An Experimental Study on Engine Dynamics Model Based In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation
Gehan A. J. Amaratunga and Nick Collings
University of Cambridge
University of North Carolina Charlotte
Copyright © 2012 SAE International doi:10.4271/2012-01-0896
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation. The major difficulties, including load torque estimation and separation of pressure profile from adjacent-firing cylinders, are addressed in this work and solutions to each problem are given respectively. The experimental results conducted on a multi-cylinder diesel engine have shown that the proposed method successfully estimate a more accurate cylinder pressure over a wider range of crankshaft angles.
direct measure of engine performance and combustion process. This information allows several engine monitoring and control capabilities [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16]. The reliability and cost of cylinder pressure sensors is the driver for using estimation techniques to indirectly obtain the cylinder pressure value. They have the potential to make available cylinder pressure data with reasonable accuracy and no extra hardware cost. The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive and practical method, based on the crank shaft dynamic model, to estimate in-cylinder pressure, emphasizing the feasibility and practicability for the real-time online implementation. This paper firstly reviews the major investigations on the incylinder pressure estimation research in recent years. Then different dynamics model structures are examined and their complexity and applicability are compared. A discrete-time transformed form of the rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total crankshaft torque estimation. Individual torque component analysis to facilitate the extraction of gas torque from total torque is then presented. Due to the limited capability of the rigid-body dynamic model in handling the complicated crankshaft speed fluctuation, a process to pre-filter the measured speed signal is found effective to alleviate the limitation. A practical method to estimate the friction and load torque is also proposed based on the characteristics of the instantaneous torque profile during the engine cycle. To further improve the
In-cylinder pressure data provides extremely valuable information for engine control as it is an instantaneous and
In later research.11. torque and speed [29.5. who proposed a physical model for the transfer behaviour from pressure to structure-borne sound and an identification method for the unknown system parameters. Cavina et al.estimation result.8. The later investigation by Lee et al. This is similar to the observation made by Wagner and Bohme . The rigid-body and multi degree-of-freedom models were also compared in the context of predicting in-cylinder pressure. hence theoretically it's feasible to derive an analytic expression to connect the time-domain crankshaft motion and external excitements including in-cylinder pressure and other torques sources. The use of a non-linear observer. and then followed by the conclusion remark. In the works of Schagerberg et al [31. frequency-domain analysis was recognized as a useful tool to extract the periodic components in the incylinder pressure and indicated torque based on the cyclic nature of engine operation. are attractive as they have the potential to make cylinder pressure data available with reasonable accuracy and no extra hardware cost. which is well suited for real-time implementation due to its low computational cost . It is based on using a simplified torsional vibration model to extract the instantaneous torque from the flywheel speed fluctuation measurement and convert to IMEP by considering each of the action torque components.3.12. the software-based pressure estimation techniques. Guezennec proposed an in-cylinder pressure stochastic estimator based on polynomial form fitting. Then the indicated torque is derived through the correction of mass torque caused by reciprocating components and friction loss. the gas pressure can be readily obtained by utilizing the engine geometry relationship. Rizzoni and Connolly 
proposed a mapping relationship between speed and torque at each engine firing harmonic order in the frequency domain. The test result and quantitative error evaluation is detailed in this paper. Inspired by constructing a statistical correlation function to avoid the complexities of the actual physical system. has also been experimented in the crankshaft speed based torque estimation [21. First. One of the earliest efforts made on developing the engine dynamic model to allow crankshaft speed based torque estimation was carried out by Rizzoni. revealed a better coherence can be obtained through speed fluctuation and cylinder pressure or indicated torque .32. such as: • Torque-on-demand engine control algorithm • Onboard real-time combustion diagnostics • Individual cylinder spark timing control • Air-fuel balancing between cylinders Currently the hardware cost of adding such in-cylinder pressure sensors limits its availability for production applications .33]. 38]. Other research in the area includes the works of Li et al [35. This method physically correlates the torque excitation and resultant speed variation through engine mechanical dynamic.
