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**Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)
**

1

Aerodynamics of Propellers

and Wind Turbine Rotors

Aerodynamics of Propellers

and Wind Turbine Rotors

Lecture within the course

Fluid Machinery (4A1629)

Miroslav Petrov, Lic. of Eng.

Division of Heat and Power,

Department of Energy Technology, KTH

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

2

Structure of the presentation

Structure of the presentation

1. Introduction and terminology reminder.

2. Basic theory of propellers and their application.

3. Basic wind turbine aerodynamics. The Betz limit.

4. Real wind turbine rotors with 2-D and 3-D effects.

5. Aspects of vertical axis wind turbines.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

3

Section 1

Section 1

Introduction

and

Terminology Reminder

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

4

Variety of Fluid Machines

Variety of Fluid Machines

Please remember that:

Turbomachines (rotodynamic machines) convert the energy in a fluid

stream directly into mechanical energy of rotating shaft, or vice versa.

Mechanical energy is converted into energy of fluid streams by

pumps, compressors, propellers and fans/ventilators – various names

depending on fluid type, application and pressure ratio.

Energy from fluid streams is converted into mechanical energy of a

rotating shaft by turbines – they are always called “turbines”

independent of fluid type, application or pressure ratio.

All fluid machines are completely reversible!!! (For example, pumps,

propellers or fans can easily be transformed into turbines).

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

5

Application of propellers

Application of propellers

Propellers are used to produce propulsive thrust in ships and

aircraft, therefore their name. Modern airplane propellers are

driven by gas turbines in so-called turboprop engines.

Propellers deliver also both lift and propulsive thrust for

helicopters. Modern helicopter rotors are driven by gas turbines

in so-called turboshaft engines.

Propeller-driven aircraft have a limit in possible cruising speeds of

around 650 km/h.

Propeller-type rotors are also commonly used in axial fans

(ventilators) typically applied for very low pressure ratios at high

mass flows.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

6

Jet engines: no propeller

Jet engines: no propeller

Source: www.globemaster.de/airextreme/

Jet engines produce propulsion thrust by way of expansion of a jet

stream through a nozzle. The compressed working fluid is generated

by a turbomachine – a gas turbine driving a compressor.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

7

Ship and Airplane Propellers

Ship and Airplane Propellers

Source: www.saab.se

Propellers (screws) for

ships and boats

Source: www.customshippropellers.com

Propellers (airscrews)

for airplanes

Propellers produce propulsive thrust by utilizing the lift forces acting

on rotating blades of aerofoil shape. A slipstream of accelerated fluid

is formed behind the propeller. Any type of engine can be used to

drive the propeller (all possible prime-mover types are used for

marine transport, while mostly gas turbines or Otto-type internal

combustion engines are used for airborn transport).

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

8

Helicopter rotors

Helicopter rotors

Source: www.globemaster.de/airextreme/

The propeller of a helicopter produces both lifting force and

propulsive thrust. The slipstream of accelerated fluid flows

downward around the machine’s body. If the main rotor is only

one, a small additional propeller is required at the back of the

helicopter to neutralize the torque induced by the main rotor.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

9

Reversibility of turbomachines

Reversibility of turbomachines

A propeller (axial fan rotor) and a wind turbine rotor are

completely reversible. They are described by the same basic

theoretical considerations.

Source: ”Energy Conversion – systems, flow physics and engineering”, Reiner Decher

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

10

Thrust and Torque

Thrust and Torque

Thrust is the axial force produced by a propeller (or by a jet

stream) and used for driving a body immersed in a fluid.

Torque is the load in energy terms [N.m] that delivers positive

rotating motion (in turbines) or a negative braking force (in

propellers). It is basically proportional to the thrust.

Torque and thrust are linked to the aerodynamic forces (lift and drag

forces) created by the fluid flowing around the blades of the

propeller or turbine. The productivity of a propeller is measured by

the thrust, while the torque is the load that the driving engine should

overcome. The productivity (but not the efficiency) of a turbine is

measured by the produced torque, while the thrust is a useless axial

force that the turbine casing or foundation must withstand.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

11

Lift and Drag Forces

Lift and Drag Forces

Drag and lift forces induced by fluid flowing around a solid

structure. The thin flat plate as an example:

Large lift force with small drag force (large A,

small C

D

and very high C

L

)

minimum drag force with zero lift (A and C

D

are small)

maximum drag force with zero lift (A and C

D

are large)

Resultant force

fluid flow

D

D

D

L

2

D

Av ½ C D ρ =

2

L

Av ½ C L ρ =

2 2

D L R + =

v

A

A

v

v

[2]

[1]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

12

Nature of Lift and Drag Forces

Nature of Lift and Drag Forces

Lift and drag forces are due to pressure differentials generated by the

fluid flowing around the solid body. The drag force is caused by fluid

friction and is never zero. Lift and drag values can be found through

integrating the pressure values along the surface of the body (along

the perimeter of a section parallel to the flow).

