^J

Ar-rr-7
4. /

6X

I90I

A

COMMENTARY
The Confession of
Faith.

WITH QUESTIONS FOR THEOLOGICAL STUDENTS

AND BIBLE CLASSES

REV. ARCHIBALD

,/ ALEXANDER HODGE.

BY THE

D.D.,

Pkofessor op Didactic and Polemical Theology in the Theological Seminary of the Peesbyterian Church at Princeton, N. J.

WITH APPENDIX.

PHILADELPHIA:

PRESBYTERIAK BOARD OF PUBLICATION A:N'D SABBATH-SCHOOL WORK,
1901.

Rntered according to Act of Congress, in th« year 186^, by

THE TRUSTEES OP THE

'^

PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF PUBLICATION,
In the Clerk's
Office of tlie District

Court of the United States for the Eastern

District of PennsylTania.

PREFACE.
This Commentary on the "Confession of Faith" consists of its chapters and sections, with proofs and iHustraIt aims to bring out the natural and histions of its doctrines.
an analysis of
torically-established sense of the text.
Its design is to stimulate

and

facilitate

the study of this excellent body of Christian truth

among

theological students, Bible-class scholars, ruling elders and
It

ministers.

was

first

published in 1869, and, having been
to issue a

cir-

culated in Great Britain and Ireland as well as in America, the

Board of Publication has been encouraged

Two
Chai'les

appendices have been added to this edition.

new edition. The first
which

contains the statement of the representative theologians, Dr.

Hodge and

Dr.

Henry B. Smith,

as to the sense in

the historical Presbyterian Church understands intrants into her ministrj'to accept the " Confession of Faith as containing the sys-

tem of doctrine taught shown
to

in the

Holy Scriptures "
;

in

which under-

standing the two branches of the Presbyterian Church are thus

have been perfectly agreed. The second appendix contwo official explanations of the sense in which the Westminster Confession is understood by their respective denom" Auburn Declai. e. the inations made by representative bodies ration" in 1837 and the "Declarative Act" of the United Prestains the only

byterian Sj'nod of Scotland in 1879.

\
\

In the mean time very much light has been thrown upon the Westminster Assembly and its proceedings by the labors of the Rev. Dr. A. F. Mitchell, professor of ecclesiastical history in St. Mary's College. St. Andrews. In 1867 and 1874 he published
with a learned introduction, the Minutes of the Wcstmiii.ster Asftemhly and his Baird lecture for 1882, The Westminster Assembly^ its
History

and Standards.

The new

information, however, relates

4
entirely to the sources

PREFACE.
from which the doctrine of our standards performed b}^ the several persons coIt does not give occasion to the

was drawn, and

to the part

operating in their composition.

modification of a single interpretation advanced in this

Com-

mentary.

While the doctrine of this Confession is in perfect harmony with that of the Reformed divines of Holland and Switzerland, especially with the form their doctrine assumed after the rise of what has been called "the Covenant Theology," nevertheless
Dr. Mitchell shows that
sources
:

it is drawn almost entirely from British "There was perhaps no branch of the mediasval Church where the system of doctrine developed by Augustine had so

its old supremacy to the last as the Anglo-Norman. The system of its greatest theologians, Anselm and Bradwardine, appropriated by Wyclif and the Lollards, continued or revived by Tyndale, Frith, Barnes and their coadjutors, may be said to have formed the substratum of the Reformed

unquestionably retained

teaching."

"With

respect to the doctrine of the covenants,

which some myself now,

assert to

have been derived from Holland, I think

after careful investigation, entitled to maintain that

there is nothing taught in the Confession which had not been long before in substance taught by RoUock and Howie in Scotland, and by Cartwright, Preston, Perkins, Ames and Ball in

The remarkable treatise of Ball on The Covenant of was published with recommendatory notices by Reynolds, Cawdrey, Calamy, Hill, Ashe and Burgess at the very time the Assembly began to frame its Confession."
England.
Ch-ace

order of

Dr. Mitchell proves that the Confession was conformed in the its chapters and the type of its doctrine more to the "Articles of the Irish Church " than to any other model. These
in 1615,

were drawn up by Archbishop Ussher
fessor of divinity in Trinity College,

Dublin.

when he was proThe correspond-

ence of the Larger Catechism is also very striking with the Bodij of Christian Dnctnne, a compilation attributed to Ussher when a
youth, and circulated in the Westminster Assembly.

A. A. Hodge.
Peinckton, N.
J.,

June, 18S5.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER
The Scriptures
I.

A SHORT HISTORY OF CREEDS AND CONFESSIONS.
the only Standard of faith

and

practice.

part in the matter of interpretation.
true use of Creeds

and Confessions. Difi'erent conditions imposed upon private members and upon office-bearers. The "Adopting Act" of the original Synod. The final adoption of our Standards in their present form, A.D. 17S8. I. The ancient Creeds which express the faith of the whole Church, viz.: the Apostles', the Nicene, the Athanasian Creeds, and those of the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. II. The Creeds and Confessions of the dilTercnt branches of the Church since the Reformation 1. The Doctrinal Standards of the Church of Rome. 2. The Doctrinal Standards of the Greek Church. 3. The Confessions of the Lutheran Church. 4. The Confessions of the Reformed or Calvinistic Churches. The adoption of the Westminster Confession and Catechisms by the Presbyterians and Congregationalists of America

— The —

origin of

— Man's Creeds. — The

PAQI

:

29

CHAPTER

II.

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN OF THE "WESTMINSTER CONFESSIOS

AND CATECHISMS.
Thb
which the Protestant Confessions were produced. — The origin of the " Canons of the Synod of Dort" and the " Westminster Confession." The Reformation in Scotland, its origin, character and political eftects. The " National Covenant," A.D. The 1638, and the '•Solemn League and Covenant," A.D. 1643. The Reformation in England, its origin, character and effect.s. tyranny of the Stuirts. The Long Parliament. The ordinance
usual

mode

in

— —

calling an Assemblj of Divines at Westminster

-The compositioD

&

pure and reliable That the absolute rule of faith is the (2. Sections II. Section VII. teach (1. having been committed to vrriting. (3.) The books called "Apocrypha" form no part of the Sacred Canon. — The adoption of the Westminster Standards by the original Presbyterian Synod in America. —The parties repre— The preparation of a " Directory of Worship.D.) The Not light of nature sufiicicnt to leave sufficient to men enable any to attain salva- Hence God has at different times made a supernatural some favored portion of the race. (4. Sections IV. — The of the Confession by the Parliament and by the Scotch Assembly.) Their high- work of the Spirit on the heart. — The establishment by Parliament of the Presbj-terian Church. and V. ^ teaches — (1.) Men — are left to apply the principles revealed to practical details accord- ing to the leadings of Providence. is exclusively embraced in the Holy Scriptures. (2. (2.) (2.) All the canonical books were divinely inspired.) The authority of Scripture rests not on the Church. est evidence is the direct (3. . (3. affirms that the Scriptures are peuspicuous. Beotion tion. Section VI. Its PAQI different ratification to the civil magistrate excepted to and altered 41 COMMENTARY ON THE CONFESSION OF FAITH. teaches tially — (1.^ OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURE. and hence are an infallible and authoritative rule of faith and practice. teach (1. teaches (1. — organization.> CONTENTS.) That these Holy Scriptures include the Old and the New Testaments and all the particular books named.) This revelation. (3.) without excuse.) That we possess an essentext.) Scripture in the original tongues. sented.) That they ought to be tranp- lated into the languages of all people.) Yet the spiritual illumination of each person by the Holy Ghost is necessary. but immediately upon God. (2. (3. (4. and III. I. Government and Discipline. — The Dissolution of the Long Parliament.) The Scriptures are a complete rule of faith and practice. A. — The passages relating of the Assembly. Sections VIII. 1729."— The preparation of the Confession of Faith and Catechisms.) Their internal revelation of himself to — — characteristics prove the Scriptures to be divine. CHAPTER I.)' Nothing in the present dispensation is to be added to them or to take their place.

) The ultimate end of his the praise of his glorious grace. Section VI. Bections IX.) There is but one lining and God. teach — (1. II. as a whole. all is He (5. He the self-existent and absolutely independent Supporter. regeteration.) That God's all comj)rehensive purpose determines all the means and conditions as well as all the ends he has chosen to effect. (2.) I.) eternity followed an unchangeable plan all in all his works. pas(4. (3.) That they are distinguished from one another by certain personal properties and modes of operation and of manifesta(1. and II.) in reference to objects certainly eflS- cacious. and that in the logical order the end takes precedence of the means. ^ tiyie OF GOD AND OF THE HOLY TRINITY.) (6. and that the rest shall be condemned for their sin. sanctification. God is a free personal Spirit. Section III. '^ 89 OF god's eternal decree. and possess in common all the divine perfections.CONTENTS. of the creatures severally affected by Sections III. but is sovereignly determined by the wise counsel of his election is — own will.) — (1. teaches That Father. (4. aflSrm (1. It is in all its parts consistent is in all with his own perfec- It things perfectly consistent with the nature it. without bodily parts or (3.) God has from (2.) It is not conditioned (2.) That God's eternal purpose determines what individuals shall be effectually called through faith unto salvation. an absolutely sovereign purpose. The Scriptures 67 are the suprcmt judge iu all controversies respecting religion CHAPTER Sections (2.) and in all its parts.) This sions. and II. teach — (T.) This determination is unchangeable. etc. Son and Holy Spirit are each equally that one God. teach terpretation of Scripture 7 PAGB infallible rule for the in(2.) — tion —as follows. etc CHAPTER III. and V. aflBrms (1. tions. (4.) The only is Scripture itself. all its This purpose (5.) He possesses all absolute perfections in himself. IV.) possesses relative perfections with respect to his creatures..) by Christ. This plan comprehends things and events whatsoever that come to pass. (2. is is (3. all his Proprietor and Disposer of creatures.) That they are three distinct persons although one substance.) That in the matter of human redemption the tion — "end" is the salvation of the elect —the " means" (3. AND X. are redempThat hence the . upon foreseen faith or obedience. (3.) This plan. Sections I.

i. good. teach is — (1. etc.) Man was created immediately by God.) Neither the elementary substance nor the form of the universe nor of any of its parts is self-existent or eternal. Adam was left.) God originally created man in his own image (a) a personal spirit (b) an intelligent. righteous and holy spirit. Section II.) It is the consistent execution in time (5.. ^ OF CREATION. (3. etc.) God directs all the actions of his creatures according to their respective properties and and in the possession relations. This providential control extends to all his crea(4. Sections and III.8 "means" " end" is CONTENTS. each after its present condition in the (3. and a positive revelation of his will.) That God treats the non-elect upon principles of strict justice. and should be handled with special care Ill Section VII. (3.) When (4. Section I. — — CHAPTER Section being. I. and condemns them for their sins. (3.) tures and all their actions..) — grace involves the sovereign determination CHAPTER IV. e. teaches that this doctrine is a great mystery.) God's providential control over (2. and reconstructed this earth into space of six days. V. PAGI are only intended to be applied to those for whom the intended. teaches — (1. with dominion over the creatures. II. (2. effectually called. it every case perfectly consistent with the nature of the agent subject to it.) — The triune God originally created the elementary substances of the universe out of nothing. (2. teaches (1. (2.) God continues to uphold all his creatures in and exercise of the qualities and active powers with which he endowed them.) every being and event is in certainly efficacious. no^e but the elect are redeemed by Christ. Section VIII. >" OF PROVIDENCE. affirms (1. and arranged its all the forms they as- sume.) The whole human family has descended from one pair. under 127 a special test. capable of falling kind.) But while capable of obedience. teaches (1.) finished all God's works were very The final end of God in his creation was the manifestation of his own glory. That the sovereign destination of some to to withhold grace from the non-elect. end is the manifestation of his own glory.) God furnished Adam with a moral nature in a perfect state.) God ordinarily effects his purposes through the . As to manner. (2. (5. (4. and last of all the creatures.) Its final of his eternal purpose.

It is lor Christ's (2. All sin whether original or actual.) These are subordinated to the special. Agency of second causes.) The general providence of God (1.i. teaches — (1.^ OF THE FALL. and God in no case is either the author or approver of sin.) Innate moral corruption remains regenerate as long as they live. deserves punishment.) good. mon " to "efficacious" grace.) sin are at birth actually inflicted both the natural and The penal consequences of his upon all his descendants.CONTENTS.) At times. each other in a certain order —the general (2. off Section II. Their sin was eating (4. e. of providence to the gracious influences of the Spirit.) The relation and of "com144 The judicial abandonment of the reprobate CHAPTER VI.) Hence they pravity all inherit his moral corruption.) 9 PAQl Section IV. OF MAN. This sin was.. unless grace prevent ]6< .3.) first PUNISHMENT '• Section I. teaches — (1. Our (3. (4. involving disinclination and inability for to ail evil. (4.) dowed with sufficient knowledge.) as much a violation of God's law as actual transgression.) (2.) physi- cal to the moral. III. immediately by the direct energy of his power. by way of permission. and IV.) (5. — comprehends several to distinct systems. (4.) The discipline of God's people. Sections III. and the moral to the spiritual.) the forbidden fruit. sinned.) and controls them.) In them it is pardoned gradually brought into subjection by it is the Holy Ghost. They were seduced thereto by Satan. The twofold mys(5. and IV. This innate deall is total.) (7. embraced in the divine plan. actual and inclination Sections in the From this inward state all transgressions proceed. however.) And became dead This moral corruption extends to faculties and wholly defiled. (. a corrupt habit of soul) (6. eousness.) God designed to order it to his own glory. (5. tery involved in the origin of sin stated and considered.) parents being created holy. teaches directs — God not oily permits (2.) Adam was head of all mankind. (5.) And consequently lost in sin all all original right(4. OP SIN AND OP THE THEREOF. sin is All death. but he Yet the sinfulness of these actions is only from the sinning agent. sinful acts. (2. VI. is Original sin (t.) All that remains of intrinsically of the nature of sin. (3. the (. (3. teach fake.) By this sin they were immediately cut from communion with God.) — (1. and VII. Suctions V. and en(2.) (4. teach (1. and parts of soul and body.. federal teach — (1.

10

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
'

VII. ^

OF god's covenant with man.
Sections
I.

and

II.

teach

— (L)
is

Vila

and unlimited debt to Creator by the creature
has graciously pleased to In this covenant

Every creature is under an essential his Creator. (2.) But the fruition of the
a matter of sovereign grace.
(3.)

God

offer

men and
which

angels a reward upon conthej* are

dition they render an obedience to
(4.)

previously bound.
condition, perfect

Adam

is

the representative of his descendants.

(5.)

The promise of

their covenant

was

life

—the

obedience.

Sections III. and IV.
ported with proof.

The Arminian and Calvinistic views of the Covenant of Grace contrasted. The Calvinistic view stated and sup-

Sections V. and VI.
istered, is one.

(1.)

This covenant, although variously admin-

(2.)

Its

New

Testament stated. (3.) Testament stated

manner of administration under the Old Its manner of administration under the
183

CHAPTER
Section
I.

VIII.*'

OF CHRIST THE MEDIATOR.
teaches
(2.)

(1.)

The covenanted Head
office

God-man.

His mediatorial

of the Church is the embraces the three functions

(3.) As Mediator, Christ is Head Oi and Judge of the world. Section II. teaches (1.) Christ was true man. (2.) He was absolutely sinless. (3.) He was very God, the second Person of the Trinity. (5.) This (4.) The God-man was one single person. single personality was that of the Eternal Son of the Father. (6.) The two natures in him continue distinct. Sections III. and IV. teach (1.) The human nature of Christ was

of prophet, priest

and king.

his Church, Heir of all things

greatly exalted by the incarnation.
torial actions as

(2.)

Christ performs

all

media-

God-man.
(4.)

(3.)

He

acts in virtue of his appointit

ment by the Father.
miliation.

He assumed

voluntarily. (5.)

He acts as
of hu-

Meiliator in his estate of exaltation,

and

(6) in his estate

Sections V. and VI. teach
his obedience, (6)
in strict jusb.je.
(6)

(I.)

Christ satisfied for his people (a)
(2.)

by

his sutTcrings.

lla fully satisfied for

by them

(3.)

He

secured for them (a) remission of sins,
(4.)

an everlasting inheritance.

The

benefits of this redemption

are applied to his people by the Holy Ghost.

Sbction VII. teaches

(1.)

The properties

of each nature of Christ are

CONTENTS.
exercised in
all

11
PAD I
(2.)

his actions as Mediator.

Icruntly designated in the style of either nature,
(if

The Person is indifand the properties King applies
his reit

either nature are indifferently predicated of the Person.

bECTioN VIII. teaches

(1.)

Christ as mediatorial

demption

to those for

whom
it

he purchased

it.

(2.)

He

applicH

(a)

by
(a.)

intercession, (i) revelation, (c) effectual calling, (d) providences,

He

certainly applies
it"

to "all those for

whom

he hath pur218

chased

CHAPTER
Section
Sections
Jiberty.
I.

IX.

K
rational

OF FREE WILL.
teaches that

man

is

endowed with a

and moral

power of self-determination.
II., III.,

IV. and V. teach the peculiar conditions of
(2.)

human

(1.)

In the estate of original innocence.
sin. (3.)

In the pres230

ent estate of

In the estate of imperfectly sanctified saints

on earth.

(4.)

In the estate of glory

CHAPTER
Sections
only.
I.

X. "^

OF EFFECTUAL CALLING.
and
II.

teach

(1.)

That there
is

is

an internal as well as an
Its subjects are the elect

external call necessary to save men.
(3.)

(2.)

The Holy Ghost
(5.)

sole agent,

who
in

effects

it

by the

in-

strumentality of the truth.

(4.)

It consists

an

effectual act of

divine power.
of the whole

It effects

a radical change in the moral condition

man.

Section III. teaches that infants and others incapable of knowing the truth are regenerated by the Spirit without it. Section IV. teaches
Christ.
his

(1.)

The non-elect

will perish certainly, but

only

because they freely reject Christ.
(3.)
is

(2.)

Men

can be saved only by
2ii

In the case of sane adults the knowledge of Christ and

work

necessary

CHAPTER XL"
OF JUSTIFICATION.
Sections
I.

and

II. teach
(2.)

(1.)

All
is

and only those
is

effectually called
is

are justified.

Justification

a judicial act of God, and
right in the eye of law.
(4.)

a

declaration that the person justified
It

(3.)

proceeds upon the imputation of Christ's righteousness.

This

12
imputation
is

CONTENTS.
PAOl

conditioned on faith.

(5.)

This faith
is

is

the gift of

God.

(6.)

Faith alone, but not faith which

alone, justilies.
full

Section III. teaches
legal satisfaction

That justification proceeds upon the rendered by Christ. (2.) It is nevertheless a
(1.)

stu-

pendous exercise of
in Christ.

free grace.

Section IV. teaches that the elect are never justified until they believe
Sections V. and VI. teach
(1.) That justified men, although they under God's displeasure because of sin, will abandoned. (2.) The Old Testament believers were
fall

may

temporarily

never be finally
justified

upon the same principles as modern believers

249

CHAPTER
The

XII,

/
and
263

OF ADOPTION.
relation of regeneration, faith, justification, sauctification

adoption.

The elements and consequences of adoption

CHAPTER

XIII. »^

OF SANCTIFICATION.
This Chapter teaches (1.) The gracious principle implanted in regeneration is gradually developed in sanctification. (2.) Sanctification
(4.)
is

both negative and positive.
is

(3.)
life.

It involves the entire
(5.)

man.
274

It
it

never perfect in this

Nevertheless, through

grace

shall never fail

CHAPTER

XIV.

"^

OF SAVING FAITH.
Saving faith defined. Section I. teaches (1) That saving faith is the work of the Holy Ghost (2) by means of the AVord, (3) and strengthened by the use of the sacraments and prayer. Section II. teaches (1.) Saving faith rests upon the truth of God speaking in the Word. (2.) It embraces all the contents of the \f ord. (3.) It is a complex state of mind varying with its objects. (4.) The specific act of faith which justifies includes (a) assent,

(6) trust.

Section III. teaches
degree, and in the

(1.) True same person

faith

varies in ditforoiit persons in
(2.) It is assailed

at ditferent times.

and often enfeebled, but always gains the victory. , grows up to the measure of full assurance..^,

(3.)

In time

it

284

CONTENTS.

15

CHAPTER XV.
Bections
I.

^
PAoa
rests on (a) sense of

OF KEPENTANCE UNTO LIFE.
AND
II.

teach— (1.) True repentance

(2.) It guilt and pollution, (h) apprehension of mercy in Christ. consists in (a) hatred of fin, (6) turning unto God, (c) an endeavour (4.) It (3.) It is both a duty and a grace. after new obedience.

should be faithfully preached. Sections III., IV. and V. teach— (1.) There is no merit in repentance. forgiven. (3.) We (2.) The greatest sin when repented of will be should repent of the sinfulness of our nature, and of every sinful act
in particular.

Section VI. teaches— (1.) That every man should make private conperson fession of sin to God. (2.) Should confess injuries to the injured, and public offences to the Church. (3.) Christians should
forgive all repentant offenders.....

297

CHAPTER
Sections
(o)
I.

XVI.

*^

OF GOOD WOKKS.
and
II.

teach- (1.) Every work
;

in order to

be good must
(2.)

be commanded (h) must spring from a good motive. effects of good works are various and as follow. Section III. teaches— (1.) The ability to produce good works

The

is

wholly

from God.
is

(2.)
(3.)

Continuous sanctifying as well as regenerative grace
Nevertheless wc must exert ourselves and use means

needed.

thereto.

Sections IV., V. and VI. teach— (1.)
impossible.
(2.)

Works

of " supererogation " are
(3.)

The

best works of believers imperfect.

They

are nevertheless accepted through Christ and rewarded for his sake. Section VII. teaches— (1.) Works of unregenerate men may be good all relatively to their fellows. (2.) But relatively to God they are
irreligious

and unacceptable

313

CHAPTER

XVII. '^

OP THE PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAINTS.
finally fall This Chapter teaches— (1.) The true believer can never away. (2.) The ground of this certain perseverance is not in the (3.) The believer, but in th? purpose, promise and grace of God. and effecU true believer may, however, fall temporarily, the occasions

of trhich falls arc as follow

321

14

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Sections
I.

XVIII.
PASI

OF ASSURANCE OF GRACE AND SALVATION.
and
II.

teach— (1.) There
is

appoints.
certainty.
{b)

(2.)

There

is a false assurance which disa true assurance amounting to an infallible

(3.) It rests (a) upon the divine truth of the promises, upon the inward evidence of grace, (c) upon the witness of the

Spirit.

Sections III. and IV. (each— (I.) This assurance
of faith.
(2.) It is attainable,

is

not of the essence

and should be sought as a great advantage. (3.) May be lost in divers ways. (4.) The true believer is never allowed finally to fall into despair, and assurance once lost

may

be revived

33fi

CHAPTER
OF THE
Sections
I.

XIX.
OP GOD.
created a moral agent, sub(2.)

LAW

and

II. teach

(1.)

Man was

ject to a moral law of absolute perfection.

God put Adam,

the

natural head of the
cial

human

race,
(3.)

probationary period.
It is

under trial of obedience for a speThis law since the fall is not the
in the
life and chaTen Command-

condition of salvation, but continues the standard of
racter.
(4.)

summarily comprehended

ments.
Sections III., IV. and V. teach

(1.)

God gave

the

Jews
(3.)

also a cere-

monial law.

(2.)

Also a system of judicial laws.

Both these
(4.)

have ceased

to be in force in the Christian dispensation.

On

the other hand, the moral law continues in unabated force.

Sections VI. and VII. teach

(1.)

Since the

fall

no

man

can be saved

by the law.
falvation.

(2.)
(3.)

Believers are not under the law as a condition of
is

Nevertheless, the law

of manifold uses under the

gospel, as follows

357

CHAPTER XX.
OF CHRISTIAN LIBERTY AND LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE.
Section
I.

teaches

(1)

Christian liberty

is

common

to all believers in

and includes (a) deliverance from the guilt of sin, (6) and from the bondage of corruption, (c) peace with God, {d) deliverance from the bondage of Satan, (e) and of afflictions and death, (/) and of the grave. (2.) This liberty is greater under the new than under the old dispensation.
all ages,

CONTENTS.
Sections
II., III.

16
PAOI

science.

(2.)

and IV. teach (1.) God alone is Lord of the conHis will is revealed only in Scripture. (3.) Hence

either to require or to yield belief to the doctrines of
to

men
evid

is

treason
limits.

God.

(4.)

Christian liberty has, however,
establislicd both
(6.)

its

duo

and

(5.)

God has

dience to each.

Church and State, and requires obeThe Church has a divine right of exercising
365

government and discipline

CHAPTER
Sections
I.

XXI.

OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP AND THE SABBATH DAY.
The obligation of worship is a dictate how we should worship God, and all man-prescribed methods arc sinful. (3.) The Father, Son and Holy Ghost the only proper object of worship, and all worship must be offered through Christ. (4.) Worship of saints and angels

and

II.

teach

(1.)

of nature.

(2.)

Scripture prescribes

unlawful. Sections III. and IV. teach
ship.
(2.)

(1.)

Prayer

It should be offered for all
(4.)

is a principal part of wormen. (3.) The conditions of

acceptable praj'er as follow.

The

object of prayer as follows.
etc.

Sections V. and VI. teach of public, family and private worship,

Sections VII. and VIII. teach of the law of the Sabbath and the

proper method of

its

observance

387

CHAPTER
Sections
(2.)
I., II.,

XXIT.

OF LAWFUL OATHS AND VOWS.
and IV. teach (1.) The nature of a lawful oath. The only Name in which it is lawful to swear. (3.) The propriety of taking oaths upon lawful occasions. (4.) The sense in which an oath is to be interpreted. (5.) The extent and grounds
III.

of

its

obligation.

8bctions v., VI. AND VII. teach of the nature and obligations of a - 397 TOW

CHAPTER
Sections
I.

XXIII.

OP THE CIVIL MAGISTRATE.
government originates not with (2.) The pro.ximate end the good of the community; the ultimate end the glory of God. (3.) Christian magistrates should promote piety, etc. (4.) It id lawful (5.) Justifiable war is lawful. for Christians to be magistrates.

and

II. teach

(1.)

Civil

the people, but with God; this proved.

16
Sections III. ani IV. teach,
error,

CONTENTS.
PAoa
in opposition to

Re nish and Erastian
to

that the State and

Church are not

interfere with one

another

408

CHAPTER XXIV.
OF MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE.
Sections
I.,

II.

and

III. teach

(1.)

Marriage

is

a divine institution,

and a
one
(5.)

religious as well as a civil contr.act.
(3.)

(2.)

The ends of the

institution are as follow.

man

at a time.

(4.)

Lawful only between one woman and Marriage lawful for all men, and good.

Persons of different religions should not intermarry.

Sections IV., V. and VI. teach
(2.)

(1.)

The divine law

as to incest.

As

to

DIVORCE

420

CHAPTER XXV.
OF THE CHURCH.
Sections
I.,

V

II.

and

III. teach

(1.)

invisible catholic Church.
(3.)

(2.)

That

this catholic visible
(4.)

The scriptural doctrine as to the As to the visible catholic Church. Church is endowed with the means
no ordinary possibility of salvation. That the visible catholic Church
(2.)
is

of grace.

That out of

it is

Sections IV., V. and VI. teach

(1.)

varies in purity and visibility at different times and places.

That it can never Church

fail.

(3.)

That Christ

the only

Head

of the

435

CHAPTER XXVI.
OP COMMUNION OF SAINTS.
This Chapter teaches (1.) Of the union of Christ and his people. (3.) Of their union (2.) Of his consequent fellowship with them. with one another. (4.) Their consequent fellowship. (5.) Their 441 mutual duties.

CHAPTER XXVII. /
OP THE SACRAMENTS,
Sections
I.

and

II.

teach

(1.)

A

sacrament

is

an ordinance instituted

by Christ.

(2.)

It consists of (a)

a visible sign; (i) an inward

spiritual grace signified by it. (3.) The nature and consequents of the sacramental union between the sign and the grace. (4.) They are designed to "represent, seal and apply" the benefits of Christ

to believers.

(5.)

And

to

be badges of our profession.

CONTENTS.
Section III. teaches
herent.
(2.)

17
PAQI
is

(1.)

That the virtue of the sacrament
(.3.)

not in-

That

it

does not depend upon the piety or "intention"

But upon (a) the divine appointment, Holy Ghost. Section IV. teaches that there are only two sacraments. Section V. teaches that the sacraments of the old and the new dispensations were substantially the same 459
of the administrator.
(6) the sovereign grace of the

CHAPTER
Sections
I.,

XXVIII. »^

OF BAPTISM.
teach— (1.) Baptism is a New Testament sacrament. (2.) It is a washing with water in the name of the Trinity. (3.) Its design is to signify and seal our engrafting into Christ and our engagement to be his. Section IV. teaches that not only professors of religion, "but also the
II.

and

III.

infants of one or both believing parents, are to be baptized."

Sections V., VI. and VII. teach
vation.
(2.)

(1.)

Baptism

is

not essential to sal(3.) (4.)

Its observance,

however, a duty.
of application.

Its efiScacy is

not tied down to the
tered but once

moment

To be adminis481

CHAPTER XXIX. ^
OF THE lord's SUPPER.
Section
its
I.

teaches

(1.)

dinance was instituted.
design and
effect.

Of the time and the Person by whom (2.) Of its perpetual obligation.

this or(3.)

Of

Sections

II., III.,

IV., V.

and VI. teach
(1.)

the true doctrine in opposition
(2.)

to the following errors:

Transubstantiation.

Sacrifice of

the mass.

(3.)

The

elevation

Den3'ing the cup to the laity.

Sections VII. and VIII. teajh

and worship of the elements. (4.) (5.) Private communion. (1.) The relation between the bread

and wine and the flesh and blood of Christ only moral. (2.) Christ's body is present only virtually. (3.) Believers feed on him only
through
faith, (5) precisely as

they do at other times

495

CHAPTER XXX.
OF CHURCH CENSURES.
bKCTTON
2
I.

teaches

(1.)
is

Christ has appointed a government for

tlj«

Church, (2) which

distinct

from that of the State,

18
Sections
II., III.

CONTENTS.
PAOI

and IV. teach— (1.) As to the nature and extent of church power. (2.) As to the ends of diacipline. (3.) As to the
methods through which
it

should be administered

504

CHAPTER XXXI.
OF SYNODS AI^D COUNCILS.
SnCTiON
Suctions
I.

teaches of synods and councils, and the right of church

officers to call

them.

and IV. teach (1.) The classes of subjects falling under the jurisdiction of synods and councils. (2.) The grounds of their binding power. (3.) The extent to which submission to their decisions is a duty 514
II., III.

CHAPTER XXXII. /
OF THK STATE OF MEN AFTER DEATH, AND OF THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD,
Section
I.

teaches

(1.)

Man

consists of soul

and body.
is

(2.)

In death

the body decomposes, and the soul of the believer (a)
perfect, (h) continues conscious

at once

made
(d.)
(e.)

and happy,
(/.)

(c) is

with Christ,

The

souls of the wicked are in conscious misery with the devil,

These conditions are irreversible,
gatory,
etc.,

Romish doctrine

as to pur-

disproved.
III. teach

Sections

II.

and

(1.)

There

is to

be a simultaneous resur-

rection of the just

be changed.

(3.)

and of the unjust, The identical bodies

(2.)

Those then living are to

laid in the grave to be raised,
to be

(4.) The animal bodies of the saints The bodies of the unjust to be raised

made

"spiritual,"

(5.)

to

dishonour

526

CHAPTER
Skction's
I.

XXXIII. *^
of general

OF THE LAST JUDGMENT,
AND
II.

teach

(1.)

God has appointed a day

judgment.
(3.)

has committed the judgment to the Mediator. The persons to be judged include angels and the whole human
(2.) (4.)

He

race.

It is to

reach to thoughts and feelings as well as words

and deeds.
of God.
felicity.
(fi.)

(5.) It will

(7.)

vindicate the justice and display the grace The righteous are to be exalted to eternal honour and The ungodly are to be remanded to conscious misery
for all eternity.

and dishonour

Section III. teaches

(1.)

Of the certainty of the

fact, (2)

but of the
538

uncertainty of the tine of the judgment, and of the designed effect
of this uncertainty

Appendix I Appendix II


,

539
544

INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER
It
is

I.

A SHORT HISTORY OF CREEDS AND CONFESSIONS.
asserted in the
first

chapter of this Confession, and vin-

dicated in this exposition that the Scriptures of the Old and

New
for
faith

Testaments, having been given by inspiration of God, are
in his present state the only

man

and the

all-sufficient rule

of

and

practice.

and the
therein,

entire

man is to believe concerning God, duty which God requires of man, are revealed
All that
to be
it is

and are

believed and obeyed because contained

therein, because
fore, is

the word of God.

This divine word, thereother standards are of

/

the only standard of doctrine which has intrinsic authority

binding the conscience of men.
Scriptures teach.

And

all

j

value or authority only in proportion as they teacb what the

i

While, however, the Scriptures are from God, the understand-!
ing of

them belongs

to the part of

men.

Men must

interpret to/

the best of their ability each particular part of Scripture separately,

and then combine

all

that the Scriptures teach upon every

subject into a consistent whole, and then adjust their teachingH

upon different subjects in mutual consistency as parts of a harmonious system. Every student of the Bible must do this, and
all

make

it

obvious that they do

it

by the terms they use

in their

prayers and religious discourse, whether the}- admit or deny the
propriety of

human

creeds and confessions.

If they refuse the

assistance afforded by tho statements of doctrine slowly elabo
19

20

INTRODUCTION.
must make out
their

rated and defined by the Chui'ch, they

own

creed by their

own unaided wisdom.

The

real question is not,

(as often pretended, between the word of

.

I

God and the creed of man, but between the tried and proved faith of the collective body of God's people, and. the private judgment and the unassisted wisdom of the repudiator of creeds. As we would have anticipated, it is a matter of fact that the (Church has advanced very gradually in this work of the accurate interpretation of Scripture and definition of the great doctrines which compose the system of truth it reveals. The attention of the Church has been specially directed to the study of one docti-ine in one age, and of another doctrine in another age. And as •she has thus gradually advanced in the clear discrimination of
gospel truth, she has at different periods set

;

down an

accurate

statement of the results of her new attainments in a Creed or
*"

Confession of Faith, for the purpose of preservation and popular
instruction.
sions,

In the

mean

time, heretics spring

who

pervert the Scriptures,

up on all occawho exaggerate certain aspects
effect

of the truth and deny others equally essential, and thus in
- turn the truth of
- fore,

God

into a

lie.

The Church

is

forced, there-

on the great principle of self-preservation, to form such ac-

_ curate definitions of every particular doctrine misrepresented as
shall include the

whole truth and exclude

all error,

and

to

make

such comprehensive exhibitions of the system of revealed truth
as a whole that no one part shall be either unduly diminished or

exaggerated, but the true proportion of the whole be preserved.

At
to

the same time, provision must be

made

for ecclesiastical dis-

cipline,

and

to secure the real co-operation of those

who

profess

work together in the same cause, so that public teachers in the same communion may not contradict one another, and the one Formularies pull down what the other is striving to build up. must also be prepared, representing as far as possible the common consent, and clothed with public authority, for the instruction of the members of the Church, and especially of the children. Creeds and Confessions, therefore, have been found necessary in all ages and branches of the Church, and, when not abused, have been useful for the following purposes: (1.) To mark, disseminate and preserve the attainments made in the knowledge

and to present portions. and a temper of mind and On the other hand. The record is as follows "All the ministers of the Synod now : present. It To be used as instruments in the great work of popular instruction. after propo* . which were eighteen in number. must be remembered. The original Synod of our American Presbyterian Church in the year 1729 solemnly adopted the Westminster Confession of Faith and Catechisms as the doctrinal standards of the Church. and because of that In all churches a distinction is made between the terms upon which private members are admitted to membership. [but who gave his assent at the next meeting]. except one. All have a right to claim admit- tance who make a credible profession of the true religion —that is. (3. harmony. no man car. office in —a declaration of personal faith Christ and consecration to his service. (2. who are presumptively the people of Christ. be any Church who does not profess to believe in the truth and wisdom of the constitution and laws which it will be his duty to conserve and administer. The Church is Christ's fold. that the matter of these Creeds and Confessions binds the consciences of as it is men . however. they bind those only who have voluntarily subscribed the Confession. and the terms upon which office-bearers are admitted to their sacred trusts of teaching and ruling.) To discriminate the truth fi-om the glosses it in of false teachers.HISTORY OF CEEEDS. Otherwise inducted into any all harmony of sentiment and all efficient co-operation in action would be impossible. of Christian truth its bj' 21 crisis any branch of the Church in any of development. A Church has no right to make anything a condition of membership which Christ has not tion of salvation. that declared himself not prepared. This credible proin fession of course involves a competent knowledge of the funda- mental doctrine of Christianity habit consistent therewith. and because is stated. it is so and as form in which that matter subscription.) its integrity and due pro- To ) act as the basis of ecclesiastical fellowship among those so nearly agreed as to be able to labor together in (4. made a condiThe sacraments are the seals of his covenant. only so far to the purely scriptural.

22 ing all INTKODUCTION. having made a small amendment of the Larger. by the inferior judicatories belonging to the body. a Directory for " The Synod. them : Tlce ancient Creeds^ icMch exx>ress the common faith of the V)hole Church. preparatory to the formation of the "the Synod. as now agreed on. and Larger and Shorter Catechisms of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster. did. and order the same to be considered all and strictly observed as the rule of their proceedings. The Crf eds formed before the Reformation are very few. as the Catechisms of the Presbyterian States. relato . Thej'^ also took into consideration the Westminster Larger and Shorter Catechisms. Church in the United And the Synod order that the Directory and Catechisms be printed and bound up in the same volume with the Confession of Faith and the Form of Government and Discipline. ratify and adopt the same. on review of the whole. as the Constitution of the PresbyAmerica. discipline and worship. as now amended. did approve and ratify the same. having now revised and corrected the draught of Worship. to be the Directory for the worship of God in the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. and. having fully considered the draught of the Form of Government and Discipline. and in declaring the said Confession and Catechisms to be the Confession of their Faith. General Assembly. government.' " Again." What tian follows is a very brief and general history of the princi- pal Creeds and Confessions of the several branches of the Chris- Church. except only some clauses in the twentieth and twenty-third chapters. did approve and do hereby approve and ratify the said Catechisms. have unanimously agreed in the solution of those scruples. In this statement they are grouped according tc the order of time and the churches which adhere to I. that the whole be considered as the standard of our doctrine. the scruples any of in the them had to make against any articlea and expressions Confession of Faith. and hereby do. agreeably to the resolutions of the Synod at their present session. in the year 1788. as now altered terian Church in and amended. ' Concerning the Civil Magistrate. and do hereby appoint the same Directory.

was . agreeable to the in the Word It of God. universal use among all the churches. and used in It reached its present form.HISTORY OF CREEDS. but because it is a brief sum of Chris- tian faith. who was . the forgiveness of the resurrection of the body. especially the Trinand the Person of the God-man. out of the Con- adopted severally by particular churches. A. suffered under Pontius Pilate." 2d. This was not written by the apostles. In its present form it is the held at Toledo. Maker of heaven and earth . the Greek Church ing only the last added clause. D. and in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord . and sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty . crucified. ity but was gradually formed. D. The Apostles Creed. A. D. and buried he de- scended into hell (Hades) the third day he rose again from the dead. Catholic Church sins. con- ceived by the Holy Ghost. canonical Scripture. reject- Assembly's . Creed of the whole Christian Church. Spain. held at Constantinople. p. This Creed formed on the basis of in the Apostles' Creed. 11.* It is as follows " I believe in God the Father Almighty. Amen. . and the is life everlasting. This Creed was appended to the Shorter Cate- chism. about the close of the second century." was retained by the framers of our Constitution as part of the Catechism. 1st. . though it by order of Parliament. and the reception of its members. born of the Virgin Mary. . together with the Lord's Praj'er and in the first edition published Ten Commandments. the communion of saints. and anciently received churches of Christ. to the 23 fundamental principles of Christianity. and those relating to the divinity and personality of the Holy Ghost added by the Second (Ecuand the menical Council. 325. dead. It is as follows Digest. "not as were composed by the apostles. and are the common heritage of the whole Church. the clauses relating to the consubstantial divinity of Christ being contributed by the great Council held Nice in Bithynia. or ought to be esteemed . 569. I believe in the from thence he shall come to judge Holy Ghost the Holy . . A. the quick and the dead. 381 "filioque" clause added by the Council of the Western Church. The Nicene Creed. he ascended into heaven. fessions bj' common consent.

: . 43L The opposite heretical tendency culminated in Eutyehianism. and was made man. As subsequently heretical opinions sprang up in its bosom with respect to the constitution of the person of Christ. And I believe in one Catholic and Apostolic Church 1 acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins and I look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. One heretical tendency culminated in Nestorianism.24 INTKODUCTIOJS'. and all things visible and invisible and in one Lord Jesus Christ. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead whose kingdom shall have no end. . the Church was forced to provide additional definitions and muniments of the truth. the Only begotten Son of God. This Creed was evidently comit posed long after the death of the great theologian whose name bears. Light of Light. who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified who spake by the prophets. being of one substance with the Father by whom all things were made who. These Creeds. And I believe in the Holy Ghost. . and after the controversies closed and the definitions established by the above-mentioned Councils of Ephesus and Chalce- . are received and approved by the entire Church. . for us men and for our salvation. and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary. very God of very God. 451. A. which maintains that the divine and human natures in Christ constitute two persons. the Lord the Giver of life. which maintains that the divine and human natures are so united in Christ as to form but one nature. . begotten of his Father before all God of God." worlds." 4th. They are sufficiently quoted in the body of the following "Commentary. . This was condemned by the Creed of the Council of Ephesus. earth. "I Maker of heaven and . The Athanasian Creed. and sitteth on the right hand of the Father. D. A. who proceedeth from the Father and the Son (filioque). believe in one God. and ascended into heaven. 3d. begotten. not made. He suffered and was buried and the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures. came down from heaven. This was condemned by the Council of Chalcedon. defining the faith of the Church as embracing two natures in one person. D. and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate.

32. In order to oppose the progress of the Reformation. so God and man is one Christ. but one Christ. although he ia God and man. The Tridentine Confession of Faith was also imposed upon all the priests and candidates of the Romish Church and converts In addition to these. 34. papal bulls and some private . the Trinitj' of Persons in the one in God and is the duality of natures the one Christ. don. entitled Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent. The decrees contain the positive stateThe canons explain the decrees. subsisting of a rational soul and human flesh. . For as rational soul and flesh is one man. It is too long to quote here in full. but from unity of Person. 35. But 28. called the last great Oecumenical Council at Trent (15451563).HISTOHY OF CREEDS. difi'erent from other churches. Perfect God. 33. The deliverances of this Council. less than the Father in respect to his humanity. He is God generated from eternity from the substance of the Father man born 30. in time from the substance of his Mother. is not two. What relates to the Person of the God-man it is as follows "27. Pope Paul III. Lord Jesus Christ is both God and man. which authority of explains and enforces the canons cf the Council of Trent.. hrancJies of the Church 1st. distribute matter under brief heads and condemn the opposing of Protto that Church. A. 1556. The Doctrinal Standards of the Church of Rome. form the highest doctrinal rule known the ments of doctrine. we believe and confess that our . It is 25 a grand faith of the and unique monument of the unchangeable whole Church as to the great mysteries of godliness. The Creeds and Confessions of the different since the Reformation. The Roman Catechism. was prepared and promulgated by the Pope Pius IV. 29. 31. necessary to eternal salvation that he should also faithfully believe in the incarnation of It is therefore true faith that our Lord Jesus Christ. perfect man." etc. estant doctrine on each point. but from the assumption of his humanity into God. One not at all from confusion of substance. Equal to the Father in respect to his divinity. II.D. But two not from the conversion of divinity into flesh. Who.

the Confession of Gennadius. including their character all those which received their characteristic impress from the great all man whose name they bear. . and was consummated in the eleventh century. I6O0. tlie majority of the Christians of the Turkish Empire and the great mass of the civilized inhabitants All the Protestant churches have originated through of Russia. by tlie autliority of popes. up as standards of the true writings have been authoritatively set faith iiiine. The Greek Church embraces Greece. Re- those. The ancient Church divided from causes primarily political and ecclesiastical. the Reformation from the Western or Roman Church. and the Western or Latin Church.D. which that Church magnifies and main- ology tains with singular tenacity. 3d. . g." because the original creeds defining the doctrine of the Trinity and the Person of Christ. were produced in the Eastern half of the ancient Church. They possess also a few confessions of more modern date.^— The Confessions of the ^utheranf Church. entire Protestant world The from the time of the Reformation has been divided into two great families of churches — the the Lu- theran. Greek theis very imperfectly developed bej'ond the ground covered by these ancient creeds. . on the other hand. and the large denominatioo of that name in America. the Catechism of Bellar- A.D.D. This division began to culminate in the seventh. 1711. 1642. bull e. which have been mentioned above. secondarily doctrinal and ritual.26 INTRODUCTION. me- tropolitan bishop of Kiew. A. and the Uuigenitus of Clement XL. of Norway and Sweden. The theology taught in all these papal standards is Arminianism. This Church arrogates to herself pre-eminently the title of the "orthodox. 2d. The Doctrinal Standards of the Greek Church. together with the national churchea of Denmark. A. Confession" of Peter Mogilas. as "The Orthodox 1453. Lutheran family of churches embraces all those Protestants of Germany and the Baltic provinces of Russia who adhere to Tlie the Augsburg Confession. and hence are in a peculiar sense her inheritance. into two great sections —the Eastern or Greek Church. including formed.. which derived from Calvin.

) The Articles of Smalcald. acknowledged only is. 1537 at Smaloald. although they substantially agree as to the system of doctrine they teach. Those most generally receive37 and regarded as of the highest .D. drawn up by Luther A. is.D.D.) The Apology (Defence) of the Augsburg Confession. 1530. the last as a guide in the instruction of youth. and subscribed by the evangelical theologians in Februarj'^.IIISTUKY OF CREEDS. prepared by Luther A. France. at the place whose name they bear.D. England and America. 1537. " the first for the use of preachers and teachers. (i) concerning the nature of the Lord's presence in the Eucharist.D. The Reformed churches embrace all those churches of Germany w!ii. It is the oldest Protestant confession. ing been signed by the Protestant i)rincesand leaders. Holland. prepared in A. A. The Augsbur? the joint authors of which wore Luther and Mclancthon. by that party in the Church which consistently carries the peculiarities of Lutheran theology out to the most complete logical development. however. (5. 1529. 1530.li subscribe the Heidelberg Catechism the Protestant .) 27 Cutif'ession. 1577 by Andrea and others for the purpose of settling certain controversies which had sprung up in the Lutheran Church. This confession con- more scientific and thoroughly developed statement of the Lutheran doctrine than can be found in any other of their public symbols.D. Its authority . churches of Switzerland. Thoir Symbolical Books are: (1. in England The Reformed Confessions all are very numerous. 1 536. it Havwas preLu- sented to the emperor and imperial Diet in Augsburg A." (4.) The Larger and Smaller Catechisms. pre- pared by Melancthon A.D. The Confessions of the Reformed or Calvinistic churches. (2. and subscribed by the Protestant theologians A. (3. the ultimate basis of theran theology. by the high Lutlieran party that 4th. and the only universally accepted standard of the Lutheran churches. especially {a) concerning the relative activities of divine grace and the human tains a will in regeneration.) The Formula Concordiae (Form of Concord). England and Scotland: the Independents and Baptists of and the various branches of the Presbyterian Church und America.

as well as instrument of religious instruction for the churches of the Palatinate. D."* and has always the Reformed been regarded as of the highest authority by churches. It held its sessions from November sisted 13. and deputies from the churches of England. 1618. A. the Palatinate and Switzerland of pastors. D. prepared by Ursinus and OleIt vianus. and by the Reformed churches all in Poland. was convened in Dort. "It was adopted by the Reformed churches in Switzerland. A. These were originally drawn up by Cranmer and Ridley. 1551. Hesse. ) The Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. Scotland and France. 1562.) The Heidelberg Catechism. Bremen. of Christian Doctrine. the First Helcetic). (2. Scotland. A. This famous Synod (4. Holland. with the exception of Basle (which was content with its old symbol.28 INTRODUCTION^. A. a German It State at that time was endorsed by the Synod of Dort. They constitute. D. was established bj' civil authority. all A. D. accurate and eminently autht ritative exhibition of the Calvinistic System of Theology.) common system. * Shedd's Hist. America and including both banks of the Rhine. and constitute the doctrinal standard of the Episcopal churches in England. and is the Confession of Faith of the Reformed churches of Germany and Holland. by the authority of the States General. 1564. Scotland. and of the German and [Dutch] Reformed churches in America. elders . and revised and reduced to the present number by the bishops. . D. the French delegates having been prevented from being present by order of their king. are tha The Second Helvetic Confession. at the order of Queen Elizabeth. in connection with the Heidelberg Catechism. D. Bymbolical authority as standards of the following (1. to May 9. It con- and theological professors from the churches of Holland. The Canons of this Synod were received by all the Reformed churches as a true. the doctrinal standard. the Colonies. 1619. ) The Canons of the Synod of Dort. (3. Hungary. 1562. A. These Articles are Calvinistic in doctrine. for the purpose of settling the questions brought into controversy by the disciples of Arminius. prepared by Bullinger.

QUESTIONS. 178. and of adju^iin^ * Neal : Puritans. September. very nearly to it. II. the one most highly approved by alists in all Creeds the bodies of Congregation England and America. and agreed with the Presbyterians in the use of the Assembly's Catechisms.HISTORY OF CREEDS. Indeed. ) tlie [Patch] Reformed Church of America. I Phedd's Hist. is doctrinal presented in the next chapter. and again August. and produced the Saybrook Platform. 29 the doctrinal Confession of the Reformed Church of Holland. the Savoy Confession. and prepared the Cambridge Platform. 1648. A. A short account of the origin and constitution of this its is Assemblj^ and of the production and reception of deliverances. " the dilFerence between these two Confessions is so very small. all This the com- mon doctrinal standard of the Presbyterian churches in the It is also of all world of English and Scotch derivation. and conformed their own deliverance. 1. Connecticut."* All the Assemblies convened in New England for the purpose called by Cromwell o£ settling the doctrinal basis of their churches have either endorsed or explicitly adopted this Confession and these Catechisms own faith. June. 1708. 1658. The Confession and Catechisms of the W£stminster_As- sembly. D. 1679. that the modern Independents have in a manner laid aside the use of it (Savoy Conf. . 1680.) in their families. of Cbtistian Doctrine. What is the only absolute and essentially authoritative standard of faith ? 2. This was done by the Cambridge. as accurate expositions of their Synod which met at And again by the Synod which sat in Boston. and produced the Boston Confession. 3. Massachusetts. in London. and May. And again by the Synod which met at Saybrook. 1647. Whence do all human Creeds derive Upon whom rests the necessity and all their authority? obligation of gathering together the Scripture teaches on any subject. and of (5. declared their approval of the doctrinal part of the Confession and Catechisms of the Westminster Assembly. The Congregational Convention to meet at Savoy.

Bas it always had a place in our Catechism? Read it. all dicir teaching on one subject with the other elements of the system of truth? 4. the upon which preachers and Church? in the rulers are Why should the terms be so far different two cases? adopted When. 22. respecting the Person of Christ. 8. What then is the first great purpose for which Creeds and Confessions are useful? 7. 21.y of his fellow-Christians? 5. 1788. subsequently sprang 25. On what ground. tles' What is the origin of what is commonly called the Apos- Creed? 20. 18. What is the second great end ? What is the third? 9. first were the Westminster Confession and Catechisms as our standard of faith ? 16. 24. men? Whom bind? and on what ground does the form of these Con- fessions 12. passed A. What opposite heretical tendencies. What What are the terms ? upon which private members are ad- mitted to the Church 13. up in the Church ? What was the date and design of the Creed of the Council of Ephesus? . and how far x?. and by what representative body of our Church. What the fourth? 10. 17. are the terms office in admitted to 14. Read the action of the General Synod. 15. Is it better for a man to form these opinions without or with the assistance of the great bod. When and by what Councils was the Nicene Creed ? pro- duced 23. In what form have the opinions of the great mass of the Christian Church on these subjects been expressed and preserved? 6.30 INTRODUCTION. Read it. D. does the matter of these Confessions bind the consciences of 11. To what class of topics do all the Creeds before the Refor- mation relate? 19. Read the adopting act.

date and origin of their principal and universally-received standard of faith? 39. why. 31. What What What What What churches belong is to the Lutheran family? the name. and what divisions did the Church of the Middle Ages separate ? 32. purpose and character of the is it Form of Concord. What is here said of the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of End and ? 43. Tn what estimation have its "Canons*^' been held. 26 of 31 "What was the date and design of . 30. istic held? churches are embraced in the Reformed or Calvinaccount here given of the Second Helvetic Con- family? 42. Of what parties was it composed? 48.HISTORY OF CREEDS. 38. where. What is fession ? What account is here given of the Heidelberg Catechism? Of what churches is it the accredited standard? 45.J arc tliev the . What are the doctrinal standards of the Greek Church? 34. is the common characteristic of churches ? 37. 44. What What are the doctrinal standards of the Cliurch of is Rome? the character of the theology they teach? into When. the origin. What was the origin of the Creed 28. falsely attributed to the groat Athauasius? Read that portion of it which relates to the Person of Christ. when and for what purpose was the Synod of Dort convened ? 47. tlie Creed of the Council Chalccdon? 27. 4(i. are their other symbolical books? is 40.'Standard? . What countries are embraced in the bounds of the Greek Church? 33. Into what two great divisions did the churches of the Reformation separate? 35. T>y whom. and of what chunho. What What is the common characteristic of the Lutheran the Reformed churches ? 36. 29. and in what estimation 41.