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. In this study the engine dynamic model based estimation is chosen as the basis for the investigation on in-cylinder pressure estimation. particularly the sliding mode observer. due to its advantage of directing the estimation process by a physical deterministic model while requiring minimal level calibration effort.14.15. In-cylinder pressure and the associated indicated torque estimation has been a subject of active research since the 1980s and promising progress has been reported. validated the existence of coherence between the engine block vibration and pressure due to periodic engine firing and that only 2nd and 4th order pressure variables are sufficient to reconstruct the mean indicated torque .9.2. They further obtained an empirical correlation between mean component and first order component of the indicated torque. Once the indicated torque. as an alternative way to measure incylinder pressure. A simplified lumped-mass model and frequency-domain analysis was used by Taraza to obtain the statistical correlation between amplitude and phase of the same harmonic components of gas pressure.10.7. is solved for through this model by using the available crankshaft speed measurement. Therefore. 30]. Apart from using engine dynamics to correlate the pressure and speed.16]. the net torque is obtained by using an engine dynamic and measured instantaneous crankshaft speed. a more complicated multi degree-of-freedom engine dynamic model was used to estimate in-cylinder pressure by utilizing a crankshaft integrated torque sensor. The mechanical dynamics model is also a self-contained and naturally
.6. an isentropic-process-based correction technique and a combustion-progress based pressure reconstruction over TDC region are also proposed. who introduces a two-step procedure to estimate indicated torque . assuming the crankshaft dynamics as a constant linear system. This method has been experimentally applied on a multi-cylinder diesel engine test. Another approach utilizing the engine dynamic models to estimate Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) was introduced by Lida and Akishino . one of the main external excitements on the crankshaft dynamics.13. An adequately accurate signal of cylinder pressure is the prerequisite condition for many promising engine closed-loop control systems [1. 36].4. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability.
the dynamic equation of each lumped mass can be readily established. Figure 1. and θ. mass. stiffness and damping matrices respectively. The torque items. . in nature is a structural component with the distributed mass and elasticity. This can lead to significant reduction of calibration effort and hence is an obvious advantage over other estimation techniques. K is rotational stiffness between two adjacent crankshaft inertias. length etc that remain essentially constant under most conditions. The moment of inertia of the crankshaft has been lumped and separated into 7 pieces denoted by J0 to J6 and each of which has its own angular position and speed variables. it is able to model the
. The rigid-body model (single degree-of-freedom) and multibody model (multiple degrees-of-freedom) are most often used among the lumped mass models. An example of 7 degrees-of-freedom 4-cylinder crankshaft dynamics is depicted in Figure 1. Tmass. In past research such models have been used to investigate and predict the behaviour of the engine mechanical system. K and C are symmetric matrices and referred to as inertia. The general dynamic equation of the multi-body model can be expressed in the matrix state-space form by combining all lumped mass equations as:
Eq. like other mechanical components. The common alternative to simplify this complexity is to discretize the continuous system into a finite set of rigid bodies that are interconnected with springs and dampers. known as the lumped-mass model.adaptive for different engine operation conditions. As it allows relative motion between pieces of lumped-mass on the crankshaft. since most of its parameters are the physical structural constant such as inertia of moment. with the cylinder pressure or individual cylinder torque as the input to the model and crankshaft motion or other engine dynamic states as the model output. where the former is the further simplified result from the latter by lumping all the masses together to preserve only one degree-of-freedom for crankshaft speed. are the vectors of all inertias' angular position. Tfriction. Tgas. The torque items are the sums of all cylinder action torques. T1 to T4 are each cylinder's excitation torque acting on the crankshaft and Tload is the load torque opposing the cylinder torques. J. By Newton's 2nd law. …6. friction torque Tfriction and mass torque Tmass. J1 to J4 is the inertia of each crank throw corresponding to one cylinder plus the rotation part (big end) of connecting rod. It is intrinsically dependent on crank angle. expressed by θ0…6. allowing the deformation analysis on the crankshaft. Tload are also in their matrix forms representing vectors of all cylinder individual torques. which is impractical to employ in fast online processing application. J5 is the flywheel inertia and J6 is drivetrain inertia. speed and acceleration respectively. The multi-body model forms a Multi-In-Single-Out (MISO) system. The excitation torque of each cylinder mainly consists of gas pressure torque Tgas.1 Where all the variables are in their matrix forms. The mass torque is due to the reciprocating moving parts of the dynamics system. the corresponding single degree-of-freedom rigid-body model could be derived as:
Eq. which will be further discussed in later section. The accurate modelling of its dynamics behaviour requires a continuous distributed system model that could have an infinite number of degrees of freedom.2 Where J is the total inertia of crankshaft and all the variables are in the scalar form.