Source: ”Wind Energy Technology”, J. F. Walker & N. Jenkins

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

13

Examples of Aerofoil Shapes

Examples of Aerofoil Shapes

Streamlined bodies (aerofoils) are used to maximize the ratio

between lift and drag force. They achieve very high lift force

with very small drag force at certain (small) angles of attack.

Symmetrical shape

Thick, slightly

curved shape

Very thick and

curved shape

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

14

Lift and Drag Coefficients

Lift and Drag Coefficients

The lift and drag coefficients C

L

and C

D

are functions of the

angle of attack α and the shape of the airfoil. For a typical

aerofoil they look as in the figure below:

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al. (modified)

C

L

C

D

C

L

>>C

D

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

15

Tip Speed Ratio

Tip Speed Ratio

One very important parameter for all types of rotodynamic

machines is the ”tip speed ratio”, λ, which is the ratio of the

translational speed at the tip of the blade to the velocity of

the free stream of fluid:

[3]

where u is the blade tip speed, and Ω and R are the angular

velocity and the radius of the turbine rotor, respectively.

1 1

v

R

v

u Ω

= = λ

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

16

Section 2

Section 2

Basic theory of propellers

and their application

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

17

Using the Lift Force in Propellers

Using the Lift Force in Propellers

The resultant projection

of the lift and drag forces

normal to the plane of

rotation (F

T

) is the

produced driving force,

the thrust.

The resultant projection

of the lift and drag forces

on the plane of rotation (F

N

)

is the torque experienced

by the propeller and is

transfered as negative load

on the primary engine.

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al. (modified)

Plane of rotation

direction of flight

V

1

u

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

18

One-Dimensional Momentum Theory

One-Dimensional Momentum Theory

Basic simplifying assumptions:

•Homogeneous, incompressible, steady state fluid flow;

•No friction;

•Ideal actuator disc of no specific nature (e.g. rotor with

infinite number of blades);

•Uniform flow and uniform forces over the disc area;

•One-dimensional flow, no wake behind the disc!

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

19

Momentum theory of propulsion

Momentum theory of propulsion

undisturbed fluid

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Fluid streamlines, velocities and

pressures around the plane of

the propeller:

Points:

(1) Far upstream the propeller

(2) Just in front of the propeller

(3) Just after the propeller

(4) Far downstream the propeller

The distance between (2) & (3) is

assumed infinitesimal.

V

1

p

3

p

2

p

a p

a

V

4

slipstream

x

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

20

Momentum theory conditions

Momentum theory conditions

Important physical conditions:

•The fluid velocity falls gradually before and after

the actuator disc (propeller rotor) and pressure

difference builds up across the disc.

•The fluid velocity just across the actuator disc

does not change

•The pressure far upstreamthe actuator disc and

the pressure far downstreamare equal to the static

pressure of the undisturbed fluid

3 2

v v =

a 4 1

p p p = =

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

21

Conservation of Linear Momentum

Conservation of Linear Momentum

Work is done only across the actuator disc between states

(2) & (3). The force on the actuator disc – the thrust T – is

equal and opposite to the force on the contents of the

control volume of fluid:

And from the conservation of linear momentum it follows

also that:

) p A(p T

2 3

− =

) v v ( m T

1 4

− =

&

[4]

[5]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

22

Using Bernoulli’s Relations

Using Bernoulli’s Relations

No work is done between states (1) & (2), and (3) & (4), which

allows us to use Bernoulli’s relations for the two separate

control volumes upstream and downstream the disc:

2

2 2

2

1 1

v ½ p v ½ p ρ ρ + = +

2

4 4

2

3 3

v ½ p v ½ p ρ ρ + = +

) v v ( ½ p p

2

1

2

4 2 3

− = − ρ

which give:

[6]

[7]

[8]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

23

Fluid Velocity at the Actuator Disc

Fluid Velocity at the Actuator Disc

Using the fact that now at the actuator disc the mass flow of

air (Eq. [20]) is:

Eq. [4] & Eq. [5] for the thrust can be applied to obtain:

which gives (!):

2

Av m ρ =

&

) v v ( Av ) v v ( A ½

1 4 2

2

1

2

4

− = − ρ ρ

) v v ½( v

1 4 2

+ =

[9]

[10]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

24

Useful work from the propeller

Useful work from the propeller

The power supplied to the propeller is converted into a rate

of kinetic energy increase for the flowing fluid:

[12]

[11]

Imagining that the propeller is moving forward into a

stationary fluid, the useful work done has the rate of:

) v v ( Av ½ v . T P

2

1

2

4 2 2 in

− = = ρ

1 useful

v . T P =

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

25

Efficiency of the propeller

Efficiency of the propeller

Combining the two equations above would directly

give the efficiency of the propeller (efficiency of

converting the power from the primary motor into a

forward motion through the fluid):

2

1

1 4

1

v

v

) v v ½(

v

=

+

= η [13]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

26

Efficiency interpretation

Efficiency interpretation

The result for propeller efficiency shows that:

•Higher efficiency of propulsion can be achieved by

large rotors with very small increase in fluid velocity

(achieving thrust by large surfaces rather than velocity);

•High-speed propulsion will inevitably have lower

efficiency, i.e. small high-speed rotors will suffer from

low efficiency;

•Jet engines (high-speed propulsion) inherently have

much lower efficiency than propellers.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

27

Propellers at changing speeds

Propellers at changing speeds

Changing angles of attack at changing speeds, problems with

keeping optimum performance and optimum thrust in all speed

regimes (from slow take-off till high cruise speed for airplanes).

