem. II 353 ff) .

Additional comment. , when considering the impacting here conditions one has to beware of the size impression which the ratio of two compared with other stimuli β , β, makes us to be confused with, not falling within the observation conditions of the sensations which two stimuli arouse when they are not compared with each other. The measure of the first impression is k log , the measure of last relationship if one wants to worry about is what does not coincide with the former. Only on the latter idea would fit herring objection, however, the comparison

is not done due to such impressions. One might to say: "I can consider two stimuli only for himself, me imprimieren their apparent size, and then compare the sensations they have me aroused for themselves, with each other, and yet to me her size ratio will appear the same as when I use the posh compared to the stimuli themselves. " But sensations, it was reproduced in the memory, compare the soul without correspondingly reproduced

psychophysical activities, is not, and so by the first case is always made, only because not sufficiently accurate reproduction of the original ratio by the memory, not Therefore, the estimation errors in memory are possible; exactly. To this must be the following, where I lighter clarity the degree of sensation γ = log simply β set by I the constants k and b as determined think it = 1, although in itself nothing would stop to let them any value. You can use it as a peculiarity in mathematics Note that the difference between the logarithms of two quantities β , β , with the logarithm of the ratio of the two matches.Herein is not a mathematical and thus no logical contradiction, and so you can not find such a fact that finds itself in the logarithmic measure relations of feeling the same.The difference between the logarithmic measure of the sensation of two stimuli = log β - log β , consistent with the degree of sensation of the ratio of the two stimuli match. Also no real contradiction or conflict but lies. For as little as to the extent of feeling, which

the ratio of the dimensions of two sensations

granted the ratio of both been commissioned comparison stimuli, ie to be confused, may be that, with the latter matching degree of the difference of the two sensations to the extent of feeling that the difference between the two stimuli granted, confuse, rather that if there was a v , the ratio threshold is called. So the true sensation, which granted the ratio of two stimuli, with no means of sensation, which granted the difference between two stimuli, consistent with what would, however, when it should be the case justify a contradiction. The absolute difference as the absolute ratio of two sensations but is actually not a matter of observation.

VIII aprioristic objection (Mach, herring, Classen, Ueberhorst, amber). Deeper than the language to come in the previous sections, the outer psychophysics nationals, whether the sensation is proportional to the stimulus, the attacks, the inner psychophysics nationals, whether it is proportional to the psycho-physical activity. In experiments so far away now can not teach directly about conclusions from experiments, but do not seem crucial, to make a proportionality of the latter, so to say a priori viewpoint contends that has not been lit a few from the outset. We do not shirk its consideration.

Of stimuli, the perception of the psycho-physical activity depends only indirectly, immediately; experimental disorders of legality, which involve the transfer of stimulus effect on the psychophysical system in outer psychophysics, fall on the direct relationship between perception and psychophysical activity away, and the inner psychophysics can those behind. Now it says it's the most natural thing, a certain sense, of course, that between the cause and her dependents, without the intermediary of action exists a simple proportionality, and therefore between the psychophysical activity and that of their immediate dependent feeling, as between the differences in the psychophysical activity and dependent difference sensations. In so far but seem to speak facts of outer psychophysics for this, not provoking Weber's law and the resulting logarithmic Maßgesetz they were to concede in so far as an experimental approximation of these laws at all, just only for the outer psychophysics, ie relationship to take between stimulus and psychophysical activity to complete, but not, as is done by us to transfer into the inner psychophysics, does not translate into laws for the relationship between physical activity and mental sensation. So says Mach (no. 2 p 11th): "The Last nervous excitement and sensation, which invariably go in parallel with each other, probably can not be otherwise than proportional to each other." Herring (p. 21): "A proportionality between cause and effect, acting and knitted, we understand from the outset, a verwickelteres law of relations between the two but particularly difficult to understand if, as in this case directly, acting and knit and not depend through intermediate members of each other, but such a direct dependence is our assumption of between psychic and psychophysical processes,. because we call the latter only those physical processes with which the psychic process given immediately all this applies even if one body. and soul as two different beings facing each other, but how much more then if, as Fechner assumed acting and Knit, psychophysical and of mental process are basically one and the same, only two pages or appearance-wise one and the same Being. " Classes (eg visual sense Physiol d p 17th.): "If the experience not as a function of the nerve substance, so it would not be understood as an increase of the stimulus should not cause a corresponding increase in the constant sensation." Ueberhorst (The emergence of visual perception goddess 1876 p 90th..): "I can faith not indulge in that, as Fechner once said that the

disproportionality between nervous excitement and sensation" after the main difference between physical and psychological areas quite conceivable was. "" Amber is not postulated to S. 20 Although a proportionality of sensation with the size, but with that adopted by him as a limited spread of psycho-physical activity.Impacting on his views here compare some special care related remarks continue (see below). Now the principle of proportionality between cause and effect may really be so far valid, as the effect is a direct consequence of the cause, and is not disturbed by resistors or additional conditions, which interfere with the effect, and I the foot even to, as I Apart from such disorders, the amount of movement of the psycho-physical size of the stimulus set proportionally. But to follow function it is indeed in the relationship between perception and psychophysical activity not. If the activity is associated with a sensation because the sensation is both there and vice versa. It is rather a relationship of simultaneous or alternating depending on what it is here, and the enemy themselves believe it insgemein way. But one commits a grave mistake and a fateful mistake, if you what to those who follow function, applies to this, the simultaneous or alternating dependence, wants to transfer as a matter of course, because contrary to what applies to those of this does not apply. And I do not priori, but asserted by a allround view in the areas of experience, against the enemies of my conception. In fact, as far as I look around, I find that rules, changes in which are simultaneously dependent on each other, only in the single case that they are of similar nature, go proportional to each other and explain this by following me to cheer the end, examples. During the rotation of a planet around the sun planet's distance from the sun, speed, accumulated through space and through time expired to change (measured from any point on) in simultaneous dependence on each other, but none of these changes is proportional to the other. - The physical brightness of an illuminated surface and the distance of the light source thereof, the length of the pendulum and the duration of an oscillation of the same are in simultaneous response to each other, but instead of a simple, there is a quadratic relation therebetween. - The organs and limbs of an embryo growing in simultaneous dependence on each other, but nothing less than proportional to each other. The general scheme of such a function was the length of the

abscissa at the same point in the output of the ratio of the length of a curve. In the only case where the curve a similar straight line is accessible as the abscissa, or more generally curve and abscissa are the same kind curves both go proportional to each other, but the psychological sense, and the associated physical process are as dissimilar as possible, as far as ever can take place dissimilarity between objects or processes, most recently, of course, are all only by provisions which fall into our consciousness characterizable. The dualistic view lays down an important principle, heterogeneity, and after me the difference depends on the basically essentially different, respectively, inner and outer, point of view, and then behave soul and body as inner and outer extensions of the same essence. Herring does this even my perspective as if they naturally demand the proportionality, but on the contrary, it is a new confirmation of the Nichtproportionalität. Because you take for example a circle and in the middle or at any point within the same a seeing to all sides eye, outside of it at any point other such eye so both are commonly spoken in pursuance of the circumference of the same pieces of the circumference of different points of view, so different in size, appear, and the apparent sizes of the same is not change proportionally to each other. - The same is true of the appearance of the Copernican and Ptolemaic world system, depending on the heliocentric and geocentric point of view. Whether the parties can not derogate from the expressed here principle of Nichtproportionalität between disparate arrangements, changes that are simultaneously dependent on each other, with further searching, I do not insure, but would in any case be only exceptions that could not justify a contrary principle . Perhaps one could argue as an exception that go disproportionately to each other in uniform motion space and time, but we measure time itself only by uniform motion. As this circle escape? I confess zuhaben found no explanation about zulängliche, but if I am not mistaken, the following statement is sufficient to mention here the same casually. If two points of unequal velocity, ie through the unequal at the same time spaces, move so that the two (points) taken in corresponding, ie, between the same start and end points, time intervals, always go through spaces that keep the same proportion to each other as big or small you like to take the time intervals, both speeds are constant, and hence the movement of both uniform. Equal to the speed of the two points must be taken, otherwise the previous statement would not fit entirely in a uniform, but in general the same movements. That, therefore, time and space to go into uniform motion proportional to each other, translated by the fact that in successive corresponding time intervals unequal but proportional

spaces are traversed by two points, ie reduced fundamentally to a proportionality between areas, not between spaces and times, except where the latter be measured even by spaces. On the other hand, one could argue, as an exception, that the length of a string and duration of an oscillation of the same go proportional to each other. But one can say that the length of a string and the number of vibrations in a given time will be inversely proportional to each other just as well, so there is an ambiguity here. The second expression, but seems to prefer this situation where you can track the number of vibrations of two strings of unequal length in corresponding periods immediately, the duration of the oscillations but only derive therefrom or by means of an express measure of time, eventually to be based on the above explanation has, must be determined. It is easily seen that, depending on the diversity of the area in which the simultaneous dependence falls, can exist for very different quantitative relations, and that, no aprioristisches obstacle consists in the impossibility to determine this ratio for the relationship between body and soul, a priori it may be the clearly what the experience has been drawn the most. And this still leaves paste the following. In general but fundamental laws have the character of a certain simplicity or it requires at least that was the case. Now, however, the simplest law of dependence between physical and mental changes really simple proportionality would be, but at least if the previous considerations and previous experience speak the same bit of the same in favor, then Weber's law, which the mental changes the relative physical changes is proportional to the simplest, most of which can be thought of hereafter, and certainly easier than all the modifications that have been believed on the basis of the experiments substitute for it. What are the tests could indicate first, of course, would be a law, what micrograph the empirical fact in itself that in continuously increasing stimuli of just noticeable relative stimulus difference at a certain stimulus values is a minimum and beyond rises again, and we have seen that long really thereon has established a law, which is much more complicated but, as ours, and hereby a priori less likely it is to be considered fundamental. From other side, there is the empirical fact that the sensation of growth of the stimulus itself does not let itself increase over a certain limit, and Wundt is quite right when he in this respect (in s Broad

Physiologic Psychology P 282 fu 293rd. ) except by a threshold also speaks of a non übersteigbaren stimulus level, but he does not translate the stimulus level in a correspondingly to understand the amount of psychophysical activity as such, which is a non überschreitbares sensation maximum, by saying, in accordance with my own view: " The power supply of the nerve elements is limited, at a certain level so the stimulus will trigger all at all disposable forces, so that beyond the nerve-process can not be increased ", which I completely agree. 1 ) Could the nerve process (the psychophysical activity) also increased, so the sensation would thus grow. In fact, it would be very strange psychic to make an fundamental law of the dependence of physical activity, which grow the first with the latter only up to certain limits, but beyond that could decrease, and this I take my hand, a priori improbability in the claim.


I would not exactly agree when Wundt, p. 287 of his work, says: "We are of two qualitatively matching sensations undoubtedly say that their intensity was the same when either threshold of sensibility or sensation level [than which respectively belong to the threshold and stimulus height] match." The sensation threshold corresponding feelings are indisputably the same way unless they just are equal to zero, but the sensation of height may vary according to the condition of the individual and the resulting ratios of the upper and lower deviation from Weber's law in my opinion meet very different degrees of intensity of sensations. Deeply engaging is the view of a simple proportionality between physical and psychological changes in particular in that it omitted the transferability of the threshold law from the outer to the inner psychophysics. Because according to the law of proportionality of the weakest psychophysical process and the weakest difference of two such processes, the threshold law has been called one of, if according to already weak, but significant absolute or difference in perception to consciousness, however, this one exceeds the null value in exponential type, simple or difference value of psychophysical activity calls below which still psychophysical activities, changes can go from Accessorize, without forgetting the psychological phenomena can be felt in the consciousness that they are able to provide in excess of the threshold. With the inner threshold, therefore

the whole development of inner psychophysics falls the whole psycho-physical representation of the relationship between sleep and waking, conscious and unconscious mental life, hereby at all, which I in the second Parts of the members have discussed, though I knew what could be substituted for it to represent the corresponding ratios, so that my question of the transferability of the threshold law in the inner psychophysics a question of life not only for my execution of the inner psychophysics, but also for the possibility such seems at all. As I myself have organized and displayed this doctrine, at least play the threshold law is a much more important role as Weber's law, and would like to drop this, it would be in my presentation of the inner psychophysics change anything, however, the threshold law should fall, the whole representation be easy to remove. It is the fulcrum of all levers and play in it. Of course, of course, is not enough towards this need, the inner threshold for the inner psychophysics to establish their fact. Well, I'm in a following sections on the reasons that speak for the fact of it. While I the stimuli just set the psychophysical activity or arousal proportional not exist in so far as causes of the deviation, but the sensation of thinking in a logarithmic function of the stimuli, whereas the opponent, which just set the sensation is proportional to the psychophysical activity, the experimental search to represent approximation of the laws established by me in that they take the same laws, which I think is valid for the relationship between physical activity and mental sensation, rather the relationship between stimulus and psychophysical activity to complete. Although it seems a matter of course for his own principle of opponents that without hindrances or limiting conditions of the transmission of the stimulus to the nerve, without any resistance in the nerves, in the brain of the physical effect in the organs of sensation of the physical cause of the stimuli rather simple proportional to go, as it stands in a logarithmic dependence, the opponents are now looking for but just to make such claims causes which alter the proportionality so far that their are met rather than my opinion. I can, however, in what is claimed in this respect, only some vague and partly unfounded ways towards me from the 6th See section asserted causes of deviation. I've already thought up in this regard some manifestations of herring. Mach makes such as herring the change in pupil size with change of the light stimulus and one erected by him Contrast this law claim that the psychophysical arousal could not go because of the strength of the stimulus is proportional compensating factors. And in fact has this as an empirical deviation from the pure Maßgesetze

reasons for the outer psychophysics be, but the psychophysical basic laws so do not rely on experiments on the Maßgesetz but about Weber's law, and as with the experiments on Weber's Law to earlier (see above) and made in the 11th . , the effect of both stimuli is altered by those causes in the same ratio section (about contrast sensation)-the complement, comment, so it can then not be counted for the purposes of the opponents. Langer says (p. 68): "The adoption of Fechner [of proportionality between stimulus and psychophysical activity] is extremely hypothetical and has the empirical facts against little Likely, it is rather the acceptance far justified that non-proportional from the larger stimulus sets in psycho-physical activity be changed, but smaller, and because of the simultaneously occurring with the charms of reflexes that protect the organism against stronger stimuli. In the eye, for B, this effect is in the contraction of the pupil going up to days, making strong irritating part is grayed out, with other strong stimuli to other sensory domains occurs Analog probably also, at least, the probability is not denied that it be done. " So again is the change in pupil size, which has nothing to say here, the prime example, and it is suspected to be analogous with other sensory domains, what if it takes place, easily just as little would have to say. However, when I was in elem. II told 429 that "after the main difference between physical and psychological areas a relationship between mental and physical activity is possible in terms of the fundamental formula and Maßformel very well, whereas such a dependence between two physical activities, as established by the irritant effect , is on the other hand represented by the psychophysical activity, in the sense of the physiological and physical laws are not possible, however, "- so I have to take back the latter: rather just exist in the areas of nerve Physics dependency relationships between physical activities, which agree at least approximate the logarithmic of the mass formula, and only approximately so confirmed, the mass formula in the outer psychophysics. Why, one may ask, should not trigger the psychophysical activity of this relationship, which deviates from proportionality completely, and then the mental activity of the soinduced psycho-physical activities will simply proportional to the attraction? That would be quite nice, if only in this relationship to be asserted border cases with our case the transmission of nerve stimulation on

the terms agreed, which is so far from the case that you can keep them low rather than contradicting our opinion. Following an associated case here. A, mounted in a vertical position above the muscle of length l going through an electrical stimulus on the strength q tetanised. It runs under constant influence of the stimulus to a certain size together, which as lifting height with h is denoted. The contraction begins only at a finite value charm s, which thus acts as a threshold adapted to be perceptible to. Preyer now has 2) denoted by an ingenious combination of experiments and conclusions following law, as myophysisches of him, for the dependence of the relative lift of the strength of the stimulus q relative to the thresholds s found: , where k is a constant. This formula corresponds to complete our mass formula, except that it is between purely physical terms.


"The myophysische Law" in Jena, Mauke, in 1874. The well-known experiments in fucking "textbooks.'s Anatomy and physiology of the sense organs" in 1864. Th 2 p. 349 therefore are less useful here because they relate to muscle spasms, which are triggered by current stimuli. Common ground that this formula can only be an approximation, which is valid at high stimulus values because of their h with increasing reinforcement of the stimulus finally greater than l , however, the finite Try not at all achievable maximum of would be h only less than l can be. It has also been levied against the reasons, the various objections formula, and a discussion arose, which I'm not completely followed. But all the same, we let the seemingly unfavorable for us and probably still correct, assuming that at any rate one that approximate to a certain extent, the validity of the formula there, too, so the following should be considered.

The first stimulus acts on the nerve, the nerve to the muscle. Now the question is: following the excitation of the nerve by the stimulus to a logarithmic relationship to the lifting height is proportional to a nervous excitement, or vice versa? The former would be in terms of opponents, the latter in my sense. But the former is impossible, because in accordance with, as with enlargement of the stimulus, the lifting height grows, an increasing resistance to further uplift, that do at a certain point stop developing, and can thus raising size does not grow disproportionately with the nervous excitement, whereas in principle, nothing prevents the nervous excitement so long to think growing with the stimulus effect in proportion as the source of the living force of nervous activity does not approach the exhaustion, or a similar resistance as is demonstrated for muscle contraction, of the at least until now nothing is proved. You can also come to the aid of the previous indirect losing by a much more direct. After one, made to me by a competent authority, release it makes in comparative experiments on the conditions of the contraction of a muscle under the influence of a stimulus no difference whether the muscle from from nerves by the irritation or immediately after poisoning by curare, causing the nerve is inactive, is irritated. Now if the excitation of the nerve is not proportional to the stimuli, so could the ratios of the effect on the muscle itself does not remain the same in both cases. As far as the law myophysische really matches in the psychophysical Maßgesetze, one can say, according to our assumption that the sensation which is caused by the irritation in the nerves that power, which triggers the nerve in the muscle, corresponds in size. After the opponent's requirement that the feeling of excitement in the nerves is simply proportional to the increase in performance would fall far short of the increase in sensation. You can however make an application on the following remark of herring (p. 8) to the logarithmic dependence of the weight sensation of weights: "When one who is very proficient in throwing a number of balls of the same size but very different weights can throw at a mark, he will meet up with the latter as well as the lighter the heavier bullets. Before each Litters he weighs the ball with your hand and is measured then the size of the voluntary effort expended., but the ball is as hard to frames or Lothen, knows the thrower is generally not to say. But since he nevertheless throws each ball with the power corresponding to their weights , it follows that he has correctly

understood their weight, he has, as they say, had the weight feeling. " Herring is this in line with the assumption that the strength of the weight sensation is proportional to the weights growing, though he admits that there is no rigorous proof lies in the fact, as you could possibly get to know in a different relationship between sensation and stimulus through experience, which arbitrary measure force generation requires any particular weight. And, in fact, to the untrained child wants to miss it quite the right balance. But we see now from previous speculation that the law under the presupposition of Preyerschen sensation and the power of the muscle, which comes into consideration when Litters, go disproportionately without the logarithmic dependence of the sensation would thus contradicted by the weights. How could they Delbceuf (Rev. p. 233) briefly noted "that if one assumes a logarithmic law, nothing prevents, two BWA permit", while the ingenuity of Hering's objection recognizes, as I do not do less. Following another case considered here to be pulling. The "Nature" brings into their no 193 of 10 July 1873 a Communication on a study by Dewar and Mc Kendrick, which is reproduced in the translated "naturalist" in 1873 no 37, and I gather indicated below. You switch on from a newly killed frog, reptile or fish freshly excised eye 3 ) under appropriate measures as those applied by Dubois to represent the natural muscle or nerve flow so into a multiplier that one end of the wire with the cornea, the other communicates with the cross section of the optic nerve, as the latter is caused by a rash on the current multiplier, which, by means of mirror device read, walked in the experiments to about 600 degrees of the scale. After it has been observed that the deflection is constant in the dark, the light is allowed to zutreten a gas flame. At this moment, the deflection changes. "At first, shows an increase, then a decrease, and if you removed the light is again an increase in [by the deflection displayed] electromotive force. Occasionally one sees the result of dying of nerves only a small increase and then a decrease, However, the increase in the removal of the light is always constant. the magnitude of the change of the electromotive force [di deflection] by the action of light is about 3 p. C. the total. "


By means of an appropriate, specified in such notice, measures appropriate results than the above could also be obtained, in which the excitability of the nerve after death

extinguishes still living birds and mammals too fast on the eye, the eye of animals killed apply. "The change is not proportional to the amount of light at different intense lights, but the logarithm of the quotient, and thus agrees with the psychophysical Fechner's law." "The change occurs because much of the retina ago, when this organ is removed, while the other structures of the eye remain, there is no sensitivity to light, although still an electromotive force is present." "This change can be traced to the thalamus." The message from which the previous moved out, is only a preliminary, I do not know if since a more complete presentation of the research is published, the previous but still leaves on some points are unclear. Is the first rash, calculated in a positive deviation from the original to, immediately following the admission of light into the negatives, or the first positive growth decreases only gradually, without coming back to the first deviation? and the magnitude of the change of 3 p. C. the total amount of the first positive change after admission of light or the difference between it and the retrograde movement meant? Anyway, at least that seems directly proved that not simply proportional, but a logarithmic relationship exists between the light stimuli and its effect on the nerves, which is rather in my mind as opposing these attempts. But we see closer to, then in this case a similar analysis as for the previous one. According to our present knowledge of the natural nerve current therefore stirred access without a stimulus at the closing of the chain that is in electrical nerve differents molecules are placed in a suitable rise to a current situation. The current through entry of a stimulus increases or decreases, of which the latter makes at other large trials as so-called negative variation claims that this can only be due that are the nerve molecules in a form suitable for amplification or attenuation of the current situation, and it may well be that a resistance to this change in a situation in which they are held by natural conditions takes place, which grows with the size of the change, according as the change in the position of the muscle molecules, of which the contraction depends in the previous case was the case, and that here again a logarithmic relationship asserts itself. But the sensation depends voraussetzlich to vibrations, which also occur with the change in position of the molecules 4 ) , and it is by no means self-evident that the living force, or which measure may be to accept for the psycho physical activity is proportional to the

change in position of the molecules changes, although it may be that a certain influence on it is taking place, which contributes to the cause in the outer psychophysics outcropping deviations. In any event, according to previous observations, the experiments of Dewar and Mc Kendrick decide nothing about our question.


The negative variation, which arises after other attempts of physiologists wide tetanising by a nerve stimulus is shown to be accompanied by vibrations of the molecules.

Now, one can say that the hypothesis Duboissche the electrical nature of the nerve molecules on the gefußt we have here, is just a hypothesis. But any other hypothesis, one may try to set up for it, will have to make the same explanation for the facts and hereby also common ground for the explanation of our case. But on the main lights, a priori, that static or equilibrium phenomena, such as the size of a muscle contraction, and the negative current fluctuation, which come under the influence of a continuous external stimulus to pass, not very suitable seem to think conditional on an ongoing continuous mental activity; but that vibrations under whose form we have yet to think of the psycho-physical activity most likely in logarithmic ratios of other vibrations - and the light stimulus but is an oscillatory depend on me, no example is known even now. If one were nevertheless hypothesize that sensation rather depended on the change in position of the molecules as vibrations, so wondered what to do with such a hypothesis? According to the hypothesis of oscillations we can think of the different qualities of sensation with different periodicity and shape of the oscillations in relationship, but which according to the hypothesis of the change in position? According to the first condition of the inner sensation of the outer is quite adequate, quite inadequate to last. That the light stimulus fails its effect in the previous experiments, if the retina is removed so that agrees with the fact that the light stimulus is also in living creatures for direct action on the nerves with no intermediary of the peculiar terminal apparatus that constitute the retina no sensation as the blind spot at the entrance of the optic nerve, where these end-organs missing, proves. Common ground so bring the vibrations of the external light only in the terminal apparatus peculiar (chemical) processes of oscillatory nature

(Section XIII), of which vibrations propagate through the nerves, but nothing prevents, even after this performance the external vibrations by the awakened inner proportional to think. Bernstein assumes that the dependent stimulus arousal While undiminished propagates through the sensory nerves, but that the ganglion cells of the brain, the reproductive oppose a resistance, by virtue of which each diminish the living force of the air entering them excitement a the degree of arousal proportional part . - Be it, but this does not suffer from the proportionality of the total propagated through the brain arousal to the stimuli, the double stimulus is accompanied by a double excitation upon entry into the brain with a double weakness in progress by the same, the triple a triple, changes the are not proportional. Bernstein also deepened his view there (no. 2 p. 177) that basically the destruction of the living power of the excitation by the resistance of the ganglion cells of the brain, it is what the sensation depends. Although I do not really would join this view, we can apply it here, after all. Now, however, the consumption of the whole living force, which enters the stimuli in proportion to the brain's size to the given by the size of the living force itself will be, so the sought by opponents logarithmic dependence of the psychophysical process of stimuli as little exist if you have the psycho-physical process in the consumptions of living force, as if you look him in such a self, just the view of the opponents so again not helped. Also, Amber comes to his, of ours differs in a peculiar way, view only in that he rather only the executive as a measure of the perception of him as a restricted prestigious number of the consumption of the living force cells than the total size of the consumption itself through the cells look. (Further details about Bernstein's view, under XV.) I guess probably that in the areas of modern experimental physiology still many things present, what about the 'negotiated in this section, question would be debatable, but confess that I this area has long been quite strange, and I have indicated in the, in the preface , wide and deep enough reasons not to study more into it to be quite oriented in it. Meanwhile, it is likely a consideration always lead back to the previous point. So at least it seems to me with the following research, of which I will mention briefly here, without of course they have thoroughly enough to be able to see, to be sure the proper recycling. Exner draws from a broader investigation 5) and others (p. 24) the following result:

"If the intensities of illumination of an object in geometric progression [hence the logarithms of the intensities in arithmetical progression] increase, so take the time necessary to perform the same as in arithmetical progression."


In Anh see "About the time necessary to visual perception," in 58th Ties of Vienna. Sitzungsber. In 1868. He accepts the validity of this proposition for light intensities, which do not exceed a certain amount (about the intensity of a sunlit white paper from direct sunlight) to complete, and noticed p. 22 that demonstrably take the first dose of the incident light exerts an effect on the retina. Now let γ the strength of feeling, β , the intensity of the light stimulus, relative to the threshold as a unit, t the, from the beginning of the action of light elapsed time, kis a constant, so in any case corresponds to the following equation in the simplest way above experience proposition, without however, to be generally proved by him, because all the amendments of t and β always just in the sense indicated for the same given value of γ are observed: γ = kt log β Namely, when the sensation y just stepping on the threshold, ie start to be noticeable, it is regarded as equal, which values also t and β may have it; according to the principle of the author but is experientially for making this equality that t in the inverse ratio of log β change. Indefinitely on a continuous validity of the previous formula over the threshold of γ beyond which γ into the indefinite with t would have to grow, you can not count, as well as such takes no Exner for his sentence to complete. Because once the increasing with the duration of the stimulus attenuation of sensitivity is not considered in the formula, second question is whether the proportionality of γ with t not only for such small t get as the relevant trials in stroke, is accurate. Suppose, for example, instead of t we actually had to put 1 - e - t, where e is the base number of natural logarithms, so a 1 - e - t for very small values of t than in t, for large can not be

exceeded in the constant value 1Generally, namely which at small values of t neglecting the higher powers, however, is for large values of t is . What would be our pure mass formula for the final state reached. It now that γ in previous formula for logarithmic ratios of β dependent, it is in any event our mass formula, but first lets the alternative that has occupied us, draw, it might then γ in a simple proportion of the inner psvchophysischen activity, but these logarithmically dependent on the stimuli, and one might think that after concurrence of the other further attempts Baxt 6 ) is really to decide accordingly. These experiments concern the meantime, which elapses from the moment when a frog leg is immersed in a dilute sulfuric acid, and the moment induced by the stimulation of acid reflex muscular contraction occurs. It was found that the intermediate rows increase in a geometric progression, while the percentage acid levels fall to an arithmetic progression. So here is the same law for the entry of the muscle twitch what Exner found for the occurrence of sensation. And so one could say: Regardless of sensation, which does not occur in the appearance in the experiments of Baxt, nerve excitation must be increased by the final effect of the stimulus only up to a certain point before the muscular contraction begins, and this nervous excitement is it, which depends logarithmically on stimuli. But the nervous excitement has only to transmit yes to the muscle to trigger the twitch, and if the respect of Preyerschen attempts salaried view is correct, it will be also here be transferred meaning that the muscle twitch, no less than the sensation in logarithmic ratios of nervous excitement, but this depends on the proportion of simple stimuli.

reports the sächs Soc. of Sciences. 1871 p. Off 31.
Vom Reize hängt die Empfindung nur mittelbar, von der psychophysischen Tätigkeit unmittelbar ab; experimentale Störungen der Gesetzlichkeit, welche die Übertragung der Reizwirkung auf das psychophysische System in der äußeren Psychophysik beteiligen, fallen bezüglich der unmittelbaren Abhängigkeit zwischen Empfindung und psychophysischer Tätigkeit weg; die innere Psychophysik läßt solche hinter sich.