ENGINE CRANKSHAFT DYNAMIC MODELING
The crankshaft. such as engine body. such as piston assembly and reciprocating part (small end) of connecting rod. If all the inertias in Figure 1 are further lumped together. J0 is total inertia of the vibration damper and other auxiliaries of the crankshaft on its free end. its first and second derivatives (speed and acceleration). Crel is relative friction between two adjacent inertias and Cabs is the absolute friction between the inertia and the non-rotating reference. The 7-DOF lumped-mass crankshaft dynamic model of a 4 cylinder in-line engine.
which is naturally present in crankshaft speed signal due to the crankshaft elasticity.5.torsional vibration. where denotes the instantaneous crankshaft speed at crankshaft angle θ. Finally the gas torque can be converted into in-cylinder gas pressure by the deterministic engine geometry relationship. by estimating and subtracting other torque components from the total torque. This represents a Single-In-Single-Out (SISO) system. Then the gas torque will be extracted. certain shortcomings of such rigid body model can be overcome and thus make it feasible to estimate in-cylinder pressure for multi-cylinder engines.
Eq. 1 crank angle degree (CAD) is chosen as the Δθ interval. Equation 3 shows the left side of the integration.
ESTIMATION OF THE TORQUE COMPONENTS
Figure 2 shows the flowchart of the proposed estimation algorithm. The advantage of the rigid body model is that.4 the complete discrete-time model form is obtained in Eq.2 because the acceleration value is not generally immediately available from direct measurement and can introduce large numerical error when attempt to derive it using the data of limited sampling rate. The instantaneous crankshaft speed is derived from the timestamp of the
Eq.5 This derived model shows the direct connection between instantaneous crankshaft speed change and total torque acting on the crankshaft.2 over Δθ crank angle can eliminate this acceleration term and also convert the model into discrete-type form. either in time domain or in crankshaft angle position domain.
Figure 2.2 into a discretetime form. in this case the multi-cylinder engine is in fact simplified into a virtual single-cylinder engine that has multi-firing within one engine cycle.3 Equation 4 shows the right side of the integration. In this study. it is necessary to discretize the continuous-time model presented in Eq.
Combining Eq. max torque rated 325 Nm at 1800 rpm). However. which represents the kinetic energy change of the crankshaft during this Δθ interval. This method will first estimate the total torque exerted on the crankshaft. As will be described later. which denotes the work done by the torque during the same crank angle interval. For the online application. The instantaneous torque at this specific crank angle is assumed nearly constant when the Δθ interval is sufficiently small. which is much easier to inversely solve the dynamics to estimate indicated torque and in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed signal. it can be difficult to separate each cylinder's contribution. It serves as the basis for the torque and pressure estimation.4
.0-liter 4-cylinder 16-valve common rail diesel engine (max power rated 97 kW at 3800 rpm. The flowchart of the estimation algorithm The experimental data presented in this work is collected from a production type 2.
Eq. Integrating both sides of Eq. since all the signals are measured at discrete-time sampling steps. when attempt to invert such a model to estimate the individual incylinder pressure from the single signal of crankshaft speed. with the aid of signal processing technique and the appropriate method to separate individual cylinder torque contribution. it is desired to substitute the acceleration term in Eq. Also.3 and Eq.
Test condition: 1500rpm. A Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter with 18-harmonic order cut-off frequency was implemented in this work. it is difficult to observe the cyclic nature of crankshaft torque profile from such plot. However. . Figure 4. is shown in Figure 3. A charge amplifier converts the charge amount into a voltage signal that will be measured by the data acquisition system. Measured instantaneous crankshaft speed and derived speed square change in one engine cycle. Filtered instantaneous crankshaft speed and derived speed square change.crankshaft angular position measurement at the rate of 1 CAD per sample. The value of the instantaneous crankshaft speed square change. which is caused by the elasticity and damping properties of the actual crankshaft. 40%load. One example of the measured instantaneous crankshaft speed signal and such directly-calculated term. 6 The inertia value for the tested engine. is separate from the low end of the frequency spectral. the torsional vibration. The effect of filtering is shown in Figure 5. J. A digital low-pass filter is found effective to separate the higher order torsional vibration components from the lower frequency ones that are of interest. As handling such higher frequency torsional vibration is beyond the capability of the rigid-body model.5 in following form gives the total torque estimator: Figure 3. Test condition: 1500rpm. there is significant portion of higher frequency components that overlap on the basis of the speed fluctuation trend line (the lower frequency component). under the steady state operation condition.