Also, at high speeds the

blades will reach sonic

velocities and shock waves

will appear on their surface.

Source: “Aerodynamics for Engineering Students”,

E.L.Houghton & P.W.Carpenter

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

28

Propellers at high speeds

Propellers at high speeds

Propellers are very efficient propulsion devices in low-speed

applications, used extensively for marine transport and

short-range aircraft. They are, however, not applicable for

higher speeds due to loss of efficiency and, most of all, due

to serious problems with fluid compressibility effects and

technical difficulties mentioned above.

The gap between high-efficiency low-speed propellers and

low-efficiency high-speed jet engines has been filled by the

so-called turbofan engines, powering most modern long-

and medium-range aircraft. The turbofan engine combines

the advantages of propellers and jet propulsion, allowing for

cruise speeds of up to 1000 km/h with acceptable economy.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

29

Turbofan Engines

Turbofan Engines

The first stage of the compressor is a fan (hidden in the casing),

much larger than the second stage of the compressor. Some part

of the air flow after the fan bypasses the gas turbine between the

two casings and acts as a propeller. The rest of the air travels

through the gas turbine and produces both power for driving the

compressor and fan stages, as well as a jet propulsion stream.

Source: www.ueet.nasa.gov

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

30

Aerodynamics of Helicopter Rotors

Aerodynamics of Helicopter Rotors

Source: http://aerodyn.org/

Source: http://au.encarta.msn.com/

Behaviour of a helicopter

rotor in forward flight.

Helicopters can achieve

translational speeds of

maximum around 350 km/h.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

31

Momentum theory for helicopter rotors

Momentum theory for helicopter rotors

If we take the hovering flight as an example (the helicopter steadily

hanging in the air, V

1

= 0 ), the rotor thrust must equal the weight of

the machine, ignoring other forces like drag on the fuselage, etc.

From Eq.[5] it follows that:

4 2 1 4 2 machine rotor

v Av ) v v ( Av mg T ρ ρ = − = =

Eq.[10] shows that in this case V

4

= 2V

2

, which gives:

2

2 machine rotor

v A 2 mg T ρ = =

3

2

2

1

2

4 2 in

v A 2 ) v v ( Av ½ P ρ ρ = − =

The necessary power supply from the engine (Eq.[11]) would be:

[16]

[15]

[14]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

32

Results for helicopter rotors

Results for helicopter rotors

Substituting the fluid velocity at the rotor plane from Eq.[15] into

Eq.[16] it follows that the necessary power supply would be:

A 2

) mg (

A 2

) mg (

A 2 P

machine

3

2 / 3

machine

in

ρ ρ

ρ =

)

`

¹

¹

´

¦

=

This is the ideal theoretical result. The necessary power supply for

a real rotor including all losses would be much higher.

A helicopter in hovering flight theoretically does not produce any

work, so all power delivered by the engine should be considered as

wasted. For the other major flight regimes of a helicopter, such as

vertical climbing flight, slow descending flight, and translational

flight, the momentum theory can again be applied for arriving at

similar results, including the positive work of helicopter motion.

[17]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

33

Section 3

Section 3

Basic Wind Turbine Aerodynamics.

The Betz Limit.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

34

The Wind

The Wind

•The wind is solar power in mechanical form.

•A small part (around 2 %) of the energy of

solar radiation on Earth is converted into

kinetic energy of flowing air – the wind.

•Wind’s velocity and direction depend on the

imposed pressure gradients, plus certain other

forces, plus the local geography.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

35

Available Energy in the Wind

Available Energy in the Wind

The kinetic energy of a unit mass of flowing fluid is:

So the power per unit massflow would be:

2

κ

½mv Ε =

2

k

v m ½ E P

&

&

= =

[18]

[19]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

36

Available Energy in the Wind

Available Energy in the Wind

Using the air density , the flow velocity , and the

area perpendicular to the flow, the mass flow

becomes:

Then the total available power in the air flow is:

A

Av m ρ =

&

v

3

Av ½ P ρ =

ρ

[20]

[21]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

37

Extracting Energy from Wind

Extracting Energy from Wind

The wind is a free-flowing fluid stream.

The energy extraction device (of any type)

is submersed into this streamand can

convert only a certain amount from the

total available energy in the fluid stream,

not all of it!

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

38

Extracting Energy from Wind

Extracting Energy from Wind

Energy conversion from free-flowing fluid streams

is limited because energy extraction implies

decrease of fluid velocity (decrease of kinetic

energy of the stream), which cannot fall down to

zero, the stream should continue traveling and

cannot stop entirely.