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IX. Question of the transferability of the law of the threshold into the inner psychophysics.

That the law of simple stimulus-or sensation as the threshold, the difference threshold for the outer psychophysics is, this are obvious facts before. Each stimulus such difference of stimuli actually requires a certain finite, exceeding the zero value, size, to be noticed, to make an impression in the mind, the customer is of his existence. Also, a stimulus that we perceive initially, the fact that we were exposed to the same length of time, for us to be imperceptible by its threshold increases for us. But the question is whether the same law is applicable in the inner psychophysics, whether a finite, d, i the zero value on rising, level of psycho-physical activity is necessary for the associated quality of sensation is felt in the consciousness, and a difference between the degrees of activity, so that a difference is detected. The importance of this question and the same connection with the question of whether simple proportionality between perception and psychophysical activity is, has been discussed in the previous sections. Which explain the proportionality to explain at the same time against the adoption of an internal threshold, however, is the assumption in our sense. Now you can from the outset of our acceptance to assert that can find causes for the outer threshold, which do not exist for the adoption of the Interior. As can be imagined that a very weak external stimulus by the external obstacles to his intrusion opposite, or because of repealed nerve conduction by virtue does not penetrate to the interior of the psychophysical system, or that a kind of inertia in the release of psycho-physical activity through quite well the stimulus, as in analogous to tightening a vehicle on uneven paths, some finite amount of stimulus needed any thing, to be overcome. 1 )

Among others makes Delbceuf, in the mass formula is taking no threshold latter reason, to me. already in the Elem II 431, as to taking into consideration, pointed, his hand (Theor. p. 51) submits to three other reasons that may but shall have only a weak, not missing, feeling for weak stimuli or stimulus changes, so do not penetrate. There are really such causes, they may contribute to the lower experimental deviation from Weber's law, which would come to explain this deviation only to equip.But the explicability emerging from such causes is not enough everywhere, in so far as such can equal the simplest facts concerning the difference threshold in the

lurch.If I eg light experiments, two areas see next to each other, of which I certainly know for their lighting conditions that they have a physical difference in brightness, and yet able to see any difference in brightness with the most precise attention, and if I by day just as little with the most precise attention can be distinguished from the surrounding basically a star, whatever he said basically at the point where he is, a considerable degree of physical brightness inflicts, so I can not say that the light stimulus no access found because of external obstacles to the inside, or no psychophysical activity was triggered. And why now, when the weakest psychophysical excitement could be felt in the consciousness, with strong stimuli even a very considerable excess of one over the other is not noticeable if it does not exceed a certain limit? For this following quote from Elem. I. 243: "Prepare two lamps next to each other and before it a shadow body imaging Each of the two lamps are a shade that is only lit by the other lamp, while the surrounding ground is lit by two lamps now If you screw the wick.. which reduces a lamp deeper, or remove them and farther from the shadow imaging body, so you can still see the shadow that it casts, become weaker and weaker, and finally disappear this shadow, are equally absorbed by the general enlightenment of reason, irrespective yet both light sources are there. I was quite surprised when I became aware for the first time to see two lights only cast a shadow. Both lamps burn much, but is merely a shadow there. in a word, if the difference between the enlightenment of a shadow and the surrounding space falls below a certain limit, the difference disappears totally for the sensation and can certainly no longer be perceived. " "This trial is therefore notably very striking, because here you have the components at the same time in the eye, and the eye sharp, smoothly and steadily over the boundary thereof may direct, while bringing their difference to disappear, so neither of the forgetting of the earlier impression nor may overlook the difference of the question. " Common ground is indeed the difference threshold that must be exceeded so that a difference will be noticeable, not to be confused with the simple sensation threshold, but you do not see one, could that principle run against a threshold that would run not at the same time against the other. If the base of the inner difference threshold are that the line between the two is not strong enough differing in psychophysiological arousal points missing, it would not only be highly unlikely for two neighboring points, but also is not consistent

with the fact that we have a very noticeable light difference illuminated between two surfaces thus can make it disappear, that we reinforce the lighting of both that the lighter but weaker conditions than those of the less bright, as one can easily convince the shadow studies for testing of Weber's law, regardless of the line resistance between two would be more easily overcome by the mutual reinforcement. Or is the reason for the lack of distinction vice versa are that the psychophysical activities of the two bodies to compensate for a too low relative differences of the stimuli? But with a large relative differences, such inward adjustment instead has, one could with little differences probably a closer approximation to the adjustment, but not a complete adjustment expect; also can indeed both illuminated areas be separated by a dark interval of space or time, without the differential threshold ceases to exist. Common ground that the facts will be taken and evaluated in the context in a psychophysical system, and so you can not if you have the inner psychophysics concede the difference threshold, deny their reasons without binding the simple sensation threshold. Or if, as some want, without my beistimme them in, all sensations should be to take principle as the difference sensations to have (see Section XII), so would it even ever been sufficient, the difference threshold established as sufficient for the interior proved . Incidentally, but there is no lack of facts, which can be related to the simple sensation threshold in our sense without the above objections have been accordingly applied, except that they do not wear such a simple character than the previous, related to the difference threshold, so other wide light interpretations of this or that hypothetical considerations may be exposed. Here is the well-known fact that we are one, in the cue distraction over, Word can not bring through demgemäße direction of attention to consciousness later.Common ground that they can not be explained so that the word was not able to penetrate up to the seats of the psycho-physical activity, but rather as that obtained by entry of psychophysical activity of attention psychophysical excitation by the word of a growth and thus on the threshold of public awareness could be lifted. But for an internal threshold must still be present. On the other facts of the same character, I've been in Elem. II 432 thought. With facts of this kind but related other actual conditions, of whom I do not know how without assuming an inward threshold at all to a psychophysical representation can be thought of, nor the opponents

have never ventured with her, from mine deviating views on it and my presentation of them simply ignored, can I count it but the threshold principle to the very advantage that the same car with the help of it. Of the more detailed discussions here on the 42nd Chapter of my items here only briefly the following. If we consider a sensory phenomenon or us such a mind in the mind, so the intensity of our conscious activity is determined on the one hand by the degree of attention with which we perceive the sensory or memory phenomenon, on the other hand, by the vividness or intensity with which we, the phenomenon itself appears. We can make a dark image with intense attention look, listen for a faint sound with intense attention, even on a listen that is not there, but is a sensual or memory phenomenon as such is the strength in us, the phenomenon appears contribute in ways other than the attention to the intensity of the whole activity of consciousness, which we use in view of the phenomenon, for we can distinguish what comes at the expense of the strength of attention and special phenomenon very well. What, for example, a gray or white are not bright, not a sound appear louder when we increased attention directed it, and we feel just only strengthened our attention. But strangely, while as the degree of attention appears without influence on the strength of the phenomenon disappears completely the same consciousness, when attention not towards it. Who is sunk completely into studying, so to speak, see and hear not what is going on around him, you can be so absorbed in listening to a concert that everything visible in the area fades our consciousness, etc. How to explain this relationship? In my opinion, this way: attention is a common psychological phenomenon, that which occurs in every sense-as a higher spiritual regions into play, and what, if requested by an educated psychophysics, according to a general psycho-physical activity is defined below. This general activity but is caused by the actions of nature spezialer what the psychic phenomena depend Intresting, influenced 2 ) , and total consciousness, which comes into play when one considers special phenomenon is determined by the composition of the two. Now, the total consciousness, hereby all his unsuccessful psycho-physical activity, its threshold, and if this is nowhere exceeded, will dreamless sleep instead, the specific activity but on which depends the special phenomenon that has one of these distinct threshold (special threshold).


For a general reference for the idea you can think of the

participation of a tonic vibration by the vibration of harmonics, only that the psychophysical processes of attention and special sensory phenomena soft indisputably much further apart. Like now the attention be ever so strongly focused on one area if this special threshold is not reached, we take nothing of the phenomenon true, although we feel the direction of attention; according as it is exceeded, the phenomenon appears to us in greater strength, regardless of the degree of attention, if only the threshold of the total consciousness, to which much attention has part 3 ) is exceeded. But this is not the case, the threshold of the special phenomenon may be even so much exceeded, and the same thing disappears but the total consciousness, ie consciousness at all.

Just as the special feelings you can ascribe it to the directing attention to a special threshold. The threshold of the total consciousness but functionally depends on both. Comp. For this, a corrective remark 42 The elements in Chapter XXIII. Section. Of course, if, as is done by some, who evades attention a psychophysical pad is withdrawn at the same time the previous statement its base. But aside from the reasons which preclude factual side of that deprivation of 4 ) , I think it even for one who psychophysics stead coming, advantage that is not compelled by the facts this way to escape it such.

In aspired attention to anything, any arbitrary making a physical expression of power impossible by the arbitrary disponible physical strength is noted for attention. The pointy ears, eyes tearing, agonize, are all expressions for arbitrary reflex movements on exertion of attention in given areas. The question of the validity of an internal threshold depends so much on the question of interpretation and negative sentiment values together that we can not keep them still done with previous observations, but at the close of the following section will again have to return to it.

When I said in my treatise against Aubert (p. 11) in favor of Weber's law that it hergebe also the threshold law, which is thoughtlessly said, namely if incorrect, but rather the threshold law with Weber's law along the logarithmic Maßgesetz will bear, of course, the threshold law then flows back as a consequence of the. Low but remains, at least for the fundamental validity of the threshold law, apart from the for speaking facts that could ever win no finite measure for finite sensations from the pure Weber's law, without that tightens the threshold principle, as in Elem. II 34 have been shown. But if Langer (p. 66) says, that the fact of emerging from any curve could flow as a psychophysical law because it contained only the requirement that the curve is cut for some finite value, the threshold that Abszissenaxe, which requirement could be satisfied by all possible curves ", so I ask him if, for example, from the curve γ = k β or = k β ² etc. can flow as psychophysical law He will say, oh, yes, do I need only the. beginning point of the x-axis β . too embarrassed I reply: oh no, it's in a turn as psychophysical law just is not arbitrary, while I shift the starting point of the abscissa, but rather it is one that required only by specific facts and again flowing from the logarithmic measurement formula peculiarity of the psychophysical curve that the beginning point of the x-axis must be placed at a point located at a finite distances from Schneidungspunkte with the curve. we have here is just not one to do with an abstract mathematical curve, but such that the through ratio of ordinate γ in the particular importance as sensation to the abscissa β is expressed in the particular significance as a stimulus experiential ratios of both. Shortly, I find the same here at Long Untriftigkeit, which I'll have to remember to Delbceuf (see below).

Aber es fragt sich, ob dasselbe Gesetz in die innere Psychophysik übertragbar ist, ob auch ein endlicher, d, i. den Nullwert übersteigender, Grad der psychophysischen Tätigkeit nötig ist, damit die zugehörige Empfindungsqualität für das Bewußtsein spürbar wird, und ein Unterschied zwischen den Graden dieser Tätigkeit, damit ein Unterschied erkannt wird.

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X. Objections to the negative sentiment values. Further remarks on the threshold (Delbceuf, Langer, Preyer). If the size of the stimulus β or the psychophysical activity, which is triggered by the stimulus below the threshold b falls, so does the

mass formula for the sensation γnegative values. And even ruthless on the validity of our mass formula is to be found everywhere led to the adoption of negative sentiment values below the threshold, if one allows only the threshold law itself, which could indeed apart from the Weberian and logarithmic Maßgesetze exist, for while the logarithmic Maßgesetz the threshold law needed to derive (Elem. II 34), the reverse is not true. And how the simple sensation must the difference sensation, and every bound to psycho-physical activity, mental activity at all, for which a threshold exists, assume negative values below the threshold. Briefly, the concept of psychophysical threshold and negative mental values below the threshold are, at least as I myself both understand solidarity. In fact, when the sensation γ , to initially adhere to these significant values for consciousness only after exceeding a certain charm value b wins (or the resulting induced psycho-physical activity), and in functional dependence of the degree of this over rising even increases , it is obvious that as long as b is not reached, something lacking in the conclusion of sensation, and, as is referred to the sinking of a shaft below the level of negative height values if one has positive for the top, one is naturally also what am reaching the point where receives the sensation only noticeable positive values still missing (not to be confused with what is lacking in the charm degrees required to do so), have to behaften with a negative sign when what exceeds it, tainted with a positive sign, should ever, continued to receive a functional dependence of the sensation of stimuli throughout the stimulus scale. 1 ) Now is the objective of the measure of negative distance from the datum of sensation or the Sunken One among them the extent of the positive survey to set about it in a common functional relation to stimulus values, what happens under the assumption of the validity of Weber's law by the mass formula.

In contrast, when the strength of a sensation of a wave with the level would not be compared to the level, but above the ground, in which case there is no threshold, no sinking in the ground, and consequently would not have a negative sensations. A direct measure of what is lacking in the realization of a sensation, we have not in consciousness. But the measure of the mass formula is a consequence of the mathematical and experimental grounds on which the dimension of the sensations which positively exceed the threshold value, ie zero value of feeling supported, and is

to be understood according to this consequence. Thus, properly grouped and understood the Inbegriffensein the negative feelings with positive values is also in the same formula by no means indifferent to the experience. Because if not already takes the negative perception as such in the experience, and you can specify by direct testimony of consciousness in any way, how much is missing at the conclusion of a sensation, yet according to the given by the formula relation of negative sensation to stimulus values how much is lacking in the charm values, which is necessary for the conclusion of a positive, ie, real, sensation, both of which are important not to confuse. It should indeed act in psychophysics to the knowledge of the functional relationship between physical and mental activity. But this also to know whether more or less of a feeling lack the physical conditions of existence, or, what amounts to the same thing, how much of this condition ( β ) is there, and what needs to be achieved ( b ) to the condition is satisfied for real sensation. If now as a formula suitable for the case where this condition is not achieved, but that it is exceeded, the sensation of taking self-negative values for the first case, while it assumes positive for the second, and the first case is of the same degree not the incomplete condition (β ) itself, but is the same in functional dependence thereof than that of the positive sense of the exceeded condition. One can not at all see that the negative sentiment values (as long as they are not up to - ∞ at β = 0 sink) are always fraught with positive moments, which give only terms not the sensation itself, but the charm or the psychophysical activity, and thus the existence of the negative feeling is distinguished by the absence of an event to sensation at all. That something is missing to the existence of a positive perception depends, as has just noticed it functionally that something is missing to fulfill the physical condition in which the sensation begins to be positive, but this is an incomplete condition but already there , which only the needs to be supplemented in order to kick in the positive sense, but in turn is able to provide the sensation of such a supplement andersher certain occasions, and is capable of producing physical achievements in psychophysical systems without addition to conscious perception, which are of the same nature as the whole of the Terms of conscious sensations produced. Of these conditions, the role depends on playing the psychophysical activities under the threshold of the so-called unconscious life, and this fact in consideration I have the sensations them functionally associated also called himself unconscious feelings on what name the way nothing matters when it applies, the stated objective meaning of the negative feelings, or more generally the

negative phenomena of consciousness to represent below the threshold at all. Only on the basis of the mode of conception, that sucked in. unconscious states of soul life continues a remnant of the physical (psycho-physical) conditions of consciousness below the threshold, without being conscious of itself, is sufficient, in general, a clear difference unconscious states of conscious to win, and the continuance of a causal relationship seems to me between through conscious to unconscious can be understood so that the psychology in this regard would be unable to do without psychophysics. In fact, when the conscious mental life at times geschwundenen by states of consciousness (sleep states) is interrupted 2 ) , the physical conditions play but of the same continue below the threshold for maintaining the causal relationship, and increases the game on waking only back to consciousness as it fell below the threshold falling asleep. But the same thing from all conscious life, can apply the same rules of peculiar, as evidenced by the facts of memory. Every other mode of conception, what unconscious conscious states on the one hand, on the other hand, unconscious (where the psychophysical motion very silent), with respect to are, it seems to me objectively unclear.

Some say, however, that can be pulled out without certain proof that their only we can not remember all us) is no sleep without dreams (. But it would be so, so that almost always confused dream ideas but would be less suitable fortzuerhalten the causal link between the rational waking states. Incidentally, the gradual shrinkage of consciousness when approaching the sleep you can probably even be conscious that long to believe in its complete disappearance at full sleep can. But in order not to engage in conceptual contradictions, one has the expression "unconscious feeling" psychischerseits not with the same incomplete condition to confuse the lack of sensation physischerseits, and indeed might be called unconscious perception by defining itself latter rather than the former, to so to speak, a palpable idea to have it, but that would come out of the conceptual connexion and necessary for the psychophysics distinction between mental and physical side of life. By the way, nothing hinders, but to think the unconscious of the human physical game positively to the general consciousness of a world spirit, which is at a lower threshold than the human

contributing, and, apart from my natural philosophical writings, I go to the end of my items in the 45th Chapter itself on the same ideas of a kind. But the psychophysics has nothing to start with those entering from the front very distant, ideas, but with empirical facts on people and with provisions that are relevant for the human consciousness to the fact itself an indication to the conclusion beyond man and up to win, to humans but may actually emergence of consciousness still something missing, because the threshold of human consciousness is still topped by the psycho-physical condition, however, that, voraussetzliche to conclusions, lower threshold of the general consciousness is exceeded thereby. This is certainly of consciousness everywhere provisions only in the sense that speech, as they are to testify to the human consciousness. If you want to say, as for myself, a negative sensation itself, different from a zero feeling for the consciousness of the phenomena, but is the feeling to nothing, so both must be equally labeled zero, it nothing will give both if perceived, as is where in this untriftig as the degree of sensation is given as a function of the rate of the stimulus, but in both cases very significantly different in regard to the relationship between the feeling and irritation, so that the negative sense, even if right equivalent of consciousness with a zero sensation, a different meaning for the inner life has, as the zero sensation. Now you can find only desirable if this difference in Maßausdruck the sensation itself. In one argues with the dimensions of the real, positive, feeling connected way , The zero value and negative value of the radius vector of a curve as a function of angle are equivalent to the fact that in reality can identify as few as one to the other for an appreciable value, and it must be discriminated. In the same vein, but the zero value and negative value of a sensation must be distinguished, and a mathematical objection to the latter distinction would also meet the former. With regard to this use of the negative sign in the mathematics for an analogous case, the negative feeling you can then as well as it happens to the negative radius vector, bringing it under the term of the imaginary. Just so untriftig than to raise an objection from previous volume considerations, it would be to say to when the negative feelings to me an incomplete condition for sensation to be present, but such would naturally also correspond to an incomplete sensation while ye after me should correspond to imaginary, nonexistent sensation, one that at the conclusion of something is still missing. Meanwhile likely beat this objection with the previous same time the following simple

example. The physical daytime brightness H can as a function of solar altitude h by the formula sin h are considered measured. Suppose it would be no atmosphere present, which would, even in the case that the sun sinks below the horizon, yet rays reflected upwards, so start the brightness only when h exceeds the zero value, and would be all the depths of the sun below the horizon an equal give an absolute darkness, but would the values H , depending on the different values - h with different values of sin - h = - sin h occur. And who will not say that when the sun has approached by her deepest able below the horizon the horizon, already an incomplete condition of the daytime brightness is present, without even the slightest of itself exists because even contrary to their conclusion something is missing. If an iron stove is heated, the heating degree each contributes something in to get his plates for the visible glow, but it starts only when a certain degree of heat is reached, and then grows in intensity with the degree of heating. Again, nothing is more noticeable glow from the incomplete condition of the glow. Some people collect money for building a house, but only begins with it if he has a certain sum together. It can be countless examples of the sort heap, which prove that an incomplete condition of a thing by no means suffices everywhere, even some bring from the real thing something or carry, but rather the opposite mathematical possibility corresponds to the real, and we must therefore look to the experience how the real situation is. 3 )

Volkmann, has made a very cogent treatise, which I do not remember to quote against Darwin argued that a rudiment of a wing, for example, why it came by chance once in the course of development of the creatures, the creatures in question or could give no benefit for its preservation and its victory in the struggle for existence against other creatures, including the progress of the complete wing in the further course of generations could not by virtue of an advantage occurred only with the full wing happen. The previous is essential only in slightly different turns, the same explanation I have in my elements (especially in the 18 par.) Over the negative sentiment values, and some of which I take back even now find no reason. However one has to be repeatedly found not

legally part in this declaration been able to partly collected mathematical concerns, however, some found fault in the experimental justification of the threshold law, largely ignored these grounds, and sought in consequence of my Maßformel to be replaced by other formulas, which do not contain threshold and therefore result in no negative feelings. Thus, it is Plaeau, Brentano, Delbceuf, Langer 4 ) happen, and in particular there are Delbceuf and Langer, who have spoken about difficulties in certain specified relationships. Here the essence of it with my reply to it.

Although Brentano himself is no formula, but he follows without such a threshold from the duties set of laws to him. Langner's formula contains nominally (by Langner's name) a threshold, but one which does not meet my terms thereof. Difficulty (see below O. and the following remarks). The Conceptual and Mathematical anlangend, says Delbceuf (el p 17th): "After Fechner a negative feeling is a very weak sensation of which one has no consciousness." To give such a statement is obviously not occurred to me, as it contains for me a contradiction in terms. - Delbceuf further says (. ET. p 17): "We could reject a priori negative feelings because feelings are something necessary and because the term" negative perception "is a nonsense." Of course it is, if you have a nonsense (understands by it, but I do not mean that he is, if we understand it in the above sense You think yourself not to words but to the factual explanation of the words, which it anywhere. needed in this new territories in order not to be misunderstood. Delbceuf it holds (ow p. 18) speak of course, the feeling which corresponds to a zero value of the stimulus, to denote zero, since no sensation is here in fact absolutely exist, are my Maßformel the zero value of the sensation to a particular finite value of the stimulus builds, for the zero value of the stimulus over the equal sensation - ∞ are. But I think thereon by the totality of the discussions, which are cited to have answered enough, according to the sensation value corresponding to a zero value of the stimulus, which is hereby absolutely lacks a reason to sensation, from the zero values of sensation in a finite stimulus values is to distinguish functionally well. - Delbceuf makes the arbitrariness with which you can move the start point of abscissa or thermometer scale, argued against the adoption of the zero point of feeling at a particular stimulus values, while yet there is in fact for the sensation sizes are not the same arbitrary as for any mathematical variables and physical scales by the

sensation of actually occur until a certain stimulus values, ie exceeds the zero value. Of pure mathematics is the one that he could not find a formula for psychophysical conditions any more than for any other real conditions which either substantiate or refute, would it be that you pointed out contradictions or impossibilities in what Delbceuf did not. Meanwhile holds Delbceuf his objections to our negative perception values so fundamental and resounding that he say so at all costs, including the sacrifice of the threshold to escape in his formulas studied them; (. Étud.) hereafter in his first treatise formulas establishes that ever lead to any negative emotion values in its second and third (theoretical and Rev.) while negative values as well as positive feelings statuiert, but in a very different sense than I, by (p theor. 30) is not imaginary or lack of sensations, but sensations of negative character over those of a positive nature, such as cold to heat, black against white, silence against noise goes under, and both sensations brings under the same formula, what and against what I believe I have expressed myself already sufficiently. After this, we turn to Langer's objections. That the fundamental mathematical contradiction Langer (p. 51) raises against my negative sentiment values is a fundamental mathematical mistake, I think just enough to have shown. Its own, consistent with this contradiction, views anlangend, he statuiert, as noted earlier, a threshold in its own sense and unconscious, but not negative, imaginary sensations below the threshold, but rather the sensations it is below the threshold only "small sensations which are too small to communicate directly to consciousness "are" always positive by stimulus and sensation are simultaneously zero, "and" the threshold itself corresponds to a finite positive sensation, which may be called by Wundt sensation threshold, and which says that feelings must have exceeded this threshold, if they are directly come into consciousness, ie it should be possible to put their existence immediately with other sensations through intellectual activity in relationship. " - Now Let these provisions to Langer's how he sees emerging, consciousness, unconsciousness, fit so wot 'but I do not see why I should give my opinion the same way terms, what they do not fit, however. Since I coherently find its contrary view with a mathematical Untriftigkeit, and its provisions wrest neither direct clarity, nor those in for me objectively clear white to translate what I can succeed with no view at all, which can speak of the existence of positive sensations below the threshold . In fact, if I can not see it at fixed attention to a sensation area of a

sensation (or perceived differences) well, despite that a physical cause is there, what is the actual case, the threshold in my sense, understand I, like you can not say that but a small (simple or difference) sensation is there, you just can not compare with others, it seems to me entirely mystical terms. It is not disputed, there are cases where one of a psychological value, notwithstanding he was there, can not remember then to compare it with others, but these are cases where you do not have the attention directed toward the first or forget it , however, the fact of the threshold in our sense is when you focus on the area in question received attention immediately asks if something of the kind that belongs in this area is felt, and must say that you recognize nothing about it. My formula is this conception of the threshold and the lack of sensation when the stimulus is below the threshold, almost as a definition below, purpose they are declared valid, one talks of feeling so hereafter there, too, where, despite none of then directed attention is felt, then of course do not fit my formulas on such a sensation, and would find the enemy formulas that fit their definition and the experience at the same time, how long has at least those searched, they would mine not contradict, but only the other by definition consistently. be interpreted. But it is for me the clear notion of existence and absence of a sensation among the most suitable for Konstatierung conditions ever lost, if it is not handled in the previous example, and easy to get it to confusion or an unclear throwing together the mental sensation with their physical condition that may already be incomplete because angegebenermaßen if the sensation itself in the above sense nothing is there. And that such confusion seems to be present here and there. Incidentally, the following remarks as reclosing can contribute to a more definite conceptual explanation of the impacting conditions here perhaps. Let it be noted, for which case and for whatever factors, I give you my definition of the absence of sensation as fundamental, and take to complete. I have feelings in a given area or do not have, without to know for sure later if I had not had it or because my attention was thus not sufficiently busy to leave significant effects. Such feelings and sensations can not give as little indication for the psychophysics of basic provisions, as in astronomy, the existence or non-existence of a star at a given place other than the time of his direct observation. Applies it but, to be stated the existence or nonexistence and the conditions of existence of a sensation in a given area and under the circumstances, to get to know the dependence of the perception of these circumstances, it is also true that attention under these circumstances, then, to judge, and then I say that I have

the sensation under these circumstances or not have, depending on I notice some of it or do not notice, and I conclude that the sensation even if I do not particularly set my attention on the legal dependency relationships that I was able to observe so will follow, in so far as the degree of attention it is not of influence, which is itself a matter of observation. Of course, now I can find no reason to speak of the existence of a sensation under circumstances when not then directed attention where I notice none of this in the fact oriented, so it concentrated attention, so if the stimulus is too small, hence can the existence of a sensation in such circumstances do not allow. With such a statement of the terms for the fundamental observation conditions of psychophysics fall speculating about what consciousness is ever completely gone, and everything is kept internally in Aufzeiglichen so far at all with words something can show internally. In short, I call such an unconscious sensation, on whose existence is still something missing, however, an incomplete physical condition is there. But if something of this feeling is there or is not there, I feel determined by the previous statements. Even with the relevant observations about the difference sensations, the question is whether such under given circumstances is there or is not there, according to current observation under these circumstances in fact pointed attention to answer; herewith the fact of the existence or non-existence thereof determined immediately. Meanwhile, the observations teach himself that a legal behavior of difference sensations, as such, is determined by the Unterschiedsmaßformel and Anhalt are in conclusion to the legal behavior of sensation differences, takes place only in so far as the variable impact that the uncertainty of memory and the spatial and temporal location of the components of the difference is expressed in the fact of the difference in sensation, drawing by means of a majority of trials and opposition of experiments with opposite spatial and temporal location is possible, reduced and eliminated as the 5th Section has been discussed, after which the general speculation about the debilitating influence of reminder, here is the need to Konstatierung our laws, which it is believed to interfere, will become obsolete. After all 'I suspect that you will raise all sorts of seemingly factual or conceptual difficulties, the nature of which I just can not anticipate all over. Against some that come to mind as possible, I notice the following in advance. One can not object to my statements that I even concede that there could be a feeling greater than another, though I notice it if the difference is too small, hereby concede that there could be something

to feelings because what I do not notice. But there is something else, a remarkable difference between two sensations, and have two different sensations. I can notice that I have one and just so that I have the other; them but to compare and to perceive their difference, a new act of consciousness must occur, which is subject to its peculiar psycho-physical conditions, and how the psycho-physical activity must exceed a certain proportion to their thresholds, so I have a simple sensation, the ratio of two psychophysical activities have a certain relation to the ratio exceeds threshold, so that I can notice a difference between two sensations noticed by me. Now you might say, well, if I can have a difference of two feelings in me, without being able to notice him, I will also have a simple sensation in me can have without being able to notice them. - But if I, not to speak of something as existing, which can be seen as existing there is absolutely no way, and thus fall into the incomprehensible, must say that I have no difference in sensation when I can notice of such absolutely nothing, despite that a stimulus difference is this: I will also be able to say that I have no simple sensation when I can notice of such absolutely nothing, despite the that a simple stimulus is there. One difference between sensations is certainly the first case there, but in the sense of Unterschiedsmaßformel as negative below the threshold, and so the sensation is also second relevant, by the mass formula there, but it is also just as negative below the threshold of their coming so rather something missing as something positive that this would be there. I think that all this is only logical and consistent in terms of the given basic provisions. In any empirical science, it is important to start very simple facts of observation as fundamental to refer to them clearly and firmly and establish a combination of the same conclusions. Fundamental psychophysical facts direct observation are: 1) that I can notice any reflection on a given sensation area of a feeling nothing, if the stimulus is too small and can not see anything of a difference in perception when the stimulus difference is too small, 2), that about the point (threshold point) beyond where the sensation respektiv difference sensation begins to be noticeable, the same respektiv grow irritable differences with the stimuli. The short name of the first fact I say, as I said, that I do not have a simple or difference in sensation when I absolutely can perceive nothing by reflection on the appropriate sensation area, the combination of the first fact with the second but let me circuit example but it speak, that a difference of sensations may be what I do not notice anything as the difference sensation without the same consequences leads us to speak of