Upon what occasions and to wlopted by the Congregationalists of what extent have they been New England? . Of what churches are the Westminster Confession and Catechisms the standard of faith ? 50.32 49. INTRODUCTION. How far have they been adopted by the Congregationalists of England? 51.

Tlio Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England and of the Ei)iscopal Church of America were prepared by the bishops of that Church in 1562. were on the other hand drawn up by a great international Synod convened in Dort by the States General of the Netherlands. the common standard of faith and bond of union of the Lutheran chuiches. as the result of the revision of "The Forty-two Articles of Edward Sixth. Crown Prince of the Palatinate. at the head of whom was John Knox. The "Canons of the Synod of Dort. who had been appointed thereto by Frederick III. and the Standard of the Church of Holland. Most churches of the Confessions of the Reformed and Lutheran were composed by single authors. or by a small group of theologians to whom the task of drawing up a standard of doctrine had been committed.. Thus. SOME ACCOL'NT OF THE ORIGIN OF THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION AND CATECHISIMS. . The Old Scotch Confession. appointed by the Scottish Parliament. and composed of representatives of all the Reformed churches except that of Franco. Swiss theologians and the celebrated Heidelberg Catechism was composed by Ursinus and Olevianus. to The Second Helvetic Confession was composed by whom the work was entrusted by a number of . Bullinger.CHAPTER II. which was the standard of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland for nearly one hundred years before the adoption of the Westminster Confession. was composed by a committee of six theologians. Luther and Mclancthon were the principal authors of the Augsburg Confession.? And the Confession of Faith 33 ." which had been drawn up by Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop Ridley in 1551." of high authority among all the Reformed churclies.

while the first Act of Parfession of Faith Hament recognizing 1567. Its first General Assembly was held in 1560. by the Long Parliament from July I. according to the Word of God and p. the EnglisTT Parliament and Westminster As. Februaiy 28. the • Hetherington's " Historj' of the Wesfinin. 1643. in doctrine. and the Solenm League and Covenant between the king- doms of England and Scotlanrl in 1643. 1648 .sembly) bound the united kingdoms to endeavour the preservation of the Reformed religion in the Church of Scotland.'-tfr Assembly. clergy and people. and the reformation of religir)n in of England and Ireland. it It was in no degree a political revolution. nor did was purely areligious revolution. and met in its first General Assembly for its own government. from the Continent. England. to February 22."* it as the National It continued to maintain in its Church was passed in a good degree its indepenChurch After dence of civil dictation and until after integrity as a Presbyterian King James assumed the throne of England. the friends of liberty religion and of the Reformed among the Scotch nobility. where he had enjoyed the mstructions of Luther and Melancthon. seven years before it had even received the sanction of the legislature. through English influence and the increased power of the throne. In resistance to this invasion of their religious liberties. a very brief account of which it is the design of this chapter to give. that time." . The Reformation in Scotland had received its first impulse from the return of the illustrious Patrick Hamilton. the independence of the Church of Scotland was often temporarily destroyed. discipline the kingdoms and government. wrought among the masses of the people and the body of the Church itself. in 1528. and its First Book of Discipline. and Catechisms of our Church were drawn up by a large and illustrious national assembly of divines and civilians convened in Westminster. signed the ever-memorable National Covenant at Sterling. the chief of whom were John Knox and Andre wJVIelville. "This Solemn League and Covenant (subscribed by the Scotch General Assembly. under the direction at different times of several very emin entje aders. 88. 1638. The Church of Scotland framed its ConIt ' ' originate with the governing classes. worship.54 INTRODUCTIOJT.

a more perfect reformation and ecclesiastical uniformity. together with the labours of many truly pious men both among the clergy and laity.. 1551. it arrested by it. that the Scotch people gave the effective support of their sympathy to the English Parliament in their struggle with Charles I. and the English translation of the Bible by Tyndal." which irade the sovereign the earthly head of the Church. * Uetherington's " History of the Church of Scotland. published in Oxford. This is illustrated in their writings. the present doctrinal Articles of the Church of England. a thoroughly popular revolution was wrought in the religion of the nation. the Greek Testament of Erasmus. such as Cranmer. and Elizabeth. and that the Scottish Church sent her most eminent sons as delegates to the Westminster Assembly. 35 example of the best Reformed churches. in full sympathy and constant correspondence with the great theologians and preachers of Switzerland and Germany. The real Reformers of England. Lambeth as 1595. and that of a political and ecclesiastical revolution. In the former character it was introduced by the publication of the Word of God. 1517. . were truly evangelical and thoroughly Calvinistic. Queen was nevertheless greatly impeded and prematurely "The Act of Supremacy. and its heart rendered permanently Protestant. Articles. Latimer and Jewell. The Reformation in England presents two distinct phases that of a genuine work of grace.. An aristocratic hierarchy naturally sided with the Court. church order and discipline to his absolute control.WESTMINSTER CONFESSION. "* It was in furtherance of the same design of securing in both kingdoms religious liberty." p 187. enabled Elizabeth to arrest the constitutional changes in the Church set up by the process of reform at that precise point which was determined by her worldly taste and her lust of power. which was sent over from Worms to England in 1526. and subjected all questiomi of doctrine. and even in the drawn up by Archbishop Whitgift as late in the first Although this work of genuine reformation was instance materially aided by the politico-ecclesiastical revolution introduced by Henry VIII. Hooper. prepared in 1562. Bj' the English Bible. in the Forty-two Articles of Edward VI. and confirmed by his daughter. Ridley.

In June 12. necessarily led to such an extension of the royal prerogative. the office of archbishop and bishop. and adopted that Arminianism which has always prevailed among the parasites of arbitrary power and the votaries of a churchly and sacramental religion. to be consulted with by the Parliament for the settling of the government and liturgy of the Church of England. it was ordained that after November 5. At hav- ing for an interval of eleven years attempted to govern the nation through the Stai. 1640. the king was forced to appeal again to the country. and Charles I. and such constant resort to arbitrary measures and acts of violence. subscribed to persevere in the defence of their liberties and of the Protestant religion. that illustrious body subsequently known as the Long Parliament. and in November. after of the subject were equally trampled under foot. and the whole framework of prelate government. should be abolished. and at the same time members of both bond binding them houses. for the call- ing of an Assembly of Divines and others. and the unrelenting execution of the " Act of Uniformity." . providing that it be dissolved only at the a its own consent. which sent up in November. and having prorogued the refractory Parliament which met in the spring of that year.36 became the religious facile INTRODUCTION. that the civil liberties last. In the same year Parliament abolished the Court of High Commission and the Star Chamber. Anew element of conflict was introduced in the fact that the despotic Court party natui-ally abandoned the Calvinism of the founders of the Church. except two of the peers. G-raduall}' the strugcle and civil liberties between the part}' called Puritan and the repressive Court party became more intense and more bitter during the whole period of the reigns of James I. 1643. instrument of the Crown in repressing both the of the people. The denial of all reform. the Parliament passed an act entitled ordinance of the Lords and "An Commons in Parliament.Chamber and Court of High Commission. 1642." repressing all dissent while robbing the people of every trace of religious liberty. In the IMay of should all the next year this body rendered itself practically independent of the king's caprice by passing an act. 1643. and clearing of the Doctrine of said As the Church from false aspersions and interpretations.

one of "In whom day. bishops were named. the author of the Covenant. and the average attendance during the protracted sittings of the Assembly ranged between sixty and eighty. Only sixty appeared the first day. . Samuel Rutherford and Robert Baillie and elders Lord John Maitland and Sir Archibald Johnston. moners as lay-members. 99. and one hundred and twenty-one divines. The persons who were to constitute this Assembly were named in the ordinance. Philip Nye. The original list embraced the names of ten lords and twenty comto exist.WESTMINSTER CONFESSION. These were called. partly because was not a regular convocation called by the king. Men of all shades of opinion as to Church govei'nment were em- braced in this illustrious company —Episcopalians. after the Episcopalians had withdrawn subsequently to the signing of the Solemn League and Covenant. and partly because the Solemn League and Covenant was expressly condemned by his The Scotch General Assembly also sent as delegates to Westminster the best and ablest men she had ministers Alexander Henderson. especially in the city of London and its neighbourhood." p. George Gillespie. Thomas Goodwin and Rev. the only universally recognized authority which could convene the representatives of the Church in General Assembly was the National Legislature. " The Five Dissenting Brethren." In spite of the majesty. five became bishops afterward. and comprised the flower of the Church of that age subsequently about twenty-one clergymen were superadded to make up for the absence of others. after the example of all the Reformed churches of the Continent."* — . * Het Islington's " llistorj' of the Westminster Assembly. and it about twenty-five declined attending. were inclined to Presbyterianism. the original ordinance four actually attended on the first Independents and Erastians. from the attitude of opposition to the majority which they occupied. and in many places. pro -existing government of the 37 Church by bishops had ceased and yet the Church of Christ in England remained. headed by Dr. The vast majority of the Puritan clergy. There were only five prominent Indepeydents in the Assembly. Of these the vast majority were Presbyterians. Presbyterians. . and another excused his absence on the ground of necessary duty . of the others called. had erected presbyteries.

assisted actively by learned layman. On the 1st of July. 1643. and their influence to the bly. the revision of the " Thirty-nine Articles." the the — already existing Creed of the English Church. they took up the work which was first assigned to them by Parliament namely. all ecclesiastical civil power rests exclusively with the civil magis- were represented in the Assembly by only two ministers the Thomas Coleman and John Lightfoot." They consequently entered iui mediately upon the work of preparing a Directory of Government. and as a matter of course all worldly politicians. Being delayed by constant controversies with the Independent and Erastian factions. appointed after his death was Dr. nant. John Selden. Then they began to prepare for the composition of a Confession of Faith. Westminster. and. Parliament But on the 12th of October. Drs. This committee consisted of the Kev. The Erastians. was organized in Henry the VII. in the army. 's Chapel.38 INTRODUCTION. Gouge. and that as well as trate." When the whole Assembly had been divided for despatch of business into three equal committees. in work of was due support they received from politicians without the x\ssemthe Long Parliament. the Assembly. "a fair room in Abbey of Westminster. Twisse. the Assembly in its national ecclesiastical construction. After the weather grew cold they met in the Jerusalem Chamber. and by the Parliament. or moderator. after hearing a sermon from the prolocutor in the Abbey Church. from the great Cromwell himself. above all. Their influence was due to fact that the Parliament the sympathized with them. who held that Christian pastors are simply all teachers and not rulers in the Church. and finally pi-eventing. prolocutor. he was succeeded by Mr. and a committee was appointed to prepare and arrange the main propositions to be embraced in it. . small ness of their number. The Herle. shortly after subscribing the Solemn League and Covedirected the Assembly "to consider themselves of such a discipline and government as among may be most agreeable to God's holy word. Temple and Hoyle . Worship and Discipline. they possessed considerable influence in hindering. they did not complete this department of their work until near the close of 1644.

Westminsttr Assembly. On October 13."* Faith. 1648. to compare their opinions respecting the Confession of Faith." p. The committee at first wrought at the work of preparing the Confession and Catechisms simultaneously. the Long Parliament established the Presbyterian Church in England experimentally. April 29. 164G. which was to be a year that date. at a conference." They finally reported it as model. a conference was held between the two Houses. viz. predisci- sented the Lords with a Confession of Faith passed by them. with the Scotch Commissioners. in the doctrinal part. that the "Assembly should attach their marginal notes. * Hethurington's " Hist. and then to construct the Catechism on its They presented in a body the finished Confession to Parliament. the result of "The Commons this which is thus stated by Rushworth: day (March 22d).WESTMINSTER CONFESSION. with some alterations (especially concerning questions of pline). The Shorter Catechism was finished and reported to ParNovember 5. . 1647. liament 1648. Directory of Public all The Confession of Worship and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms were by the Scotch General Assembly as soon as the several parts of the work were ratified concluded at Westminster. when it was recommitted. Vines and Goodwin. that this kingdom. Burgess. to prove every part of it by Scripture. 8<J Messrs. and so with the Assembly. with full Scripture proofs of each separate proposition attached. may see the Parliament of England difier not in doctrine. December 3. while the Presbyterian ministers were ejected in mass b> subservient to the power of the teries Charles II. in 1662. 1647. and all the Reformed churches of Christendom." ai'tei But before that date the Parliament had become army under Cromwell. the Assembly resolved to finish the Confession first. and desire the same may be made public. On the 22d of March. : That they do agree with their Lordships. BuiTDUghs. "After some progress had been made with both. Gataker. "until the end of the next session of Parliament. Arrowsmith. and the Larger Catechism April 14." finished. 1647. Presbyand synods were soon superseded by his Committee of Triers. 245.

until March 25. about three \veeks after the king's decapitation. "Those that London were chiefly engaged in the examination of such ministers as presented themselves for ordination or induction into vacant charges." by Alex. A. F.. and separated without any formal dissolution. changed into a committee tion of ministers. D. when. six months and twenty-two days. Congregational bodies of Puritan stock in the world. for the most full and authoritative account of the and genesis of the Westminster Confession and Catechism. 1649.* Although the Westminster Assembly their Confession all resolutel}' excluded from that they recognized as savouring of Erastian error. or in any sense contrary to the Protestant History and Standards. 1729. it in the oj-iginal "Adopting Act. 1652. which have always been rejected in this country. England. that committee also broke up. Hence. Ireland and America and it is highly reverenced. many of the After the completion of the Catechisms. every Thursday morning. and as a matter of necessity. and its Catechisms used as means of public instruction. . as the "Confession of Faith of Church. succession to the throne of Great Britain. Oliver Cromwell having forcibly dissolved the Long Parliament by whose authority the Assembly had been at first called together.40 INTRODUCTION. D." and it has been received as the standard of faith by all the branches of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland. for which time they had held one They were thee conducting the trial and examina and continued to hold meetings for this purpose. in thousand one hundred and sixt3'-three sessions. They continued to maintain their '." the Synod civil declared that in did not receive the passages relating to this point the Confession "in any such sense as to suppose the magistrate hath a controlling power over synods with respect to the exercise of their ministerial authority . D. Assembly. quietly dispersed members leniained in and returned to their homes. by all the in this .brmal existence until the 22d of February. having sat five years. Bources its Mitchell. concerning religious concerning the powers of civil things {circa sacra). yet their opinions as to church establishments led to views magistrates." The Confession of Faith and Larger and Shorter Catechisms of the Westminster Assembly were adopted by the original Synod North America." * See " The West. or power to persecute any for their religion.

settled.WESTMINSTER CONFESSION. and by the power of the civil 2l\ § 4. The civil original Articles of the Westminster Confession as ai"e magistrate which are altered in our Confession . in preparation for the organization of the General in 1789. ^ 3: "The may not assume to himself the administration of the Word and of heaven sacraments. that the truth of God be kept pure and all entire . What is peculiar in the case of the Canons of the Synod ol Dort and the Confession and Catechisms of Westminster? ." Chap. thia Confession and tliese Catechisms were adopted as the doctrinal part of the Constitution of the Presbyterian in 17S8. so. corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed. that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed. having agreed that the said paragraphs as made some now altered be printed for consideration." Chap. And ards ii. and. if magistrates be open virtue of their tion enemies to the Church. Conf chap. thirty-first chapter . ^ 2: "As fit may law- fully call a synod of ministers and other persons to consult and advise with about matters of religion. of certain oifenders it is said "They may be proceeded magistrate against by the censures of the Church civil magistrate. and whatsoever transacted in them be according magistrates to the mind of God. 1. Church in Americn to thr and so stand to this day. How were most of the Confessions of the Lutheran ana Reformed churches composed? 2. to take order that unity and peace be preserved in the Church. or they with other fit persons upon delega- from their churches. may meet together in such assemblies. dom yet he hath authority. he hath power to to provide that synods. the ministers of Christ of themselves. call is For the better effecting whereof. as follow: Westm. when the Synod revised and amended last stand- 1787. to be present at them. '^v office." QUESTIONS." As thus altered and amended. 31. 41 its again. and it is his duty. 23. or the power of the keys of the king. it Assembly "took into consideration the paragraph of the twentieth chapter of the Westminster Confession of Faith the third paragrajih of the twenty-third chapter. and the first paragraph of the alterations. . and all ordinances of God duly administered and observed.

the principal instrumentality by which the work the character of the theology.tland. and with what exceptions was this Confession in America? in and why and what sections was it amended? . 4. and what the direc- was effected ? 7. proved to be the civil effects of the attempt upon the Crown to repress religious liberty ? State some of the first acts of the Long Parliament. Who were the representatives of the Scotch Church? Into what three principal parties were the members of thi. of the early English 8. Westminster? the What was number and what was the character of the persons composing that Assembly ? 13. 11. What was in the ultimate fate of the Presbyterian establish the Westminster Confession the Con- ment 22. 14. the same? 21. When and for what purpose was the Assembly of Divines called at 12. Reformers? the character of the influence exerted first upon the English Reformation by her 9. Protestant sovereigns? part of the 10. 19. What were the character and design of the it Soleni't' i^eague and Covenant. INTRODUCTION.o Assembly divided? and to which party did the vast majority of the Assembly belong? 15. tion of the sympathies. and by what parties was 5. How was the Assembly organized? IG.42 3.. When and how did they proceed to frame a Confession ol Faith? 18. '?»ork How did they proceed to frame the Catechisms? What was What the action of the Long Parliament touching the of the Assembly? the action of the Scotch General Assembly as to 20. What was the first work performed by the Assembly? 17. England? Of what churclies is stitutional 23. contracted? What was What was What was What was What the general character of the Reformation in England ? 6. Standard of Doctrine? When When adopted by the Presbyterian Church 24. State the general character of the Reformation in Sf .

This section affirms the following propositions 1st. 2 Pet. . for the and propagating of the truth. 1.—« i.* those former ways of God's re- vealing his will unto his people being 1 now ceased. i.at there is a God. which creation is necessary unto salvation . and the malice of Satan and of the world. and the works of creation and providence are sufficient to makt known the fact tl. 21 . 4. and power of God. do so far manifest the goodness. six. viii. to reveal himself.—3 Hebrews iv.^ therefore it pleased the Lord.^ yet they are not sufficient to give that knowledge of God. Ps. Hebrews 1. 19.* i. Isa. and the -works of and providence. ii. 14. 19. i. 19. as to leave men inexcusable . « 10. 15. — XV. xxii.Confession of Faith. ii. CHAPTER — I. and to Church f and afterward. Although the Hght of nature. That tlie light of natnre. 3. and somewliat of his natnre i3 and . i. Luke iii. Roin. 20. ii. 1 Cor. 1-3. at sundry times. and in divers manners. 2. 19-21 2 Tim. and of his will. 20. 7. and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the Church against the corruption of the flesh. 14. 32. OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURE.—5 15. 1. 4. to commit the same wholly unto writing . 13. i. wisdom. Section I. .* which maketh the Holy declare that his will unto his better preserving Scripture to be most necessary .—* Prov. Rom. Matt. 4 Rom. i.

secure salvation.) There is the assumption of all those extreme rationalists who deny the existence of any world beyond the natural one discoverable by our senses. of his sovereign grace. 2d. And that subsequently God has been pleased to commit 1st. and especially of that school of Positive Philosophy inaugurated by Auguste Comte in France. (1. 4th. that revelation to writing. and thus render them inexcusable. That nevertheless the amount and kind of knowledge tluis attainable is not sufficient to enable any to 2d. and represented by Joliu Mill and Herbert Spencer in England. who affirm that all possible human knowledge is confined to the facts of our experience and the uniform laws which Stuart regulate the succession of those possible for the facts. that it is not human mind cause. character. so as to leave the disobedience of men without excuse.44 CONFESSION OF FAITH. and that it is now exclusively embraced in the Sacred Scriptures. to make in various ways and at differ- ent times a supernatural revelation of himself and of his purposes to a chosen portion of the human family. TJiat consequently it has pleased God. The light of nature and the works of creation and providence are the fact that there sufficient to enable is a men to ascertain God and somewhat of his nature and character. f)r in its present state to to the go beyond the sim])le order of nature an absolute first knowledge of to a designing and disposing . Tiiree generically distinct filse opinions have been entertained with respect to the ca^iacity of men in their present circumstances to attain to any positive know- ledge of the being and character of God.

such as Sir Isaac etc. which a universal and indestruct- element of human nature. 45 intelligence. Dr. necessarily implies our accountability to a personal moral governor. and as a matter of fact are explained by these very skeptics themselves. Sir David Brewster. and as a matter of principle coukl not. ages and degrees of culture have discerned the evidences. (6. only by the recognition and accurate tracing out of the evident " intention" which each of these works relations. is This assumption of all disproved: («.) is adapted to subserve is in their mutual ible The same is disproved from the fact that conscience. (c. we are altogether de- . be recognized by man men in the present state of his faculties. even if revealed. of a supernattiral revelation that in his present condition.) By the fact that nations.) An extreme opinion on this subject has been held by some Christians. (2.HOLY supreme exists . from the light of nature in the entire absence . communities or generations unenlightened by science. not only of individuals. but pre-eminently of some of the the modern very first teachers of positive science in age.) scientific Newton. full of the manifest scientifically ex- and that they can be plained. and in the inward workings of their own souls. SClill'TUJlE. to the effect that no true and certain! ' knowledge of God can be derived by man. By the fact that the works of nature and providence are (races of design. and as a matter of fact has uniformly led men to a recognition of his existence and of their relation to him. This lias been true. of the presence of a God in the works of nature and providence. even though such an one actually that whether there be a is God or not. yet as a matter of fact he not revealed. Faraday.

distin- guish between that knowledge of the divine character w^hich may be obtained by men from the works of nature and providence in the exercise of their natural powers alone. (6. without any suggestions or assistance derived from a supernatural revelation in the theological writings of — as is illustrated heathen who lived some most eminent of the before Christ and that knowledge — which men of nature. who is at the same time an intelligent personal Spirit and righteous moral Governor. We must. 15.) mony of Scripture. are competent to deduce from a study The natural theology of the modern rationall its demonstrably owes special excellences to that Christian revelation (3. (c. induction from the facts of have been drawn by a nature alone.) it is inteuded to supersede. i. And in the case of the most enlightened of the heathen.) All nations. The third erroneous opinion which has been enis tertained on this subject that of deists and theistic .46 CONFESSION CF FAITH. alists in this age. By the fact that many conclusive arguments for the exist- ence of a great first Cause. as well as for all knowledge of his purposes. as they ing. however. strict lie open to the natural understandai'gument remains unanswerable The fact that this shows that the process by which the conclusions are drawn from purely natural sources is legitimate. is This opinion disproved : (a. Rom. have yet possessed some knowledge they may of a God. natural religion has given birth to a considerable natural theology. 20-24. pendent upon such a revelation for any certain knowledge that his nature God and exists. the direct testi14. however de-i'tute of a supernatural revelation have been.) By ii. under the clear light of a super- natural revelation.

The only appai'ent exception to this fact found in the case of some rationalists in Christian lands.) ration. and their . which are sufficient in themselves. This 1 proved to be true . resto(c. wlien legitiitself to lead mately used. both before and since Christ. the But. yet insist that illustrate its only office is to and enforce the truths already given through the light of nature.) From the fact that man's moral relations to God have been disturbed by sin. salvation. : (a. in opposition to Confession teaches 2d. and while it how he should approach may teach a fallen being what the nature of God may demand as to the punishment of sin. and their lives is immoral. (6. Some German while admitting that a supernatural revelation has been given in the Christian Scriptures. this. sanctification. viz.) From Scripture. light That the amount of knowledge attainable by the of nature is not sufficient to enable any to secure is i. and need re-enforcement only because they are ordinarily not properly attended to by men. purposes. their faith has been rites uncertain. : 47 that the ligM of nature. substitution. rationalists. 13. their religious have been deo^rading. 21 ii.HOLY SCRIPTURE. and while the natural light of reason may teach an anfallen being spontaneously and serve God. The truths they have held have been incomplete and mixed with fundamental error. Cor. it can teach nothing l)y way of anticipation as to what God may be sovereignly disposed to do in the way of remission. From the facts presented in the past history of all nations destitute of the light of revelation. isjjerfectly sufficient of to all necessary mcu knowledge of God's being. etc. nature and rationalists. 14.

In his natural But God is the author His intelligence leads us to believe of human nature. And that 4th.ix)bable degree im^edeytly on his part. follows that the giving of suc. is exceptional superiority to others of their creed due tc the secondary influences of that system of supernatural religion which they c4eny. is follows (a) that a su perna tural revelation absolutely necessary for man . That. but the power of which they cannot exclude. in various ways and at different times.i a revelation is in the highest p. God has been pleased subsequently to commit is that revelation to writing. and it embraced in the Sacred Scriptures. Hence. a supernatural revelation of himself and of his purposes to a chosen portion of the human family. consequently. that he will complete all his ious works and crown a religion relig- nature with the gift of a its practically adequate to wants. cient to enable now exclusively Since. it in this section has pleased God of his sovereign grace to make. and a religious being craving state these are both unsatisfied.48 CONFESSION OF FAITH. and (6) from M^hat natural religion alone teaches it us of the character of God. the light of nature is insuffi- men is to attain such a knowledge of God it and his will as necessary for salvation. The benevolence of God leads us to anticipate that he will not leave his creatures in bewilderment and ruin for the want of light as condition and duties. the Confession teaches 3d. communion with God. the presumption tliat to tlioir And ho his righteousness occasions at \\\\\ some lime speak in . as above shown. Man is essentially a moral agent and needs a clearly revealed rule of duty.

Urim and Thummim. whether or not. His communications to mankind through the first three thousand years were made in very " diverse manners.) marks of genuine and authenin tic historical The miracles recorded these Scriptures are established as facts by abundant testimony.) As Gyd has given such a revelaliistory left tion. the The same is true in all respects with regard to many explicitjprophecies already fulfilled which are The unparalleled perfection of the moral sys- contained in the Scriptures. ((/. Indeed he has no period of human }:iraself without a witness. dreams. of Christianity. is fully submass of proof styled the " evidences stantiated by that of Christianity. in to the conscience subjects. definite 49 of his and authoritative tones a matter of fact." The main departments of this evi- dence are the following (a. the . (c. that The fact that such a revelation has been made.) human characters and con- (/.) The Old and New Testaments. and prophetic inspiration and the results of these communications were diffused and perpetuated by means of tradition. and the supernatural intelligence they discover in adaptation to all ditions in all ages.) to be from God. visions. (e.) The absolutely perfect The spiritual_ power excellence of its Founder.HOLY SCRIPTURE.) tem they teach. and when they demonstrate the religion they admitted as facts accompany (e. the word of God (6. as shown . bear all the records." by theophanies and audible voices. and we have it in the Christian Scriptures.

For the questions concerning the Holy Scriptures as containing the whole of this revelation now made by God to men. see below. .50 CONFESSION OF FAITH. II. Genesis. the wider influence it exerts over communities and na- tions in successive generations. Section of —Under the name of Holy Scripture. or the word now contained : God written. which are these OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. are all the books of the Old and New Testaments. and also in in the religious experience of individuals.

the universal consent . was written by the it inspired prophet or apostle whose in the case of the gospels of name bears. as Mark and Luke. such as language. In general this evidence (a) Internal. That all the canonical books were divinely inspired. two great divisions of the Okl and the all the particular hooks here named. 3d. and are to be regarded as of no more authority than any other human writings. (b) External. and the New Tes- tament the collection of those inspired writings which he gave during the that Covenant. The complete canon of Scripture embraces in the all two great divisions of the Old and the particular books here named.HOLY in the SCIilPTUllE. is This evidence in the case of the Sar- cred Scriptures critical of the same kind of historical and relied proof as establish upon by all literary men to the genuineness and authenticity of any other is ancient writings. severally. written under the superintendence and published by the authority of an apostle. New Testaments ings given by The Old Testament is the collection of God to his Church during is inspired writ- the Old Dis- pensation of the Covenant of Grace. 51 taments 2d. such as the mony of contemporaneous writers. such as the Odes of Horace or the is works of Herodotus. 1st. New Tes- That the books commonly called Apocrypha form no part of that canon. style and the character of testi- the matter they contain. and are thus given to us as an authoritative rule of faith and practice. or. New or Christian Dispensation of We determine what books have a place in this canon or divine rule by an examination of the evidences which show that each of them.

) Ever since the time of Christ.) his apostles The Jewish canon thus endorsed by Christ and is the same as that we now have. have separately kept the same canon.) The Septuagint. which was itself fre- quently quoted by Christ and his apostles. Luke John v. (a. and agree perfectly as to the genuineness and authenticity of every book. Matt. made in Hebrew ScripEgypt B. {a. of coutenipomry readers. D. the Prophets. and corroborating history drawn from independent credible sources. (2.) The New Testament writers quote as Scripture almost every one of the books we recognize. 16. but never for forging or corrupting their Scriptures.52 CONFESSION OF FAITH. The genuineness of the books constituting the Old all Testament canon as now received by established as follows (1. while rival and hostile parties. Mark xiv. xxiv. embraced every book contained in our copies. 49 . (e.) The testimony of the early Christian writers uniformly agrees with that of the ancient Jews as to every book. or Greek translation of the tures. 29. establishes the canonical author- The evidence which . viz. 2 Tim. born A.) existed in Christ often quotes as the word of God the separate books and the several divisions embraced in the Jewish Scriptures.) Josephus.) The apostles also quote them as the word of God. 285. (6. 16. Acts i. (6. and no others. (c. xxii. 39.) Protestants is Christ and his apostles endorse as genuine and it authentic the canon of Jewish Scriptures as their time. 44 . (d. C. iii. 37. and the Holy Writings or Psalms. 15. : the Law. enumerates as Hebrew Scriptures the same books by their classes.) Christ often rebuked the Jews for disobeying. both Jews and Christians. (c.

The Peshito. of which agree perfectly as to most of the books. was based on the Italic or early (d. and for which unfounded claims have been set up for a place in the canon.) Latin version. Some of these have been associated with the Old and some with the New Testament. cal authority the 16. But the books called Apocrypha form no part of Ihe sacred Canon. ity 53 be gene- of several books of the New Testament may The in rally stated as follows: (a. and agrees entirely with ours. the books they contain were recognized as Scripture. translations of the Scriptures The earliest prove that.HOLY SCRIPTURE. pre- pared by Jerome A. . and differ only in a slight degree with reference to some last (c. In this section of the Confession.) in all parts of the early Christian writers world agree quoting as of apostoli- books we receive.) The early catalogues of the books received by all Church Fathers furnish a number of them as apostolical. 385.) written or least generally circulated. at the time they were made. D. and the Vulgate. the elevated all and doctrinal consistency of practical the books. and their power over the consciences and hearts of men. however. while they quote all other contemporaneous writings only for illustration. or early Syriac translation. This consists . agrees almost entirely witli ours. 2d. Tiie word apocryjjlia (anytliing hidden) has applied to certain ancient wi'itings whose authorship not manifest. internal The evidence corroborates all the external testimony in the case of the books. of the language and idiom in which they are written the harmony in all essentials in the midst of great varispirituality ety in form and circumstantials. and are to be regarded as of no more leen is authority than any otlier luunnn writings.

also prefix to the book of Daniel the History of Susannah. make any claim to Some it. name is applied principally to those spurious Scrip. of Judith. Baruch and the two l)o()ks Maccabees. Kone of them of them disclaim fables. in the list of the canonical books by the early Fathers and even in the Roman Church their authority was not accepted by the most learned and candid men until after it was made an article of faith by the Council of Trent. Wisdom. .) never formed a part of the Hebrew Scriptures. That these books have no right to a place canon is in the proved by the following facts: (a.) late in the sixteenth century. while the best of them consist in childish and incnlcate bad morals. and their natural faculti*^. [d. That all the canonical Scriptures were divinely as inspired. They were never embraced . and insert in the third chapter the Song of the Three Children. The internal evidence i)re- sented by their contents disproves their claims. They They have always been rejected by the Jews. and are thus given us an authoritative nde of faith and practice. These are Tobit. this section teaches And 3d. JEcclefiiasticus. Roman They Church. and add to the end of the book the History of Bel and the Dragon. inspiration.) apostles.54 the CONFESSION OF FAITH.) None of them were ever quoted by Christ or the (c. and the national and personal pecuof their authors have been evidently a? freely expressed in their writing. (6. to whose guardianship the Old Testament Scriptures were committed. is tures for which a place claimed in the Old Testament canon l)y thi. The books of liarities Scripture were written by the instru- mentality of men.

conveying. of God." which accompanied them uniformly in what they wrote." tliere Heb. as freely exercised duction. and because God authenticated the claims of their writers by accompanyin". we." he commands belief. wholly Word of God. cause they must either be credited as true or rejected as false in all respects. yet directed them in all they it wrote and secured the infallible expresTiie nature of this divine influence sion of in words. one and all.: that all written under the very Word .) command belief except to truth The OM Testament writers claimed to be in- . these books are.ns and wonders and divers 4. convey. {(I.HOLY SCRIPTURE. because they assert of themselves. w ithout violating the free operation of their faculties. their teachinij with "sio. as those of the authors of any other writings. viz. of course. ii. with absolute accuracy all and di\ine authority. without any that God meant them to human additions or admixtures. the in substance and form. miracles. in thought and verbal expression. Nevertheless. and which. and bein this respect. is impossible that he could unconditionally infallibly conveyed. Wherever God sends but it his "sign. intellectual 55 in their pro- and moral. of infallible truth and of divine authorthis infallibility and and authority attach as well to the v erba l^ expression in which the revelation itself. This was accomplished by a sujiernatural influence of the Spirit of God acting upon the spirits of the sacred writers. But the eflects are plain it and ity certain. called " inspiration. is con- veyed as to the matter of the revelation The fact that the Scriptures are thus it inspired is proved. can no more understand than we can is in the case of any other miracle.

13. mouth of his ser1 Cor. 28 1 . Deut. "The Lord limiteth in David a certain time. 27. Num. (6.) iii. ii. The authority of the Holy Scripture.56 spired. 10. saying. 20. 19. . I^uke i. 1 Cor. their writings on a level with the tures. 19-22." Heb. ix. (e. The Lord by 1 . they speak the spoken it. 2." Heb. as the prophets of God.) The inspiration of the Old Testament is expressly Heb. for which ought to be believed aiiJ obeyed. 16 . 1 Thess. 2 Cor.) Tlie New Testament writers introduce their quo- from the Old Testament with such formulas as " The Holy Ghost saith. etc. with plenary authority. 1 Thoss. Matt. xxviii. Old Testament Scrip- 2 Pec. i. John xiii. v. 20. " Saith God. ii. XV. 2 Sam.) etc. 5. 7. xxiii. 7 . Inspiration was promised the apostles. 28. xv. 8. iv. depeudoth not upon the testi- — . 18. John 23. 9." Acts ii. Jer." " The mouth of the Lord hath 29. 1 Pet. 27 ." Deut. it Section IV. i. They put i. 17 . the [)romise of Christ. 2 Tim. xviii. 21. Gal. Matt. 13. Heb. 1 Kings xxi. 26 . 2 Pet. 44. ill a characteristic fact. Luke xxiv. 15-23. v. 25. (d. 9. which must be fulfilled. Testament as Matt. xvi. i. iv. 10-12 . xxxi. 70 the . xvi.) They claimed have the Spirit in fulfilment of Acts ii. 21." . iii. 22. " The Holy Ghost tations this signifying. xxxiv. Christ and his apostles constantly quote the Old infallible. " ix. as that vii. i. 16 2-4. 12. To speak iv. 10 vant David saith. iii. 1 Thess. to (/. Cor. 20. As name of God. (c. 8. 1 . 26. ix. xiv. CONFESSION OF FAITH. x. 33 . prefacing their messages with a " Thus saith the Lord." Acts iv. To speak xiii. Luke 12. 19. 8 . xli. affirmed in the New Testament.

John xvi. 2 Tim. is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit. 14. but upon God. it is to be received. but wholly upon God (who is truth the author thereof. ii." 9 iii. 19-21. and that the written Scripture and ecclesiastical tradition alike depend upon the authori- tative seal of the Church for their credibility. This section teaches the following propositions 1st. 10-12. yet notwithstanding our per- suasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof. ii. 1 Cor. 2 Pet. iii. the consent of all — the parts.HOLY SCRIPTURE. and.® Skction V. the scope of the whole (which full is to give all glory to God). but the auis thority of the Scriptures no more derived from the . 67 is any man the or Church. therefore.— 11 1 John ii. 1 Thess. lix. bearing wit- ness by and with the word in our hearts. directly This proposition of is designed to deny the is Romish heresy that the inspired Church all.. v. the ultimate source divine knowledge. itself to arguments whereby doth abundantly evidence full be the word of God . 16. 20-27. 21. true that the testimony of the early Church to the apostolic authorship of the several books is of fnnda- niental imi)ortance. while in fact the Church is a product of the It is Spirit through the instrumentality of the word. bet^ause wo rd of God. and the entire perfection are thereof. Isa. We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church to an high and reverend esteem of the Holy Scripture. 9 . the efficacy of the doctrine. nionj' of itself). just as a subject to may bear witness the identity of an heir to the crown. the many other incomparable excellences. i.'" and the heavenlincss of the matter. the majesty of the style. 1 John 13. the discovery it makes of the only way of man's it salvation. 15. 13. They thus make the Scriptures a product of the Spirit through the Church. : That the authority of the inspii-ed Scriptures does not rest upon the testimony of the Church.— lo 1 Tiin.

ihiin that of the king from the subject is who proves the fact that he 2d. in its wondrous ])ower over the human conscience. in the original and luminous solution it aifords of many of the darkest problems of human history and destiny. composed of sixty-six separate books. 3d.) . The unparalleled it perfection of moral system in the exalted view its gives of God. They may be felt as the rays of the sun are felt The Holy by the blind. Tliat the legal heir. The i nternal divine origin in the Bible are such as — {a. the internal evidences of a divine origin contained in and inseparable from the Scriptures them- selves are conclusive.) marksof a The phe^ nomena although it presents of a supernatui'al intelligence. set forth and effectively enforced. This is a part of the evidences of Christianity con- sidered under Section 1st. and in the unrivalled extent and persistence of its influence over communities of men. its (6. the direct work of the Ploly The Scriptures to the unregenerate man are like light to the blind.58 confessio:n' of faitu. but they cannot be fully seen Spirit opens the blinded eyes and gives (hie . f icts or opinions of whatever kind in the marvellous all knowledge it exhibits of human nature under pos- sible relations and conditions. his law and moral government. by in its perfect its forty different authors. in alted yet practical ex- and beneficent system of morality. in its unity of design developed through it is entire structure. in Yet that the highest and most influential faith is the truth and authority of the Scriptures Spirit on our hearts. Cliurcli. freedom from all the erroi'S incident to the ages of production with regard to . writing at intervals through six- teen centuries .

xi. Cor. proved (a) from the design of Scripture. must refer to it. gensibility to tlie 69 tlie diseased heart. When regenerated." Christian prudence. and thus assurance comes with iirst evidence of spiritual experience.—" 1 Cor. Incom- . and are abundantly of sufficient for all the practical necessities men or communities. Testament are a complete rule of and practice they embrace the whole of whatever supernatural revelation God now makes This to that is to men. or bj' good and necessary unto which noth- consequence may is ing at any time whether by new revelations of the Nevertheless.^''^ we acknowledge the inward illumination of the Spirit of God in the word and that there are some circumstances concerning the worship of God and government of the Church. faith and life. 9-12. human wants under possible Section VI. 2 Thess. 45 . 8. 2. 9 1 . concerning be deduced from Scripture to be added. and more he discovers of all their limitless breadth and fulness. 1 Cor." . 40. iii. : all things necessary for his expressly own glory. ii. man's salvation. 15-17 Gal. which are always to be observed. which are to be ordered by the light of nature and saving understanding of such things as are revealed to be necessary for the . 2 Tim. eitlier —The whole counsel of God. is set down in Scripture. i. and their evidently deall signed adaptation to conditions. This section teaches the following propositions 1st. according to the general rules of the word. 13. xiv. If any supplementary it knowledge necessary. It professes to lead us to end is it God.— '3 John vi. 26. common to human actions and societies. Whatever is necessary must teach us.HOLY SCRIPTURE. he begins to set the Scriptures to the test lie of experience. 14 . " ii. and the more he advances the more tlie proves them true. Spirit or traditions of men. The inspired Scriptures of the faith Old and New .

would be falsehood. as the very next (c. because foretells the he has already given us a complete and all-sufficient rule. the New Testament does not refer to any further revelation to be expected before Tiiey always refer to the the second advent of Christ. And (c). neither the Scri])tures themselves ever refer to any other source of divine revelation whatsoever. and of duty which God requires of man. and the principles which are necessary for the practical regulation of the lives of individuals. . 2 Tim. John xx. 31 fact. they nor .) As a matter ^ of fact. diligent communities and been in the churches. (6) because. iii. as a matter of Scriptures do teach a perfect system of doctrine.60 CONFESSION OF FAITH. "coming" or "appearance" of Christ supernatural event to be anticipated. days of the no pretended revelations of the Spirit since the ai)ostles have borne the marks or been accompanied with the "signs" of a supernatural revelaOn the contrary. all that have been made pul lie tion. pleteness in such an undertaking But (6) while Christ and his apostles constantly refer to Scripture as an authoritative rule. No new revelations of the Spirit are to be expected (a) now. while the Old Testament new dispensation. either by new revelations of the Spirit or traditions of men. 2d. all They therefore assume the all the awful prerogatives of completeness. 15-17. The more men have study of the Bible. the it is has been possible for them to believe that all incomplete in any element of a perfect rule of that which man is to believe concerning God. and the more assiduous they have been less in carrying out it its instructions into practice. all that Nothing during the present dispensation is to be added to this com])lete rule of faith.

) Christ rebukes the practical ob- servance of vii.HOLY SCRIPTURE. complete and perspicu- essentially indeterminate. (6. is carnal. and are incapable of Traditions of verification. tradition (d) The only system of ecclesiastical which pretends is to rival the Scriptures as a rule of faith traditions are. that of the Roman Church. and unable to discern the things of Spiritual illumination differs from the Spirit of God. . men cannot be allowed to supplement Scripture as a rule of faith. while the latter ous. while private revelations have been professed only by vain enthusiasts. Nevertheless. Mark Tradition cannot supplement Scripture. inspiration.) it in the Pharisees. Matt. much they are inconsistent with less to an apostolic origin the clear teaching of Scripture and with the opinions of . 3d. demonstrably of modern origin none can be traced to the apostolic age. many of the highest authorities in that Church itself in past ages. (c. xv. the former is definite. Ifts 61 those of Swedenborg and the Mormons — are incon- 'sistent with Scripture truth. 7. obscure and fragmentary. never once ascribe authority to any such a supplementary rule. therefore. but from the fact that man. ^ and saving knowledge of the truth This necessity does not result from any want of either completeness or clearness in the revelation. and her many of them. beis cause. 3-6 . directly oppose the authority of Scripture and teach bad morals. while undertaking to lead men to a saving knowledge of God.embraced in the Scriptures. in a state of nature. (a) in that it conveys no new . because (a) the Scriptures. a personal spiritual illumination by the power of the Holy Ghost is necessary in every case for the practical .

of course. That. that it is and hence. or a religious is duty obligatory upon the conscience. in the light of experience and in adaptation to changing cir- cumstances. This in the liberty.^* j'et not alike plain in themselves. and in regeneration (b) in that it is an element common to all the children of (c) God. nor alike clear unto those things which are necessary to be known.— isps. leave men to apply them. private and personal in its use. and not j)ublic. life and applies of the individual and of the Church in detailed adjustments to changing circumstances. 130. but. which plicitly or implicitly not ex- taught in Scripture. and in the legitimate application of those to the regulation of the practical principles. IG. that not only the learned. in the exercise of their natural judgment. but simply opens the mind and heart of tlie subject to the spiritual discernment and appreciation of the truth already objectively pre- sented in the Scriptures. and in not peculiar to prophets or apostles. cxix. believed and observed. — All diings in Scripture are all . nevertheless they do not descend in practical matters into details. 105. may attain unto a sufficient under- standing of them.62 COXFEbblOX OF FAITH.'* "2 Pet. aro 80 clearly propounded and opened in some place of Scripture or other. as they are guided by the sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit. laying down general principles. truths to the nnderstanding. 4th. is allowed only within the limits of the strict interpretation of the principles taught Word. and while nothing is to be re- garded as an article of faith to be believed. while the Scriptures are a complete rule of faith and practice. for salvation. . but the unlearned. iii. in a due use of the ordinary means. Section VII.

may be learned therefrom. Protestants admit that the Scriptures in their understanding. to search the Scriptures. Rom. truth revealed therein. i. 1 Cor. 4-9. 2 And the salutations of all the Epistles except tKose to (c. 15-17 xvii. with the advance of historical and critical knoM'ledge. Protestants tionally obscure until explained by their fulfilment in the developments of history. 11 . m order to his salvation or for his j^ractical guidance in duty. and (6) that private and unlearned may be safely allowed to interpret Scripture for themselves. 63 This section affirms that the Scriptures are in such a sense perspicuous that all that is necessary for man to know. it is true that. i. and that many of the truths revealed in own nature transcend human many prophecies remain intenNevertheless. the Church as a community has made and progress in the accurate inter})retation of Scripture in the full comprehension of the entire system of this subject is true. 1. 39. Luke 3.HOLT( SCRIPTURE. (6.) Timothy and Titus. . the fact that the Scriptures are addressed either to all men or to the Avhole body of believers. John v. and that they are designed for the personal use and are adapted to the instruction of the unlearned as well as the learned. Deut. commanded . On the other hand. i. That the Protestant doctrine on proved (a) is from the Acts fact that all Christians promiscu- ously are iii.) From vi. i. 2. 2 Tim. 7 . and by means of controversies. Cor. affirm and Romanists deny (a) that every essential article of faith and rule of practice may be clearly learned from Scripture Christians . The Scriptures are affirmed to be perspicuous.

24. 9. 20 . tical If for prac- purposes they are not perspicuous they must mis- lead. Ps. This section teaches 1st. 15-17. 15. hope. Col. 1 V. Testament in —The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of Grod of old). John v. xv. 12.^^ may have " Matt. 11.*" and.64 CONFESSION OF FAITH.—21 46. 39. 18.—19 John v._20 Cor. being immediately inspired by God.^* But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of G-od. who have right unto and interest in the Scriptures. while those churches which have locked them up in the hands of a priesthood have to the greatest degree departed from spirit. to read and search them. through patience and comfort of the Scriptures. (e. 2 Tim. Scriptures uddress The men as a divine law all to be obeyed and as a guide to salvation.130. 2 Cor. IS. 105. 19. : That the Old Testament having been originally . and are commanded. xiv. 16. are therefore authentical . :9.—^ Rom. viii. i. Those churches which have most the people have conformed most and certain sense of their teaching faithfully disseminated the Scriptures in the vernacular among in faith the mass of entirely to the plain and practice. iii." so as in ligion the all controversies of re- Church is finally to appeal unto them.) iii. 14. 4. Acts w. them both in letter and Section VIII. 27.^® therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation unto which they come.cxix. 28. iii. in the fear of God. and the New was most generally known to the nations). Experience has uniformly proved the truth of the Protestant doctrine.) and so falsify their pretensions. God dwelling plenti- they may worship him in an acceptable manner. (c/. 6. and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all it Greek (which at the time of the wiiting of ages.'"' that the word of fully in all. 2 Pet.— 18 Isa.

in which Early translations into other languages. 100 . and ultiThat the original | Chun^h in their respective periods. . C. and the of our text is The essen- established. The true text of the an(. D. These are so numerous that the from the works whole New Testament might be gathered of writers dating before the seventh century. tial integrity forming the modern Hebrew and Greek Testaments. D. Quotations' from the apostolic Scriptures found tlie the writings of early Christians. 5 . the Peshito or ancient Syriac \ A. Many hundi*eds of these' in have been collated by eminent scholars text of differences are found to be unimportant. B. in 2d.icnt Scriptures careful collation is by means of a following: isting and comparison of the 1st. : sacred text has come down to us in a st«te of essential 3d. and they prove the exact state of the text at the time they were made. . the The which Greek 1 principal of these are the Samaritan Pentateuch. put into the hands of all capable of reading them. the Coptic of the century. fourth to the sixth century. 285 version. written in QFi Hebrew and tJie the New Testament in Greek. and others of less ' critical value. the Latin Vulgate of Jerome. Ancientjmanuscripts. 3d. in all controversies. 2d. The oldest exHebrew manuscripts date from the ninth or tenth The oldest Greek manuscrijits date from the century. | which were the common languages of the large body of the Scrijitures in iiiith. fifth | 385 . Septuagint. those languages are the absolute rule of mate appeal purity.Y SCRIPTURE. That the Scriptures should be translated and copies ascertained into the vernacular languages of all people. A.HOI. the Samaritans inherited from the ten tribes .

relio-ion. are to be examined. Since all these writings are one revelation. Christians are of course to study the Scriptures. 16. contro- The authority of the Scriptures as the ultimate rule of faith rests alone in the fact that they are the word of God. all That the Scriptures are the supreme "judge" in versies coucernino. That Spirit the difleront sections of this rautiially supplement and explain one an- The Holy promised to who ins[)ired the Scriptures the only adequate expounder of his is own words. That the infallible and only true "rule" is for the interpretation of Scripture Scripture itself. must be searched and known by other more clearly. i. 25. it follows : 1st. Acts xv. by which all controversies of religion are to be detei-mined. and all decrees of councils. 20. sense of any Scripture (which not manplaces but one). 29. 20. and are not to be supplemented or explained by other source. 31. Acts xxviii. is CONFESSION' OF FAITH. can be no other but tbe Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture. These sections teach 1st.** that speak — «3 2 Pet. using all the helps of true learning to ascertain their meaning. The supreme Judge.66 Section IX. when there a question is about the true and ifold. ii. In depcndance upon his guidance. xxii. and in whose sentence we are to rest. is but this meaninrr to be sona-ht in the lisrht of tho . revelation other.^ Section X. opinions of ancient writers. and private spirits.— 2* Matt. 21 . is ligiit drawn from any 2d. his Avill concerning religion and the only revelation of given by God to men. full and therefore. and he all the children of God as a Spirit of light and truth. That they are complete as a revelation in themselves. Eph. —The it infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself. 15. 2d. doctrines of men.

refer us to no us the in way of standard or judge matters of religion beyond or above themselves. they bind oidy so they affirm truly what the Bible teaches. that there is '2d. and because the Bible does so teach. which to be interpreted and applied by Creeds every individual for himself. bind those only wlio volun. and not in the light either of tradition or of philosopliy. the Scriptures are the only authoritative voice in is the Church. as tarily profess far as to form. them and as to matter. are the only rule of faith and practice tively. Because the Scriptures. which salvation. consequently. judge is the expounder and applier of that rule particular cases. . with the assistance. and confessions. (a) nega- no body of men qualified or author- ized to interpret the Scriptures or to apply their teach- ings to the decision of particular questions in a sense binding upon tliat their fellow-Christians . . This must be true.HOLY SCRIPTURE. The Protestant doctrine is. though not by the authority. that. That the Scriptures . 67 Scriptuics themselves taken as a wliole. . true application of that rule to every particular question of faith or practice. 1st. that the Papal Church is the infallible teacher of men in religion. (6) positively." to the decision of The Romish the doctrine is. and because no body of tles men since the apos- have ever existed with the qualifications or with the authority to act in the office of judge for their fellows. Church authoritatively determines. of his fellow-Christians. (1) what is (2) what is tradition (3) what is the true sense of Scripture and of tradition and (4) what is the Scripture . *' A rule is a standard of judgment. -a. j)rofess to teach 1st.

How has it since been embodied and transmitted? How may the fact that the Christian Scriptures ? such a revelation be proved 12. Because Christians are to commanded and ii. 14. all 3d. 21. and judge l)oth doctrines teachers themselves. v. 1 John ii. Be(!ause all Gal. 20. iv. Acts xvii. What is the Old Testament? What is the New Testament? By what principles are we to determine whether to a place in the or not a book has a right 16. 8 1 Thess.68 CONFESSION OF FAITH. How How to is it proved it can to be false? be shown that a supernatural revelation from God 9. 2d. 15. to attain to a knowledge of God ? 4. as we have seen. 1 John 20. Because. man is antecedentlj^ probable? By what means was such a revelation at first given? contain 10. 6. . ChrislJans are promised the in the Holy Spirit to guide them understanding and practical 9 . 1. 39. 5. What propositions are taught in the second and third sections ? 13. 2. canon of Scripture? all How is the genuineness of the books received by Prot- estants in the 17. to search pi'ofessed the Scriptures. 27. 11. QUESTIONS. 11 4th. Old Testament established? the genuineness cf the books of the How is ? New Testament proved . the Scriptures are thera- gelves complete and perspicuous. viii. • 8. i. 2. Rom. John . 27. 1. use of the truth. v. What What propositions are affirmed in the is first section? the first stated false opinion as to the capacity of men 3. How is it proved to be fixlse ? What is the second false opinion stated? How is it proved to be false ? What is the third false opinion stated ? 7.