Also, the turbine is an obstruction to the fluid

flow. Some fluid may not pass through the turbine

and may simply flow around it.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

39

Flow through an Energy Converter

Flow through an Energy Converter

Source: ”Wind Energy Systems”, Gary L. Johnson (modified)

Fluid streamlines, velocities and

pressures around the energy

extraction device:

Points:

(1) Far upstream the rotor

(2) Just in front of the rotor

(3) Just after the rotor

(4) Far downstream the rotor

The distance between (2) & (3) is

assumed infinitesimal.

velocity

pressure

fluid flow

energy converter

(actuator disc)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

40

Momentum theory of wind turbines

Momentum theory of wind turbines

Important physical conditions:

•The fluid velocity falls gradually before and after

the actuator disc (energy extraction device) and

pressure difference builds up across the disc.

•The fluid velocity right across the actuator disc

does not change

•The pressure far upstreamthe actuator disc and

the pressure far downstreamare equal to the static

pressure of the undisturbed fluid

3 2

v v =

a 4 1

p p p = =

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

41

Conservation of Linear Momentum

Conservation of Linear Momentum

Work is done only across the actuator disc between states

(2) & (3). The force on the actuator disc – the thrust T – is

equal and opposite to the force on the contents of the

control volume of fluid:

And from the conservation of linear momentum it follows

also that:

) p A(p T

3 2

− =

) v v ( m T

4 1

− =

&

[22]

[23]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

42

Using Bernoulli’s Relations

Using Bernoulli’s Relations

No work is done between states (1) & (2), and (3) & (4), which

allows us to use Bernoulli’s relations for the two separate

control volumes upstream and downstream the disc:

2

2 2

2

1 1

v ½ p v ½ p ρ ρ + = +

2

4 4

2

3 3

v ½ p v ½ p ρ ρ + = +

) v v ( ½ p p

2

4

2

1 3 2

− = − ρ

which give:

[24]

[25]

[26]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

43

Fluid Velocity at the Actuator Disc

Fluid Velocity at the Actuator Disc

Using the fact that now at the actuator disc the mass flow of

air (Eq. [20]) is:

Eq. [22] & Eq. [23] for the thrust can be applied to obtain:

which gives (!):

2

Av m ρ =

&

) v v ( Av ) v v ( A ½

4 1 2

2

4

2

1

− = − ρ ρ

) v v ½( v

4 1 2

+ =

[27]

[28]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

44

Axial Induction Factor

Axial Induction Factor

If we define an axial induction factor, also called ”interference

factor” a, as the fractional decrease in wind velocity between

the free stream and the actuator disc:

Then and

Also, the power output from the energy conversion device is

equal to the thrust times the velocity at the disc:

1

2 1

v

v v

a

−

=

) a 1 ( v v

1 2

− = ) a 2 1 ( v v

1 4

− =

) v v ( Av ½ v . T P

2

4

2

1 2 2 out

− = = ρ [31]

[30]

[29]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

45

Definition of Power Coefficient C

P

Definition of Power Coefficient C

P

Applying Eq. [30] to further elaborate on Eq. [31] will lead us to:

2 3

1 out

) a 1 ( a 4 Av ½ P − = ρ

We can now define C

P

as the relation between converted power

to available power in the fluid flow:

3

1

out

P

Av ½

P

Wind _ the _ in _ Power

Power _ Rotor

C

ρ

= =

[33]

[32]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

46

Maximum value of C

P

Maximum value of C

P

Combining Eqs. [32] & [33] would give:

2

1 4 ) a ( a C

P

− =

i.e. the power coefficient C

P

is a function of the axial induction

factor. The optimum of this function (which is a maximum value

for C

P

) can be found from its first and second derivatives.

The optimum is reached at ,

which leads us to the optimum C

P

of !

[34]

3

1

a =

5926 . 0

27

16

C

max , P

≈ =

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

47

Fluid velocities at maximum C

P

Fluid velocities at maximum C

P

The interpretation of what we found just above is that:

•A maximum of 59.26% of the available wind power can be

converted to mechanical power at ideal conditions, whatever

the energy conversion device is.

•The wind velocity reaching the conversion device is 2/3 of the

upstream undisturbed wind velocity, and the velocity behind the

device far downstream is 1/3 of the undisturbed velocity, when

maximum power is extracted.

•Downstream wind velocity either higher or lower than 1/3 of V

1

would lead to energy conversion less than the ideal maximum.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

48

The Betz Limit

The Betz Limit

A. Betz (1926) was the first to publish these results for wind

turbines. The theory in general shows the maximum possible

energy conversion efficiency by any device in any free-flowing

fluid stream, at ideal conditions.

Thus, the maximum convertible power in the wind is:

Practical energy conversion efficiency of any real device would

further be reduced by various aerodynamic losses (C

P

< C

P,max

),

as well as mechanical and electrical losses (η

m,

η

el

)!

3

1 max out,

Av

2

5926 . 0

P ρ =

[35]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

49

Maximum Convertible Energy

Maximum Convertible Energy

Source: www.integener.com

The Betz limit:

16/27 = 0.5926 !