sensations as consisting, of which nothing can be remarkable. Because come to simple sensations, we are at something elemental, the last areas of consciousness. If one wants to say there where Fechner speaks of sensations below the threshold, negative feelings, unconscious sensations, all of which is equivalent only to denote distances from the point where the sensation begins to be noticeable, small positive feelings are already there, but only may not be noticed, so I can not stop it, only it seems to me just as pointless as unclear for the idea and does not change the fact situations, as envisaged by me. Long now claims, however, that nevertheless make in the method of right and wrong cases are in fact small positive difference sensations below the threshold claimed by in a bit more difficult construction he says (p. 52): This method is based on the fact "that the sensation a small stimulus difference, which does not occur directly into consciousness, neither zero nor negative, but has a certain positive small value, which is reinforced by the effects in the observation of this small stimulus difference in many observations, and its existence has also been found in the strongest . " - But how so? After my presentation in Elem. L. 247, which I find refuted in Nothing by Langer sharp proof, a stimulus difference may due to the influences of observation in that method below the threshold that would not be felt as such, and therefore would be no matter how small positive difference sensation for themselves, so reinforced, ie the corresponding difference of the psychophysical activities are increased so that the threshold exceeded and it is therefore felt more easily and more often, the bigger he is, because he then a demand for such smaller-reinforcing growth to exceed the threshold. The method is based on that reason. Long course, refers to the influence of the observation directly on reinforcing an already presupposed by him as present small sensation, but wrong in a psychophysics to apply. Because if hereafter the difference in sensation is a function of relative stimulus difference or stimulus ratio, the change in sensation only by changing the stimulus influences or psycho-physical activities may be dependent, but that a small sensation below the threshold without the reinforcing influence of the observation was already available, Langer is just only, provided no evidence of this requirement. Apart from the explicitly asserted by Delbceuf and Langer, interjections can appeal to me on the following case. It may be that one is blunted for the general daily noise so that one

thinks also at strained closest attention to hear anything that you say to yourself: it's very quiet and yet when the daily noise, ie the physical condition of the same, stop it as increased silence feels. It may be that one to one, filled with odorous substances, air has become so used to being means nothing to smell even when the direction of attention, and yet, when you come into a free from the odorous substances air, as increased sense of purity. So, you can say, I had to first also if an auditory sensation, have second case had an odor sensation. But when I to stand in the first example, the weak, as all missing days sound no provision of my consciousness find in me that I recognize as auditory sensation, I have also in my definition first if as little as a second if reason of the existence of a such talk, and call indeed for this reason the first as the second state as a state of silence, that is, absence of auditory sensation, if I do but feel a difference between the two states, so it is not a difference between positive feelings that are not rather as but a difference between states of the hearing related to the general field of consciousness, which are there. In the same way, namely, how in employment in the public consciousness in a given area, ie, direction of attention, in the case of different stimuli on the threshold of the difference in perception can have that, of the two positive feelings one the zero threshold point, more excess than the others, - it must only difference ratio of the stimuli to be large enough to - I can with two stimuli below the threshold in my, based on the area in question, General awareness, the difference in perception have that to achieve the zero point of sensation in the areas concerned with the effect of one more missing than the other, which (not sound as weaker) appears to be greater silence in Tongebiete, it only needs to specify also the difference ratio of stimuli below the threshold to be big enough to do so. Yes, the term more silence in our case would not make sense even if you do not want to understand in our sense of stillness. Because nothing can not even be larger than the anderemal, however, may be missing something even more than the anderemal so in assets with greater debt from reaching a point when one is further back from it. It can be argued that even in the case where our attention is not directed to the Tongebiet, but felt the transition to greater silence, yes, attention can be directed by the Tongebiet. But each stimulus in a given area attracts the attention unsuccessful, psycho-physical activity to some extent to which shares in a certain dependence on the distribution of stimuli, and only needs to exceed a certain threshold in any given areas to the direction to be felt in this area. Even more than by stimuli but the attention is attracted by

stimulus differences, contrasts, so this can also be done through the transition to greater silence. Followed vice versa, as previously thought, according to a prolong silence that existed under the influence of a continuous uniform very weak daily noise for the sensation in some conditions stronger, it would have been without the previously gone silent also below the threshold, it may be that irritability is increased sufficiently by the previously previous silence that not only reduced silence is felt, but that the sound is now really perceived as sound. We notice now tell you that the considered case falls far from the socket out by our formulas, but rather an intended in this case formulas would remain uncovered by the experience without it. In fact, we draw the weft end here Unterschiedsmaßformel into consideration, belongs to her to perceive the difference between two stimuli, β , β , such that the ratio of the stimuli to their distinction is, therefore , short ϕ , a certain finite size , the ratio threshold v overstepping. Let now β , β ′ both very small and therefore both be under the threshold, but generally speaking it can β ′ to such a high ratio against β be small, that is, and the only reason is the scope for it in reality is not large, because each sensory modality is to say already see a certain psycho-physical activity without stimulation as charged, which, when attributable to the stimuli also speak for themselves below the threshold. An infinite can not happen to us because hereafter β ′ can not be null for us. In case, however, is not the relative difference between two stimuli that are below their own threshold large enough, it will be as little noticeable as when it is not large enough between two stimuli above their threshold. So while is to have admittedly with a simple stimuli below the threshold no measure of how much it is missing in the realization of simple sensation in consciousness itself, the contrast between two successive stimuli can us at the threshold in a given sensation areas, it is different in size enough, but to bring to the consciousness that one makes more than the other lacks it. But we differ in the greater silence Tongebiete greater purity of the air in the areas of smell, is that we feel very comfortable, to which our attention is related area, although more or less at the conclusion of a sensation is absent.

I was in my element the question of how to interpret the case that β , β ′ both below the threshold and yet is above the threshold ratio, set a quandary that I solved here as there are proper (Elem. II 101) have to think. On the previous I can not join the Preyer's view when he says (in s Abh "On the limits of sound perception" p 67th): "I maintain, however [ie against Fechner] that just as the psycho-physical activity of seeing The hearing is usually no external sound stimulus above the threshold, and that the very feeling of stillness it is, which corresponds perfectly to the sensation of the so-called eye black for light-tight eye or in the dark. layer as the black of the painting is indispensable sensation is the indispensable pause the music sensation. " - In support thereof makes Preyer argued that external and internal sound stimuli are always available. - Certainly, but I think that they may as well be below than above the threshold specified;, the threshold law is precisely in the fact that the former may be the case. - In addition, "that sensation of silence [silence] of the non-hearing [eg finger] is absolutely different." But in my opinion but just the fact that we pay attention to the direction of the auditory area we are still conscious when the hearing itself is missing. - Further: "the silence that could be perceived as greater or less." - But is it just discussed only as a more or less silence, as explained previously, and silence refers to the absence of auditory sensation. The perfect analogy of the sensation of silence with the eyes of the black I can not find accurate. I set my attention to the auditory area, I hear nothing, when my hearing apparatus is healthy and all external noise is missing, I call that just silence, I set my attention on the field, I see black, even in the most normal condition, and if all external light is missing. The silence can be interspersed with quiet sound, like the eyes black with light dust, but in so far as it is the case, it is just not complete silence. Of course, it is necessary to pause in the music, such as the black in the painting, but only because it is both necessary if the contrast in which, however, the silence can occur as well as the black. There might be a situation that the appeal exceeds its threshold, so there is a positive feeling after our mass formula, but exceeds in such a small proportion that hereafter no difference from a zero sensation should be noticeable, but is a positive sensation necessary to in excess a zero sensation. We feel or we feel nothing? How is this conflict to solve or interpret this contradiction? I believe so: to

perceive it is not easy to perceive the same thing, the existence of a sensation after antecedent discussions, and their difference from a mitgehenden or preceding sensation, this is null or not null. Now any doubt depends whether something is there or not there at all depend on that certain determinants of us after, let others to the other side tend, and is such a conflict in the event that the threshold, but not the difference - or ratio threshold with respect to the threshold is exceeded, this is our consciousness from one side andersher determined as of the other, and, depending on the mood and the participation of the same follow one or the other direction. So can the interval where the threshold but not the ratio threshold is concerning exceeded to regard as the interval where you are at it, asked question uncertain, oh you have a sensation at all or does not have a case of yes in introspection often enough occur, however, one is sure when exceeding that interval of existence of the sensation. If the doubt whether we have a certain feeling or do not have, in the choice between them is limited to the simple case that the stimulus would be exactly at the threshold, it could, apart from, of course, to be considered with, influence zutretender imagination moments, a as well as never enter such case, only infinitely often, ie, because the exact point of the threshold can only be infinitely rarely met. In addition, an infinitely small excess of the threshold also arouse only an infinitely small sensation, of which not could speak, but should by the mass formula can already speak of, but in conflict with the statement of Unterschiedsmaßformel that any other provision of consciousness lasts, ever, even a fairly large overruns, a vagueness instead of where the rash is. These conditions I think are proper here than in the Elem. II have explained 87 f. One can even speak of a threshold in a special sense, which I have not taken into account in the elements without being the same is in conflict with other broad types. Set, a violin or flute is played so loud that you can hear them clearly when they played for themselves. You sit but they'll play in the midst of an immense Volkstumultes, it may be that their sound completely indistinguishable starts despite accurate attention in the general popular sound, and you recognize nothing of the existence of the flute or violin sound. It would, however, be enough to set the tone to reinforce required from the rest sound to it to hear it distinguishable, and give it in this regard, a threshold similar to the difference threshold, only that this is not identical stimuli in addition

to or after each other, but to mixtures is different, so one can speak here of a mixture threshold. Common ground now bears the sound of the instrument, regardless of not recognizable in the large noise as such, but rather to reinforce and nuance of the sound above the threshold at, and even charms for under the threshold, can access to stimuli above the threshold for reinforcement contribute and nuances of feeling. For of such is not distinguishable, but contributing to an overall feeling sensations I say that they unconsciously absorbed in a more general phenomenon of consciousness. Indisputably play in every waking state of consciousness a lot of such unconscious is rising sensations of different sensory areas forth into it. How easy to consider but is not offset by the fact of the mixture with the emerging concept of the threshold of consciousness dependent negative values, but only generalized. The difference threshold can not be reduced to the fact that both sensation strengths to their distinction is, blur in a mixture of sensations, both in the blend threshold, because it consists of sensations, both of which are clearly there, so exceed the mix threshold, and if we can not observe any awake already, in which not every external and internal irritation, which would be a sensation caused, accompanied by extraneous stimulus effects, so drop it in dreamless sleep - there are other such - all at the same time under the threshold.

Und wie die einfache Empfindung muß die Unterschiedsempfindung; und jede, an psychophysische Tätigkeit gebundene, psychische Tätigkeit überhaupt, wofür eine Schwelle besteht, negative Werte unter der Schwelle annehmen. Kurz, der Begriff der psychophysischen Schwelle und negativer psychischer Werte unter der Schwelle sind, mindestens so wie ich selber beide verstehe, solidarisch.

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XI. Comments about contrast sensation. (Hering, Mach.) It is not my intention abzuhandeln the doctrine of the contrast sensations here in a general way, but only some main points to discuss the same, which could appear partly as difficulties with the experimental probation of Weber's Law, sometimes elsewhere in this or that view are touching. In a paper in the reports of sächs Soc. from 1860. 71 ff "On the Contrast sensation" (cf. also my earlier essay in Poggend. Ann. L. 1840, pp. 193 ff), I have, among others, not to be considered here, which attempts to prove the following points, which for brevity I the psychophysical activity, which depends on the perception of light, inner

light, the two contrasting surfaces common'll call limit boundary line: 1 That the so-called uplift of the impressions through the contrast, by virtue of their white next to black light, black in addition to white appears darker than, not a purely psychological phenomenon, in addition to a similar adjacent area or next to gray, but at least partially so stirred that through the neighborhood the contrasting faces (in virtue of an interaction of the parts of the retina or the central organ), the inner light increases on the white washes out on the black against the case that the neighboring area would be equally illuminated, so that the intensity of the interior light on any part of the retina of the same on the adjacent and even distant parts depend not only on the intensity of the incident to himself outside light, but also on the intensity of what I brevity among non mißzuverstehenden after a previous declaration, expression summarize that the mode of distribution of the inner Distribution of the light from the external network will be influenced on the skin. 2 That the improvement in virtue by the contrast of its long-range effect is indeed over a wide area extending from the common boundary line towards both sides, but increased near the boundary line to the socalled margin notes, with rapidly decreasing clarity. From the boundary line of lost in the ground; may not, under other circumstances are exceptionally clear, which I have followed the principal conditions in some detail. 3 That at the one hand, increased, on the other hand weakened sensual sensation, which depends on psychophysical strengthening and weakening of the components of the contrast, short of raising phenomenon by modifying the internal light hereby one, dependent on the sum of sensual sensations from the difference of impressions, peculiar Seelenaffektion of higher character, briefly contrast sensation in the narrow sense in addition occurs, whereby the soul has more, attention is more excited than by spatial continuity whether of white or black, but that continuous white a larger sum sensual sensation triggers, as if part of the White is replaced by black. Herring has, independent of me, experimented and made known (in s 2 and 3 comm 1873), which regards him outside of the first point, only from the other side, to the same results a function of the inner of the light distribution of lead (in the above sense), and Mach has developed no.2 formulas for this dependence, the so far it can be traced by observations agree well with the experience. Now is not unimportant that using these formulas by the dependence of the inner from the outer light distribution, the experimental corroborability of Weber's law is not significantly altered by under

waiver of the inner light of the eyes black, whose existence everywhere for an experimental lower deviation from Weber's law to take advantage of the comparison m -simplification of the external light on two components that need to watch it, the comparison m -simplification of the inner light carries on both, like as always acquire the remaining distribution ratios of the outer light. In general, this follows from the general formulas, which Mach has imposed on the dependence of the inner from the outer edge of the light distribution with the inclusion certificates. Easier it can be to Übereinstimmuug with Mach simple formula (p. 3) as follows for the case to show that one does not take into account the influence that has a greater proximity of contrasting parts to enhance the effect, which I also first of the abstracting also from Mach neglected inner light of the eyes black. Is the retina, the face F, in the areas f ′ f "f ′ "... divided respektiv to which the external light intensity i ' , i ", i "." . . falling and dependent on their size and distribution of the inner light intensities on the same land respektiv I ', I "' I '" . . . ; Was W , the pupil diameter, k is a constant, and for brevity, the entire outer light amount that is incident on the retina, ie, f "i" + f "i" + f "i '" ... = ∑ if set, of each I on the one hand simply proportional to the associated outer i, on the other hand, divided by the sum of the total external light i, thus: , etc.

from which immediately follows, leading to the possibility of experimental probation of Weber's law of the land f ′ , f " is to demand that you remain constant if both i " asi 'with the same m is multiplied by while W and ∑ if located change it, but at the same time observed for both components of the contrast in the same way. The same is now also true even if the removal of the contrasting parts of each other is taken into the general formulas. But it may be of interest to show that the simplest cases, the contrast that it can apply to observe, already suffices to previous simplest formula in a general way. Thus, the lifting effect of the contrast in such a case is easily as follows. Let us imagine the whole surface of the retina into two equal parts, each = 1 set, split, and both with the intensity first uniformly i lit so that no contrast between the two takes place, then ∑ if be = 2 i , hence each half according to the formula as an internal intensity I have

Join us now, while retaining i for one half, the other with the m -fold i , and therefore introduced lit a contrast, then, although in the external lighting of the first half has not changed, but the inner intensity to another, Namely, after the change into formula

It is, however, apart from the change in the pupil width of W at W ' , the second I is higher or lower than the first, depending on m is less than or greater than 1 That is, depending on whether one increases the lighting of the second half or weakens, the inner light of the first decrease or grow, and while it would decrease increasing amplification of m indefinitely, if not the existence of the inner brightness of the black eyes, which here is abstracted below, however, what consideration is to be taken, a limit is imposed, under which in this way can not be reached. Let's go on. A moonlight stain or spot of the forth road lighting falling on the gray wall of a matter is very dark room through a gap in the window curtain or shutter appears as bright, even brighter than the whole wall in the full light of day, whatever you not held in spot writing read virtue. Jupiter appears brighter than the non-sky blue during the day, but where he goes out at night. Now you can point out that in the dark, the pupil expands to the explanation thereof; their variability is only included in much too narrow limits to be sufficient to explain. Also: that the eye in the dark space for the light-sensitive, ie, that the same external light stimulus elicits a stronger inner light in a rested mind, as in tired, but even before it has rested the eye in the dark immediately when lit from the room in the dark occurs, the appearance submits to the wall with the specified character.As both conditions may act only helping, do not have the principal part in the phenomenon. But we now draw the formula above into consideration, it offers two limiting cases represent 1) where in addition to the light i ' , suggesting the surface f ' falls, the entire amount of light that falls on the rest of the surface, ie f ' 'i'' + 'f''' i'' +, etc. can be neglected, 2) where the same intense light than f ' , on the other retina falls. If it is the first , second case under consideration, that the pupil width W in the closer 'W transforms , the second value

Thus, not only because of small pupil size, but also for the transition of the denominator of f in F = f '+ f + f''''' . . . small, and although the smaller, depending on a smaller fraction f ' of the entire retinal surface represents, resulting in immediately declares that, to the first case

corresponding approximate brightness of a star as big as Jupiter appears at night. Why did not you just assume that it values the 'I seem proportional, since rather the sensation of brightness now after our Maßgesetze of I ' is to think dependent. In fact, however, can indeed Weber's law, of which the Maßgesetz is dependent on support itself with observations of star brightness. The i ' a completely illuminated by daylight wall is of course much greater than that of the moon spot on the dark wall, and thus, the disadvantage in which the I ' first necessary against I ' second case is to be compensated and offset in circumstances such if the moonlight, instead of contracting to a relatively small spot, the whole room lit uniformly. But as long as the f of the Moon spot small compared F remains, one sees that its slightly severe obesity I about I can consist of a very brightly lit room. Strictly speaking, however, be compensated for the formula, without thereby waive the explanation of the previous facts, when the inner light is to be drawn, what is in the eye even without external light stimulus in the so-called black eye. Probably changes the distribution of this naturally occurring inner, rested in the closed eye nahehin uniformly distributed, light - we call it just the natural eyesight - when the eye is opened the outer light, and hereby its contrasts, in connection with the distribution of the outer excitement engendered inner light, except that after the establishment of a natural intensity. of natural eyesight not go down below a certain limit, the sensation of black hereby can not fall below a certain depth. What are you made to watch the natural eyesight as a constant and a variable part, which descend latter by contrast ratios of the outer light with an open mind so as afterimages, which depend on the closed eye of antecedent external impressions, to constant parts as border , but can also rise in undetermined degrees above the natural intensity. Really appears black in contrast to pure white with an open mind and deeper black than the black of the eye's natural light in the closed eye, such as herring by convincing experiments (in s 4 Mitth. P. 13ff) is proved. What afterimages regards of contrasting surfaces or objects that have been seen with their eyes open in the later closed eye, as is explained previously, the general way justified, that of bright objects in a dark ground deeper blacks and the dark basically a lichteres white in Nachbilde appears, plays as the eye's natural light without previously acting contrast. That the intensity of which originate from internal source, inner light closed eyes can not rise above that of natural eyesight after a contrast arousal preceded thereof, is claiming neither me, nor it is the consequence of any of my basic views, but rather the opposite; but such an assertion or consequence to me has sometimes been foisted what it is then easy, facts which speak against it, and I had long been known to argue against me, but I'm no closer to this place on

this one. That in the moonlight so bright translucent spot on the gray translucent in daylight, wall black font is unreadable, now also required to explain the Mitrücksicht on the natural light of the eye. We set its intensity without separation of the constant and variables part equal to a , and the weak intensity of the light, which is reflected by the black font and enters the eye, equal to a ', also the intensity, which of the gray wall to the font is thrown back, casually equal to 29 A ′ , provided by Aubert attempts (p. 73) White throws back 57 times as much light as black, as we have for the intensity I ' writing in the moonlight spot:

for I ′ ′ around the font

So Pursuant now as a ' small relative to A , ie, as the reflected from the black font light disappears from the natural light of the eye, which case is approached in a weak external lighting, is also itself 29 a ' against a step back, in any case a join in the bill, and I " of identity with I ' approach, the difference between I ' and I ' so are unclear; against this when a ' by bright lighting is so strong that a , hand disappears up to a maximum value to rise, which would remain constant without the reasons the upper deviation for changing external lighting.
71 ff. "Ueber die Contrastempfindung" (Vergl. auch meine frühere Abhandlung in Poggend. Ann. L. 1840, S. 193 ff.) habe ich unter anderen, hier nicht zu berücksichtigenden, Punkten die folgenden nachzuweisen versucht, wobei ich Kürze halber die psychophysische Tätigkeit, wovon die Lichtempfindung abhängt, inneres Licht, die, zwei kontrastierenden Flächen gemeinsame, Grenze Grenzlinie nennen werde:

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XII. The difference in view of the sensations (Schneider, Delbceuf). Some are inclined to explain all the feelings at all for differential sensations in the sense that the rest of us a feeling only the differences from one (or more) stronger or weaker or different

nature, sensation, which has existed before or at the same time there may have which of course demands that take place between the psychophysical processes, on which rest the sensations which any differences. This view, in short differential view recently by Schneider in a small pamphlet ("The distinction, analysis, formation and development of the same, etc. Zurich, Schmidt, 1877"), represented vigorously and developed closer. He says others (p. 3): "The sensations are not caused by single nerve stimuli as such, but by the differences of nerve impulses between themselves and their relations to the state of rest." - (P. 5): "Only differences of the outer states can act as stimuli." - (P. 6): "For all continuous and very slow nerve stimulation produced no sensation." Also Delbceuf in s theory represents in some sense a difference view, what p. 28 et seq been given justice, and draws others (p. 39) the following conclusion: "The analogy leads to the belief that an eye without eyelid and iris [through their movements, the incident light intensity could change], surrounded by a surface of uniform and constant brightness no perception of light would have, because there would be no possible contrast. Even more, if the eye were immovable, so that his eyes from could address one point to the other, the surface at various points would may be the bright and colored, and the sensation nevertheless be zero [would probably be a gradually dwindling] because the different points of the retina, each in their own way the way would accommodieren of light, of which they are made.'s eye would find in relation to this bright area in the same proportion as the whole body is in relation to a non-heated bath. " Now, it may well be, and myself, it seems highly likely (see Section XX) that a uniform, enclosing no differences really moving state can make no sensation. But insofar vibrational states, as such our emotions probably are, already include continuous changes, I confess, no reason why such states now so to say have to be once different to give sensation, which does not mean that if they really different are, also, the difference is felt; also does not exclude that in the contrast between stimuli every sensation occurs relatively stronger or weaker than when one or the other stimulus in continuo appeared, as in the 11th Sections is discussed. Of course, since we never have feelings of some kind or thickness without prior or responsive of a different type or strength, is no rigorous of experimental evidence can lead that if they do not advance or went along, ever feeling would still be there, and I think only no

theoretical or experiential basis, which struggled to accept it and believe accordingly - even the opposite assumption but can only be based on a belief - that if a child the first time in a very uniform Light, under the greatest possible holding of all other sensory stimuli that is certainly not to be completely deterred awoke, it would still feel the brightness of the light, and that, though with prolonged persistence of a uniform stimulus exposure, the feeling of loss of irritability can be pushed down below the threshold, so the sensation fades, less they can not so far allow tests a probability inference, remain in a grade above the threshold le. Here I refer to the following, in the treatise "On Contrast sensation" in the reports of sächs Soc. 1860 S. 114 reported by me try. "In the square hole (of 6 par. Inch width) of the shutter of the way, dark room, I set up a colored glass, and looked hereby fixed on the half-shadow of the house lying, half-lit by the sun, sand in front of the home. This I sat using a dark violet glass which very largely showed Red vs. Blue in the prismatic spectrum, ¼ hour, using a deep red, continued for 5 minutes. During the first moments, however, appeared the color of the bright part of the place most vividly, seemed but not very strong and a certain limit not to diminish (from the other as a glass) further so that a long continuation of the experiment seemed useless. " Well of course you can say would be the place only very uniformly intense violet or been red, and the experiment was continued for longer, but finally the sensation of color would be entirely extinguished, but if you, as it was not possible to fully restore these conditions, the attempt has not conclusive enough for my opinion, but that assertion is so much less conclusive for the opposite. When using a blue glass, which was almost entirely blue with very little red in the spectrum, the color impression was almost extinguished immediately after making the glass in a kind of whitish appearance, and even then it was very soon the case when I simple instead of a glass a double or even triple over each other anwandte.That is my opinion: we have here the first case where the weakened by prolonged exposure of objective color color sensation remained constantly above the threshold, the second, where they fell below the threshold and below remained, but then why not in the first, when would have the opposite opinion right? However, tests such as the following can be very seheinbar speak

for the followers of the difference view. Aubert says (p. 61): "I am convinced that the judgment of pure gray is very uncertain that a shade of blue, red, yellow is not recognized or is determined incorrectly, if you are not an equal light gray for comparison next has. " And Ulrici - Here quoted from a quote in a font of Ueberhorst ("body and soul" p 294th): "The reddish color of a barrel of water, has been in which only about 1/10 Gran carmine dissolved, we are perceiving unable , after addition of a slightly larger amount carmine we are able to recognize it though, but only if we have next to another, undyed water and compare that with this ". But these facts prove but only: first, that small stimulus differences are not recognized at all for themselves if they extend below the difference threshold, secondly, that the difference of the stimuli after contrast laws carries a relative gain and weakening of the components of the difference against the case that the difference did not exist, which is traded in the previous section. According to Schneider , the calm feeling comes only through the difference, the contrast of weak to strong emotions, to pass. (See his pamphlet "Concerning the sensation of calm." Zurich, Schmidt, 1876 p. 12th) I would not argue against that. Without the condition of peace with a magnet or compare it with excitement still a free state, we do not have the feeling of peace, but simply no sensation in the areas concerned sensation. So it is in fact a contrast sensation with the sensation of peace, what can apply what in the 10th Section is told. But the calm feeling that can only be gained by contrast, does not necessitates the assumption that absolutely no sensation without contrast can be obtained.

Auch Delboeuf vertritt in s. Theorie in gewissem Sinne eine Differenzansicht, worüber S. 28 ff. Rechenschaft gegeben worden, und zieht daraus u. a. (p. 39) folgende Folgerung: "Die Analogie führt zu dem Glauben, daß ein Auge ohne Augenlider und Iris [durch deren Bewegungen die einfallende Lichtintensität sich ändern könnte], umgeben von einer Oberfläche von gleichförmiger und konstanter Helligkeit keine Lichtempfindung haben würde, weil es keinen möglichen Kontrast geben würde. Noch mehr, wenn das Auge unbeweglich wäre, so daß es seinen Blick nicht von einem Punkte auf den andern richten könnte, so würde die Oberfläche an verschiedenen Stellen verschieden hell und gefärbt sein können, und die Empfindung dennoch null sein [müßte wohl heißen: allmälig schwinden], weil die verschiedenen Punkte der Netzhaut sich jede in ihrer Art der Art von Licht, wovon sie getroffen werden , accommodieren würden. Das Auge würde sich in Beziehung auf diese lichte Fläche in

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demselben Verhältnis finden als der ganze Körper in Bezug auf ein ungleich erwärmtes Bad."
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XIII. Oszilltions and chemical hypothesis (herring). To the very general views on the nature of the psychophysical activity or movement that I in 42 Chapter've set my items and even now find no reason to leave, I will not come back here, because the following contains no occasion to versteigen to such generalities. Rather, it should here only be the question of whether one of the two principal hypotheses which, in particular, are of the nature of psycho-physical activity, not in the world at all, but in humans and animals, rather to one or the other have to hold. For my part, I think it is more likely than not, and have the reasons in the Elem. II 282 discussed in detail, also meet in a fairly far-reaching agreement that at least the clear oscillatory stimuli of light and sound in our nervous systems again trigger oscillatory movements of the period, simple or compound, the quality of the sensation depends, however, it was to the vital force, or even a function of speed or velocity change, bringing the oscillations of the particles make full pull (Section XX), the quantitative aspect of the sensation depends. Meanwhile, from different sides, with particular emphasis and extensive development especially the part Herring, the view has recently argued that there are chemical processes, which are triggered by the light stimulus and probably by stimuli at all in our nervous systems, and of the nature of vivacity depends the quality and quantity of sensation. Also, this view has received through the recent experience of the visual purple confirmation of seemingly compelling force in relation to the perception of light. 1 )

Of course, the same is contrary also some things which still requires explanation before one may be too far versteigen in the chemical theory of this side. Besides the fact that yellow Natronlicht is seen but yet is not able to bleach the rhodopsin, (Institute of Physiologic Unters. d. Heidelb to. 1877 p. 17ff) is the effect that after the recent investigations of the Kuehne journal dispense in the retina of the visual purple. "It is the sensory epithelium in the macula of the people mainly in the fovea at the point of clearest vision, which certainly belongs also color sensitivities, exclusively from cones." Now I have stayed at the Elem. II 283 the possibility of chemical hypothesis given safe, just at the same time pointed out that they contradict the Ozcillationshypothese in any way 2 ) , so in my opinion it is almost in there to translate the following considerations to the psychophysics to provide a useful indication, once, because this a

traceable relationship between stimulus and psychophysical activity remains, secondly, because oscillations Maßbestimmungen clearer and clearer ideas at all are subject, as chemical processes. Let's go a little closer to the points under consideration here.