Show that the authority of Scripture does not rest upon the testimony of the Church. 23. How may it be proved ? Prove that no additional revelations of the Spirit aye to be expected during the present dispensation. . 28. 35. What propositions are affirmed in the eighth section ? By what means is the integrity of the text of our modern Hebrew and Greek i>ropositions tliat is copies of the 37. 69 What are the Apocrypha? How ? can it be proved that they are no part of Sacred Scripture 20. / 24. 39. do the ninth and tenth sections affirm? Scripture must be interpreted by Scripture. How does spiritual illumination differ from inspiration? liberty of action What do the Scriptures allow for the reason and choice of men in prudentially ordering matters that concern religion ? / 32. What is inspiration ? What are the effects in the case of inspiration. in questions of faith and practice? 41. 29. 31. What is the difference between a "rule" and a "judge?" What is the Protestant doctrine as to the true judge of Prove the truth of the Protestant doctrine. What is meant by affirming that the Scriptures are per- spicuous ? 33. Scriptures established? What Show 38. 21. What the Kouiish doctrine as to the authority of the Church 40. Prove that the Scriptures are perspicuous. 18. and how far do they extend 22. How does the Holy Ghost bear witness to the Scriptures? is meant by the affirmation that the Scriptures as a and practice are complete? 26. 19. . 36. What do Protestants admit and what do they affirm on this subject? 34. of the Scriptures? tluit State the evidence the Scriptures are inspired. What rule of faith 27. Prove that traditions of men are not to be admitted.HOLY SCRIPTURE. 30. controversies? 42. What are the internal evidences which authenticate the claims of Scripture ? 25.

xxvi. 4 1 Cor.'' without body. . 15.* immense. 70 . God hath all life.* invisible.^^ hating all sin.-5 i Tim.'^ and hath most sovereign dominion over them." for his is —There but one onV is infinite in being and perfection. OF GOD AND OP THE HOLY TEINITY.^* Section II. 24. abundant sin .^* most wise." most free. or upon them.—' 1 Thcss." his knowledge is infinite. 17. in. not standing in need of any creatures which he hath* — made. and every other creature. living and true God.^* most holy. 4.''® in and of himself." To him is due from angels and men. parts. of whom. 7vi. iii.'^ glory. unto and upon them he is the alone fountain of all being. to do by them.* or passions.'^' blessedness. Mai. transgression withal most just and terrible in his judgments the rewarder of them that diligently seek him f^ and .'' immutable. service or obedience.'^° in goodness and truth.-8 James i. 17.CHAPTER Section I.— » Job xi.* who most pure spirit. are all things. 10. and is alone in and unto himself allsufficient.^' gracious. II.^" incomprehensible. long-suffering.^ not deriving any glory from them." . i. infallible and independent upon the creaor uncertain. whatsoever worship. merciful.^ and who will by no means clear the guilty.' a own and glory j^" most loving. i. 9 14. he is pleased to require > of them. 39.^* most absolute.** so as him contingent He is most holy in all liis counsels.^* working all things according to the counsel of his own immutable and most righteous will. .— John iv.'^ ture. 24.—* Deut. by. iv.xxiv. viii.' eternal.'" but only manifesting his own glory. John iv. 15. x.— T Acts xiv. forgiving iniquity. ^® goodness. for them. 6. 6. whatsoever himself : pleaseth. 11. 9 Jer. through whom and to whom.—» J Deut." almighty. in all his works and in all his commands. Luke ." In his sight nothing is to all things are open and manifest . 16 .

Rom. 3.—" Ps. Ixxxii. 1 Tim._*> iv. 2. be- god has been applied to angels cause of their spirituality and exalted and Satan 4). 33. witl^out bodily- parts or passions. 17.—li Pa. 3.—»» Rom. These 1st. vii. 34 ._I5 Ps.-31 iv. to the claims of all false gods. 35. sections teach the following propositions is There but one living and true God. one living God. 6. 14. 5. 18. -^^ 8. xvi. but one God. 12. 5. vi.—" Heb. 13.) There unit. i^g. it In opposition. 3. 24. 33.. the sole support. and the (Ps. 4. 27 . U. 12. v. Rom. is 2d. vi. Jer. 5th.— i* Prov. 32. Job xxii.-28 i Tim. i. 36.—1* Gen. 17. 6). proprietor and sovereign disposer of all his creatures. cxlvii. 36. xo. ix. Rev. 8. 11 . This God a free personal Spirit. 27. 6. 2 1 Tim. because of their authority.— Ex. 2f.—^ John v. (6. 5. xxxiv.GOD AND THE HOLY TRINITY. 3 Ex. ifi . 26. Ps. xvi. 6. cxv.—'^ Ex. is called " the god of this world" (2 Cor. i. and in exclusion of all figurative use of the term. 15 . iv. 14. i.—M Ps. He possesses all absolute perfections in and of himself. 68. Rom. He He possesses all relative perfections with respect to his creatures. is self-existent and absolutely independent. 1. 11. xi. 6. 7. xxxiv. . therefore.-35 Acts xv. 3d. xi. Kings viii. xxiii. 7. xcvii. 25. 23. iii. V. S. : This affirmation includes two propositions is (a.-34 Rom. Dan. 3. iv. vi. xvii.-32 ^gv.—37 Rev._i9 1 John iv.—" Eph.—lo Ps. cxix. cxlv. false There have been title gods innumerable. 7). xi. xi. . ix.) This one God is an absolute incapable of division. 4th.-26 Acts vii.-2* Neh. 15. iv. is is affirmed that there but one true God.'iv. because of his usurped dominion over the wicked.-36 Rom.-33 Heb.—« Neh. 2. Ezek. xi. 71 24.— » Acts xvii. excellence. and to magistrates (Ps.— " Isa. There is but one living and true God. 1st. 2. Rev.

Cor. sides.) All the instincts and cultivated habits of reason lead us to refer the multiplicity of the phe- nomenal world backward and upward to a ground of absolute unity. and to identify to compound God with him with the laws of nature. V . the Scriptures teach us that the Christian Trinity is one undivided X.) is true of the system of providential government. There is a very ancient prevalent and persistent mode of thought which pervades a great deal of our literature in the present day. Deut. but neither the argument from desio'n nor from conscience suggests more than one. viii. For an essential division in the one Godhead would in effect constitute two Gods be- The the . God : " I and my Father are one. the unity of the source of all absolute (5. and hence evidently emanating from one designing intelligence. vi. suggests the existence of but one.) The same (4. without bodily parts or passions. but there is no evidence of more than There must be one designing intelligence and one moral governor. which tends the world. Scrip1 tures constantly affirm this truth. but one God is proved — (1) From the met one one. necessarily excludes division and rivalry. The sense of nioral accountability innate in to man witnesses authority. This God is a free personal Spirit. tJiat every argumeut that establishes the being of God. which being infinite and absolute. 30.) The creation throughout its whole extent is one system pre- senting absolute unity of design. 4. (6.72 riiat there is CONFESSION OF FAITH. indivisible unity of this one God is proved by same arguments." John 2d. first There must be cause.) The 4. (2. (3.

iliviue (e) because they were possessed by the nature in Christ. (a) because the Scriptures affirm that we all were created in his image. Therefore he a personal spirit. and will and in choosing and adapting means is to effect those ends. (d) be- evidenced in his works of creation and providence. benevolence in selecting ends. spirit we mean of intelligence. the subject to which the attributes By erties. or of permanent substance to transient modes. because our religious we recognize them in him. exterior and superior hold us to a strict personal account. to the persons us. the order 73 and beauty of creation.GOD AND THE HOLY TRINITY. or of whole to parts. Now God all the arguments that establish the being of a agree with the Scriptures in setting spirit distinct him forth as a personal from the world. nature demands that cause their exercise is (6) because they attribute (c) these properties severally to him. by is — though intimately asso- We know spirit ing that self-consciousness. The argument from innate in all men the sense of moral accountability proves that we are subject to a supreme Lawgiver. feeling and will belong as active prop- Where these unite there is The argument from design proves cause to distinct personality. In one way or another to he is considered as sustaining the phenomena ol nature the relation of soul to body. one who takes knowledge of personal spirit distinct from ciated with and will is Therefore he a — the subjects he governs. he governs. And (2) we deny that the . and in affirm- God a spirit we (1) affirm that he possesses in infinite perfection all those properties which belong to our spirits. that the great is first whom the system of the universe to be re- ferred possesses both intelligence.

The (jod. of his being grieved or jealous. lute perfections plicity. 3d. because in . and occur for the most part in highly passages rhetorical of the poetical and prophetical books. or that he exerts power by attributing to him a hand.74 CONFESSION OP FAITH. and only . is It know only such properties ^t A of God as he has condescended to reveal to us. intelligence. is We make this denial. unity. (6) and. attributes of God are the properties of his allto perfect nature. they use metaphorical language also. properties of matter. which are of his essence.^ the case of men spiritual faculties are exercised through bodily organs. Pie possesses all absolute perfections in himself. such as sim- unchangeableness. 4th. omniscience. and of He possesses all relative perfections with respect to his creatures. it is inconsistent with those infinite and absoetc. because. they evidently speak metaphorically. (a) because there no evidence that he does possess any such properties. Such me- taphors are characteristic rather of the Old than of the New Testament. omnipresence. from the very nature of matter and its affections. Those are which characterize him evident that we can in his relation to his crea- tures ^V —as omnipresence. in condescension to our weak- ness. When the Scriptures. Those are absolute which belong in considered himself alone —as etc. and passions. such as bodily parts belong to him. tive etc. express the fact that God hears by saying that he has an ear. eternity. And when they speak of his repenting. teaching us that he acts toward us as a man would when agitated by such passions. self-existence. rela- immensity.

Hence he can time or space. to every atom and element of which is it consists.) His immensity. in his (1. the entire indivisible Godhead must. He has been omnipresent. because it is pure The Spirit of God. we mean that his essence all space. or his goodness. under none of the limitations of be eternal and he must fill He must all immensity. Al- though God creatures at essentially equally omnipresent to all all times. 60 75 question. yet. infinite. v/ithout extension or dimensions. He is infinite. much is.GOD AND THE HOLY TRINITY. These three. without any When M^e say that infinite in his truth. ever since the creation. Therefore. his power. nor through its extension or diffusion. as he variously manifests . moment of time He is immense absolutely and from eternity. in his essence and in all the properties thereof. since he through multiplication of his ever one and indivisible. (2. eternal. like ether. must be the com- mon perfections of all the properties that belong to his essence. eternal. in his justice. effected is When we attribute this perfecfills tion to God. through the spirit. infinite in his When God is knowledge or limit. we mean that he possesses these properties in absolute perfection. we mean he is that he knows all things. or his justice. be simultaneously present every at every point of space. in his power. etc. inter- planetary spaces. omnipresent in his wisdom. and that he can effect all that he wills. The then.) What is has God revealed to us of his perfections word? God declared exist to be infinite in his being. of these as he has revealed. therefore. in the totality of his being. omnipresent in his said to be being. like the spirit of a man. This cannot be essence. must be an absolute unit.

Matt. modes and In his knowin his en- ledge. (4. Thus. which never and his actions can change. God was iii. The counsel of the Lord stand- eth for ever. " is the same yesterday. upon his creatures pass from him at the precise moments predetermined in his unchanging purpose. he can have no end. feelings or purposes. There can be no increase as immediately as the present. no change as to his purpose. 2-6. we mean that his duration has no limit and that his existence in infinite duration is absolutely perfect. the thoughts of his heart to all generations. xviii. which is always contemporaneous with the ever-flowing times of his creatures. to his knowledge. God's knowledge infinite.) in the burning bush. himself at different times and places to his intelligeni creatures. including om- niscience and absolutely perfect wisdom. eternally recognizes his creatures and their actions in their several places in time. By affirming that God is eternal. He could have had no beginning. he to-day and for ever. And promises to be in the midst of two or three met together name. Ex. and hence gagements to his creatures. and in his existence there can be no succession of thoughts. His knowledge. his feelings." Ps. not .76 CONFESSION OF FAITH. is is clearly taught in Scripture. 11. present to Moses in his (3. all-embracing present. so he is said to be peculiarly present to them Clirist under such conditions. his purposes. His eternity. past and the future Hence the and as im- must be mutably present with him existence is Hence his an ever-abiding. 20. xxxiii.) The infinite intelligence of God. Hence God and in all the is absolutely unchangeable in his being states thereof.

. God knows himself. only as to the range of objects to its it 77 embraces. the pur- poses of his will.) We know only as they stand related to our organs of perception.) Our nature. but also as tilings perfection. and [he perfect system of God's illustrated gloriously in works of creation. The power God is both . because of that purpose. It is in the election of ends. God's God's is independent. lio-ht God knows them intelligence immediately. in the absolute except such as fections of hi^^ and immutable perof owi nature. (c. the constitution of his nature. I Wisdom and will of exercised presupposes knowledge.GOD AND THE HOLY TKINITY. is Ours great measure transient permanent. his will he power he knows all In knowing thf all immutable purposes of knows is that has existed or that will exist. and in the selection of means is in order to the accom- plishment of those ends.) The omnipotence of God is the infinite efficiency to resident in effect and inseparable from the divine essence lies whatsoever he wills without any limitation soever. In knowing the resources of his things possible. provi- dence and grace. Ours is in fragmentary God's total . the ideas of his reason. the resources of his power. and only in their properties. God knows all things eternally by one direct. and complete. in the in of his (6. general and special. and that excellent intelligence practical use which the absolutely perfect God make of his infinite knowledge. the depths of his own infinite and eternal being. We knowledge is is dependent . (5.) o\^n and their essential know things successively as they are present to us. . (a. or as we pass inferentially from the known to the before unknown. all-comprehensive intuition.

We work th"ough means. in God's will acts directly upon effect and effects (2. works of creation and providence. its CONFESSION OF FAITH. immutably and most and spontaneously wise and righteous. He cannot act God is unwisely or unright- eously. since eternally. God's power exercised At his will. ana '^nr action conditioned by external circumstances. self- existent essence. the is often follows only remotely. but are principles of the divine nature. but there ever remains an infinite . but never exhausted..) absolutely and uncondition- ally all he intends. The ultimate principles of reason and of moral right and wrong are not products of the divine power. but want of freely will. and these have their determination in his own eternal perfections. directly only Our wills can act upon the course of our thoughts and a few bodily actions. do whatsoever his nature determines him this But power cannot be directed against his nature. because he did not make himself. is God's omnipotence in his is illustrated. God cannot change the nature of right and wrong. etc. The power inherent its objects. When through means it a condescension. He has absolutely unlimited power to to will. And the power of God is is absolutely independent of all that all-perfect nature. because the his means receive all their efficiency from his power. exterior to his own The power of God is the power of his all-perfect. diately with or without acts God acts immehe means is as he pleases.78 unlimited in of action. not for tor want of the power as respects the act.) We are conscious that the powers inhe- rent in our wills are very limited. and can only very imperfectly control these. not power from the means. range and infinitely perfect in its mode (1.

Our duty is to forgive injuries. that he will be gracious to the guilty. God is one absolutely perfect right- Relatively to his creatures his infinite moral perfection always presents that aspect which his infinite wisdom decides to be appropriate to the case. independently of his own special revelation.GOD AND THE HOLY TKINITY. or goodness viewed as a disposition to promote the happiness of his . we as individ- uals have nothing to do with either forgiving or pardonis ing sin. 26 to us only Rom. or goodness exercised The rests grace of God toward the undeserving evidently . xi.) The absolutely perfect goodness of God. as well as from Scripture. upon his sovereign will (Matt. Neither reason nor conscience nor ob- servation of nature can assure us. (c) and to regard with complacency their excellences Mercy. ix. It is making the happiness of hia . both are equally and spontaneously in his nature. nor partially merciful and partially and just. (6) Love. 15). 11. but eternally and perfectly merciful Both are right.nstible proved from universal experience. since the Creator always infinitely transcends his creation. ^^^^ His goodness includes sensitive creatures Benevolence. He is not alternately merciful and just. (6. That God's goodness is absolutely perfect and inoxhn. {d) Grace. v. re-icrve of" 79 possibility lying back of the actual exercise of power. and can be assured by means of a posi- tive revelation. 17. or goodness exercised toward the miserable toward the undeserving. not in James iii. exercised. just. or goodness viewed as a disposition to promote the happiness of intelligent creatures. The moral perfection of eousness. however. and both are perfectly and freely harmonized by the infinite wisdom of that (a) nature.

but is regulated by his wisdom in order to the accomplishment of the supreme ends of his own glory and their excellence. and in their righteous execution. it is his infi- nitely righteous nature exercised. and unconditionally a chief creatures ir. sincere in his promises their fulfilment.discriminately end. in the imposition of righteous laws. prop- erty of all the divine is perfections . viewed abso- lutely. (7. and the general credibility of hu- man (8. and pre-eminently the reliability of of God. every word of the inspired Scriptures. and threatenings. . and His knowledge of his absolutely accurate his wisdom infallible. as well as in a divinely-accredited. This is a common actions. supernatural revelation. and distributively in his dealing to individ- uals that treatment according to hiji which righteously belongs to them. The is infinite justice This. as the moral governor It appears of his intelligent creatures. He is also always absonature.80 CONFESSION OF FAITH. and all rational faithful in This lays the foundation for the constitution of our confidence in own natures and in the order of the external world. the all-perfect righteousness of God's being considered in himself. It guarantees the validity of the information of our senses. own covenants and their own deserts.) God is absolutely true. the truth of the intuitions of reason and conscience.) testimony. Viewed relatively. his goodness own God is and justice perfectly true to the standard In the exercise of all his properties always self-consistent. the correctness of the inferences of the understanding. lutely true to his creatures in all his communications. in the general administration of his government vnewed as a whol i.

God does not make his demands just by willing them. 13. " of purer eyes than to behold evil.GOD AND THE HOLY TRINITY. ness 5 Rom. iii. is because such punishment is intrinsically This proved : From the direct assertions of Scripture " To belongeth vengeance and recompense. then Christ is dead in vain. 13." [b. " He cannot He deny himself. and cannot look on iniquity. 6. 32. 81 God is most willingly It just. lix.) it sin because it is intrinsically hateful." Deut. is his self-existent an immutable principle of his divine conis stitution. that they which commit such things are worthy of with to recompense tribulation to God death. ii. repay. but he wills them because they are just.) Rom. It is a revelation of righteousness in God. The punishment of sin and its consequent discouragement is an obvious benefit to the subjects of his government in general." Gal. The Scriptures teach that the vicarious suffering of the penalty due to his people by Christ as their substitute was absolutely necessary to enable God to con- tinue just and at the same time the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus. me "Seeing it is a righteous thing them which trou" Knowing the judgment of ble you. " If righteous- come by the law. xxxii. " According to their deeds. but his justice is is no more an optional product of his will than being. i." 2 Thess. i. {a. 18. The infinite righteousness of his immutable being all sin as intrin- determines him to regard and to treat sically hateful and deserving of punishment." Isa. 26. in and a powerful stimulant to moral excellence them. accordingly he will 35. i." Heb. . God. But God hates and punishes righteous." 2 Tim.

44. proprietor and sovereign disposer of ." iii." Ps. The infinite holiness of God. CONFESSION OF FAITH. God self-existent and absolutely independent. The Lord righteous in all his ways. and holy in times it all his works. 17. ix.) And this is the sentence universally pronounced by the moral sense of men with regard The same changeless all : to all crime." Isa. xi. principle of righteousness was inculcated by the divinely-appointed sacrifices of the Mosaic dispensation " Almost all things by the law are purged with blood.) sacrificial rites of all heathen and in all human laws and penalties. for I am holy. and that im- mutable righteousness demands enlightened (d.) own Son "in It is a universal judgment of awakened sinners sin that their deserves punishment it. verily righteousness should have been by the law. there had been a law that could have given life. the whole vi. been illustrated in the nations. is full of his glory." (c. 'verily" he would not have sacrificed his vain." Lev. ! " the And one cried to another. 21. 3. "If 21. which the result of all his harmonious in one perfection of absolute and blended perfections and infinite ! excellence. In that case " it is an element of his peris fect righteousness. cxlv. Sometimes this term is applied to God to express his perfect purity: " Sanctify yourselves and be ye holy." Heb. That is.82 ii. Some- expresses his transcendently august and veneris able majesty. Holy earth holy holy ! is Lord of Hosts. is 5th. if God could have in consistency with justice pardoned sinners without an expiation. 22. the so e support. Gal. and without the shedding It has also of blood is no remission. (9.

as created His absolute ownership of (c. 6. ^ 14. his creatures. 17. 16.'* tlie Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son. God the Son. Gal.—»9 John i. 19. 11.) his sovereignty are — (a) His all infinite superiority.*" persons. 7 . of one substance.GOD AND THE HOLY TKIMTY. iv. iv. righteous. (6) that he absolutely independent in his being. but in his adorable per- son. Having before ^^hown that there is but one living and . This sovereignty restb not in his will abstractly. Tne sovereignty of God is his absolute right to govern and dispose of the work of his own hands according to his own good pleasure. iv. xiii. 18..—«) John XV. benevo- and powerful sovereignty. that he is self-existent. 25. and God the Holy Ghost.^ The Father is of none. neither begotten nor proceeding the Son is eternally begotten of the Father . and of all intelligent creatures for blessedness. outside of his own The grounds of (6. purposes all and actions of other beings. Dan. iii. 35 Rev. all The perpetual and absolute dependence of things upon him for being. and in fact are absolutely- dependent upon him in their actions in their being. —In the unity of the Godhead there be three power and eternity. and subject to him and destinies. Section III. that his own being must have the cause of existence in itself is —that is. Matt. 1 J. 2 Cor.) things by him. .hn V. lent Hence it is an infinitely wise. 20. unlimited by anything ^perfections. 14. God the Father. and (c) that all other beings of right belong to him. xxviii. 83 Since all God is eternal and the Creator out it of nothing of follows its (rt) things that exist besides himself.

but with especial definiteness in the New Testament. That Father. they are inseparable from that essence and it follows that if Father. and that the indivisible divine esscHce and all divine perfections and prerogatives be- long to each in the same sense and degree. in tlie Old Testament. but of different persons. names of the same person in different titles. are revealed in a certain order of subsistence and of operation. 1st. the infinite and the abso- lute First Cause. . That these three divine persons are distinguished from one another by certain personal properties. If then Father. 2d. and 3d. and the indivisible divine essence. . Son and Holy Ghost. which is no part of nat- ural religion. And since the attributes of God are the in- herent properties of his essence. they must have the same identical attributes in common. Son and Holy Ghost consist of the same numerical essence. perhaps. being spiritual.S4 true CONFESSION OF FAITH. this Section asserts in addition 1st. Father. Son and Holy Ghost are each equally that one God. and all divine perfections and prerogatives belong to each in the same sense and degree. Son and Holy Ghost are each equally the one God. they must each equally consist of that same essence. God. Father. cannot bo divided. his essence. Since there is but one God. Son and Holy Ghost are that one God. That these are not different relations. These propositions embrace the Christian doctrine of the Trinity (three in unity). and that his essential properties embrace all perfections. though most clearly revealed in the in- spired Scriptures — indistinctly.

iii. Col. Scriptures declare that divine worship should The . Jer." of John xvi. giving eternal John (5. Rev. All divine attributes are predicated of . 10. 17 attribute i. etc. xviii. 10. ix. Matt. John 5 . 1 . 28. Heb. v. 6 . to none others except as the 6 Father and the Spirit Jehovah. the Almighty. 2 Cor. Rom. John ii. God. John viii. XXV. the true God and the [3. 31. 85 and there is common to them the one intelligence the one will. xvii. . life. 17 . ix. to Christ: Creaiion. i. everlasting Father. The Scriptures all divine works i.) AU to the titles God are constantly to applied Christ. John 31 viii. judgment. . John v.) X. v. Eph. 5.. 25. mighty God. 25-27. 17. omniscience. Matt. preseri. Heb. Heb. that is. That the Son is : the true God is proved by the following considerations (1. xiii. 32. v.) (a. (6." . him Eternity. 20 . (4. xxiii. xvii. 23. the Father is It has never been questioned whether God. 8. world. 20 the Alpha and Omega. xxviii. God over all. 13 immutability. Matt. 13 . 3. Col. 8 . i.) everlasting life. John 22. 5 Rev. 18. 58 " . omnipotence. John xvi. 27 John Heb.) ii.) " He came into the iii. Rev. 16.) Christ existed before he was born of the Virgin. John 3-10. 3. 8 . Isa. 1 John i. xxii. the final v. i. i. sending the Holy Ghost. The Scriptures are full of the evidences of i his fun- damental truth.GOD AND THE HOLY TRINITY. Matt. vation and providential government. 7. omnipresence xi. (2. i. 58 i. He was with the Father before the world was. 8. He came down names and and : from heaven. 11. 28. Banctification.

Rom. Their mode of subsistence in the one substance must . Ps. never forgiven. 11. is Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost Matt. 4. 2d. i. v. (4. xii. and since they have in intelligence. are in different relations. CONFESSION OP FAITH. viii. (1. : (3. xiii.) Divine works are attributed to him Job xxvi. Acts Divine perfections are ascribed to him ii. 11. 25. regeneration. Son and Holy one infinite Ghost. 6 . Rev. John iii. .. as well as into the name of the Father is and the Holy Ghost. will. xii. Son and Holy Ghost. civ. 5. 6 . 4. These Father.) the true God is proved in a He is called God. 10. 15. 6 Titus iii. 1 Cor. Ps. and Jer. is to be paid to him. not the names of the same pers n is but of different persons. 30. 16. What the Spirit says Jehovah says. 23. 1 Men The is are to be baptized into the name of Jesus. His gra- cious influences are invoked in the apostolical benediction. 12 . Ci'eation. We are baptized into his name. omnipotence. 3. 1 Cor. 32. i. him John : Heb.) God. common is power. : Omnis- cience. 33 with Heb. 8. i. Luke 35 . 2 . i. vi. omnipresence. 31. miracles. v. 13.) Divine worship 2 Cor. v.86 be paid to Cor. That the Holy Ghost similar manner. 9—11 . 11. Compare is to lie Isa. titles. to x. when we is say they are as separate distinct persons we do one not mean that one from the other ao human person from every other. grace of Jesus invoked in the apostolical benediction. Since there itual essence but one indivisible and inalienable spiris which common etc. 7. xxxi. cxxxix. to Father. 5. 9 with Acts xxviii. To lie to the Holy Ghost (2.

me with thine own with the glory I xvii." glorify thou John xiv. All that is revealed to us is. and the Spirit the Spirit of the Father and of the Son. xvi. and. 4th. now. That they mutually love one another. act upon and through one another.GOD AND THE HOLY TRINITY. 26. the Father of the Son. not of himself" — "he John x. thou. nouns other. 1st. priest and king the Holy Ghost making it his grace omnipresent. as all it 87 transcends that the analogy. . the in Son becoming incarnate human nature. Son and related that. as the theanthropos. 13-15. of the Father. had with thee before the world was." John Thus Christ speaks of him. 6. 2d. 26. when speaking to or about each continually addresses the Father. and xv. related as Father is That they are eternally mutually That is. civ. "And self. testifies of" and "glorifies" Christ. discharging the functions of mediatorial prophet. 30 and the Father and Son the Father giveth com18. and counsel together. I. Father. ever continue to us a profound mystery. 5. The Father sends the Son. Ps. 16. the Father arid Son and Spirit. John xvii. Holy Ghost stand so distinguished and They use mutually the personal prohe." "Whom : " I will send the Father name. and the Son the Son 3d. and ap- ))lying to the souls and bodies of his members: the . the Spirit "speaks mandment John to the Son. O Father." John xiv. That they work together in a perfectly harmonious economy of operations upon the the Fatlier creating and sitting supreme in creation — the general administration. Thus Christ and speaks of the Father and of the Holy Ghost: *' And I will pray the Father and he will give you another Comforter. my send the Spirit." "fie will send in the will testify of Holy Ghost me.

13-17. on the other hand. 3d. xiii. etc.88 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Tliere are a number of Scripture passages in which Father the absolute origin and source of the all the three pe«:sons are set forth as distinct and yet j as divine: Matt. and hence the express image of his person." subsistence. are tliose peculiar liar modes of personal and that pecuto the order of operation. because he as a person constantly designated as the Spirit of the Father and the Spirit of . 14. 26. Sou the Revealer. xxviii." and therefore " equal ties" power and glory. The " attributes" of God are the properties of the divine essence. perty of the second Person is The peculiar personal protitle expressed by the Son. These three divine persons are distinguished frou? one another by certain personal properties. The " proper- of each divine person. expressed by the This cannot express his essence. 7. the Holy Ghost the Executor. which distinguishes each from the other. As a person he is eternally the only begotten Son of the peculiar title Father. life and law. and therefore three common same to each of the persons.. other. and are revealed in a certain order of subsistence and of operation. and determines the relation of each is This chiefly expressed to us by the personal peculiar per- names by which they are revealed. nuist express eternal personal relation to the is other divine persons. who i are " the in substance. and the eternal Word in the beginning with is God. John xv. sonal property of the title first The is Person is expressed by the Father. As a person he eternally the Father of his only begotten Son. Matt. because his is essence It also the essence of the Father his and the Son. The property of the third {)erson Spirit. 19 2 Cor. iii. 1 John i.

to be found in the Creed of the Council of Nice. hath seen the Father. " "The Father is in nie and 1 in him. What propositions are taught in the first and second Sec- tions ? 2. The Son is The Spirit sent by. acts for and reveals the Father. the Father the Son second. through the Never the reverse in either case. How may the truth that there is but one God be proved ? How may the indivisible unity of that one God be proved? How may it be proved that God is a personal spirit? What do we mean when we say that God to is a spirit? 8. 9-11. are all spoken of in Scrij)ture in a confirst. The most ancient and universally accepted statement of is all the points involved in the doctrine of the Trinity. X. as amended by the Council of Constantinople. 7. equal in honour. 325. is A. the Spirit the The Father sends and operates through both The Sou sends and operates Son and Spirit." John 38. and given in full in the first Chapter of the Introduction to this volume. 30. my Father are one. QUESTIONS. being " I and identical in essence and divine perfections. A. 381. 89 They . stant order third. Spirit. He that hath seen the Sou." John x. How can the fact that the Sci-iiitures attribute bodily parts and passions God be explained? ." John xiv. To whom has the title God been God ? applied? in the affirmation that What is two propositions are involved there 4. 5. D. D. is sent by. the Son. acts for and reveals both the are as eternal as the Father and the Son. Three Per- God. sons. 3. 1.GOD AND THE HOI A' TRINITY. they are one The persons essence. power and glory. but one living and true 6.

How may it What is be proved that bodily parts and passions do not belong to God. 27. What What are the objects is of knowing differ from ours? embraced by God's knowledge ? wisdom. illustrated ? is What is included in the affiirmation that God's power infinite ? 23. is it mode and in what departments 22. 14. What And why can- not God do that which is unwise or unrighteous? inconsistent ele- 25. is so. For what does this divine attribute lay the foundation? What is the distinction between the absolute and relative justice of God ? . 29. In what sense God omnipresent? is In what different ways he present to his creatures ? How What does the eternity of God differ from the temi)ora] is existence of his creatures ? 16. 21. CONFESSION OF FAITH. is involved in the affirmation that he is eternal? that he In what sense God unchangeable? and prove 18. God ? 12. 15. What does the absolute goodness of God include ? How How can it be proved that grace is based on sovereign will? 28. How does the exercise of his power differ from ours? are the limitations of God's power? 24. can the absolute goodness of is God be proved ? What What the grand end which that goodness proposes to is included in the affirmation that God is absolutely true? 31. 10. and how is the wisdom of God exerciscid. What two principal divisions does the infinite intelligence of God embrace? 19. Does the moral character of God include ments ? 26. itself? 30.90 9. How does God's 20. the distinction between the absolute and the rela- tive perfections of 11. 32. 17. What is meant when we affirm that God is infinite? What is the difference between the immensity and the omGod ? is nipresence of 13.

the distinction between the attributes of God and the personal properties of Father. What What we propositions are taught in Section III. 36. 46. that the justice of God an immutable principle of his nature? 35. 91 How Show is tlie relative justice of God is exercised ? 34. 33." and from what source do derive our knowledge of the truths expressed by it? 41. 48. 43. Why What What does God punish sin ? State the proofs of the above answer. How may What is it be proved that Father. Son and Holy Ghost ? Son ? Holy Ghost ? the Nicene Creed? 47. State the proof that the Son State the proof that the is the true God. 40. 38. What What What are the personal properties of the Father ? are the personal properties of the are the personal properties of the this docjtrine defined in 49. meant by the infinite holiness of God? God? included in the absolute sovereignty of attribute. How is . 44. is is 37.GOD AND THE HOLY TRINITY. Prove that he possesses that 39. If there is but one God. and if Father. is Holy Ghost the true God. Son and Holy Ghost are that one God. ? is meant by the term "Trinity. Son and Holy Ghost are distinct Persons ? 45. what relation must they severally sustain to the divine essence? 42.

but rather established. Prov. 2d. ix.'' nor is violence oifered to the will of the creatures. 1 Sam. Although God knows whatsoever may or can come to pass upon all supposed conditions.-3 Acts ii. 11. by the freely holy counsel of his own will. 11. the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away. 15. — God from all eternity did. John . meet wise and and unchangeably ordain author of nor is whatsoever comes to pass:^ yet so as thereby neither is Grod the sin. 6 Rom. 18. 18. 16. 11. all things 3d. 5. vi.^ Section II. . Heb." . 23 Matt. xvii. 1 i. OF god's eternal decree. 33. conditional.* Rom. 12.—* Acts xv. no respect depends upon his foresight of events not embraced in and determined by his purpose. or as that which would come 1 to pass . This plan comprehends and determines and events of every kind that come to pass.— Eph. xi. upon such conditions. depending only on " the wise and holy counsel of his «2 own will. 13. 12 Acts iv. 17. Sections affirm the following propositions God has had from eternity an unchangeable plan with reference to his creation. Matt. . 33. 17 . xxiii. 27. III. 21. 13. These 1st. xi.CHAPTER Section I. Rom. as a whole It nor in in any of its constituent elements. This all-comprehensive purpose is not. It is an absolutely sovereign purpose.—« James i. 23. 11 i. xvi. 28 John six.* j^et hath he not decreed anything because he foresaw it — as future. ix. 18.

action of the creatures severally 6th. 93 in relation to all the objects embraced within 5th. he has comprehending one all-perfect system his chief end therein. Ruler. is from eternity. powerful son. This purpose is. Since he an infinite. 4th. And since God's intelligence is abso- lutely perfect and his plan eternal. 2d. perfect and unchangeable. It is in all things perfectly consistent with the nature and mode of it. in all things consistent with his own most wise. It is it.vl decree. his plan must have its existed in all elements. The plan of God comprehends and determines come to pass. benevolent and holy nature. and all subordinate ends in and means is reference to that chief end. providing means and conditions as well as the ends all for all the selected. certainly efficacious. since his ultimate end is revealed to be the single one of his own glory. As an infinitely intelligent Creator and providential God must have had a definite purpose with and destination of in all that reference to the being created. And since he an eternal and unchangeable being. also single it follows that his plan is — one all-comprehensive intention. things and events of every kind that (1.) This is rendered certain from the fact that all God's works of creation and providence constitute one . is and the whole work of creation and providence ol)served to form one system. eternal. embraced within 1st. God has had from eternity an unchangeable plan with reference to his creatures. his purposes and sovereign Peressential attributes is must partake of the of his own being.god's eteen. unchange- able and absolutely wise.

i. x. either in heaven or on earth. the plan which determines general ends must also determine even the minutest element comprehended in the system of which those ends are parts. God he could make purposes nothing certain. Hence. fortuitous events.) Of the free actions of men. He 33 . immediate and remote. before ordained that 10. 29. ii.) in them. xxi. . The Scriptures expressly declare this truth.) own will. Matt. and indirect. [d.84 system. " The 1. All of God's supernatural revelations and every advance of human science conspire to make this truth conspicu- Hence the original intention which determines one event must also determine every other ously luminous. and his government of the world would be made contingent and dependent. and fallible (2. xvi. The free actions of free effective agents constitute an eminently important and element in the system of things. king's heart is in the hands of the Lord it as rivers of water. (a. 30. either in the physical or moral world. "worketh all things after the counsel of his (6." Prov. No event is isolated.) all his and mutable. livered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge . we should walk 13. CONF£Si5iO^' OF FAITH. 11. created Jesus unto good works. event related to direct it as cause." Eph." Eph.) Of Of the whole system in general. condition or consequent. being de- Of the sinful actions of men. Pro v. he turn- eth his whithersoever he will." Phil. in us to will and to do of his "It is God that worketh good pleasure. " Him. in Christ " We are workmanship. did not determine events of this If the plan of class. which God hath ii. (c.

limiting and determining the precise channel to which it shall be confined. is 3d. This all-comprehensive purpose not. xxxvii. 5. must be remembered. 8 Isa. but only to permit the wicked agent to perform to overrule it and then ends. nor to approve it. for to do whatsoever thy hand and thy counsel determined before to be done. to bring to pass as people alive. conditional. no respect depends upon his foresight of events not in embraced and determined by his purpose." Acts iv. ye have taken and by wicked hands have cruei" For of a truth against tied and slain. But as for you. x. with people of Israel. and overruling its consequences for good. 1. and the decree of God with reference to that event being conditioned. It 7. 27. xlv. Calvinists believe. 23. 95 of God. . depending only on the " wise and holy counsel of his own will. as a whole It nor in any of in its constituent elements. tlje precise which but it shall be '' directed. that the purpose of God with respect to the sinful acts of men and wicked angels it. ye thought evil against it me . is in no degree to cause the evil. to save much 20. 28. it is this day.god's eternal decree. however. 28 with Gen. as all men must. thy holy child Jesus." Gen. at the same time permits end to its occurrence. Compare Gen. both the Gentiles and the Herod and Pontius Pilate." Acts ii. for his own most and wise and holy self-consistent The same and infinitely perfect decree ordains the moral law which forbids and punishes all sin. were gathered together. God meant unto good. . whom thou hast anointed. It is abso- lutely sovereign." A very obvious distinction must always be kept in mind between an event being conditioned on other events.

certainly it An absolute decree is one which. All who believe in a divine government agree with Calvinists that the decrees of God relating to events produced by necessary causes are unconditional. and the favorable climatic influences are present. as well as the event decreed. with the free actions The only debate relates to those decrees whicii are concerned of men and of angels. Arminians admit that he certainly foresees them. if That is. it makes the entire system it. while may con- determine conditions. Socinians and Rationalists maintain that The God cannot their very certainly foresee free actions. de- termines the nature of events. but .96 that all CONFESSION OF FAITH. and contingent events contingent in relation to their conditions. makes free actions free in relation to their agents. It The decree. A ditional decree is one which determines that a certain event shall happen on condition that some other undecreed event happens. The Confession decrees of in this Section teaches that all the God are unconditional. and their mutual relations. as well as the event sus- pended upon them. is suspended. while. a man does not sow seed. all he does sow. at the same time. of events. events in the system of things depend upoo their causes. many conditional events by determining their is itself suspended on no condition. he will not reap. if and are suspended on conditions. and every element embraced in future. But the all- comprehensive purpose of God embraces and determines the cause and the conditions. he will not be saved. he shall be saved. if he does not believe. because from nature they are uncertain until they are performed. he will reap. instead of altering. upon which undecreed event the decree itself. If a man believes.

verse 31 " Except these men abide ship. Eph. Isa. ix. (a) because all God is the eternal and absolute Creator of things. it is the gift of God" Eph to ii. and possess the properties peculiar to them." (4." 2 Thess. 24. as well as the events themselves : "According as he has chosen us in him before the foundation of the world. 4.god's eternal decree. This evident. undetermined upon which the decree can be conditioned. In the case of Paul's shipwreck. xl. that not a life God : first promised Paul absolutely lost. 35. should be Acts xxvii.) The is Scriptures declare that the salvation of inconditional upon the personal act of faith. iv. Eph. ye cannot be saved." faith. dividuals . All creatures exist. as all proved — (1. thai we should be holy. is he has truth of the Calvinistic view the fact that. 14. i. 13. "God has from the beginning chosen you of the Spirit and salvation through sanctification truth. 97 deny that lie determines them. directly affirmed in Dan. Calvinists affirm that he foresees them determined them Tlie to be certainly future because to be so.) From comes shown above. " By grace ye are saved through : and that not of yourselves 8. it is determine nothing classes If every event that evident that there is to pass is left foreordained.) is Because the decrees of God are sovereign. God's decree includes and determines the means and conditions upon which events depend. (2. the decrees of God of events. ii. Rom. IS- IS. But in the Paul said. (3.) 5. i. Scripture. and are what they are.) It is act. and act under the very conditions in which they (6. belief of the 13. because of God's plan.

25. This as is God an eternal. 44 xxii. The it is God is merely a purpose which he exe- cutes in his works of creation and providence. that the done any good or that calleth. i. sistent This purpose must in all things be perfectly con- with his own most wise. From The the fact that the decrees relate to events without exception.98 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Luke xxiv. but that they render. with reference to all the objects embraced within certainly efficacious.) the nature of God as an infinitely wise and powerall person and absolute sovereign. and are sovereign and unconditional. not meant that they are the proximate causes of events." purpose of God accord- ing to election might stand. 22.) Scriptures declare. under the subsequent economy of creation and providence. absolutely perfect And unchangeal)le b^ing. with is reference to such events. him "Having predestinated the purpose of him who worketh all counsel of his own will. said that all the decrees of it is When God are certainly effica- cious. (3. 11 Rom. 21 ." '' his own good pleasure. 5 . every event embraced in them absolutely certain. 5th." "For the children being not yet born. but of us according to things after the i. neither having evil. Matt. etc. is. ix. not of works. benevolent and holy a self-evident truth from the nature of nature. The purpose decree of of God it. This is evident (1) — From ful (2. . 26. that there a needs-he that they should happen as it was determined. xvi. xi. 4th. 11." Eph. Matt. at the and to the salvation of individuals rests solely same time that the decree of God with regard upon " the counsel of his own will.

is in its essence dpo/xia (violation of God's (c) because man as a free agent : is the respon-sible cause of his own actions (2) that it God has permitted sin for the purpose of overruling in the interests of righteousness and benevolence. the element determining the nature of the agent cannot be init consistent with the element of ticular actit)n of the agent. is certain. he might have prevented that it it It is evident is consistent with absolute righteousness to perto overrule it. is The purpose of God in all things perfectly consistent with the nature and the mode of action of the it. not the (6) cause of sin. creation. in 99 His decrees must be absolutely perfect righteousness. self-con- all-comprehensive purpose of God at the same time determines the nature of the agent. because unexplained. the highest glory of God and excellence of the moral Gth. mit and The Arminian admits established. determining any par- . notwithstanding that certain knowledge. It remains. (a) because he absolutely holy be- cause sin will) . creatures severally embraced within This sistent. (1) because the one eternal. son beyond discovery. the rea- be infinitely wise and it.st to explain God. is thai God ate is foresaw that sin and misery would certainly eventu- upon the conditions of creation he He why therefore as unable as the Calvini. wisdom and to us insol- The problem of the permission of sin is uble. powerful. mode As God's purpose cannot be inconsistent with of it itself.god's eternal decree. his proper of action and each action that shall eventuate. The If God fact is certain. did not change those conditions. however. certain is (1) that God is .

*" and all to the praise of his glorious grace. 30. i.) CONFESSION OF FAITH. according to his eternal and immutable purpose. 6. if so. and others foreordained to everlasting death.—" Eph. without any foresight of faith or good works.® Section V. 6. and their number is so certain and definite. viii. Tim. is obviously not inconsistent with the perfect freedom of the agent in that act: (1. or any life. i. and (2.100 (2. gels. 9. 16. that a given free action certainly future. 5. By the decree of God.^ out of his mere free grace and love. 11. that it cannot be either — — increased or diminished. God's actions are certainly holy. Section III. ix. are particularly and unchangeably designed. V. 9.—i" Rom. 2 Tim. 9. and the secret counsel and good pleasure of his will. free action and that he shall freely perform a certain under certain conditions. Eph. though free. and free actions free actions. or causes moving him thereunto 6 1 . . thus predestinated and foreordained. John xiii. although free. 4. will and finally reprobate men and for ever be certainly wicked. Matt.-» Eph.' Section IV. xvi. I?. Prov. and the (3. as conditions. his glory. Those of maftkind that are predestinated unto God. Because the decrees of God are not the proximate causes of events. is Now. for the manifestation of some men and angels® arc predestinated unio everlasting life. hath chosen in Christ unto everlasting glory. ix. 13. Eph. 4.) same is true of all glorified spirits in heaven.) Because all admit that God certainly foreknows the free actions of free agents. yet free and responsible. 23. — other thing in the creature.—T Rom. they only future. 21. Rom.) they must be certainly future. or perseverance in either of them. i. i. These angels and men. 1 Thess r. before the foundation of the world was laid.-8 2 Tim. xxv. 18. and that a given free agent shall exist. 41. 12. i. ii. make a given event certainly It provides that free agents shall be free agents. The an- actions of the devil." 22. 11. 9. 4.

the following propositions 1st. and that the rest shall be left to be dealt with justly for their sins. sovereign. being in their nature^1[ihcertain. 1st. his election amounts to no more than his general purpose to save all believers as a class. certain individuals shall attain to eternal salvation. is That the ultimate end or motive in his election the manifestation of his own glory. God does not foreknow who will repent and believe. 3d. out of the mass of fallen humanity. 4th. but that in each case it rests upon sovereign grace and personal love according 2d.god's eternal decree. elects those indilife viduals to eternal on that condition of faith and repentance. these Sections proceed to affirm. unconditional decree of events of every class that God determines all come to pass. by way of specification. to the secret counsel of his will. The Calvinist holds that life. therefore. That it is not conditioned upon foreseen faith or good works or perseverance. and that the be dealt with justly for their sins. The future. The decree of God determine-v that. Sections having affirmed that the eter- immutable. 101 The preceding nal. thus certainly foreknown. Socinian holds that the free acts of men. eternity The Arminian who will holds that God. God all has elected certain indi- viduals to eternal and the means and conditions . the praise of his glorious grace. The decree of God determines that out of the mass of fallen humanity certain individuals shall attain rest shall be left to to eternal salvation. That this determination is unchangeable. cannot be foreknown as certainly Since. foreseeing from all repent and believe.

. 8 1 Cor. tions. and not because they belong to the class which possesses them. The blessings to which men are elected are such as pertain to individuals not to communities. 48 2 Thess." . according to the secret counsel of his will. and they are represented as elected to these spiritual qualifications. i." " to be holy and without blame before him ih love. Acts V. It is not conditioned upon foreseen faith or re- pentance. 4-7 ." Heb. therefore.) Faith and repentance are expressly said to be the fruits of election. CONIESSION OF FAITH. 2 Tim. i. 7." Phil. ii. 3d. They are elected "to salvation." Acts xiii. 4.102 thereof.) elect are said to be "written in heaven. xii. Eph." 2d. That God does certain.) choose individuals to eternal subjects are always life is The be(2. 13 . and not be- cause of their faith and repentance. but in each case upon sovereign grace and personal love. 2. 10. 31 . . (1. to iv. the conditions upon which he sus- pends his purpose. me shall come me.) It is expressly declared not to rest upon works but foreseen faith and repentance are works. (3. i. and consequently cannot be its condi- They are also declared to be the gifts of God. 9. This is self- evident. iii. i. iv." "to the adoption of sons. (1. 3 . to be " in the book of life. "All that the Father giveth . and this is the Father's will. 4. (2. This election is unchangeable. The names of the and 23. He chooses them to faith and repentance. Eph. and cannot be. xi. Eph. 1 Pet. that of all that he hath given me I should lose nothing. Rom.) spoken of in Scripture as individlile uals : "As many as were ordained to eternal . on the ground of his sovereign good pleasure. lieved. ii.

ix. therefore." " Hav- ing predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself. same lump. 48. "And as many as were life " ordained to eternal (3.god's eternal decree. John xv. The is ultimate end or motive of God i." and faith and repentance a " exercise of regenerated souls. nor of him that run- neth. ix. acGording of his will." E. In whom we have obtained an inheritance. unconditional Hath not the potter power over the clay of the same lump to make one vessel to honour and another to dishonour?' Rom. 16." new creation." Eph. " So. 37." a quickening from the dead. The Scriptures represent men by nature as " dead as the in trespasses and sins. because ye are John x. to to the good pleasure the praise of his glorious grace. my sheep. 11 . 26.) believed. and regeneration as the work of God '' —a it. 103 John not vi. him who worketh all own will. in election the piaise of his glorious grace. it 15. If of election as his prerogative. the difference is not in the clay." But ye believe not. is the manifesta- tion of his own glory. This of expressly asserted in Eph. 26 .) The con- ditioned on the " good pleasure of God's Avill. " (5. and Scriptures expressly say that election is cannot condition (4.. 25. " new birth. the then. is God that showeth mercy. 39. it is not of him that willeth. 16. If it final end of the . l>ut of 4th. 4.om. xi. a? a whole. ." Faith and repentance." Acts xiii. Matt. must be conditioned upon God's purpose. being predesti- nated according to the purpose of things according to the counsel of his i.. 19. In the Chapter on Creation will be shown be the that the final end God in all his works.) God claims the right of sovereign. 5.

64. 5. as effectual means to that end. Section VI. all That although the decree of God it is one eternal. sanctification. Epli." Wherefore they who are elected in Adam. viii. Rom. must be the end also of the special destination of all the parts. called unto faith in Christ by his Spirit are justified. called " the elect. in the matter of tiie redemption of men. 5 2 Thess. foreor- by the eternal and most free purpose of his the dained all being fallen means thereunto. comprehensive intention. calling. 19. 30. intends to accomplish. 16 ii. effectually called. sanctified elect only. the salvation of the end which God determined was certain individuals. so will. 80 they are not to be exercised in the case of any whose .'* and kept by his power through faith unto salvation. the several elements emnecessarily sustain the relation to one braced within another of means to ends. perseverance in grace unto death. takes precedence of and gives direc- tion to his purpose with respect to the means. 9. 13. but the " Tit. 47. . v. 9. i. i. 10| ii. sanctified.—" Rom. redemption by Christ. in the logical order. 2. x. 28. And God's pui'pose with respect to the end necessarily. That as the means are intended to effect the end. 1 Pet. 14.'® and saved. ii. justified. —As God hath appointed the elect unto glory. 10. adoption. John vi.— 15 1 Pet. hath lie. That. viii. 26. i. 13. 1 John This section affirms 1st.104 CONFESSION OF FAITH.'* are effectually working in due season . adopted." and that ho ap- pointed. John xvii. ii. 2d. it whole. ii. Eph. 6. 2 Thess. justification. are redeemed by Christ.— viii. i.—13 1 Thess. 65. 3d.'^ Neither are any other redeemed by Christ. adopted. In determining the ends he at the God same time determines the means by which he intends to accomplish them. 4.

but is explicitly affirmed both positively and negatively in this Section In the time that this Confcssioii was written. sin. his (2. are in the divine intention designed as means to accom- plish his purpose to secure the salvation of the elect. to the praise of the glory ii. 2 Thess. of his grace.) All the events de- creed as a matter of fact eventuate in the relation of means decree. has been doubted by some theologians. for. None but the elect are redeemed by Christ. i. or sanctified. and in the economy of both he habitually uses systems of means in subordination to predetermined ends. or effectually called. through sanctification of the belief of the truth. nates Spirit He predesti- men and to salvation. Eph. (3. first. 1st. posi- that Christ was eternally appointed to make atonement as a means of executing the purpose to save . 13 . That the gift of Christ to make atonement and for and of the Holy Ghost to regenerate sanctify. or adopted. the very ofifiee of which is to co-ordinate a great system of means in the accomplishment of a great design. or justified." The Confession affirms.) From — the fact that his purposes are the product of an infinite intelligence. 105 salvation has not been adopted as that end. They must therefore have been embraced (4. atonement tively. in subordination to ends. 2d. the phrase "to redeem" was used in the same sense in which we now use the phrase "to make of the Confession.god's eternal decree.) in the same order in the divine God explicitly tells us that he determines one thing in order to accomplish another. to one another of That the purposes of God do sustain the relation means to ends is evident (1. 6.) God accomplishes his eternal purposes in works of creation and providence.

and in order to accomplish that purpose he determined to send Christ to die for them and the Holy Ghost is to renew and sanctify them. is The But. . elected cer- men out of the mass of the fallen race to salvation. view the purposes of God. gift of Christ to die for the elect a very adequate means to accomplish the decree of their salvation. elected them out of the masa of mankind to be recipients of the special eifectual grace of the Holy Ghost. that he has made atonement for none others. ruined by the but.106 the elect.ians who do not agree with the Confession at this point. held by the great body of the Reformed churches that God. That the view of the Confession plain the true one is — (1. to save only A pur- pose to save all and a purpose some could not coexist in the divine mind. tain moved by a special personal love. all mankind.) From the very statement of the case. CONFESSION OF FAITH. the decree to give the efficacious influences of the Holy Ghost only to the elect is a very inadequate means of all accomplishing the jnirpose of redeeming men by the sacrifice of Christ. God determined to give his Son to die for the redemption from the curse of the law of fall . God. in order to carry out and apply his plan of human redemption. negatively. The doctrine taught in the Confession and is. foreseeing that if left to themselves all men would certainly reject Christ and be lost. and second. as sustaining respectively the following order: Out of infinite pity and universal benevolence. The class of theoloo. with respect to man's salvation and the gift of Christ to be a Saviour. and thus to salvation. on the other hand. and moved by a special love to certain persons.

god's (2. whereby he ex- tendeth or withholdeth mercy as he pleaseth.) eternal decree. of the Confession. ii. in that place. " I lay down my life for my sheep. ii. (3. or effectually called. 2(). 17. 20. God's purpose in tlie gift of Christ cannot be in any respect in vain. None but is the eleot are redeemed by Christ. 18." " Matt. being unchangeable. designed to explicit make the positive affirmation of it the more and emphatic. This Section teaches the following propositions: 1st. or justified. This only the negative statement of the same truth. Tiiat as God has sovereignly destinated certain pel sons. to the praise of his glorious justice. Jude 4. 25. or adopted. self-consistent and certainly efficacious. xi.'^os of God. 22. who are as a matter of fact saved and he must have intended that Christ should redeem those and those only who are redeemed. ix. Rom. 8. He must those only have predestinated to salvation those and . 3d. and to ordain them to dishonour and wrath for their sin. must perfectly correspond to the events which come to pass in time. or sanctified. so he has sovereignly decreed to withhold his grace from the rest. —The rest of ing to the unsearchable counsel of his mankind. and that this withholding rpsts upon the un- ." John x. The doctrine as to the design of is God in the sacrifice of Christ stated again in Chapter VIII. 15. for the glory of his sovereign power over his creatures.) Christ says explicitly. 21. 1 Pet. accordown will.. through grace to salvation. Section viii. God was pleased. 19. 2 Tim. called the elect. to pass by. 107 All the purpo. and will be more appropriately stated and discussed Section VII.

is This decree of reprobation. and to life. refuse to elect it them (2.) Positive.108 CONFESSION OF FAITH. of the Larger Cat- This doctrine. reprobation is is simply not election. to the praise of his justice. and absolutely sovereign." The the same is repeated in almost identical language in to the thirteenth question answer echism.) Negative. as that portion of the called. This Section says that God has or" to dained the dishonour and wrath for their sin. but purely judicial. 2d. inasmuch determination to pass over these. reprobation not in the least sovereign. view of absolute Our Standards non-elect are very careful to guard this point explicitly. is no worse than those In respect to its positive element. and is for the glory of his sovereign power. . the aspect which God's eternal purpose presents in its relation to human family which shall be finally condemned for their sins. to the praise of his glorious justice. inasmuch as involves a determination to treat thera on the princi- ples of strict justice precisely as they deserve. all That God has consequently determined left in to treat those their sins with exact justice according to their own deserts. In its negative aspect. instead of being inconsistent with the principles of absolute justice. since those passed over are elected. be- cause God has determined to treat the reprobate pre- cisely according to their deserts in the justice. searchable counsel of his own will. It consists of as it involves a two elements: to (1. resting upon his good pleasure alone. all which demands the punishment of unexpiated it is sin. necessarily follows from the application of those principles to the case in ha)id.