Highest theoretical

efficiency for wind

energy converters

of any type.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

50

Power and Thrust Coefficients

Power and Thrust Coefficients

The real power output from any energy conversion device in a

free-flowing fluid stream can be expressed as follows:

Similarly, a thrust coefficient can be defined as a function of the

axial induction factor and used to express the maximum thrust

force upon the energy conversion device:

( ) | |

( ) | | a 1 a 4

Av ½

a 1 a 4 Av ½

Force _ Dynamic

Force _ Thrust

C

2

1

2

1

T

− =

−

= =

ρ

ρ

3

1 el , m P out

Av C ½ P ρ η =

[36]

[37]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

51

Maximum value of C

P

and C

T

Maximum value of C

P

and C

T

The assumed ideal conditions do not hold for axial induction factors

exceeding 0.5. In real wind energy converters, due to complicated flow

patterns, the thrust coefficient C

T

can even exceed its ideal maximum, but

the power coefficient C

P

can never reach its maximum value.

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

v

4

/v

1

Source: ”Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines”, Martin O.L. Hansen

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

52

Practical Wind Energy Conversion

Practical Wind Energy Conversion

Various devices can be used as converters of wind kinetic

energy into mechanical energy (rotational or translational) –

these are rotating devices (turbines) or translating devices

(with positive displacement under wind-induced forces).

Most practical applications require mechanical output in the

form of rotating shaft. Turbines fit best to such applications.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

53

Drag Force Turbines

Drag Force Turbines

The simplest turbine would use the drag force and would consist

of flat or curved plates, cups, discs or similar shapes attached to

a vertical or horizontal shaft perpendicular to the flow, utilizing

the difference between drag forces on the plate pushed by the

wind and on the plate advancing against the wind.

Source: www.eurowind-uk.net

The oldest documented windmills were typical

drag force machines that had shields (Persian

type) or plate rotating devices (Chinese type) to

decrease the drag force on the half of the rotor

that advances against the wind.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

54

Drag Force Turbines

Drag Force Turbines

The common cup anemometer

– a typical drag force turbine

Home-made Savonius rotor

Source: www.eurowind-uk.net

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

Advanced Savonius rotor

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

55

Drag force on simple bodies

Drag force on simple bodies

Drag force coefficients of some exemplifying bodies in fluid

flow (perpendicular to the flow) are:

body: C

D

:

flat plate (circle or square) 1.1 – 1.11

hemisphere, open back 0.33

hemisphere, open front 1.33

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

56

Flat plate drag-turbine performance

Flat plate drag-turbine performance

A simple drag turbine with flat plates, where the

plate advancing against the wind is ideally shielded:

( )

2

D

u v A ½ C D − = ρ

u - v

u

v

0 D ≈

( ) ( )

2

3

D

2

D out

1 Av ½ C u v Au ½ C u D P λ λ ρ ρ − = − = =

( )

2

D P

1 C C λ λ − =

Therefore, the power coefficient would be:

[38]

[39]

Ω

shield

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

57

Efficiency of flat plate drag turbine

Efficiency of flat plate drag turbine

The C

P

of a drag turbine where the plate advancing against the

wind is ideally shielded can reach maximum values of 0.16, at

the optimum tip speed ratio of λ=0.33.

0.04

0.16

0.12

0.08

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

58

Drag turbine with cups/bowls

Drag turbine with cups/bowls

A non-shielded drag turbine (typical cup anemometer):

u - v

u v +

u

u

v

( )

2

a , D a

u v A ½ C D − = ρ

( )

2

b , D b

u v A ½ C D + = ρ

( ) ( ) { }

2

b , D

2

a , D b a out

u v C u v C Au ½ u ) D D ( P + − − = − = ρ

And, the power coefficient would be:

( )

2

P

32 . 3 1 C λ λ λ + − =

[40]

[41]

Ω

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

59

Efficiency of cup anemometer

Efficiency of cup anemometer

The C

P

of a classical cup anemometer hardly reaches 0.08,

because the cup advancing against the wind experiences its

own drag force. The optimum tip speed ratio is λ=0.165.

Source: ”Wind Power Plants”, R. Gasch & J. Twele

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

60

Savonius rotor

Savonius rotor

Savonius rotors (first suggested by the Finnish engineer S.J.

Savonius in 1922) consist of two half-cylinders displaced halfway

against each-other.

Savonius rotors can reach a C

P

close to 0.2 and tip speed ratios

above 1 (λ>1), due to the certain presence of lift forces acting on

the turbine besides the drag force.

u

u

v

Ω

Source: www.eurowind-uk.net

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

61

Using the Lift Force in Wind Turbines

Using the Lift Force in Wind Turbines

The resultant projection

of the lift and drag forces

on the plane of rotation

(F

T

) is the driving force,

producing torque.

The resultant projection

of the lift and drag forces

normal to the plane of

rotation (F

N

) is producing

useless thrust on the

rotor, much higher than

the useful torque.