"Even if one wants to grasp the awakened by light and sound stimulus changes as chemical, which they could well be, or how they could be connected, at least, will be to reduce them to changes in the molecular ratios in the latter instance, which, provided that they are excited and entertained by vibrations, unlike himself can hardly be thought under the form of vibrational motions. " A chemical process is generally based on that previously separated particles combine, or previously connected to divorce, or particles to exchange between connections occur by certain particles in the attraction sphere of each other for escape from it. 3 ) is in each case to a motion of the particles to or from each other, and it is a priori very possible that this movement when it is stimulated and entertained by an oscillating stimulus, rather than be in a uniform progression, assuming an oscillating character itself, which does not prevent , but that the approximation or removal thereby gains the upper hand and so rash in permanent connection or disconnection.

Also herring assimilation and Dissimilierungsprozeß I only know those points due. It is nothing new that chemical processes, to be awakened by himself without oscillatory stimuli are accompanied by Oszillationsphänomenen. When the fire is burning in the oven so the chemical process of this extreme heat and strong light development, di is accompanied by a lively Oszillationsprozeß, less lively chemical processes are undoubtedly accompanied by only minor changes in the lively Oszillationsvorgängen or already existing. Now, however, arises from the outset the question whether the sensation rather from the chemical process itself, or in the approximation of the distance of the particles to each other (ie the layers to wield) is given, or functionally dependent on the accompanying oscillations to is making. I say the latter is preferable. First, from the above two general reasons, secondly, because in some sense perceptions, such as the sound that clearly present mechanical affection of the nerves caused by vibrations of a chemical process while but only as may be thought to an

indeterminate way and thirdly because of the chemical process that causes the sensation of light on the retina, but is obtainable just only on the visual substance of the retina, and it is quite dark, as its effect is to extend itself otherwise than by the accompanying brain oscillations to continue. If one converts the retina itself as a carrier of sensation throughout the sensation organ is included (what with my own view over the ruling is true), so it can only be provided but, as their psychophysical processes are in continuity with those of the brain should otherwise be touched by our consciousness. But the vibrations that propagate slower than light through the nervous vibrations out through the ether, is neither period nor amplitude of the same, so not all depending provisions of sensation. And that does not change, if you can bring to the believes of the light vibrations propagated vibrations rather under the category of electric. The question is: how should one even think the realization of lasting sensations through a chemical process. I can see so long in the bright sky: the sensation of brightness weakens gradually, but they do not disappear after all. It seems impossible to be reconciled with the continued gehends in the same direction going forward chemical process, be it a process, separate through which particles or by connecting them to the separation or connection must be at last done, and as long the sensation of light, if not to be linked to the chemical process itself, but to the of entrained oscillations is that Oszillationshypothese concerned with the chemical hypothesis in the same way through this difficulty, however, the same course that will be invisible for the former, if not the oscillations holds mediated by the chemical process. Even with approval of this mediation but which is recognized as probable and otherwise as possible, at least in the perception of light, the difficulty does not appear as a resounding, because once you can imagine, it was just like the constantly burning fire, where the chemical process always new material is fed, while the burned material as ash falls aside. Accordingly, namely on circulation paths can the seats of the chemical process always new material fed and discharged the changed. But then you can also think, however, that, as the photographic changes by the light outside the eye only gradually, the same is the case with the photographic changes of visual purple. And very possible that both factors come into play together. I have my own ideas developed the very different compared to that in s 5 Herring and 6 Has established communication, of which S. 36, the most common factors were communicated and in the Appendix to the following sections for some specialties to be informed without going here in a critical comparison between the two, but rather here I just wanted to generally show that the participation to the chemical process on the perception of other processes also let you in on a way to think in

herring sense and specify the reasons why I prefer my view way. I regardless of the discussions of the 42 I am far from section elements to restrict the psychophysical process principle to vibrations, oscillations, periodic motions, but I hardly doubt that the psychic processes in us, in fact, generally up those. It is our organism is a thoroughly oscillatory or periodic nature of how, in sleep and waking, pulse, breathing, need of food and drink, going, swallowing, sobbing, laughter, Convenience of the clock in the music, and finally the the physiologist known oscillatory movements of the muscle molecules in muscle contraction proves. And betrayed so many little sensory stimuli to the oscillatory nature itself, but can easily think that they act on modifying already existing, not only for increasing the threshold existing in the body, vibration movements. Thus, the upper weights on the oscillatory movements of the muscle molecules, which was just thinking, but these are undoubtedly under the influence of an equally oscillatory activity of the nerves to pass, which is related sensation.The sensation of pressure on the skin could arise from the fact that the oscillatory activity of the nerves in the periphery inhibited and this antagonistic reinforced in the brain, would be dammed to speak, and the sensation of temperature by a compensating movement between order of different thickness peripherischer and central oscillations, whereupon Delboeufs idea way fit could, without necessarily fit the other sensations. The oscillations in taste and smell sensations could be similarly companion chemical processes, as in the light sensations. Of course I give the only completely hypothetical for all '. The indicated here View in temperature sensations would explain at the same time, l) that two modifications of this sensation are available, depending on the strength of the vibrations central or peripherischerseits predominates, thus agree, in fact, quite with Delboeufs view, 2) that the sensations of light, sound sensations unless they are based on such difference, not, as is done by Delbceuf, associated with the thermal sensation under the same point of view, can be covered by the same formula, which is incidentally prevented by earlier made observation without any hypothesis in that the light- and sensorineural hearing with amplification of the stimulus from below to rise to higher and higher values, without indifference point between them, whereas with amplification of the external heat stimulus decreases from the bottom to the cold sensation and passes through a point of indifference in the growing heat sensation.

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Inzwischen hat sich neuerdings auch von verschiedenen Seiten, mit besonderem Nachdruck und

in weitgehender Entwicklung namentlich Seitens Hering, die Ansicht geltend gemacht, daß es chemische Prozesse sind, welche durch den Lichtreiz und wohl durch Reize überhaupt in unserem Nervensysteme ausgelöst werden, von deren Beschaffenheit und Lebhaftigkeit die Qualität und Quantität der Empfindung abhänge.
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XIV Over the sensation ratios of black and white, with an appendix on the color theory of Hering. Apart from the difference that herring can not apply to the outer nor inner psychophysics that I represent Weber's law, and hereby my whole structure of psycho-physics deprives the reason, there is a main difference of the same from me the fact that he at all about the intensity ratio of sensations totally different reason cherishes views, but he has developed up to now only in relation to the perception of light. Since this difference occurs especially in consideration of the ratio of black to white with the transitional stages through to gray days, I delivered to denote the views herring in more detail in this regard, as I with. will do its own words before I speak of the way I present myself to it. The herring views on this subject are in s 4 Msgs. contain, on which therefore the Paginaverweisungen are only available in this section, where no other communication is called. As a complement to this, herring exposition of his theory of chemical in s 5 Msgs, apply, which I have already thought above, also his theory of color perception in s 6Msgs., Of which I am reproducing the main sets an appendix to the end of this section with its own hypothetical view. Herring considers it untriftig, the scale of sensations of light from black through gray to white to be regarded as a scale in purely quantitative ascending brightness sensations, but rather, these sensations are different for him in a similar manner qualitatively how color sensations, and even under the general term of the same with to subsume. Black goes through gray to white over how blue through violet to red, like red through orange to yellow, etc The sensations of Brighter and Darker be hereafter straight into the the more Whitish or more white-containing, and more blackish or more Black translatedcontaining by the author or identified with it, and the scale of the transition sensations from the purest black to the purest or brightest white than black and white Sensation series called. Meanwhile, he leaves but also a quantitative determinability the sensations of this series in a way, space, by noting (p. 4): "Either you have to the term" intensity "fall [as applied to the scale of the transition sensations between Black and White] very and can say that in the relevant range sensation the sensation gradually their quality change, and the gamut interpret in the same way as the color scale, which from a saturated color, such as the red to another, such as the yellow leads, or you have to take in the black-white sensation series two intensity scales, one of which the White or Bright, the other is the black or dark ". "Is but there are two intensity rows at the same time to accept, this (to p. 5) nothing else than that all transitions from white to black can be considered as mixtures of

those two feelings, which at the two ends of the series at its purest emerge," and the terms intensity, strength, intensive quantity can be applied to the discussed sensation series only on condition that "each member of the series it is conceded two intensities and indicates the ratio in which the available intensities of the sensations of blacks and whites to each other , which is so black and white as relatively simple sensations differs from the transitions between the two as mixed feelings. " An absolutely pure deepest black and brightest white are absolutely pure ideally conceivable, if not in reality demonstrable (p. 7, 8) in any case every step of the gray theory must be represented by mixtures of this ideal black and white, and a gray type, which is far from both the same, contains two of the same amount. Through the help of letters and numbers expressed in the form of formulas (p. 9 ff) examined the author to explain this ideal conception better, but without a way to describe how to start real Maßbestimmungen it. "The feeling is actually black (p. 13, 14) only under the influence of external light stimulus to pass, just as the white sensation usually caused by objective light, with the only difference that the white sensation under the direct the black but developed under the indirect influence of the light stimulus, namely the so-called simultaneous or successive contrast. " As evidence leads the author to the facts as follows: A piece of black velvet on the table appears "much blacker than black in the closed eye." - "When you go from a bright room into a very dark, it is the first few seconds maybe a quite dark, although not a deep black feel, but soon will be the same brighten more and more, even if no trace of light in the dark room falls, and after a prolonged stay in the same you see anything just not a pure black. " - "Give yourself when you wake up in a dark night in a dark room from sleep, an account of his visual sensation, and it must be said that the same is certainly not black, whether you have your eyes open or closed." "Enough, you the sensation of a deep dark black is only obtained if you have the next of brightness or had recently been in the same place." "As a mere sensation is (according to the author p. 4) Black quite as positive as white, and if you really want to call one of these two sensations as positive, and the other as negative, one can just as well as the black White allegedly called positive .... The positives of sensation of the White against the blacks is simply the fact that we, thanks to the everyday experience and physical appearance, more positive of the processes to know what the white sensation as of which which condition the black sensation. " Compared with the previous views I find following observations. The analogy of the black and white sensations which herring with the blue-red, redyellow sentiments will, etc, seems to me somewhat true, if indeed one the principle that the same conditions correspond to the same, unequal unequal effects or consequences (to the extent not constraints change the outcome) in application to the external light can be considered as a condition of inner light perception, which by no means a confusion between two means, such as herring one believes to notice very common in today's colors physiology. From blue to red, from red to yellow one goes

through a change in the vibration frequency of the external light, from black to white by changing thequantity on or amplitude of the same, I can further the sensation of pure white only by a composition of at least two, but also achieve much more homogeneous objective of color beams of the purest gesättigtsten color contrast. by only simple homogeneous radiation One may now make the sensations of light from a physical or (in the sense herring) chemical processes dependent, can not as of yet not analogous conditions analogous sequences in the sense assume, as is done by Hering. But no matter how things stood with the feasibility of the analogy between the black and white and color sensation rows in the light areas themselves, as occurred in relation to other areas of sensation following further difficulties. Herring believes the scale of the intensities of light sensations translate into a scale varying qualities and so to eliminate the concept of intensities from it. But a corresponding elimination or translation of the concept of intensity would not do it with sound, taste, weight sensations 1 ) , etc, and it would be strange if there should be a function of the strength of the strength of the stimuli for the sensations of light is not quite as as an exception to other sensations, but in them of various thickness only a variety of stimuli quality of sensation depend on the concept of strength or intensity but should cease completely.

common ground can indeed at strengthening the external cause such sensations (the stimulus) accompanying sensations occur which remain in dim stimuli below the threshold, and the main sensation is nuanced by; when large amplification of the stimulus may occur pain, but you wanted the differences between the reduced strength due sensations at all on quality differences, this would mean, for what is in general usage intensity, intensity, use the term quality, which one would gain nothing but a confusion of language use, without the factual relationship between the stimuli and the so- understood quality of feeling that others would, as between the stimuli and the intensity of feeling in the ordinary sense.

Although now allows herring also to take in the scale of sensations of light intensities, but only by making the fiction that the simple sensation of gray from two sensations of an absolute black and an absolute white insist that the according to the gradation Gray meet in different circumstances to do so. And you can also this fiction, which she always remains, so please turn is an analog representation not transferable to other areas of sensation, for those who want such as the different strengths of a sensorineural as mixtures of the strongest feeling of absolute silence and absolute Sensorineural represent. Meanwhile, it may be that herring ever omitted common factors quantitative determination of the different areas or grounds for such purposes from one side, there is not yet clear to me. More definite in this respect is certainly only in the continuation provided by him in view of his studies of the

relationship of body and soul to be expected. But what principle one may now make a quantitative estimate or leave message, I think, that has certainly twofold distinction is drawn, the sensual perception of brightness that the White rises continuously from the Black and the excitatory influence on the public consciousness, the attractive the attention which, although not understood the black power in spatial or temporal continuity, but understood in contrast with white, has. After the first relationship, the black, the us accessible lowest level against the whites as the highest level takes in the scale of sensual sensations one, regardless of whether conceived with or without contrast, only the contrast, the brightness of the black (according to discussions during XI) or decreased if it has not reached to the lowest level, in the second relationship the black dominates by its contrast against white so much as the white by his opposition to black and so far can be viewed as the same positive effect on the soul. Herring makes this difference does not seem to me but not less than Delbceuf to mix only in a different sense, the second moment to the first by itself an equally positive effect on the soul attributes to the black than the white. But who would argue that, physically or mentally just find from the darkness of closed eyes or look in the pitch-dark night, where the contrast is eliminated so strongly excited, as from view in a uniform brightness. If someone is tired of bright light, he examined the eyes in the dark or in the light dawning "rest", on the other hand calls for "suggestion" by the light when he had long stuck in the dark. These are common expressions that do not agree to the fact that the Black to itself equal to a positive character zukomme than the white.Still very strong light you close your eyes, how zuhält the ears still very strong sounds, the black would be the same as the positive stimulating White, one would thus be only an excess of excitement into the other. Herring now claims, however, that without any contrast at all not pure black, yes, "not quite" get the impression the black (according to the above expression), a paradox that hardly anyone is yet to sign. Anyway, I mean, you get enough with closed eyes in stockfinstrer night of the appearance of the black, to judge that, if not quite pure, because even mixed with a little subjective light dust, black is not the same positive effect as the light of day. That in contrast black against white with eyes wide open in daylight at all and pure black can appear deeper than the black of the eye's natural light with closed eyes is to concede, and I have already earlier in m. Abh about contrast sensation (p. 104) a related observation led here. The explanation of this is in my opinion to Section XI. Incidentally, you can also hire a try so after the same dep (p. 104) that the depth of black in the closed eye in its depth advantage in the open eye of the same objective as possible to pure black occurs in direction. I see that while one eye always closed, the other open by inwardly blackened tube on a lit by daylight sheet of dull Rußpapier, and and close alternately this eye, where can I find then the night in the eye in the final without comparison deeper than the black of the spot that I see through the black tube on the black bow before me and is illuminated by the daylight, and what is of course easily explained by the fact that the spot when viewed through the black tube with an open mind instead of in contrast against white, but in contrast is not against the equally illuminated by the light of the

dark black tube. If the strong impression that the black really makes a contrast with white, should stem from that black just so positive effect on themselves as white, would remain inexplicable how it is that if you are on a white ground or a black spot which attaches some black trains, the impression is not the soul in some respects even more decided as boring as if you have just a white or black only reason to go. Has the black one the same positive character than the white, so is the sum of the positive by the black spot on the white against bare white not changed. In my view, however, the sum of the brightness sensual sensations that has really taken off, by contrast, however, the higher (discriminating) mind activity is positively encouraged in a way that we find it employed us stronger as a whole. Herring is also no denying that influence the contrast, but then can not refer to yourself in a positive nature of the black, but what can ever hereafter speak of such?

Notes about Hering theory of color and a peculiar hypothesis. The colors are sensations of herring at all similar as the sensations of white and black and discussed in connection with these. You may follow the fundamental rules of the author about the detailed explanation and further embodiments of course look up the author himself can not be spared for accurate acknowledgment of his views. Analog ranks as the black and white sensations form the blue-red, blue, green, yellow, red and yellow-green color sensations. The former, for example anlangend, one has, just as ideally as a pure black and pure white to adopt a pure blue and pure red sensation, with transitions in between, where you can see more or less blue or red, how in the recognizes shades of gray more or less black or white. According to the other rows. There are, apart from black and white, ever, four simple color sensations or primary colors, green, red, blue and yellow, ie which are characterized because they can "happen to speak without the aftertaste of another color, or, if such a have seen, but only one can never play in two others at the same time. " Thus, "the Red or Yellow to Green, but not into the blue, blue, red only play either the Red or the Green either just into the yellow or the blue .... All the other colors we can composite or call if in mixed colors, as . always reveal in them at the same time two colors More than two simple colors but can be felt from any composite color out, "and" one hand are red and green, on the other hand yellow and blue never simultaneously reflected in a color Why this is so. , there is no reason a priori, but it is so .... One answer is impossible .... For the time being, the fact can not logically justify, and for now it is quite easy to imagine that it is possible once again to produce conditions under which we, for example, from a mixed red and green sensation arises, or that there are beings who have such feelings more often. " 2 ) - For brevity, the author calls the mutually exclusive primary colors "complementary colors." -


The author of this view may find it convenient that I heard from someone that he had sometimes when falling asleep color sensations that he did not seen with in days to compare. That correspond to the same view of the author, however, is not yet proven. "From one color to its opposite color can be no continuous series of colored transitions form, if you do not take a third primary color to help .... Each color has only a simple, mixed color each two opposite colors." "Any one color tone may in very different purity (or saturation usual expression) occur .... The admixtures by which the purity of a perceived color tone is compromised, only the black and white sensations .... However, a basic color can actually also another be contaminated, but usually called a change of tone. " . . . The transitions between the ideal of pure color on the one hand, and any term of the feeling black and white series on the other hand, referred to the author as shades of color. . . . "If there were absolutely pure sensations of color, which is not the case, we would these pure white appear as little used as a pure black; ... but really occurring every color sensation has something blackish or whitish in itself and therefore appears to Black or White used, sometimes more one, now the other more, sometimes both the same amount. " . . . "You can the concepts of light and darkness, which are identical with the colorless sensations of whiteness or blackness, expand meaning that they all visual sensations, with the exception of absolute black, called more or less brightly, and all, except for the absolute white, more or less dark .... The pure color is therefore as bright as dark because they contain so little of the white as the black, which is nothing 3) , while the neutral gray is therefore as bright as dark because it contains the same amount of white as black .... A colored sensation is at constant purity or saturation brighter when the ratio of simultaneously perceived in her white and black changes in favor of white, dark, when it will change in favor of the Black, In other words, if the sensation of color beige black white mixed feeling without changing their relation to the first, is whitish or blackish. "

I think it would be logical to say that hereafter the term of brightness and darkness in the sense of pure colors herring would find as little use, as the concept of red and yellow on white and black, as indeed of red and yellow "nothing" is in black and white. At previous, more developed in the original essay, the author builds provisions (6 msgs, p. 10ff) its system of numerical designations of various degrees of purity and brightness of colors. Finally, the author puts it (6 msgs, p. 12ff) its chemical theory, the common basic principles (Section IV) were informed by the following key phrases in the

relationship. "The six basic emotions of visual substance to arrange three pairs: black and white, blue and yellow, green and red" "Each of these three pairs corresponds to a Dissimilierungs and assimilation [respektiv with D and A denoted by the author] besondrer quality, so that the visual substance that is capable of three different times, the chemical change or metabolism. " Thereafter, the author distinguishes among some reservations "three different components of the visual substance" which he referred to as the sentient black, the blue-yellow sentient, sentient and the red-green substance. For the black-white substance, the author assumes that their dissimilation D the white, their assimilation A corresponds to the black. For the blue-yellow and redgreen substance, he can initially undecided what color the D -color and what the A 's color. "The three substances put not in equal parts along the visual substance, but the black-white substance is much more abundant in the organ of vision contained than the other two, and these two are not the same." "All the rays of the visible spectrum does not appear on the dissimilierend black white matter, but the various rays in varying degrees. On the blue or yellow green red substance, however only certain rays act dissimilierend, assimilating some others, and some rays." "Mixed light appears colorless when it is though for the blue than yellow for the red-green substance an equally strong Dissimilierungs Assimilierungsmoment-like, because then both moments cancel each other, and the effect on the black-white substance comes out clean." & c To some remarks to make on previous theory, would, quite ingeniously carried out, rather psychochemical as psychophysical, light theory herring course ever win an entirely different meaning when applied on the assumption of three different visual substances and engaging therein two chemical processes even more direct empirical support in the physiological optics were, as the phenomena to which they are accepted explanation, and if a connection between the external and internal conditions of sensation thereafter would be consistent trackable. But apart from the one already (as) noticed Incongruenzen in this respect seems to be a very fundumentale the following points to me. Black and white as A and D together give the same visual substance sensation black and white or gray. Hereafter should blue and yellow, red and green, likewise as A andD (or D and A) the same but blue yellow and red-green, free of the black and white variety, combined visual substance by the author, one of the white or gray but different sensation . Instead, they give a gray or white sensation (according to their relationship as complementary colors). The author finds it (as) himself puzzling that neither blue nor yellow red-green perception exists. There is just the gray or white for

that. The author seems to look for an explanation of the above, the fact that if A and D just cancel mutually in the blue-yellow or red-green substance, only the colorless sensation of always admixed black white matter remains left. But since the mutual cancellation of A andD in the black white matter no disappearance of the sensation of black and white, but a mean result of the two, gray, with the result should be the case for the blue-yellow and red-green substance by natural consequence, the corresponding , and if it is not the case, seems to be something in the basic assumptions about the role that my A and Dhave to play not to vote. Here they call for interaction with equal strength disappearance as a result of their special effects average out. But we confess that the oscillation theory to its current training still presents difficulties for the solution of it is as good as the chemical theory of auxiliary hypotheses depend except that seem easier to train consistently with himself and me such facts. Consider some here Related. 1 However, the frequencies of the outer color spectrum continuously decreases from violet to red, so you should expect a similar continuous decrease of a single color sensation as the inner spectrum as one in a continuous decrease in the amplitude of the external light, a continuous decrease of the brightness feels; occur quite heterogeneous sensations of color as Blue, Green, Yellow, Red on the Track of the inner spectrum. 2) We know reddish-yellow, yellow-green, green, blue, blue-red, but after herring remark no green nor red yellow blue sensations, ie what are the green and red, blue and yellow at the same time related. This is true indeed up to certain limits quite well with the Oszillationsansicht, provided the frequencies of other colors slide between green and red, blue and yellow, not so etc between red and yellow, but between blue and red pushes almost the entire spectrum and yet one has purple, blue red di sensations. 3) What explains the possibility that complementary colors and complementary colors though a variety of means, always composed of the same impression of white or gray? 4) How to represent the phenomena of color-blindness? 5) If ever you can not keep a qualitative for eliminating the difference in intensity of the sensations of black and white, will not be true to deny that Black and White also qualitatively different for the sensation pose with their intensity differences in a way which the field of hearing, taste, weight sensations nothing analogous shows; also admit that the sensations of black and white, though characteristically different show of all color sensations as all to themselves, but an analogous transition between each other through intermediate level, as eg . red and yellow, yellow and green in color areas. Leads now also on the previous herring chemical theory, however, it is expressly calculated to represent these points in much difficulty as to other points to add to the same, so there is but also to hand for the oscillation theory first, the difficulty of an adequate representation of those points finding.

Now I do not claim to be already grown a secure solution to all this trouble, but do believe that a way to common solution is the same in concurrence of a hypothesis, which I already Elem. II 301 ff aufstellte and wants to reproduce here with the experiments of the application on the above points. According to her every Optikusfaser accomplished under the influence of even the simplest color stimulus a composition of vibrations, and there is therefore no easy in a similar sense subjective colors than can be produced objectively by prismatic decomposition, but the simplest objective color just calls the relatively simple subjective color mix , di composition of oscillations of different duration, produced, and the quality of perception, which depends on it, is based on the composition of example, this mixture. 4) Voraussetzlich predominates in the mixture, the objective vibration corresponding to strength and drop the other in this regard to basis from as they vary in duration or number of vibrations, which, however, because the excitability of the retina is restricted to certain limits on the number of vibrations, an exception to the beyond the boundaries of the visible spectrum also covered objective rays must suffer. Also could possibly already approaching the limits carry a weakening in this regard.

To prove that the above hypothesis does not include a physical impossibility, I mention in Elem. II following 303 fact: "Even in the realm of objective theory of light, a simple homogeneous color vibration in a medium one else by notifying stimulate a composite color vibration This is namely the case of the fluorescence is well known, by fluorescent substances, the vibration number of breakable.. colors at all humbled, but according to the investigations of Stokes this happens generally not the case that the homogeneous color is converted into another homogeneous of lower rate of vibration, but that induced by homogeneous color rays, dispersed light is generally more or less composed. " It may be remembered that even in an objectively simple vibration Tongebiete not again triggers an equally simple subjective vibration 5 ) , only can by no means a complete analogy between the ratios of both areas perform.

In fact, every simple sound objectively, taking into account second order terms in the mathematical expression of the effect he produced in the ear, its harmonic overtones in the ear with leads. (Cf. eg JJ Müller in the reports d sächs Soc., 1871. P. 115 ff) Rather, while the various partials that belong to the same fundamental note (the overtones), are perceived by different Akustikusfasern, those which belong to the same objective Farbentone, perceived by the same Optikusfaser, - so at least my hypothesis of Young's opposite - to explain that Partialfarben equally can not be shown separately as partials due attention.

Further, while the whole composition, it triggers internally, there is always a rising level of a fundamental tone of partials, although they remain not in the absolute number of vibrations, but in the proportions of one to the other fundamental tone equal, one has to take in the colors that change in the transitions between different objectively simple colors and the composition ratios of the thus triggered subjective color, which is also explained that the impression of the color differences where the sound differences appear similar over pitch differences, and that in passing through the spectrum really big differences between colors impressions can occur. Whether the partials of the subjective color, triggered by an objective color vibration, just are discontinuous, as root and overtones of a Saitentons, and if they just so different to one side only of the most fundamental, may at first seem questionable, but would probably be decided by a more detailed discussion. Ruthless on this still pending issues objectively simple complementary colors are those on the previous anyway, so subjective compositions are triggered in appropriate circumstances, taken together, represent the subjective composition of white or gray. If now in passing through the objective spectrum at any objectively simple color one other simple color, or (as in Green, Helmholtz p. 277) a composition of two as complementary is to find you the modification in the composition, the corresponding subjective color has become so imagine that this condition is satisfied without contradiction, of which the possibility of running but still requires further examination. Generally speaking, in any case, the subjective white, as a total composition of a, b, c, d, e. . . . considered broken in very different ways in two compositions, and are therefore also identical reassembled from those which justified the general possibility to produce white from very different complements. The approach of the violet to red seems to speak for a periodic element in the composition, the subjective colors when passing through the spectrum, if not the von Helmholtz (p. 234) attempted explanation by fluorescence of the retina is preferable. For the color-blindness of the general point of view will have to apply that in the color-blind, the end-organs of the optic fibers abnormerweise are not suitable, just to produce under the influence of external color vibrations all kinds of Farbenschwin conditions so or itself not just as voted propagate the optic fibers such than in the persons of normal vision. In regard to the difficulty under 5) seems to me to make the following claims. Was previously known from casual attempts by me (Pogg. Ann. L. 465 1840) and later incoming von Helmholtz (p.233) that all the colors, even the simple objective, approach the more the white white or yellow, depending intense is her light, and further attempts of Helmholtz (p. 234 319), Aubert (p. 128) and Chodin 6 ) (p. 18, 30) have shown that, even when approaching the darkness, the sensation of color tone the awakened a given objective color changes. 7 ) "On the dependence of the color sensations of the light intensity." , Jena, Dufft, in 1874.


If all the colors finally appear colorless at ever greater approximation to the darkness, although still distinguishable by brightness from black ground, but after the above-mentioned observers, this would on the Law of the mixture threshold (his due), provided that the Black, which to differentiate one color, has itself contains a mixture of all colors, the threshold for the sensation of color but not the same as for the perception of brightness.