) eternal decree. to make one vessel to honour and another God. . 7. (1) because it is necessarily involved in the scriptural doctrine of election taught in the preceding Sections. 10. Salvation is declared to be if in its very essence a matter of grace. otherwise. iii. salvation. 1 John is 16. and its of grace. iii. " Christ is dead in vain. 8 Rev Jude 4.) It is expressly taught in Scripture: "Therefore he hath mercy on 8 whom he will have mercy. None have (2. John 16. justice demands that their salvation shall be recognized as not their right. art thou Why doth he yet find fault? ? Who that repliest against God Hath not the potter power over the clay of the same lump. ii. Lam." and justly obnoxious to the penalty of the law antecedently to the gift of Christ to It is l)e because they are in this condition that vicarious satisfaction of divine justice was absolutely necessary in order to the salvation of any.es- be saved. Rom. 18 . iv. iv. willing to show his wrath. This doctrine as above stated true.) God asserts the right involved as his righteous prerogative: "Thou wilt say then unto me. i. ix. 4 . (3." itself Hence if any are to con(. and to make his power known. the Apostle says. (2. endured with much long and Buffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction to dishonour? if : What that he might make known the riches of his g\ory on . 22 . 6 Eph. iii. wrath.god's (1. he will he hardeneth. the the selection of subjects is inalienably a matter of divine discretion. are '' 109 All men alike by nature the children of their Saviour." xiii.) a natural right to And the salvation of one cannot give a right to salvation to another. but a sovereign sion on the part of God. 6. and whom . Rom. xi. 1 Pet.

5. which he had afore prepared unto Rom. 33 Luke x. —The doctrine of this high mystery of predesand care/* that tination is to be handled with special prudence men attending the will of God revealed in his worc». 33. diligence and abundant consolation. which includes the equally certain truths of the freedon) of man and the free offers i>f the gospel to alh . and therefore ought not to be raslily meddled with. 20." CONFESSION OF FAITH. xi. from the certainty of their effectual vocation.no glory. not revealed in the Scriptures. reverence and admiration of God.— 19 2 Pet. is is not difficult of comprehension.— «» Eph. and that portant. xi. 29. Section VIII. 19-23." 18 Romans ix. i. md yielding So shall tliis obedience thereunto. . i. xi. Deut. of the certain his promises.^" and of humility. viii. and security of and of their own sin and absolute dependrelation of his sov- ence. ix. its proper use in the highest degree im- The tion principle of divine sovereignty in the distribuis of grace certainly revealed in Scripture. . and of great practical use to convince men of the greatness and independence of efficacy of his grace God. Rom. may. moreover. arises This necessity from the is fact that it is often abused. 10 Roui. to be obtruded out of its due place in the system. 6. This truth ought not. sxix. 6. be assured of their eternal election. and cannot be discovered by human reason. 20.^® doctrine afford matter of praise. 33. to aL that sincerely obey the gospel. .-21 Rom. i. and to the permission of moral evil. 20 2 Pet. But the philosophy of the is ereign purpose to the free agency of the creature. 10. This Section teaches that the high mystery of predestination is to be handled with special prudence and care. the vessels of mercy.

his duty to accept and improve election Afterward it is the great privilege of the believer to eternal virtue.(jod's eternal decree. make the fact of his to faith calling and sure. Show from the relation in which all things stand to each . 3. and with it. 4. and to virtue knowledge. and the inference of personal election only consequent upon th6 possession The command to repent and believe is addressed to all men indiscriminatelv. 9. What is the first proposition taught in the first and second Sections ? 2. fall. and the obligation rests equally upon all. But with man duty and grace of grace. etc. 5. decretive will of tion is The precejitive and not the duty. G. God must have had from eternity works? Wliat must have been the general attributes of that pUm? What is meant when we say the decrees of God are cue be shown that purpose ? 10. the is election or non-election of particular persons not re- vealed in the Scriptures. 7. he do these things he shall never 2 Pet. QUESTIONS. for if i. God is the rule of human Elecit. by adding 5-10.. and as- him upon condition of acceptance. ft What is What is What is What is What is IIow can the second proposition there taught? the third? the fourth f the fifth? the sixth ? it definite plan in his 8. Ill While the principle of sovereign election as lying at is the foundation of all grace thus clearly revealed. The concern of the inquirer is simply with the sured to fact that the grace is offered. and grace consequent upon are first. first with God. 1.

not classes. is not inconsistent with the liberty of the agent in the 23. fourth and fifth Sections? is 24. 22. 31. Prove that they are so. and what a conditional decree? 15. What is God's ultimate end in election? What is i\\(i first proposition affirmed m the What is the second proposition? What is the third? sixth Section? . that the purposes of Grod and determine all events of every kind? ] 1. 19. 17. What relation does the eternal purpose of God sustain to the sinful acts of men ? 13. 34. 21. Show that it is grounded this election is not conditioned ance of the person elected. 32. must relate to other. his own 20. 27. Prove the same from Scripture. With respect to what class of events do Arminians con- tend that God's decrees are conditional? 16. Show from Scripture th. Prove that none of the purposes of God are conditional. Prove that God cannot be the author of sin. 29. to eternal life. the Arminian and the Cal- vinistic doctrines as to the election of individuals to salvation. Prove that the decrees of God are not inconsistent with the liberty of free agents. What What What What is the first proposition taught in the third. State respectively the Socinian. Show from Scripture that God has chosen individuals.il2 CONFESSION OF FAITH. What do you mean when you say that all the decrees of are certainly efficacious? God 18. and the decree of God with reference to it being conditional ? 14. 25. 12. 28. What is tlie diiference between an event being conditional. ne ujion the good pleasure of God. What is an unconditional. Show that the certainty of a free act act. upon the foreseen faith and rep 30. Prove that all the purposes of God must be consistent with perfections. the second proposition there taught? is is the third? the fourth ? 26. 33.

god's ETERNA7. that is it is true. What taught in the eighth Section? Why What What What should this doctrine be carefully handled? are the practical uses of it? is is is the rule of human duty ? the great concernment of the religious inquirer. (2^ j)ositively ? 39. 45. 49. iHow is this matter stated in this Section. 52. both the natural one and the true one. State the two different views which have been entertained on this subject. Show is that the order of God's purposes set forth in thif section 40. 113 How can you prove that God does purpose oni thing in order to another thina? 36. 48. Show Show Show that the Confession and Catechism carefully mark the distinction. the fact of a man's personal election to be ascer- How 6 tained? . that this doctrine is eminently just. What is ilicjirst proposition taught in the seventh What is the second proposition there taught? 42. State the positive element involved. 46. State the negative element involved in God's reprobation of the wicked. (1) negatively. 51. 35. What according to this Section is the relation which God's purpose to give Christ sustains to his purpose to secure the sal- vation of the elect? 37. DECREE. 44. Section? 41. 47. 50. 38. 43.

4th. 2. i. Son and Holy- Ghost. Gen. Larger Catechism ques- and This Section teaches 1st. .CHAPTER OF CREATION. x. and all things therein. in the space of six days. Ps. i. to create. i. 16. Heb. xxxiii. 4. 24.' 1 Heb.—» Gen. That neither the world is (the visible universe) nor anything therein either. civ. tliis Section.3. the world. as to substance or form. i. Compare tions 15 with 16. 6. 2. 20. 12. or make of nothing. whether visible or invisible. beginning created the elements of the world out of nothing. in creation was the man- . this work which are recorded in Genesis were accomplislied in the space of 3d." in the beginning. to end. 5. xi. who in the is Father. f<)v Section I. That when finished by God all things were very good.* the manifestation of the glor}' of his eternal power. i. 1. 1. Job xxvi.—» Rom. 24. 2. wisdom and goodness. 3 . self- existent or eternal. Col. Acts xvii. IV. and brought them to their present form.3. That the one God. . and all very good. Jer.— It pleased God the Father.\xxiii. 2d. after their kind. ifestation of his 114 That the design of God own glory. and that the particular stages of six days. . Son and Holy Ghost.Tohn i.

as oxygen. hydrogen and the stantly changing. but tian theism. In the beginning — in the absolute beginning — God created all things (heaven and earth). There is 11 tlie a very obvious distinction between sub- stances of things and the forms into wliicli those sub- stances are disposed. It is introduced at the beginning of an ac- count of the genesis of the heavens and of the earth. After that there was chaos. 24.) The Scriptures speak of a time when the world was absolutely nonexistent.) xc. 2.CREATION. is and the universality. (2d. of the changes of the latter are rendered more obvious and That the heathen elementary substances of things were created out of nothing was never believed by the ancient philosophers." and used by Moses to reveal the fact that M'orld. and subsequently the Spirit of God. The Hebrew word is translated " to create. Christ speaks of the glory " which I had with thee before the world was. is is a fundamental principle of Chris- This proved by the following consider- ations : (1st. the constancy and the certain with every advance of science." John " Before thou hadst formed the earth and xvii. the world. brood- ." Ps. thou art God. 5. from everlasting to everlasting. the very best afforded by any God created the human language anterior to revelation to express the idea of absolute makincr. tlie elementary substances which constitute things are permanent. In our experience like. while the organic and inorganic forms in which they are combined are conTiiat personal spirits and the various self-evira{)idity forms in which the material elements of the universe are disposed are not self-existent or eternal dent.

brought the ordered world into being. such as pre- " By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God. . Ps. as the absolute sovereign and proprietor of all things. indirectly.) The Scriptures always attribute the existence of things purely to the " will. The tiie creation came before chaos. (3d. 5. The same traces of designed and precalculated correspondences may be clearly observed in the element(5th. Rom. Therefore substances of things must have had a beginning as well as their present forms. Col. for the same reason the traces of design in the elementary constitution of matter proves the existence of an intellio. as well as the former of worlds and of things. even existing matter. (4th. he cannot be absolutely sovereign in his decrees or in his works of creation. cxlviii.116 CONFESSION OF FAITH. xi. i. 6. imply the presence of any other element or condition of their being. providence or grace. 11 Neh. On every hand he w6uld be limited and conditioned by the self-existent qualities of pre-existent substance. 3 . viii. ing over the deep. If the traces of design observed in the existing forms of the world prove the existence of an intelligent former. iv." " word." Heb. 6 . Rev. 1 6 . 36 . and their endless consequences. 16. as chaos before the bringing of things into their present form.) God be not the creator of substance ex nihilo. If xi. xxxiii. Scriptures always represent God . But the Cor. ix.) VLvy and essential properties and laws of matter that are observed in the adjustments of matter in the existing forms of the world.ent creator of those elements out of nothing." " breath" of God. so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear. and never.

using the precise words of Scripture. 2. (a. To the Spirit. 2 Job xxxiii. 2d. 4. abso(6. viii. dur- ing v'hich the changes discovered by science took place. and has brought to light many facts before unknown this as to the various con- ditions through stellar universe.) civ. 6. This Section attributea creation in both of these senses to the one true God. Heb. substance of things ex and tlie creatio aecunda or second creation or combination of the elements and the formation of things. (c. after a vast interval. To the Father. declares that . In order of that science with the inspired record found in the first chapter of Genesis. and indicate a process of divinely regulated development consuming vast to adjust the conclusions periods of time. Sou and Holy Ghost. 3. the Son. and their mutual adjustments in the system of the universe.God performed the work of creation in the sense of formation and adjustment of the universe in its present order " in the space of six days. the Spirit. ment of the present These facts remain in their general character unquestionable. II.) To the Father through the Son. some suppose that tlie first verse relates to the creation of the elements of things at the absolute beginning. and probably the have passed previously to the establishorder. 1 Cor. (/. . ' This Section. 1. XX. (d) To the Father through To . lutely without distinction of person. John i. Gen. Ps. which world.) The Scriptures attribute creation To God i. 26. and then. 117 the o'eatlo Hence tlieologians have distinguished between prima or first creation of the elementary nlhilo. 30.) Father. i." Since the Confession was written the science of geology has come into existence. Ex. 2.CREATION.) i. (e. Gen.

(2. God allows men Appa- rent discrepancies in established truths can have their ground only both to in imperfect knowledge. 3d. Gen.) The fore facts which are certain are: The record in Genesis has been given by divine revelation.118 confessiojST of faith. God.) comparison and adjustment of the two records can be attempted. far suggested jSTo adjustment thus all difficulty. (3. God himself pronounced hands when completed very good.imperfectly collected and much more imperfectly understood.) The facts upon which the geology is science of based are as yet very . He all imposes upon us at the works of his i. Others have supposed that the days spoken of are not natural days. not come yet in which a profitable The time has (4. God requires us believe and to learn. the second and subsequent verses narrate six successive days reconstructed how God in and prepared the world and its inhabitants for the residence of man. and of the world which all traces of the past history of to discover. This mean that finite and matoi'ial things possessed an absolute perfection. perfectly. present the necessity of humility and patience. But it was not designed either to prevent or to take the place of a scientific interpretation of all exist- ing phenomena. nor even that they possessed the \ . does not 31. and thereis infallibly true. brief and general as is it is. was designed and admirably adapted to lay the foundation of an intelligent faith in Jehovah as the absolute creator and the immediate former and providential ruler of all things. has been found to remove (1. The record in Genesis. and will be to coincide when both are adequately interpreted. but cycles of vast duration.) The book fi-om of revelation and the book of nature are both found.

16 .) That each and the whole was perfectly good with reference to the general and special design of God in their creation. and the world and all after the law of its organized inhabitants natures and rela- excellent according to their several tions. and of things as created.. § 1 . Our their is Confession very explicitly takes the position that the chief end of God in and in tem])oral execution in creation and providence. i. § xxxiii.) say the excellence. iv. his eternal purposes. this opinion is true (1. § 2 Larger Cate7. 11 Rom. With respect to the final end of God in the creation of the universe two distinct opinions have been (1. iii. is This ance. providential to all our views as to his and gracious dispensations. 7 v. §§ 3. Col. Qs. 4th. of his creatures. (2.) is That the j)roved is The Scriptures explicitly assert that this chief end of God in creation.. Chaptei' 1 .. 5. obviously a question of the highest import- Since the chief end of every system of means and agencies must govern and give character to the whole system. so our view of the chief end of God in his works must give character creative. Shorter Catechism. vi. 119 But it moans-^(l. highest excellence consistent with their nature. 12 and 18. the .) entertained by theologians: That God proposed for himself as his ultimate end the i)romotion of the happiness. .. for hin -elf the manifestation of That God proposed his own glory.) That all things in this world were at that time excellent according to their respective kinds — the raoral luiman souls morally excellent agents. . Rev. or as others (2. chism. Q. xvi. 36. xi. manifestation of his iv. 4.CREATION. § 1 . own glory.. . Prov.

10 . 7 . 23. own image. i. 17.120 (2. ii.) God as the absolute creator and sovereign can- not have the final ends or motives of his action exterior to himself. 23.) iii. is It made 1 tlie duty of moral agents to all adopt the same as their personal ends in 1 things. Rom. (6. 15. Eccles. Also of God's providential and gracious govern- ing and disposing of his creatures. iii. (4.) The it highest attainment of this supreme end carthe largest possible measure of good to the ries with creature. iii.-10 Gen. X. righteousness and true holiness. and had dominion over the creatures. 28. 22. They teach that the same is the chief end of God in his eternal decrees. they were happy in their commniiion with God. i. 7 . 4. Epli.) Eph. Eooles.3 . x. 10. 8-11. 6." * Gen.' II. 12. vii. Otherwise finite all God's actions would be sub- ordinated to the and created ends he had adopted as his ultimate objects. « • Gon.-5 Gen. 14. 11. 29.® hearts.— iii.) CONFESSION OF FAITH. 5. Eph.) Pet.* with reasonable and immortal endued with knowledge. — After God had made all other creatures. i. 26.^° which while tlley kept. all ix.' and power to fulfil it f and j'et under a possibility of after his transgressing. male and female. whicJi was subject unto change. they received a Besides this law written in their not to eat of the tree of the command knowledge of good and evil . iv. xxiii. 31.—'' ii. Cor. Rom. . (3. vii. he created man. Section souls. Luke ii. 28. xii. . i. The manifestation of his own glory is intrin- sically the highest and worthiest end that God could propose to himself. 24. being loft to the liberty of their own will. Qen. (7.-8 Eccles. (5. 2C 6 Col.— 29. iv.—" (Jen. 17 . .* having the law of God written in their hearts. Matt. 27.

According to God's plan of successive in and of progressive advance last in complexity and excellence of organization and place is order as endowment. Q. 10. : That. and S. and subjecting That while creating Adam holy and capable of him to a special test of that obedience in forbidding him to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. (a) as possessing reasonable and immortal souls. That God created one human pair. and that man came last of all from . a law written on his heart and a special external revelation of his will. Q.CREATION. and holding dominion over the lower creation. Man was created immediately by God. of falling. and have held man was that the higher and more complex living organisms were devclo[)ed gradually and by successive stages from the lower anil more simple as the physical condition of the world became gradually favourable at the proper time t(» their existence. obedience.. man was created immediately by God. §§ 1 ami 3. man's true the immediate end and crown scientilic of this lower creation. 4th. 17. Cat. That God created men in his own image. and last of the creatures. (6) as endued Avith knowledge.. Cat. This Section teaches 1st. from whom human race has descended by generation. hyi)othesis The advocates of the of organic development have denied that created immediately by God. the entire ledge for his guidance. creation. last of all the inhabitants of this earth.. righteousness and true holiness. God also left him capable 5th. and L. 1st. 3d. 121 Compare this Section with chapter vi. That God furnished Adam with sufficient know2d.

of unsanctified reason. etc. is by the highest scientific as Hugh (2. who is oi" regarded as the ancestor only of a particular variety . Christ. This truth is rendered obvious. and from the revealed fact that " God is the Father of our heirs with and that we are immortal. have j)ositions concluded from the and associations in which human remains have been found. from the incomparable superiority of man in and experienced spirits. That God created one human all its from whom by the entire race in generation. Owen. certain (1. also. (3. by the im- mense distance which separates man from the nearest of the lower animals. "joint pair. last link in the order of being immediately below That man on the contrary was immediately created by God.) 26. 27 . Lyell. 7. immediate creation.122 tlie CONFESSION OF FAITH." 2d. his body out of earthly materials preliim." kind as well as degree. evidence: The hypothesis of development utterly is a mere dream facts. Gen. unsup})orted by Not one single individual specimen of an organized the myriads of existing being passing in transition from a lower species to a higher has been found species. viously created and his soul out of nothing. ii. is varieties has descended a iundamental truth of the Christian reve- One class of scientists. as Sir Charles Lyell. The Scriptures expressly affirm the fact of man's i. also rejected The hypothesis authorities. lation.) is rendered by the followino. among nor among the fossil remains of past species preserved in the record of the rocks. Agassiz. that upon the earth thousands of years man has existed before Adam.) Miller.

to balanced If. conclude that men. (6. but only that he was created longer ago than we supposed. That the doctrine of between the this Sec- true proved varieties (1. . and any to event can prove nothing as to the relation of Adam the race.) Because their mental. under the modi- fying influence of different conditions. from like progenifolly for all another class to affirm that it impossible that the. is the varieties of men have sprung from tion same is parents. fairly This conclusion of science may be the facts of the case. and that the progenitors of each variety were created sejjarately.. ea<. Because the races freely intermix and profertile duce permanently offspring. of which the leader eties is Professor Agassiz.CREATION.) The luiman (a. tors. monkeys and dogs.) family form one and not different species. 123 All this weighs nothing against the positive teaciiiug of the Scriptures.) The differences of the human family are no greater than have been effected by differences of condition of some of the lower orders of animals of and training among individuals known com- mon descent. moral and spiritual natures are identical. surely is it is have descended. the race. in by the extreme opposite one above all it is stated. maintain that the differences between the different variof the it is human race are so great and so persistent that imjiossible that they could have been generated from the same paients. (2. since the facts upon which in the conclusion ateil. Another class. is based are not all certainly substanti- and have not been thoroughly digested. sible for view of pos- one chiss of philosophers etc.h in theii- apj)ropriate geographical centre.

This to the essential condition upon in which our ability to know God. (6. biassed choice of the will They therefore hold God created -Adam simply a moral agent. to i. 22 Rom. (Col.) Man was created like God. And the scriptural doctrines it original sin and of redemption presuppose 1 as a fun- damental and essential condition. Gen. an Pelagians have held that a created holiness absurdity. V. xv. Acts of xvii. free. 24). i.) CONFESSION OF FAITH.124 (3. : This propo- sition includes the following elements (1. Cor.soul is order that a permanent disposition should have a moral character. or habit of the in . Archaeological. This is restored when the is regenerated in the grace of spiritual illumination. is as well as our capacity be subjects of moral government. with all .) In respect to the dignity and authority delegated perfect moral condition of the soul. assert tiiis The 26 . created God man in his own image.. iv. 3d. 21. created like God as to the perfection (a) and integrity of his nature. moral. (3. This includes knowledge sinner 10). it must be that self-decided e. as to the physical constitution of his nature— a fact is rational. formed by a previous unitself. Gen. that. per- sonal spirit. 12-19. x. the and eminently of the character of the governing affections and will.) common directly origin to all nations. And this respect the likeness (2.) Righteousness and true holiness (Eph. historical and philological iiivCvS- tigations all indicate a (4. him 28: as the head of this department of creation. or a capacity for the right apprehension of spiritual things. indestructible. depends.) He was iii. Scriptures fact.

and left him to form own moral character — to determine his this own tendencies by his own (1. The goodness it." Regeneration its is the restoration human nature to pristine condition. of the essence of moral all good that If it brings the will and the affections of the soul under obligation. and perfectly unbiassed by any tendency of either to his nature his good or evil. because absurd.) was created " in righteousness and true holiness. upon (3." Eccles." all his God proclaimed works "very good. he could never have acquired a good one. of a volition arises wholly from the posi- tive goodness of the disposition or motive which prompts either But if Adam was created without a positive holy first disposition of soul. It is But view is not true. or at best indifferent." In Eph. (b.) volition. 29: But the "goodness" of a upright.) The Scriptures teach that Adam (a.) "God made man declared that tliey have sought out many inventions.) God did not endow man with a positive moral character. iv. But it is evident that neither a sinful nor an indifferent volition can give a holy moral character to whatever dispositions or habits may be consequent it. "the image of God.) man was created in iii. A state of moral indifference in an intelligent adult moral agent It is is an impossibility. Such indifference is itself sin.CREATION. not a transmuta- . men in regeneration are declared to be recreated in "the of image of God. vii. (2. his volition must have been sinful from defect of inherent goodness. 10. 125 the constitutional faculties prerequisite for moraj action." In Genesis it is (c. but moral agent essentially involves a holy character. 24 and Col.

20. angels and but with natures certainly and . is evident from the event.. In his mother's i. That Adam. occasion to speak more particularly under Chapter § 1. Adam moreover enjoyed special and direct revelation from God. also. Even his corrupt and degenerate descendants are declared to have in the law written upon the heart a light sufficient to leave them "without excuse.) said to consist in "knowledge. But the (4." Luke 35. to holiness. but positively predeter- mined 4th. 47). of the special elements of which we can liave no knowledge. womb he was called "that holy thing. tion of that nature into a new form. 5th. right- eousness and true holiness. was at the same time capable of falling. 14. concerning which we shall have vi. either from experience or observation.. i. saints in glory are free. God. 15. sufficient That God should have furnished Adam with knowledge for his guidance is necessarily implied in the fact that Adam was a holy moral agent and God a righteous moral governor. This appears to have been the moral condition in which both angels and men were created. It evidently was never intended to be the permanent condition of any creature. and vii. ii." Christ is the model nian (1 Cor. It is one. fall The likeness to God which was same lost by the must therefore be the as that to Avhich latter is we are restored in the new birth. not only without sin. although created holy and capable of obedience. 45. § 2. xv.126 CONFESSION OF FAITH. proin the duced by immediate divine power womo of the Virgin." Rom. and was particularly directed as to the divine will with respect to his use of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

infallibly fallen 127 Devils and prompting them to holiness. . refer the it To whom do the Scriptures work of creation ? Son Show that the Scriptures refer to the Father. State the different proofs that all God created the elements of which 7.CREATION. with natnres infallibly prompting is them to evil. What What What What What ? is is the Jirst proposition taught in the first Section? the second proposition there taught? the third f is is the /owr^Af is to obvious distinction be made as to the two stages of creation 6. men are free. and his only security is that he is " kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation." vi. 4. 5. 8. 2. What What What in general are the indications of the science of geology on the subject? 11. is (jncstion? 13. What two Show distinct opinions have been entertained with respect to the final end of 15. Holy Ghost. God in creation? the great importance of this question.. In what sense were all good ?" 14. the law in the members and the law of the Spirit . to the to the 9. adjustments between the inspired record and the conthe present duty of Christians in respect to this things pronounced to be "very clusions of that science have been proposed? 1'2. things are composed out of nothing. § 5. 1. 3. does the first What ? chapter of Genesis teach as to the time its occupied in bringing the world and inhabitants to their present form 10. The imperfectly sanctified Christian the subject of two conflicting inherent tendencies. This point will come up again under Chapter QUESTIONS.

What is the Pelagian Adam was created ? Show Show Prove that that that this doctrine involves an absurdity. 25. Show why What man this fact is of fundamental importance. 22. furnished with sufficient knowledge for his guidance. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 20. man ? State the evidence that man was immediately created by to the God.128 16. State the evidence for the generic unity of the human race and its descent from Adam and Eve. elements are included in the proposition that " God created 30. 34. 18. and is in execution thereof. Prove that God's chief end in all his purposes.3 ? . What is the doctrine of the Confession on this subject. What different opinions have been entertained as whole race from one pair? fact of the propagation of the 26. and the In what passages and connections is it taught? 17. 32. 33. 23. Adam was Adam was created positively holy. 29. in his own image?" doctrine as to the moral condition in which 31. Refute the false theories. 28. 21. What is What is What is What is Whatis the^re^ proposition taught in the second Section? the second proposition there taught? the third? the fourth? the^/i!/i. his own glory. 19. 27.? What different opinions have been entertained as to the production of 24. What was the special characteristic in Adam's condition as a moral agent? And how did his condition differ from that of all moral agents at present of whose case we have any know- led«.

. iii. 9 ' 120 . he continues to sustain them in being and in the possession and exercise of those properties during the entire period of theii existence. 10. having organic and inorganic. 29-31.—« Eph. V. 34. 3. Ixiii. Rom. ' 17.' 1 Heb. 17. 10. 14. 18. xl. 11. i.* by his most wise and lioly providence. ix.—5 Acts XV. xxxiii. i. cxlv. xv. Ps. it Since the eternal must execute his own purpose not only works of creation. all things. — 35. * Prov. 25. xli. 11. 2G. but likeM^se in his continual This control of all his creatures and all their actions. Ps. xxxix. xciv.* from the greatest even to the least. cxlv. OF PROVIDENCE. cxxxv.—i Dan. 28. and immutable purpose of God has certainly predetermined whatsoever comes to pass. x.® to the praise of the glory of his wisdom. 8-11. civ. xlv.^ and the free —God. doth uphold. and having put of them formed all things their respective properties having created the substances of things are composed out of nothing. the great Creator of direct.. Epb. Uen. dispose and immutable counsel of his own will. Ps. and endowed them severally with and faculties. xxxviii. 7. Ps. That God which all endued these substances with their respective properties and powers. Ps. 3.CHAPTER Section I. follows that he in his Section therefore teaches 1st. 7. 24. goodness and mercy. iv.— Isa. Job * Matt. power. justice.* according to his infallible foreknowledge.' and govern all creatures. actions and things. 6: Acts xvii..

Some true Christian theologians have taken a view of the relation of God to the comes perilously near. its He sup- posed commencement. 5th. this heresy. immutable and the mani- sovereign purpose. tlie modes many. That his providential control iiis is in all respects the consistent execution of eternal. that created anc^ exist things have no real being of their own. That the final end of his providence glory. and having given to things a permanent independent being exterior to himself. The substance abides. That his providential control extends to all his creatures and all their actions of every Kind. That God directs all the actions of his creatures })roj)erties and relations. according to their respective 3d. only as thus they are each moment the . the modes world which that we call things. : three different classes of opinion have prevailed (1. This view is God's power tion constantly exerted in continually creating every individual thing again and again every fraction of dura. great pantheistic is if it does not coincide with. the substance modes rapidly God. CONFESSION OF FAITH.) of their own faculties. Pantheists regard all the plienomena of the uni- veise of every kind as merely the various modes of one is universal absolute substance.130 2(1. he leaves them to the unmodito touch the creation only at fied exercise (2. 4th. own With regai'd to the question how God is concerned in upholding and preserving the things he has made. is festation of his 1st. the substance succeed each other. the is one.) Deists and Rationalists generally regard God is as sustaining no other relation to his works than that of the first of a series of causes and effects.

is : so. not revealed." The precise nature of the exercise of divine energy whereby his presence. and indiscoverable.PROVIDENCE. and the free agency and moral accountability stands It of (3. 131 product of creative energy.) But these created substances. are not self-existent. although possessing etli- a real existence exterior to God. both spiritual. it plain that God is the only real asent in the universe that he is the immediate cause of all things. real and not merely an apparent efficiency as second causes in producing the effects {d. Though have (e. and all their being. and exerting real ciency as causes. including all evil passions and wicked thoughts and acts . but " in him live and move.) These properties have a proper to them. and hence that the imnieiliate cause of the state or action of any creature one is moment of time moment. and it intermediate between the two above stated extremes.) They really possess all such active and passive properties as God has severally endued them with. that consciousness is a thorougii delusion. that is. they are not to be separated from him. The third view is be stated as follows: material and the true one. may (a. the ground of their continued existence is in God and not in them. but the If this be not its state or action the previous direct act of divine creative power. (6. (c. God interpenetrates the universe with it embraces and all things therein in his is power and upholds them of course is in being. a real and per- manent existence as entities.) man vain imaginations.) God gave to all sub- stances.) not to be confounded with God. .

"Oh bless our God. everywhere present The harmony.132 CONFESSION OF FAITH. (3. That God governs the actions of his creatures. i." Col. Ixvi. : " By him 3. (4. 8. 2d. all all things consist. (2. is proved (1. and move and have our being. which 8.) eternally omnipres- A sense of absolute dependence for continued is being. That God always continues to exert his almighty power in upholding in being and in the possession and use of their endowments all things he has made is proved (1. iioldeth 6. Heb. involved in the sense of dependence and of subjection to a moral government wiiich and is is involved in all religious feeling.) as it is not in itself.) By the fact that the religious nature of It is man de- mands the recognition of this truth. upholds " In him we 28. Ixiii. 3. The one is exterior to his is God cannot be human skill to its work. The relation of the creation to analogous to that of a product of maker. The intelli- gence and the power of the other ent to every element of his work. That his government extends to all bis creatures and all their actions.) From the fact that continued dependence is in- separable from the idea of a creature." Ps.) It is evidenced in the indications of intelligence in the operations of external nature.) is explicitly taught in Scripture i. The abiding cause of the creature's continued existence must ever be in God." Heb. (2." Acts xxvii. 9. and 3d. our soul in life. "He i. recognized in all religions. xxxvi. things by the live 17. the due proportion and the exquisite con- . power and blessedness It involved in the religious consciousness of all men. word of his power.

) Over Over Over -15 . 33. Job v. world [a] in general. 6. x. 8. [6] Individual events in the natural worUl. 7. by a constant providential reguhition of the system of things. Ex. (e. Isa. 6-13 Ps.) The Scriptures uafultilled. iv. The fulfilment of these could not be left to the is ordinary course of nature. (3. Dan. 9. (/. Prov. 14 cxxxv. and embracing myriads of agents. 6. Matt. (4. 13-15.) Job xii. xvi. ii. {d. 15-18. cxlvii. iv. 29. however trivial. . 23. (c. history" is "That God ia a conclusion of just science as well as a dic- tate of true religion. Janies Sam. . civ. 21-27 cxlvii. civ. (6.) the general affairs of men. Ps. 9. Many of mere enunciations of general principles. purpose with reference U these are not but specific declarations of his ti'eatment of individuals conditioned upon often their con- duct. Job xxxvii. currence in action which continue 133 among so many ele- ments throughout ceaseless changes prove beyond question the presence of an intelligence embracing all and directing each. 12 Over the circumstances of individuals. 21 1 .PROVIDENCE. ii. Prov.) The same is likewise indicated in the intelligent in design evidently pursued the developments of human is history during long [)eriods and throughout vast areas.) the brute creation. 6.7. execute his own word to his creatures. xvi. since there connection between what is no natural threatened or promised and the conditions on which they are suspended. providential control exerted (a) over the .) Over the free actions of men. x.) The Scriptures is explicitly dechire that such a physical . 25. abound in prophesies fulfilled andand promises and threatenings. (5. fortuitous eveiUs. God must therefore.

Acts that to is Especially good man." Eph. explicitly declared in Scripture : " He things after the council of his Isa. 2 iv. end of his providence. CONFESSION OF FAITH. cxix. he ordereth them out according to the nature of second causes. xii. 36 . xxviii. 10. and absolutely sovereign (as of the shown above). all 10. Acts xv. 21 [h. It is evident that the chief design of God in his ecernal purpose and in his works of creation must also dispensations. in pi'inciple or action. 10. is attributed ii.(34 xii. Gal. It is also directly asserted as the final ix. Rom. Ps. v. xvi. 36. Section and fall 17 xi. his providential control of all things must be execution of his purpose. 10. own will.' in his Barily. 15 . xix. {g. Ixxvi. i. 9. —Although. 14. righteous and benevolent. first in relation to the all foreknowledge and to decree of God. Sam. things coni6 to pass immutably yet.) . II. xxi. 28.— God ordinary providence maketh use of . by the same providence. 27. either necescontingcnlly. Ps. 18. evident (1) from the statement of Since God's eternal purpose relates to and all determines that comes to pass. 1 . 13. to be his chief end in all his providential This has been shown above his be the manifestation of own glory.) Over in the sinful actions of men.) is The same worketh all . Ps. 36. his providential execution decree must possess the same characteristics. 22-25. 4th. 13. Phil. ii. Eph. is That the providential control of all things by God and the consistent execution in time of his eternal is immutable purpose the case. 11 29 . God's constant gracious control. freely or Section III.* cause. (2. 18. 2 Cor. 5th. and since it is immuin inis table. Pro v. ii. the infallibly . iv. xxxiii. finitely And since his purpose wise. Phil.

before proved. 22. in every case })erfectly consistent with the . Hos. These Sections teach 1st. xxxi. 27. and purposes through them. every case perfectly consistent with the nature of the creature and of his action. xxii. effects his purposes through means. Ex. Deut. the power of eifccting his pur- pose immediately by the direct energy of his power. 3d.'" yet is free to 130 work witliout. clared in Scripture. through the agency of second causes sub- ject to his control. that his eternal purpose determines the occurrence of all that comes to pass. Kings ii. providential control in every being and event certainly efficacious.—" Rom.) is always certainly efficacious. xix. That God ordinarily is. i. 6. that 4th. means. 23.\iv. 7. 13.) From is tlie fact. 13. Job xx.—" Hos. 10. Isa. 35. 2(1. 10. iv. (2. That the manner is in which God controls efPects his his crea- tures and their actions. 28. : That as the execution of an eternal is and sovereign the case of purpose. Matt. x. 11. 6. But that he possesses. iv. God's.—" 2 Kings Dan. plainly follows his From own infinite wisdom and power.PROVIDENCE." above. Iv. vi. and at times at his sover- eign pleasure exercises. Ps. tures and is That the manner in which he controls his creatheir actions. Jer. iii." and against them. and (3. 7. 44: Isa. expressly de. 2d. 34. 11 Lam. 6 . 4. 21. xxxiii.) Tlie fact is immutable and certainly efficacious. Job xxiii. 31. 1st. viii." at his pleasure. ii. 8 Acts 1 ii. and effects his purposes through in them. 17. 22.—9 Gen. That the providential control which God exerover all cises his creatures and all their : actions (1. xxi.—'° Acts xxvii. 19- 21.

according to the uniform law its of nature. endowed it with its properties. self-consistent purpose in his worlds of creation and providence. nature of the creature and of his certain (1. the It is in the execution of same unchangeable plan that God first created every thing. Even in the writings of the prophets and apos- who wrote under we can the control of a specific divine influence. (2.) mode of action. This in priuci- . We are conscious of acting free freely according to the law of our constitution as agents. so his As God must always be consistent mode of action upon the crea^ tures whose existence and constitution has been determined by that plan must always be consistent with their natures and mode of action so determined. determined its mode of action and its mutual relations to all othei things.) In perfect consistency with in the material in all this. all Every agent is in. also. seded nor coerced. is From the fact that God executes the different parts of the same eternal. in the lives of individual history plain evidences of adjust- men and human ments and combinations of elements and agents in the order of contrivance to effect purpose. (3. and ever afterward continues to })reserve it iu the possession of its properties and to guide it in the exercise of them. we see every- where world. observed constantly to under changing conditions. to his own plan. brute creations. rendering even their selection of Jibly accurate. tles. words infal- plainly see that the spontaneous exercise of the faculties of the writers was neither superthe material and act.136 CONFESSION OF FAITH.) The same fact is proved by our uniform expc rience and observation.

in the in creation and in ments furnished and the methods of procedure inaugu- pursued The same design is The instruprovidence. as these are modified without interfering with the liberty of the agent by the influence of other men. acts according to a law of necessity. when imperfectly understood. they certainly cannot lie beyond the control of the itself. its infinite intelligence all who and created the soul and has determined the conditions under which its activities character has been formed exercised. That God ordinarily purposes through means — that From is. there certainly can be no difficulty in believing more under the control of that God who not only understands them perfectly. effects his 3d. but made them originally that they might subserve his purpose. are determined intention. through the agency of second causes sub- ject to his control (1. The springs of free action are within the soul itself.PROVIDENCE. therefore. that they are infinitely It is just the perfection of God's adjustments that every event. as well as general results. in the exercise of free its agency. nature and the properties of things. And yet. and adjusted their relations execution of these very purposes. excluding but not excluding certainty. own. pie is 137 infinitely analogous to. can be brought subject to the providence of man. the methods by which man controls If the laws of natural agents to effect his purpose. rated in creation must.) subsequent dispensations of providence.) — is also evident the fact that he originally gave them tlicir being and properties. by his Even the human soul. be consistently pursued in the (2. Universal experience and observation teach us . though in many ways more perfect than.

That God is possesses the power of ends immediately. (1. 4th. modify or supersede them pleasure. and proceeding means to ends. rightthe character. (3. and man understand anticipate the will or intelligently and voluntarily coeffecting his operate with the plan of God. adjusted. necessary as a means of communication between the Creator and the intelligent creation. without the intervention of second causes. hia .) A is system involving an established order of nain wise adaptation of ture. a matter of clear and satisfactory evidence.) Since God created all second causes and endowed them with their properties and continues to upliold then) in being. In ordinary providence and in the ad- ministration of a supernatural economy of grace. same fact. God universally accomplishes his purposes through the agency of second causes. and he must be able to do directly without them what he does a^ with them. self-evident. suji- ported and rendered efficient by his omnipresent Spirit for this very end. and that he at times at his sovis ereign pleasure exercises this power. eousness or goodness be exercised or manifested. in the government of the finished world as we find it and in all the history of the formation of the earth and the worlds in the past.138 the CONFESSION OF FAITH. combined. and limit. Thus only can the divine thus only can angel or wisdom. is their efficiency derived from him. that all they might be the instruments of his will. in the sphere of material nature and in the moral government of intelligent and responsible agents. and to accomplish the intellectual and moral education of the attributes of latter.

itself a means to an end and part of a plan. moral government the revelation of his and of rate immediate interest their affairs. (2. although is effected by divine power without means. It has man is in been objected that miracles. God re- mains infinitely greater than his works.PROVIDKNCE.) Occasional direct exercises of God's power in con- nection with a general system of meaiis to and laws appears be necessary not only " in the beginning" to create second causes and inaugurate their agency. interfering or direct acts of divine power. . in the execution of his eternal immutable purposes using the system of second causes as his constant instrument after its kind. is But in it does not follow those processes. that his whole power exhausted in nor his wlu)le will expressed those laws. however.) 139 all The power is f God does indeed work in is the ordinary processes of natnre. since it is claimed that they indicate either a vacillation of purpose upon his part. (3. and meanwhile manifesting his transcendent prerogatives and powers by the free exercises of his energies and utterances of his will. infinite perfections inconsistent with the of God. is with the natural action of second causes. that the eternal and immutable plan of God comprehended the miracle from the beginning as well as the ordinary course of nature. A miracle. and his will in expressed what called natural law. or some insufficiency in his creation to effect completely it the ends he originally intended to accomplish. At any is such occasional direct action and revelation certainly necessary for the education of such beings as his present estate. It must be remembered. but also subsequently in order to make in to the subjects of his his free personality.

sxi. 23 . 22. educating. 2 Sam. Thus in the order of nature and miracles. 12. 16. instead of being the conflict. and effect an cx{)ression of will to a purpose. Section IV. intinite —The almighty power. xvi.* In this highest.—" Gen. 2 Sam. ]xxvi." hy Duke of Argylt. 4. 10 Acts ii. x. xiv." yet so as the sinfulness thereof proceedeth only from the creature. 14 . iv. to his own holy ends.'* 1 is nor can be the author or approver of 1* xi. . 17. 27. so far manifest themselves it dence. 1 holy and righteous. 1 Kings xix. its All natural law has is birth in the divine reason. xxiv. 14. i. 2 1:^. all-comprehensive sense of the word. Ps. This Section makes no attempt of those providential acitions of to explain the nature God which are conii.140 CONFESSION OF FAITH. 10. 21. in a manifold sins of angels dispensation.—18 James i. Isa. chapter .'* and otherwise ordering and governing of them. 1 Chron. and all other and men. 28. 28. 32-34. and they serve definite ends as his means of communicating with and spirits. x. that extendeth even to the first fall. new power.—16 Ps. 1. finite They are in no proper sense a violation of the order of nature.— '5 Act? 6. 1 . 7. 23." and that not by a bare permission. 13. are intimately correlated elements of one comprehensive system. and not from Grod who being most Rom. 20. but only the occasional and eternally pre-calculated interpolation of a immediate energy of the divine nature is will. 1 Kings sxii. . * "Reign of Law. miracles also are according to law — they are fixed in their occur- rence by God's eternal plan. Chron. neither sin.'" but such as hath joined with it a most wise and powerful bounding. 16. John ii. and an instrument used subserviently to that higher moral govei-nment in the interests of which miracles are wrought. unsearchable wisdom and in his proviitself goodness of Grod. the The order of only an instrument of the divine will.

17 stantly restrains 23 iii. 20. and overrules Gen. Sinful actions. —The and gracious God. but he directs and controls them to the deteronly from either the mination of his own purposes. x. vii. vigliteoas Sfction V. sin.tual restraining it and in overruling it own nature to good. to chastise them for their former sins. 5. is of God. 28. Gen. 18 iv. And he conand controls men in their sins. Ixxvi. 27. Yet the sinfulness of these actions is the sinnino. . The providence it. 10. Acts iii. and to make them more watchful against all future occasions of sin. verse.'* and to raise them to a more close and for constant dependence for their support upon himself. in perned in the origin of sin in the nioml un.™ . and sundry other just and holy ends. xiv. and God all in no case is author or approver of 1st. in against its it by by threaten! ngs and a(. so that what men wickedly do ordain. . said to and purpose. 2d. 28. 15. 2 Kings xix.PROVIDENCE. like to others. Ps. Ex. It simply states the import- ant facti with respect to the relation of his providence to the sins of his creatures which are revealed in Scrip- ture. or to discover unto them tlio hidden doth oftentimes leave for a season his strength of coiTuption and deceitfulncss of their hearts. 1. own children to manifold temptations and the corruption of their own hearts. 4. and in the control of the sinful actions of his creatures in the execution of his purposes. only by God's permission. are declared in Scripture occur according to his God is . xlv. their sins for good. 13 Acts ii. ag-ent. 13. These points are: 1st. . most wise. instead of causing sin or approving constantly concerned in forbidding it positive law. in discouraging punishments. God not only permits sin- ful acts. 2d. that they may be humbled . Isa.

—20 xiii. even under those means which softening of others. although one system. . embraces several subordinate systems intimately related as parts of one \\h()Ie. have seen that the providential government of the execution through time of liis as eternal and comprehends to teach 1st. 12. 16. ii.-^ but sometimes also withdraweth the gifts which they had. 28 xi. 1 17. 15. 12 10-12. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 3. Ixxiii. ii. 7. 8. the providence of Grod doth.-22 pgut. 15. 27. Pet.-^ and exposeth them to such objects as their corruption makes occasion of lusts. The principal of these are the providence of . 26. ii.-2' Amos Rom. the moral govern- . Chion. 31 Ixxvii. 28. It.—26 Ex. 29. 32. 1. 2 . God over the material universe the general moral government of God over the intelligent universe. forms one connected system. 1. Ixxxi. reach to all —As . Mark xiv. viii. Grod. xii. and dealing with every creature according consequently. immutable purpose. 25. i. 2 Sam. 7-9 15. . Isa.°* sin. viii. 26. xxv. 10. embracing to its nature.-2* Deut. 13. 66.^* and withal. whereby they might have been enlightened in their understandings and wrought upon in their hearts. and all created things and all their actions. these Sections proceed That the general providence of God. 26. all it takcth care of his 19 Church and disposeth . 9 . vi vii. things to the good thereof" 2 Cor. lie former sins doth blind and harden.8. '^ from them not only witliholdeth his grace. xxiv. . In perfect consistency with this. . to end. 2 Kings viii. in general. yet also distinct in their respective methods of administration and in the immediate ends designed. gives them pass that they harden over to their own }M-)wer the temi)tations of the world and the it of Satan whereby comes to themselves. 12. ^^ God useth for the Section VII. 2 Cor.142 Section VI.— 23 Matt. xxix.—21 Rom. 4'. We God. 7. so after a creatures most special manner. John xxi. 14. 24. ix. 12. 2 Thess. 30 . S. viii. Ps. xxxii. —As for those wicked and ungodly for men whom as a righteous judge. Isa. 9. 10 Acts xxviii. .—25 ii. Ps.

2d. of redemption through all its The history dispensations. and the special gracious dispensation of God's a relation {)rovidence toward his Church./iat and liberty are advanced. ]ihilosophy of the key to the human history in general. and of course for the highest development and glory of the whole body. continents and islands are settled with inhabitants. and makes for all it out of every things work together to his pur- good to those who are called according pose (Rom. nations are elevated to empire. viii. consisting of the influences of his Spirit upon . an internal spiritual providence. instruction and development the physi- Thus also government of God over mankind in universe was created. all 3d. civilization \.PROVIDENCE. for which God exercises over cal whose residence. Patriarchal. is Abrahamic. 28). Mosaic and Christian. the Ciiurcli. includes besides an external [)rovidence ordering the outward circumstances of individuals. The race is preserved. philosophy and the practical arts. the I^amb's bride. and also. Thus the proviis government of the material universe subord- inate as a means to an end to the moral government his intelligent creatures. nient of 143 God over the human family in geueral in this world . These Sections teach also that there is of subordination subsisting between these several sys- tems of providence as means to ends in the wider system which comprehends them dential all. whereby he gathers people and nation. The moral government government of of his God men. the providential general is sub- ordinate as a means to an end to his gracious providence toward his Church. may be over perfected in all her members and adorned for her Husband. especially his Church.

mortify their and to strengthen God does often wisely and graciously. which are a savour of blessed. the tiius leaves to the unrestrained control of their lusts and the power of Satan. is exerted upon them at such times and in such degrees as God has determined from the beginning. restraining the corruption of their nature." this spiritual inmen without exception. life unto them to whom they are graciously become a savour of death and of increased condemnation unto them who for their sins have been left to themselves. CONFESSION OF FAITH. their Sj)irit. As "efficacious" and "saving grace. for spiritual influences from his own children. to graces. 4th. Hence God often.144 their hearts. as a just punishment of his sins." this spiritual influence extends only to the elect. withdraw his never finally. and impressing their hearts and consciences in with the truths revealed revelation. from ungodly men. Hence in the way of sins discipline for their own their good. though a season and to a degree. judicially withdraws the restraints of superficial gifts and consequently whatever his presence may have them hence conferred. and influence of temptations. . As '' fluence extends to all common grace. the light of nature or of and it is either exercised or judicially with- held by God at his sovereign pleasure. and "leave them their to the manifold temptations and corruptions of own hearts. And it comes to pass that the truths of the gospel and the ordinances of the Church." also 5th. though in various degrees of power.

What is the first proposition taught in the second and third the second proposition there taught? the third? Sections? 20. 17. State the proof that God exerts a providential control over and their actions.? Prove that the providential control of 10 all things by God is tlways certainly efficacious. the rationaHstic view as to the relation which God sustains to the world? 8. 16. 3. Prove that the providential government of God is the exhis creatures ecution of his eternal purpose. and to each event in particular. State the objections to the view they represent. 1. Prove from Scripture that the providential control of God reaches to the physical creation in general. IS. What What is is Whatisthe/ow^/t. and to the brute creation. How does is is is is God execute his decrees? first What What AVhat the Jirst proposition taught in the the second there taught? the third ? the fourth? Section? 5. 22.PROVIDENCE. 15. 2. Prove that the chief end of God in providence is the mani- festation of his 19. 13. and their sinful and good actions. Do the same as to the free actions of men. Do the same as to the general affairs of men and the circumstances of individuals. 14. 21. State the evidence that God continues to uphold all his creatures in being. What several points are involved in the true view of this matter? 12. . What What Whatisthc}?/?Af is 7. 9. What What is the pantheistic view of the same ? dangei'ous statements have been made by some Chris- tian theologians? 10 11. 4. 6. 14ft QUESTIONS. own glorj'. 23.

What is the first truth taught in the the second truth there taught? sixth and seventh Sections? 41. What is 42. ^\\3it\st\\Q fifth f . with nature. COXFESSIOX OF FAITH. causing or approving 40.146 24. possible to explain fully the manner in which God controls the sinfnl actions of 36. Prove that he restrains them and overrules them for good. God all men? to his Prove from Scripture that he does control according sinful actions. out the use of means. men ? What points do the Scriptures to the sins of make certain as to the re- lation of 37. Why should On what tlu! we expect God it at times to act in that manner? deroga- two grounds has been insisted that it is tory to 33. by the direct power of his 31. 43. 25. purpose 38. through the use of means. fifth. assign a reason Can you ? why God should adopt such a system 30. Show Is it the fallacy of the above objections. What general evidence of such control do we see ? 27. Is it possible that the free actions of the human will can he controlled without destrojdng their 28. The same from 26. Prove from tlie relation that providence sustains to creation that the eistent manner its in which God controls any creature must be conuniversal experience and observation. Whatisthe^AiVc?. 39. freedom? State the evidence for believing that Grod usually effects his purposes 29. Prove that God can effect his ends when he pleases withwill. divine perfections to attribute miracles to God? In what sense do miracles occur according to law? 34. 32. Show that divine providence cannot be charged with either sin. 35.? Whatis the/o?<r-^^f 44.

OF THE FALL OF MAN. Section I.' This their sin God was pleased according to his wise and holy counsel to permit. That they were seduced thereto by the subtlety in the and temptation of Satan.ht the souls of Adam and Eve into being by immediate creation holy. It appears to be God's general plan. That this sin was permissively embraced sovereign purpose of God.3. and with sufficient knowledge lible.-2 Kora. That in so doing God designed to order it to his own glory.3. Our first parents sinned. The particular sin they committed was their eat- ing the forbidden fruit. capable of obedience yet fal: Section proceeds to teach That they sinned. 5th. sinned in eating the forbidden fruit.* Gen. 2d. 1. and one emithe 147 nently wise and righteous. sin they committed was their eating the forbidden fruit. 3d. 32. having purposed to order 1 — it to his own glory. OF £IN AND OF THE PrNISHMENT THEREOF. 1st.CHAPTER VI. to introduce all new- . God having brouo. 4th. That the particular 1st. xi. this as to his will. 2d. 2 Cor. . Our first parents being seduced by the subtilty and temptation of Satan. iii. xi.

) in- duced to doubt the wisdom of the divine prohibition and the certainty of the divine threatening.tJoos holy And the character of their prevailing . they are judicially excluded from God's favour and communion for ever.148 CONFESSION OF FAITH. their wills are . As this was a matter in itself morally indifferent. yet capable of falling. upon their own He In this state them holy. creates test. How could sinful desires or volitions originate in the soul of moral agents created holy like Adam and Eve? Men desires exercise choice according to their prevailing affections. and If these are holy. in which he makes their perma- nent character and destiny action. and hence morally and eternally dead. it was admirably adapted to be a test of their implicit allegiance to God of their absolute faith and submission. This certainly has been his method of In the case parents dealing with new-created angels and men. They were (2. there are it is two questions which men constantly ask. dreadful sin which they committed in eating this The fruit appears from the indications afforded in the record in Genesis to have been — (1. and which impossible to answer: A. If they stand the the reward is that their moral characters are confirmed and rendered infallible. of mankind the specific test to which our first were subjected was their abstaining from eating of the fruit of a single tree. If they fail. he subjects them to a moral test for a time. government depend into a state of created subjects of moral probation for a time. dience. They set their will in opposition to in this God's In respect to the origin of sin world.'^ffw.) Unbelief. and they are introduced into an inalienable blessedness for ever. Disobewill.

