APA Referencing Guide

This guide gives examples of one way of setting out references for an assignment. The APA style is detailed in the following manual, which contains many more examples. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (5th ed.). (2001). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. R & InfoHelp 150.149 AME 2001 Please contact InfoHelp if if you have any comments or suggestions.

Examples of types of printed references
Book Reference Bibliographic details are given as follows: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year of publication). Title of book: Subtitle. (Edition [if not first]). Place of publication: Publisher. Examples: Book with single author Reynolds, H. (2000). Black pioneers. Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin. Book with multiple authors Two to six authors Gilbert, R., & Gilbert, P. (1998). Masculinity goes to school. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. More than six authors After the sixth author's name and initials, use et al. to indicate the remaining authors. Book with editor(s) Broinowski, A. (Ed.). (1990). ASEAN into the 1990s. London: Macmillan. Nugent, S.L., Shore, C. (Eds.). (1997). Anthropology and cultural studies. London: Pluto Press. Book, author not known Longman dictionary of the English language. (1984). Harlow, Essex: Longman. Book with author and editor Valéry, P. (1957). Oeuvres (J. Hytier, Ed.). Paris: Gallimard. Book other than first edition Goudie, A. (2000). The human impact on the natural environment. (5th ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. Book with more than one volume Corsini, R.J. (Ed.). (1994). Encyclopedia of psychology (4 vols). New York: J. Wiley & Sons. Topliss, H. (1985). Tom Roberts 1856 - 1931: A catalogue raisonné: Vol.2. Plates. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Book with corporate author Dames & Moore. (1995). Environmental management plan: Townsville Field Training

Chapter or Article in a Book Bibliographic details are given as follows Author's surname. Journal Article Bibliographic details are given as follows Author's surname.).). (1992). 8731. 2000) (Some group authors would be written in full every time. (pp.xx-yy).Area. Thousand Oaks. 9(2). Inside looking out. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press. J. (pp. (year of publication). Examples Fontana. Beck. L. Sedimentary history of the Pandora wreck and surrounds. 380-382). 361-376). (1998). Queensland Health. 1. & Seymour. University of Sydney) Further Examples Two entries by same author. K. The Courier Mail. 3.g. 22-34). Australian Bureau of Statisitcs. (Ed. 2000) Subsequent text citations: (ABS. London: 2 . In D. 65-68.0). Title of chapter: Subtitle. CA: Sage. Newspaper article Lawlor. (pp. (year of publication). July 20). Title of Journal. In Editor/s (Ed/s. The encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia: Vol. (2000. Food processing. September 20). Trapping the papaya fruit fly in north Queensland. Brisbane: Author. & Frey. (1996). (No. J.). Melbourne. Thorpe. Interviewing: The art of science. Lincoln (Eds. Government Publication Queensland. Building approvals Australia. 83-93).. Handbook of qualitative research. G. Brisbane: Author. Unpublished master's thesis. In N. Thesis Ward. same date Allan. volume number (issue number). Townsville. S. Port Melbourne: D. Education in Rural Australia. W. I. initials. Uses of video recording in an institution. (1994). page numbers. Title of article. James Cook University. Title of book. Examples Journal article Rogers. Video applications in English language teaching (pp. Towards a women's health policy: Social justice for women.W. Abbott. (1994). A. initials. In Claiming a place: Proceedings from the Third National Conference of the Children's Book Council of Australia (pp.). (1999). A. M. Conference Papers Gleeson. Paper presented at the Australian Entomological Society Conference. (1983a). Phoenician 'find' makes textbooks ancient history. Denzin & Y. Place of publication: Publisher's name.Horton (Ed. Reflections on teaching remote and isolated children. In-text citation: First text citation: (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS]. In McGovern. (1994). Canberra: Author.. e. p. (1997. J.

C. S. 14. from Expanded Academic ASAP database. 23-27. telephone conversation. personal communications are not included in the reference list. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Journal of Comparative Family Studies. S. Australian Feminist Studies. A. (2001. Retrieved August 30. Influences on achievement in literacy and numeracy. (1999). 2002) (R. A trip to the zoo: Children's words and photographs. 2001. M. 2001) Abstract Ludwig. (1999). 2007. interviews. (2000). M. J. from NetLibrary: http://www. A behavioral analysis of dreaming. ELT Journal. In-text citation: Dixon and Hayes (1999) or (Dixon & Hayes. 2000) Electronic References Electronic sources include databases. N. 1997.. Immigrant families in Australia. The care of wounds: A guide for nurses. Internet publication based on a print source (for journal articles. 70.g. Retrieved August 30. (1996).uiuc. see above) Rothman. 1995. 1999) Internet article based on a print source Sherry. 3 . Spring). Early Childhood Research and Practice. Building the bridge: Taking feminism into the twenty-first century [Electronic version]. J. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research. 605-612. personal communication. (2003). 3(1). Abstract obtained from Multicultural Education Abstracts. D.com Journal article retrieved from an aggregated database Dixon. In-text citation: Sherry (2000) or (Sherry. [Electronic version]. Because they don't provide recoverable data. email. Psychological Record. L. R. 95M/064. 291-315. Abstract retrieved January 25.edu/v3n1/demarie. Jones (personal communication. & McMillan. Abstract No. 24. Viewing comprehension with video. Preschool children's cognitive styles and their social orientations. July 23.netlibrary. Perceptual and Motor Skills. online journals. from http://ecrp. D. 2001. (1983b). Work with multiple authors Follow the same rules for journals and other works as for Book with Multiple Authors. letters. e. Web sites or Web pages. from PsycINFO database. 49. Cite in text only.. Brown. 221-226. 15. See also Citing Electronic References E-Books NetLibrary: Online book previously published in print Dealey. Personal communication For example. April 4. Retrieved August 24. Abstract Collins. Allan.html In-text citation: DeMarie (2001) or (DeMarie. 37(1).Pergamon. J. & Hayes. newsgroups. 915-921. M. (1993). 2000) Article in an internet-only journal DeMarie. email discussion groups. memos.