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

62

Horizontal Axis Lift-Force Turbines

Horizontal Axis Lift-Force Turbines

The most common type of lift-force wind turbines

is the horizontal axis wind turbine - HAWT. The

rotor axis lies horizontally, parallel to the air flow.

The blades sweep a circular (or slightly conical)

plane normal to the air flow, situated upwind (in

front of the tower) or downwind (behind the tower).

The main advantage of HAWTs is the good

aerodynamic efficiency (if blades are properly

designed) and versatility of applications.

Their main disadvantage is that the tower must

support the rotor and all gearing and el. generation

equipment standing on top of it, plus the

necessity of yawing to face the wind.

Source: www.gaia-wind.dk

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

63

The HAWT’s Blade

The HAWT’s Blade

The different sections of the blade along its radius have different

translational speeds, thus will experience different relative wind

velocities and different tip speed ratios.

Source: ”Wind Power Plants”, R. Gasch & J. Twele

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

64

Calculating the ideal turbine blade

Calculating the ideal turbine blade

Optimum dimensioning according to Betz:

The so called ”blade element theory” can be applied to design the

ideal shape of a turbine blade. It would be a combination of the

one-dimensional theory and the equation for lift force on airfoils.

Drag is assumed zero.

Source: ”Wind Power Plants”, R. Gasch & J. Twele

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

65

Ideal Turbine Blade

Ideal Turbine Blade

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

Deciding a given aerofoil (given C

L

), number of blades (B), and

desired tip speed ratio (λ), the distribution of blade’s chord length

(c), angle of relative wind (φ), and twist angle along the radius can

be derived:

[42]

while:

[43]

r L

BC 3

sin r 8

c

λ

ϕ π

=

r

3

2

an t λ ϕ =

(c)

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

66

Rotor Solidity

Rotor Solidity

Rotor solidity is expressed as

number of blades times blade

chord, divided to rotor perimeter,

at each rotor radius.

Eq. [42] clearly shows the

relation between blade chord

length, tip speed ratio, twist

angle, and the number of blades

for a typical wind rotor.

Higher number of blades means

slow rotation and small twist.

Lower number of blades means

fast rotation, large twist and large

blade taper from root to tip.

Source: ”Wind Power Plants”, R. Gasch & J. Twele

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

67

Optimal Number of Blades

Optimal Number of Blades

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

68

Section 4

Section 4

Real wind turbine rotors with

2-D and 3-D effects

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

69

Rotational Wake behind a Turbine

Rotational Wake behind a Turbine

The unstable shear flow behind the turbine induces turbulence at the

edge of the wake. Also, the real flow behind the turbine has actually a

certain angular velocity opposite to the rotor angular velocity, i.e. the

flow is slightly rotating and is not one-dimensional! This causes

certain aerodynamic loss. The rotational wake is explained with the

action-reaction phenomena (deflection) between the fluid flow and the

blades that extract energy from it.

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al. (modified)

rotor

fluid

Source: ”Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines”, Martin O.L. Hansen

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

70

Calculating the Rotational Wake

Calculating the Rotational Wake

The angular velocity imparted to the flow stream, ω, is small

compared to the angular velocity of the actuator disk, Ω.

The analysis can focus on an annular stream tube (ring) of radius r

and thickness dr, resulting in a cross-sectional area 2πrdr.

Across a rotating actuator disk, the angular velocity of the fluid flow

relative to the disk increases from Ω to Ω+ω , while the axial

component of the velocity remains constant. A control volume that

moves with the angular velocity of the rotating actuator disk can be

used for the analysis.

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

71

Conservation of Angular Momentum

Conservation of Angular Momentum

H. Glauert (1935) derived the expression for the pressure difference

across a rotating actuator disk when the angular component of the

velocity is taken into account:

And the resulting thrust on an annular ring of the disk is:

Next, the conservation of angular momentum gives the torque, Q,

exerted on each incremental annular ring of the actuator disk:

2

3 2

r ) ½ ( p p ω ω ρ + Ω = −

| |

2

3 2

r ) ½ ( rdr 2 ) p p ( dA dT ω ω ρ π + Ω = − =

( )( ) ( )( )( ) r r rdr 2 v r r m d dQ

2

ω π ρ ω = =

&

[46]

[45]

[44]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

72

Angular Induction Factor

Angular Induction Factor

An angular induction factor, a’, can be defined as:

Source: ”Wind Power Plants”, R. Gasch & J. Twele

Ω

=

2

' a

ω

[47]

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

73

C

P

with rotational wake

C

P

with rotational wake

The power output from a ring element would be:

Thus, the power coefficient for a turbine inducing rotational

wake can be found to be:

The result shows that C

P

is a function of the tip speed ratio λ !

(a and a’ can also be expressed by λ

r

)

[48]

(

¸

(

¸

− = Ω =

r

3

r 2

3

2

d ) a 1 ( ' a

8

Av ½ dQ dP λ λ

λ

ρ

[49]

∫

− =

λ

λ λ

λ

0

r

3

r

2

P

d ) a 1 ( ' a

8

C

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

74

Effect of Rotational Wake

Effect of Rotational Wake

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

Wake rotation behind the turbine causes aerodynamic losses,

which are most significant in the low tip-speed ratio region.