So the fact proves itself that with a change of objective intensity (amplitude) of vibration inventory ratios of subjective composition is triggered it, change, and what is true of the simple objective vibrations will be transferred to the objectively white composition thereof, thereafter, if the objective White goes by reducing the intensity in black, which triggered subjective composition in their inventory conditions can change so that by the different quality of the sensation of black is caused by White, where it still necessary to clarify will require, composition ratios by which the black and white compositions of subjective differ from the color, without entering such. 8 ) Because according to the law and the fact of the mixture threshold (Section X.) The objective directly a certain quantity of white color can be added without the difference is recognized by pure white, what specific tests are available, as follows already from this also for those of the objective dependent subjective white mixture of the color rays that, within certain limits, can take place a change of this mixture, without appearing to be in color, though it does not follow that they can go through to produce the quality difference between white and black. In light of the subjective eyes Black is certainly from the outset to accept the same composition, which is approached by reducing the intensity of the subjective, objective colorless light more and more. After this course is based on our initial hypothesis yet to solve some questions before you can make sure, may hold that it is all the difficulties to encounter, and I can recommend in this regard only as a previously insignificant further examination.

Occasionally, this remark that, if not all subjective color rays, which are triggered it, change to the same intensity ratios, this in case of change of the intensity of objective color or objective White with share of the experimental deviations from Weber's law could have modified light intensity of the components of a difference.

XV. Bernstein's psycho-physical constitution. Bernstein bemerktermaßen (Section IV), published on the psychophysical constitution two treatises, the one folgends briefly denote by l, in Reichert Duboisschen Arch 1868 p. 388 et seq, and the other to denote II, see in Scripture. "Studies of the excitatory process in the nervous and muscular systems," 1871 p 166 ff The second paper contains the first reference to a few more designs and formal amendments without principle and result of viewing change substantially thereby. During the first treatise relies only the author, the propagation of the excitation of their entry point in the brain to pull on just one dimension to be considered in the second he pursued it through a circular space in two dimensions, with the remark (II 178) that even the pursuit of three dimensions would lead to substantially the same results. As early as the 4th Section briefly mentioned, the intention of the author is asking, rather than the one adopted by me, logarithmic dependence of the intensity of the sensation of the intensity of the inner excitement a simple proportionality of the intensity of the sensation is not with the intensity, but with, according to the Verf . limited spatial spread of the Interior excitement to justify from the point of entry to the brain, this spread by the number of key elements, ganglion cells, through which it is considered to be measured, at the same time to establish, however, that this spread in a corresponding logarithmic Depending on the strength of the stimulus am when I but set the stimuli with respect to the sensation. The whole circular space through which the excitation can propagate from the point of entry into the brain until the disappearance of their intensity, measured in the manner indicated, is called by him Irradiationskreis what we can set general Irradiationsraum, when it comes to the possibility of spread in all directions enclosed in a space of three dimensions with. The intensity of the excitation entering the brain is the author proportional to the intensity of the external stimulus or she identifies with its derivation formulas so that, by the discussion of own and other experiments (with electrical stimuli) which, in the form of a wave (wave of excitation) by nerve propagating, arousal in this reproduction suffers no attenuation, whereas such a start in the ganglion cells of the author with the entry.

The strength of excitation at each point of the Irradiationskreises is considered by the author through the living force of themselves through propagating oscillation process as measured, but is for the author in the estimation of sensation on the size of Irradiationskreises or number contained therein ganglion cells only so far in considered as a greater intensity when entering the brain and therefore at every point of Irradiationskreises a greater extension of the same reasons. That the excitation does not spread beyond certain limits in the brain but with. the spread of increasingly debilitating finally concludes with a certain limit of Irradiationskreises, the author explains not only by, but with him took into account attenuation, which is required to carry the spread over a larger area by itself, but also by a peculiar, proportional to the intensity of excitation, resistance, each of the central member exerts on the border passing excitation, in conjunction with the fact of the threshold, as specified below. 1)


In order not to confuse between two equally possible performance wise is to notice that at a current stimuli only by a suczessiven passing through the central elements with decreasing intensity of the excitation, the speech may be, however, in a uniformly continued acting stimuli the full intensity on admission to the first central Elernent with the disappear-sent or on the threshold degenerate in the last element, to where the propagation takes place at the same time there. But here it should be indifferent to the set under consideration one or the other mode of conception. That sensation is proportional to a physical circumstance to be log is dependent on such, and that there is a spatial distribution is rather rather than an intensity, which is proportional to, are actually only conditions of the author, which he points out below a priori more likely to hold than mine, however, go to the deductions of the author under the condition Mitzuziehung a limited expansion of the Irradiationsraums then to show how the logarithmic Maßgesetz in relation to the stimulus seen it. The essence of this deduction follows only with the minor modification that I think they are general enough from the outset to both the spread of excitation to one dimension (as in I), as in two dimensions (as in II) as be related to three dimensions can. The fact that I infinitesimal substituiere for actually finite, but very small and close to one another excited elements of the brain in order to obtain a near infinite differential and integral equations, I follow the

author only, and should be no objection against this Substantial. According as the excitement of their entry point to vorschreitet, it is one, depending on the condition linear, circular or spherical space s meet, and in accordance with the growth of s , the intensity of the excitation y on the boundary of this region have weakened the spread but even beyond a certain size S , where y is the threshold b came down, not just thrive on the so-called Irradationsraum out. According to the basic requirement now the sensation is γ by the formula γ=αS (1) regarded as measured wherein a is the density of the center mass, through which the excitation propagates, ie the number of the key elements in the unit of the spatial extent. Now let r the largest distance at wecher is the spread of excitation from the entry point on, so the radius of the Irradiationsraumes, then S depending on the condition = 2 r= π r 2 = , of which the first to the equation of Verf . I. 391 (where s instead of 2 r is), the second equation II for 176 179 returns. Hienach it is, S as a function of the stimulus β and the threshold value b, by which the excitation y terminates at the border of the Irradiationsraumes express what the author enters the following. The loss which the intensity of y in the progress of any size of the space s to the not yet completed propagation is done to, to the next element of this space ∂ s suffer, will make contact proportional: first, the growth of α s to α ∂ s (due to weakening of the y by the spread), second, the size of y at the border of the through s measured space, and thirdly a constant, k, which is the resistivity of the key elements or loss of intensity, the unit of excitation in the unity of the spatial propagation suffers. So we have: (2) therefore lied. nat. y = - k α s + Const. (3)

If now the values y = β at the entry into the brain of the value s = 0, the value of y = b, the total area S corresponds, we

lied. nat. ß = const. lied. nat. b = - k α S + Const. Thus, by subtracting the second from the first equation (4) and where in (1) γ=αS finally (5) which equation (replacing the constant by k ) in the form coincides with our measurement formula, and same for the outer psychophysics, meaning it, but not the same interpretation for inner psychophysics designed, if not just as for amber, as by us in our mass formula for the stimulus β , the intensity of psycho-physical arousal may be substituted. We now consider what the author (I. 391) prepares for the benefit of its basic requirements and what would be wrong with it. "The one measure - he says (f. 391) - with which we measure the intensity of any force, the space, the attraction we measure by the event space in a second The heat we measure by the expansion, which suffers a heated body.. . the strength of an electric current through the deflection of a magnetic needle from its rest position. A direct measure of the intensity, we do not have. " "Just as little is it possible that we record the intensity of a sensation as such directly to us. Would we get in this case to the absurd conclusion that we have an innate sense of the natural logarithms, as for the series of natural numbers . " "Therefore, since no other measure is left here, so we are led to the very obvious assumption daßwir estimate the intensity of a sensation by the way, which the excitation travels in the center., The stronger the incoming excitation, the deeper it penetrates into the sentient center, the more central mass gets into a state corresponding to the process of sensation. " But it is not true that the intensity of a force we had, they conceived as impact force, accelerating, moving or living force, fundamentally only by the space traversed by the driven by the force, measure, but rather with regard to the time in which the room is put back, the di, generated as a function of the strength, speed or velocity change.Thereafter,

however, it can find No credible that when the sensation at all depending on an excitation processes in the ganglion cells, it just to the space or the number of cells through which it propagates as a function of its original strength, with regard to the strength of the emotion arrives, though could be thinking that it with the (infinitesimal by summation to be determined) in the product of the propagation size. and by virtue of the spread of resistance on their way to debilitating intensity arrives, but not what the view of the author's and deduction. But would be the fundamental of the reference setting of the force for measurement space, of which the author assumes, cogent, it is thus lost so that the Au in its execution rather the number of cells contained in a given space, so basically, what to come down, the loss of kinetic energy, which is caused by the number of cells as authoritative look for the size of sensation, without being otherwise than according to the number, as he repeated this loss in some cases is to takes into account. As the author may find it an absurdity to think the intensity of a sensation in the logarithmic dependence of the intensity of the immediately underlying arousal, is not clear to me. We assume at all that the psychic is quantitatively dependent on the physical, so a priori can not determine if it stands in simple proportional or logarithmic dependence yet, and one is no more absurd than Andre. The experience must decide. Even in the physical areas there are logarithmic dependence relationships, just as the author himself such statuiert between the Irradiationsraum and charms, why should not such exist between mental and physical size. For the existence of resistance, which suffers the excitement in the ganglion cells, makes the author (I. 389), several facts from the fields of reflex phenomena argued and explained the same (I. 390) near by the following remark. "The mechanism is generally understood under resistance the one cause which causes a loss of speed of a nascent body in motion. In our case we need to give a different definition of resistance, because we are not one with a locomotive body, but with have to do advancing process. " "An example which is our case closer would be the propagation of a sound wave, which is resisted by the friction of the air particles. This causes a loss of kinetic energy and can be expressed, therefore, by the decrease in intensity which suffers the sound wave." However, does not seem right to vote in this comparison that the stimulus wave after the experiments of the author (in II) undergoes no attenuation of the intensity in progress through the nerve fiber, and maybe he will not, therefore, in II back to the previous statement, but contents himself (II. 177) to say, after he thought that property of the

nerve fiber to allow the stimulus wave unabated pass through, "but Anders behave according to our assumption, the centers where the stimulus wave occurs as it were a into another medium. which weakens their intensity by a resistor. " The disappearance of vital force through this resistor but he leads (II, 202) in the general expression of realization in tension back. Now what regards the facts, based on which, the author, the existence of that resistance in the ganglion cells, the question as I might, with no sufficient expertise in this field, be allowed, if not some of these facts by a scattering of the excitation virtue of the outgoing branches of the ganglion cells, have other through detours, which can take the central organs of the passage of the reflex activities, explain, though I still consider myself entitled to a certain immigration from this point. But such a resistance conceded, is that nothing less than the admitted limit of finite Irradiationsraumes, which forms a major element of view of the author, if subsequently the size of the sensation to be measured. Rather, the requirement of the author appears that the intensity of y is weakened by every cell in relation to the remaining size, a priori in contradiction with it, if they would have to forterstrecken by this law to infinity, only growing weaker. To address this difficulty, the author draws the fact of the threshold to say than justified by experience, as added externally, by (I. 391) the threshold defined "as that value of the excitation, which is not able to the sentient penetrate the center [brain], still in the same procreate, "and (I. 393), the same fact to explain by analogy the same time and in some way seeks to establish that indeed a body to be successful after poking with friction one plane moved when its speed has come down by continued going to slow to a small, representing the threshold value, in reality, "currently or extraordinarily fast" to rest come, notwithstanding it after the theoretical assumption that the resistance is proportional to the speed with should leave only ever decreasing rate indefinitely, as he also the beginning of his motion BOTH COMMUNITY only a certain finite speed, and as long as the impact this virtue not to produce, remain unmoved. Meanwhile, this analogy seems to me to speak rather against than for the author. If I am not mistaken, it is with the examples asserted that way. Each shock which is practiced on the body of the commencement inside without being strong enough to make him sliding on the plane is not yet be ineffective on him, but vibrations of its particles cause 2) , to the shock effect of such a achieved size to lead out the particles of the body which lie on the plane of the next present level, otherwise the force of the impact exhausted in producing the vibrations, and just as the end of the sliding will depend on the speed of the sliding of the particles of

the body through the continued implementation of continuous partially in oscillatory motion, which occurs when rubbed, finally no longer suffices to bring those out. Now, if the propagation of excitation in the brain with the sliding of the body at the level comparable, one could surely that of finite velocity of the particles of the body, below which those excess can no longer take place, take as the threshold of the sliding velocity and which apply to the make propagation of excitation in the brain.

is known, produces heat, ie an oscillation process of the particles through each stroke. But since even summarizes this reproduction as a reproduction of an oscillatory process, it seems to me any analogy to be missing, which hinwiese fact that such a process with a finite value of its kinetic energy at any point of the space, ie held in the there, cancel material points could, without some of it would go over to the next particle. The author certainly speaks of the disappearance of vital force through tension in transition, but I do not know yet, you trigger further propagation of vibrations in speaking of such a termination within the meaning of the Constitution. Because when a sound wave in its propagation through friction of air particles is inhibited, it can, in my opinion, as with any friction only through implementation of major air vibrations into smaller thermal vibrations, which makes itself felt even in the whole course of reproduction, and not an end but only a indefinitely continued walking (asymptotic) can carry mitigate the vibrations to which the sound is based, so that it finally goes below the threshold of perceptibility of sound, which is the threshold of the author but with nothing to do. Meanwhile, I'll admit any doubts against the adequacy of this view of the process. Allowed to drop the view of the author of a limited Irradiationsraum, but maintains the assumption of proportionality of resistance to the progression of the excitation with the excitation itself, so you can but the formula (3), in which the former assumption not yet received to use to derive a formula for the relationship between the original stimuliβ , the intensity of the excitation y in the distance r from the inlet of the stimulus in the brain, and the linear, circular, or spherical, intended in a given seal α filled, expansion chamber S y is the distance to r reaches a formula which is by its analogy with our Maßformel the sensation of interest, means nothing more only for the relationship between stimulus and sensation. One finds that

and if e , the base number of nat. Logar. is at which growth of the stimulus β the excitation at that point the stimuli increases proportionally. Still I would like to make a comment in regard to the following statements of the author (II 177), which he seeks to deepen his view so to speak. "We vindicate the property to destroy the living force of the wave of excitation, first known to us the central elements of the ganglion cell and claim that precisely in this capacity to destroy the living force of the wave of excitation, the nature of the sensation is included. Would the excitation, the ganglion cells happen as they passed through the nerve fiber, without losing any intensity, no sensation would also come to pass. was not until the excitement opposite Resistance calls on the appearance of the sensate. This is because also be clear that we, the size of sensation estimate of the number of ganglion balls, their interaction was necessary to destroy the living force of excitation. "(Compare also II, 202) Now, it may, in cases where the reduction of excitation at each point of excitation is itself proportional as here, be indifferent to make sense functionally of the reduction or the existence of the living power of the excitation function, but I do not know what the assertion of the author prior to the adoption in the second sense secured in the first sense prevail, as it seems to me preferable rather broadly speaking, to think a positive perception of a positive processes as a weakening of the same subject, and I know so far no reason to experience, refused to do the former.

Bernstein hat bemerktermaßen (Abschn. IV) über das psychophysische Grundgesetz zwei Abhandlungen veröffentlicht, die eine, folgends kurz mit l. zu bezeichnen, im ReichertDuboisschen Arch. 1868 p.

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XVI. Compilation of past, particularly with respect to recent

experimental results of Weber's law. If the validity of Weber's law and the derived laws for a certain range can be represented psycho-physical conditions, it follows not the validity of the same for the whole range of conditions, which are to be envisaged by the psychophysics, and it may indeed be that I have nourished in the elements of too much expectations in this regard. Each area will be particularly studied in this respect, and of course can be used for much different ratios also significantly different laws apply, overviews we are now, what until now experimentalerseits exists regarding the Weber's law for the assessment in this regard, not forgetting, that not every experimental deviation of the same against a fundamental validity, that validity for the inner psychophysics, speaks, except that we will find those more likely, the approximate, in ever wider limits, and more decisively in medium limits of sense use, confirmed the law. Of some of the more important experimental studies that take a more in-depth discussion to complete, I will only briefly mention the result to come back in the following sections to it; regarding some will suffice here should be the leader. Earlier have herring (p. 23 ff) and Langer (p. 82 ff) where a fleeting glance in the same intention to maintain the validity of Weber's Law to the experience available to date. And thereafter could the same experimental confirmation of one, except perhaps be in the realm of sound intensity by Volkmann's not been controlled trials, and in the areas of proportion by people's and my attempts to not actually talk. Really would find confirmation even in these areas take place, they would already mean something opposing theories have difficulty wither and the scope. The situation should however be represented by closer inspection at all other than it's been portrayed by opponents.One has to just not ask for the impossible, that is, a mere confirmation of Weber's law for reasons of experimental deviation from an impossibility, which would be able to satisfy even not by opponents against aufzustellendes law. As most general result, I find that as far as it is distinction from mere stimulus intensities without changing color or pitch or general quality of sensation, may have the law in the areas of light, Schalles, flavors, weights approximate probation, which the probability of its fundamental validity reasons, whereas the distinction of colors shades and intensity without regard to pitches defies the laws. - Next, that in areas of extensive sensations approximate confirmations of the law for the eye, and even to the time estimate into present, but probably for the former only in so far as it is based on a sense of movement of the eye muscles, however, a direct estimate of room sizes, be it with retina or skin, does not follow the laws. - Finally, even that is doubtful, but if not, whether

the overall appearance of the visual field follow those of vibration frequency and amplitude at the same time-dependent total number of Toneindruckes, and Weber's law. In general, I will folgends the relative just noticeable difference, ie the increase to a stimulus that is still or just brought up noticeably in the disappearance of perception, divided by the absolute size of the stimulus to which the growth takes place, with ε , respectively. 1) Aperture (no color change). The most numerous attempts to test the Weber's law at all are certainly before in the realm of light sensation. To, I. my elements 139 ff, cited experiments of Bouguer, Arago, Masson, crystal healing, Volkmann, myself and the results of the star size estimates (ibid. 158) I want to come back only with the general remark here that from is, however, already been recognized by myself, but that it is experimental limits of validity, all these experiments and observations one; several pages of course to pronounced necessarily, at least approximate, the validity of Weber's law in a more or less wide limits follows. While one can now also view the recent experiments of Helmholtz and Aubert for precise than all previous, they can but the matching result of all former noncancel, but modified only to the extent that they do not let the approximation appear to be as far as possible, as it seemed to them: but it would have not been possible to even utter the law, without limitation, as it happened in part, the variation of which is preserved in the limit would have been a rough. Also, different eyes in this relationship may behave differently, and as practice in each area contributes to reveal differences easier, it may a priori not very strange that in light Try as practiced and the systematic pursuit of such a busy eyes recognized by Helmholtz and Aubert finer differences than the eyes of other observers who are only occasionally discussed observations in this field. 1) But lets look at the weft end here results of Helmholtz and Aubert's observations and experiments a little more closely.

Dobrowolsky remarks on the occasion of his experiments on the relative under-schiedsempflndlichkeit modified for intensity of spectral colors (eg contrib Physiologic Optics p 87):.. "In the beginning of my studies, the sensitivity of my eyes was against all spectral much lower than at the same conclusion; studies at the beginning of my [relative] sensitivity was against red line in B = 1 / 12.5 vs. Blue and about 1 / 180 , while at the conclusion of the investigation, the values 1 / 29.7 and 1 / 268 revealed.

Helmholz itself (p. 312 ff) has become the facts of daily experience, in particular the fact that engravings (if it is changed only not beyond certain limits), still quite make the same impression causes found in different bright lighting, the approximate character of the law concede. But what if he means of at precise experiments by the method of just noticeable differences advantageously modified principle of Massonschen slice the just noticeable relative light difference ε , which should remain the same at different absolute intensity of light according Weberschem laws, in accordance with these lighting (within not determines the measured limits thereof) between 1 / 117 , 1 / 133 , 1 / 150 , 1 /167 varying took so liegtdarin not quite correct scale of the real variation, provided by the own data of the relevant Helmholtz differences not with equal ease and are clearly perceived, and in particular, the "just moments" noticeable difference 1 / 167 can not be rendered comparable with the others. The experiments Aubert , by the method of just noticeable differences, some with. Hired shade, partly twisted discs, and reaching a very large scale of light intensities to the smallest down, like from the face of the very large differences that they show to the top and even more to the bottom of the laws, but especially after the way as they are presented by Aubert and argued against the law very strict seem to speak against the same, therefore preferably be conducted in the field of opponents, however. But first and foremost they can but, as already noted, the factual evidence of the approximation used in all previous experiments, are in the star size estimates and the appearance of the copper engravings, not void. Secondly, I've been in a discussion of Aubert's attempts. Sächs in the reports of Soc Is included in 1864, demonstrated and earlier (Absch. IV) of them did mention that the boundaries of ordinary eyes use far exceeding even the Aubert's experiments in one interval during namely, the light intensity from the simple effort on 96.67 times, almost rose again 100 times 2), yet the just noticeable difference in relative stimulus σ is merely the ratio of l: 1.8, so do not double up again, changed.

This was the lowest light intensity in this interval 1 / 6.79 that at which we use to read in the evening, which was the highest, which is a rotated disc with 250 ° and 110 ° black and white in the sunshine. It must be conceded, however, that this approximation is much less excludes when the results on each side of the minimum of σ claims for

itself. Because even when multiples of the intensity rises to about 1 to 17, changes σ about in that a ratio of 1: 1.8, such as in opposite directions to an approximately equal size if the intensity of 17 times or the 5 - up to 6-fold increase, but it is not a question of minor fact that when increasing the intensity roughly in the ratio of 1: 97 in an interval which includes the limitations of the eye ordinary use, the value of σ only in the ratio of 1: 1.8 increases and then decreases. This is now not an absolute constant, as would be required for the rigor of Weber's law, yet it is in relation to the large change in light intensities, for which she has to take as a significant approach to constancy, however, there is an enormous difference would be of the proportionality of the increase in sensation with the stimulus accruals. Certainly would Aubert's test results as they exist, do not allow just derive the lower deviation in the areas of the light sense of the existence of the weak inner excitement, which is represented by the brightness of the eyes black (as growth to the outer brightness), as I have in the treatise have expressly authorized against Aubert. For this, the light value of the black eyes would have to be introduced as a much too large and, depending on the stimulus levels greatly varying size in the bill. But first, is not sufficient our knowledge of the internal conditions of the psychophysical system to insure that no other reasons at the lower deviation can be involved, secondly must the product identified by Aubert himself, have brightness level of the eyes black with at least share. Third, I can not help but to new insight into Aubert's attempts to find it questionable that. According to p 55 and 80 (with respect to p. 74) to close his attempts are generally made on one side so that at constant brighter light source, only the dark was changed up to the disappearance of the brightness difference between the shadow and ground, thus the lighter component is always as comparison object for the darker, not vice versa, occurred where the constant mistake I II have in the elements 140 as described by the method of production depends, has hardly can be avoided. Furthermore, the statement (p. 55) allows that "the distant light was so long postponed gradually and with frequent stopping, until the shadow at the limit of visibility was" not conclude that just as often from a large to small as to was removal of the distant light reaches this limit up to 3) , and I do not find stated that the trials are methodologically as often done with the ascending than descending intensities, in both but can be searched in turn causes constant error. If I now in this, in itself difficult to be kept comparable experiments no care taken for avoiding constant error, at least nothing of them think I said, after I have convinced myself by my weight, eye and gropings, what a big role they play in experiments of this kind, having mentioned by Delboeufs in the Note and Vierordts to be mentioned later trials, the incidence has proved the same in the areas of light sensation and perception of time, short

undisputed all areas have in common: I know despite all the recognition I the Aubert's experiments because of their care and attention to other relationships applaud, not why I should not give them sufficient confidence in regard to the elimination constant error.

Delbceuf has 73 and 88) where. in the test series to determine its c (in Et p two Columnen, in one of which he comes from too great, in the other of too small brightness to the right point of the disappearance of a difference in order to draw the funds. The figures of a Columne differ by a significant value in almost constant direction from those of others. It can be argued that the part of other observers, whose attempts I concerning the confirmation of Weber's law in light areas but even occupations, insgemein as little care is taken to avoid the constant error. It is true, and such would be taken, it would probably still vote for better laws. But all these other large trials do not go as deep with the intensities decrease, as Aubert experiments, and it is natural that dependent on the experimental conditions constant error, in so far as they do not even proportionally change the intensities, a so greater effect on test must win the Weber's law, the smaller the intensities. So I think that Aubert Tests on lower intensities at all falling for the question of the validity of Weber's Law aside, however, there is higher for the given approximation. Yes it would Attempts at such low intensities that the light level of the eyes Black can no longer be neglected, ever be of little use to produce for examination of the law, because of the variable influence of adaptation, of which I deny that he at higher intensities in substantial consideration comes (Section V.), are then no longer neglected, but as little can allow a calculation of the increase, the brightness of the eyes Black granted, because of its variability. But should he be eliminated, it would only be orderly combination of ascending and descending with. can happen to the intensities experiments made. A really methodically carried out, calculated on the greatest possible elimination constant error, test series, as I have such respect hired weight and Tastempfind-sensitivity of, is ever in light Try not yet been before, and I just have to always come back to that if, despite this deficiency of the trials showed a significant approximation to Weber's law at not too low intensities, is just to infer from the defectiveness of the experiments only a deficiency of probation, not the law. To this end, the following remark. The Shadow experiments to test the Weber's law are naturally so made that the darker area (the shadow) is

made to vanish in a surrounding larger light, according to the experiments with the Massonschen disc, Masson himself and of Helmholz (p, 314) , by Aubert (p. 74) is reversed, short anywhere in unilateral direction, so that either the smaller darker area disappears in a greater light, or vice versa darker a smaller bright area in a greater or disappearance comes close. A constant can not depend on this one-sided error by the test direction, which would be compensated for by testing in the opposite direction at the same position of the other circumstances? Anyway, it would apply to decide the question by experiment rather than by assumption. At the plateau's method (Section IV) of the occasion falls away to such an error. Of course, it can not simply reverse the experiment with the Massonschen disc that you get a black sector piece on white plate, another time a white sector units of the same angular width on black plate anbrächte because last if not just as the first if the inner sight against the objective brightness of the black disk could be neglected; Aubert's amendment, however, would provide the means of Massonschen disc, not the bright wreath against black, but only against a less bright background stand out and disappear in it or have come close to disappearing. The suspicion that at Aubert experiments did not eliminating sources of error of the specified type have come into play, gaining a substantial increase in that in the (not so deep as the Aubert's experiments reduced continuous) Try Delboeufs (ow p. 84-65) who are employed by an entirely different, the plateau's, method, so when their turn not quite singular free, but can assume no errors from the same direction, Weber's law is confirmed with desired ester approximation when the brightness of the eyes black with a very small can be added to the external stimuli light values is thinking with a value that is even smaller than the one you want to attach the black eyes to other experiences of the role expected. That these tests can ever be considered a very welcome confirmation of Weber's law, is already noticed earlier, and it can not be avoided by the opponents to take this into account, they do not otherwise turn a kind of constant error, make thereby guilty that they always take into account only one side, which seems to speak against the law. In the 17th Section will be found discussed these tests in detail. If Delbceuf but his attempts still could make speaking as asserted against Weber's law even in s Étude, so here about (Sect IV) is said enough. Some attempts to test the Weber's law according to the known method shadows are recently in connection of the main purpose of pursuing another study by Camerer 4)was employed. Although they were for Camerers own color-blind eyes (folgends with C designates) no confirmation of the law against this for the normal eyes of two coobserver ( 0 and P ) is a very approximative validity.


Small. Mon Bl F. Augenheilk. In 1877. Feb.