TOTAL TORQUE ESTIMATION
Rearranging Eq. Its frequency is distinctive from that of the basis speed fluctuation trend line resulted from the engine cyclic gas torque excitement. Test condition: 1500rpm. 40%load. 40%load
. is required to solve above equation. the direct calculation of this term using the measured raw crankshaft speed generally presents a high level of high frequency noise in the result. This can be further investigated by examining the power spectrum density (PSD) of the speed square change. is identified experimentally by the approach in .
Figure 5. The amount of electric charge output by the pressure sensor is proportional to the pressure opposed on its sensing diaphragm (−16 pC/bar for the sensor used in this study). Power Spectrum Densities of measured instantaneous crankshaft speed and derived speed square change. A driveshaft-embedded torque sensor is used to measure the instantaneous load torque. As can be noticed in the upper part of Figure 3. As shown. As seen in Figure 4. which is at a higher engine firing harmonic orders and takes a considerable portion of the spectrum energy. therefore an appropriate signal processing technique is needed to pre-process the measured raw speed signal first. The higher frequency components indicate the torsional vibration. The intrusive-type non-water-cooled piezoelectric pressure sensors are installed on the cylinders to measure the actual combustion pressure. where the cyclic nature of the speed square change and thus the total crankshaft torque can be readily observed.
An example is shown in Figure 7. the individual torque components of the measured total torque are either directly sensor-measured (driveshaft load brake torque). Note that there is not a practical way to directly sense the torque that was exerted on crankshaft section that is internally inside engine. As shown.
Figure 7. where the estimated total torque is compared with the measured one. the estimated total torque based on the rigid-body model starts to exhibit larger error. as no strain gauge or any other means of instrumentation can be placed inside the high speed rotation crankshaft sections inside engine. then summed together. the estimated total torque can approximate to the measured total torque during most crank angle positions. To obtain a satisfactory result for higher engine speed. The examples of total torque estimation under several engine conditions. due to the increased level of torsional vibration in the crank shaft speed signal. including the piston and
. to obtain such measured total torque. to be described later). a dynamic model that is capable to quantify the torsional vibration can be essential. For the higher engine speed range. mainly including low to medium engine speed range. where the experimental data shows the total crankshaft torque starts to exhibit greater discrepancy from the actual measured crankshaft speed acceleration. are shown in Figures 6. In this study. derived through other measurement (incylinder pressure for gas torque calculation) or analytically calculated (mass torque.Figure 6. Examples of the estimated total torque tested under various conditions. Relationship between measured crankshaft acceleration and total torque (3000 RPM)
Mass torque is a result of the varying speed translational motion of the reciprocating masses. for such speed and low range.
40%load.7 The piston motion is generally dynamically modelled as a single point mass moving along the cylinder axis. The method to calculate mass torque can be derived from the energy point of view. In such a model. due to its pure rotational motion.57]. In later derivations.56.
Where the engine geometry relations and can be readily analytically calculated based on real-time crank angle position . Describing the motion of a connecting rod is however more complex. is the piston instantaneous speed and Figure 8. The final mass torque expression is as shown in Eq.10 The speed square term in the mass torque expression Eq. pin and rings. . as result of the acting torque Tmass. 8 Where.10. Hence at higher engine speeds range it will dominate the magnitude of mass torque and make it much more influential in determining the total crankshaft torque. Mass torque profile of individual cylinder.9
.7. Therefore the actual mass torque calculation in this in-cylinder pressure estimation algorithm will not include this term. 8 with respect to crankshaft angle θ and substitute the time-domain items with angledomain ones gives the expression of the mass torque :
LOAD AND FRICTION TORQUE ESTIMATION
To date. because the fully equivalent model will lead to only one mass being placed at either joint. can be derived by summing up all the mass torques from all cylinders.
is the crankshaft instantaneous speed and ImB is the moment of inertia of the rotational part of the connecting rod model with respect to the crankshaft rotation axis.