Saints and angels are holy not essential to and infallible. But Adam's heart had been created holy. but a superaddei divine grace sustained . out of the good treasure of the good things. xii. and his fruit corrupt. and as these assisted against nature are not native to our hcnrts." Matt. man. But we cannot Adam was exercise holy in a state of probation. yet their is infallibility is their natures. of sin in the holy soul of difficulty lies Now. out of the " Either or else things. although we cannot explain precisely the origin Adam. in order that a volition shall be holy. and his fruit good make the tree corrupt. SIN AND ITS PUNISHMENT. 35. these are sinful. volitions without irrace. it is plain that the only in our ignorance. "a good man. except have always been under the bondage of in so far as we are momentarily by suj)ernatural grace. 149 aiul desires is (letermined by the moral state of their . if their souls are sinful." . souls. and an bringeth forth evil evil heart. (1. Now. how then could his action be sinful? All our experience conspires to make the question more difficult. these are holy Christ says. If their souls are holy. We corruption. 3o. it must spring from a positively holy affection or disposition. holy yet fallible. make the tree good. glorijSed The holy spirits of angels men in heaven are for ever removed from liability to sinful affections or actions. The sinful souls of fallen men never and all can give birth to holy volitions until they are regenerated by divine grace.) We have free none of us experienced the same conditions of agency as those which give character to the case of Adam. bringeth forth evil treasure. In both these cases the stream continues as the fountain.FALL OF MAN.

God did certainly foreknow that in if such a being as Adam sin was put such (conditions as he was.) the facts of the case there can be no doubt. he would Yet. Natural desire for kno\vledge. may originate in defect. in spite as he sinned. — much of the is solution of this mystery To the fall of Satan and his angels in the remote past. The other element of mystery with regard origin of sin relates to the permission of God. by the direct power of God. Section affirms. motives. 3d. and so he made it certainly future. to the B.) Natural appetite for the attractive (3. In this fact — that. of this certain knowin those lodge. rooting plain that sin While holiness must it is itself in divine love. he son ereignly decreed not to intervene to (2. in the temporary ascendency of the natural and innocent appetites of the alienation. and under conditions of which we have no knowlthe true orioiu of sin to be referred. not in positive want of watchfulness.) fruit.150 CONFESSION OF FAITH. 0:i . They were (2. edo.) prevent. and having determined to overrule the sin for good. but became so when dwelt upon and allowed gradually to occupy the mind and sway the will in despite of the divine prohibition. which appear to to this dreadful The have led sin in the case of our first parents were not intrinsically sinful. always be positive. they were seduced thereto by the subtlety of Satan lies. About (1. God created that very being and put him very conditions. objective or subjective.) — (1. but in body or constitutional tendencies of the soul over the liigher powers of conscience. The persuasive power of the superior mind and last will of Satan. This That this sin was permissively em- braced in the eternal purpose of God. 4th.e.

xvii. 20. who abhors and who benevolently desires the excellence and happiness of his creatures. manifestation of his own Section ness and II. " Even fountain so. for so 5th. Gen.) is creatures for good. degradation and misery to be opened. 1. wliolly defiled in all the faculties » from their original rigliteousso became dead in sin. SIN AND ITS PUNISHMENT. * Tit. Eccles. and with sufiicient knowledge of trial. 9. Father. That consequently they lost their original right- eousness. Jcr. In doing so affirms 1st.) That God overrules the (6. fell communion with God. This Section teaches what were the consequences of this first sin it upon its immediate authors.* ii. 10-18. iii. ii. with ])rotbund reverence. Eph. 3d. it seemed good in thy sight !" That God from the bc"innino. 15. iii. we can only say. — Gen i. and then left him alone sin. 23. God did sin. That the chief end of all God's the purposes and works glory. At the saras time they became dead in sin and ivholly defiled. 5.' and 6-8. to hi. iM. That by this siii they were immediately cut off from communion with God. iii. Rom.FALL OF MAX. o o desio^ned to order o the sin of Adam to his own in the glory is included in what we have already proved Providence Chapters on Creation and sins of his — (a. should sovereignly determine to j)ermit such a of pollution. the other Land.s If it be asked why God. . He created Adam neither oniise it.* and and parts of soul and body. He forbade holy and fully capable of obedience. 17. 151 Adam's nor approve and presented motives wliich should have deterred from it. vi. his duty.—* Gen. Rom. —Bj' this sin they xii.

and consequently Hence for a By this sin man must have communion of (see instantly been cut otF from of this loving the divine Spirit. is lost. tiie source of all moral and Gen. the neces(6. But as death at the heart involves in all the members. This corruption is must extend by to all the faculties. provided that the commission of the forbidthat is. This must have been under any constitution the natural effect sin. ii. so the favour and communion God being lost. CONFESSION OF FAITH. one And 4th.152 4th. (a) original righteousness. their faith broken. Adam's apes- . den act should be followed by instant death instant penal exclusion from spiritual life. 17. The as principle of spiritual having been withfirst drawn the punishment of that sin. And under Chap. § 2) that cove- nant relation into which the gracious specifically man had been introduced in providence of God at his creation. our first parents must have instantly lost their original righteousness. 1st. their allegiance had been violated. They must once become dead in sins and this wholly corrupt. vii. it was . Hence life 2d. and religious being he depends upon the intimate and loving communion of God's Spirit for spiritual life. And hence at od.) sary principle of obedience. As a natural being man depends upon as a moral the same sus- taining power of God But that ])rovidentially sustains all things in being. and love could no longer dominate in their hearts. right moral state and action.. sin It not meant that Adam became as bad as a man can be or as he himself death of became afterward. TLat this moral corruption extended to all the faculties and parts of soul and body.

(jen. Conf Faith. v. A schism its was introduced into his Conscience uttered condemning voice. Matt. 18 . 12. guilt or liability to the Adam Qs. and Adam now a soul. Viii. 5 21 . 5.3. was both the natural and federal mankind. 16. § 2.—8 Rom. —From iii. 27. Actsxvii. . vii. 4. 22. the aj)petites of the and its body inordinate..2G. That all head of Cat. the guilt of this sin was imputed. 17. Section —The}' being all the root of all mankind. Rom. 25. SIN AND tnsy ITS PUNISHMENT.-7 pg. xv. charged actually inflicted and at their birth upon 3d. xv.FALL OF MAN. These Sections teach us what were the consequences of the first sin to the descendants of its authors. 21.® 6 and made opposite do proceed all actual to all good. xiv.'" Gen. members instruments of unrighteousness. 19. vi. and S. 3. 22. Col. 2d. i. ii.st. ch.) Thus his entire nature became depraved. 6. The will being at war with the conscience. 28. Qs. That consequently the account of.—9 Gen. 45. disabled whollj' inclined to all evil. 49. all men. distrust.) obedience. i. iii. III. 16. Cat. this original corruption. 18. Eph.'' Section IV. (d. 14.® and the same death in sin and corrupted nature conveyed to their posterity. 1 0-12. . Job viii. .— James ><> 14. 2. utterly indisposed.. tiie affections alienated. Rom. v. . 4 Cor. 15-19 . 7 i.w. corruj)ti()n That consequenMy the moral which . (c. This leads to fear. descending from them by ordinary generation.® whereby we are and transgressions.. vii. prevarication and an endless series of sins. penal consequences of that sin to the was imputed. the conscience callous or deceitful. In doing so our standards affirm l. is God demands rebel. the passions roused. 15. 21. and L. v. jj. the understanding became darkened. 153 })erfect from God is complete.

all : " The covenant being made with Adam public person. 22 ity. § Conf. but for his posterity. From innate moral depravity proceed all subsequent actual transgressions. is necessarily conveyed to all those of their descendants who are produced through is total. from the penal withdrawing of God's Holy our first Spirit. S. Faith. in the case of parents. Cat. and in him to his posterity." L. but for all his poster- mankind descending from him by ordinary generation sinned in him and fell with him.. disabled and made opposite to 5th. Chapter viii. upon condition of perfect and personal obedience. its ap- The point which demands our attention here is. in making that covenant with Adam. in his first trans"The covenant being made gression. ch. This innate hereditary depravity of soul for by it we are utterly indisposed. all Adam was both the natural and mankind.. wherein life was promised to Adam. This is very explicitly taught in our standviii.ted moral ay-en ts to create them hulv. all good. that covenant which considered in 2. not for himself only. God constituted him and treated with him as the moral representative of all his natural de§ scendants. .. God's general method of deal- with new-crer." As we have ing: seen.154 results CONFESSION OF FAITH. 2: "The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works. 16 ' : Adam. federal head of The nature and provisions of God made with Adam will be propriate place. 1st.. Cat. not only for himself. that. ordinary generation. and wholly inclined to this evil. Q. ards. 4th. all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation with sinned in him and fell with it is him in his first transf/ression. as a Q. Christ of course excepted.

each individual to come into existence an unintelligent infant. but we can easily see that the third incomparably more character and rational. tlieir each in his own person.) all his creatures. all his race would have been born indefeasible .) The whole race must be confirmed in (6. (A. some were confirmed in holiness and blessedness. Adam in his This was right — -(a. As a matter of fact. as sovereign Creator and infinitely wise. Some fell. Adam was in most advantageously constituted and circumstanced order that he should stand the benefits as well as risks trial safely. who were severally created independent individuals. Incalculable were suspended upon his action. righteous and merciful than the second. making their confirmed and permanent moral character and destiny to depend upon own action. into an If he had maintained his integrity for a limited period.) and hapj)iness without any probation. and then to put trial for a time. God did make our destiny to depend upon the conduct of j)robation. righteous and merciful Guardian of the interests of in his eyes. We are not in a condition to first is judge of the propriety of the of these plans. they appear to have stood trial severally. them on their 155 yet capable of falling. Each individual must stand his own probation while groping his way from infancy into childhood. it is :>bvious that one of three plans must be adopted holiness : (a. thence to develop gradually into moral agency. it it seemed right Because whs more to our ailvantagc than any other plaji that can be imagined. (c.) Because. Adam.) Or the whole race must have their trial in their natural head and root. In the case of the angels. like that of mankind. and But in the case of a race to be propagated in a series.FALL OF MAN. SIN AND ITS PUNISHMENT.

fact that The guilt of that sin imputed to all his de- scendants. . promised or threatened him related to his descendants as much as to himself personally. not the personal distiie* position which prom])ted the act. (c. but for facts all posterity." proved from the the That he was called by a generic name." " the reign of death. punishment which that " imjuite" is By the term meant to lay to the charge or credit of any one as a ground of judicial jrunishment or justification. spiritually dead. the very penalty denounced and executed upon Adam has been executed upon all of All are born his descendants. " a public person. were spoken with reference to us as much as with reference to our first parents. Adam Man. as our standards say. (3. That Adam was.) inheritance of glory.166 CONFESSION OF FAITH." "a cursed earth." 2)ainful child-bearing." and that the covenant was niade with his him is "not only (1. (2. them at their By the word "guilt" is meant. Thus.) As a matter of fact. but simply the just sin deserved." and the subsequent promise of redemption through the seed of the woman. " by nature children of wrath. and the penalty executed upon birth." is Also. Because the covenant head- ship of Adam is part of a glorious constitution which culminates in the covenant headship of Christ.) That everything that God commanded. from the 2d. nor personal morai pollution which resulted from liability to the it. from birth upward. "obedience. This is the sense in which the ])hrase is "to im[)ute sin or righteousness" used in the Bible.) for himself.

19.. by a divine constitution.." L. 22. reconciling the world unto himself. standards expressly affirm that the " guilt. . Q..FALL OF MAN. punishment . and are worthy of punishment on account of it." §3: "This sin was imputed In L. Cat. IG. Cat. God was Our in Christ." and the covenant was made with him " not for himself alone. Cat. niit imputing their trespasses unto them.. ch. as well as his ow n. Faith. Adam. S.." 2 Cor.." L. 22. to all their posterity.. was suspended upon Adam's action. S. (6) the want of original (c) the corruption of the whole nature. since he all his poster- acted as "a public person. Conf. together Avith all which actual is commonly transgressions which proceed from it. vi. and S. Q. Adam^ s first sin. " SIX AND ITS PUMISHMENT. declared to include each of the following elements: "(a) the guilt of righteousness.. to whom the JiOrd will not impute sin." Rom. Q. that they really " sinned in him in his first transgression. but for ity. Q. Cat.. v. 25. Since their destiny.. called original sin. since they were justly to have part iu his in his reward if he was faithful. That is. Q. . "the sinfulness of that estate into which the fall brought mankind" is . 3-9. 16. so represented and acted for all his posterity that they are liiirly responsible ibr his action. so they justly have part for his unfaithfulnese?. Q." or just liability to the penalty. Cat. Cat. . to 157 David describeth the blessedness of the man whom Lord imputeth righteousness without works. 17. Faith was imthe puted to " Abraham for righteousness." The reason which our standards give for this judicial charg- ing the punishableness of Adam's first sin to all his posterity is. of is Adam's apostatizing act by God " imputed" or judicially laid to the charge of each of his natural descendants. iv.

" was his first sin or apostatizing act.. ' 12-21. § 2. (fl) that the law of death. and the sin of his which they assert we "sinned in him. as by the offence of one judgment came upon all : men life. iii." (c." to condemnation. before.158 • CONFESSION OF FAITH. and as the necessary good dispositions or actions upon our So the cause guilt of Adam's sin is imputed to his posterity without pers(nial works of their own. and (6) that it is a "judg- ment. and we are responsible for him only in his trial for character and destiny. The manifest reason of this is that he represented us. is a consequent of Adam's public disobedience. Paul teaches Rom.) That the punishment of Adam's sin comes upon us upon the same principle upon which the righteousness of Christ is charged " Thereto the account of those who believe on him fore. Rom. the Confession says was first sin. ilieir loss of original righteousness and acqui- The only sin of Adam which "imputed" to his descendants. and as the of. a penal consequent of Adam's sin. necessarily and inand ours. before. free gift even so by the righteousness of one the came upon iv. Synod of Dort affirm that moral all The Articles of the is depravity ip^cted upon the descendants of Adam This in at birth "63/ the just judgment of is God^ Ch." a "condemnation" —th^t is. V. as by the offence of one judgment came ujjon all men to condemnation. and he immedi- became a private -person. also explicitly taught in Scripture. spiritual and physical. Hi? sition of original sin. out works. " Therefore. 6. The penalty denounced upon Adam and those whom . under which we are born. all men unto justification is of But the righteousness of Christ imputed withpart." condition of. stantly closed his probation ately by incurring the penalty.

" From this original corruption of nature proceed all actual transgressions. and the inevitably consequent moral and physical death. consequence ural that affirm Scriptures and our own consciousness also Holy sins these actual transgressions are our own personal sins.) That this moral corruption are is so radical and inrespect veterate that men by nature " disabled" with to right moral action. opposite to good and inclined to all evil . and that suffer are all the temporal and eternal punishments we on account of them. (3. Of it this "corrupted nature" this Sec- tion proceeds to say 4th.) That back of this their nature is morally rupt. indisposed to all good and inclined to all evil. That " by we all are utterly indisposed. follow in their de- scendants also. 5th. (2.FALL OF MAN. that if the guilt of first parents must. and miseries in time occur as the natBut the of this birth-punishment. . Hence every new-created cially soul comes into existence judi- excluded from the life-giving influences of the Spirit. disabled and made and. from their birth. It hence follows. Other actual and hence morally and spiritually dead. and the Holy Spirit consequently judicially withdrawn from them at their birth. the same moral corruption which ensued from the same cause in the case of our 3d. 159 he represented in his trial was the judicial withdravv- ment of the life-giving influences of the Holy Ghost. _ Adam's apostasy is charged to ail his natural descendants. SIN AND ITS PUNISHMENT. It is here taught (1) that all men sin from the comcor- mencement of moral agency.

Matt. 5—17. as well as hardness of heart and vile affections." 1 John v. Eph. in Chapter ix. 18. That this condition is (4. 14.) iii. (2. ii.) 17 . 18. Luke 43-45. (a. invariably sin as soon as they become capable of moral in the action. ity to iv." ii. 12. vi. and however educated. All the children of men. And ii. 5. (/. iv. Eph.) common depravity of our With all the teachings of Scripture." moral corruption. iv. vii. (g) that consequently can be restored by no " change of purpose" nor "moral reformation" upon their part. Gal. the)'' 14. 10. 6. V. Ps.) men Rom. in consequence of the depravity of his its do nature. This representation agrees perience. (e. John iii. but only by an act of almighty power called ''a new birth. {d.) is That the disposition which prompts to sinful action a "sin. 19. 24. 1 this in Cor." "a new creation. That sinful actions proceed sinful hearts or dis- positions. (1) with universal exall ages. "a quickening from the dead. (c. 19. from vi. their natural state 3.) That men in are " dead" in trespasses and sins. This can only he found natures." "a begetting. 3 . Eph. of nations and circumstances. XV. John iii. 1 . That this corruption involves moral and spiritual blindness of mind. 18. Rom.) That is moral corruption and prevailing tendency to sin our nature from birth. A universal fact must have a cause universally present. 15 . John iii. i. Ii. and 1-19. ii.) innate from birth and bj nature. will be considered under appropriate head. Eph. It de- clares that all (6. 14.i()0 CONFESSION OF FAITH. 6. 24. are sinners. Eph. 17. ii. . What the Confession teaches of man's sinful inabilright.

ch. or innate moral corruption. 9. vii. Piov. during this j'et in those that are rc.icenerated.— Eph. v. by the work of the Holy 4th.. and contrary thereunto. viii. vii. 14. doth and although it be through both itself. 10. Conf. 2.—" Rom. iv. 18." — whereby he is bound over to the wrath of God. That "original sin" — that is. James iii. ii. 1 John Eccles." with all miseries spiritual. taught Of the first. remain ITS PUNISHMENT.— Rom. 19.* " i. 23. 20 Lam. are truly life." and eternal.?. 39.'* and curse of the law. iii. it is 1st. and of the gnilt or just to all sin. 5. iii. ii." Section VI. That nevertheless sin. liability to punishment whicli attaches ments God I.—'* 1 John iii. Those Sections speak of the corruption that remains in the regenerated. and all the motiona and properly sin.'* and so made subject to death. i. SIN AND Section V. . 8. in the 2d." doth in its own nature. vi. " »8 . 17. . Faith. 23. 20. 3d. . ch.— »& Eph. Every sin. 7. being a transgression of the righteous law of God. bring guilt upon the sinner. 8." temporal." Christ pardoned and mortified. and all the feelings and actions to which prompts. and of ] I. both original and natural. 161 —This corruption of nature. 10.—19 Rom.-16 Gal. .—«> Matt. 17. xx.FALL OF MAN. That That it is pardoned through the merits of Clirist. all that remains of it it. 4. 15 iii.ss. 18. it is tauglit 1st. Of 11 the second. and Sj)irit in sanotifica- mortified tion. Rom. 25 Gal. Original sin. xxv. 9. thereof. xiii. it is gradually brougiit into sidViection.— 12 Rom. remains regenerate as long as they live. Conf Faith. and of the punish- inflicts upon them. xi. are truly of the nature of All of these ])oints will be more appropriately treated undei- the heads of Justification. vii. 41 2 The. 9. the native corrupt . San(!tification.

Rom. said to have dominion sin." Rev. tendencies and affections of tliesoul tion of — is as truly a viola^ God's law as actual trangression. "any want of. 24 . spiritual blindness of mind. v. whatever is Whatever wrong is is right is essentiall}' essentially worthy ol condemnation.) Because from its very essence the moral law demands absolute perfection of character and disposition as well as action.. sins of both classes are of their 2d. iv. 18. ii. 14) define of conformity unto. our mortal bodies. made suband eter- ject to "death. of either or of both) unless grace intervene. evident — (1. (4. corrupt (3. 1st. or transgres- sion the law of God. temporal nal miseries. Gal. dvofua" — any discrepThis i& ancy of the creature or his acts with God's law. Q. 3. 14. 5-17. 24. 12-17." This teaches corresponds (1 exactly 4): " Sin with what the Ajiostle is John iii. 19. 17. the great burden of pollution ." including spiritual. God requires us to be holy as well as to the reins God proclaims himself as " he which searcheth and the heart. sin to be The Catechisms (L. S.) In genuine conviction of sin.) The native constitute original sin corrupt tendencies which are to called sin in Scripture. vii. the unregenerate are called the servants of vi.. (the person guilty 3d. Sin and sin its is lusts are said reign in . Cat. guilt . That that own nature is. ii. Eph. deserving of punishment. (2. act rightly. all Mark xvi. Q. Original as well as actual sin is a violation of God's law. Cat. Eph.162 CONFESSION OF FAITH. for their hardness of heart. 23. obligatory.) God condemns men for their natural dispositions. That consequently the sinner is.

deserves the curse of the law. Everything which its is condemned by the law evident (1) from what in is under curse. and guilt is SIN AND ITS PUNISHMENT. 5. Ps. The temporal displeasure of in miseries inflicted God for their sin are upon men in the just summarily set forth the Larger Catechism. he redeemed them from the curse of the laio. being made a curse for them. (5.FALL OF MAN. always likewise convinceth them of a judgment. li." deadness to divine things. as well as actual transgressions. It hence necessarily follows that original sin. that the 3d. God and upon the creatures befal and all other evils that us in our bodies. relations employments. 3.) God it is From is the fict that is §§ 1 and 2. And in their case." " O wretched man who shall deliver me from the body of this ! death?" Rom. 2d.) Men are hy nature children of wrath. ii. Consequently. the sinner guilty of original and of actual transgressions is. Q. in convincing men of sin. The great cry " the wicked heart is to be forgiven and delivered from " of unbelief. vii. This is we learned of the justice of (2. 6. men to that sin intrinsically ill-desert — all that ought not be worthy of condemnation. 8. (3. John xvi. spiritual and eternal miseries. including temporal.) From the fact Holy Ghost. 13. Gal. unless grace intervene. toge'-her estates. with death itself" This of . made subject to death. 1G3 felt to consist not in what we have done. iii. but in what we are — our permanent moral condition rather than our actual transgressions. (4. alienation from God as a that I am permanent habit of soul. Eph. names. 28.) Even infants are redeemed by Christ.. 24. judgment of the universal Chapter ii. as in all others. as " the curse of for our sakes.

horror of conscience and vile affections. 4. strong delusions.0 Why is it difficult bow a holy being can begin sin? . which are consequent upon un- forgiven sin are set forth as " everlasting separation from the comfortable presence of God. a reprobate sense. i. without intermission. unbelieving. still course applies only to the sinner. Q. ii. What is the first proposition taught in the first Section ? What is the second proposition there taught ? What is the third? What is the fourth ? What is the fifth f What appears to be God's general plan of dealing with all ? new-created moral agents 7. With what two orders of beings has he so dealt? What was made the "test" in the case of man? and why it was 9. 1. What the first element of mystery involved in the to conceive "origin of sin?" 11. 2. 5. Q. The eternal miseries 11. 28. and expressive of his heavenly Father's love —not penal evils expressive of his wrath and unsatisfied justice. Larger Catechism." Larger Catechism. . ii. in hell-fire for ever. 5. unjustified For all the tribulations which are suffered in by the justified believer this life are chastisements designed for his benefit." Rom. 6. 29. QUESTIONS. 2 Thess. 3. spiritual The miseries which sin life brings upon the unforgiven in this are set forth " as blindness of mind. 8. and most grievous torments in soul and body.164 CONFESSION OF FAITH. 28. hardness of heart. admirably fitted for that purpose ? What first appears to have been the nature of the sin committed parents ? is by our 10.

SIN 12.'' were immediately withdrawn in punishment of sin. 21. OF MAN. 27. What What What What is is is the second proposition there taught? the third? the fourth ? the fifth ? is In what Sections and in what words do our Standards explicitly teach that in the covenant of works Adam represented all his descendants ? 35. What What What What is the first proposition taught in the second Section ? 22. 32. 33. first Why What cannot a sinful agent originate a holy volition? Is sin in its origin a positive disposition or a defiect? appear to have been the motives influencing our is parents? 16. .. Show why the plan of giving us our probation in Adam's was both wise and benevolent. Prove that Adam's sin was permissively embraced in the divine decrees. 25. AND ITS PUNISHMENT. What three plans were possible with regard to the moral probation of the individual 36. To what extent was the moral and spiritual character of our first parents affected ? is 29. 34. 165 dift'er In what respects did Adam's state as a moral agent from ours? 13. 14. is is the second proposition there taught? the third? the fourth ? 24. Prove that Grod purposed to order it for his own glory. To whose action the true origin of sin to be referred ? What is the second element of mystery in the origin of sin? 18. 19. 20. What the first proposition taught in the third and fourth Sections? 30. 17. Prove that God did neither cause nor approve it. What was the immediate consequent of that withdrawal 28. that the life-sustaining influences of the Holy Spirit . 23. members of the human family. 31. life? is Upon what Show does the human soul depend for spiritual 26. 15.FALL.

to sin is as truly a violation of 54. extent and time of commencement of human depravity. 50. Prove that the doctrine here taught agrees with the universal experience of men. 45. spiritual miseries are inflicted because of sin? \A'hat eternal miseries are inflicted on the same account ? . is taught as to the continuance and character of cori'uption in the regenerate ? Prove that the innate and permanent tendency of the soul God's law as actual transgression 53. 43. What reason dc they assign for this imputation of his sin to us ? 42. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 52. State and prove the several points taught in Scripture aa to the nature. 55. What is the necessary effect of that punishment? What do these Sections teach as to the moral state of man by nature? 47. F ove the fact that Adaui was our federal representa- 38 V liat is the precise sense in which our Standards use the term "guilt?" 39. Prove that this "tendency to sin" and actual transgression are alike worthy of punishment. What What What temporal miseries are relation inflicted because of sin ? do temporal afflictions sustain to the justified believer ? 56. 48. 44. 40. In what sense do they u. 49.se the term " to impute?" In what Sections and in what words do our Standards affirm that the guilt of Adam's first sin is charged to the account of his children? 41. What What subjects are treated of in the fifth and sixth Sec- tions ? 51. Prove from the Scriptures that Adam's sin Why is Adam'' s Jlrst sin alone imputed? is so imputed.166 37 tive. How is that sin punished in us? 46. What are the several points involved in their teaching. 57.

The — first covenant made with nant of works. 2. — 0. Job xxii. however. essential and inalienable from being. X.CHAPTER Section I. v. iii. 33. upon which conditional promise is called a cove- nant.'* wherein to his posterity.* 1 Isa. 10. 24. 8. a matter of free and sove- reign grace. 3. 5. The enjoyment of the Creator's fulness and love is by the creature. Luke Acts xvii. 3 iii Gal. and a cove- dience. xl. OF god's covenant with man. These 1st. Job 7. 12-20. Gal.—* Geu.' in him upon condition of perfect and personal obelife was promised to man was Adam. ii. xxxv. ii. Ps.^ Section II. 13-17. 26. that although reasonable creatures do owe obedience unto him as their Creator. 2. —The distance between God and the creature is ao great. ' o. c. but by some voluntary con- descension on God's part. 10. is. In the case of men and angels. Sections teach the following propositions intelligent creature its The duty which an is owes its Creator 2d. 32. 4th.\iii. 5. God has been certain pleased to promise this transcendent benefit conditions. xvii. 17. yet they could never have any fruition of him as their blessedness and reward. VII. 1 Sam. In the first covenant that concerned mankind. depending solely on the will of the Creator. 167 .—3 Rom. 3d. 12. which he hath been pleased to express by way of covenant. 25.

intelligent. on the other hand. by the creature is 2d. has created a man with an may be eminently consistent with the divine attributes. And. but does not receive authority from it . being a signal act of grace. and (2) from the relation of dependence and be under obligation involved in the very fact of being created To all be a created. beneficiary with a claim for more grace. 5th. its perfect and personal obedience. but it cannot bring the Creator into obligation to the creaCreation itself. but. and springs necessarily is from the absolute imperative obligation which essence of all that is of the morally right — which exercises authority over the will. the creation of the first can lay the foundation of no riglit upon the part of man for the gift of the second. surely. eye. of course. that at some time he who has given eyes will also give light. cannot endow the God. it If for instance. The promise it of this covenant was life. The very act of creation brings the creature under obligation to the Creator. far less can the fact that in creation God endowed men with a religious nature lay the foundation of any right on their part for the infinitely more precious gift of the personal communications of his own . depending alone upon the will of the Creator. and a ground of fair anticipation. ture.168 C02fFESSI0N OF FAITH. That. the con- dition of 1st. moral agent is to the obligation of obeying the will and of living for the glory of the absolute Owner and Governor. dealt with God Adam as the representative cf all liia descendants. is also self-evident. the enjoyment of the Creator's fulness and love a matter of sovereign grace. intelligent creature The duty which an is owes to (1) Creator inalienable.

upon conditions. in the ix. was a constitution sovereignly ordained by the It Creator without consulting the will of the creature. Its (6. (c.god's ineffable love all creatures Covenant with man. In the case of men and angels. In tiie first covenant that concerned mankind. Some object that the conditional promise made to Adam in the garit den is not explicitly called a covenant. and that all does not possess since it the essential elements of a covenant. . 1-21) were covenants. xvii. his transaction with Adam garden a cove- The analysis of a covenant always gives the following : elements (a. 11. our standards teach 4th.) Its conditions. yet his will was unques- tionably (lordially consenting to this divine constitution the terms thereof. it a matter of infinite condescension and soverei<>.) penalty.n will. into the intimacies is of his own If he does so. Noah (Gen. grace. been beginning was offered to the first human })air. 3d. and hence the transaction did all embrace the elements of a covenant. God is has been pleased to promise ^his transcendent benefit upon certain conditions. is a sufficient answer to these objections (1) that although will Adam's and eral all was not consulted. (2. gift There can be no doubt that and at the this amazin"- of God's personal love and life-giving society had offered to angels.) Its parties. 12) and with Abraham (Gen. [d.) That sev- instances of analogous transactions between in God and men are expressly styled covenants If God's transactions with the Bible. As to its parties. 169 to take and God cannot be bound it naturally capable of society. then was nant. which conditional promise called a covenant.) Its promise.

170 CONFESSION OF FAITH. attaching to his action during the period of probation.. its This covenant was also it in essence a covenant of grace. it is called the " covits enant of works. in that life in graciously promised the society of God as the freely-granted reward of an obedience already unconditionally due. called a " legal covenant. because It which our salvation on a different basis altogether.. Q. The promise of S. It is also called the " covenant of life. our standards teach 5th. . con- and rests to distinguish it from the covenant of grace." because perfect obedience was dition. Adam did so act as the representative of his descendants. is If disobedience was linked to death. is This covenant variously styled. from one or other of these several elements." because ral it demanded the fulfilment of the claims of the moral law as the condition of God's favour. has already been proved to be the doctrine both of our standards and of Scripture (Chapter §§ 3. are God and Adam. the reward or the penalty. 12. dealt with God Adam as the representative of all hisj descendants. 20. Cat. therefore." life is was also lite- promised on condition of the obedience. L. The parties. vi. is That the promise of the covenant was life proved (a. it was life. As to the further nature of this covenant. Nevertiieless it with respect to (1. in Buch a sense that they were eqnally interested with him self in all the merit or demerit. the condition of it it perfect obedience. Thus. which recorded in terms. and the penalty of death..) From the nature of the penalty. That the latter representing the hnman race. Cat. Q. 4).) its was a covenant of works and of law demands and conditions.

ii. 5 Neh." 26. that he which doeth these things shall live by them. character. 10. (b. Rev. that " whosoever in keep the whole law. absolute and without limit.) It is many '^ })assages of Scripture. (b. (2. The death threatened was exclusion The life promised.) From the It is the that mere existence was not in jeopardy. forbidden from the communion of God.god's covenant with man. That the life promised was not mere continuance of is existence plain (a. there- cellence fact must consist iu the divine fellowship and the exand ha])piness thence resulting.) James ii. . of continued existence which (c. Gal. 14. 171 taught obedience must have been linked to expressly in {b. Adam experienced that death the very day he ate the fruit. iii. . life. 17. is guilty of all. xxvii. . 24 vi. John v. 47. 5 : Moses describeth the righteousness which 12. vi. 1-3. Gal. Eph. 1. 29.) From the fact that the death threatened was not the mere extinction of existence.) That the condition of the covenant was is perfect obedience can plain from the fact {a) that the divine law less.) God suspended upon life obedience. ix. Paul says. relating to a thing indifferent in itself. 10. xi. Rom. 16. demand no it is It is right that shall obligatory. of the essence of all that is James says. 13. Rom. was plainly designed to be a naked test of obedience. xix. 15. That the command not to eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and c\il. Lev of the law." Matt. is X. xviii. v. fore. not the fact. iii. Dcut. iii. and yet oftend one jxiint. Because the terms and death are used in the Scriptures constantly to define two opposite spiritual conditions. which depend upon the relation of the soul to God.

9 Gal. dying ii. 16-17. x. as a V. upon the condition of perat* and incurred the penalty of death . Jonn vi. the Lord was pleased to make a second. xlii. That the penalty of this covenant was death is ''In the day thou eatest thereof. tinues as long as the cause continues. . state of death. that they all might be saved . and not the cessation of existence or the dissolution of the union between soul and body. by his fall.* 6 Gill. Luke xxii. iii. iii. ii. 1 . and con- Man. whereby he freely offereth unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ. 6.' Section IV. : Since Adam forfeited for himself life and his entire race the original j^romisc of fect obedience. This denoted a most lam- entable state of existence. 25. 26. . 44.) that union.. and to the everlasting inheritance. because first (a) it took effect in our oi' parents hundreds of ^^ears before the dissolution (6. 1—5. 14 John v. Isa.-8 Hpi. in reference to the death of Jesus Christ the testator. resulting It involves the entire person. Because the Scriptures constantly de- scribe the moral and sj)iritual condition into which their descendants are born. 3 iii. xv.) CONFESSION OF FAITH. 17. . 20. 20. 16 Rom." Gen. 16 .-6 Mark John iii. .^ commonly called the covenant of grace. 15. ery. iii. xi. having made himself incapaIII. 21 Gen.® and his promising to give unto those that are ordained unto life Holy Spirit. . This death is a condition of increasing sin and misfrom excision from the only source of life. therein bequeathed.172 (3. iii. 27. 6.—T Ezck.. to make them willing and able to believe. jx. Rom. with all things belonging to it. soul and body. distinctly stated. Section ble of life — requiring of them faith in him. 45. thou shalt die. by that covenant. 22. liy the name of a testament. and from which they are delivered by Christ. This covenant of grace is frequently set — forth in the Scripture. 21 jcvi. physical and moral. xxxvi. 24. Eph. 11. Rev. vii. viii. 1 Cor.

made it consistent with the claims of absolute jus- God for Christ's sake introduces a new covenant. The question. relates to what is revealed in the Scriptures as to is the parties to ditions whom the promise it is made. there must be new and gracious intervention on the part of God. then.o . is. a new covenant must be introduced. rendering available to those who are to be saved on conditions different from those in offered the preceding constitution. According to (his view. that the works demanded our endeavours to accomplish them. the new covenant is just as mu{. and accurately fulfilled conditions. and we are graciously aided in According to thi^ in the view.-alvation presented in the no compromise of jninciple. j)lainly inconsistent witli the This view the gospel. Christ's death having tice.god's covenan'i tached i. no lowering of . And if God intervenes to save men. styled the covenant of grace. gospel is nature of The method of .vith man. faith and evangelical obedience secure eternal life in the new covenant in is same way that j)erlect obedience did the old covenant. the only difference are far less difficult. If mankind is to be saved. 173 con- disobedience. also. and the conhaving of the the upon which suspended. is it folli)\vs that. offering to all men indi- vidually the eternal life forfeited by Adam on the low- ered and graciously possible conditions of faith and evangelical obedience. it must be upon a and upon certain definitely })roclaimed definite plan.h a covenant of works as the old is one was. a man is lost. The Arminian view ])roinise that Adam lost and incurred the penalty covenant which demanded perfect obedience. if the old stitution left witliont supplement tr modiiication. That life is.

sharers in his righteousness and beneficiaries of his Faith is not a work Mdiich Christ condescends instead of perfect obedience as in the gospel to accept the ground of salvation — it is only the hand whereby is we clasp The the person and work of our Redeemer. and at the same time he rendered a ]>erfect vicarious obedience. in acting as the representative of his people. and then. terms.1 74 Christ CONFESSION OF FAl fulfils "'H. Calvinistic view. All this Christ does as a principal party with the covenant. the true ground of salvation. on the foundation of what he has done. appointed his Son become incarnate and representahim. and therefore incurred the endless penalty of death. therefore. elect out that God having determined to save the fallen in of the mass of the race to Adam. the old legal covenant absolutely. sinned. which is. and through that trust we are made grace. Christ therefore suffered the penalty and extinin guished behalf of all whom he represented the claims of the old covenant. plication in the administration and gracious of this covenant. he appointed him to be the second tive head of Adam redeemed humanity. and as the Christ or God-man Mediator. and therefore forfeited life. which was the very condilife tion upon which eternal had been originally offered. Adam he had had failed to obey. Christ the Mediator it to all offerts the blessings secured by men on the conditinn . in our nature. God to own aj)- Subsequently. we exercise faith or trust. and as such entered into a covenant with him and with his seed in In this covenant the Mediator assumes in behalf of his elect seed the broken conditions of the old cove- nant of works precisely as Adam left them.

some Calvinistic theologians have set forth the divine method of human redemption as embraced in two covenants. Cat. But evidently the several vii. a« the mediatorial surety of his people. ch. Q. 20) assume that there is § 3. nant of grace was contracted with Christ /or his The that Confession of Faith in these Sections teaches how his same covenant is adm'mistei'ed by Chii>t to people.. L. 31 but one covenant contracted by Christ in behalf of the elect with God in eternity. Faith. passages which treat of this subject (Conf. providing for the salvation of the elect. and he promises they do so they shall certaiidy enjoy them and . covenant with man. The 1st. he. For the sake of simplicity.god's Df faith . . formed eternity between the Father and Christ as principal. and ordinances of the gospel and The Larger Catechism in the place referred to teaches how the covepeo})le. men to lay hold of these blessings thai if by the instrumentality of faith. the second. styled the covenant of redemption. he bids all 176 tluit is. and administered by him to the elect in the offers in the gracious influences of his Spirit. ensures for them that their faith and obedience shall not fail. The in fr. doctrine of our Standards and of Scripture inav : be stated in the following propositions At the basis of human redemption there is an .sf. S. do not mention the covenant of redemption as from the covenant of grace. Q. styled the offered to all covenant of grace... Our Standards say nothing of two covenants. Cat. wherein life is men on the condition of faith. and secured to the elect through the agency of Him who as "surety of the new covenant" They distinct ensures the fulfilment of the condition in their case.

(6) as to (o) what Christ must do in order to save them. The promise of this covenant was — (1. and the Son. 39. xVn. 4. Heb. Luke xxii. to certain official rewards as which were to accrue to the Mediator (1. 1-7. John i. Ps. vii. Isa. 29). (3. including all general and .) A glorious reward (a) in his own thcanthropic person as Mediator. 11. (c. as to hoio their personal salva- tion to be accomplished. Ixxxix. 1. 5."Son. reference to a ])revious his (2. 43. 18.) Christ makes constant commission he had received of Father (John x. Ps. Isa. (2.) In the special salvation of the elect. 2. Luke xxii. 12. 7 .) Christ as Mediator constantly asserts that his people and his expected glory are given him as a reward by his Father.) All needx.) in consequence of his obedience. Matt. in the fulness of time a who is to human element into his Mediator it and to represent all his elect as their and Surety. 2d. 42 .) Support in his work. representing the entire Godhead. xvii. 10. vi.) In committing to hand the universal administration of all the precious graces and blessings of the cov^enant. Acts ii. to The Scriptures make very plain that the Father and Son had a definite understanding [a) as who were was to be saved. eternal covenant or personal counsel between the Fatlier. xiii. John his v. 33. The Scriptures expressly declare that the Father has promised the Mediator the salvation of his seed on condition of tiie travail of his soul.176 CONFESSION OF FAITH. and (d) as to all the bless(e) ings and advantages involved in their salvation. liii. and claims a reward conditioned upon the fulfilment of that commission. (3. ful preparation of Christ for his work. 5 . (6. 3. 4. 18. 22. John xvii. ex. assume pe.

Jer. 2. Tit. 10. . 6. 4th. In the whole is our experience every Christian duty fulfil a Christian grace. 5. such as regeneration. sanctification. 17. xl. Matt. iii. These benefits he offers to all men in the gospel. xlii. and by his providence. 11. Isa. 5. covenant was (1. John viii. xxxi. perseverance and glory. iv.god's covenant with man. 177 provisions of grace. liii. offers us grace eternal life on conditions. Gal. So that Christ at once purchases . xxxii. 40. 10. for we can it is the conditions of repentance to us and faith only as given by our surety. and applies salvation to us lommands and us to do. v. elect. made under the law.) behalf of his liabilities That he should assume and discharge in the broken conditions and incurred of the covenant of works (Matt. 17). Eph. 5. and gives us the conditions life. 3d. of the old covenant. (2. liii. and the grace and the eternal 12 What he gives ua . Isa. his word and his Spirit he causes them to become severally recipients of these blessings according to his will. 21 . that he should be born of a woman. 29 . 33. justification. 4. all is {a} rendering that perfect obedience which the condi- tion of the promise of the old covenant (Ps. salvation for us. 2 Cor. He in promises to grant them on the condition they are received. The condition of this xxxv. v. All Cliristian graces al-^o in- volve Christian duties. administers to his people the benefits of his covenant. 8. 13 . Gal. and as their surety engages for them and makes all good that is suspended upon or conveyed through sj)here of their agency. ix. and (6) suffering the penalty of death incurred by the breaking v. 21 . Christ as mediatorial Kino-. 18). and works in us to obey. ill. xix. 4. In the case of his own people he works faith them. Isa.

20. at once gives us.178 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Gal. conditioned upon his mediatorial work. the for ever. 15. sacrifices. Heb But since Christ is an ever-living and conIX. and other tj^pes and ordinances delivered to tha people of the Jews. vii. the substance. covenant of grace. —Under the gospel. Section V. faith and repentance are the gifts of the Son. iii. —This covenant was differently administered in the :® time of the law. xiii." is was exhibited. through the operation of the Sjiirit." by whom they had full remission of sins. prophecies. this word. And so in one passage our translators were correct in so translating the word ocadijxrj. The ment in one aspect evidently bears a near analogy to a testa- or will executed only consequent upon the death of the testator. Section VT. circumcision. 22. of its Viewed in i^elation to salvation. 6. 16. 2 Cor. to instruct and build up the elect in faith in the promised JMessiah. xii. and and is called the Old Testament. Heb. stantly-acting Mediator. they are indices commencement and conditions sine qua non of its present administration of this covenant by Christ completion. and in the time of the gospel under the hiw it was administered by promises. in w]i. 17. they are duties and gracious experiences. iii.'" which were for that time sufficient and efficacious. same yesterday. tration. 14.en Christ. the ordinances which this covenant dispenfied . tlie paschal lamb." eternal salvation . Viewed on our side. What he demands of us he Viewed on God's side. 24. they are elements of the promise of the Father to the Son. the first symphe expects us to exercise. all fore-signifying Christ to come. instead of testament. to-day and his present adminis- which expresses should in every other instance have been trans- lated dispensation. toms of salvation begun grace — instruments wherewith further Viewed in connection with the may be attained.

iii. That the covenant of grace has from the beginin all essential respects ning remained of all the same. xxviii. xi. Eph. fulness. signifying beforehand a Christ to come. Heb. Jer. He was "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. Col. ii. 2215-19. certainty. "A propitiation He was for the sins that are past. 7-9. 34. 20. 14. 11.sential respects the same. ix. 19. 24. vii'i. 17'd preaching of the word.—16 Matt. Koin. 3. ii. Rom. 13 John viii. iii. though fewer in number. 1 Cor. IG.3. . iii. 15.) in es. The covenant administered all both dispensations (1. xxviii. 23-25. 21-23. two covenants of grace differing in substance. evi- dence and spiritual efficacy. 1 1 . the covenant with man. X. yet in lest outward tiles . 56. xii." Rom. V.. and administered with more simplicity and glory. is power and range of in aj)plication. spiritual 1st. 1-4 — Heb. 3d. xiii. ii. .^* 9 2 Cor. xxxi.— ><> Heb. 1. iv. 27. That the new dispensation of its this covenant is characterized by superior simplicity.-12 (jal.— 18 Gal. Acts xv. and this administration was almost exclusively confined to the Jewish nation. iv." which. clearness. 8. 2(1.^^ to all nations. and the administration of th( sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper .'® them it is held ihvth in more fulness. . but one and the same under various dispensations. 1 Cor. Rom. These Sections teach 1st. there- fore. 25 .god's are. 1 Cor. 14. this covenant was administered chiefly by types and symbolical ordin- ances. x . 6-9. 2d. in spite its outward changes in the mode of administra- tion. 17. and he saved them on the same ])rinciples then as now. 23. 3. promised to Adam and to Abra- . both Jews and Gen- and is called the New Testament.— i^ Heb.—" Luke xxii." Heb ix.6. 11." There are not. 7. xxxii. 19. 12 iii. 17.-1* Matt. xi.. Christ was the Saviour of men before his advent.30. iii. That under the old dispensation. Ps.16.-11 1» Col.

Matt. xxxvi. xxii. to those who are called to exercise faith under the New Testament. xvii. promises of spiritual grace and eternal blessedness were administered then as now. iv. (3. He was all especially witnessed to as the Saviour from sin by tion in the the prophets. 43. Ps. xvi. and the constant and audible converse of Jehovah with his people. 15. Heb. 18). Compare Gen. 51 . ii. 32. and (c. 4 Ps. with See. iii. . . sacra- . definite promise given to Abra- (Gen. the institution of bloody sacvisible appearance (6. . Acts x. From Moses to Christ. 24-26 Ezek. 12.180 CONFESSION OF FAITH. (2. Rom. 2. 15. 18. xxii.) sealed with the sacrament of circumcision. Job xix. 7 xxii.) The same gracious . 18 with Gal. also. in the promise to the woman. and Gen. the simple primitive rite of sacrifice developed into the elaborate ceremonial and significant symbolism of the temple service. Heb. xvii. as the Saviour of the world. xii. He was all symbolically exhibited and typically the ceremonial and especially oy the Col. 16. 7 .) Faith was the condition of salvation under the old dispensasame sense it is now. xliii. xi.) rifices. in the from the world. ii. The Old Testament believers are set up for an example . Ixxiii. 7 iii. the Church separated from the world by new barriers and sealed with the additional ment of the Passover. 17 . embraced in a s{)ecial Church separated covenant. ham Gen. prophesied by sacrificial system of the temple. 25 . From Abra- ham ham to Moses the more . Heb. x. xvii. iii. 1—10. ii. the covenant enriched with new promises. xxii. Isa. 3. 25-27 Dan. Gen. 27 2d. Under the old dispensation the covenant of grace was administered with constantly increasing fulness and clearness (a) from Adam to Abraham.

" Eph. 3. covenant with man. 1. What What What What is the second proposition there taught? the third? is is is the fourth? the fifth? . ent is final. embraces national the whole earth.) That revelation has been vastly increased. when there shall " be gathered together in one all things in Christ.) The present dispensation to That was confined one people. both which are 10. What is the Jilst proposition taught in the first and second Sections? 2. 5.) That is dispensation was so encumbered with ceremonies as to be comparatively carnal. 4. i. Heb. partly revealed.) The truth was then partly hid.) Because. More than not yet made known. 6. The as far as the present order of the It will give world concerned. iii. heaven and which are on this is earth. rendered more clear. in the types and symbols. (/. (6. all The That presis present dispensation. disembarrassed from organizations. QUESTIONS. is 181 supefor- The present dispensation of the covenant rior to the former one — (a. 5. {d. way only to tiiat eternal ad- ministration of the covenant which shall be executed by the Lamb in the new heavens and in the new earth. as well as (c. a son own house.god's 3d. by the incarnation of Christ and the mission of the Holy Ghost. Now it is revealed in clear history and didactic teaching. in his now administered visibly and immediately by Christ.) method of administration was preparatory. spiritual. a servant. while it it was is merly administered by Moses. [e.

10. In what Section and in what words is the doctrine of our standards upon this point stated? 24. Prove the last answer. 11. 28. 12. Cat. 8. Show from Show from Scripture what was the promise of that coveScripture what were nant. 13. 27. Prove tliat Is tlie duty which an intelligent ci'oature owes tfl its Creator 7. vii. what is certain to method of doing so ? the Arminian view as to the conditions upon which salvation 20. 18. 21. 20? 25. and what point is chiefly set forth by the Conf Faith. 31. What was the condition of the covenant? and prove What was its penalty? and prove it. 14. Prove that the enjoyment of the Creator by the creature essential is not a natural right. Prove from Sciipture that there was such a covenant be- tween the Father and the Son. Q..182 6. ch. 17. God purposes is characterize his 19. What are the several elements of a covenant? Who How were the parties of the original covenant? is this covenant variouslj' styled? life. and inalienable. What is to save fallen men. but a gracious privilege. If it. CONFESSION OF F^vlIH. What relatioji doe^ the covenant of grace sustain to the covenant of works ? . §3. oifered to fallen men ? State the fatal objections to that view. Q. 29. What arrangement in this respect? did God in the beginning make with men 9. On what points is it evident that the Father and Son had a definite understanding? 26. What is the Calvinistic view of the condition of human salvation ? 22. Prove that the promise of the covenant was What was involved in the life promised? 16. What is the jioint chiefly set forth by the Larger Catechism. What distinction do some Calvinists make between the "covenant of redemption " and the "covenant of grace?" 23. its conditions. 15. Prove that this arrangement is properly called a covenant. andS..

-How was it administered under the Old Testament dispensation ? 3S. What What is is the second proposition there taught? the third f Prove that the covenant of grace is essentially the same under all changes of administration. Where and why his present administration likened to a testament? 33. 36. In what respects does the new differ from and excel the old dispensation? .GOD 30. 37. 1 83 By whom is the covenant of grace administered? its How does Christ administer is blessings to liis people? 32. 35. 31. 3 COVENANT WITH MAN. What is the first proposition taught in the fifth and sixth Sections? 34.

vii. 30. this Section teaches.John xvii.* and King. Cor. i. 5.—^Eph.^ Priest' nand things. xlii. ii.5.^ the Heir of Judge of the world:'' unto whom he did from all all eternity give a people to be his seed.* the Head and Saviour of his Church. Isa. and promised their salvato tion as and all in which the Son engaged perform and suffer Conf.' the Prophet. We 1st.* Isa. 2. OF CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. §§ 3-6. have already learned That God has from eternity sovereignly chosen a definite nnmber out of the fallen human race to be saved by means of the redemptive work of Christ. his only begotten Son..— Luke i. Faith. sanctified 1 glorified. — It pleased God. 6. Conf. 4.—2 Acts iii. Isa. 2d. 33. his reward. liii. i. 6. 1 called. xvii. in which the Father gave the Son a j)eople to be his sccmI. 6. 23.—» 1 Tim.. Ifi. YIII. xxii. reaffirming these truths. addition That the covenanted Head of the redeemed 184 . v. ii. 5. toiihoos. V. 4. Iv. iii.. » Heb. eh.CHAPTER Section I. to be the Mediator between God and man. ii.-6 Hgb.—* Ps. Pet. that was necessary to that end. Faith. i.* and and to be by him in time redeemed. §§ 3. 31. 20. justified. 30. and ordain the Lord Jesus.—' Acts Ps. in his eternal purpose. 10. 1 Tim. ch.— 8 1 . That God has from eternity formed a covenant of grace witii his Son. . 19. 22. 6. While in 1st. John iii.