The process itself of this. "Two equally bright, erected at different places, candles throw from a bar two shadows on a white wall, the one more candle gets a certain distance = l from the wall, the other (distant) candle is so long crazy, until the lighter of the two shades unnoticed is just. " Now let l ' the distance of distant candle for this case, so is the brightness, which generates for each candle on the table, respectively, by and measured, and the relative just noticeable

difference σ by given, for which the following values for the following values of l (. Zentim in) found: l 30 50 70
1 1 1

O / 116 / 116 / 123
1 1 1

P / 93 / 90 / 86
1 1 1

C / 108 / 86 / 74

The three values of l corresponding intensities behaved than measured, as in 1225: 441: 225; therefore varied from 1 × to about 5 times, and, as we see, for O and P, but not for C, the values σ were close to the same. All attempts made so far are employed with colorless light. Experiments with modified intensity colored light (without changing the Farbentons) were earlier than pages Masson (I. 154 elements), using its hub (white screen with black pieces sector, illuminated by colored light provision by means of colored glasses), according to which colored light rather behaves like white light, and, for example, ε is just as equal to 1 / 100 was when the disc with red light as if it was illuminated with white light. These experiments with the hub using the home Holtz's amendment thereof (Helmh. p. 314) are later occasionally Lamansky and Dobrowolsky 5) was repeated with the equality of σ for white and colored lights (not when viewed through colored glasses) generally confirmed. Meanwhile undoubtedly earn the experiments with pure spectral colors, which have been employed by Lamansky and Dobrowolsky, in preference to those with pigment colors,

how as have declared themselves on these preference-called observers, and so I will limit myself to the results that have now received . 6)

Lamansky in Poggend. Ann. Vol 143 or Graefe's Arch F. Ophthalm. XVII. 1 - Dobrowolsky in s contrib Z. phyiolog. Optics p. 74 ff

are worth mentioning here the interesting experiments which Camerer has released its color-blind eyes to the method of average error Spektralfarbenangestellt and the Kklein Mon Bl f ophthalmology Feb., 1877. You have, as expected, given very different from the above results that deserve to be considered in a study of color blindness. For this purpose it was necessary to make two immediately adjacent fields of view of the same hue, with a suitable device, to change any of the one to the achievement of the just noticeable difference, what happened Spektralapparate means of appropriate intensity. In the main, the so employed trials were intended, as a minimum, in white lightσ to investigate, and therefore the maximum of the relative Unterschiedsempfmdlichkeit, takes place at a certain absolute intensity of the light, whether this minimum really as it may seem Masson would , for the different colors of the same, coinciding with the values for white light, have value, which was not confirmed in the spectrum, as shown in the below leading to results. In relation to the general result of the modification of the intensity but can be seen from the following details of the observers that colored light in Subject of the approximate constancy of ε behaves within certain limits and deviations up and down them like white light. Lamansky (p. 129). "For all the colors [relative difference-] increased sensitivity with the increase of the objective light colored Moreover, we see that they at larger widths of the column [which the absolute brightness grew objective] has decreased slightly but it is quite a known fact that the sensitivity is smaller in strong light ". That at the minimum of ε takes place close more consistency, teaches the view of the table p. 130th Dobrowolsky (p. 84): "In case of increased light intensity [relative difference-] Beyond this limit increased sensitivity to the full spectrum of up to a certain limit, at the close she remained a constant usually also took the sensitivity due to excessive light intensity. some colors on, probably due to the strong glare and blunting of the retina. " The special results of these observers see as the minimum value

of ε for the different colors are following activation. In absolute terms, their values differ greatly from each other on, but agree that the minimum value of ε for the different colors is very different. This result could indicate that the value of K is different in fundamental formula for different colors, but could also with the reasons of experimental deviation from Weber's law, which already exist in every color to be related. Lamansky are for the minimum value of Ε the following values: Red


Yellow Greenery



/ 70

/ 78

/ 286


/ 286

/ 212

/ 109

Dobrowolsky are those, obtained by consultation of two co-observers, Dr. Berthold and Dr. Garza minimum values of σ for the following, designated by the Fraunhofer lines, locations of the spectrum, however, he (p. 88) for white light by means of, for Helmholtzschem principle modified, the minimum-disc Massonschen σ average of 10 observers 1 / 150 (varying between 1 / 130 and 1 / 165 ), and in particular yourself 1 / 165 found. Fraunhofer lines Dobro Wolsky A Red B C Orange between C and D Yellow Gold D Green between Dand E



/ 14 / 19.76 / 25.16 / 33.16 / 45.77 / 58.77
1 1


/ 15.9






/ 40.86


Email. . . .



Green between Eu . b Cyan F Indigo between Fand G closer to G Violet between Gu . H Violet in H


/ 67.33 / 131.6




/ 268 / 268?


/ 205.5




( 1 /67.3 3)

When violet between G and H , the author finds it doubtful whether the maximum of the relative Unterschiedsenipfindlichkeit was reached, with purple in H , it certainly was not reached, so the value here found of ε has no meaning. A very nice, very approximate di within wide limits, confirmation of Weber's law was Dobrowolsky (contrib p. 92 ff) for the case that the difference of a, with white light mixed in a given ratio, Spektralfarbenlichts is observed from neighboring pure. Should consist Weber's law, the colors mixed with white light from the pure light colors always with the same intensity ratios must both be indistinguishable, as well as the absolute intensity changes of both, which is very approximate was in fact way. The experiment was, for example, in red for a change in the absolute intensities of l.0000 to 0.0302 instead of a constant ratio, as would have been required for the accuracy of the law, only a proportion changed from 2.2335 to 2.0303 Find. For details, see in the following activation. There bright colors as possible spectrum by means of a Spektralapparats generated and by appropriate means a white light strip (created by a located in front of a gap kerosene lamp; projected onto a

specific location of this spectrum, the light that is added to the color at this point Hereafter. Attempts are made as follows. 1) While the color light to be = 1 is set to the maximum brightness, the intensity of the white band is attenuated by rotation of one of two Nicols) until the color of the strips essentially disappears. Let v the ratio of its weakening. 2) The light color is now in the ratio m attenuated where the strip is visible again, but now as long as the attenuated light again until it disappears again. Be the relation here found its mitigation (against the first maximum intensity expected) n 3) According to each other by means of the corresponding values are related to each other downturns m ', n', also m ", n," & c found, always against the original maximum intensity expected. Now if Weber's law to be valid, the conditions must , etc., generally with α z denote u, be found equal to each other, which in fact was very nearly the case. Indeed, let i the intensity of the colors light so found themselves in the middle of each 6 to 10 observations. for each degree of the light intensity i values from the following α :

i 1.0000 0.8830 0.3868 0.2500 0.1170 0.0302

Red 2.2335 2.5155 2.2338 2.3061 2.0934 2.0303

Greenery 2,028 2.3283 3.3308 1.9555 2.0369

Violet 1.6841 1.7842 1.7999 1.8462

2) Sound level (without changing pitch). On the applicability of Weber's law to sound levels are up to now only those employed by the method of just noticeable differences, tests of Volkmann on whose in the Elem. I. 176 ff is intended. Maybe the way it used was not fine and safe enough not to have a controlling resumption

of the trials appear desirable by safer methods where probably analogous deviations of the accuracy of the Act would show as in the realm of light attempts that are not in those experiments come to light in any case they have a least as approximate validity of the Act as held in the light experiments require 7) , and, in the Elem. I. 183 observed fact that a choir of 400 male voices makes no significantly strong impression of 200, quite true to that from which Weber's law following logarithmic Maßgesetze, which had just brings that physical duplication of a strong light, no significant reinforcing the perception of light causes.

If Langer (p'84) says: From the drop height of a ball, which produces the sound as it was the case with the Volkmann's experiments, but no reliable conclusion could be drawn on the generated by the fall of sound intensity, I would ask why not, it would be because that one with the ball of very small mass, and from a very high altitude, where the air resistance does noticeable entry was operating. Followed the distinction between the sound levels of the simple instead of relative differences of the same, as if one saw no reason why when riding in wagons or near a roaring waterfall, the voice must be strengthened in order to be equally well understood by the neighbor. 3) taste. For our taste sensation so far only the experiments of Keppler by the method of right and wrong cases in s inaugural dissertation: from "The discernment of taste for concentration differences of the sapid body" Bonn in 1869. The author finds himself (p. 11 ) in opposition to Weber's law, but after one use of the experimental data, which I do not understand, despite my, in the Elem. I. p. 108 given, fundamental table This method is intended to be a basis. Once I even put the experimental data into account, I find the following. The experiments are done with solutions of sodium chloride, basic sulphate of quinine, phosphoric acid and glycerin, are by their nature difficult, even for the same substance hard to keep comparable among themselves; also allows the author to evaluate essential information missing from it. However, the tests for each substance included in particular a way to examine whether they agree well enough with themselves to be used to test the law. 8) Under Throw me the same this test, so show only the tests with saline probehaltig, the agree, however, the experiments with the other substances just as bad with the Weber's law as in itself, with the other substances completely useless, and the trials of the former, but to Weber's law as well provoking than you can

just always expect there to the difficulty of these experiments but of course to test the law did not suck.

This route is in short in the following. It can be derived from, salaried position under four different conditions, calculated values of three experiments for each substance, which I did. Meeting in the method in the Elem I. p. 114 h, p, q have described, against the four layers of four equations for determining these values forth so that two equations may be found in any of these values in two ways. If the trials as to apply provoking among themselves, so h must, p, q in the middle of, together increasing to a definitive result, giving trial close matching values in both methods of calculation, or p, q (as a constant error), there are generally very small themselves . Where neither of these is the case, the tests are useless to draw a conclusion. To Definitely numbers that matter, to perform for the saline solution, so you should to setup and principle of the tests under taking together the numbers that can be together take the results, the following three numbers for the following three prozentale contents of a main solution (this helps to a certain ratio was weaker solution, reference solution compared) be the same as the Weber's law is, where r the number of correct case, n is the total number of cases. Percentage content of the main solution 1.13 % 3.2% 5.43%




Now this is certainly not a complete agreement about the values , but a far greater than what is expected in the circumstances of the experiments made, and there are following two circumstances taken into account. First, the most deviating value of 241, l did. lower reliability than the others, because it rests on a smaller number of observations, and secondly, if, as expected, the tongue of nature is impregnated with salt liquid, it must have the same influence in the experiments than in the light experiments, the existence of natural brightness of the black eyes, that carry a weak increase in the values of the relative difference in

sensitivity of the kiddies to greater degrees of concentration. In order not to let on how the above figures were obtained entirely in the dark, yet I notice the following. The experiments were bemerktermaßen three main solutions of different salinity respektiv 1.13 %, 3.2 % and 5.43% employed, but four reference solutions used in particular in each of them, determined during the other as a fundamental solution to 2.5 ,% by 5 %, down 7.5 %, to 10 % of the salary of the principal solution were weaker, and that was in four different test positions, which depending on two opposite each other, to investigate whether the increased bulk solution or weaker reference solution at the trial seemed more to taste then determining the right and wrong cases. A more detailed description of the, appearing very annoying from the start attempted I can not go into here. Since the experiments were not numerous enough by far to reduce proceed with the bill to the individual reference solutions, the experiments with the reference solution of 2.5 are firstly % of the salary of the principal solution left entirely aside, if it because weakness of this difference and thus the vacillation of 50 % would have required a disproportionately larger number of attempts to give a somewhat reliable result, even though their concurrence would not significantly change the outcome, and secondly, the figures are for the other three reference solutions drawn together for what was permitted, since they correspond to the same percentage differences for all three main solutions. They have determined the average of the four test locations, the figures above given. The summation and middle drawing of numbers for the four test documents is not the most accurate for the compensation of the dependent of these layers constant error, but more precisely the procedure is when the values of t , which the at the different trial locations in particular (according to the fundamental table in Elem I. . 108) belong, instead of sums, where to place the above three

values respektiv following values for ∑ t is: 1.6794, 1.7455 and 1.9735, which is still substantially the same result.

4) weights.

Regarding the weight attempts are, as noted earlier, from the very beginning to ask whether they can be grouped under the same law with light and sound experiments in principle. The severity, by which act the weights is even opposed to the light of Some polar. Also, find the peculiar differences that, while a fatigued by the light stimulus eye the light perceives as weak, while a fatigued through loads hand feels the weight as heavy, and that it, during exercise light to see anything contributes a light, however can bring through exercise then easier to find a weight. Meanwhile, it is after the point very possible that the weight stimulus not less than the light and sound stimulus wins the sensation of awakening or amplification of oscillations in the sensory nerves influence (see Chapter XIII.) And just noticed differences do not yet necessary to discriminate the subordination our law. Last can only be decided by experience, and by the conflicts in the 18th Section I, despite the contrary opinion herring following the method of just noticeable differences not unlike my earlier by the method of right and wrong cases, bringing the Hering's generally going quite agree, but only overriding reasons in his attempts as find against the fundamental validity of Weber's law. In fact, it is the 18th See section as the Hering's experiments by means of no less than mine a correction of the weight by a constant additive, which I may be moved by Mitrücksicht on the weight of the arm and about otherwise consider contributing circumstances for motivated, in a surprising conformity with the law when you just are not up to much too small weights thus descends, where a, until now not at all explainable, anomaly in the general progress of the tests shows the Ursach apparently with greater weights of the same effect is outweighed. Except, however, hereby be recognized, untern erperimentalen deviation from the laws will undoubtedly not be missing on a top, according to the above remark, could have the opposite direction than in other areas, but are not certain about it before experiments.

5) temperature. In the areas of thermal sensation Experiments which I myself in Elem. Offer I. 201 ff've made known, not a sufficient decision dar. I myself provided that not to be regarded as the temperature stimulus, the absolute level of temperature, but the same difference of temperature of intermediaries, and that the just noticeable differences in relation to this difference are to be envisaged, to be held at Weber's law. Under this assumption, agree that, in Dept. II of Table 9) on page 203 of the Elem. recorded, invoice values well enough with, when the growing differences of temperatures of 14 °, 77 takes the observed values

together in an interval of 19 ° to 31 ° R. stimuli than growing as the middle between freezing cold and blood heat. But this output has something arbitrary in itself, near the freezing cold, the law does just as little as it would undoubtedly agree, if you increased the experiments so far beyond the blood heat, that the sensation of burning in one devices. I think the question of the relationship of the law to these sentiments, not yet finished.

Dept. I is useful because of the almost vanishing values at all to conclusions. 6) changes of color or pitch. All observations of lights and sound in 1) and 2) above in relation to changes in, on the amplitude of α dependent of the vibration strength of the stimulus without any change in the oscillation number n, by also in the experiments with different colors but in each particular only brightness, the color was not changed, but the question is whether Weber's law just as for changes of n than α confirmed. Even in the Elem. I. 175 I assigned to the following remark concerning the color that it is not the case. "In the otherwise usually as valid prestigious analogy between pitch and color, it is a remarkable, from this analogy all the way out Trespassing, fact that Weber's law not just as is in the realm of colors, as in the areas of the pitch, ie, the same significant differences the frequencies are not the frequencies of color disproportionately. Indeed the eye maintained at the limits of the spectrum at intervals of a small and even major third little color change, however, in the area of the yellow and green, the significant color transitions so quickly follow that all transitional stages between yellow and green are crowded into a small half-tone interval. 10) Incidentally, there are other points in which the analogy between tones and colors will fail. "

Helmholtz in the mountains. D. Berl. Acad 1855 p. 757

ff Recent experiments whose results are reported in the following activation give definite data to assess these relationships. About the differences in sensitivity to relative changes of color tones in different parts of the spectrum are already earlier attempts of Mandelstam (Arch. f Ophthalm. XIII. Abth. 2 p. 399) before that with the later of Dobrowolsky (contrib for Physiol. appearance no III. p., V.

66 p. 98) agree well in general swing of results, except that the values found by Dobrowolsky σ generally almost half are smaller than those of Mandelstam. The tests are both employed by a suggestions from a Helmholtz keratometer, at the design but still Dobrowolsky undertook some amendments appears advantageous to the used of Mandelstamm device so that its more accurate than the information should apply to both. Let σ the fraction of the (in inverse proportion to the number of vibrations at the given values of the wavelength n must be added is), so that our eye can perceive the difference in the color that corresponds to this wavelength, so found themselves after the two observers for the following , designated by the letters of the Fraunhofer lines, locations of the spectrum following values of ε 11) .


The details of Mandelstam in the table are for σ in D and between D and E respektiv instead of 1 / 18.94 and 1 / 204 , which itself is M. who later (because of some misprint) by Dobrowolsky corrected values 1 / 106,27 and 1 / 139.29 set.



Red B

1 1


/ 363 = 0.00275

Red C Orange between Cand D Yellow Gold D Green between D nE

/ 106.27

/ 248.7 = 0.00402 / 331 = 0.00302 / 772 = 0.001203 / 246 = 0.00405



/ 465



/ 139.29


Green E Green Blue between E and F Cyan F


/ 214 / 400


/ 340 = 0.00294 / 615 = 0.001625 / 740 = 0.00135 / 429 = 0.00233 / 320 = 0.00312



/ 409.34 / 270.27


Indigo blue G Violet between G u. H




After two observers find themselves so consistently two maxima of the relative sensitivity to differences respektiv in gold yellow and cyan, and yellow for gold is indeed the relative difference in sensitivity somewhat greater than for cyan.

The values of the wavelengths of the Fraunhofer lines in a hundred thousand million dumplings are (according to Helmholtz p. 236) for 5260 A 7617 B 6878 4843 C 6564 E F G 4291

D 5888 H 3929 In regard to the details of Dobrowolsky in the table above to see experiments p. 72 is important to remark that in the just-vanishing differences between the color tones at the two boundaries of the spectrum still a difference in the brightness impression was that in later experiments, p. 98 is so removed. It was in the outputs of a still noticeable color difference, the brightness of the brighter color (orange in the examination of the red, the blue in the examination of the Purple) weakened until no more brightness difference was noticeable, so the color difference disappeared for the eye at the same time. As found for the colors on the borders of the spectrum following, very different from

the above, values of σ , a brightness difference, however, in the other colors with vanishing color differences at all was apparent 12) , thus remain the figures above it. Red B indigo blue G 0.00366 = 1 / 272.3 Red C 0.00599 = 1 / 166.9 violet between G and H 0.00683 = 1 / 146 = 0.00868 1 / 115

As for Mandelstamm attempts so happened according to his statement (p. 400), the rotation of the test used Ophthalmometerplatten of the situation, where no difference in their coloration appears, so far, "that the first difference in coloration of the plates" was perceptible. So this was not disputed just as in the earlier experiments Dobrowolskys, the results above are combined with those of Mandelstam in the same table, a rear view of the same brightness compared tints away.

If the difference in brightness could be already below the threshold in this case, however, these attempts for the middle part of the spectrum in the brightness of the subject would not be comparable with those for the limits of the spectrum. Meanwhile, the missing analogy between colors and tones of the points in question is recently characterized restores that the validity of Weber's law for the perception of pitch differences, according to new attempts by Preyer 13) as little confirmed, as the perception of color differences. The previous assumption as to the validity of the law for pitch was based essentially on that of a pitch interval appears the same for the musical sense, if at different absolute pitch, the ratio of the frequencies remains the same, but with small pitch differences such as the in the method just noticeable differences come into consideration, suggests this law by Preyer attempts fail, after which you should probably expect, the musical hearing judge on the musical intervals rather on the conditions of the return or non-return of overtones, as to the rise and fall of the rate of vibration. 14)

"On the limits of sound perception of Preyer," Jena, Dufft, 1876 p. 26 ff


It is here to bring a difficulty that can seemingly rise up against the fundamental views of Helmholtz in musical theory, namely, that even objectively simple tones and those of rods and discs, which are not the same harmonic overtones than the pages, and as a human have voice, but give the same feeling for the melodies and harmonies. However, leads to earlier occasionally made any remark objectively simple sound of a rod or a disk (taking into account second order terms in the mathematical expression) its harmonic overtones in the ear.

The experiments Preyer are employed by the method of just noticeable differences with tones of metal reeds by consultation of a plurality of observers and compiled with earlier experiments by Delezenne and Seebeck, from which flow the following results. Let n ', n two frequencies, the difference n - n to be detected, d the absolute just noticeable difference n '- n, and the relative just noticeable difference, one has to Preyer (p. 31, 32) under the best of circumstances n, n d

0.00349 = 0.000827 = =
1 1

120.209 119.791 0.418 / 286 440 439.636 0.364

/ 12.09 500.3 500 0.300 0.000600

/ 1666 1000.5 1000 0,500 0.000500

= 1 / 2000 As you can see, changes ε , which from to Weberschem laws for different values n should remain constant, immense; however, the absolute difference in sensitivity, which through the reciprocal value of d is measured in the previous limits of n without comparison less varied However, beyond these limits by rapidly downward, upward slowly decreases after the author's experiments. Now is certainly to be regretted that the important support that Weber's law found by the statement of musical feeling in the areas of the pitch so

far, is eliminated by Preyer attempts. However Dreies to be considered here, as in the Farbenempfin-making. First, Höho and strength of sounds, color and brightness of the light different things, and so many laws may also apply for both different things. If the law for some, it is not yet covered it for others. Second. The confirmation of Weber's law for the dependence of the intensity of the light and sound sensation of the amplitude A are generally held constant the number of oscillations n found. One could imagine that confirmations of the law for the dependence of the height and color sensation of the vibration number n reversed only with corresponding constancy of the amplitude A would be found for which the offer constancy tests Preyerschen no guarantee. It is now hard to put weight on this assumption, because the vergleichungs-wise strength with which we strike tones seems to have no significant influence on the sensation her height ratio. More so following remark taken into consideration deserves to be. Third. With the change of the oscillation number n is two things change. Once, so the number of repetitions of the oscillations in a given time, the short period of the oscillation, which (among Mitrücksicht on composition of periods) depends on the sensation of height, the sound, the color, just the qualitative side of the sensation changes.Secondly, so that the speed of the swinging motion changes at every moment, and therefore the kinetic energy a ² n ² of oscillations, which must depend on the closest condition the strength or quantitative measures of sensation, as well as at 2 , on the function of the discussions under XX. maybe rather than on the living force as to the quantity of sensation to refer, in short, to what function of a one wants to think about this, it is not merely a n but also have influence on the quantity or total strength of feeling. A sound is to use a distinctive expression for the sound the louder, the more a grows, the more penetrating ever more n grows, although one can differ in any way in the wake of the starch itself, which on account of a and what on account of n is. Even if ink is also not dependent on the brightness difference of the two elements of both.And it is to study now even if Weber's law with respect to that of a and n at the same time-dependent, total thickness of sensation only in case of change of a with constancy of n, whereupon the previous confirmations relate, not even for the case that n changes, is to be regarded as fundamentally valid. This will of course not be decided by the Preyerschen tests, provided that they relate to differences in the perception of height, not the strength, and to my knowledge are in regards to actually still no decisive experiments before. In experiments above but the following points are indisputably come into consideration. It is even difficult, equality and inequality of the total strength of the

impression with shades and colors, depending on a and n at the same time to accurately assess if botha as n between the compared components is different, but is not the comparison impossible, but just not as accurate to draw than when n is equal to two. Each is of a very light blue to a very dark red, or a very heavily battered deep tone to a very weak ailing high tone, as in reversing this situation, do not be in doubt, which makes use of two components of the amplifiers overall impression; also has indeed Dobrowolsky in the above experiments, two different shades of color known to bring on the same impression of brightness, and Helmholtz in the experiments (p. 317), which he did earlier observations of Dove and Purkinje an exact expression (see below), of an equal assumed brightness impression of the blue and red. Now it is certain that, in tones as colors may be the overall strength of the impression of a ² s ² or to keep ² dependent; any humiliation of a by an increase of n vice versa can be compensated so that the total thickness of the impression equal to or must remain, while in this same condition, the impression of pitch or color due to change of nchanges. Conversely, at the same preserved sensation of pitch or Farbentons because gehaltenem equal n , the total strength of feeling for amendment of a change. So also does not fall, generally speaking, the difference threshold, ie the point where the equality of two impressions of sensation is simply achieved for the overall strength of the impression of tones or colors with the difference threshold for the pitch or color tones together. 15)

Thus, in the early Dobrowolskyschen Try the difference between them was in the n disappeared related hues, without the brightness difference had disappeared everywhere. And if in two colors or tones through demgemäße reversing its a and n of all difference between both the overall strength of their impression as to amount or their Farbentone is only just gone, is it generally speaking (apart from peculiar cases) only one of the two differences just on the threshold, the others have to be under the threshold, otherwise you would for non-coincidence of the two thresholds, notice a difference even in one or another sense. That two colors or tones are just to the point that no difference between them is perceived, that is not proof that the difference of the overall strength of their impression, mathematically its as a function of a and n expressed to the same value, the threshold is placed, it can also be more or less come down below the threshold, and attempts by the method of just noticeable differences, where the difference between two tones or colors through changes in their a or n brings quite close to the disappearance, or the

same, can I would therefore not safe to decide on the applicability of Weber's law to differences between the total number of tones or colors. This remark seems to me applicable to the interesting and ingenious experiments v. tooth, which would otherwise speak in the areas of color against this application. However, to leave it up to the judge, I share these attempts at XIX. especially with. From other side, following circumstance the applicability of Weber's law seems to contradict the overall strength of the impression in color. According to the by known previous statement of Purkinje and Dove caused, more accurate experiments of Helmholtz (p. 317 f) with spectral colors red and blue appear even a little breakable breakable and strong color, ie with small and large n , which at a certain appear equally bright lights, no more so if the lighting, hereby a , is reduced or increased for both in the same ratio, but first, if the predominant impression of refrangible, second, if the color of the less breakable. 16) Perhaps this really constitute a contradiction to the applicability of the Act to the overall strength of the impression in colors; however, one has at least until now my knowledge the analogue thereof not observed for tones, and and so many other puzzling differences between the ratios of the impressions of colors tones could possibly herein, such a lie, on the other hand proves the fact that the colors with modified brightness change their sound and appear so whitish, the lighter they are (see Section XIV) that there are complex relationships of colors, making the interpretation of the facts of respective terms is at all uncertain. After all, is to admit that neither the changes in the perception of pitch or color in their response to changes in the vibrational number n follow Weber's law, without this seems to be pushed to experimental problems of legality, and it has even more than questionable apply whether the law of the fundamental, of a and n dependent together, changes in the overall strength of the impression is applicable, without incurring the same concerns about the validity of a change of a with constancy of n follows.

The Versache by Aubert (p. 127) and of Chodin (Üb d d dep F. from the L. p. 20th 32), after which the colors are easily recognized by lower refrangibility when approaching the Dark than are larger, provided that are not in conflict with attempts Helmholtzs than those to relate them to the brightness of the color recognition, and not just as those so as that appearing on the same brightness of the colors being compared is assumed. But it can be recognized the existence of an objective color on a black ground or by a difference in brightness of it if of color is nothing noticeable, and Aubert himself remarks (p. 128) that "the red pigments are always appeared in color with less brightness of the

lighting , while darker than the blue pigment. "

7) Extensive sizes. It remains to ask: how are the so-called. extensive sentiments regarding the conception of space and time variables to the law? Earlier (Section VII) has been recalled and is a priori obvious that one can not postulate a similar law of the inverse of the size of the distance or length of time for these feelings, as for intense sensations in intensity the underlying psycho-physical activity is. Rather, it is a priori nothing to decide. What am I in the 7th Section have said about extensive spatial sensations on the retina, is summed up thus: Weber's law and dependent logarithmic Maßgesetz could very well exist regarding amendments of the total extent of the retina, without it being prevented by parts of the retina, distances on the same, after a simple relationship to estimate the total extent (number of sensory circles), only that it is possible experiments with variation of the retinal size, as it has done to nature, not hire from us. Has in my and people's Augenmaßversuchen. In any case, Weber's law (with a lower deviation from the micrometric Try Volkmann's) very well proven in wide intervals, but that still remains doubtful whether they are directly related to extensive sensations, and not rather to movement or muscular feeling. - For extensive sensations on the skin where the muscle is not feeling taken advantage of, at least I have not received a corresponding probation of Weber's law than the Augenmaßversuchen. At the time sense Mach find (in Abh no 1) the law of attempts by means of the method of just noticeable differences using the auditory sense inapplicable by those obtained from different array modes of trials and with different observation subjects, average results on p. 10 says, resulted in whole following, where t the main time, in seconds, the just noticeable difference in relative time σ , according to the Weber's law for all main times t should be equal means. t 0,016 0,750 * 0,110 0,491 0,375 0,052 0,535 0,054 1,153 0, 06 9 4,520 0,095 8,060 0 , 0 9 5


The numbers marked with an * are considered (lower limit) to the author to be too small against the other, if ∆ t here no longer noticeable in the other t but was still noticeable. So hereafter soft in fact the numbers entirely from that demanded by Weber's law, from equality, and takes place at t = a minimum of 0.375 , therefore the maximum of the relative difference in sensitivity instead. But we notice that the main periods within which the strong variation of the held, from 0.016 to 1.153 sec everywhere are only small, largest of the two t, ie 4.52 and 8.00, irrespective of the give than

however, the

large deviation from each , one only if not quite matching

the = 8.00 is explained by the author for a bit too small at t. In this approximate agreement between the two values would now probably be even to lay no particular weight when they are not in Vierordts very extensive experiments by the method of intermediaries Felller (in s writing: "The sense of time" Tübingen 1868) confirmed in a wider extent . In general, namely Vierordt found the following: It is celebrated in the tests you in the ratios of the raw error appreciable constant error by small peak times (peak times) are translated into greater absenteeism, large main periods into smaller absenteeism, short short times too large, large to be estimated too low. By transition from the raw errors to the pure variable errors this, the experiments on differential sensitivity eliminates complicating, Maternity, and the pure error means you have to keep in check our law. As shown because in experiments where the absences were determined immediately after the main time 17) when the prozentale, di calculated in relation to the main time, pure means error ε is called that σ in fact in the areas of small t with growth of t to descends to a minimum, just as it has Mach found that but, after being more or less increased beyond a very approximate constancy of σ for ascending t happens, you just have to balance the not inconsiderable

random fluctuations of ε means figures for several t after another drag.