The practical energy extraction limit for slow-going turbines

is much lower than the Betz limit:

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

75

Effect of Rotational Wake

Effect of Rotational Wake

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

If a high aerodynamic efficiency

is sought, the turbine should run

at high tip-speed ratios!

Therefore, all modern electricity-

generating wind turbines have

low-solidity fast-rotating rotors

with two or three blades of

optimum airfoil shape.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

76

Long modern blades

Long modern blades

The blades of modern large wind turbines become very long and

their rotational speed decreases (to keep a certain tip speed

ratio), which implies that the part of the blade close to its root

(close to the rotor hub) will operate at very low speed ratio, thus

producing rotational wake-related losses and low C

P

.

As a rule of thumb, the upper 1/3 of the blade close to its tip generates

2/3 of the power for the whole blade. The lower 1/3 of the blade closest

to the hub is almost unproductive in nominal conditions, but helps with

the starting torque for acceleration of the rotor from standstill.

Therefore, it is not worth optimizing aerodynamically the part of

the blade closest to the hub, it is rather optimized mechanically

to give enough mechanical strength and proper support for the

rest of the blade.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

77

Profile Losses: Drag

Profile Losses: Drag

The adverse effect of the drag force on lift-force turbines is

usually refered to as ”profile losses”. This is the drag from

fluid friction and non-ideal airfoil shapes that slows the rotor

rotation.

Profile losses are accounted for by coefficients considering

the non-zero nature of the drag force on the blades, i.e. a

smaller ratio of lift-to-drag force than the ideal one.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

78

Blade Tip Losses

Blade Tip Losses

Blade tip losses are typical for any real aerofoil (aircraft wings

or turbomachine blades) and are due to the finite span of the

blade. They are caused by flow diverting from the pressure

side to the suction side of the blade around its tip, bringing a

three-dimensional pattern of the flow around the blade.

Blade tip losses are usually accounted for by empyrical

coefficients representing the decrease of lift forces close to

the tip of the blade.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

79

Nature of Blade Tip Losses

Nature of Blade Tip Losses

The theory presented above is valid for one- or two-dimensional

fluid flows around an airfoil of infinite span.

The finite span of the blade produces threedimensionality of the

flow and results in swirling wake behind the tip of the blade.

Source: ”Wind Power Plants”, R. Gasch & J. Twele

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

80

Decreasing the Tip Losses

Decreasing the Tip Losses

The relative magnitude of blade tip losses decreases with

increasing span of the blade.

One possible measure to actively decrease the losses is the

special ”winglet” at the tip of the blade.

Source: www.soaridaho.com

Winglets are often

used in glider planes

and in heavy cargo

or passenger planes

Source: www.airbus.com

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

81

Decreasing Tip Losses in Windmills

Decreasing Tip Losses in Windmills

At least one wind turbine manufacturer applies winglet-type end

structure for their blades - a curved and tapered tip of the blade.

This also helps to diminish the generation of noise by the blade.

Source: www.enercon.de

The Enercon blade

with curved blade tip

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

82

Real Blade Performance

Real Blade Performance

Performance of real blades without drag force:

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

83

Real Blade Performance

Real Blade Performance

Source: ”Wind Energy Explained”, J. F. Manwell et al.

Performance of a 3-bladed real turbine with drag force

accounted for:

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

84

Aerodynamic performance overview

Aerodynamic performance overview

Source: ”Wind Power Plants”, R. Gasch & J. Twele

Typical variation of power

coefficient and moment/

torque coefficient with

tip speed ratio for:

A: Savonius rotor

B: Multibladed windpump

C: 4-bladed old mill

D: 3-bladed modern rotor

E: 2-bladed modern rotor

NB: The figure shows only a

comparative exemplification,

with certain approximations.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

85

Starting Torque of a HAWT

Starting Torque of a HAWT

The comparison of overall aerodynamic performance clearly shows

the typical application areas for the various types of wind turbines:

•If higher efficiency of energy conversion is crucial (e.g. for electricity

generation), then the quick-running 2- or 3-bladed designs of all low-

solidity lift-force rotor types would be the choice. They can reach

high coefficients of performance at wide limits of tip speed ratios, but

have very low starting torque and can start and accelerate from

standstill only if the load is disconnected.

•If the rotor is always connected to the load (e.g. a piston pump), then

any slow-running high-solidity multiblade lift-force design or any

drag-force turbine would be the choice. The maximum achievable

coefficient of performance would not be high and the window of

operating tip speed ratios is limited, but the rotor has a considerably

high starting torque. The turbine can start from standstill and

accelerate to operating mode under load, which implies also a gain in

simplicity of construction and control.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

86

Section 5

Section 5

Aspects of Vertical Axis

Lift-Force Wind Turbines

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

87

Vertical Axis Lift-Force Turbines

Vertical Axis Lift-Force Turbines

Another type of lift-force wind turbines is the

vertical axis wind turbine - VAWT.