That the mediatorial office. but. in the exercise of which Christ accomplishes our redemption. not merely to and persuade to it. Deut. Tiie Scriptures apply the term. God and the people of Israel. embi-aces three distinct functions. but the incarnate God-man. iii. efficiently to make peace and to do all that is necessary to that end. parties for the sake of making The term to sometimes applied to independent and disinterested . absohitely considered. that the Mediator should pro})itiate . 19. Sometimes applied to an intercessor employed by the weaker party to influence the stronger. They teach that he intervenes to sue for peace between God and man. Gal. viz. it is absolutely necessary.CHRIST THE MEDlATOIi. As to it respects God. That. all things and Judge of the A is mediator is one who intervenes between contesting reconciliation. Christ is Head and Saviour of his Church. : those of a Prophet. parties called in to arbitrate a difficulty sometimes a dependent messenger or agent of one of the parties to the contest employed to carry overtures to the other party. The into things necessary in order to this great end classes llill two — (a) those that respect God. in order reconciliation. in a higher sense than any of these. Heir of world. 185 Church is not the divine Word. to Christ. Priest and of a King. of a 3d. as Mediator. In this sense Moses was a mediator between v. it is 5. and (6) those that respect men. God and man. the Lord Jesus Christ. who has received a divine appointment to be Mediator be- tween 2d. armed with plenipotentiary power.

it is absolutely necessary that the Mediator should reveal to them the truth concerning and tiie God and them their relations to him. meetino. But Christ was the personal "Word of God" he who had eternally been "in the bosom of " God" and known the Father. priest and king. he is always a and kingly prophet. and that he should actually introduce our persons and services to the acceptance of the Father. and that all he should so direct and sustain them and so control the outward influences to which they are subjected that their deliverance evil from sin and from the powers of an involves the three world shall be perfected. to A to prophet is a spokesman . These are not three office.) Christ is a prophet. conditions of acceptable service to receive that he should persuade and enable and obey the truth so revealed. priestly When he teaches. in(. is When he offers sacrifice or intercession for sin. both in his estate of humiliation distinct offices and exaltation. displeasure of God by expiating the guilt of in and that he should supplicate our beiialf. (1. ." and consequently as is mediatorial prophet that original fountain of revela- . he always a prophetical and royal priest. accidentallv in one but three functions of mediator. and Christ discharo. the mediatorial office all Hence great functions of prophet.artiate. As it respects men. jii. God man make known all the divine In this sense Moses and inspired men were prophets.186 the sin. inhering essentially in the one office And they each so belong to the very essence of the office that the quality peculiar to each gives character to eveiy mediatorial action.ed them all. one sent from will.st CONFESSION OF FAITH.

cvi. ways of administration. xxi. bion of i. vi. 9. all things concerning their edification and salvation.) Christ a priest. That this representation is true is proved from the call fact that the Scrii)tures {a) explicitlv him iii. ix. 30. 4. Ex. xvi. 6 . (c. 18 and Acts 22 . Heb. 6(d. tial to It declared to be essen- the priest (a) that he be a man chosen to represent men for a before God. i. prophets. as his special elec- and property. Rev. xxviii.s 187 Pie which all other prophets are the stieams. Ex. "He executeth the of a prophet in his reveal- ing to the Church in in divers ill all ages. Christ in this sense a true priest. 21. xxxix. Lev. vii.CHRIST THE MEJ)IAT01{. by his Spirit and word. Job xxxiii. [e. and (c) in order thereto to is make propitiation and intercession. 5 Heb.. and he executeth this office " in his ouce offering himsell" a .) Teach that he executes the incarnation.) He must be holy and consecrated to the Lord. 17 . (c. Heb. Mai. xvi. John priest 2. 37 . tion (6. Cat. Aaron always bore before the Lord all memorial a breastplate with the names of tribes of Israel engraved upon it. Matt. 29.) Teach that he exe1 Pet. Lev. the Teacher of office the Propiiet of all all teachers. (6. i. e. 3-15. 43.. xi. 8. xxi. 31 right both to draw near to Jehovah and to bring near . Isa. the whole will of God. 15. viii. 27. 11. v.) They have a Ps. xviii. A is (a) one taken from among men." L. (b) to appear in the presence of God and to treat in behalf of men. of a prophet since his iii. i. Q. 2. 16. to offer sacrifices and intercessions. vii. a prophet. office 23. 23. 3.) He must have an acceptable is sacrifice to offer.) the 12. 68. C()m[)are Deut. Num. 1 . is (2. cuted the functions of a prophet before his incarnation. He must be chosen of God . iii.

perfectly holy. although Aaron and his priest- hood were types of Christ. 24. as ii. ix. yet they were inall relations.) He was a minister of a greater and more perfect tabernacle. He has made intercession and he ever lives to interThe work of Christ cede.) They were constantly su<. and existed simply adequate to represent him fully and in purpose of showing forth his work. He liecame a man f )r this purpose. has propitiation sin. 10. Dan." L. The fice entire order of priests and the ceremonial of vi. actually discharged He by a sacrificial bearing of the Eph. 25. 23. He is declared to be a pi'iest in Old Testament. 6. 11. to be a reconciliation for the sins of his people. vii. The all gospel history declares that he the functions of a priest. ii.) 13.) Father. 2. 1 John i. viii. ix. . Heb. 44. Heb. The infinite vahie of iiis sacrifice. 17. His priesthood is said not to have been of the for the order of Aaron. 16. v. (c. was the substance of which the entire ceremonial of the temple was the shadow. 5.ceeding each other as dying men. Isa.. Heb. Heb. Q.) incomparable dignity and excellence of his person. iv.1S8 sacrifice CONFESSION OF FAITH. 26. 2. Rom. Heb. making continual interThat this is true is and proved from the fact that the Scriptures declare (a) that Christ possessed all the characteristic niarkb qualifications of a priest. They were inadequate chiefly (a) with respect to the (b. to the and had right of immediate approach (6. (d. vii. without spot to God. made penalty due to . was typical of him. 24. 25.) The manner of their consecration. He was He was the chosen of God. Zech. Col. and in cession for them. vii. 1. 34 Heb. 24. v. Cat. (e. x. (c. 15. Heb. ix. Heb. 20—22. sacriliii. because. was Aaron.

priest. but t(> his entire person as God-man. 19.) and suffer- The object and design of mediatorial kingship has special reference to the up- building and glory of the redeemed Church. Phil. viii.) is said to have been of the order of (a) because like him he w^as a royal Like him.) 189 They were made priests — he was a royal and proviii. This lordship differs from that which belongs essentially to the : (a..) Jiecause he was an eternal sovereign i. This power and it lordship Christ already possesses. ii. as the reward of his obedience (6. Rom. i. worlds. 13. Col. 18. ii. and giving them and discipline. and all extends over i. 5." (3. 17-23. priest. who know Godhead 6-11. creatures in all ii. Matt. 18. 1. (/.^. Isa. 2. Christ is Head over 15. Church.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. He laws (b) office of a king (a) in calling out of the offices. . Ps. rewarding their obedience and correcting them (c) for their sins. God and obey Because not the gospel.) The dignity and authority belong not to his deity abstractly. Eph. in bestowing saving grace upon his elect.. vi. phetical priest. and not also (d) in taking vengeance on the rest. all things to his ii. xxiii. (c. ever of the order of Melchisedec. 9-11 Jer. "Thou He. . . Zech.) it is given to him this by the Father ing. executeth the 22. by which he visibly governs them. 6. His priesthood Alolchisedee. 34. art a priest for .. he had no predecessors or suc- cessors in office. restraining and overcoming all their all enemies. and powerfully ordering things for his own glory and their good . world a people to himself.) ^7. Heb. xxviii. Eph. (c. He was the only one of his line. (6. pre- serving and supporting them under all their temptations and sufferings. Phil. ix. iv.

composition or confusion. 6 Gal. 10. 20 Phil.190 G .— 13 Luke i. iv. being very common infirmities thereof. possessing properties of humanity. i. Thus Christ has been shown. did. the second person in the and eternal God. 1. in the womb of the Virgin Mary. sovereign ruler and disposer of worlds.— " Heb. when the fulness of time was come. of her substance.§ 3) that Jesus Christ the the second Person of the ador- able Trinity. ii. Jesus of Nazareth was a true man. CONFESSION OF FAITH. to be 5th. 35. this Section proceeds to assert: 1 St. ii. of one substance. yet without sin . cMuceived in the all the essential by the power of the Holy Ghost Mary. of one substance and equal with the Father.— '2 Luke i. and equal with the Father. 14 1 John v. ix. 14. And 44 . 4 . of this kingdom there shall be no end. Isa. 15. The subject of this Section the constitution of the Person of the Mediator as the God-man. 16. 3. 1 Pet. 5. all Eph.35. . That element of in his dominion which shall be exercised judg- men and angels at the end will be considered under Chapter xxxiii. ii. 9. and that he is Having is ii. 5. the Godhead and the manhood. of her substance womb of the Virgin . God and man. iv. the only Mediator between 10 . Gal. Son of God. were inseparably person is joined together in one person. 31. 7. . 18.—" Rom. 1 Tim. John i." being conceive*^ by the power of the Holy Ghost. proved before (Chapter one God.'" with all the essential properties and Section II. —The Trinity. ii. 4.'* So that two whole. iii. God and very man. is i. Head and Saviour of his Church. ii. 1 Tim. tliat is. 16. j^et one 17 . Dan.. perfect and distinct natures. ix. Rom. 4. Acts ii. all things throughout Christ's ino. taka upon him man's nature. 29-33. Col. iii. and Heir of all things. . 27. iv. without conversion.'^ Which very Christ. as Mediator.

who time took a human soul and body into personal union with himself.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. inseparably. indivisibly. Virgin Mother of God. for us and for our salvation. begotten before all ages of the latter Father according to the Godhead. . of consubstantial with the a reasonable soul and body Father according to the Godhead. That he was absolutely without sin. following the holy Fathers. but remain two pure and distinct natures. A. and consubstantial with us according to the manhood in all things like consent. 5th. . That although one person. this personality in is the eternal Person of the divine Son. then." who were convened in Chalcedon. " of hundred and thirty holy and blessed consisting six that which was formed fathers. inconfusedly. and in these (lays. That he was no less very God. 4th. divine and human. the 2d. born of Mary. Lord. unto us without sin . That nevertheless That this God and this man is single person. and also perfect in manhood truly God and truly man. the . 191 eternal Son one of the Father. to be acknowledged in two natures.D. unchangeably. constituting one person for ever. teach . but rather . according to the manhood one and the same Christ. Son. 3d. our Lord Jesus Christ the same perfect in Godhead. 6th. . the divine and human nature in Christ are not mixed or confounded in one. the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union. Only begotten. The most ancient and universally accepted statement of the Church doctrine as to the Person of Christ is by the fourth General Council. all with one men to confess one and the same Son. 451: " We.

for he increased wisdom. the Lord Jesus Christ. not parted or divided into two persons. is constantly and characteristically called the Jllan viii. He died in agony on the cross. Jesus man.192 CONFESSION OF FAITH. God the Word.in one Person and one Subsistence. possessing all the essential properties of humanity. like ours. his He ii. his identity was buried. as the propliets have from the beginning declared concerning him.) The human life nature not an independent creation merely. but it was generated out of the common of our race. 33— of Matt. sympathized. self has taught us. rose again and proved sical by phy- signs. life Luke ii. 36-44. and the Lord Jesus Christ himand the creed of the holy Fathers has delivered to us. The angels do not constitute a race produced by generation. slept ami increased in stature. wept and shrank from suffering 35. drank. Through whole he was in all public and private association recog- nized as a true man. xxvi. Matt. (2. conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost in the womb of the Virgin Mary.) Jesus Christ was a true and proper man. is 36-46. Christ Jesus and the Son of Man. of her substance. of the Athanasian Creed. but one and the same Son and Only begotten. of the Intro- Jesus of Nazareth was a true man. This includes two constituent propositions: (1. of the very substance of the Virgin Mary. in He as a had a reasonable soul." For the statements on this subject I. by the power of the Holy Ghost. He had a true body. 52. loved. Tim. Luke xxiv. but only a collection of indi- . 5. 20. j)ossessing all the essential properties of humanity. 1st. John xi. see Chapter duction. the property of each nature being preserved and concurring. for he ate.

John vii. 26.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR.. i. neither was guile found in<his mouth. is In all no word spoken of him. 2d. from the nature of the work he came . is 1 John 5. him the of Abraham. tliat no attribute predicated of him. that he is suggests the idea (2. Pleb. ii. 22. Chapter 4th. the seed of iv. indivisible person. but h. That. him is no sin. took on ii. He was made of a woman (Gal. the great moral miracle of all ages. iii. Heb. which remains.) in every way that such a truth the record of his there can be verified. has been already proved. 193 it This distinction is emphasized when is declared of Christ. is proved (1. nevertheless. Peter testifies of him that he did no sin. the Father. David. although tempted in all points like was yet absolutel}^ without sin. Rom.) To make the matter more certain and evident. perform as the deliverer of men from sin life and from the record of his holy preserved by the evangelists. 3d. the eternal Son of ii. He is the seed of Eve. ii. Gen. is God and this man life one single person. this § 3. ject and in the same connection divine attributes and actions and human attributes and actions are predicated. 16. in the constrained acknowledgements of infidels as well as the faith of Christians. That Jesus. there personal pronouns are always used 13 . That he was no less very God. no action performed by him. Luke i. 15. 1 Pet. 15. 4). The by him and applied Of the same subto him as if he was a single person. 31 . 5-7. iii.) not one single. Luke 35. 3. testifies that in i. The same evident from the origin and constitution of his Person as the Incarnate to Word . as we are." Heb. is expressly iv. viduals. (3. declared in Scripture. " He took not on him the nature of seecZ angels. conceived b}^ her in her womb.

he likewise took part of the same. of God.J 9-] CONFESSION OF FAITIT. as the chil- dren were partakers of flesh and blood. was made flesh." under the law. while the attribute or action predicated The Son of Man. when he was conceived in the womb of the Virgin. 3. even the forgiveness of sins : who is the image of the invisible God. 13 " If ye shall see the Son of Man ascend up where he was before." 1 Cor. 62. (5. This remarkable Person did not begin to exist.'" he says. This personality is that of the eternal God.) There are other passages in which divine and human attributes and actions are indiscriminately predi" Who hath translated us cated of the same Person kino-dom of his dear Son in wdiom we have into the proper to the divine nature: " in heaven" . 6-11. Phil. 4. 13-20 . " Crucified the Lord of in to the 8. g. the . who is : : redemption through his blood. 14. " Forasmuch ii." "God sent his only begotten Son into " The Son was made of a woman. John iii." i. Heb. made the world." John vi. 28 ii. and having made peace etc. . it is ii. iv. i. e. " The Word " Before Abraham was I am." Gal. who in time took a human soul and Son of body into personal union with himself. ." glory. 5th. Hence evident that the person of Christ is divine and not . is (4..) There are other passages title which the Person designated by a proper human of it is nature." Pleb. through the blood of his cross. and therefore was not constituted. "The Church own blood. is are passages in which the Person designated by a title proper to his divine nature. which he hath purchased with his Acts xx. . Col. while the attribute or action predicated of him is proper to his human nature. first- born of every creature.

divine and human. from the instant of eternal conception. during its the soul. has no personality of entire life in the own. but a new Others have so pressed the natures together that neither pure divinity nor pure humanity is left. as well as a divine nature. with and body) its into Its personality. but. his to exist in the womb of the Virgin. free agents. and his divine na- ture and his 6lh. Christ.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. the divine and human natures in Christ are not mixed or confused in one. . nerves. but his person existed from eternity. It is impossible for us to explain philosophically how the two self-conscious intelligences. but only a divine person. Plis divinity is humanity impersonal. 195 human. but. His humanity began personal. therefore. gr^w into the personality of the Son of God. constituting one person for ever. but that his divine Spirit soul in his took the place of the human human body. There are in two natures. but one person a human . senses and its passions. how two self-determined is can constitute one person. human nature one Person. but remain two pure and distinct natures. wonderful constitution of organs. error ists In order to simplify the matter. Although but one Person. precise character of the Yet this phenomenon revealed in in the history of Jesus. grows into the personality of human nature of Christ never for an its a separate personal existence of its own. so the instant had womb. Others have so fur separated the two natures as to make him two persons — a God and a man intimately united. some have supposed that the person of Christ there Avas no human soul. eternal and not formed in time. But in time this eternal divine Person took a human nature (soul Just as the body.

be a mixture of both. that Christ's two natures remain separate and uneonfused.. follows that he cannot neither. is It is said that God i. Section IIT. if it possessed would cease to be human and The same because even God not himself cannot create divinity. they never affirm of either nature tliat which belongs the Person to the other. we have proved above («) liiat Christ had a true human soul as well as a human body. since Hence. having it in his human nature thus united to the divine. Because. who a God — gave his blood for his Church but it is never said that his divinity died. and therefore can- make humanity divine. although both a God and a Man. is self-evident. divinity cannot be communicated to humanity. In opposi- nature resulting from the mixing of both. harmless. and absolutely it perfect. limitations of humanity. viz. Hence. it If that should take on the would cease it is to be divine. and even God is is not able to destroy divinity. tion to this. was sanctified and anointed with the Holy dpirit above measure . while seen) of the Christ both God and man.'* in him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge." to the end that. is true with respect to Christ's divinity. e. undefiled . The very point proved continued a true else in Scripture is tliat Christ always sometliins between the God and a two. that humanity cannot be made eternal these. true Man — not the essential properties of is. —Tlie in Lord Jesus. Now. self-existent.196 CONFESSION OF FAITH. or that his humanity came down from heaven. to be infinite.'® whom pleased the Father that all fiilnes? should dwell. without exception. The third point. and (6) that he.. which one Person whatsoever the Scriptures constantly affirm (as is we have true. is only one single Person. being holy. of either nature.

22. 9.^* which that he might discharge. 9—29 1 Cor.*' Section IV. Matt. xii. 24.'-" was buried. 27 Acts xiii.*' making intercession f^ and shall return judge 15 men and angels at the end of the world. 18.'™ who put all power and judgment into his hand and gave him com- mandment to execute the same. vi. ix. xlv. 25-27. 4th.—19 Acts x. x. 24.-25 Matt. 2T Phil. to teach That the effect of this hypostatical union upon is the human nature of Christ. all an incomparable exaltation and 2d. Lord nor as man. but God-man.-23 Gal. 37 Rom. x. 4. That nevertheless he took this office upon himself. 17. xxvii. 27 . Phil. xv. 3d. 37.—32 Rom. 5th. i. 8.—16 14. .—20 Heb. 34. he was made under the law. Luke xxii. Acts Col.'" was crucified and died. xxvi. iv. i. This office the Lord Jesus did most willingly undertake . glorification. and acts in it upon an authority derived from the Father. xxvi. X.— M Acts ii. 23. and all involved in it."-^' — with the same body in which he suffered. 46. That he was appointed to this office by the Father.'* he might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety. xl. Matt. voluntarily. iii. 10. yet saw no corruption. Jude 6.-22 pg. These Sections proceed 1st. 8 Heb.^* endured most grievous torments immediately in his souP^ and most painful sufferings in his body . ii. 34.-26 Matt. . 3-5. but was thereunto called by his Father. xiii. i. 5.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. XX. 7. ii. Heb. x. Ps. and there sitteth at the right to hand of his Father. v. vii. 2 Pet.'* which office he took not unto himself. . 25.-21 Matt. John iii. 4.ed its functions in his estate of .— 38. 5-10 John ii. 22. 24. . and remained under the power of death. John V. .^ with which also he ascended into heaven.-30 John .— Rom. 18 ii. 8.—" vii. 38 Heb. 44. vii. xxviii. 26. 7. That Christ is Mediator.'* On the 4.^ Col.. v. 4. 3.xvii. 40-42.—21 John 36. Matt.— 18 Heb.^^ and did perfectly fulfil it. That he discharo. and discharges not as the as functions of that office. and full 197 of grace and truth. viii. xiv. Mark xvi. although not deification. Acts 11.hird day he arose from the dead.-31 S3 ii. 42. 15. 19. 19.

intercedes for and [d) reigns over all things in behalf of his people. the functions of tliat as not as God. but is God-man. where he in his 1st. in which consisted in (a) his rising from the dead on the third day. him should fulness dwell. As this point more directly called up . in his sitting at the right hand of God the Father. and coming to judge the world at the last day. office. But the effect of this union was (1) to exalt the human nature of Christ to a degree of dignity and honour greatly beyond that attained by any other creature. office of Mediator and Surety. His person. (6) his being made under it. It pleased the Father that in i. The effect of this hypostatical union upon the human nature of Christ was not to deify it. which consisted (a) in his being born. since. (c) (6) in his ascending up into heaven. humiliation. as Ave saw above.198 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Col. all Hence Christ was Mediator. 34. (2. The all Father gave not the Spirit by measure unto him. nor as man. and that in a low condition. under- the wrath of ((/) God and the cursed death of the cross in his being buried for a time. and an all-perfect and incomparably exalted manhood. John iii.) To fill it with a perfection of intellectual and moral excellence beyond that of any other creature. separate and unchanged after as before. possessed all the properties be- longing to absolute divinity. and discharged office. and continuing under the power of death 6th. the human nature as well as the divine nature remains pure. . also. (c) the law and rendering perfect obedience to going the miseries of this life. He discharged the functions of the mediatorial his estate of exaltation. therefore. and was thoroughly furnished to execute the 2d. 19.

returning and accounting to him. 4-10. because (1) otherwise being absolute God it could never Lave been imposed upon him. because I said. it 199 will be con- 3d. John but the will of the Father which hath " Jesus answered and said. 24. and as far the is of the same identical substance with and equal to the Father in power and glory. so nut himself to be also Christ glorified priest." that the " works " which he performed and the " words " which he spoke were not " I can of mine his. because I seek not mine own sent me. is . my 18 . this Chapter. very prominently as well as clearly set forth : in Scripture self. by the seventh Section of sidered in that place. v." iv. (2." John vii. as concerns these relations and actions alone. " As no man taketh this honour upon him- but he that was called of (lod as was Aaron. is not mine. 16. 49 The Eternal Word God-man. ye would rejoice.) Because otherwise . inferior to the Father — sent by his authority. 31 . Father xii. it That nevertheless Christ took this office and all involved upon himself voluntarily is very evident. " If ye loved me. ]My v." Heb.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. 4th. I go doctrine unto the Father. acting for him. John x. greater than I. for xiv. Christ constantly affirms that he was " sent by the Father . in cially. made an high but he was called of God a high priest after the order of Melchizedec. 34. is As I hear I judge. self own do nothing." will. 30. 28. but his that sent me. his official relations But is offi- and works. but the Father's that sent him. and my judgment just. Father. and acts in That Christ was appointed to this office by the it upon an authority derived from the is Father." that the Father was given in him "a commandment .

he said. 19. The motive which impelled him passeth knowledge. it but I lay it down of myself. For only thus that the infinite can be "seen and known. Personally. Christ discharged the functions of the mediatorial office in his estate (1. On the other hand it is an perfections infinite condescension on the part of the Godhead of Jesus. of the law upon him would have been outrageously unjust. theretbre." John x.) liave vicariously availed for us. (4. v. and I have power to take again.) Because it is Speakto lay ing of his life. 18. and rendering it. Because otherwise the execution expressly declared." " tasted and handled. 18 . he w^as the norm. " No man it taketh it from me.200 his obedience CONFESSION OF FAITH. and so revealed under the limitations of a finite nature. iii. i. and suffering could not (3. perfect obedience to upon natures." Gal." John i. 16. which consists It In his being born and that in a low condition. evident that nothing could be added to the divine into a act of by the assumption of a human nature personal relation.) 1.) is of humiliation. and of transcendent and permanent benefit to the whole intelligent creation." and that of its " fulness we may all receive. The law lays its claims not The person of Christ was eternal and divine. ii. Therefore he . but upon persons. I have power down. that all the fulness in of the Godhead should be contained it is him bodily. Eph. his divine perfections being the necessary seli' and to the universe he and supreme law to himhad made. 1 John (2. In his being made under the law. 2. 5th. and grace for grace. to the self-sacrificing undertaking was a personal love for his j)eople " that 20. the Author and Lord of the law.

it was a vicuri- . all his Clirist and obediall ence and suffering was vicarious from his birth until the conditions of the covenant of life were fulfilled. In that covenant punishlife ment was conditioned upon disobedience.) many be made righteous. he purchases for us reconciliation.'"' Chap. in another aspect obedience. " By the obedience v. Christ. of one shall (3. kingdom of heaven. 5. 4. But. as well as that he should suffer the penalty in order to secure for them the remission of sins. while by his fulfilling the precepts of the law (active obedience) he purchases for us "an everlasting inheritance in the viii. (a) was " made under the law." Rom.." Not for himself. not as a rule of righteousness but as a condi- tion of blessedness. since the law was conformed not he to the law.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR.. that the "second and Therefore it was necessary Adam" should render vica^rious obedi- ence in order to secure for his people the promised reward. (c. and blessedness upon obedience. as we have seen chap. to the law. All his earthly career was in one aspect suffering. our Confession teaches. therefore. 19. As suffering. "to redeem them that are under the (6. the cross. iv.) His whole obedience of that law was vicarious instead — of our obedience and for our sakes. § 5. By Christ's suffering (passive obedience). but officially as our representative.) law. this His undergoing the miseries of wrath of God and the cursed death of the was the representative of his i)eople. § 3. vii. that we might receive the adoption of sons. in the covenant liis of grace the Mediator assumes in behalf of elect seed the broken conditions of the old covenant of works precisely as Adam left them." Gal. 201 owed nothing to hiui. life.

own sins die the second death for ever. the invisible world). 333-371). in held that as Christ died vicariously as a sinner. In his being buried and continuing under the for a power of death called In the Creed commonly and adopted by all the Apostles' Creed. the churches. it in the Some order to (as Pearson on the Creed.. 22." Gen. Part . il was the discharge suspended. They same God. have so." life. in order to triumph over Satan and very citadel of his kingdom. time. The Lutherans in the teach that the descent of the God-man his angels into hell. This means precisely what our Confession affirms.202 CONFESSION OF FAITH. was the lirst step in his exaltation. in the stead and behalf of his people of that condition upon which their eternal inheritance is The two were never separated in fact. this last stage of the humiliation of Christ is expressed by the phrase. Form. that while the body of unseen Jesus remained buried in the sepulchre his soul re- mained temporarily divorced from world of spirits.) 17. his soul went tem- porarily to the place where the souls of those for their who die . sin. The Romanists body was (invisible in teach that Christ went. fulfil the law of death. Heb." are only the two legal aspects presented by the life of suffering obedience. chap. while his the grave. The essence of the ])enalty vicariously borne by Christ was the " wrath of The incidents of it were " the miseries of this of it The culmination ii. ous endurance of the penalty of As obedience. of Concord. was "the cursed death of ix. . " He descended into hell" (Hades. the cross. II. ix. pp. to that department of Hades world) which they call the Limhus Pati'un. (4.

x. John xiv. John a public acceptance of this mediatorial half by the Father. Phil. which consisted (1. vi. 8 ix. 22. 32. 1 Cor. 10. of the fact is mental. also. Cat. Christ himself predicted (c. 1 Cor. . . His resurrection secures 15. (d. and them witli him to the heaven he had prepared for them. 25. xx. xvi. 1 11. Rom.) 3-5 21 . 3. {d. (e. and because he ii. 34. Gal. 21. Heb. xv. 4. v. iii. The wrought by the apostles ii. in attestation of the fact.) He was seen by G. (a. shall live also. xv.) Compare Ps. 19. (6. {g. 19 John i. .) It proved him to be the Son of 19 x.. . Part 6th. (e.) five hundred miracles brethren at once. The importance (a. 1 Cor. (/. by his own power. Acts (Ji. I.) Matt. of Trent. iii. Old Testament. Ciiarles Ilodsje. 12. The witness of the eleven apostles. John * Dr. 2.) i. i.) The witness of the Holy Ghost.) iiict In his rising from the dead on the third day. is The of his resurrection proved. (6. to preaeh the gospel to them. xv. (c. Acts 3-8. 49. 17. Rom. art. because rose it authenticated his claims. Acts .) The change of the Sabbath from the seventh to the first day of the week.) an advocate with the Father. ours. in his estate of exaltation. The separate testimony of Paul. He executed tlie functioas of his mediatorial ottiee. 1 Pet. Act^ it.) It was work in our beHence we have God.) " If we viii.) Predicted in ii. viii.* 1 Cor.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. xv. 5. IS. Rom. 24—31. vi. Christ lives. of the Cou-n.) The proved to is be fundathe pledge resurrection of Christ for the fulfilment of all the prophecies and promises of both Testaments." (/. W'here the 203 believers under the ohl dispensation were to take gathered.

) Eph. moreover. 10. This took place forty days after his resurrection. upon xxii. i. i. 14. vii. . vi. (John xiv. a definite ])lace. Col. 12 1 Pet. (3. With the presentation of "his own blood" (Heb. that salvation which he had previously achieved for them in his estate of humiliation. 13. ex. v. Matt. viii. The . 19. In his ascending up into heaven. Heb. v. 1 Dan. God the all Father. to fill the universe with the manifestations of his power and glory. 2. iv. hence he effectually applies to his people. Ps. 3 Heb. passages which speak of this session of the Mediator at the right hand of the Father are. 20). 34. iii. In his sitting at the right hand of for. He as- cended as Mediator. 8-12) to complete his mediatorial work. his obedience and John xvii. triumphing over his enemies and giving gifts to his friends (Eph. 1 . 22. since the finite soul and body of Christ must be in a definite place. in that covenant. xxvi. ix.204 (2. 6. were conditioned Bufiering. Luke 32. iii.) CONFESSION OP FAITH. iv. Mark . ii. in the presence of the eleven apostles and possibly other disciples. a upon and . 24) he pleads for those who are embraced iu his cov- enant. by his Spirit. as the forerunner of his people . where he intercedes things in the behalf of. John . 4 . 12. x. 11 . 13) people. ii. 9. see John xvii. Rom. It is. Eph. This right hand of God denotes the official exaltation of the Mediator to supreme glory. felicity and dominion over every name that is named. 9-11 22 . and there his glory is revealed and There he intercedes for his his authority exercised. from a portion of the Mount of Olives near to Bethany. xvi. Phil. 64. and reigns over his people. Eev. priest his throne (Zech. 3. 22. xvi. 9 . 20. and for those blessings in their behalf which. vi.

V. real and full satisfaction to his Fatiier's justice in their behalf. 14. always prevalent. by and are thus justified. Eph. xiii." These Sections teach us of the diatorial 1st. Compare Chapter xi. and John (4. — ix. 2. Heb. 8. i.^ Section VI. types and sacrifices wherein he was revealed and signified to be the Seed of the woman which should bruise the serpent's head. 15. . 8.§ 3: "Christ. Heb.. 19. 56 Gal. iii. 42 . 25. but an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven. Rom. did fully discharge the debt of all those that make a proper. 2. 15. (6) by his sacrifice of himself.^® tually — « Rom. In his coming to judge the world its at the last day This will be discussed in Kxxiii. . Gen. efficacy and benefits thereof were communicated unto the elect in all ages successively from the beginning of the M'orld. ix.CHRIST THE mp:diator. 14. yet the virtue. which he through the eternal once of- fered up unto God.— i. and the Lamb slain from the beginning of the world. Col. Heb. 24. 5. 4. 14. and did his obedience death. sacrifice —The Lord Jesus. 26. Eph. xxi. for fiath all those whorfi the Father given unto hini. 2. he I'epresented (a) by his obedience.^. i. 12. proper place under Chapter Section Y. 11.John xvii. effects of Christ's me- work on earth That Christ made : satisfaction in behalf of those whom 2d. and for ever. x. hath fully satisfied the justice of his Father. 20. Rev. 16. iv. v.) ii. » Dan. His intercession is 205 suo(. 26.''* and purchased not only reconciliation. Although the work of redemption was not acwrought by Christ till after his incarnation.essful. the That Christ has in strict r'lgonv fiUlij satisfied all demands of divine justice upon those whom he represents. xiii. being yesterday and to-day the same. by his perfect obedience and Sj)irit of himself. 19. Ps. in and by those promises. iii.

has been shown above. nor obnoxious to suffering and death. because account his obe- was Lord of the law. kingdom of heaven. 1st.ord. the Reformed Confessions.. both by his obedience and by his sacrifice of himself." The Formula of Con(. but God and to man lie in one undivided person. remission of sins and propitiation of divine wrath. not only secured. . and generations by the forms of truth to tlieni viii. says: " Since Christ was not only man.. so he was not subject the law. according to the terms of the ' eternal covenant.206 3d. through the varying made known. yet the full benefits thereof applied to each of the elect severally in their successive Holy Ghost. Question GO without any merit of mine. righteousness and holiness of Christ. grants and imputes to me the perfect satisfaction. says. § 3. The Heidelall : berg Catechism. On which dience is imputed to us so that God on account of that whole obedience (which Christ by his acting and by his suffering. one of the most generally adopted of " God. as if I had fully accomplished all that obedience which Christ hath ac- complished for me. for our sake ren- dered to his Father who is in heaven) remits our sins. § 4. That thus he has.. .. This truth is taught in the Confessions of all the churches. . CONFESSION OF FAITH. but also an everlasting inheritance in 4th. a Lutheran Confession. That although this perfect satisfaction was renhad been dered in his obedience and suffering only subsequently to his incarnation. but only of mere grace. Chapter vii. That Christ made satisfaction for those whom he represented. in his life and in his death. Lutheran and Reformed. in beiialf o those whom the he represented.

are bought with a price. 207 reputes us as good and just and gives us eternal salvation. 31 is The "Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of " The offering of Christ." say. §§ 1. 1 Tim. life The former. both original and actual.. ii. As we saw (Chapter ii. xx. for the eternal sufferings of all for whom he suffered. iii. 6. 2) the essential justice of the divine nature demands the punishment of sin. 2 Matt. Our were laid upon him. Christ thus has. This is the doctrine of the whole Christian Church. Christ does by his obethe dience. 18 1 John ii. The latter. Christ sufiered only in his single humaii Nevertheless. his soul and body. He redeemed a curse is us from the curse of the law for us. We . he suifcrs in the sorrows of his and death. person was the infinite and transcendently glorious per- son of the eternal Son of God. iii." The Catechism of the Council of Trent. 1 Pet. made. It demands also that the condition of the original covenant of works should be fulfilled before the reward is granted. Art. 13 . in strict rigour. Consequently his suffer- ings were precisely both in kind and degree infinite what the righteous wisdom of God saw to be in strict rigour a full equivalent in respect to the demands of legal justice. fully satisfied all demands of divine justice upon those whom he represents. propitiation and satis- faction for all the sins of the whole world.CHRIST THE MEDl vTOR. gave his a ransom for many. He . once : that perfa^t redemption. 2." 2d. by being made He died the just for the unjust. and only for a time. Gal. England. He the life propitiation (expiation) for our sins. Christ suffered as the representative of sins sinners. 5-63- . 28 .

) It proves in the second ])lace that the vicarious sufferings of Christ must have been in design And effect. 11-13.208 CONFESSION OF FAITn. i. most fully satisfied God. 14. (1) 6 . iii. who having paid the price of our sins on the cross. viii. . althougli he should deal with us according to the strictest rigour of his justice For it we are indebted to Christ alone. 10. 9. 25-27 Rev. 6 . but also an everlasting inheritance in kingdom of glory. This proves therefore possible that Christ did not die simply to make the salvation of those for i. according to the terras of the everlasting covenant. not only secured in behalf of those whom the he represented remission of sins and propitiation of divine wrath. 17. 5. Gal. 13. 15. (2. personal and defii ite as to their object. That thus he has. he purchases a right eternal blessedness. 4. to the terms of the covenant made with Adam to life and assumed by Christ. whom he died e. v. as elements of that purchased possession of which the Holy iii. iv. 5. is "Whatever due by us to God on account of our sins has been paid abundantly.5. habitually that "the adoption proved from the life" set forth the truth of sons" freely and for " eternal are given to the believer Christ's sake. Eph. Tit." 3d. accordino. V.. and by his active obedience. is the earnest. to remove legal obstructions to their saleffect vation —but he died with the design and of actually securing their salvation and of endowing them to gratuitously with an inalienable title heaven. i. Eph. Spirit i. The suiferings of Christ secure the remission of the penalty. Salvation must be ap- . 4. life is and That he has so purchased fart that the Scriptures eternal for all those in whose stead he rendered obedience. Kom.

we saw that (a) Jesus of Nazareth true God. \S. § 8. 6. but a title to an eternal inheritance that " to all those for was purchased. (c. his human nature having been generated Into the prc-exi?tent person of the Son. that which is proper to one nature sometimes in Scripture attributed to the person denominated by the other nature.) son. to itself. this satisfaction That although was rendered by Christ only after his Incarnation. it follows (a) whom tainly Christ hath purchased redemption. but actual reconciliation was purchased . 1 Pet. §§ 5. . 1 John iii.) eternal and divine. is That That his (c. Chapter vil. by Holy Ghost.the who never receives the inheritance. and whom purchased grace is it never applied.'® " Heb. yet the full benefits thereof had been applied to each of the elect severally In their successive generations from the beginning.—^ Acts xx.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. plied to all those for 209 Since wliom itself it was purchased. ch. personality (6. 14 . since not only reconciliation. in the work of mediation." Conf. is not one of the persons for whom 4th. not the possibility or opportunity for reconciliation.) was a true man. iii. Section VII. acteth accordis ing to both natures by each nature doing that which proper is by reason of the unity of the person. ix. Under Section ii." yet — Christ . through the various forms of truth to them made known. 28 . yet distinct 14 That these two natures remain one Perind unchanged divinity and humanity. 16. 13 . was purchased. and communicate the same. Faith. [d.) That he was he was nevertheless one single Person. This has been at length proved the and Illustrated. And to (6) that he . John iii. he doth cer- and effectually ap[)ly viii.

the energies of divine wisdom and power. Tliis Section proceeds without mixture or confusion. Thus. knowledge. to state 1st. His God the focus of all revelations the subject as well as the organ of all prophetical teaching. the human nature of Christ was necessary in order that his person should be "made under the law. or transmit what they receive He At is the original source of all divine is the same time his humanity his the form through which person as incarnate Godhead its is is is revealed. with a human heart acting out through the . the Firstborn among many brethren. also. and the organ of his vicarious obedience and intercession At the as our representative Priest and Intercessor. That all Christ's mediatorial actions involve the concurrent activities of both natures. Other reflect his light. the second man. prophet is derived. it is only the supreme dignity of his divine person which renders his obedience supererogatory and therefore vicarious. same time. each nature contributing that M'hich is proper to itself. in all his admin- istrative acts as The last Adam. his flesh the veil through which glory transmitted. be makes all . and the temporary and finite sufferings of his humanity a full equivalent in justice-satisfying efficacy for the eternal sufferings of all the elect. Head of a redeemed and glorified race. Thus. is Thus prophets the divine nature of Christ as that fountain from which his revelation from him.210 CO^'FESSION OF FAITH." and it is the subject of his vicarious sufferings. the activities of his divinity and humanity are constantly and beautifully blended King. he has dominion over all creatures and. also.

because of the unity is of both natures in one Person. 9. . as mediatorial King. or that his divine nature suffered for his Church. That. That Christ." effectually persuading them by his Spirit to believe and obey and governing their hearts by his Word and Spirit. the mysteries of salvation. 2.—« 1 John ii. XV. or that the Son of Christ came Man came down human from heaven. 6. Eph.** overcoming all their enemies by his almighty power and wisdom. 2 .—« John . Section VIII. xii.39 i. 7-9. All mediatorial acts are therefore to be attributed the entire person of the Theanthropos iu the to — God-man. This Section teaches 1st. 16. 16. either nature belongs of course to that one Person and sometimes nature is in is proper to one attributed to the Person denominated by the ii. Thus. iv. nicate the —To all those for whom Christ hath purchased redemption. And whole of his glorious Person is he to be obeyed and worshipped by angels and men. 34. 26. . John xvii. as shown above under Section the Scriptures often say that God shed his blood for his Church. 19. 15. This Section teaches — 2d. 1 13. viii. viii. 25.3. Mai.^ making intercession for them . iv.— « Ps.. vi. that which Scripture that which proper to . x. 2 Cor. 37. while they never say that the nature of down from heaven. seated at the . other nature." S9 John 1.—« John xiv. 15. Cor XT. 18. ex. John xvii.*" and revealing unto tliem. he doth certainly and effectually apply and commu- same . 1. 1 ii. Col.CHKIST THE MEDIATOR. in such manner and ways as are most consonant to his wonderful and unsearchable dispensation. 3. Rom. things 211 work together for the accomplishment of his purposes of love. lleb. 15. 17. 14. in and by the Word. Rom. 2. xy.

212 right CONFESSION OF FAITH. . when we were at the right treating of Head and Surety of the covenant and media- King. very explicitly teach that Christ. sion of these points The discus- must be looked for under the several heads of "The Holy Scripture." "Christ the Mediator." is expressly affirmed [a] that Christ died upon the cross on purpose to carry out the eternal purpose of God in the election of certain individuals to . being fallen in Adam. the torial viii. 4. § 4. Neither are any other redeemed by Christ. .) By the eifectual of his Spirit on their hearts. operation By making intercession for the persons By the revelation of the mysteries of to them in his Word. said: "As God hath appointed the elect unto glory. in for certain definite persons.. . . Here it are redeemed by Christ. made expiation and purchased salvation Thus.) in the effectual application of redemption in the use of each of the four following methods salvation : concerned. § 6. it will be observed. That he proceeds (a. so hath he. it is Chapter iii. and Chapter Christ." "Providence. Wherefore they that are elected. That Christ doth certainly and effectually apply and communicate redemption to ALL those for whom he hath purchased it.) necessary dispensations of his providence. 2d." "God's Covenant with Man.) By all (6. hand of God. applies the as Priest to I'ederaptiou he hat! efFected the proper subjects of it. Our Standards. . (c." 3d. but the elect only. by the eternal and most free purpose of his will. This point has been ah-eady discussed under Chapter vii. foreordained all the means thereunto." "Justification.. etc. and of his session hand of God. §§ 1. as mediatorial Priest." "Effectual Calling. (tZ. ..

Cat. § 5 : " The Lord Jesus. Isaac Barrow in his sermon entitled "The Doctrine of Universal Redemption Asserted and Explained. 59 effectually : " Redemption to certainly applied and communicated it. The entire truth upon this subject. in his edition of vol. God has acted from the beirinning. saving no other than the In Chapter fect viii.. ii. as set forth in our Standards." Dr. Hagenbach.) purchases." and by Dr." all those for whom Christ hath purchased sense in which sin.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. may be stated summarily in the following propositions 1st... says that our Confes- sion uses the phrase in the same sense. purchased the Father not only reconciliation." is L.. 357. and consequently infallibly secures. 356. but an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven for all those whom hath given unto him.) Here it is expressly taught That the design of Christ the salvation of all in dying was not simply possible.." When this Confession was written. Q. § 8. . In Chapter viii. in all hia . " Universal Redemption of Mankind by the Lord Jesus Christ. but actually to make men him by the for the same persons That Christ actually (6. Henry B. it is said : " To all those for whom Christ hath purchased redemption he doth cer- tainly and effectually apply and communicate the same. Smith.. an eternal to purchase reconciliation for those given to Father.) Tliat Christ died for the i)iirpose of elect. 213 (b. pp. inheritance in heaven." (a. eternal life. the phrase " to purchase redemption" was used in the we use the phrase " make atonement for So it was so used by Baxter in his work.. by his per- obedience and sacrifice of himself.

works according to one changeless. The is satisfaction rendered by Christ amply sufficient for all men who can possibly be created. God therefore intended to accomplish by :he vicarious cisely obedience and sufferings of Clirist pre- what he does accomplisli less. — It objectively available to one hearer of the gospel as much as to another. man it —of one man as well God's saving any as of another. all-comprehensive plan. effectually applied precisely to those per- sons to whom the Father and Son will to apply it. 9th. Hence has for ever removed out of the way all legal obstacles to man he and wills to save. . It exactly adapted to the legal rehitions and wants of every 4th. 6th. men are dead in tresspasses no man accepts it except those to whom it is effect- ually applied 8th. Since God's purposes are all eternal table.) (a. 5th. since all sins. It is by the Holy Ghost. That it is freely. Hence is it follows fully the possession of (6.) This redemption is rightany man whatsoever who accepts. 7th. and they willed to apply then precisely to those to whom they had designed to apply from eternity. authoritatively to in good faith offered to every man whom the gospel comes. and therefore is fully revealed in the event. Being infinitely wise and powerful. the and immu])recisely Father and Son will to ap})ly it now to those to whom they designed to apply it when Christ it hung upon it the cross. his design is always fully executed. But. — nothing more and is nothing 2d. 3d.214 CONFESSION OF FAITH. upon the single condition and of acceptance.

What What What What What What What is the first additional pi'oposition taught in this Section ? 4. 6. and in what sense necessary as respects is the title applied to Christ? 7. (d. His design in ranking atonement was definite. He designed to secure the salvation of those for satisfaction. 215 Hence it follows — (a. What What is the first truth before tauglit which is reaffirmed in the first Section ? 2. 10th. QUESTIONS. is it necessary as respects man ? 9.) — the elect and none others. How did he execute the functions of a prophet? Prove the hist answer. 1. etc. 14.) He in time applies eHectually and certainly to all those for whom he pur- chased it. Wliat were the essential characteristics of a priest? How did Christ execute this function? .) Christ died with the (6. great functions are necessarily embraced in the media- torial office ? 10. etc. is is is the second here taught the third ? ? a Mediator. liaving respect to certain definite persons c.. istics another? and what were the special characterof Christ as a prophet ? is What What relation do these functions sustain to one a prophet. but to purchase for them in- alienably faith and repentance. 11. is it God that the Mediator should effect? 8.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. 5. actual reconciliation the adoption of sons. 12.) purpose of executing the decree of election. not raerely to whose sake he rendered make and it their salvation possible. See note on page 218. 15. is the second truth before taught wliich is here re- affirmed ? 3. 13.

Prove that he was one single person.sition taught in the third and fourth Sections ? 42. What relation does his humanity sustain to the Person ? In what different ways have heretics striven to explain the two natures in the one person of Christ? Prove that the natures always remain unmixed and unis the^/-. 23.216 J 6. 35. changed. 22. 29. 43. CONFESSION OF FAITH. torial God ? Prove that he possesses and exercises this universal mediadominion now. How How does Christ execute the function of a king? does his sovereignty as mediatorial King differ from his authority' as 21. In wliat respects was his priesthood superior ? 17. What propo. Is the personality of Christ divine or human? 37. Prove that Jesus was a true man. 45. Show that he was born of the substance of his mother. 38. Prove that his person is divine and eternal. Prove that he was absolutely without sin. 44. In what sense was he a priest after the order of Mel- chisedec ? 19. 24.s. 41. 30. 31. relation of the 40. State the proof that Christ was a true priest. to that of Aaron 18. 34. 20. 39. 25. 27. 33. What What What What What What What is the subject of the third Section? the first proposition which the tldrd? it is is is teaches ? the second proposition here taught? is the fo^irth ? is is the fifth ? the sixth ? How How is this doctrine stated in the Nicene Creed? is it stated in the Athanasian Creed ? 32. How do the Scriptures apply divine and human titles and predicates to Christ? 36. 26. 28. What is What \s What is What is the second proposition taught? the third f the fou7'th ? the fifth ? .

65. What different explanations have been given of the phrase in the Creed. What is What is What is the first proposition taught in Sections v. 62. for whom.H/-</if In what two ways did Christ make satisfaction for us? 69. for what and with what effect does he intercede? 64. 49. and what sense did he render perfect obedience to it? 55.CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. Show why this fact is of fundamental importance. " is He descended into hell?" 57. 46. . 58. the design and significance of his undergoing life. the miseries of this the wrath of God and the cursed death of the cross? 56. In what sense is Christ subordinate to tlie Father ? Prove that Christ took this office upon himself voluntarily. 66. What the explanation given in the Confession? How is the fact of Christ's resurrection proved? 60. and vi. 217 47. Was God or man ? and by what authority Who appointed Christ to this office. How is this truth stated in tlic Ileidclburg Catechism and Formula of Concord? 70. In what manner. 59. In what two different estates did Christ execute the office of Mediator? 53. What is the sixth proposition taught? What was the effect of the h3'postatical nature of Christ? Christ Mediator as union upon the human 48. ? the second proposition there taught? the third? 67. Why was his What was being born an act of humiliatiojj ? in In what sense was he made under the law. 51. What meant by saying he sits at the right hand of God? 62. Prove tliat Christ has in strict ngour fully satisfied the justioj of God. how and for what purpose did he ascend ? is to heaven 51. For what great purpose does he assume and exercise this authority and power? 63. 54. When. does he act? 50. 68. Whatisthe/.

the and the universal ofier and availability of the redo they teach as to the design of the Father and the demption of Christ? 83. therefore. for those for 73. Prove that Christ died to purchase not onl^'^ reconciliation. whom make he acted. 80. 81. ed. are all mediatorial actions to be ascribed 78. Ass. 1874. ? is In what three places and in what three forms do our standards teach that Christ suffered with the design of saving certain definite persons? 82. but an eternal inheritance. salvation possible. but that I hold is in the sense of our divines in the Synod of Dort. What What What the first point taught in Section the second point there taught? the tldrd point there taught? viii. What do they teach of the certainty for whom it was originally designed ? application to Note. To what ? is is subject. 152).218 71. Prove that both the humanity and the divinity of Christ all are necessarily exercised in phetical. Show that Christ did not die to save. What Son all in the act of redemption? of its 84. who represented the most moderate Calvinism of the Assembly. Show that Christ died with the intention of saving certain definite persons. Prove that the satisfaction of Christ avails for those who died before his advent. that Christ did pay a price for all "Minutes of West.. 79. — Mr." . 75. What adaptabilitjr do our Standards teach as to the sufficiency. priestly 77. but actuallj'^ to 74. 76. conditional intention for the reprobate. CONFESSION OF FAITH. said (see Mitchell's entertained by any members "I am far from universal redemption in the Arminian sense. How is tliis stated in the Articles of the Churcli of Eng- land and in the Catechism of the Council of Trent? 72. Calamy. in case they do believe — that all men should be salvibilcs noii obstante lapsu Adami. p. his mediatorial functions —pro- and kingly. absolute for the elect.

xxs. to 1 good or i. This Section teaches the great fundamental truth of consciousness and revelation. evil. nor by any absolute ne- cessity of nature determined. —God hath endued the it is will of man with that natural liberty that neither forced.CHAPTER Section I. James 14. OF FREE WILL. under the same great law of necessity which governs the move1st. that man. Dent. 19. 12. irrespective of all the judgments of the understanding and the entire state of and the affections of the heart the man's soul at the time. desires at the time. is endowed in with an inalienable faculty of self-determina- tion. which regards the will in man. all material agents.^ Matt. or his bare faculty of volition. 219 . which renders moral gov- ernment possible. the })ower of acting or not acting. xvii. IX. three generically different views : upon That which regards the actions of men as caused by outward circumstances and occasions. upon the whole There are only this subject pos- view of the sible case. directly ments of 2d. affected That by the Arminians and others. in virtue of his creation. and of acting the way which the man himself. as possessing a mysterious capacity of self-determination.

220 3d. ideas. including all its instincts. That the second view. if they please. We are all conscious of possessing the power of determining our own action or of all external influences.) 'personal agents control circumstances. upon the whole. pleases. which supposes that a man possesses the . soul. We see that all material substances act only as they are acted upon. all outward circumstances remainino. That wliicli is taught in this Section — namely. afiections and tendencies. Circumand rela- stances. is The same proved by the fact that man is held responsible alike by his own conscience and by God for his own action. This evidently could not be the case if his action Avas caused by circumstances. unchancred. and that the third view. on the other hand. like ourselves. which supposes that a man possesses the power to choose without respect to his judgments or inclinations. That the first-stated view is not true is proved — (1. and in the same conditions invariably act in the same way. rate choice any In every case of delibe- we are conscious that we might have chosen to the opposite if we had wished do so. and that. that the human . they act very variously under the same circumstances. while (2. and not freely by the man himself. we see that our fellow-men. orig- But. without exception.) From to the universal consciousness of men with respect their own action. possess. has the power of self-decision that it is. including the tions. is not true. judgments. the soul decides in every case as. CONFESSION OF FAITH. and observation of the action of irrespective of other men. the power of inating action. control the sum total of conditions action of all material agents.

inalienable faculty of choosing as 221 upon the whole he proved judges right or des'rable. however free the will be. and such exercise of volitional power would be absolutely fortuitous. such action could neither be fore- seen nor controlled by God. All men judge mind that the rational and moral cha- racter of any act results from the purpose or desire. in respect to that act. (1. his act in that case would obviously be neither rational nor moral. Christ taught. which prompted the If the his man wills in any given case in opposition to all judgments and to all his inclinations of every kind. It would sustain no certain relation to the to character of the agent.) would be a most and immoral power of pitiful slave to a willing. A But man freely chooses what he wants is choose. in opposition . the act.) free nor responsible.) is true.) whole intellectual and emotional state at It is plain that if the human all will decided in any given case in opposition to the views of the reason and all the desires of the heart. his desire in the premises mined by the time. If the human soul had the power to act thus irre- spective of its entire interior intellectual and emotional condition at the time. all the external conditions being we always feel that our choice feelings was determined and tendencies to by the sum-total of our views.FREE WILL. nor influenced by men. would be neither (4. internal state of or heart. the same. are From the consideration that while scious in every deliberate act of choice that we are conwe rai^ht have chosen otherwise. He his would not choose freely if he chose in any deter- other way. at the time. the 7nan might mere irrational (3. (2. and the man himself.