Eq. can be considered as part of the total inertia of moment of crankshaft/flywheel assembly J.
Eq. But it is chosen in this study due to online implementation requirement. as expressed in Eq. including all cylinders. One example of the mass torque for a single cylinder is depicted in Figure 8. The total mass torque for the engine. Therefore the kinetic energy of piston and connecting rod assembly can be expressed via the definition of translational and rotational kinetic energy:
Eq. Differentiating both sides of Eq. Due to the crank configuration of the inline 4-cylinder engine used in the study.13. mpiston is the piston assembly mass including piston head. Test condition: 1500rpm. mA is placed at the piston pin performing translational motion together with the piston. Where it's desired to obtain the directly measured instantaneous friction
Eq. there will be a π phase difference between the engine geometry relations of any two cylinders that fire successively. valve train. while the motion of the other one will not be a pure translational or rotational motion. Common practice to dynamically model the connecting rod is to construct a statically equivalent model. increases rapidly when engine speed increases. since it undertakes both translational and rotational motion. an accurate predictive expression for instantaneous engine friction has proven difficult to obtain and be used by online applications. Note that the inertia of the connecting rod mass at crank joint (big end of the connecting rod).small end of connection rod. which makes it more difficult to be applied in kinetics analysis . Such expression involves the adequately modelling of friction in the piston ring and skirt. by considering the change in kinetic energy E during Δθ crank angle change. ImB = mBr2. auxiliary and the crankshaft bearing [55. and mB is placed at the crank pin rotating together with crankshaft. Such a model is not fully dynamically equivalent to the actual connecting rod due to the fact that its moment of inertia is not equal to that of original body. two points of mass connected by a mass-less rod denoted by mA and mB respectively.
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) and Intake Air Temperature (IAT).11. which means the cylinder no.6 and the mass torque analytic expression Eq. as marked in left part of Figure 9 and zoomed in the right part. are used here to infer the initial gas conditions. Illustration on the suitable crank angle position to predict total gas torque.13 respectively. total torque Ttotal and mass torque Tmass can be derived by the total torque estimator Eq. The instantaneous total loss torque can be estimated based on rearrangement of the torque components equation as shown in Eq. Though the gas torque Tgas is one of the ultimate estimation targets in this algorithm. either a structurally modified dedicated research engine or a thorough calibration is necessary for the proposed methods [58.11 In this expression. only cylinder no. provided that initial conditions of the trapped in-cylinder charge at the beginning of the compression stroke are known.4 gas torque by itself can effectively approximate the total gas torque during this time period. value. The gas torque during expansion stroke is more difficult to predict due to the unknown gas composition and initial gas condition at end of the combustion process. To predict individual cylinder gas pressure during the compression stroke. there is typically a period within an engine cycle. Therefore the expansion period
Eq. modeling it as a polynomial function or lookup map of engine speed or piston speed. For example. between about 50 BTDC to 30 ATDC. firing nature of a multi-cylinder engine.4 is undergoing the compression stroke and expansion stroke while other cylinders are in either the exhaust or intake strokes.59]. 31]. Though the total gas torque is the combination of individual gas torques from all four cylinders. Since the gas torque contribution produced by intake and exhaust stroke is much lower than that of compression and expansion stroke. Meanwhile to infer the mean friction torque. a number of well established thermal dynamic models can be applied. The torque produced by the other three cylinders during the same time can be relatively small and thus neglected when calculate the total gas torque. In this study a simplified load and friction torque (referred as the total loss torque in this study) estimator is proposed based on the observed characteristics of crank angle domain torque profiles. due to the sequential
.Figure 9. they have no significant effect on the total gas torque profile. both of which are available for typical engine control system. temperature and load etc. however its value at some specific crankshaft angular positions during compression stroke can be reasonably inferred by the adiabatic process model and some initial in-cylinder conditions. during which only one cylinder's gas torque dominates the total gas torque. is the common practice [13.