The very interesting experiments ever Vierordts are very varied, without my leadership on and discussion of them can go on for now, as done above. Take the test table p. 36th An assistant was two strokes in certain intervals; Vierordt they immediately sought to repeat in exactly the same interval, recording the periods happened means of a suitable auxiliary device on kymograph. Here fell from t = 0.204 s (with σ = 16.6) with the low times, the minimum ε = 8.5 to t = 1.129; followed hereafter ε = 8.7 at t = 1.363, and weiterm upgrade resulted from t = 1.5 to 8.860 sec for each means of four successive t following average ε t σ 1.98 13.5 3.09 14.4 4.99 15.1 7.30 15.1

Much higher with the t was in the experiments p. 49 risen where the object was found three successive small clock movements of the hand by means of auxiliary apparatus on the kymograph to record so that the two bars exactly the same length of time should have and they went from t = 0,202 seconds as the duration of the first measure with ε= 9 , 4 (a percentage of the first bars) to t = 90 sec, the minimum - ε = 4.5 was found at t = 0.887; hereafter with the inclusion of this minimum in the middle of four ascending t following associated values t σ 1,346 5.45 4,096 11.85 11,000 16.02 19,288 15.20



In both series of experiments thus a strong lower deviation from the law with a strong approximation to it at higher peak periods t. Employed in yet another series of experiments, of Student Höring under Vierordts line (p.44), eight were on successive strokes, thus the seven equal time intervals, indicated by a metronome, which had to be repeated once the kymograph, and the following is revealed where t the duration of a beat interval in seconds means.

t σ

0,183 3.9

0,234 4.5

0,306 3.0

0,365 2.5

0,454 3.1

0,600 4.1

0,833 5.2

Again, a minimum of σ at t == 0.365, and an approximate constancy of t = 0.833 at. With these quite similar attempts, but by the method of right and wrong cases, are of Höring in s inaugural dissertation "Experiments on the discernment of Hörsinnes for time variables", Tübingen 1866, and provided by Vierordt in s writing about the sense of time p. 62 ff reproduced and discussed, but I would like to make their calculations differently, as done by Vierordt, and thereafter, the derived numbers of Vierordt p. 73 and 75, the transition with the above figures not very true: for not quite decisive, omit, however, for now, going into details, because I have not made a new calculation, and the key decision already in substantial compliance the experimental results of Mach and Vierordt by two very different methods is given. It will in any case be admitted that, if the deviations from the law in these types of experiments in the areas of small t nor the Declaration require the strong approximation because at higher t want to be explained, and can more easily be remembered that the former than to the latter of circumstances, which do not allow the pure legalism come to light dependent.

Als allgemeinstes Resultat, finde ich, daß, insoweit es sich um Unterscheidung von bloßen Reizintensitäten ohne Änderung von Farbe oder Tonhöhe oder allgemeiner von Qualität der Empfindung handelt, das Gesetz im Gebiete des Lichtes, Schalles, Geschmackes, der Gewichte approximative Bewährungen aufweisen kann, welche die Wahrscheinlichkeit seiner fundamentalen Gültigkeit begründen; wogegen die Unterscheidung von Farbennuancen und Tonhöhen ohne Rücksicht auf Intensität sich dem Gesetze entzieht.

Text original

Contribuïu a millorar la traducció

XVII. Delboeufs light experiments. That, according plateau principle (Section IV) furnished, Delboeufs method was (according to ET. P. 50ff) much of this. To produce the measured values of A, B, C, he had three sectors of a circle of white vellum of graded angular width rotate against a background of of black velvet, and made such arrangements that the day or candle-light, which illuminated the white sectors, the black background could not hit, so that (in my opinion) whose brightness was noticeably represents merely through the eyes of black, was also of the

side walls reflected light held by the device. The circular sectors were in circumference one in some experiments, white, black, other, disc C ' (of Delbceuf with A designated) mounted so that they represented with common rotation with the same three, this disc and each enclosing gray rings, of which the from sector C with the largest angular width arising, ie brightest, the disc C ' initially encloses the innermost of the sector A was originating with the smallest angular width, ie darkest, the outermost. Let δ , δ ', δ " , the angular widths of A, B, C , which can be regarded as a comparative measure of the physical brightness of the rings at a constant and uniform lighting, to the extent such is caused by the external lighting. Thereafter, there was an attempt in the fact that at given δ andδ ' the angular width δ " of the innermost brightest sector C has been changed until the difference between C and B between the B and A appeared the same. Think we are now dependent on the angular width under the influence of external illumination brightness us δ , δ ', δ " any more by a constant small value c enlarged to represent the full holiness appearance of the Rings, what value I of the inner brightness Black depend think however Delbceuf him in the Étude a slightly different meaning attaches (Section IV), it would have to be regardless of this value in the direct appearance of both adjustments, net of Weberschem laws With respect to c , but, according to formulas Delboeufs indians as Étude in my formula (II elements p. 195)

from which it follows (1) (2) It was now investigate whether the determined by the experimental values of δ 'for amendment of δ and δ ′ , ie, at different absolute magnitudes, the formula (1), hereby the condition for the validity of Weber's law, sufficiently correspond if there for c a small value is assumed to be constant, and if c as calculated from the values of δ , δ ′ , δ" by means of formula (2) is really constant change those values, ie at different absolute brightness. As an imperfection of the process itself Delbceuf mentioned (ow p. 80th 71) that a non-uniform contrast effect was not sufficiently avoided by him, some of which abnormalities of the tests could depend why he

had even want to repeat the experiments, but not come to be. It surrounded namely in the experiments to test the Weber's law (ow p. 5466) of the inner gray ring generated by the widest angle white sector, one white plate, top with C ' referred to which all sectors were fixed, However, the outermost ring stood out against a completely black background. In the special tests for the determination of c (p. 72 88) was C ' black and sat thus both C than A against Black from.By now everyone has a ring on both sides of different bright neighborhood, it divides by contrast laws in two zones of different brightness and takes the whole neighborhood a modified depending on the brightness of 1) (see Section XI.). Delbceuf noticed at sufficiently broad rings, eg, 2 to 3 inches, a disorder that depends on it is less noticeable, and adds (p. 71) is added, it would be easy "to avoid this problem in part" when the Basically, against which the combination of the δ , δ ′ , δ " stands out, both for indoor as for outdoor give the same brightness as the central rings.

It is not disputed not only to consider the immediate vicinity due to the remote effects of the contrast here, and so the middle ring of not only by the contrast with the two neighboring rings, but also by the sum or difference of the weaker se effects of contrast with Disc C ′ and be influenced by the bottom, depending on base plate and may be identical or dissimilar. Like previous I would like to add that for safe prevention of a constant error not only always one-sided C , but just as often as A would have to direct the publication of the differences C , B and B, A must be changed to the eye or at least investigated whether did not depend on a constant error of the one-sided way of employment tests. Meanwhile, as the experiments to test the Weber's law, p. 54 ff, where the disc C ' was white, no less than the experiments p. 73 and 88 where it was black, for c can be found only very small, even the part of almost vanishing, ratings according to formula (2) everywhere, so you can only errors very small order for the examination of Weber's law by formula (1) from the Irttümern by the non-uniform contrast be an adult, and may the smallness of c itself regarded as stated, only one is a correct absolute determination of c must not count it. From the totality of, folgends summed up in a total table tests show that in fact the formula (1), assuming a very small constant value for c , with desired ester approximation for wide variations of δ , δ ', δ met " will. Delbceuf are four test tables (p. 54 60 62 65) for different observation subjects and under different lighting conditions. In all four are consistently the same 14 different combinations of δ , δ ' applied,

which listed below in the overall table of the experiments are, and in each test series to each of these combinations, the corresponding value δ " determined by a mean of 2-5 (specified in the original) observation values. These observed average δ "Delboeuf compares the in (1) of the predetermined δ and δ ' calculated δ " , setting of c again = 0.5 ° = 0.12 °, secondly, the values applied to the δ , δ ' δ ', the smallest of which δ was 9 ° equal, almost disappear, I also convinced me of the first three tables that c can put almost zero without old center the agreement between observation and calculation considerably, if one while in each table of test no 1, with δ = 9 °, δ ' = 47 ° apart, where due weakest δ value of c relatively most predominant, which attempt but Delbceuf (after p. 60) not very reliable for explained. Namely, no one is allowed anywhere in the page and it also improves computational error displayed below Delboeufs, we obtain for the three conditions c = 0.5, = 0.12 and = 0.0, the following sums of squares between calculation and observation 2 )

c = 0.5, 0.12 c = 0.00


Table I. 210.7 238.1 258.1 II 1278.8 1233.6 1214.4 III. 1110.2 1206.6 1258.8 from which one first sees that the attempts of Table I. (considering the smallest sums of squares) were the most reliable by far, for which she also explains the author (p. 57), because the experimental conditions were most favorable, secondly, that, in Table II, but certainly by the sum of squares was found to be the least accurate c = 0.0 even granted an advantage. However, it is at the other rows in the 0.5 most advantage, and may therefore be specified in the following table the total Delboeufschen attempts to reason. In, by the author of the formula (1) calculated values of δ ' can be found on all its tables significant, in each table, repetitive invoice errors, by which, the agreement between calculation and observation only wins. How do I find means of two-time by bill are following, of calculated incorrectly Delbceuf to replace numbers by including the following set right: in the column c = 0.12 incorrectly 242.2 128.7 202 117.8 152.5

98.1 120.05 178.2 properly 243.3 128.8 194.6! 118.0 152.6 95.2 120.8 175.9

in the column c = 0.5 wrong correctly 120.3 94.4 119.5 95.1

Also p must. 83 and 84 are 0.33 to 0.53. The following table Total now are in the 2nd 3 and Col. the identical set in all four rows of 14 combinations of δ , δ ' recorded in the fourth The Col., assuming c = 0.5 from these combinations of (l) calculated δ ', in the other Columnen order to compare the observed intermediaries δ . " the statement noted above errors are corrected following, and in no 5 I (according to the View Notes, below) 233.7 instead of 247.8 as observed δ " set. Under the overall table to follow information on the subjects of observation and illumination of the apparatus, which took place in the experiments of the individual tables.

In Table I is no attempt at 5 instead of δ ′ '= 247.8 of the (to p. 59) probably more reliable value 233.7 adopted. The subject of observation Table I, the author of A is called, also occur in the later experiments on the determination of c several times under this name again.

Total table. No. given calculatedδ ′ ′ with c = 0.5 observed δ " Tab IVb 210.7

δ 1 9 47

δ′ 237.0

Tab I Tab II Tab III Tab IVa 237.6 239.7 243.5 226.5

Tab IVc 233.7

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

13 13 13 13 21 21 22 22 22 22 43 43 43

27 36 41 56 60 64 36 51 58 66 64 72 87

55.5 98.3 127.0 236 169.7 193.0 58.7 117.4 151.6 196.0 95.1 120.3 175.5

54.4 98.8

53.7 97.3

55.3 94.8 123.5 245.4 157 175.7 56.8 107.4 139.2 182.2 94 119.8 168.8

57 113.5 132 224.5 164.5 176.5 59 107.5 145.5 168.5 96 126.5 181

60.3 102.3 133.3 220.7 179 192.7 60.7 121 163.3 210.3 103 118 179.7

50 111.7 121.3 231.3 155.3 183.7 63.7 125.7 165.3 199.7 95.3 116.7 188.3

129.2 133.3 233.7 238 163.4 184.7 200 87.6 207.3 61.3

119.8 116.3 152.2 159 194.8 174 97.4 92.7 130.0 127.3 176.8 189.7

Table I. A Young Lady A, gray skies (jour gris), δ " means of 5 observations. Table II An old lady painter, gray sky, δ " means of 5 observations. Table III. The young lady A candle surrounded with a reflector made of white paper, in about 25 Zentim. From the apparatus. Table IV a Two observers, evening, candle, probably as in III .. b. Three observers with gray (gris) sky. c. Three observers in bright sky. Each observer is given in Table IV . merely an observation values for δ " listed in the table above but taken the average of the two or three details.

You can see the match between observation and calculation, which speaks to gun most of Weber's Law, namely in Table I, whose attempts were made under the best of circumstances, only found surprising. The other tables show sometimes considerable, but following no particular order, that is the nature of randomness supporting, deviations soon + soon - that will be discussed by the author in part. So satisfying, even by beating now also together mood of the previous experiments in regard to the validity of Weber's law appears, is here compared in regard to the determination of small value c to note that

they in themselves and with the employed especially for this destination Try p. 73 and p. 88 agree only in so far as all these attempts can find a very small, but for circumstances very variable value for this; does not prevent itself, c refer to the brightness of the eyes black as this brightness to earlier remarks made itself is not considered significant must be valid variable, but also partly due to the, in the activation (see above) noted uncertainty of the process may hang.Now, if when calculating previous attempt tables c = has been set 0.5 everywhere, as was done by the author himself after one of his methods of calculation, but is not to assume that c had constant throughout this value, but the close despite the continuous compliance of accounting with observation only in that when calculating a fairly negligible value doubled, tripled, can go from positive to negative, without significantly changing the accounting result is explained. Basically gives each individual test number in each of the tables that are combined in previous overall table, opportunity, the value of c after the fact given values δ , δ 'and the observed δ " by means of formula (2) to calculate, except that any individual determination of a such a small value is very uncertain. now I take from Table I. The first seven numbers together, against the δ value of c does not vanish in the same degree, as against the following seven, and determine c summarily by

I find c = 0.48, which agrees remarkably with the adopted calculation 0.5. But the other tables can be found for other values, and because at all of these experiments, c can not find exactly Delbceuf p has. 73 more attempts, under constant application of δ = 13 °, δ ' = 41 °, the observer A can employ, and thereby applied five different lighting levels, in each of which 24 (well-provoking in itself) attempts have been made half as that of a too large, the other as that of an undersized δ "gone over to the right was translucent., the lights were and gave the following average δ " and then c . 1) evening, candle, surrounded by a black Half-cylinder in 25 Zentim. Distance from the apparatus δ '= 127.8, c = 0.333. 2) Very cloudy (très sombre-) March-sky 4-5 clock afternoon δ ' = 122.3, c = 1.71. 3) gray (gris) sky the same month by 3 clock δ "= 126.3, c = 0.682. 4) Full bright sky, the sun shining in

full splendor, in room δ " - = 129.4, c = 0.00. 5) Then (on this bright day) throughout free air, but without direct sun light δ "= 137, c = -5.814. Disregarding the experiments below 1) from where the attempts by candlelight appear similar enough to the other, so does c with the intensity of the lighting off, and goes to 5) even negative. The following from the bill decrease of c with increased lighting now does not necessarily mean an absolute loss, but must rather be expected in real constancy of the same (ie thereby designated psychophysical value), because a constant c naturally forms a so small fraction of the light the greater this is, at the chosen destination way here but occurs one sector of 1 ° multiplied by the intensity of his voice light as the unit of brightness. Only the occurrence of negative values of c in the strongest light therefrom is not explained, and of course agree negative values of c not at all to the view that c implies a positive brightness of the eyes black. But experiments with greater brightness are not merely therefore unsuitable for the calculation of c , because c too disappears against the express light value, but because the reasons the upper deviation from Weber's law in accordance with start to be noticeable, as one ascends the magnitudes higher. And that this factor really comes into play here, comes from the following, the author p. 72 remark made out: "We wanted [with δ = 13 °, δ ' = hire 41 °] experiments under illumination of the apparatus with full sunlight, these attempts do not reach, because the observation subject was blinded, and approved all values of δ ', when they exceeded 100 ° or 105 °, 150 ° or went under. "Of course, such a disturbance had been making shrill in broad daylight. Since the brightness of the lights are not different compared to previous experiments with each other, and moreover Delbceuf (after p. 84), the previous method is not accurate enough for the determination of such a small value when c is held, he still has four rows of experiments, each with 58-84 observations for quite some übereinstimmendem process itself, partly by observer A hired, where δ , δ ', δ "were given constant = 13 °, 410, 100 ° (in one of the rows rather 102 °) , so do not δ " only sought, but the lighting was changed by changing distance of a candle until the condition of the same translucent difference between δ , δ ' and δ ', δ "was fulfilled. The candle was of a inwardly blackened cylinder nearly surrounded, and one half of the experiments has been made, that by removal of the plug, and the other such that had progressed by approximation of the plug to the right points, wherein (if this point had been reached), the first distance in the were generally smaller than the second, the agent was removed therefrom, and that the calculation of the brightness (to the inverse square of the distance), as a

basis. By the results of its self 58 observations he found such an appropriate means of shaping reducing the value of c is equivalent to the brightness, which is produced by rotation of a white sector of just 0.04. ° = at all lichtentblößtem basically, if this sector through to 25 centimeters away, candle (the nature of which is not specified in the experiments) lit is. In place of 0.04 ° occurred after all the corresponding experiments observer A (each with 84 observations in each row) in the three rows of values 0.05, 0.1372, 0.1587. Of these, the first few days earlier was found as the last two of which 2, employed on the same days of the experiment, followed by rows, from which Delbceuf (p. 84), the result draws 1) "that c varies from one individual to another, 2) that c fails different even in the same individual at different times, 3) that c [under the same held circumstances] during a pretty considerable interval of time, which may extend to several hours [ie during the period of 58 or 84 trials each row], remains remarkably constant, if this interval appropriately chosen, will. " In particular the latter point holds, he asked for sure, however (after p. 90) to under 1) and 2) perceived differences may also be a difference in brightness of the candles used for the tests could not have had a share. In any case, the insignificance of remains c , which turns out from all these experiments, conspicuous, and so well do the attempts to Weber's law, so little to the role that you settle for the other wide experience of the brightness of the eyes black, except that they of the specified reason for determining not appear the same reliable enough.

XVIII. Herring weight tests. Herring makes Weber's law against two types of weight Try claim that the expected one employed by him with greater weight differences in a peculiar way (p. 14 ff}, others (p. 33 ff), with folgends as Hering, on his instigation and indisputably performed under its supervision of the Student med Biedermann and Löwit for a way to remove the, I believe from the correspondence with herring, to be regarded as a modification of the method of just noticeable differences, but only what further

messages are to be expected from him. The experiments of the first type are two that can be put briefly under the following scheme. 1) If I lift a weight of 3 pounds and the weight of the arm mitgehobenen also about 3lb to expect, it seems to me the growth of 3lb to Armgewichte of 3lb lower than when I 3lb arm weight with another 4 lbs to it, so others to add 7 lbs 7 lbs weight, regardless of the law he should only appear identical. 2) placed his hand on a pad to participation; exclude the arm weight. The increase when I add just a plate of a galvanic plate, which is obvious, so it seems to me less than if I add five to five plates thereon plates. Just as the laws contradictory. The first attempt in my view makes the following interpretation. If we otherwise take a weight in the hand and weigh it not occur to us that the same be taken on a growth on arm weight, and subtract the latter weight, so to speak, to conceive the former for themselves, but we judge the impression that the total weight weight of the arm and makes, whether right or wrong, and it will do so also in the above experiments. So we have on one side is not an increase of 3 pounds to 3 pounds, which we appreciate, but an absolute weight of 6 pounds on the one hand, we compare with the 14 lbs on the other hand, after the weight gain to the other side is made. And we will certainly feel that 14 pounds heavier than 6 lbs, but more than self-evident, nothing will be close. Anlangend the second experiment, in which a consideration of the weight of the arm disappears, the following would be first and foremost, however to notice. When the hand is resting on the table and a disk is placed, so suspended the printing sensation which senses the hand, not only by the pressure of the disk, but also the counter-pressure which the experiences compressive hand from the table, and that must, just as earlier (the weight of the arm to be lifted weights, the pressure of the disk are allocated. This backpressure but at least the pressure of a drive but will be set equal. thus that he is neglected, the whole experiment loses its authenticity. Together seems to me to say against the two previous experiments, that it can not at all to compare the differences hold regardless of the comparison of the absolute weights. To exclude, made because of low weight of the plate objection itself, I was a person who knew the intention of the attempts nothing, put both hands on her back on the table, put on the one hand one hand about covering half , lead plate of 500 grams, on the other, such a 1,000 grams, the person had to close his eyes, added to the first plate, a second plate of 500 grams, the second of 1000 grams, and asked them which growth track their greater whereupon I was told that the weight on the second hand would have been much

harder than the first, as it was already difficult. When I remarked, "but I did not know on which side the weight became heavier, but on which side of the growth, the experience, the pre-existing weight, bigger is", I received the answer: "Yes they (the person) knows only always become harder to compare a weight with the others, "and I was not able to bring meaning to concede that the Zuwüchse can be compared independently. Even myself, it seemed like I could hire comparison on myself, or seemed to, depending on the direction of the idea soon, as soon as, without that I give my judgment, as may be biased, as well much, only I have to go the failures previous attempts entrust the care if you can repeat the attempt by others to make really sure that it is not the feeling of a greater weight with the sensation of a larger increase in their confused statement, a freezing order of course quite difficult to me seems. Should they succeed yet, so I willingly admit that therefrom a substantial objection to the applicability of the law would grow on weight sensations. In any case, this way of trial suffers from a complication difficult to eliminate, not like the others at which experiments with herring just noticeable differences be it. But before I cover these additional Hering's experiments eingehe closer, so I have to refer back to the comparison to the weight experiments by the method of right and wrong cases that I even in the Elem. I. p. 186 ff have made known. 1) The most important result of these experiments is that the summed numbers (where r the number of correct cases, n is the total number of cases), as derived from summed h D, which according to Weber's laws for the various varied from 300 to 3000 grams, P's should be the same, there are not really, but the equality approach the more so the higher the weights increase. The same increase to higher head weights than done, was partly to great effort, which it was grown in continuous experiments, and especially the fact that the apparatus would have suffered by not, however I by special experiments (Elem . lp 305 ff) have shown that the fatigue of the arm from the weight of corroborability of the law in itself just is so little in the way, as the tiredness of the eye by light stimuli by the success just is the same as if both to compare weights would be altered in the same ratio thereby. Now the undisputed success of my experiments just as well as against the Weber's law can claim it. Against the law, if they so from below show the most striking deviation from the law, for the law, if they show up higher an equally striking approximation to it. Of course, the opponents suggest they ersterm in mind, I, by doing the following considerations argued in the latter sense.


In addition to these trials, which were directed at examination of Weber's law under varied circumstances and to supplementary on the influence of fatigue (Elem. l 305) are to me as yet unpublished, large test series against the influence of the duration of the different elevations and the interval between each two together related to a comparison elevations, so how about uplift without D. I thought, I come again to make it known. For present purposes, however, they are without significant concern. That the experiments with the small weights so do not vote for Put, only shows that the law so well governed in the areas of weight experiments a significant untern deviation, as in other areas, but does not prove here, more than in other areas against the pure law, how such would assert without the reasons of experimental variations, provided that can be given a very specific reason for the lower experimental deviation, which loses more so in relative influence, the higher the weights increase, also other attendant circumstances may be quite disturbing may be for experiments with small and large weights. The determined assignable reason is that the as the main weight P and comparison weight P ' inflict put into account external weights or a weight moment of mitgehobenen arm to find the bill provoking, is only partly questionable how much attributed in this respect, partly as attributable to it, though, as it is the view of Weber's, these tests are only valid for a composite feeling of pressure and heaviness, but only by the severity could grow by the weight of the arm. Can neglect Anyway you the weight of the arm, not because it belongs to our body itself, because everyone feels but the severity of his own body if he is to ascend a mountain or a staircase, and can hang a tired arm, because he feels its severity. Be if it is at all likely that our sensory nerves with the same psycho-physical activity, which can be raised or enhanced by external stimuli in them already naturally are (usually just below the threshold) is loaded to a certain extent, this: But in general, one can say the nerve by means of which we feel pressure and heaviness, make no exception to this, so to speak weights, an increase from this point to be add, which may be different in different circumstances and with different people. Also the weight of the moment arm is lifted even occur naturally in various ways into account is ever taken after the uplift of the whole weight of the outer arm, forearm, or merely, or even just hand to complete. But it may be that the attribution of arm weight is not sufficient or not anywhere to cover the lower deviation, so yes herring itself (Section V.) made a whole series of circumstances cited, whereby disturbances in the

experiments may be in debt, and if I did not also have to admit that some of these apply in my experiments, I can not say that no other really come into consideration but, only I always come back to that in my opinion this way rather only disturbed the law and brought to an approximation, as this approximation, as it is in the larger P can be shown in my attempts produced. Herring takes a different view, and this inconsistency will remain between us, while his folgends to be considered experiments, though employed by a completely different method, with my experiments in general swing vote as good as I can always wish, express only the addition to the weights, so they are correct in my opinion, still be found considerably larger than it will be found after appropriate calculation of the mine below. Herring himself says (p. 35) as to his experiments with the weights 250-3000 grams, they were "generally in nice agreement with the results of Fechner's experiments by the method of right and wrong cases, are the deviations from Weber's law here and there. quite analogous to "what they are in fact. The Hering's experiments with small P from 10 to 500 grams appropriate but I have absolutely not hired - mine does not go under P = 300 grm. down - because my experiments with very small P at all due to the relatively large influence of the disturbing circumstances and particularly because one of mine in the area noticed anomaly smaller weights (Elem. I. 197) to the question of the law did not appear belang rich. However, when herring (p. 33) says: "Fechner's experiments do not provide sufficient overview of the essential facts, because the experiments can not be varied enough in its way, if you do not want to use this year," so I can not this saying Find justified. I really years of daily labor used (Elem. I. 93), and do not know what material facts herring can mean that can not subordinate the variations made by me the Versache in any case leave the previous preliminary communications on the Hering's experiments The question remains whether the same were related, just varies on the essential points to be considered, where I expect to be eliminated first of all constant errors. We now draw the Hering's experiments themselves into consideration, of which herring are the preliminary notice, they offer mainly just a new application of the remarks made in regard to my attempts explained previously represent, but are some points particularly to discuss. There were three series of experiments, only briefly mentioned by one of which, however, herring (p. 36) that while the weights on the appropriate supported fingertip always the same, however minimal, height fell down, and that other as little as two with the Weber's law have voted, without that for now he is taking on number of communication results.

In another series of experiments, "a towel was taken at the two ends together down, while in the loop thus formed a fortified at three cords hung wooden plate, which carried the weights. Towel, cords and plates together weighed 250 grams" Following the results. This means P , the main weight in grams, D is the smallest, with safety to the sensible weight gain recognized additional weight in grams, the just noticeable relative weight difference from the observations, σ ' the same by me, using the formula , where 2273 grams, the weight of the arm with the, what else about the determining factors for the weights P is attributable means. 2) Herring postulated without regard to a to P to be made addition, the validity of Weber's Law, the approximate agreement of the values ε for the various P, which now certainly beats entirely fail I, the values of ε ', which is proved excellent. The numbers in the experiments no 3, no 9 and no 11 are bracketed because the associated observation D prove to be defective immediately, because no 3 can not not by law with no 2 and no 9 with no equal 10 D , either because the P here are different, no 11 but suddenly falls from D = 22 to D =28

The value 2273 is calculated from the experiments themselves, as I summarize the exclusion of error of three observations most of the remaining eight, the first four and the second four observations to obtain two equations from which we find the above value. Indeed, let x of about P attributable value c to set a constant, then according to my requirement for Hering's experiments , thereforeD = cp + cx for each case, and ∑ D = c ∑ P + 4CX together taken for summatorisch four cases. Of two such equations, but can be c and x directions. In these test numbers so no consistency with other values is ε ' to demand, but regardless they also do not differ greatly from the others. That any attempt several numbers with different P but the same D expenditure for the observation depends on the fact that after the establishment of the tests at all with Werthen of D, which was differed by whole frames, advanced. PD

1) 12

250 1/ 21 500

/ 21.0 / 38

2) 13

/ 21.3

3) 750 (13) ( 1 / 23.3 ) 4) 1000

/ 58




/ 21.8

5) 16

1250 1/ 78 1500 1/ 88 1750 1/ 92

/ 22, 0

6) 17

/ 22.2

7) 19

/ 21.2

8) 2000 1/ 20 100

/ 21.4

9) 2250 1/ (22) 102 ( 1 / 20.6 ) 10) 2500 1/ 22 114 / 21.7

11) (28)

3000 1/ 98

( 1 / 18.8 ) The close agreement of the values of ε ' in so extraordinarily different from each other P is the more surprising as they where the observation D progress was only whole frames, not to be expected from the outset, and should be, considering the therefrom necessary arising experimental error at all, only be explained that the future general withx to be designated, additional constant value 2273 to the P to the size found in these experiments that it almost to the top of the applied P's enough that the constancy of the calculated ε ' must come to equip. But not only can the approximate constancy of the σ ' does not depend alone on this, but it is also at the bottom following the subsequent calculation of the ε ′ for my tests this approximate constancy at a much lower values of x find. Anyway, it is by the degree of agreement, which the ε ′ show here, as there, the conviction can not feel close that the following two conditions on which to base their calculation, are in the right, if such only by their coincident accuracy agreement can be explained: 1) that Weber's law is fundamental, 2) the weight of P but because it outward causes, which will lend its effect by adding a constant x must be corrected in order to find the observations to the laws provoking, no matter what this x depends if you only ever have to admit that the observed D not on the size of D depends only that but also determining causes are still in the dark part. Herring himself bemerktermaßen attention is drawn to causes that can act determining factors, itself (p. 35) is generally conceded that by one, about the weight of the arm to computing Additional 3) for each main weight P "the test series in fairly good accordance with the requirement that the main weight and additional weight will have the same ratio, ie, the Weber's laws come, "except that he tells no calculation, therefore, and the authorization of attribution of arm weight initially there is, yet he finds himself by that concession not prevented its test series to enforce the law.


Herring takes it to 1750 instead of 2273 grams by probably the one from me in the calculation of x excluded, has contracted with three incorrect attempts.

But according to which laws and which conditions on the codetermining factors, he then explains that compliance of the ε ′ ? Until a more satisfactory representation of the same is given, I think that they, and very decided in favor of the same. Concede is that 2273 grams would be too much for the mere weight of the arm, but is not excluded by the first long anticipated release of specific tests suspected of a constant error, the more it must be allowed, the infliction of such to the weight of the arm possible to keep as my own experiments, their employment, the determination, and the mode of calculation permitted the elimination constant error, have proved what an important role constant errors in this trial areas play the following below calculation of xfrom the liberated from the constant error results but my test series shows that it is generally not hereafter is bigger than you may be inclined to write to the moment of the arm weight. 4) However, before we turn to the herring's experiments with small weights. This, in which the unit of weight was above the gram, the additional weights but rather varied according to all frames, by tenths grams, were made by "that a small wooden handle to which a small cardboard disk was suspended, taken between thumb and forefinger, and so that lying on the cardboard disc weights were lifted, the arm was also not supported, but is held free. " The results, as seen above (the Columne ε ' is again added by me), they were. PD

1) 0.7


/ 14 50

/ 156 2)


/ 29 2.4 / 42

/ 88 3)


/ 105 4) 200

6 1



/ 83

5) 300 4.6

/ 65

/ 87 6) 4.00 1/ 77 7) 450 / 69


/ 96

6.5 



 4) If in the experiments relied on the arm of herring have been clothed with cloth, while he was clothed me with only a light shirt sleeves, it could also be the explanation for the difference of it found xcontribute.