' and by his grace alone enables him freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good f yet so as that. vii. ii. ii. . 23.—'' John Eph. 7. 6. 2-5 1 Cor.^° Section V. human action is determined by the character is it of the agent as certainly as the nature of the fruit determined by the nature of the tree from which springs . v. 29 .* so as a natural man. ii. 13. i. 18. upon Ihe whole. of glory only. 19. but doth also will that which is evil. These Sections briefly state and contrast the various conditions whicih cluiracterize the free agency of man in his four different estates of innocency. had freedom and power to will and to do that which is good and well-pleasing to God. . 4 . 23. being altogether averse from that good. so that he might fall from it.-5 Rom.-8 Col. Col. hath wholly lost. 65 Ecclcs. Rom. xii. by his own strength. free to 2 do good alone Gen. ])c'riiianent moral tendency and habit of the heart of the agent. Matt.— "> Gal. iii. vii. . vi. 12. by reason of his remaining corruption. vii. 26.'^ but j^et mutably. to convert himself.222 this.® is not able. by his fall and state of sin. ii. 6 viii. 18. iv. 3-5.' Section III." .-9 Phil. grace and glory. and that the only way is to change the character character or of the action to change the 33-35. 16-20. he prefers to do. all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation . 14 Tit. 44.—" Eph.* and dead in sin. vi. Rom. 1 John iii. and in all cases choosiMg or refusing as.—* Kom. or to prepare himself thereunto. he freeth him from his natural bondage under sin.-6 Eph.^When God converts a sinner and translates him into the state of grace.'' — Section IV. ii. 13. 1. 13. The will of man is made perfectly and immutably — . . 10. he doth not perfectly nor only will that which is good. 2. that CONFESSION OF FAITH. 17 iii.—' Gen. iii. 17. 15.— Man. Man. Jude 24. 21. 34. 36. 5. 5. xii. hereditary sin. 16. in his state of innocency. In all these estates man is unchange- ably a free. in the state i. 13 John viii. ii. responsible agent. v. 22. Section II. John xv. Heb.

either conformable or contrary to them. capable of obedience. because they are the tendencies and qualities of his oion nature. and by and due subordina- the inordinate excitement of the propensions of his animal nature. He is responsible for these. upon the whole view of the case presented by his understanding at the time. because they are determined by the nature to be and permanent characteristics of his own soul. volitions may be both rational and and yet his desires are not necessarily either rational or righteous. If these are immoral. in order that his desires and consequent righteous . If these are holy.FREE WILL. according to the permanent habitual disposition or moral character of the soul 1st.) That he always wills that which. but they are light of reason formed under the and conscience. man's volition is 223 as his desires are in the given case. (2. we mean . yet with a chai'acter as yet unconfirmed. he and his actions are immoral. He is responsible for his desires. yet liable to be seduced by external temptation. (3. such as in their proper degree tion are innocent. and a conscience to distinguish be- tween the right and the wrong. and does not only move as he is moved upon from without. Adam in his estate of innocency was a free agent created with holy affections and moral tendencies. When we say that man is a free agent. Of this state of a holy yet fallible . itself. he and his actions are holy. His desires in any given case are as they are determined by the general and permanent tastes. tendencies and habitudes of his character.) That man is furnished with a reason to distinguish between the true and the false. (1) is that he has the power of originating action that he self-moved. he desires to will.

without the grace of God by Christ preveilting us. our Standards teach a free agent. ch. L. he is "utterly indisposed. 2d.." " All Synod of Dort. § 3 . Art." or even '' to 3. and ch. iii. fall That his soul by reason of the his being morally cor- rupted and spiritually dead. xvi.224 nature CONFESSION OF FAITH. is taught in Protestant Confes- Lutheran and Reformed. and wholly inclined to evil" (Conf. we have no experience. Art. Cat. and working with us when we have a good will. ch. dead in and the slaves of and without the grace of the . Wherefore we have no power to do good works pleasing and acceptable to God. 10: "The condition of man after the fall of Adam is such that he cannot turn and prepare himself by his own natural strength and good works to faith and calling upon God. good.) the whole he desires to will. § 4. prepare himself thereunto. Articles of : indisposed to sins all saving good. and consequently very imperfect comprehension. Faith. his understanding being spiritually blind and affections perverted. evil." Conf. § The same view sions. disabled and made . Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. prepense to sin. chap." so that he " is uot able " hath wholly lost of his own strength to convert himself. 3 men are conceived in sin.. and born children of wrath.. that we may have a good will. opposite to all vi. Q. (1) that As to man's man is still present estate. Faith. 25) and hence he all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation. and able to will as upon (2.) which spring out of his relations to his fellow-men. ability to That he has likewise discharge many of the natural obligations (3. all the ix.

perfect. or in the least part. to i-ec<il spiritual life within himself. begin. 570. p. believe. embrace. llase's Collection (Lutheran): "Therefore we believe that as it is impossible for a dead body to revive itself.FREE WILL. operate or co-operate anything in things divine and spiritual but man is so far dead and corrupt since the in respect to gocKl that in the nature of man fall. 653: " We believe that neither the intellect. A man always wills as upon the whole he pleases. of Concord. regenerating 225 nor Holy Spirit tlicy are neither willing able to retain to God. We is affirm that liberty is. but he can16 . perform. spiritually dead by reason of sin. or to dispose Hiemselves to the correction of itJ' Form. or to coiunuuiicate animal life to itself. there is not even a scintilla of sj)iritual strength remaining whereby he can prepare himself for the grace of God. to correct their depraved natuie. or by a bare exercise of volition to make oneself desire and love that which one does not s])ontaneously desire or love. In this sense man is as free now as before the fall." By liberty we mean the inalienable prerogative of the human soul of exercising volition as it pleases." lb. or to operate or to co-operate anything for own conversion. and that ability in this sense not. and before re- generation. will. p. an element of the constitution of the soul. or to confer or to act. By ability we mean the capacity either to will in opposition to the his desires and affections of the soul at the time. heart nor will of the unregenerate able of its man is own natural strength either to understand. in the same degree is it inij)ossible for a man. able in whole or in half. to ap])ly or accommodate himself to that grace. or apprehend that grace or is when offered.

nor prepare himself by himself for grace. to It is declared be a state of "blindness" and " darkness " and of . good that arc accustomed to do evil.226 CONFESSION OF FAITn. . except the Father who No man can come unto me except it be given him of my Father. because not accidental.) simply the evil moral disposition of the soul. "No man hath sent can come unto me .) It is man possesses since the fall as much to in the as before all the constitutional faculties requisite its moral agency. direct or indirect. 65. . The moral condition of the heart determines the act of the will. Man has no power. hecaiise (2. and so can neither do his duty without grace. 16. 44. and his inability has ground It is solely wrong moral it is state of those faculties. 14. (2. xiii." Jer. to fulfil the moral law. is. that since the fall. ix." John vi. Scriptures say of man's state by nature. " Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots? then may ye also do 23. It is natural. not will himself to please differently from wl at he does please.) It is is naturally propagated not natural in the sense of beas originally longing to the nature of man formed by God. as that nature (4. 1 Cor. Eom. but innate and inheres in the universal and radical moral state of our souls by nature. faculties as originally That this doctiine is true is proved (1) from direct declarations of Scripture. or to accept Christ. This inability is (1) absolute.) From what me draw him. or or as resulting from any constitutional development of our natural moral given by God. or to change his nature so as to increase his power. purely moral. (3. ii. deficiency. but the act of the will cannot change the moral condition of the heart.

227 The un"spiritual death. and which remains immovable (6." 23. (5. being subsequently nourished and directed by the indwelling Spirit. ii.) From the experience of every true Christian. upon the whole he desires to will." Eph. and enables spiritually iiim prevailingly to will freely that which is . vi. regenprate arc the " servants of sin " and " subject to Satan. which. is certain that no one has ever exercised 3d.) From what the Scriptures say of the nature and the universal and absolute necessity of regeneration : " Except a man be born again he cannot enter the king- It is called "a new of heaven." liom. " " birth" a new creation/' a begetting anew/' " a giving dom a new hearth the subject. Matt. xxii. 3. but the sinful deadness of heart and aversion to divine things which is the root of actual transin spite of all gression. man has ever naturally possessed it ability to perform his spiritual duties. it. All Christian duties are declared to be the fruits of the Spirit. 26. 22. v. is The great burden of all true conviction not chiefly the sins committed. In It is this work God it i. 33-35 (3. is the agent. iv. willing always as (2. 18. From the consciousness of every convinced sinner. 2 Tim. In the act of regeneration the Holy Spirit has im})lantcd a in new spiritual principle. frees the man from his natural bondage under sin. v.FREE WILL. As to the estate into which the regenerate are introduced by grace. 13. our Standards affirm a — (1. Col. 6. From If any the universal experience of the hu- man race.) free agent. habit or tendency the affections of the soul. (4. 18-20.) The regenerated Christian remains. man is so great that requires the " mighty power of God. ii. Gal.) Eph. 20.) we do." John iii. as before.

4. but that all the remains of their old corrupt moral tendencies being extirpated for ever. but doth also will that will be discussed evil. fixed in Regenerate men have two opposite moral tendencies are cast contesting for empire in their hearts. fied Glori- men are holy and stable. 6. As to the estate of glorified men in heaven. as before. 1.£28 go(/d. What What is is the second view stated alove? the tine view? first Prove that the stated view is not true. free agents. they remain for ever perfectly free ness. CONFESSION OF FAITH. yet the tendency graciously implanted gradually in the end perfectly prevails. there remains a conflict of tendencies. Confession teaches that they continue. so that the Christian does not perfectly nor only will that which M'hich is is good. Tn wliat sense and under what huiitations are we conscious of the power of contrary choice? . and immutably disposed was holy and unstable. and there- fore responsible. These points xiii. are unholy and stable.st Section? view as to the nature of human agency is first statcil above? 3. All are free. that is. and 4th. They about between them. to perfect holi- Adam Unregenerate men unholiness. 2. under our Chapters x. because of the lingering remains of liis old corrupt moral habit of soul. and the gracious dispositions implanted in regeneration being perfected. and the whole man being brought to the measure of the stature of perfect manhood in the likeness of Christ's glorified humanity. QUESTIONS. And yet. 5. What What is taught in the fir.

in the Articles of the Synod of Dort. Prove this doctrine Do the same from from the direct statements of Scripture. What do freedom since the 16. The same from what Scripture teaches of the nature and the necessity of regeneration 25. What would be the inevitable results if the volitions of men were decided irrespectively of all their mental and emotional states at the time? 10. What What elements mast meet together to constitute a man a free agent? 14. 229 Does consciousness teach that the will of man or the man How does this bear upon the is free when he acts? question in hand? himself 8. affirmed and which denied of man in his present 20. what Scripture teaches of man's estate by nature.FREE WILL. 26. 24. the experience of every convor:ed man. Whence do volitions derive their rational and moral cha- racter ? 9. 7. third. of Concord ? 18. 12. The same from The same from the consciousness of every convicted sinner. and in what sense is it not natural ? 22. were the peculiar characteristics of Adam's free our standards teach as to the state of man's moral fall ? agency ? 15. 23. fourth and fifth Sections teach? 11. . Why is this inability said to be "absolute?" Why is it said to be " moral?" In what sense is it natural. In what words and passages is the doctrine of our Stand- ards stated? 17. What is is the distinction between "liberty" and "ability?" and which state ? 19. What doctrine is taught in the Thirty-nine Articles of the in Church of England. 21. When is a man a free agent? his Why is a man responsible for his volitions? Why for desu-es? Why for the permanent moral state of his soul ? 13. and the Lutheran Form. What do the second.

What do our Standards teach of the characteristics of is that moral freedom into which the believer regeneration ? 29. 28. CONFESSION OF FAITH.230 27. introduced by What freedom into which the do they teach of the characteristics of that moral glorified man is introduced after death? . The same from the universal experience of mankind.

— " John men 4. Eph. ii. ' Eph. 10. 25. to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ . 17. i. Deut. 1-5. — . Ezek. 2 Cor.'' out of that which they are by nature.^ renewing their wills.—« i. 2 Tim. vi. and those X.—* Acts xxvi. those whom God life. —All only. 7. not from anything at foreseen in man .-8 Cant. xsxvi. Ps. i. ex. 37. 16-lS. 3. John vi. 12. xi. viii." » this call. 7. 14. Eph. 18. 2 Thoss.CHAPTER Section I. ii. 2. 45.^ and effectually drawing them to Jesus time. being effectual call is of all made free willing by his grace. 9 Tit. 13. OF EFFECTUAL CALLING. and giving unto them an heart of flesh . ix. xxxvi. in his appointed hath i^redestinatcd unto and accei)ted word and Spirit. viii. 6. until. 8. 27. ii. 9. xi. i. iii.-6 Ezek. Rom. ii. 5. 13. being quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit.'' yet so as they come most freely. ii. Eph. 14. There all is an outward call of God's word extended to is to wliom the gospel preached. iii. is con- eidered under the fourth Section of first The and second Sections treat of tlie internal effectual 231 . 6. 18. i. Phil. Eph. 6. Ezek. ii. . and by his almighty power determining them to that which is gpod. Eph. 19. xxxvi. 27. 4. 10. i."7.—» 2 Tim. 26.*" he is thereby enabled to answer and to embrace the grace offered and conveyed in it. 9. he is pleased. 30. 10. 3. 1 Cor. 11. John v. 4. Rom. ii. which this chapter. 19. Rom.' who altogether passive therein. John vi. vi. 11.* taking away their heart of stone.' enlightening their minds spiritually and savingly to understand the things of God .-3 Rom.—This God's and special is grace alone. XXX. 5. Section II.—1« 1 Cor. effectually to calV by his state of sin and death in Christ .— 5 Ezek. viii. 44. Rom.

2d. it is and subsean quently more or with grace. it is As to the nature of taught that exercise of the almighty and effectual Holy Ghost in a acting immediately power of the upon the soul of the subject. of God's Spirit which effects regeneration and which elect. sanctifying his affections. As to the effect of it. yet manner perfectly congruous to his nature. nevertheless. it distinct is iScj from the external of the Word. That there is such an internal call call of the Spirit. it is As to the agent of it (a) That the sole agent of Holy Ghost. are proved (1) from what the ipturea teach concerning man's state by nature as a . that ihey embrace all the and oidy the the 3d. it is taught that in it works moral a radical and j^ermanent change the entire nature of the subject. spiritually enlightening his mind. renewing his will and giving a new 1st. determining him and effectually drawing. while they have freely resisted ences of the all those common influ- Holy Ghost which they have experienced whereby they are regenewrought before regeneration. experienced only by the affirmed Of this internal call it is 1st. who uses (6) the revealed truth of (c) — the gospel as his instrument. so that he freely. in consequence of the change in them 4th. elect As to the subjects of elect. are entirely passive with respect to that special act of the Spirit rated. being made willing. in regeneration.232 call is CONFESSION OF FAITH. and that it is necessary to salvation. direction to his action. and that necessary to salvation. That there is such an internal call. comes most 5th. that the subjects of it. it. they obey the' call less perfectly co-operate it.

17. 21. (3.) All that is good in man author. again he cannot see the kingdom of God. ii. " viii. upon the understanding and Eph. 15. is Whatever is the necessary condition of regeneration dition the necessary con- of salvation. and that of the i. he also justified. 19. are called. 1 Thess.) The working is of the Spirit upon the hearts of the regenerated ful represented as far more direct. Whom he called. it is the subjects of the other said. is referred to ii. xiii. Phil. truth iii. 14. Of the subjects of the one it is said. 2 Tim. Eph. 24. Prov. and John vi. All these arguments conspire to prove that this spiritual influence is essential to salvation. Actsxvi. insensibility all absolute inability with respect to action spiritually ix. them 24. is new birth. but few are chosen. Word is Cor." Rom. Eph. efficient than the mere moral influence of the affections.) The Scriptures explicitly distinguish between the two calls." " a new creation. i. "Many Of i. (7. 6 . 1 The Scriptures distinguish bestween the Spirit's influence iii. Heb. 14.EFFECTUAL CALLING." Matt. 45. God as its 8. iv. 45. Comp. power- and 7. (6. It 3.) shown under Chap. litate 233 and of spiritual death. § 3. alone. John iii. ii.) The result effected in regeneration is different from an effect proper to the simple truth. i. "a Eph." John 3. 30.) A spiritual influence declared to be necessary to dispose and enable men to receive the truth. because " except a man be born iii." etc. ii.. . xxii. 25. blindness. (4. 6. as has been sufficiently (2. John vi. 13. 7 . (5. 5. good. 14.

and [b) Chapter iii. § 6. not according to our works. proved — (1. That this spiritual call is embraces all the elect. that God has from eternity definitely and unchangeably determined who tlie shall be saved . (a) Chapter iii. 7. 14. while all sinners are active in resisting the common influences of grace before regeneration. to us in Christ Jesus before the world i. grace. elect and faithful. declare that the "calling" based upon the "election. and that not to be saved. 13. and only the elect.) From what has been already proved. 5.234 2d. viii. be applied to all it is obvious that it it must be applied to who are to any who are be saved. heaven are tures.) The same is proved from the fact that the Scriptures repre- sent the "called" as the "elect" and the "elect" as the "called. 3d. having "appointed the eternal all elect unto glory." 2 Tim. cannot (2. called. xi. 9 .. may all be proved under the following distinct heads: (1. §§ 3. which was given began. 4. called "Who hath saved us and us M'ith an holy calling. and that. so hath he. fore- ordained the means thereunto." Rom. 2 Thess.) There are certain influences of the Spirit in tJie . but according to his own purpose and ii." "Those with Christ in (3. Eom. that God." 2 Tim. by and most free purpose of his will.." Effectual calling being the actual saving of a soul from the death of sin by the mighty power of God. that he uses Gospel truth as his instrument. That the sole agent in this eifectual calling is the Holy Ghost. xix. nevertheless every new-created soul is passive with respect to that divine act of the Spirit Holy whereby he is regenerated. 28. and all believers in co-operating with sanctifying grace af\cr regeneration.) The Scripis moreover. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 30.

EFFECTUAL CALLING. ])i'escut life 235 which extend in the to all men in a greater or less liegree. acts saw that the voluntary determined by and derive tions tions of the Under Chapter ix. according tc . which he for the time resisted.) Gen. the heart and j)rinciple the conscience. is and lience the action is evil. (6. convincing him of sin. the natural which are exerted way of heightening moral eifect of the truth upon the understanding. The infusion of fuch a disposition must therefore precede any act of Effectual calling. but only and permanent an in- crease of the natural emotions of the heart in view of sin. many men who are never truly converted at (2. These influences. They involve no change of disposition. their character and desires which prompt them and these and desires derive their character from the permanent moral state of the soul in which they arise. In the uuregenerate this permanent moral state and disposition jf the soul is evil. of course. 29. by the unregenerated. Action positively holy impossible except as the conse- quence of a positively holy disposition. The fact that such is resistible (a) in- fluences are experienced fact that the Scriptures by men proved from the con- affirm that they ar^ resisted. of duty and of self-interest. We observe the same to be true of all.) The distinction between regeneration and conver- sion is obvious and necessary. 3 . and are habitually resisted. Heb. we human soul are from the affcoaifec. vi. may be resisted. x. which tend to restrain or to persuade the soul. Every Christian serious is scious that anterior to his conversion he was the subject of influences impressing him with thoughts. tending to draw him to the obedience of Christ. true spiritual obedience.

" See also Ezek. unwillinoo shown above. causes the soul to become regenerate by implanting a new governitself. 23. That." "a "a quickening. is the usage of our Standards. Hcb. begetting. the new-born soul at once begins and ever continues more or less perfectly to co-operate Avith sanctifying grace. From what the Scriptures say as call it to the nature of the change.) From the nature of the case. Eph.) man while unwilling. 19: li. The makino. viii. O an man willinsj o cannot be co-operated with by the (6..) to man's absolute inability with respect to spiritual things. are one and same time "fruits of the Spirit" and free actions of men. all at Faith." " We 10.236 CONFESSION OF FAITH. From what was proved under Chapter ix. . the act of the is Holy Spirit Regeneration in the effect procalling." "We Ps." "a new creation. duced by the Holy Spirit effectual Thp Holy Spirit. the good Avorks. begetteth." "God xi. the Spirit quickeneth . as (c. are God's workmanshii). iv. § 3. love. efFc(ting regeneration. 10. in the act of effectual calling." They "a new birth. is self-evident. immediately acts under the guidance of this new principle in turning from sin It is unto God through Christ. is is That God regeneration as — (a. evident that the imis plantation of the gracious principle exercise of that principle. different from the This and that the making a man first willing is is different from his acting willingly. We are continually . after re- generation. are born again. dependent upon the continued assistance of the sole agent in the act which effects plain the Holy Ghost. repentance. ing principle or habit of spiritual affection and action The soul in conversion. the act of God solely the second is the consequent act of man.

Because the Scriptures assert that truth. 19. iii. that ences. to 18." called in Scripture etc. 18. are begotten by the truth. Eph. "a drawvi. Phil. we . wliich 237 we are subject to divine influ- we are either resisting or obeying. "a teaching. 45. faith the very thing done in us . That this divine influence is perfectly is congruous to it our nature plain — (1. Eph. i. That it is effectual is also asserted. and which we are free to resist or obey as we through grace we do prevailingly please to obey. CALLING.) By and the affections perverted and the will enslaved by nature the mind darkened . moreover. iv. Eph. and yet perfectly conp-ruous to the rational and voluntary nature of man. (3. ii.) entirely wanting. while That the Holy Spirit uses the ''truth" as his is instrument in effectual calling never acts in this way is plain {a. does directly to accomplish his own is changeless i)urposes must be cer- tainly efficacious and powerful. conscious. in executing his self-con- What God i. John xvii. That this divine action is in its nature at once omnipotent and certainly efficacious.) please. in It is not conceivable either that God is un- able or indisposed to control the actions of his creatures a manner perfectly consistent with their nature. sanctifiod by the grow by it.) From the fact that is the his influence of an all-wise Creator upon the work of iwn hand. influence he exerts is (2. (3." "an enlightening. make us willing.) Because he where the knowledge of the truth (6. follows certainly from the fact that all-wise sistent it is the act of the and all-powerful God and immutable decrees.EFFECTUAL. 16. etc. Besides. 20. 7. 13. to work and that is indubitably connected with salvation. 19 James i. 18.) The ing." John is 44. 4th.

affections evident from the essential unity of the It wills. 4." 2 Cor. 17. 13. ex. ture to let in the light. 3. is it radical is proved from the consists in the implantation life of a it new governing principle of is a " new birth. and (6) that. (3. Cor. all functions must be perverted. 5th. Piiil.) to our inherent and dispositions. Ps.238 sin. 2 Cor. fact that." a " new — from the fact that creation. affects is man will — — intellect. feels is and If the permanent moral state of the soul its corrupt. CONFESSION OF FAITH. John xvi. 3. it on the Perseverance of the Saints. ii. on the other hand." wrought by the mighty power of God in execution of his eternal it is purpose of salvation. the entire (1) That and soul. will That Chapter this change is permanent be shown under xvii. nor to a free will to deliver from is bondage. and that the natural man cannot receive the things which are spiritually dis1 cerned. nor can love- we is perceive intellectually the loveliness of that which tastes wholly uncongenial (2.. is The Scriptures expressly aifirm that sin essentially deceiving.' Every regenerated man is conscious (a) that no constraint has been laid upon the spontaneous movement of his faculties. We its can have no desire for an object unless we perceive liness. iv. is the one indivisible "I" which thinks. the Si)irit of the Lord is. there liberty. and that as necessary for the most moral and amiable as for the morally abandoned.) . that innate de- pravity involves moral blindness. " Where iii. Regeneration restores these faculties to their prope It cannot be inconsistent with a rational nait condition. ii 1. as That this change shown above. none of his faculties ever acted so freely and consistently with the law of their nature before.

is revealed only as concerns those capable of understanding and ])rofiting by the revelation. 1 Cor. new heart" interior equivalent to is effect regeneration.' such phrases as " counsels of the heart. iv. iv. 5 " imaginations of the heart. 20. 5. Acts ii.EFFECTUAL CALLING. far as it who The will of God. 12. and the Observe phrase "heart" chS." 1 Cor. 7 . v.—1* 1 John 12 Acts iv. aflPections. he can new-cieate believers in righteousness and true holiness by tht use of means which a large part . 39.racteristically used for the entire man — intellect. are the subjects of a spiritual illumination of the under- standing as well as renewal of the 3 ." "Luke viii. xvii. dying in inFanc}'.—" John 8. are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit. 12. affections and will. If infants and others not capable of being called by the Gospel are to be saved. 38.) iv." Luke i. they must be regenerated and and sanctified immediately by could create God without the use of means. 16. ii. if If God Adam holy witliout means. 1 2. V. . Rom 9. John . Section III. 2 Cor. The outward call of God's word and all the " means re- of grace" provided in the present dispensation of course presuppose intelligence upon the part of those ceive them. 1 John v. 6 Eph. 13 (4. iii. of being outwardly called by the ministry of xviii. " thoughts and intents of the heart.^^ So also are all other elect persons. 51 . is 18 1 John In the Bible the phrase " to give a . i. also. 12. Tlic Scriptures expressly affirm that all the 239 "new born" John . iv.^'* who worketh when and where and how he pleascth. His purposes with respect either to persons or classes not thus addressed are not explicitly revealed. iii. 3." Heb. — who are incapable the Word. Elect infants.

F. to indulg*^ a highly is probable lioj)e is that such the fact. The evil is rectified. must have absolute ground in the wverclgn election^ of God. and tion (6) . but we are many reasons.iy hv called by the ministry of the word. therefore. without the sug- gestion of a positive opinion upon one side or the other.^enibly. are .240 of CONFESSION OF FAITH. he can certainly men make infants and others regenerate without means. althouo:h that all infants are this we have good reason to believe elected. Section IV. the nat- ural depravity of infants lies before moral action in the Holy Ghost." Dr. The Confession adheres in It is place accurately to the facts revealed. therefore. althonirli tlioy iii. but simply to point out the facts («) that all infants are born under righteous condemnation. is — "predestination. A. at that stage. is The phrase pose. :59!). It is "elect infants" precise fit for its pur- not intended to suggest that there are any infants not elect. for all infants are elect. Others not clcctod. pp. The Confession which affirms Avhat certainly revealed. As. cer- tainly revealed that none. just as true. either adult or infant. "The Wct^t. use without profit. that no infant has any claim in itself to salva(c) and hence the salvation of each infant.'* and may have some eounnon ope* The scriptural word confirmed and historically Mitchell. ])reits cisely as the salvation of every adult. This it would be just as true if all adults were elected as is now that only some adults are elected. SilS. and leaves that revelation has not decided to remain. It is. all salvation for the human race is pure grace. paved except on the ground of a sovereign election that It is is. not positively revealed that left. . judicial deprivation of the Indeed." See this interpretation illiislriUcd. by the gracious and restora- tion of the soul to its moral relation to the Spirit of God.

64-66. 20. That the non-elect if tliey will certainly fail of salva- tion. Q. their radical aversion to God is never overcome by effectual calling. xvi. are bcrn under condemnation. because. Cat.EFFECTUAL CALLING. although they may be persuaded by some of the common It has influences of the Holy Ghost. John xiv. l2. 3. be . Gal.— 18 Acts iv.—" John 24. he would of course need no . 1 xvii. however little knowledge might tion. xxii. 16 "All have sinned and come . If any person perfectly conformed truth to the amount of spiritual be.salva- But all men. ii. as we have seen. rations of the Spirit. and " much less can men not professing be saved in any other way whatsoever. 12. vii. and begin to act as moral agents with natures already corrupt. is very pernicious. 60. and to be detested. Cor.se a free salvation is not to made available them accept Christ. Matt. 6. 2d. cii)les is least avail to promote the evident from the essential prin- of the gospel. hence the truth of this proposition follows. viii. 6-8. teaches 1st. i. vi. Heb.'^ and to may. John iv. taken in connection with tlie parallel passage in L. 22. 14. That the diligent profession and honest practice of neither natural religion nor of any other religion than pure Christianity can in the salvation of the sold. 4. 1 all already been proved under §§ effectual and 2 that the grace of the elect and only to calling extends to the elect. not becan.'® yet they never truly 241 therefore cannot be saved the Christian religion come unto Christ. 22. 5. 22.— 16 Matt. 21. they ever so diligent to fraiue their Hves according to the light of nature and the law of that religion they do assert and maintain that they i)rofcss. and tht-y all refuse to accept him. siii. Eph.. but because they never accept Clirist. « vi. known to him in every that thought and act from birth upward. This Section.— 19 2 John 9-11.

order is. the gospel and that they should must be preached unto them. Christ that dead in vain. are evidently strangers to God. 14- xiv. Acts x. 3 iv. in the case of sane adult persons a 3d. by John the Word . after eighteen hundred years. knowledge is of Christ and a voluntary acceptance of him in order to a personal intei'est in his salvation essential is proved call — (1. for if a law. conformity to which could have given is life. as custodians of the gospel. 27 . should be diligent in disseminating it as the appointed means of saving nanted. Thus the established Salvation cometh by faith. and consequently a is personal interest in the redemption of Christ abso- lutely necessary to salvation. faith cometh by hearing. is Whatever lies beyond this cii'cle of sanctified means unrevealed. . and going down to death in an unbaved condition.242 CONFESSION OF FAITH. uiipromised. . order to believe hear. could have been given. of God.) God has certainly revealed no purpose to save any except those who. but in order to call in upon him they must believe. atonement is absolutely necessary. ii. hearing the gospel. (2. vir- tually to deny Christ. and . and he requires that his people.) Paul argues this point explicitly: If men upon the Lord they they must hear shall be saved. 12. uncove- The heathen in mass. 6 xvii. with no single definite and unquestionable exception on record. The presumed possibility of being saved without a knowledge of Christ remains. and hearing 17 . short of the glory of God.) souls. Matt." Hence it follows tliat ai. To admit is men may be That saved irrespectively of Christ. obey. 21. iii. 21. xl. Rom. Gal. (3. a possibility illustrated by no example.

is the Holy Ghost? affirmed here as to the suhjecfs of it? affirmed as to the agent of it? is is is affirmed as to the effect of it? affirmed as to the nature of it? it 8. 21. 5. common resistible influences men in general extend? influences of the 13. and in which necessarily is he active? 14. Prove that the Holy Spirit uses " the truth " as his in in- strument 18. 1. Show that regeneration must precede con- version. . is in regeneration? spiritual influence exerted in regeneration Prove that the Prove that every case certainly efficacious. What two "calls" are spoken of in the Scriptures? Which "call" is treated of in the first and second Sections? What What What What What is the7?ys< proposition here affirmed on the subject call bj' of the internal 4. Prove that there are certain "common" and "resistible" Holy Spirit experienced by all men. How may be proved that there is such an internal spirit- ual call ? 9. 15. How far do the of the of the Holy Ghost upon the hearts of 12. 243 QUESTIONS. God Prove that with respect to the act of God which regenealone is the agent. exerted in a manner perfectly consistent with the nature of 20. 3. 2. Show that this change involves the whole man intellect and will as well as the affections. Prove that instantly upon his regeneration the new-born soul begins to co-operate with the influences of the Spirit. it is 19. Show that effects a " radical" moral change in the believer. and that the subject is passive. How may it Prove that be proved that this it call is essential to salvation? 10. embraces effects all the elect and only the elect. State the distinction between regeneration and conversion and in which is the believer passive. 6. 11.EFFECTUAL CALLING. rates 16. 17. 7. man it as a free agent.

28. What is What is What is the Jirst proposition taught in the fourth Section? the second proposition taught there? the third proposition there taught? non-elect fail 29. the " outward 23. call"' and tlie To whom and in means of grace are addressed whose behalf are the revelations of God's will in the Scriptures made? 24. W^hy do the of salvation ? Prove that they will infallibly do so. 31. Show that infants and others incapable of receiving the call are regenerated by God without the use of the means which are necessary in the case of intelligent adults. What is presupposed upon the part of all to whom . . Prove that the honest and diligent profession of natural religion or of any other than the Christian religion cannot avail to save men.244 22. 25. 32. Explain and justify the use of the phrase " elect infants" outward in the third Section. CONFESSION OP FAITH. 26. 30. 27. Prove that in the case of all intelligent adults a knowledge and voluntary acceptance of Christ is essential to salvation.

19. 6.* II. xxiii. 25. These 1st.* > Rom. Rom. Gal. 1. Phil. 7 . 9. 2d. . v. 2S v. 22. iii. to them as their . 1 Cor. all other saving graces. 21 .-2 Rom. iv. 44. Rom. OF JUSTIFICATION. I. 24. 12. iii._s Acts X.^ XI. 17_19. Acts ii. 31. 5. 30.' they receiving and resting on him and hia righteousness by faith it is : which faith they liave not of themselves the gift of God. 27. V. but by imputing the obedience and satisfaction of Christ unto them.CHAPTER Seciion justifieth . i. —Tliose whom God effectually call eth he also freely not by infusing righteousness into them. and is no dead but worketh by love. v. This justification as Judge. viii. . but ever accompanied with faith. is a purely judicial act of all God whereby he pardons the sins of a believer. 28.* his righteousness. Rom. 16. the alone instrument of justification is yet is not alone in the person justified. ii. doning their sins and by accounting and accepting their persons as righteous : but for Christ's sake alone righteousness not by imputing faith itself. iii. Tit.—* John i. ii. . Gal.^. or any other evangelical obedience. is thus receiving and resting on Christ and . 7. " ' '''"'. or done by them. iii. 39 Eph. 8. i. Section it — Faith. 5-8. 24.—5 James 17. and accounts.s teach the followina: propositions: All those and only those whom God has cfibctu- ally called he also freely just i lies. the act of believing. accepts and treats hTTH'£Bprp^i:son righteous in the eye of the divine^lavY. 26. 22. . '/^\ \ ^ cJ . Eph. . but by parnot for anything wrought in them. 6. Jer. 7. 2 Cor..xiii. 3S. iii. Section. 30.

Jesus Christ. That this faith is itself a gracious gift of God.) From the express declarations of Scu-ipture " Whom he did predestinate. this justification as a purely all judicial act of God Judge. them he also justified. Tliat the essential and sole condition upon which this righteousness of Christ is imputed to the believer is. is the fact that only those who truly believe are justified. this justifying act proceeds That upon the im- putation or crediting to the believer by God of tiie righteousness of his great Kepresentative and Surety. neither love nor hope nor obedience." effectual (2. whereby he ])ardons the sins of a believer. them he also called and : : — whom fact he called. and are both essential steps in the execution by God of his and infallibly efficacious decree of election. 5th. when genuine. 4th. (hat he exercises faith in or on Christ as his righteousness. sustains the same relation to justification that faith does as its essential condition or instrument. accompanied with all other Chris- tian graces. own immutable (3. • CONFESSION OF FAITH. and accounts. all of 1st. As to its nature. That God justifies all those and only those whom he has effectually called or regenerated by his grace is proved (1.) From are the that calling and justification both necessary in order to salvation. which have their root in faith.) Justification is a judicial act of God. 6th. : This includes two subordinate propositions (1. That no other grace.246 3d. and only those who are regenerate can truly 2d.) From believe. but always. accejits and treats him as a person righteous in the eye of the divine law. yet is this faith is never alone in the justified person. whereby ho .

viii.JUSTIFICATION. iii. The true sense of justification its stated above wljen taken in connection with faith. "Not to impute transgression unto 19. John iii. sanctify" is is The opposite of to "to pollute. forgive iniquities. many would produce the most obvious nonsense to substitute sanctifieation (the making . is. Socinians." "To 6-8. 24. them. and of the equivalent Greek word used in the New Testament." "To cover sins. the making a man personally holy. dcijlares us 247 of the law to be coiiibniied ol' to the dcaiaiid. regard justification as meaning the same as sanctifieation that is. is The true sense of the phrase " to justify" in Scripture as clearly proved by the terms used it.) holy." Rom. ii. justification is always set forth as '' the opposite of condemnation. the law as a The Romanists use tlie term justification in a v. 16 . and those in- \ eluding at once the foru. 18.) Rom. as of grace." (c. brought out and triumphantly vindicated by Luther." but the opposite of "to justify" "to condemn." (cZ. Gal.iveness of sins and the infusion who . making us holy or conformed standard of moral character. the grand central principle of the Reformation. never to expi'css an act making him (6. not an act of gracious to power.) iv. "Not to bring into condemnapassages it John In V. square with the demands of law.igue and general sense. teach the moral-in- fluence theory of the atonement. 30-34. equivalent to For example: "To impute righteousness without Works. v. tion. In Scripture." 2 Cor.s it is as the condition our life . always used to express an act They both arc alike declaring a man to he 11. is That it^ true is proved (a) from the universal meaning of the English word to justifi/.

{d. whosoever of you are scmctlfied by the law ye are fallen from grace. for instance flesh : " For by the deeds of the law shall no be sanctified. It is free. Justification and sanctificutiou are set forth in Scripture as distinct graces. " Christ is become of no v.248 CONFESSION OF FAITH. 4. as. holy) fur juiitification (the declaring legally just). nounces the law not relaxed.) exaction in a given case.) ii. but entitled to all the honours fnlfillod in its strictest It declares the jjcrson justified to be justly and advantages susj)ended upon perfect conformity to all the demands of proved (a) law. (d) It simply remits the pen^dty of sin neither honours nor rewards. are suspended upon perfect conformity to tiie demands of law. it secures On the other hand. not a sovereign. it includes pardon of and in addition the declaration that all the claims of law are satisfied with respect to the person and that consequently ho has a right to all the immunities and rewards which in the covenant of life justified. state of the It rests purely facts. or waives their (6. The truth of this proposition is from the uniform and obvious meaning of the words "to justify. effect unto you. grounds and ends.) the exercise of pure prerogative. vi. (2.) is the act of a judge.) not a perfect righteousness. It is an act of a sovereign (o. is not mere pardon . npon the It pro- law and of the is and is impossible (c. policy. 1 Cor." or. justification [a) (6.) whore there sense." Gal." . yet distinct in their nature. inseparable. resting upon considerations of mercy or of public . (e. Pardon in (a) relaxes the claims of law.) Justification sin. 11. alike necessary. 16.

ceeds upon the ground of a x." It is a judicial declaration that the law is satisfied —not a sovereign waiving of the penalty. . iv. Justification proceeds upon imputation or crediting to the believer by his great Rejjvesentative Cat. 21. an ac-t L. in We are " made the righteousis ness of God him." ''imputing righteousness without works. Jesus Christ. . 3d. 6-8. Q. " The Lord Jesus." 2 Cor. wherein he pardoneth not for anything wrought in all their sin. The justified much more than have " peace with God. "assurance of salvation. Christ " the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. . and purchased not only reconciliation. v." Acts xxvi." ((7. "inheritance the among them that are sanctified." Rom. hath fully satisfied the Justice of the Father. Justification as j)ara])hrased as "not imputing sin." Rom. i.) Kom. 30. but . but an everlasting inheritance for all those in the kingdom of heaven whom the Father hath given unto him." v." Justification.. which satisfies the law. rests upon this " full satisfaction of divine justice.JUSTIFICATION. " Justification of God's free grace accept- unto sinners. The effects of justification are those of pardon. 1-10. them or done by them. 2-19 No one ever confomuls tlio justification of a person with his pardon. 1 is Cor. essence of pardon is 3-6 .) The is Scriptures declare that our justification prorighteousness.) As we saw under Chapter viii. 70 : God is of the righteousness of and Surety. § 5. therefore. (6. 18. The essence of justification to man is pronounced be possessed of righteousness. by his perfect obedience and sacrifice of himself. perfect (c. eth and accounteth their persons righteous in his sight. The that a that a man forgiven without is righteousness..

and suffering of the e. the true offence ground of justification: "Therefore.) Rom.) Because the Scriptures insist is everywhere that we affirmed of are not justified by works. S. are possible g round of justi- only as its consequences: " For sin for ye are not shall not have dominion over you. natural or gracious. as all by the of one judgment came upon men to condemnation. our Representative.. that being dead wherein we were held that we should serve in newness of the Spirit. to the believer and received by Q.. G. vi.." "But now we are delivered from the law. 6. in general This works — of all kinds of works. iv." (3. instead of being fication. Rom. under the law. sallsfaelion ol by alone. Q.) 4." God imputed to Compare also L. Cat. Cat.d evangelical obedience accepted in the place of perfect obedience as Our Standards and all the Reformed and Lutheran Confessions teach that the true ground of justification is the pci'fect righteousnes-s the ground of justification. Q. and S. 14. vii. Arminians hold that for Christ's sake the demands of the law are graciously lowered. and received by faith Cat. For as by one . full only for the perfect obedience and Cliriiit. perfect righteousness or fulfilment is law —by Christ. imputed faith alone. ^ Because the Scriptures declare that the obedience i. 33. tXxa of whatever kind. 33. gift even so by the righteousness of one the free ujion all came men unto justification of life. Because the Scrij)tures declare that good works. them. and not in oldness of the letter. This is (1.250 CONFESSION OF FAITH.. 77. but under grace. xi. (2. (active and passive) of Christ. and faith an. without distinction.

iv. ii. 28. many be made i. 18. xviii. Heb. and. For *' the usage of the Rom.JUSTIFICATION. he by faith lays hold of the righteousness of Christ. iii. though my conscience accuse me that 1 have grossly transgressed all the commandments still of God. X. 9." lloni. B. iv. 2 Hebrew and Greek Cor. xxxi. Mark xv. . 21 Phil. so by the righteons. 28 .. Gal. and kept none of them. ii. v. 37 Rom. Luke xxii. 24). 1 Cor. man's dlsobeJieiice iniiLy '251 were made sinners.) Because the Scriptures affirm that this ness tion. have been ix. excluded from the righteousness of works. 3. because their guilt was so charged imputed or its to his account that they were justly punished in him. righteous(4. in the sight of . 26. 60: "How art thou justiOnly by a true faith in ? Jesus Christ so that. equivalents of vii. § 2: fiiith "A man will be justified by when. imputation. Christ's righteousness is is In like manner rewardableness so credited to the believer that all the covenanted hon- ours and rewards of a perfect righteousness henceforth rightly belong to him. 19-21. This doctrine of our Standards is that of the whole Protestant body of the Reformed and Lutheran Churches. Calvin says in his Institutes. not it. Pet. 18. 2 Cor. 12. 15. v. 3-9. 27-30. arc said to iii. ap])ears in as a sinner. . clothed in the sight of God. and am inclined .. is imputed to the believer in the act of justificain its The phrase to impute sin or righteousness scriptural usage signifies simply to set to one's account. upon 1 Christ (Isa. 4 . v. Lev. sins 6. 30 . 4-8. obedience of one shall V. Our liii." see Gen. chap. xi. Num. 19 ." The Heidelberg fied Cat. God Q. to lay to one's charge or credit as the ground of judicial laid process. 13. 2 Cor. 19. but as righteous.

" . as above shown.. iv. ? that^ground. ment or means of justification. Avhii. Faith is here the "condition" of justification.. (1. reputes us as good and and gives us eternal upon which salvation. of Concord: "That righteousness which before of mcie grace imputed to faith. That the essential and sole condition this gracious imputation of the righteousness of Christ proceeds is to the believer that he exercise faith in or on Christ as his righteousness or groimd of acceptance (. just. the vicarious obedience and sufierini.) is proved j- Because. that is imputed us . . always treated as a free agent. God is Lutheran Form. without any merit of mine. righteousness and holincst of Christ.. . ol. is the obedience. and necessary instrument whereby the soul. on our account of whole obedience. 9 .. Gal. Kom. apj)ropriates the righteousness of Christ. is always represented in Scripture as necessary instruii.. Arminians pretend.'allcd and justification.. suffering and resurrec- tion of Christ. because it is an essential requisite. God. the perfect satisfaction.. and is not itself. IG. or to the believer. is That faith the instrument whereby the soul appreas hends the true ground of justification in the righteousness of Ciirist. of Christ is that ground.." 4th. God. grants and imputes to me.. That faith in or on Christ.252 to all evil. remits sins. notwithstanding. by which he sins for our sakes satisfied the law and expiated our obedience On to which account his so that . is proved.h is the legal ground of justification. CONFESSION OF FAITH. but only of mere grace. Acts xvi. and no other tlie grace.

He is arguing against fiiith James teaches that a a dead faith which is alone — that is.<v." and Paul asserts timt of works is impossible. nnassociated with any other grace. — will not justify. ground justification on the evidently rests (3.) ii. but never on account of or for the sake of faith. different passage in James 14 is But Pa«^. but a gracious x. things. never alone in the justified person. Eph. (2. all other Christian the famous To our of justification often objected. Because the Scriptures constantly affirm that we are justified " through" or by means of faith. Acts Gth. James uses the word to justify in the sense of prove true. will not justify.) 253 - is "a work. or real. ^^ 16. While it is is faith alone. Kom. 8 . in which sense faith is justified or proved genuine by works. Paul and James are speaking of Pharisees and legalists. and from its very Because faith nature is incapable of laying the foundation for a legal justification. teaches that faith alone justifies. "justify" in the sense of sinner. (4. gift of God. to Paul uses the word God's justification of the which faith and not works is prerequisite. Gal. which yet it is the sole instrument of justification. a faith which is alone. but when is genuine graces. He is arguing against nominal Christians who would hold the truth in unrighteousness. 5th.JUSTIFICATION-. 1. always accompanied with doctrine ii.) Because faith in or on Christ upon that which is without itself. or unassociated with other in graces and fruitless good works. Consequently orthodox theologians faith alone justi- have always a<^k. 44. 7. . This faith itself is not ii.iowledged that while fies. our own.

real and full satisfaction to his Father's justice. 24. it respects the persons justified. 8-10. Ileb. from beginning to end. The fact that Christ's righteousness is the ground of rigour instead justification. glorified in the justification of sinners. by all his obedience and death. 26.® Btead. did fully discharge the debt of those that are thus justified. Eph. v. not for . 21. 5.—'" Rom.— T Rom.'" ii. 7. and that his righteousness in strict fully satisfies all the demands of the divine law. 2. Rom. It is no less plain that a far greater expression of love and free grace to . is In connection with the above. 14. liii. the second truth that is. ii. — Christ. § 5. 19.-:54 CONFESSION OF FAITH. " are not taken into consideration faith will when the question no more fail respects justification. iii. that Christ.* and both anything in them. 7. Isa. i. his obedience and death.-9 Rom. Gal. 32. " AVorks. has fully paid the debt of who are justified. v. x. 10-12. and that he made for thera a proper. iii. 1 Tim. mitst either sacrifice his law.. Eph. inasmuch as he was given by the Father satisfaction accepted in their justifica- and his obedience and freely. 21 . It evident that God ii. 26 . 24. Matt. their tion is only of free grace tbat both the exact justice and rich grace of 8 God might be V. This point we have considered under Chapter taught here that this justification as viii. The by those Jirst truth asserted in this Section is. 17. to But true produce them than the sun can cease to give light. 10. bis elect or his Son. viii. Dan.-8 2 Cor. a stupendous manifestation of the free grace of God. 4-6. iii. real and full satisfaction. vastly enhances is grace. it is 21 . and did make a proper. ix. its of being inconsistent with the perfect freedom and graciousness of justification. iii. 6." says Luther.' Yet. to his Father's justice in their behalf® for them." Section III. is. Ei^h.

Gal.) which accrue to them on condition of that representation. in the fulness of time. 20. hio-hest reach of grace the universe can ever The self-assumption of the penalty upon the part of the eternal Son of God is the highest conceivable vindication of the absolute inviolability of justice. is Free grace manifested — (1. iv. iu Rom. 25. In the sovereign election of the persons to be represented by him. 8. i. 4. Gal. iv. 16.) In the God's beloved Son for that In the glorious rewards service. they are not justified until the due time actually apply Christ unto them. — God did. Rom.heir and rise again for their justification. und at the same time the highest conceivable expression of Justice is infinite love. die for . It has been objected to our doctrine ians. decree to justify all the elect. Section TV." and Christ did." Spirit doth in Nevertheless. (4. iii. and the in which they are perfectly reconciled.JUSTIFICATION. iii. 4-7. This is the highest reach of justice.) (3. Tit. and at the same time and for same cause the see." " 6 . 22.30. if by some Armin- and held as a part of it by some Antinomians. viii. cross of Christ is The the focus in which the most intense rays alike of divine grace and justice meet together. vindicated in the vicarious suf- fering of the very penalty in strict rigour.—1' Col. 2. I Tim. save the elect at tlie 255 sacrifice expense of such a than it wouhl be to save tliein citlier at the sacrifice of principle or in case no sacrifice of any kind was needed. ii. i. (2. 21. from Holy all eternity. 1 Pet.) In the admittance of a vicarious gift of sufferer. that earth.—1» 6al. 19. . Christ literally paid the debt of his elect in his obe- dience and suffering when on it must follow that . sins.

Matt. —God cloth continue to forgive the sins fall of those that are justified. 1. 7. 30.256 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Ii. The satisfaction. confess their sins. from the moment that debt the elect have been justified was paid. 2. therefore. 31-3. " Hcb. eventit is uate precisely as and that it when provided in the covenant - should do so. Before justification. 1 14. Christ died for his people in execution of a covenant between himself and his Father. therefore. 32 Luke i. entered into in eternity. 5. like the payment of a money debt. Section V. 12. Ixxxix. ipso facto. X. ^^ It is a matter of free grace that his substitu- tion was admitted. on the one hand. Matt. on the contrary. viewed as a condition of favour. vi. xxvi." and although they can never state of justification/* yet they from the may by their sins fall under God'a and not have the light of his countenance restored unto them until they humble themselves. their representative and substitute. Cor.3. as well as Christian experience. 32.— >5 Luke xxii. 28. but sets the real criminal free only on such conditions and at such times as had been previously agreed upon between God. This Section teaches that justification changes radically and permanently the relation which the subject of it sustains both to God and to the demands of the divine law. 1 John i. 20. xxxii. The effects of his death. xi. and Christ. all The Scriptures. 7-12. 9. does not liberate. ii. on the other hand. God is an angry Judge.^* fatherly displeasure. the gracious sovereign.— '6 . John x. holding the sentence of the . and renew their faith and repentance. justified until the foith in Chris'- make it certain that no one is moment that God gives him saving money debt of his Christ paid the penal not the jieople. 75. beg pardon. Ps.

to God in the exercise of re- pentance and faith in Christ. " 3al. in the first instance. 8. when designed to satisfy justice for sin or chastisement. and Chapter 17 . in iv. . proceeds to execute all the kind offices which belong to the ne\y relation. Irrespective of the economy of redemption. of what- ever kind. or penalty." 22-24. designed to correct their faults and improve their graces. when viewed aside from all intentional relation to human character. 5 and 6 . one and the same with the justification of believers under the New Testament. justification of believers under the Old restaniont was. § 6. and de- mands son. xiii. the for a season in suspense. 13. of course. them.JUSTIFICATION. under Chapter viii. Examine the proof-texts appended above to the text of this Sec- Section VI. is fatherly chastisement. —The all iii. 9. All suifering is either mere calamity. This requires. discipline and correction. U. repentance and faith and thus only can they hope to have his pardon sensibly renewed tion of the Confession. Flel). when designed to correct and improve the offender. all suffering is to the reprobate instalments of the eterall suffering. The fully truth taught this Section has already beeu vii. nal penalty. §§ 4. as a loving Father. as that the subject be regarded and treated like a i provided in the eternal covenant. law instead of condemning acquits. in these respects. 257 After justifi- condemning law cation.. Rom. so must they always continue to return to loss him after every partial wandering and to of his sensible favour in the exercise of the same . and God.. After justification. as well as instruction and consolation. proved above. And as they came.

ground of justification. 10.258 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Prove that justification is not mere pardon. 3. State in contrast the true view. '' What What What is the scriptural usage of the phrase. 6. 17. 1. grounds and effect of mere pardon. 16. 8. State the proofs that the righteousness of Christ. grounds and effect of justifi- 15. and not an act of gracious power making him morally pure. QUESTIONS. What is the first proposition taught in the first and second Sections? 2. When and by whom was this truth first clearly defined and vindicated ? 12. 4. State the proof that justification is a judicial act of God declaring a person legally righteous. 13. What is What is What is What is What is the second proposition there taught? the third ? thti fourth? the ^/(J/t? the sixth ? justifies all How can j'ou prove that God those whom he has regenerated? 7. those and only What is the^r*'^ proposition laid down as to the nature of justification? 9. 23. to impute sin or righteousness 22. cation. 5. Upon what ground does justification proceed? What is the Arniiniau view as to the nature and ground of justification? 19. 18. ?" is does Calvin teach is the ground of justification? in taught on thi.^ bead the Iloidolbort: Catecl ism "^ . State in contrast the nature. iiviputed faith alone. State the nature. What is the second proposition laid down as to the nature of justification? 1*1. 20. What is the Romanist What is the view of view as to this matter? those who hold the moral-influence theory of the atonement? 11. is the true and received by 21.

40. 27. 25. is tlie 26. of Concord? and faith alone. is true faith only that the means of faith ever alone in the experience of the person justified ? 31. What What it does Luther say on the subject? is the j?/-. What What is taught in the fourth Section? to have some Arminians objected our doctrine at this point? 38. justification. 259 What What is taught in the Lutheran Form. 36. 44. been previously considered is What the second great principle here maintained in con- nection with the former? 35. How can the doctrine taught by James in the second chapter of his Epistle be reconciled with that taught by Paul on this subject ? 32. Prove that the literal satisfaction of divine justice by Christ enhances instead of detracts from the free grace of the gospel. 39. Show that the fact that Christ paid our penal debts before we were born does not effect our justification before we actually believe. What special act of faith faith is the sole means of justification? Prove that Prove that If it is not the ground of justification. 33.JUSTIFICATION. nO. Prove that only instrument of justification. 28. this faith is the gift of is God. is relation does faith sustain to justification ? faith.s^ truth taught in the third Section? and ? where has 34. Of what Of what kind kind is all is all the suffering of the reprobate? the suffering of the justified ? it What is taught in the sixth Section. 2i. 37. Lito what three classes can all sufferings jf any kind be distributed ? 42. 43. 29. What What is taught in the fifth Section? change does justification effect in the relations of the person justified? 41. and where ras ? been previously considered .