14. Test condition: 1500rpm. 40% load (mostly the crank angle after TDC) was avoided in the final implementation of this method. With total torque Ttotal and mass torque Tmass being solved.3 in this study for the compression stroke charge . which is estimated for the specific crank angle position. It should be realized that the actual total load and loss torque can exhibit fluctuations within one engine cycle even under steady state engine conditions. The value of adiabatic constant.12 Where P comp (θIVC) is the in-cylinder gas pressure at the crankshaft position of intake valve closing (IVC) indicating start of the gas compression process. has typically less than 4% of difference compared to the actual measured engine-cycleaveraged load torque. however.13 As shown in Figure 10.13 .2 into the following form. The adiabatic process model Eq. Measured total loss profile during one engine cycle. This discrepancy at TDC. Once the gas pressure is inferred. the instantaneous total gas torque profile
. V chamber is the calculated crank-angle-based combustion chamber volume .Figure 10. One example of the instantaneous load torque measurement is shown in Figure 11. 40%load. Examples of the predicted gas pressure (left) and derived torque (right) during compression stroke. the load and loss torque during this specific crank angle position can be calculated through Eq. Therefore such estimated load torque is used as the engine-cycle-averaged load torque. the experimental data showed that the estimated load torque value. steady condition
THE TOTAL GAS TORQUE ESTIMATION
By rearranging the torque balancing equation Eq.12 is used to predict the gas pressure during the compression stroke. does not pose a significant difficulty to convert gas pressure into the gas torque. because the gas torque is approaching zero near TDC due to the fact that the characteristics of the crank lever approaches 0 at TDC. Condition: 1500 rpm.
Eq. For the operation conditions studied in this work. is taken to be around 1. k. the predicted pressure profile approximates the measured one very well except for the greater discrepancy near TDC. the gas torque can be readily obtained via the gas pressure-torque relation expression Eq.
Eq. This can be measured by the Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor (MAP) and corrected by the calibrated volumetric efficiency.
The example of the estimated total gas torque under various conditions. Thus the individual cylinder contribution needs to be extracted before perform the torque-to-pressure inversion. (summation of all cylinders) can be readily obtained using the torque components derived previously.M.Figure 12.
.S. error over 10 engine cycles with respect to the actual torque derived from measured cylinder pressure. Ap is cylinder head area. The error of the estimated total gas torque profile is evaluated by R.14 Examples of the total gas torque profile estimation results under different engine conditions are shown in Figure 12.
INVERSION OF GAS TORQUE INTO IN-CYLINDER PRESSURE
A re-arranged crank-slider mechanism equation can be used to convert the individual cylinder gas torque into in-cylinder pressure:
SEPARATION OF INDIVIDUAL CYLINDER GAS TORQUE
The total gas torque derived in previous section is the summation of all cylinder gas torques. is the engine geometry function of piston displacement x and crankshaft angle θ.i. Eq. Where Pi(θ) is in-cylinder pressure of cylinder No. Tgas_i is gas torque contributed by that cylinder.15 Eq.
The interpolation function. which was developed to model the mass fraction burned (MFB) profile during a combustion event. during which the in-cylinder charge mixture undergoes the combustion event. Outside this angular range.
Eq. Such interpolation in fact models the gas pressure evolution process.18.2.
function . By estimating its gas compression torque (via the adiabatic process model and initial gas condition) and subtracting it from total gas torque.