The rotor axis is perpendicular to the air flow

(usually vertical). The blades sweep a cylindrical,

conical or elliptical plane, perpendicular to the air

flow and parallel to the rotor axis.

Source: www.eurowind-uk.net

Source: www.ece.umr.edu/links/power/wind1.htm

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

88

The first patent from Darrieus

The first patent from Darrieus

The French engineer G.J.M. Darrieus patented this design of a

vertical axis lift-force turbine in 1931. His name is typically used

to denote the so-called “egg-beater” or “ skipping-rope” shape

of vertical axis turbines with two or more blades.

Source: www.windturbine-analysis.com

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

89

Historical Development of VAWT

Historical Development of VAWT

VAWTs were installed both as experimental prototypes

(large Darrieus turbines in USA and Canada, H-shaped

turbines in Germany and UK), and as commercial machines

in the first massive wind turbine parks of California.

They did not, however, make their way in the commercial

reality of today, even if some small-scale vertical axis

designs are being produced and sold by several small

companies nowadays.

Source: www.eurowind-uk.net

Source: www.ece.umr.edu/links/power/wind1.htm

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

90

Driving Force in a VAWT

Driving Force in a VAWT

The projection of the lift force acting

on the rotor blades tangentially to

the plane of rotation is producing

the torque in a VAWT.

The driving force is highest when

the blades cross the wind flow, and

is zero when the blades are parallel

to the flow, meaning that the torque

produced by each blade fluctuates

substantially while the rotor is

turning.

Source: www.windturbine-analysis.com

High lift

force

High lift

force

No lift,

only drag

No lift,

only drag

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

91

Blades used in a VAWT

Blades used in a VAWT

The vertical axis lift-force wind turbine is subjected to the

same theoretical considerations and practical limitations

as the horizontal axis one, in terms of aerodynamics.

The nature of the driving force in a VAWT, however,

imposes one specific limitation as regards the airfoil shape

of the blades. The angle of relative wind fluctuates around

the zero point (positive and negative) during each revolution

of the rotor, which implies that the blades should have a

symmetrical airfoil shape in order to posses the same

aerodynamic properties when the angle of attack changes

from positive to negative. This reduces the lift-to-drag ratio

of the blade and has an impact on the overall aerodynamic

performance of the turbine.

Source: www.solwind.co.nz

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

92

Blades used in a VAWT

Blades used in a VAWT

Example of a symmetrical airfoil shape under fluctuating angle of relative

wind in one revolution for a typical lift-force VAWT.

0

π/2

π

3π/2

0…

Degree of rotor

revolution:

Angle of relative

wind:

ϕ +

ϕ −

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

93

Starting Torque of a VAWT

Starting Torque of a VAWT

The lift-force VAWT does not experience any starting torque!!!

This may be a critical issue for certain applications. Turbines

connected to the electricity grid can use the electric generator as a

starting motor. In stand-alone configurations, either electricity storage

devices (again using the generator as a starting motor) or integrated

drag-force turbines (as start turbines) can be applied in order for the

VAWT to spin up to a point where the lift force can take over.

Source: www.oswego.edu/nova/facts/wind

A small Darrieus rotor with an

integrated Savonius rotor to

provide starting torque.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

94

Disadvantages of VAWTs

Disadvantages of VAWTs

•Lower aerodynamic efficiency than HAWTs due to the

symmetrical airfoil blade shape, and also because usually the

lower part of the turbine spins in the boundary layer of the air

flow close to the ground!

•Darrieus rotors require complicated tower support structures

or guy wires and have lower coefficients of performance than

straight-bladed H-rotors, because only the part of the Darrieus

rotor close to its equator operates at optimum tip speed ratio.

•Highly loaded main bearing at the foundation, difficult to

repair or replace without dismantling the whole turbine.

•Unpleasant appearance.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

95

Advantages of VAWTs

Advantages of VAWTs

•All main power train components (gearbox, generator, brakes

and main bearing) are placed on the ground, allowing for easy

access for maintenance and lower stress on the tower.

•Yaw mechanism for facing the wind is not needed – the

turbine accepts wind from any direction.

•The blades are easier to manufacture (symmetrical airfoils

without any twist or taper).

•All these features result in a simple machine, easily scalable

to large dimensions, at lower costs than a horizontal axis one.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course “Fluid Machinery” (4A1629)

96

Advantages of VAWTs

Advantages of VAWTs

The main advantage of the VAWT is believed to be the easier

geometrical scalability to large dimensions.

HAWTs are limited in future scale expansion for single turbines due

to quickly increasing masses of blades and fatigue loads with scale.

For example, the blade for a 1.5 MW HAWT is about 31 m long and

weighs around 4 to 5 tons. The blade for a 5 MW machine would be

around 55 m long and would weigh about 12 to 14 tons, i.e. the mass

of the HAWT’s blade is not proportional to its length.

Besides, the longer the blade for a HAWT, the lower the aerodynamic

efficiency of the part close to its root would be.

VAWTs would not face such problems.

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- Solie Edge Constructing Procedural Feature 7
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