Loi. (2003. IL. 2002.gov. (2002). e. week 12 notes. On Tap Root Manuscript [Record]. Quoting directly from someone else When you borrow or quote someone else's words. You should include the author. methodologies and research techniques reflect their social origins" (Hayes. Audiovisual References: Examples York. N. M. 1996 census of population and housing: Northern (Statistical Division) Queensland. M. Lecture Notes Bond. 2005. [Illustration]. from the Australian Bureau of Statistics site. (ED476429). 2005. (Producer).jcu..html In-text citation: The Mariner 2002 (2002) or (The Mariner 2002.W. K. (Writer/Director). Retrieved 3 April. year and sometimes the page number.au Conference paper online / ERIC document Schafer. 2001) Emails sent from one individual to another are cited as a personal communication.g. and see exactly where you found your information. from James Cook University Web site: http://www. F.S. Retrieved July 17. ED1401: Childhood and adolescence.edu. & Lonergan. You can count on me [Motion picture]. Cracklin' Rosie. N. 2002) Information from a website Australian Bureau of Statistics. p. the quote is usually placed in quotation marks. [Word document]. Northern and Italian renaissance [Msg 13].au Message posted to a group Smith. (2004). M. (1990). CA: MCA. 2004. [Data file]. (1970). Bateman's Bay. Children's songs of the Torres Strait Islands [Cassette recording]. M. United States: Paramount Pictures. Retrieved May 3. from http://learnjcu2004. 53).edu.abs. from ERIC database. This is reflected in the idea that "schools of thought. Scorsese. (2000). 4 . T. Chicago. Green tree frogs. Diamond. you need to acknowledge it in the text.google. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Environment. (1997). (2001. Retrieved February 23.misc/message13 In-text citation: Smith (2001) or (Smith. A. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education. In text citation: Include side and band or track numbers. (2000).Web page The Mariner 2002: Undergraduate student information.au/school/ns/Notices/General/Mariner/Contents. & Moody. Universal City. March 11). The person reading your essay can then refer to the bibliography/reference list at the end. Designing accountability assessments for teaching .jcu. Citing in the Text When you include information from another source in your essay. Emails to groups may also be treated this way. 1995. April 22). Message posted to http://groups.com/groups/humanities. http://www.: Owen Martin. M-A.

Olsen would be listed in the reference list from this example. always cite both names every time. four or five authors. children. you still must give them the credit. you don't need to use quotation marks. and boys in particular. Inheritance. Use the words 'cited in' which means 'mentioned in'. . 59) Source not quoted exactly as it was written Sometimes you might paraphrase or summarise another author's ideas to back up your own statements. In this case... (Muspratt.. (1997) found that … [Subsequent first citation in paragraph] Muspratt et al. Schwarz (1999) questions the use of surveys as measurement devices. Luke and Freebody (1997) found that… [First citation in text] Muspratt et al. (Gittins. Quoting something that someone else has quoted Sometimes in your reading you might come across a quote in another author's article that would be suitable to use. followed by et al. are and have been crucial . If that isn't possible. It is argued by Bazzaz (1996) that comparative research in several ecosystems will lead to an understanding of succession as an ecological process. cite only the surname of the first author. the best idea is to try and find the original quote to examine the context in which it was written. and the page of the citation you are quoting from. Citing Electronic References: See Electronic Reference examples Footnotes Footnotes are usually an elaboration of an afterthought on some aspect of the text or they provide further information which would interrupt the flow of the text if placed in the body of the text. Remember though. One Work by Multiple Authors If a work has two authors. If a work has three. (Griffiths & Clyne. e. and have been. 1999. p. found that… [Subsequent citations in same paragraph] If a work has six or more authors. 5 . For those with wealth and land.e. If you decide to include a footnote. Wembley (1997..g.. place it at the bottom of the page and separate it by a ruled line from the main text. Include the author and year of both texts. and the year if it is the first citation in the paragraph. p. there are special rules for 'quoting a quote'. economically important to adults/parents in several ways. or course.1998. In this case. Children are. has also been of central political importance. 156) argues that impending fuel shortages give added impetus to developing alternative energy sources.if any words are omitted. i. cited in Olsen. 1997) Muspratt.. and the year for all citations..Using a very long quote If it is a very long quote (more than 40 words). Often you are not quoting them directly. many of the wars that raged through medieval Europe focused on contested inheritance of lands and kingdoms. 1988) Griffiths and Clyne (1988) stated that . as heirs. After that include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. you can place it in a free-standing indented paragraph starting on a new line. Insert three full stops . cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. In your reference list or bibliography you only include the text that you yourself have read.. Luke & Freebody. if you are using their ideas or data.

325 Written by Cathy Yellowlees for Information and Research Support. October 2005. [See APA Manual p. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively through the text. within the Information Services program of the Academic Support Division at James Cook University. 6 .A superscript number in the text will be used to reference the footnote at the bottom of the page.

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