Figure 13. transits the pressure profile from the ending part of the compression stroke into the beginning part of expansion stroke. One example of such interpolated pressure profile by using the Wiebe function is shown in Figure 15.17. 40% load. after about 50 ATDC in Figure 13). One commonly referred function serving such purpose is the well known Wiebe function . though the peak error over the TDC region is reduced. An interpolation method over the TDC position is proposed to overcome the above issue around TDC position.16. based on the engine geometry relationship according to Eq. Test condition: 1500 rpm.18. during which that cylinder is the concurrent firing cylinder and hence its gas torque dominates the total gas torque profile.3 and cyld no. As shown.4. The parameters θ. the reconstructed pressure shows a discontinuity error around TDC position. This issue is due to the fact that the characteristics of the engine geometry
Figure 14. approaches zero at TDC position. next firing cylinder generally will undergo the compression stroke and thus its gas compression torque can also affect the total gas during this time window (in this case it's cyld no. as shown in Eq. the total gas torque starts to be substantially affected by cyld no. The dominant CAD span of cyld no. these angular positions are empirically set to the fixed values of 5 BTDC and 30 ATDC respectively for the tested conditions in this study. in order to extract the gas torque of cyld no. Then the in-cylinder pressure profile of the firing cylinder can be reconstructed from the extracted torque profile. As shown in the plot. During the aforementioned crank angle span. the specified angular position of start of combustion (SOC) and the specified angular duration of the combustion respectively. θ0 and Δθ denote the current crankshaft angle. The adiabatic model can be applied to expand the obtained pressure profile into a wider crank angle span covering most of the compression and expansion stroke. its dominant crank angle span can be observed as about between 30 BTDC to 50 ATDC in this shown case.2.17 Where a and m are adjustable parameters to control the shape of the Wiebe function to best fit the actual MFB. As depicted in Figure 14. The reconstructed in-cylinder pressure profile. The appropriate crank angle span will be identified.16 Where f(θ) is the interpolation function and its value evolves from 0 to 100% gradually during the interpolated crank angle span.The method to extract the gas torque profile of a specific cylinder is similar to the load torque estimation. By taking the actual MFB measurement. as expressed in Eq. there are still noticeable discrepancies compared with the
IN-CYLINDER PRESSURE PROCESSING AROUND TDC
An example of such reconstructed pressure profile is shown in Figure 14.4 on the total gas torque profile. the gas torque of current firing cylinder can be extracted more accurately. as the denominator in Eq.
doesn't exactly match the actual MFB profile encountered in the experiment. indicating the staged combustion process. The normalized value of accumulated heat release Q. This discrepancy indicates the shape of the Wiebe function. The heat release rate obtained from measured pressure profile. Interpolated pressure profile by heat release rate function. which is not available for this online pressure estimation application. which results in the dual-staged heat release process. as can be observed in the figure and is commonly seen for modern diesel engine nowadays.
. including fuelling quantity of each injection. such as the ECU fuel injection pattern and/or ignition timing (sparkignition engine only). it is still possible to infer the expected heat release rate by other existing engine operational parameters. Test condition: 1500 rpm. p and v are instantaneous in-cylinder pressure and combustion chamber volume respectively.18 Where dQ is the heat release rate and Q is total heat release up to θ crank angle from start of combustion (SOC). is due to the employed dual injection strategy. Figure 17. The double combustion peak pressures. The fuel injection schedule. non-quasi-static effect and crevice effect etc . k is specific heat ratio. 40% load It should be noted that the Eq. Interpolated pressure profile by Wiebe function. a simplified expression of heat release rate can be adequate. To give a satisfactory indication of combustion progress for online application. Compared with the previously Wiebe-function interpolated pressure profile in Figure 16. can be used as the interpolation function. ranging from 0 to 100%.
Eq. an approximation of the heat release rate could be feasible. this heat-releaserate interpolated one adequately follows the measured pressure profile over the TDC area. start of injection timing and duration of injection.
Figure 15. When the pressure data is not available. 40% load
DISCUSSION ON THE INTERPOLATION FUNCTION
Heat release rate is an indicator of the rate of chemical energy release from the fuel as a result of combustion. Engine condition: 1500 rpm.
Figure 16. Engine condition: 1500 rpm. is readily available during engine runtime. combustion efficiency.18. The heat release rate dQ shows two peaks around the TDC position. from the measured in-cylinder pressure data. By taking into account the air/fuel mixture ignition delay and combustion time . This implies the ideal interpolation function should account for the actual instantaneous heat release rate in order to approximate such staged heat release process. Complete analysis of heat release rate involves a thorough thermodynamics analysis of an open boundary system.measured pressure profile. 40% load One example of calculated pressure profile using above heat release rate as the interpolation function is shown in Figure 17. 21 relies on the measured incylinder pressure data. The typical method to calculate the simplified heat release rate is expressed in Eq. which denotes a single-staged continuous heat release process.