8) 500 / 20

In calculating the additive 99.5 attempts no 7 and 8, in which the denominator of E decreases, left aside, and the calculation are not continued up to this.

Herring adds to this the following remarks: "From an inclusion of the weight of the lifting arm could here be no question, if only not, because the same is likely to be casually accepted only 100 grams, unless you, the tests even moderately with Fechner's opinion in accordance wanted to. Moreover, every observed the trials of the last-mentioned method hires, that in comparing the different weights his attention solely focused on emerging at the fingertips of sensations, hence the so-called muscular sense is not much come into consideration here. inclusion of arm weight but would only make sense if the comparison would be performed on the basis of this alleged muscular sense. " Against this I find my part to note about this series of experiments that, while as to the factual question of how the values I σ behavior in the areas of small weights and Gewichtszuwüchse, not without interest for

the question of our law but, as previously recalled, appears irrelevant . That in the experimental areas smaller weights the law does not apply, we know without these tests, and if it could be decided against the law freed from experimental interference would be decided by my earlier attempts against it. The Hering's experiments indeed confirm only the presence of the, already in my experiments found, anomaly in passing from P = 300 to P = 500, provided that the denominator of ε decreases, instead of rising, while he, having first tested größerm P again increases 6) , and as long as recognize the fact this anomaly, but the reason is not known, can be about the importance and utilization of results, even with the smaller P were obtained, say nothing. That enforces the allocation of 99.5, or such as herring, in round numbers, about 100 to P is obtained, only very crude approximation to the law, but without that 100 grams may represent the weight of the arm, so either may be be interpreted that the noticeable with very small weights influence of which depends on the abnormality, operates in the opposite sense, than the increase of the weight through the arm, and that in the small weights rather than merely raising the weight of the hand with the wrist the whole arm was involved. 7) That one in these experiments merely draws attention to the sensations arising at your fingertips, it seems to me, however nothing to prove to yourself that the arm or hand weight at emergence of these feelings has to share.

there is, however, in the above experiments herring with larger weights this anomaly is not in the transitions from 250 to 500 grams, and also in my experiments it did not take place under all experimental conditions, but it occurs mainly according to my experiments, how to off attempt tables in Elem. I. p. Can convince 190 et seq. 7) This idea occasionally expressed, Dr. Müller, professor at Göttingen, in a guided conversation with him about herring attempts. After this I'm on my experiments from the point of view of two back issues: 1) whether, as the Hering with the greater weights, by correction of P by means of a constantx to the various P matching ε ' can be brought; 2) what size of x has. In my elements I have, apart from the start of the attempts to make this way the experiments provoking, as I said, because of the above noted anomaly and the composition of the feeling of pressure and heaviness sensation could such a bill to nothing (Elem . I. 197). 8) Once, however, the calculation of Hering's experiments was such a well-provoking result, I have I of my series (Elem. 193), those who seemed to not

suitable due to large irregularities subsequently subjected to the invoice However, this naturally attempts at P = 300 grams left aside, because of the anomaly, which is reflected in the transitions from there to 500 grams. After this I find than to any P to be made, with x to be referred to, for the following additional rows (Elem. I. 193), the following values of x 9) , and by multiplying the hD with corrected values 10) of hD , which here ε ' are responsible, as follows:

Values hD p Series VI. two hands Series VIIhanded. D = 0.08P Left D = 0.08 P x =619 x = 418

for Sum

D =0.04P x = 487 500 1000 1500 2000 3000 3881 3762 3675 3689 3831

8292 7507 8349 7902 7865

9632 7828 8217 7876 9210

21805 19097 20241 19467 20906

It is seen that the, whole not significant, differences between the socorrected Hd, which to the different P are wearing, the character purely coincidental. If the rows corresponding to the different values of x, respektiv 487, 619 and 418 still deviate too far from each other in order to be fully covered to a constant weight of the arm can, it is just not to say that they only depend on this, and in that the anomaly that the transitions of P = 300 to P = 500 is noticeable, whether or not a higher and higher, depending on the circumstances of the experiments various extends influence.
8) The

employees in this place any separate accounting is not done

correctly, but what matters here, not because separation is not attempted here. In general, I have come to doubt the need for a separate accounting. 9) The calculation of x is out: I denote the five had moved to the bill attempts each row of P = 500 to respectiv with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, so I combine the determination of x once 1 and 2 summed values of 3, 4, 5; another time 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and take the average of two determinations.

This correction is based thus: According to the principle of the

method must all of the derived values h D fail immediately if Weber's law is, and the applied P's no additional x is to be made. But is such to make it so each must D and hence D h, to be proportional to P taken in the ratio of P + x: P be changed to constant h D × for the different P can be expected.

Also, the test series IX . Elem in. I. 196, which merely with P = 2000 and P = 3000, one-handed and two-handed, with D = 0.04 P 0.08 and P are employed, provide an opportunity for the calculation of x must be not only to the individual rows hold, since each only has two data to calculate, and x is small compared to large P is . Keeps you look at the totals for all rows, which ∑ h D at P is = 2000 31186 »» »= 3000» 32938 we find x = 397.8, which comes pretty close to the above values. There is something puzzling, to which internal reasons, the distinction of weight sizes depend at all, and whether it is to make in Weber's sense really depends on two reasons. Bernhardt writes (in Psychiatry III, 1872 Arch f p 632nd.) "Patients receiving their skin feeling had been deprived of the highest degree, which did nothing to report on passive motion, an had no idea about the position of their limbs and nothing felt the strongest induction currents which move their muscles vigorously in contraction, found I often force the so-called sense (especially with two such patients), the ability to distinguish weights, relatively good hold: a result, to which also Leyden s Unters of muscular sense, and ataxia reached ".. The Leyden attempts (in Virchow's Arch XLVII. P. 327) are in fact crucial to ensure that "patients who had lost in the muscles of the lower leg, the sensitivity completely or almost completely [if it tests for the antecedent of the strongest induced currents had no or almost no

sensation], distinguished the severity of different weights with the same sharpness as Healthy. " The experiments above were namely by means of a separate attached at the foot apparatus with comparatively more healthy by the method of just noticeable differences employed, and the values found are mostly strange close consistently. The skin sensitivity was partly strong, and partly toned down only slightly in the experimental subjects.

1) Wenn ich ein Gewicht von 3 Pfd. hebe und das Gewicht des mitgehobenen Armes auch etwa zu 3 Pfd. rechne, so scheint mir der Zuwachs von 3 Pfd. zum Armgewichte von 3 Pfd. geringer, als wenn ich zu 3 Pfd. Armgewicht mit noch 4 Pfd. daran , also zu 7 Pfd. andre 7 Pfd. Gewicht füge, ungeachtet er nach dem Gesetze nur gleich erscheinen sollte.

Text original
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XIX. v. experiments on tooth color combinations. Since the tests tooth whose (Section XVI.) Is intended in the interests of an important issue, in a little magazine spread (d Sitzungsber. Leipz. Naturalist. Gesellsch. 1874 no 3 p. 25ff) are included in on this issue but still want to be subjected to a further discussion, I share the same first with the words of the author, then for ease of understanding, in a schematic representation of, where a is the amplitude, n is the number of vibrations, of which the color dependent, is meant. The intention of the author was to the effect by means of experiments to decide on the method of just noticeable (or vanishing) difference whether if color light of a place of a different color substrate is added reinforcing, this excess (referred to by the author as to measure serving excess) may be of any color should be at its amendment (the amplitude of a confirmed Weber's lawdependent) strength. "In an appropriate distance from the lens of a publican's Astro photometer a sufficiently constant light source (kerosene lamp) was mounted, which evenly illuminates the Focalebene of the telescope, in which the lateral pipe through reflection on a glass plate creates the image of an illuminated circular opening -. They had then weaken through the front Nicol in the side pipes the image of Scheibchens until this simply ceases to be visible, and can determine the degree of attenuation in a known manner from the rotation angle -. Whether serving as measure light excess only by its (physiological) intensity did not affect the quality of its coloring, had the following result. Having before the telescope, then a yellow glass has been brought about a blue, one sees a slice on blue respectively. yellow ground in the color bright, which it Colorimetervorrichtung the (quartz plate Nicol) just granted. It is then attenuated in both cases, the discs until it just disappears, and determines the relative degree of light intensity. to the ratios of these two intensities had the of

the differently colored beams which enter the telescope, be equal, and it would always give the nämliche ratio, the color of the Scheibchens was what she wanted, if different from the hypothesis of the unrestricted validity of the Weber-Fechner law should lead to provisions of objective values. My experiments now showed the opposite. By I a blue and a yellow illuminated field of view compared with a bright yellow slices, I got a different relationship than by a blue discs for the intensities. For example, in a case: Ratio of yellow to blue, as measured by yellow: 6.47 »» »» »» »Blue: 1.69 So the former summarizes four times the latter. Ratio of green to red, measured by Green: 8.96 »» »» »» »Red: 3.08 It recognizes these differences eminent that the quality of the light colors surplus of greatest influence is on its noticeability, and thus an objective definition of qualitatively different Lichtquanta by Fechner's law is not possible. The totality of the trials made me realize clearly that those differences are based on a one-sided preference for a certain color contrasts. It can be seen, for example, even slight traces of yellow on a blue ground, and both colors do not blend to a impressions, while blue will soon no longer be recognized as a particular shade of color to yellow.Very same applies to green and red Other provisions I stated, as I removed the page from the colorimeter tube and slice through pieces of the glasses, which were brought before the lens of the telescope, colored. Here were the same differences, some more decisively out. As found, for example: Ratio of blue to yellow, as measured by yellow: 6.76 »» »» »» Blue: 2.91 »Green» Red »» Green: 7.77 »» »» »» Red: 1.05 By other provisions nor do I run at: Ratio of blue to yellow, as measured by red: 3.56 »» »» »» Yellow: 2.59 »» »» »» White 1) : 2.42

»» »» »» Blue: 1.70 »» »» » »Green: 1.09 My attempts so put it beyond doubt that in the application of different colored light surpluses no comparable measure given light source is supplied, and the concept of light intensity remains so completely undefined in the physiological sense. But one might ask whether it would not waiving performance on an objective definition at least practically similar results when a normal color (light lamp, sodium-, and the like) were to relate all measurements. This assumption is not allowed. - As I before the telescope, the photometer brought namely various smoke glasses, I received as immediately evident to, by interchanging the colorful glasses pairs of light beams whose intensities nämliche always had the money, but the absolute size of distinction. It turned out, calculated according to Weber's law from the experiments ratio highly dependent on the absolute quantity, the ratio of green to red it was, for example, measured by Green respectively. 2.4, 3.8, 7.0 times larger than the same ratio as measured by the increase in these red numbers corresponds to the decrease in light intensity as to enter from the front was expected since with increasing intensity of the colors lose saturation. My attempts not allow the precise context of the above changes, to determine also would seem in this respect results of general application can only be used as spectral colors to achieve that requires a specially designed apparatus, as well as the relative imprecision 2) the method used repeated often very extensive series of observations may be required.

light bulb. " 2) "The same was much larger than could be expected, the available data." Following the scheme of the first experimental way. 1) Once on blue ground of the unknown intensity B and andresmal on yellow background unknown to the intensity G is a yellow light slice of the unknown intensity gprojected, the intensity boost to that of the ground added occurs, so that the first case, the intensity ratio of bare ground and by the slice is reinforced bottom , second case . It is now g of Scheibchens (without changing its n attenuated) in a known relationship to the slice for the eye disappears basically, with g if at first mg, the second case to m ′ g reduced, hence reduced




2) Once on blue ground from the previous intensity B, and another time on a yellow background on the intensity of G is a blue slices of the intensity b projected and proceed as before, with the first case b to µ b , the second case to μ ′ b reduced , and consequently reduced on and on

Now you need to Weberschem laws all conditions where the disappearance takes place, be equal, thus: (1) This gives a condition for Weber's law, measured by yellow,

measured by blue. Thereafter =

whereas v. tooth was , therefore, strong inequality instead of equality.

In the last-mentioned test example, are B and G listed in the four ratios of the same attenuation factor x to think multiplied in the case of disappearance of slices basically.Depending on this was now larger or smaller, new differences between the values were and .

What I know object to the binding force of these tests completely, would be something like this: Following the discussion (. Sect XVI) could imagine that the four conditions in which all the difference Scheibchens disappeared from the bottom, in fact, not as mathematically were equal, but in different degrees below the difference threshold or threshold ratio of the total strength of the impression. And since in the experiments not both components of the difference was attenuated in the same proportion as it strictly in experiments to test the Weber's law in order to avoid disturbing influences the part modified contrast ratios of Section XI. appears necessary, it can also therefrom a disorder concerned, but must be conceded that these circumstances, it would greatly be considered such a chart mood of the results of his experiments would hardly be

made, as occurred with the so varied attempts by the author.

XX. About the question of the matrix of the psycho-physical activity. If the thickness of the perception of the intensity of psychophysical action are set in functional dependence 1) , of course, then asks which one seeks the level of psycho-physical activity itself. Now this activity is in any case to take as a process of movement, and so offers itself first as the most natural represents the degree of psychophysical activity in the living force, product of mass m in the square (or half a square) of the velocity v , which in the motion process is designed to look, but it makes the same remark contends that, in the case of the admissibility of our psychophysical formulas both the mass and the square power of speed to eliminate it. Because we believe in the fundamental formula and measurement formula mv 2 for β , mv 2 as the threshold of mv 2 for b, then goes on to , and in , the coefficient 2 but flows with constant coefficients K or k together. Also the sign of the velocity, whether it has one or the opposite direction, is eliminated by the same sign in the numerator and denominator of our expression occurs, and so it is only the absolute value of the velocity in consideration. So the measure of psychophysical activity could also just in the developed therein, and hereby looking for simple speed v to its absolute values for β are substituted into the formulas.

The view of Amber, that the sensation is rather to depend on the existence of the disappearance as a living force, is Section XV. thought. Fundamentals now you will go back to the velocity at a given point in a given moment in mathematical treatment of sensation measure and thereof as have to make the element of a sensation depends on the dimensions of elementary psycho-physical activity; thereafter, however, because in reality we neither elementary speeds even elementary can observe sensations, the sum of the speeds, which develops in a finite time, at a given number of points to be determined by integration of the basic speed and therefrom the sensation developed during the same time by the same points functionally related for purposes of experience have to make, as the example of a simple oscillation in the elem i. Chapter II have tried to show 32nd

From other side, you know (Elem. II 166) that the kinetic energy of vibrations go right for a given time, the sum of mv 2 proportional to a 2 n 2 , in which A is the amplitude,n is the number of oscillations . After this, you in applying our formulas on psycho-physical oscillations, β = a 2 n 2 or, if the potency eliminated, = at can put, provided that is to be found in simple measurements of the speed really the elementary level of psycho-physical activity, what will be the case when this condition corresponds to the facts of observation sufficiently. But there is the possibility of such acceptance the other, and perhaps more likely to be acceptance to (Elem. II 223 235), that instead of absolute velocities changes the speed, which I probably call secondorder velocities, and short with υ denote as Elementarmaß psychophysical activity for β were to substitute our formulas to however make the Elementarmaß of sensation-dependent and a component linked to vibrations from there by summation (integration) to the extent of being able to go on observable sensation. According to the hypothesis of v to speak brevity as to sensation would even build on psychophysical movements of constant speed above the threshold, according to the hypothesis of υ only on movements, provided that they include changes in speed, which condition vibrational motions generally excellent match. 2) In so far, however, we assume that the psychophysical movements really have the nature of vibrations, it is indifferent to the proportions of the dependent feelings, if we for β the kinetic energy mv 2 or single speed v and the speed changes υ set, so long as the rapidity of the oscillations of n , that is the pitch of sound, color of the light is constant and the shape of the vibration is the same.


Circular vibrations certainly go a constant speed on, but could such, if TO PROMOTION in us, at least in so far be carriers of sensation as the general psycho-physical activity, which is subject to our consciousness, conceived as oscillatory, composed it and thereby alters. Furthermore, do not readily assume that outer circular vibrations also cause such in us. Consequently, the changes in the intensity of the sensation merely changes the amplitude a is dependent on the speed by the changes go in each vibration then is developed at each moment speeds even simply proportional, with a doubling of the amplitude of a torque at the same time ie, in any v and υ doubled, the relationship to the simple speed and the kinetic energy as a measure of psycho-physical activity but angegebenermaßen leads to the same results.

Where, however, n is independent of a change, the proportionality of the change goes from υ to v in every moment lost, and makes it, I think, in the summation of all the sensations a difference if you are in, the elements of the psychophysical related activity and sensation, formulas, v or υ to β substituted. In fact, I've been in Elem. II 218th223 demonstrated that the v is the intensity of a component linked to the hypothesis of the simplest waveform sensation proportional lied to, but proportionally log according to the hypothesis of v to 2 to accept, and in our formulas for sensations of finite size on simple vibrations establish, after first hypothesis to, after the second of 2 for β is to be substituted. Like this: We only put forward, the sensation of hanging v from, and assume that each value of v , of a certain threshold b exceeds give a positive contribution to sensation, which is linked to a whole simple rectilinear vibration, then the sensation element γ ∂ t , which during the time element ∂ t be taking place, given the basis of the mass formula by

v but is a known formula

wherein a is the amplitude, τ the oscillation period t from the elapsed time to the beginning of the oscillation, π Ludolf the number or half circumference when the radius = 1 The developed during a complete oscillation Empflndungssumme S τ is hereafter

= K (P + Q) Is found by integrating , therefore

Assume now that the sensation rather of υ depends on the meaning of

the measurement formula, and let b , the threshold value of υ in the above sense is

υ but hereafter, by means of equal treatment,

Since τ is inversely proportional to the oscillation number n, as can be seen in these formulas for τ set .

This now makes the following difference in the experience. Where a change in both a as n but the product both on, therefore, the living force a ² n ² remains the same by itself a and n change in inverse proportion to each other, there remains after the first hypothesis, the intensity of the sensation equal, whereas according to the second hypothesis, nevertheless, that on or a ² n ² remains the same, but the intensity of the sensation, as measured by log of 2 = log to + log n , the more grows, the more n grows, so eg if the same string, once stretched weak, the strong anderemal curious is struck with the same kinetic energy, thus also oscillates with the same kinetic energy, but the higher tone of the first still to be heard from a greater distance, than the sound of the the latter, however, after he v if both at the same distance must be inaudible hypothesis. Now all the tests with oscillatory stimuli that lead to probation of Weber's law, really hired under such circumstances that only a but not n changes, the light attempts namely with white light or with colors light the same way that sound experiments with sound intensities without specific height at all, and such attempts so can not decide the question of whether we have to apply the basic measure of psychophysical activity contrary to absolute rates or changes in speed. Assuming, however, that, guided only for the simplest case of vibrations, but also account for composite, as they occur in reality, find an approximate minimum application is now possible to take control of the decision trials. The really employed by me in this sense, attempts (174 Elem. II 560 ff) have been able to bring about the hoped for a decision not to be eliminated, not disorder. Here against this decision is likely by experiments with the siren of Helmholtz (d doctrine of Tonempfind. 1st edition Section IX. P. 263) and JJ Müller 3) (Ber. d sächs Soc. 1871 p. 119} in favor of the form of ² prior to and hereby in favor of the Υ -hypothesis of v be given

hypothesis I can not say that the substitution of however. at 2to β keep our formulas with each oscillation the composition and mode shape their validity; also to be taken into consideration that the observations can be made only to vibrations except for our eyes and ears, without our transmission thereof may assert the inner in the same composition and form, such as even a simple objective tone but with the appropriate tone harmonic overtones and internally triggers a homogeneous ink-jet should elicit a composition of color vibrations internally with the comments already made. Briefly, here's a far dark field for future investigations.


By Müller in the mass formula for β the kinetic energy of the oscillations of a 2 n 2 substituted, it is through the success of these experiments led to assume that k and b for different pitches have different values, k zunehme during ascent in the tone scale, b pick up. Substituting for β instead of ² , so falls the coercion, such variability of k and b to take away. In so far as the substitutability of at 2 for β should be permissible in our formulas, the expression of Weber's law in the fundamental formula would make that.

So the Konstatierung of Weber's law with respect to the overall strength or intensity, in fact, the mere observation of the changes of a can only happen if n is constant and therefore ∂ n = 0, or to the mere change of n when a constant and therefore ∂ a = 0, but also in substituting in place of ² are the same here by simply entering.

If future experiments for the case of the variation of n with constancy of a of, demanded by Weber's law constant of ∂ γ at Constance of not sufficiently reflect what can be expected to say anything until now, the reason either would have to be sought in the fact that the , applicable to the simplest vibrations laws on the type oscillations, which are drawn to the experiments find no sufficient application, or it would have to be changed in the previous basic views on the degree of psycho-physical activity something that I do not beifällt, but what it the cogency of Weber's law for the case of Constance before n at constancy of a consist could.

XXI. Resumé. 1) Against this, of me in the Elem. psychophysics established principle of sensation measure due to the functional dependence of the sensation of stimuli, has been to my knowledge at least, until now where no express principled objection, but the objections begin with the question of what law dependence is to be here as a basis by Depending on the nature of the same, the measure itself must change, and continue to question whether the from experiments (in the outer psychophysics) exploitable dependence of the sensation of stimuli into a corresponding dependency of the perception of the psycho-physical activity (for inner psychophysics ) is translatable (Section I). 2) From myself Weber's law (Section II) is primarily related to foreign and own experimental studies of the dependence of perception differences in the relative stimulus differences as a basis and from this by consultation of the threshold law (Section II) for the dependence of the sensation itself from the logarithmic Maßgesetz stimuli were derived with even some other laws result in a mathematical way, but in a concession that the former law, Weber's, to experimental (ie with respect to external stimuli) only approximately, and within certain limits (Section II) especially within the limits of ordinary sense use, certify, not even for the whole of psychophysics eye to comprehensive, field find unlimited application. 3) I have such a concession XVI in sections., XVII. and XVIII. presented to the probation that have been shown in particular with regard to the perception of differences in light intensity, sound volume, weight, size and strength of taste stimuli with respect to the Weber's law. Although the experiments of Helmholtz and Aubert (Chapter XVI.) Suggests that the approximation of Weber's law in the sphere of sensation of light appear not as great as it appeared to the other previous attempts, but did not pick up, and the attempts Delboeufs (Chapter XVII grant.) and Dobrowolskys (Chapter XVI.) so beautiful confirmations of the law in this area, however, herring weight tests (SectionXVIII. ), although claimed by him against the law, are to under the required consideration acquisitions with my earlier united support of the law (Section XVI.) no less Keppler taste tests, properly discussed, speak in favor of the same. 4) It can Weber's law in a certain generality and safety are at all related only to differences in intensity of feeling, unless extensive spatial sensations same only under a certain hypothetical condition (Section VII) can be subordinated, and extensive time sensations while an approximation to it but with a very strong deviation from lower offer (section XVI.). That Weber's law does not apply to color differences, is conceded already in the elements and makes adjustments to certain of the

new attempts of Lamansky and Dobrowolsky out (Chapter XVI.), While the more recent trials Preyer the same, contrary to the previous assumption, appear inapplicable on pitch differences can be (section XVI.). Whether it's about the 'amplitude of a wave number and n zutreffe also dependent total strength of feeling, still remains in question by the recent confirmations significantly only to changes of a near Constance of n have received XVI (section., and Section XIX. ). 5) After everything remains just as certain that Weber's law with its follow-laws within certain limits, in a majority of sensation areas, provide a useful indication for the assessment of the dimensions of sensation due to their dependence on the stimuli can but that there is no such over certain limits and grant application in on how any area can. Over here no dispute ought to be, if the dispute has already extends to this. One can argue only about the degree and the limits of experimental approximation of the law and the reasons for his deviations, without neither those nor to put them in agreement. 6) The fact that Weber's law is incorrect inferred from the facts, and that the same a confused conception of the conditions of the outside world would emerge, as particular claims of herring is just concede as little (Section V and VII), as to give legal objections which have been the same, raised against the negative Empfmdungswerte, which are inherent in the measurement formula, or against my interpretation of particular Delbceuf and Langer (Section X). 7) It is predicated that the interest of the knowledge of a functional relationship between stimulus and sensation not only on the availability of the same to a degree of sensation, but a much deeper, engaging in the general theory of the relationship between body and soul, interest builds on itself the second main question, insofar as the, drawn from experiments, knowledge of this relationship Anhalt inferences about the functional relationship between the sensation and her immediate subject, psychophysical activity, herewith the fundamental dependence of the mental from the physical, are. 8) I even now suppose that not only the emerging law of the outer psychophysics was transferred into the inner, but also that the relationship between external stimulus and sensation only approximate and within certain limits, be entertaining for the outer psychophysics, ie, validity of Weber's Law and the following from him and the threshold laws Maßgesetzes in an accurate and unrestricted validity of the same in the inner psychophysics, ie the relationship of sensation to the company directly underlying psycho-physical activities, references, hence the sensation as a logarithmic function of the psychophysical activity stand, but the experimental deviations due to causes which the proportionality of inner psycho-physical activity related to the stimuli more so

demolition, the higher the stimulus over medium boundaries increases, or the deeper it sinks below (Section V). Contrary to (the part Mach, herring, etc.) the view that sensation depends rather in simple ratios of the psycho-physical activity, and that the experimental approximation to Weber's law rather depended on that in the same limit, in which the Law is approximate the psycho-physical activity approximated a logarithmic ratios is dependent on stimuli (Section VIII). I have stated the reasons (in section VIII), which make me prefer decided the first view, but without believing that the dispute was therefore dismissed. 9) Depending on one or other of the two previous assumptions, the whole inner psychophysics must make different, and especially comes into consideration that with the adoption of a simple proportionality between perception and psychophysical activity, thus an internal threshold is removed, an adequate representation of the unconscious mental life would be missing. The importance of the question of the transferability of the threshold inside of this point is discussed, and the factual reasons which speak for this transferability, are in Section IX. asserted. 10) It still wonders how the basic dimension of psycho-physical activity is to be determined. In Section XX . has been shown that when the focus of the living force of the movement is, assuming the validity of our formulas and the simple velocity can be substituted for it. But perhaps the mental activities are to make of the rather fundamental changes in speed than the speed in terms of our simple formulas dependent, in which case occur considerations in the XX. Section are brought to bear, according to the latter view has overwhelming probability. 11) Between the Oszillationshypothese and chemical hypothesis of psycho-physical activity in itself no contradiction, only that I (unlike herring) in chemical processes can only see the mediator of oscillations, of which the sensations make themselves dependent (Section XIII.) . The difference view of sensations, a feeling which can exist only in the differences of others feelings, I can not share (Chapter XII.). 12) vote instead of, prepared by me, psycho-physical laws and formulas have been established by Helmholtz, Aubert, amber, plateau, Brentano, Delbceuf, herring, Langer other, which, however, generally speaking, much less among themselves than with mine . Helmholtz's formulas are basically just an extension of my own, if they take the upper deviation from Weber's law in itself, the situated by Aubert law is found by himself only as to a certain extent approximate true and both formulas only for the outer psychophysics in claim be made. Which substantially compromised with each other, laws that are set up by Plateau and Brentano, already show thus poor that they do not give place

to the threshold laws, and do after plateau private concession in that they have found through Delboeufs attempts no confirmation ( Section IV). The Langer's formulas are different from the point of view from mine, I can find neither theoretically nor empirically duly justified in (Section IV and X). The longest development the part of its authors have so far found of mine fundamentally different basic views of amber, Delbceuf and herring. The presentation of these views with my counterarguments against can be found with respect to Bernstein (Section IV and Section XV.) Delbceuf respect and respect herring (Section XIV).

2) Von mir selbst ist in erster Beziehung nach fremden und eigenen Experimentaluntersuchungen für die Abhängigkeit der Empfindungsunterschiede vom relativen Reizunterschiede das Webersche Gesetz (Abschn. II.) zu Grunde gelegt und daraus unter Zuziehung des Schwellengesetzes (Abschn. II.) für die Abhängigkeit der Empfindung selbst vom Reize das logarithmische Maßgesetz (Abschn. II.) mit noch einigen anderen Folgegesetzen in mathematischem Wege abgeleitet worden, jedoch unter Zugeständnis, daß ersteres Gesetz, das Webersche, sich experimental (also bezüglich äußerer Reize) nur approximativ und in gewissen Grenzen, namentlich in den Grenzen des gewöhnlichen Sinnengebrauches, bestätige, auch nicht für das ganze, von der Psychophysik ins Auge zu fassende, Gebiet unbeschränkte Anwendung finde.

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XXII. Epilogue.

The Tower of Babel was not completed because the workmen could not agree how they should build it, and my psycho-physical structure is likely to continue because the workmen will not be able to communicate, how to tear it.

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