One example of the measured heat release rate on the test engine is shown in Figure 16.
a combustion-progress based approach is proposed to interpolate around TDC position of the estimated pressure profile. In experiments it was found that. The fact that the individual cylinder dominant CAD span is used throughout this proposed algorithm also implies that it's suitable for an engine with less cylinder numbers. The evaluation result is shown in Table 1 and the detailed cycle-by-cycle error of each group is given in Figure A1 and A2 in Appendix. As shown in Table 1. As previously indicated. as the basis expression for total torque estimation. which should be realized as a substantial reduction of calibration effort over other pressure estimation methods. the accuracy of the peak pressure location is in general less than 5 CAD. To correct the inherent pressure estimation error around TDC resulting from inverting engine geometry characteristics. Different interpolation functions are compared and the heat release rate is proven most effective. Experimental evaluation proved the applicability of such rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model in the context of pressure estimation and also indicated its limitation. engine dynamics model was mostly used as a forward approach to investigate how the in-cylinder pressure affects the model outcome (crankshaft speed in most cases). To enhance the capability of rigid-body to handle the complicated real crankshaft speed
Eq. misfire detection and NOx reduction control etc. The simple rigid-body model is proven to be effective from low to middle engine speed range. The greater error in IMEP estimation can be due to the error in load torque estimation. which in turn translates into higher relative error of load torque estimation and thus IMEP estimation. as the load torque estimator relies on other measured or derived torque components at a specific angular window. The major difficulties. in order to more accurately locate the peak pressure. the period between two successive firing cylinders becomes shorter therefore make it more difficult to separate the individual cylinder torque contribution. though often time the relative error is small. are addressed and solutions to each problem given. which also theoretically agrees with the physical meaning of such interpolation function and therefore indicates a potential direction for future work. In this work a complete algorithm to reconstruct in-cylinder pressure for individual cylinder is proposed based on engine dynamics model. having known crankshaft motion to estimate incylinder pressure. Error Evaluation of Dynamic Model Based Pressure Estimation Method
The estimation accuracy on the reconstructed in-cylinder pressure is evaluated by calculating the following errors: • Absolute Pressure (%) • IMEP (%) • Peak Pressure Value (%) and its position (CAD) The error of absolute pressure is defined in Eq.
In the previous work reported in the literature.25 CAD resolutions around TDC position based on the estimated pressure profile data. including the load torque estimation and separation of pressure profile from multiple cylinders. the absolute error in those torque components can sometimes be comparable to their lower value and the level of load torque absolute value itself. diesel fuel injection timing control. this method is more suitable for low to medium engine speed range due to the increasing level of
. A discrete-time rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed in this study based on the kinetic energy theorem.Table 1. which makes this method a possible choice for peak pressure location related control or diagnostics applications including MBT spark ignition timing control.19 The estimated peak pressure position CADpeak are determined based on spline interpolation of 0.
torsional vibration at higher engine speed. as when cylinder number increases.19. during which most of them have the lower value compared to their peak amplitude. A single set of dynamic model parameters was used throughout all the tests. The inverted approach. which gives the average error of the pressure value along the entire estimated pressure curve. has been experimentally investigated in this study.
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speed and acceleration
IDFT Invert Discrete Fourier Transform IMEP Indicated Mean Effective Pressure IVC Intake Valve Close MISO Multi-In-Single-Out system SISO Single-In-Single-Out system SOC Start of Combustion TDC Top Dead Center TWC Three Way Catalytic converter WOT Wide Open Throttle
CAD Crankshaft Angular Degree DFT Discrete Fourier Transform DT-FT Discrete-Time Fourier Transform ECU Electronic Control Unit EOC End of Combustion FRF Frequency Response Function
. cross power spectral density of x and y heat release torque cylinder clearance volume cylinder combustion chamber volume crankshaft angular frequency crankshaft angular position. Pxy Q T Vc Vchamber ω KJ N.m m3 m3 rad/s rad. rad/s2 rad/s2 crankshaft speed fluctuation Pa coherence function between x and y transfer function specific heat ratio pressure auto power spectral density of x. rad/s.DEFINITIONS/ABBREVIATIONS
Notation Cxy H k P Px.
Detailed cycle-by-cycle experiment result of group 1 data.
Figure A2. Detailed cycle-by-cycle experiment result of group 2 data
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