^ provided for. 32 I Pet. 18. a new spiritual life in the neart of the subject. OF ADOPTION. vi. r. viii. 4.—* Eph. in and for his only Son. originating. fhoso that are justified. The instant a believer is is united to Christ in the in e.— n Lara. xii.'* as heirs of everlasting salvation. 13.* adoption .CHAPTER All tion:^ XII." but sealed to the day of redemption. relation is The change of is represented by justification — the change of nature bv reo. i.\- «rcise of faith. Regeneration Tiie first an act of God. Father f are pitied.— Rom. 1 Eph.'* Cor.-9 jjatt.—" Heb. and nstant act of that 260 now creatui''. iv. consequent upon his . 26. 14. ' 5.3.—io Heb. iii. God. 12.—* Rom. viii. 6. xiv. 2 12. .— 3 Jer.— i' Eph. . Jems Christ. to make partakers of the grace of adop- by which they are taken into the number. 12. there accomplished him (1. vi. iii. iii. 4. 5 . 15. Grod vouchsafeth. Abba. 6. "' i.) .® and chastened by hira as by a father .. and enjoy the liberties and privileges of the children of God i-eceive the spirit of j'' have his name have access to put upon them. and law as a covenant and (2) a change of his inward spiritual nature. iv.* the throne of grace with boldness f are enabled to cry.—1 Ps. xiv.^" yet never cast off. 30. 31. i.— 8 Prov. 17. 30.— Gal.—" 1 Pet. vi. Rev. 9. by a new creation. 2.eneration. Heb.'^ and inherit the promises. ciii.' protected. John 12. Gal. v.simulla- neously and inseparably to two things: to the A total change of relation of life. v. Rom. iv.

on the ground of that perfect rightfrom all eousness which the sinner's faith has apprehended. ye might be partakers of the divine nature." 2 Pet. lations. i. 13. 1 John v. declaring him to be free condemnation. regeneration. 18. relations into which he is introduced by justifica- This divine sonship. 18. 4. and his new life developward the perfect maturity of that in regeneration. justification instant act of the God. Justification effects only a change of reeffect Regeneration and only inherent moral and spiritual states of soul. is intro- duced by adoption. includes the following principal Derivation of spiritual nature from God : " That i. created him. renewed in knowledge.ADOPTION. the bearing is his likeness: "And have put on the new man. is 261 F aith . . The being born in the image of God. 29. Rom. which 10. includes both. and to have a leiral riy-ht to the relations and benefits secured in by the covenant which Christ has half. viii. Adoption embraces in in the As set forth in Scripture. after the image of him that iii. or a believing. it one complex view the newly-regenerated creature new tion. 2 Cor. James i. John 2d. trusting embrace Clirist. of the person and work of Upon the exercise is of faith by the regenerated soul. and surrounded with those relations which foster its growth and crown sanctification it with blessedness. iii. implanted — ing in a congenial home. into which the believer elements and advantages 1st. fulfilled his be- Sanctification is the progressive gi'owth to- new life which was Adoption presents the new his new relations entered creature in his new relations upon with a congenial heart. 18 ." Col.

and hast loved them as thou hast loved me. viii. 2 John 6). xii. 23. 2. Ixvi. consolation and Ps. Present fatherly chastisements for our good. The bearing his name. 14). 2 Cor. legal . 6). 4. Present protection. viii.2G2 3d. . What is the subject What two changes of this Chapter? take effect instantly upon the act of :'aith? 3. 27-32. 17 12. Rom. iv. 7th. 1 John iii. Heb. obedient (1 Pet. CONFESSION OF FAITH. iii. 15). 1 Heb. 5-11. or a spirit becoming children of God. The being made the objects of his peculiar love " That the world may know that thou hast sent me. the The indwelling of the Spirit of his Son (Gal. James 5. 23 Rom. 15-21 free guilt. John xiv. ii. who forms in us a filial spirit. iii. joint heirs with i. fear of death . Gal. viii. 21-23 . iii. 13." John xvii. inheritance of the riches of our The certain Father's glory as heirs of God and ii. What is roseneration ? What is faith and its relation to regeneration? . afflictions. Christ (Rom. QUESTIONS. 6th. cxxv. i. and royal dignity (Heb. 9 iv. xii. 1 Pet. iii. 21. 4. V. Isa. 18 1 Cor. Ps. x. bondage and. 1 . boldness . from sense of (Rom. 7). ii. 12 8th. 14. including the exaltation of our bodies in fellowship with the Lord. 2. in- cluding both spiritual and temporal 11. E-ev. 4. Ii. 1. and elevated with a holy ii. Luke i. 5-8. Phil. . abundant supplies. 5th. 22 1 Pet. 4th. 19. 17. v.

5. 6. 263 What What What is is justification and its relation to faith ? adoption and its relation to regeneration and justi- fication ? 7. What are tlie principal advantages which attend it ? .ADOPTION. are the principal elements embraced in this divine Bonship ? 8.

17.*® yet. 2 Cor. vi. Rom.—" Rom. Eph. through the virtue of Christ's death and resurrection/ hy his Word and Spirit dwelling in them the dominion of the whole body of sin is destroyed.-8 1 John 10. 26." 1 Cor.— *Jlom. vi. 14. 1 Thesa.* Section III. in saving graces. . IS. iv.^ to the practice of true holiness. OF 8ANCTIFICATION. although may much prevail. v. 11.* all and they more and more quickened and strengthened shall see the Lord. spirit created in them. ii. . i. vii.CHAPTEK Section I. /. 4 : Gal. the remaining corrup- tion for a time through the continual re- supply of strength from the sanctifying Spirit of Christ.' yet imperfect in this irreconcilable there abide some remnants and the of corruption in every part:* whence ariseth a continual and war the flesii lusteth against the Spirit. 1.s.\x. XIII. Eph. the perfecting holiness in the fear of God. Phil. 1 iii. 10. teaches the following propositions All of those iu whom God has by regeneration 264 . ii. 2:^. This Chapter 1st.-6 2 Cor. 6.—10 Rom._o Col. 17. 1 Pet 16. 2:3. vii.\ii. n. 18. 2:i.—» John xvii. are further and personally. viii.-- John Eph.3. 6. —In which war. 16-19. vii. 12. i.' and the several lusts thereof are more and more weakened and mor- having a new heart and a new sanctified really i'' tified. 24. sanctification life : is throughout still in the whole man. vi.—^ v.'' 1 generate part doth overcome:" and so the saints grow iu grace. V. Acts . Rom. iii. without which no man Section —This . 18. vii. Rnm. vi. iii. 15.* II.— < Gal. 11. Spirit against the flesh. iii. Phil. »2 Pet.—9 v. 14. 1 ileb. 32. 1. l-. iii.—" 2 Cor. 5. —They who are effectually called and regenerated. 14. 2 Thes.

soul life. and he gradually advances in holiness until he at death. 1 Cor. It never perfect in this but in every as in that of Paul. John x. 17. That nevertheless.) To render morally pure or holy. 12. Heb. affections is and will." warring agjiinst the law of our mind. from a xxiii. case. common to a sacred use.SANCTIFICATION. is Matt. and body. 2d. the gracious element in the believer's nature prevails. always con- tinues to foster dwelling of his perfection. less 4th. his Word and Spirit dwelling in them. sanctification. vi. or set a])art . from a constant supply of strength from the sanctifying Spirit of Christ. created a 266 under his gra- new spiritual nature continue cious influence. as well as those holy actions whiph proceed work of sanctification involves the entire man — intellect. 5th. 3d.) The word "to senses in is used in two different Scripture: To consecrate. xiii. regeneration the commencement of and . This work of sanctification involves both gradual destruction of the old body of sin and the quickening and strengthening of all the graces of the new man. and from them. having implanted in regeneration a new infull spiritual nature in the subject of his grace. In tlie latter sense of the word. 36 (2. and develop that principle by the Word and Spirit until it attains sanctify" (1. 1st. there remains more or of the old "law in our members. in and thus have the grace implanted them developed the more and more. 11 . is made perfect God. Tins the inward purification of the heart and all mind.

As recreneration is is free grace. trem- bling at the threatenings and embracing the promises of God for this life and that which is to conic. v. 26).. Faith. truth. v.£G6 sanctification is CONFESSION OF FAITH. stands in correlation to faith." The truth. it is generated soul whereby embraces and experiences the power of the truth. Faith. outward means 2 This : of sanctification. The outward means of sanctification are (1. •-'ontaineth xiv. 23): to the Son (Eph. of sanctification is The inward means is Faith. chap. especial and pre-eminently office in to the Holy Spirit. that ye may grow thereby.) The truth as revealed in the inspired John 1 Pet. the in- ward means of it. yielding obedience to the commands. (6) inward and outward. 25. § faith "acteth differently upon that which every passage thereof . ii. thy word xvii. Scriptures: is "Sanctify them through thy truth. as the 22 . "As new-born babes desir. Conf. it whose is the economy of redemption to apply the grace secured through the mediation of the Son.e the word. so sanctification a gracious work of God. and hence of our deliverance from condemnation and communion with that act of the re- God. The means (a) of sanctification are of two distinct orders. Faith the instrument of our justification. It is and eminently of the Holy Spirit. sincere milk of the i." 17. 2. 19." By . the completion of the work ccramenced an act of God's in regeneration. moreover. the organ of our union with Christ and fellowship with his Spirit. and whereby the inward experilife ences of the heart and the outward actions of the are brought into obedience to the truth. attributed to God absolutely (1 Thess.

The fruits of sanctification good works. (6) since God has promised to answer believing prayer with the donation of spiritual (4. this 267 means tlie trutR nourishes and exercises the princi- ples of grace implanted in the soul. ment of the grace implanted in regeneration it is . providence. Eph. Matt. And the soul both bound and encouraged to use with diligence. Jlom. Although not the ground of our acceptance. sacraments. Gal. and gifts.SANCTIFICATION. John XV. 21. all the means for its resist- and to form those habits of are ing evil and of right action in which sanctification so largely consists. The Holy Ghost gives the grace and prompts and directs in its exercise. 10. 4 It must be remembered is Heb. (2. good works are absolutely essential to sal- vation as the necessary consequences of a gracious state of soul and perpetual requirements of the divine law. 11 . xii. xii. 22. Spirit. The gracious discipline . (3. 3. that while the subject is pas- sive with respect to that divine act of grace w-hereby he regenerated. 1 Pet. and must be conformed to the law of God.) The iii. 2. iii. sanctification involves the destrucsin. it is also a duty. in dependence upon the Holy spiritual renovation. John xiv. 13. 1 Cor.) John xiv. (a) as the act in in which the soul engages communion with God. 13. and the soul exercises is it. v. is Prayer a means of sanctification. This ii. of God's 5-11. An action to be good must have its origin in a holy principle in the heart. 2d. Thus. as well work of tion of the old body of as the develop. 14. V.) 21. while sancti-| is jfication a grace. after he is regenerated he co-operates with the Holy Ghost in the work of sanctification.

except ye abide in me. or else the tree corrupt (c. iii. sanctification 4. and as the one " They that gains in prevalence the other must lose. with the affections and lusts. The same is asserted in the Scriptures. are Christ's have crucified the flesh. This . recorded experience of many biblical characters.) affections which prompt determined it. As the character of the fruit tree by the character of the which they proceed. CONFESSION or FAITH." John xv. v. Truly good works can be produced only by a heart in living union with Christ: "As the branch cannot bear . 3d. This work of involves the entire man— -intellect. inward and spiritual. except it abide in the vine no more can ye. and in the universal experience of Christians in modern times. fruit of itself. It hence necessarily follows that the tendencies graciously implanted and sustained must come tendencies to evil in conflict with the co-exist which remain. soul and body. your memand is bers which are That this upon the earth. is Luke vi.) and its fruit corrupt. 45." Gal. affections and will. "Mortify. They can only in a state of active antagonism. (6. therefore. 5. which produces so the moral character of actions depends upon the heart from Either make the tree good and its fruit good. evident (a) from the known fact of is human nature that the moral character of all actions derived from the inward moral dispositions and to them.2G8 also first practical. and then outward and not immediately is That the whole body of death in the sixth is destroyed in the instant of regeneration plainly taught in the and seventh chapters of Romans." Col. 24. work begins in the state of the life heart governs the by previously governing the heart.

is 269 case. 23. and vi. 18. all the in1 members of the body. of him.) That obligation is bv ability its — that the law of is God can demand no more Hence from is it than subject fully able to render. Eph. 2 Cor. iv. As our instincts bodies are integral parts of our persons. proved (1) from the necessity of the Our nat- ural sinful condition involves blindness of mind. as well (2. 4. This this life. i. 4th. iv. struments of righteousness unto God. made Rom. Pelagians maintain (1) that the law of God respects always limited only the voluntary exercises and actions. and not the states of the soul. their and appetites act immediately upon the pas- sions of our souls.) From the fact as hardness or perverseness of heart. as organs of the soul.SANCTIFICATION. v. Arminian and Papist Perfectionists hold (1) that men can do nothing morally right without divine grace. Thess. Col. 6. iii. work of sanctification is never perfected in Different parties of Perfectionists maintain that perfection is possible in this life in different senses. (2. that ye may know. 1 Thess.) It is explicitly asserted in Scripture that sanctification in- volves spiritual illumination: "That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ may give unto you the spirit of wis- dom and revelation in the knowledge of him. and hence they must be brought subject to the control of the sanctified will. the eyes of your understanding being enlightened. that we are sanctified by means of the truth. the very limits of moral obligation follows that every man is always perfectly able to do all that required Hence he can be perfect whenever he pleases. 13. (3. 10." etc. anr" . 17.

blindness. 294-312. or tends itself essentially evil. is. evil action is which determines.. Confession of Faith. § 5.) men judge that the moral state of the soul to determine. even with this grace no man is able perfectly to keep the original Adamic law of absolute perfection. deadness to divine things. hardness. is liis the nature ujorally corrupt. which he chiefly oppresses helpless to change. vii. But that concupiscence. words and It feelings are wrong. below all exercises or volitions. (2. however. privilege They hold that it is the and duty of all men in this life to attain to a to the gospel state of perfect love and sincere obedience law. lying far is in all genuine conviction of sin not simply that the thoughts.270 (2) that CONFESSION (. The main element but that. that the truly C(jnvicted man Avith a sense . make a distinction between voluntary known law. that God for Christ's merits' sake has graciously lowered the demands of the law in the case of believers from absolute perfection to faith and evangelical obedience. The latter they deny to be properly of the nature of sin. chap. of the nature of sin is distinctly affirmed in our Stand- ards. which they o-ill gracious or Christian perfection. They maintain. and indeed the true source of the evil in the action. pp. That this is true is proved All (1. John Wesley teaches Papists transgressions of The the same.!' FAITH. or the Methodist Doctrinal Tracts. is aversion to God. first movement and tenis dencies of evil desire in the hearts of regenerated men. and concupiscence or the involuntary first movements of the remains of corruption within the regenerate..) All genuine Christian experience involves the practical same judgment.

" Rom. aiuI vii. Every even the leapt de- ficiency from the whole measure of moral excellence that ought to be is of the nature of sin. and the constant application of the atoning blood of Christ. and maintain therefore that these remains of all corruption in Christians are of the nature of sin. vii. Therefore nothing short of absolute conformity to the Adamic law of absolute holiness is of the nature of sinless perfection. 271 re- And It all is in some degree the same conviction it mains until death." Col. acknowledge sin in (4. that they need forgiveness.8ANCTIPICATI0N. in Paul in wrought all in him against wrought him manner of concupiscence.) they perfect. except the law had said. his will. are an occasion for self-abhorrence and confession. memman. 11." bers warring against the law of his spirit. " I had not known but by the law. in and that consequently the Christians remain are not (5. and other evangelical churches which profess a sort of perfectionism. Rom. or ought to be called by that name. this law in his in other passages called " old ii. or remaining spontaneous tendency to evil in the heart of the perfect Christian." yet this evil tendency. dwelt 14-25. Peck (Christian Doct. .) of the essence of the moral law that de- mands that ought to be. iii.) the believer. of sin. calls concupiscence. All the prayers and hymns and devotional literature of the Wesleyan. We whom : agree with this. sin Paul expressly sin. 9. (3. of Perfection) admits that the workings of concupiscence. is And . Thou shalt not The sin that 7. for I had not known concupiscence. called " sin expressly and •'body of sin. Dr. •experience concupiscence.

272 (6. 3N OF FAITH. all his 8. a work of God's free execution of his eternal purposes of salvation. prevails. or to assert genuine sincerity profession and service. iii. 9. the gracious ele- ment in the believer's nature. good work in it day of Jesus Christ." Phil. in i. 14-25. David. 22. Rom. upon the whole. Job i. own behalf and that of John disclaims it Christians. Acts 1. prove very clearly that the perfection intended was with the universal not a sinless one. that he which hath begun a us will perform i.) CONFESS. fident of this Wherefore we aie "conto the very thing. vii. Paul disclaims it. xiii. 5th. that sanctificajrrace in from the fact. and Job. But tlie inspired biographies of the men themselves. necessarily tion is he is ren- This precious truth follows already shown. such as of vi. Gen. sonal profession of it is The per- generally judged to be just as to ground for serious suspicions the claimant's mental soundness or moral sincerity. (7. . 12-14. 1 John some men in Scrip- ture eitlier to The word " perfect" is applied mark comparative in to excellence. '^her 6 . from a constant supply of strength from the sanctifying Spirit of Christ. Nevertheless.) Perfectionism is in conflict experience and observation of God's jicople. Phil. in holiness until and he gradually advances dered perfect at death. the certainty of which will be fur- discussed under Chapter xvii. The biographies and recorded testimonies of all the Scripture saints less perfection to make it impossible to attribute sin- any one of them. Noah.

ISeripture ? 7. as the only adequate source from which holy actions can proceed. Prove that of the soul. In what different senses the term "to sanctify" used in . 21. the inward means of sanctification? Wliat are the outward means of sanctification? In what sense is sanctification a duty as well as a grace? 12. What What h What 1. 22. 15. Show that the work of sanctification involves a change in the permanent inward state of the soul. common judgments of men and from 23. What is the relation of the work of sanctification to that of the Author of sanctification? regeneration ? 8." as well as the development of the graces imjilanted 14.8ANCTIFICATION. What Show are the fruits of sanctification ? that the work of sanctification involves the gradual "mortification" of the "old man. What is the Arminian and Papist view of 'he same subject? What is the Arminian and Papist view as to the moral character of concupiscence ? 20. State the proof derived from a consideration of the essentia] virti e nature of and the moral law. 5. 13. 11. IS . 273 QUESTIONS. is the Jirst proposition taught in this Chapter? the second proposition here tauglit? the third ? the fourth f the fifth? is 2. What is the Pelagian doctrine as to the nature and ground of tliat peif'ection which is attainable in this life? 18. In what sense are the bodies of believers said to be sanc- tified? 17. this work of sanctification involves all the fic- ulties 16. What What is is meant by concupiscence? the doctrine of our standards on the subject? State the proofs of the truth of our view derived from the religious experience. in regeneration. I'j. is is is is 4. What 10. What What 0. Who is is 9.

In what sense is the epithet "perfect" applied to men in the Scriptures? 27. COXFESSIOX OF FAITH. members" and is the "law of the mind?" the ground of this certainty as to the result ? . 20. To what What What is Perfectionism opposed ? the certain issue of this warfare between the " law is in the 29.274 24. 28. The same fi'om the declarations of Scripture and from th« biographies of scriptural characters. Tlie same from the devotional literature and admissions of evangelical Armenians. 25.

and in accordance with the evidence in different cases from the barest probability up to the most assured certainty.— Rom. ii.' by which also. The one is knowledge and the 275 . 17. 17-19. i. whereby the elect are enabled work of the Spirit of Christ in their hearts. It does not diifer.' and is ordinarily wrought by the ministry of the word . knowledge tion of the truth of that of which the percep- we have an immediate. Faith.* 1 Heb. rests cognition. ii.-2 9 Cor. 17.—s Rom. to believe to the saving of their souls. iv. —The grace of faith. demands evidence. it is increased and strength- Section I. * 1 Pet. Yet faith demands and diiFers upon evidence nor from just as absolutely as does knowledge. 13 . 16. 8. x.^ is the ened. X. 32. like knowledge itself. Luke xvii. knowledge as the conviction of that which is is proved differs differs from the presumption of that which unproved. 39. 2. from reason as rational from irrational. Acts xx. 14. 11. we have faith that space still stretches illimitable beyond the most distant telescopic star. and by the administration of the sacraments and prayer. 5. in the assent of the mind most general sense of the word. Rom. i. We have direct knowledge that the book we have in our hands fills a certain portion of space. is the to the truth of that of which we have is not an immediate cognition. iv. Eph. OF SAVING FAITH. Faith.CHAPTER XIV.

we believe the existence and attrimodern Yeddo from the testimony of men. We know the properties of hunan butes of ancient Athens or nature. to which always. and that and acceptance of it. individual or associated. this affirmed in this Section in That is wrought our hearts by the Holy Ghost. in to the contemplation of the highest and most ennobling truths. such as all religions. 2d. in jusi as certain as tlie know'"' We know the existence and attributes of the city which we dwell. such as mind to the general truths of the being and attributes of God. thought and of human action.270 CONFESSION OF FAITH. saving faith it it is Of 1st. This religious has ground this in our common religious nature. That it is ordinarily wrought by the means of . the most general sense of that word. But it reaches be- yond reason. leads to It has its root in the reason. The commonest it. and is the religious obligations of men. is Other faith. we is believe the properties of the several persons of the Trinity on the testimony of God. common faith to its true or false. In each case just as rational and as certain as the knowsponpro- Faith in many thousands all of its forms is taneously exercised by cesses of men. the faith ledge. and elevates the mind Religious faith. is the assent of the religion. but the faith ledge. when legitimate. which are tvrought in by the Holy Ghost. would be impossible without it WheuU^ absolute' it grounded on legitimate evidence. conforms. while on the is other hand that saving faith which is the subject of Chapter of the Confession that spiritual discern- v vient of the excellence cordial embrace our hearts add beauty of dicine truth. assurance.

iii. That form of spiritual apprehen- sion which an essential element in saving faith must be wrought in the soul by the Holy Spirit. faith is the work of the Holy Ghost has been proved already under the head of Elfectual Calling. (2. 45). unconditionally The Scriptures demand instant faith alike of the igno- rant and of the intelligent. 8. 17. iv. In addition be a moral it may be argued — (1.) Men believe because they are taught of God (John vi.) Saving ii| faith must act. 1st. ii. the spirit- ua' congeniality of the believer with the truth. men are spiritually blind. §§ 1. 2 Cor.) By nature. That That it is strengthened by the use of the sacra- ments and prayer. 14 is . i. 12. 3d. 48. and hearing by the word of God. and how '^ shall they hear without a preacher." Rom. the act of the regenerated soul. . and as we have way seen (Chapter x. iv. X.. . Eph. (2.2 and 4) the Spirit uses t]\e re- .. or through the instrumentality of divine truth. the 277 word of God. (3.) The preaching of the gospel is the ordinary brought Faith is to bear in which its truth is most effectually upon the hearts and consciences of men.. the gift of God. Faith 2d. Acts is xiii. incapable of discerning spiritual things. 4. 18. 17. Eph. 2 Cor. 6. as they are enlightened to discern the things of the Spirit. So then faith Cometh by hearing. lief is Unbeas always denounced as a and not the consequence of intellectual weakness.SAVING FAITH. That faith is ordinarily tlie wrought by the is Sj)irit through the ministry of Word plain (1) from shall they be- the direct assertion of Scripture: lieve in "How Him of whom they have not heard. and must have its ground sin. 44.

l. 42 . prayer.. 1 John 1 v. for the authority of God him- speaking therein.xvi. accepting. without exception. advanced and the outward means are the truth. That the complex epithet faith is state of in mind to which the with the ai)plicd Scriptu'^ varies .—« Rom. 12. foith. each particular passage thereof containeth to the yielding obedience commands. the sacraments and the gracious discipline of divine providence.-8 Heb. isa.^ and acteth differently upon that which . 2. 11. God as his instrument in regewriition tc. by virtue of the covenant of grace. prayer. ii. and sane adult men never come person the experience of the benefits of Christ's salvation are destitute who and that of some knowledge of his work. is —By this be true revealed in the Word.' iv. faith must be nourished by the truth. 1 Tbess. which its main Therefore. ii. Acts xxiv. That saving That it faith rests ujwn the truth of the word. a Christian believeth to Section whatsoever self II. and sanctification. 14. 3d. Whatever tends to promote sanctification is must root. 3d. Acts xv. receiving and resting upon Christ alone for justification.-7 31. This Section teaches 1st. We have seen above. God speaking respects as in his its object all the contents of (Jod's word. sanctification a progressive work of the Holy it is Spirit. Tim. iv. the sacraments and every means of grace.—9 John i. is and that the inward means whereby faith.'' and embracing is the promises of God for this life and for that which to come.® trembling at the threatenings. under Chapter" is xiii. sanctification and eternal & life.278 veuled truth of CONFESSION OF FAITH. 20. . 10 . 26. j)roraote the strength of faith. l€Stimony of 2H.' But the principal acts of saving faith are. John Gfil. xvi. 13. 13 xi. 8. Acts xvi.

4." John He that believeth not God hath made him a iii. which lie has testified of his Son." etc. 16 . Rom. 2T9 nature of the particular passage of God's word ^^hich is its object. " "He that hath received the testimony God is true. and (6) trust or Christ. him by the Father. are New in Testament. 1. The (of Christ) hath set to his seal that gospel which Paul preached to the Corinthians he calls " the testimony of God. faith Saving of upon the truth of the word. x. both as to their infallible trutli and su[)reme authority. 15. Saving fiiith receives as true all the contents of God's word. 4tli. and upon Christ alone." 1 John v. They are absolutely divine. the soul of the be- 2d. viii. without exception. rests involved in a complete salvation. the preliminary questions as to After we have settled what books belong to the . liar." 1 John v. ii. Heb. That the specific act is of saving faith wliich unites us to Christ." 1 Cor. liever. them witii.SAVING FAITH. God corroborated the truths of the apostle's preaching. John 31-37.) As- sent to what the Scriptures reveal to us concerning the person. The Holy Ghost bears direct witness to Heb. 10. involves two essential elements : (a. 33. having been given by the strictest and most direct sense God's word to us. testi- mony God speaking in his The Scriptures of the Old and inspiration. to Christ when on siah earth rested his claims to recognition as Mes- upon the testimony borne V. and the sole condition or instrument of justification. "bearing ness both with signs and wonders. because he believeth not the record that God gave " This is the witness of God of his Son. 9. offices and implicit reliance for all that 1st. is upon work of Christ.

and must be accepted with equal faith. The whole word of God. therefore.Z^O CONFESSION OF FAITH. to the exclusion of all traditions. is inspired canon of Scripture. that trust an integi-al nnd insep- arable element of every act of saving faith in which is appropriate to the nature of the object believed. In all such cases . then the the orig- whole must be received in all its parts as equally the word of God. as far as known is to be individ- ual. The same illuminntion of the understanding and renewal of the affections which lays the foundation for the soul's acting faith in any one portion of God's testimony. doctrines of men or pretended private revelations. in some respects. that })lain many of the propositions of Scripture not the proper objects of trust. realizing assent to the truth pre- mind which fully realizes the truth of a threatening must. The complex state of mind to which the ej)ithet faith is applied in Scripture varies with the nature of i^ its every particular passage of God's word which object. The crust ft ttre is true answer is. cordial. lays the same foundation for its acting faith in every other portion. the object of saving 3d. it The realization of the truth of God's glory as shines in the face all respects of Jesus Christ cannot be an experience in the same with the believing recognition of a a fact of history. be differ- But the state of ent from that which realizes the truth of a promise. The common is quality which is the reason of the ap})lication of the same term to all these various states of mind sented. faith. and as to wliat inal text of those books. tlie\ duty or of the truth of It was debated largely between the Romanists and faith is Reformers whelhcr saving included trust or not.

) The V^ 25. (2." .) tiiat The second element included is tru. John i. of which manifestly involve an active assent to and cordial embrace.) Rom. assent. 24.same time.SAVING FAITH. '^ Scriptures expressly say that faith of wdiich Christ is we are justified by that the object. trutli believed renders the exercise of trust in that specific act of and especially faith called justifying faith. offices and work of Christ. 22. John iii. This will' be proved under the next head." vi. Gal. faitli 281 iiiclutlcs recognition. which secures salvation. viii. iii. as well as an intellcitiial recognition of the truth. as the case may be. is which unites to Christ life. " flving to him for refuge. that is involved . But in all cases in which the saving '' nature of the legitimate. acquiescence. "looking to him. (a. Phil." '' John all vi. iii. tification. I'^a. Rejection of Christ in Scripture is declared to be the ground of reprobation. (1. (6. snbmis* oion.It is cordial embrace of the object at the . lect. That specific act of saving faith which unites to and is the sole condition and instrument of jusinvolves two essential elements.'^t. 22. ii. 19. xlv. an act of the wOiole man affection and will —embracing 12 — intel- the truth. Christ. Assent includes an intellec- tual recognition and a . and is the root and organ of the whole spiritual trust certainly an element of the very essence of that state of mind 4th. . and upon Christ alone." Heb. 18. receiving him. 9. in that act of faith saves the soul or implicit reliance fur all upon Christ. 35 . 18. This esi)ecial is act of faith in Christ. 16 .) Assent to whatever the Scriptures reveal to us as to the person. constantly paraphrased by such phrases as " coming ' to Christ. called in Scripture iaith.

'''' wlio both the author and Heb. 111. viii. upon trust.—" Luke ii. Gal. his meritorious work and Section etrong . xii. 1.xii n. is 38 .32." JO up in many is to the attainment of Christ. faith We are constantly said to be saved iii. 11. (c." "to work righteousness . Acts ix. ." Acts xxvi. vi." Trust is upon the foundation upon which expectation based.- » Heb. salvation promised absolutely and certainly obeyed." " to stop the mouths of lions. Rom. 2 Tim. xvi. . All this plainly presupposes that faith is not a bare intellectual conviction of the truth of truths revealed in the Scriptures.30.) The single condition of is salvation demanded in the Scriptures that we should is "believe m" or "o?i" Christ Jesus.282 in a CONFESSION OF FAITH. Hope reaches for- ward meet. By faith the Christian said . Col." to be " persuaded of the promises . x. 15.^° his gracious promises." " to obtain them "to embrace them. . 42 .3. or "on Christ. 18. 10. 10. 22. John v. V. -as ii. (a. command Gal. weak or may be often and manj' ways assailed and weakened. 14. To believe in or on a person implies trust (6." "to subdue kingdoms. and faith must include trust in order to give reality or substance to the things hoped for. 19. complete salvation. vi. xi." Heb.) The same is proved by what are said to be the is effects or fruits of faith. John vii. Matt. vi. 2. m" iii. —This faitli is different in degrees. 4. Heb. And if this . 20. 5. 31 16. therefore. 12. 1 iv.— >2 Hfb. but that it includes a hearty embrace of and a confident reliance upon Christ. to the object upon which desire and expectation rests Hope. s. xi. 1. 2. "Faith rests is the substance of things hoped for. bui gets the victory:" growing a full assurance tln-ough finisher of our faith. Eph. "by 26.) well as credence. and trust gives birth to hope.

Prove tliat saving faith is tlic work of the Holy Spirit n. and that rests upon appropriate evidence. but always in the end gains to the the victory. State the first truth assi^rted of saving faith in this Section State the second truth asserted. What What is is ''saving faith. often that. 1. 6. continues to increase and is Prove that strengthened by the use of the sacraments and prayer. full That all in many it grows up measure of a taken up xviii." and how does it differ from the former ? 7. 3d. and in the same person at different times. and fliith is how does it differ from faith it ? Prove that not irrational.3. State the third. Prove that it is ordinarily wrouglit by the Spirit through tlie it the ministry of 12. human thought and religious faith? to social life. assurance tiirougli Christ. . What What is is the most general sense of the word "feith?" knowledge. and weakened." we will defer to what we have that place. 9. 2d. to say upon the subject until we come QUESTIONS. this Section it is 283 affirmed 1st. and that its exercise necessary to 5. Word. 10. That and it is exposed to many enemies. That is this faith. 2. although always as to essence the often different in degrees in different persons. and assailed it may be in many ways through divine grace. the points As made in this Section are in again and discussed at length Chapter on "Assurance of Grace and Salvation. is Show tliat faitli is exercised by all men. In same. . 8.SAVING FAITH.. 4.

Prove that the complex is ai^plied in state of mind to which the tei'ui "faith" the Scriptures varies in some of its elements with the nature of the particular passage of God's word which is its object. 17. hope and trust mutually sustain to one another 27. is What is the object of that special act of saving faith which the sole instrument of justification and hence the sole condition of salvation ? 22. 20. 29. faith receives the contents of God's word. What What is the first element that special faith always in- cludes ? 23. 19. without exception. bears in his word. essentially involves trust. 16. Prove that 26. What is What is What is the second truth taught? the third? the fourth? faith rests Prove that saving Prove that saving upon the truth of the all testi- mony which God 18. What relation ? is do faith. CONFESSION OF FAITH. What is the first truth taught of saving faitli in the third Section ? 14. 25. 15. 24. is the second element it it it always contains? Prove that essentially involves assent. What the first truth taught of saving faith in the third the second taught? Section ? 28.284 13. Is truth an integral element of saving faith ? 21. What What is is the thud taught? .

. as well as be preached b}' '^ that of faith in Christ. 25. — ^ Luke xxiv. Isa.* the every minister of the gos- doctrine whereof pel. not only of the danger. 15.* * — Zcch. 22. xxxi. Mark i. xxiii. (h) in a sin- and practical endeavour his to walk with God S3& way of commandments. 4. as contrary to the holy nature and righteous law of God. li. 06 Luke i. —By it a sinner. vii. ' Ezek. in Christ to and upon the apprehension of his mercy penitent. pollu- and power of . OF REPENTANCE UNTO LIFE. Sections teach the following truths as to That the gro unds of it. 47. so grieves for such as are and hates his sins. as to turn from them all unto God. 1 12. 59. 18. 128. cxix. and of his own einful deeds and (6) a true apprehension of the mercy of God 2d. 18. his own sinfulness.' purposing and endeavoring to walk with him in all the ways of his commandments.CHAPTER Section I. 15. . XV. —Repentance unto is to life is an evangelical grace. xviii. (c) in . 30. 11. Section TI. 31. xxxvi. in Christ. xxx. 2 Kings These 1st. true evangelical rej)entance rests tion upon (a) a true sense of the guilt. but also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins. . Ps. Joel 6. ii. Ps. 13. 19. cxix. Amos 6 . xii.—* Ps. Acts xx. out of the sight and sense. 21. 10. That as to the essence of it repentance consists (a) for his in true hatred of sin and sorrow all an actual turning from them cere purpose in the unto own sin God. 31. Acts xi. Jer. 2 Cor. v.

CONFESSION OF FAITH. 22. It includes (a) consciousness of i. and can be appeased by no loss a propitiation than that demanded by divine jusM'ill tice itself. e. exposure to merited punishment. revealed alike in the law and in the gospel (Rom. 5. 1st.. 7. 4. of sin. 5. 10. and feel the exceeding sinfulness of and the utter sinfulness This sense of sin cor- own nature and conduct. and the man apprehends himself to be just as God has always seen him guilt — to be. And (c) consciousness of he lplessnes s. as opposed to the holiness of God.286 3d. Ps. (6.) Consciousness li. God upon sake. (6. 6). li. li. like faith freely given to us by for Christ's us. as opposed to the justice of God. responds precisely to the actual facts of the case. 11. eitiier indifference stupefy or remorse will torment the soul. illumination and renewal the affections which "are effected in regeneration brings the as iii. cix.) Because out of Christ. God is a consuming fire.) Because the awakened conscience echoes God's law. Job of his xlii. as well as a duty obligatory 4th. 20. mercy of God This is necessary in order to true repentance: («. That as thus defined this true repentance is an evangelical grace. iv . The grounds of repentance That spiritual are (1) a true sense of. Ps. It should therefore be diligently proclaimed from the pulpit by every minister of the gospel. Deut. The grounds sion of the of repentance are (2) a bright apprehenin Christ. 9. and an inextin- guishable dread of his wrath repels the soul. Ps. believer to see and appreciate the holiness of God and in that light to see all sin. and until this is realized in a believing appli- cation to the merits of Christ. 21. of p ollutio n.

This is that practical turning or " conversion" from sin unto God which is the instant and necessary consequence of regeneration. 10. (c. \ . and especially of the cross of Christ. 1.) A is sense of the amazing good- ness of God to us in the gift of his Son. The essence of repentance consists (2) in our actual turning from all sin unto God. the more we abhor ourselves and repent in dust and ashes. is iii. and sorrow own sin. xxxvi. and by the universal experience of Christimes. 4." includingl v/ evidently a change of thought. of Christ. 2 Cor. Ps. 128. knowledge of sin" (Rom. 136). As essence true repentance consists (1) in a sincere hatred for our of sin (Ps. and of our ungrateful requital of the most powerful means of bringing the soul to genuine repentance for sin as committed against God. iii. It is a voluntary forsaking of sin as evil and hateful. 24. Job xlii. Godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation not to be repented of." Gal. The more we see of God 31. cxxx. . " By the law is the and hence " the law our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ. with sincere sorrow. Sin is seen to be exceeding sinful in the light of the divine holiness. feeling and purpose. 29. xii. 5 .REPENTANCE UNTO 24 . the law of God. 4. "a change of mind. Ezek. humiliation and confession. tians in modern to its 2d. 20). 287 u Ileb. and a turning unto cise God as our reconciled Father in the exer- of implicit faith in the merits and assisting grace This is marked by the meaning of the Greek word used by the Holy Spirit to express the idea of repentance. it. in the face of Christ. namely. LIFE. cxix. Ps. (d) This is proved by the examples of repentance recorded in Scripture. vii. li. li.

and we. 32. it will of course lead to the c/ element of practical repentance. 12. usage of the two words applying OKenToThe same gracious experience. new nature first at the commencement of a return to religious or the steps of a xxii. God regenerates. 20. while repentance a daily experience of the Christian as long as the strugsfle with sin continues in his heart vi. a false repentance experienced before regenarises and by those never regenerated. corresponding to our new character as the children of Goih (3) If this be sincere. and life. namely. in the exercise of the new gracious ability thus given. is There eration. I^uke ix. Gal. giving prominence to the work law upon the conscience. xix.) Conversion is the more \^ /\ general term. exciting simply a and pollution. 24. V. Acts xxvi. repent. which simply from the Spirit common operations of the truth and sense of guilt upon the natural conscience. 14 . It especially emphasizes that experience as a turning unto God. a sincere of. purpose and a persevering endeavour affer. pentance of t'he is Re- more specific. 13. are terms Repentance and conversion. including all the various experiences in- volved in our commencing the divine life. and especially emphaattending the sizing the experiences new birth as a turning from sin. new obedi- ence.) first Conversion is generally used to designate only the actings of the life. differs The scriptural : in two respects (1.288 CONFESSION OF FAITH. (2. Ps. therefore. God after a notable backsliding is (Luke 32). By lite these marks its it may be seen that repentance unto can only be exercised by a soul after and in conseregeneration by the quence of Holy Spirit. leading neither to the .

(a) The genuineness by its of true repentance is | proved being conformed perfectly to the re(6) \ quirements and teachings of Scripture. it infallibly springs life. nature. 289 mercy hatred of sin. Acta xi. as satisfaction for sin or any cause of the pardon thereof. 2 Tim. 31. 48. ro^Mintance is. " for without Every Christian du^ is. is faith is God's gift. a grace.^ which 19 *ny . and fruits. That should be diligently preached by every is minister of the gospel (1) self-evident (2." is And equally every Christian grace is a duty it . because the grace given to us to exercise. 25. 47. Zech. 21. 22. Because such preaching was included tles.) From . a holy hatred of sin faith in the Lord Jesus and Gal. xii. nor to the unto God. Eph. 8. from regeneralike faith. it ii. we are the branches. his ii. given to us for Christ's sake. commission Christ gave to the aposLuke xxiv. As thus defined. (2. It involves true conviction of sin . as well What is here said of reas a duty obligatory upon us.) which It V.— Although repentance be not to be rested in. by its If genuine. him we can do nothing. 18. directly affirmed in Scripture. 10. nor to the apprehension of the sin from turning practical of God in Christ. Section III.REPENTANCE UNTO LIFE. an tion and leads to eternal 3d. But we are Christ is the Vine . That its it is thus a gift of God is evident— (1. accountable agents. Acts xx. work. v. and finds its true result and expression only in the duty. (3. evangelical grace. 4th.) from the es- sential nature of the duty. pentance is equally true of every characteristic expe- rience of the subject of regeneration and sanctification.) Because of the example in the of the apostles. also free. therefore.

.290 is CONFESSION OF FAITH. Matt. 30. as prere quisite to lull pardon and restoration to divine favour. 16. Rom. xxxvi. 24.s- position lives. That wliile the least sin deserves condemnation. 32. Ezek. and E-atioiialists generally. so that none who are non- repentant are pardoned. v.—'' Luke i. iii. Men ought not to content themselves with a general repentance. . j-et is it the act of God's free grace in Christ. 1. 13. so by nature and the general sinfulness of their they ought also to repent of every particular sin known 1st. 31. six. to them. vi. 31. 13.® so there is no sin so great that can bring damnation upon those who truly repent. as men ouglit to repent of their sinful di. as any it is satisfaction for sin or any cause of the j^ardon it is thereof. 4th. 7. 2d. Eom. 5. repentance the same grace of Christ which bringeth avails to extinguish the guilt of the greatest sin. and hence the only condition God demands. tion for sin or any cause of the pardon This directly contradicts the opinion of Socinians.' to all sinners that none may expect pardon without is Section IV. 12. xii. xiv. ei-G?. to the effect that the repentance of the sinner is the only satisfaction the law requires. 7. viii. i. the advocates of the moral-influence theory of the atonement. Iv. That. 2.'" 6 i. 18. — As there no sin so small it but it deserves dam- nation. That. Luke xix. 3d. but it is every man's duty to endeavour to repent — of his particular sins particularly. Isa. These Sections teach the following propositions 1st. 8 j Tim. 15. nevertheless. Repentance is not to be rested in as any satisfacthereof. 3. of such necessity that inseparable from pardon.36.— '" Ps.—^ Hos. Acts xvii. That repentance is not to be rested in. Eph. xvi.. 23.® Section V. xiii.—» 1 Isa. i.— 8 Rom.® of sucli ueces^ity it.

/ It also contradicts the KodhsIi doctrine They sin distinguish penance — (1. to satisfy divine justice for sins committed.) As a sacrament.) As a virtup which is internal. 12 and 13... that the ele- and ((/) absolution. Rom. of* 291 penance. Qr-. (2. e. the exter- nal expression of the internal state. the necessity for the satisfaction rendered to the law and justice of God by (c) the obedience and suffering of Christ. man's securing justification by works of any kind {e) and on as to the foot that the believer is justified solely the ground of the righteousness of Christ im})Uted to him and received by faith alone. Tart.. sufficient to [)r()ve (1) that parii. pronounced by the priest judicially and not merely declaratively. (c) satisfaction or some pain- work. They hold an efficient ment of satisfaction included in this sacrament makes a cause of par- real satisfaction for sin. (6) confession or self-accusation to a priest having jurisdiction and the power of the keys ful . absolutely essential — the after only means whereby the pardon of sins committed baptism can be secured. as to the fact that he has rendered a full satisfaction in behalf of all for whom he died. and they are more than * Cat.. sorrow and detestation of past sins. tliai. . which inexorably demands the (6) as to punishment of every sin. which it. and is don. with a purpose of sinning no more.REPENTANCE UNTO LIFE. consists (a) of contrition — This sacrament i. (d) as to the impossibility of any . v. All these points have already been discussed under their appropriate heads. imposed by the priest and performed by the penitent. including sorrow for sin and a tu -ling from unto God..* That repentance of sin is is no cause whatever of the pardon the Scriptures teach us («) proved by all that as to the justice of God.

He that does not repent does not believe. is 2d. to confirm him in his sinful state. and that as we have seen.) is the ^ natural and instant sequence of the grace of regeneration. them from the clear guilt of their sins by pardon... hath "Him and God exalted. and he brings them . like a duty as well as a grace.^ by the soul to Christ's grace. and to encourage others therein. faith. when genuine. (2) that the external penance of the Romanist an impertinent attempt to supplement the perfect satisfaction of Christ. is itself a gracious gift of God. * sinners that none is may expect pardon without This evident — (1) Because the giving of pardon to a non- repentant sinner would be in effect to sanction his sin. without merit it in itself. from the power of their sins through repentance. his The design of Christ's work Pie frees is to save people from their sins. the instrument of justification. 31. is He that does not believe not justified. and of value only because springs from the application of Christ's grace to the soul and leads to the application .) forgiveness of sins. secured entirely on a different basis is . to give repentance to Israel (4. repentance of such necessity to all it. Although Scripture and the moral is sense of men teach that repentance no adequate satis- faction for sin nor an equivalent it for the penalty. and (3) that internal repentance. Nevertheless. faith is. and ministers are com- . (2. they just as clearly teach that would be inconsistent Repentance in every sense with good morals to pardon a person cherishing an unrepentant spirit." Acts v. It also embraces an element of faith in Christ. is Repentance. He that repents believes. (3..) Regeneration and justification are never separated.292 don is CONFESSION OF FAITH.

v. I^uke xix. and faith j^ nnites to Christ and secures the imjuitation of his righteousness. for each particular sin into which he falls." so he that scandalize th his brother. fied. Hence " whosoever shall keep the whole law. That the least sin deserves is punishment is The moral law moral in every element. That there is no sin so great that it can bring condemnation is upon those that truly repent true repentance. 1 . ous. is LIFE. 293 to preach it as essential to forgiveness. Acts xx. Luke obviit xxiv. viii. 4th. 10. and the forsaking of them. as ration. or the Church of . true repentance includes faith. because is we have is seen. he shall find mercy .REPENTANCE UNTO mauded 3d. and is of the essence of that which moral that it is oblio-a- tory." James ii. also evident. a dictate alike 1 of natural conscience and Scripture. 20. i. praying for the pardon thereof. and yet offend in one point. and that its violation is deserving of reprobation. John 9. but also of every particular sinful action of which they are conscious and that redress the when possible they should is wrong done by their actions. 21. 47." upon Christ. 8. ought to which. and no man he is sorry i'or and ready is renounce his own sins in general unless he conscious of practically renouncing and grieving Section VI. and the righteousness of Christ of course can- cels all possible sin. Rom. No man has any right to presume that he hates sin in general unless he practically hates every sin in has any right to presume that to particular. the fruit of regeneis and no man regenerated who not also justi- Besides. That men ought to repent not only in general of the corruption of their hearts and sinfulness of their lives. is guilty of all. — As eveiy man is bound to make private conliBS- sion of his sins to God.

li. 16. xxviii. of all his sins to sins are sincere. or scandalized by his unchristian conduct the Church of Christ. vii. li. xviii. he ought to be willing. This is all included in what has already been said as to the nature and effects of genuine repentance. alike of natural reason and Scripture. 0. 5. The and wrolig-doer plainly in debt to possible restituprinci])le the man he has injured to make every tion to his feelings interests.294 CONFESSION OF FAITH. where posof the wrong. to cleanse us from all unright- eousness. and that God will certainly pardon hira when his sorrow and his rennnciation of his 1st. 15-18. 3. 24. by a private or public confession and sorrow for his pin. James v. be willing. 1 John ii. by an expressed repentance and. i. Ps. 7. 4." who are thereupon to be reconciled to him. 16. If we have done wrong. 23. This Section teaches That every man should make private confession God. 6. 9. sible. 19. 13. as the case may be. and in love to receive him. redress we place ourselves on the is side of the riglit. xxxii.— 12 Prov. v. 8. and the same holds true in relation to the general interests of the Christian community. That when a Christian has personally injured a brother. we stand in the position of one maintaining a wrong until. and it is expressly declared in Scri23ture: " If we confess our sins. to declare his is repentance to those that are offended.— ^3 James v." 11 Pa." 1 2d. . Luke xvii. he (God) is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and i. The duty is expressly com- manded Matt. in Scripture. Josh. 14. 4. Matt.— " 2 Cor. by a public or also a dictate a private confession. to declare his repentance to those that are offended . 5. John 9.

not merely declaratively. 4. Qs. in all their and qualifying circumstances. Matt. vi. if any mortal sin is is unconfessed wilful. 42. 40. and to (1 God through Christ * Cut. on the has immediate access to Christ. They bid us simply to confess our is one to another. This is an obvious perversion of the scriptural com- mand faults to confess.REPENTANCE UNTO 3d. all the penal consequences of the by the authority of Jesus Christ. its evident exercise it is a certain indication that the person exercising for- given by Christ and a Christian brother. 33. 2 Cor.. but died to redeem us while pentant. ii. not only forgave us upon repentance. themselves bound to act upon is. forgive As to public scandals. 3. E Part ii. as an element of penance and evidence of true repentance. . to forgive the offending party and restore him fully All honourable this principle. ii. it is not forgiven and if the omission is is sacrilege. Luke xvii. LIFE. v. The believer. John xiv. 5. them when the Lord has done is the gift As genuine is repentance of Christ. 7. the we were unreChurch is bound to so. v. to favour upon his repentance. when offended. >3ontrary. the Christian details must confess all his sins without reserve. sins confessed. 7. brought infinite under obligations to forgive others by his own obligations to his Lord. 6. and greater guilt from incurred. 8. There not a word said about confession to a priest in the Bible.. and that . '111.* And they maintain that the priest absolves judicially. is also a dictate of natural conscience men feel The Christian who and of Scripture. to a priest having jurisdiction it . 34. 295 That it is the duty of the brethren or of the Church. The Romish Church teaches that. Matt. Tim. in addition.. ch.

28). 2-6).)ur sin. Show Show that it includes an actual turning from all sin unto God. 5. 6. 12. No priestly function ever ascribed to the Christian ministry in the New Testament. 9. 3. as practice. absolute forgiveness of sin ix. new obedience. is incommunicable to in its very nature.296 xi. is What does a true sense of sin include? of Show how it leads to repentance. Show that an apprehension of the mercy God in Christ necessary to lead to true repentance. and a persever- ing endeavour after. 8. belongs to The power of God alone (Matt. and is commanded 1 to confess his sins immeis diately to God. What is What is ^Y'hat is 4. QUESTIONS. of admitting or of excluding men from sealing ordinances. What distinction is maintained in the usage of the worda in "conversion" and "repentance" Scripture? . What Show own three elements enter into genuine repentance? that it includes a true hatred of sin and sorrow for . 7. 10. The is authority to bind or loose which Christ con:5mitted to his Church was understood by the apostles. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 9. that it includes a sincere purpose of. as evident from their simply conveying the power of declaring the conditions on which God pardons sin. class of and has never been granted any men as a matter of fact. 1. in ac- cordance with that declaration. 11. What is the first truth taught in the the second taught? the third f the fourth? first and second Sec- tions ? 2. and. John i.

Prove that men ought to repent of their particular sinful actions. wrong wrong as to her doctrine of confession. ? What is taught in Section iv. 33. no cause whatever of the pardon of sin. 22. 25.entance is external pen- ance consists ? 23. 24. ? Prove that she Prove that she 34. Prove that the least sin deserves condemnation.REPENTANCE UNTO 13. 19. 31. as to priestly absolution. What is the Romish doctrine of penance? Of what three elements do they teach that Prove that rei. 28. 16. . Prove that none are ever pardoned without repentance. 297 "Wliat is a false repentance. What two propositions are taught in Section iii. 26. as well as of their sinfulness in general. 29. Pi'ove that no sin will secure condemnation in the ease of the truly penitent. 20. ? What is the Socinian or Rationalistic doctrine as pardon ? to the relation of repentance to 21. 18. 27. Why should be diligently preached? 17. a Christian grace tliat Prove repentance it is an evangeUcal grace. and how may a genuine repent- ance be discriminated from it? 14. ? What in Section v. What is the firat point affirmed in the sixth Section? What is the second point affirmed there? What is the tliird point affirmed there? What does the Romish Church teach as to confession What does she teach as to absolution from sin is is of sins? 32. What is is meant when ? it is affirmed that every Christian duty 15. 30. LIFE.

ii. cxvi. eternal life. 2. i. xii. done in obedience to God's commandments.* and God. Sections teach the following propositions In order that any human action should be truly a good work. out of blind zeal. 2.-8 1 Pet. ii.— » 1 Pet. manded in his holy word/ and not such witliout the warrant thereof. 22.) It must spring from in an inward principle of and love the heait.) It must be something directly or imit plicitly commanded by God.-10 Eph. 1 Pet." 8. 21-23. 13 1 Pet.* Section II. Mic. vi. John xvi. 1 Tim. 3. 18. 9-12. xiii.—« Matt. 1 Sam.' and by them believers manifest their thankfulness. Section I. 5 2 Pet.—" Rom.CHAPTER XVI. v. racteristics: must have the following essential cha(1. 8. are the fruits and evidences of a true and lively faith . xxix. 9. 22. 5. 9. Works 293 not commanded performed by God.^ stop the glorify mouths of the are. xv. ii. xv. i. are devised by men. John xv. —Good — works are only such as God hath comas. i.^ edify their brethren.—* Ps.* whose workmanship they the end. ii.-6 2 Cor. 2. 11.® adorn the profession of the gospel.-6 1 John ii. 12. adversaries. Phil. or upon any pre- tence of good intention. 18. 10. 15.-7 Tit.* strengthen their assurance. 5-10. Isa. 13. vi. OP GOOD WORKS. Rom. ^Thcse good works. but invented and by men. . 16. 1. x. ix. vi.—' James ii. Heb. they may have 1 Rom. . created in Christ Jesus thereunto /" that. Matt. 2. faitli (2. are utterly destitute o'ratuitously . 12. having their fruit unto holiness. ii. 21. These 1st.

"Against thee. the devout inquirer. is The sinner in every transgression of virtue is conscious that he giver. and its expression and obliging authority to us in the divine will. but not the law of our own reasons or it is an all-perfect rule of righteousness. observe to do itj thou : . (3. God in the (2. having its ground in the eternal nature of God. The effects and uses of good works in the Chris(1. God.GOOD WORKS. Every prin- every motive and every end of right action.(4. thee only have I sinned.) They stop the mouths of adversaries. manifest the grace of believer. thing soever I may there be easily learned by God says to his Church " What command you. done this thy God has given in the inspired Scrip- tures a perfect rule of faith ciple. Not self-development. and sight.) (5. of moral character. (6. 4. in it must be will. In order that a work may be good. and practice. life.) tian life are manifold. they are offensive. The good man the obedieM man. an act performed conformity to God's revealed The law of absolute moral perfection to which is we are held in subjection consciences. guilty of disobedience to the in his supreme Lawevil in David says li.) They edify glorify They develop grace by believer's assurance. repentance. They are necessary to the attainment of eternal 1st. is precisely realization of an ideal end. accord- ing to the will of God. but obedience to a personal authority without and above what reason. if oifered 299 in the place of the obedience required. not the us. and so strengthen the the . and are such as — They ex- press the gratitude. and.) They brethren.) and so adorn the profession of the gospel." Ps. exercise. 2d. conscience is and Scripture require.

19. which of course implies that the kind of works of which he speaks spring only from a believing heart. which God hath before ordained. and are such as — press the gratitude and manifest the grace of They exGod in the believer. Dent. CONFESSION OF FAITH. James 3d. 32 Rev. ii. Christ says that we . Gal. created unto good works. mental relation upon which If a all our other relations is man is alienated from God. it. and so adorn the profession of the gospel. Faith works by love. in Christ Jesus For we are his workmanship. But lo /e God is the foundation-principle upon which all moral to duties rest. 23. ii. it. i. 10. just as our relation God is the fundarest. 2(1. 6. xxii." Eph. Unregenc"ato al men perform many to good so far as their exte- relations to their fellow-men are concerned. James says that faith is shown by works. declares hia abhorrence of uncoraraanded servic of 11. And God very energetically 3. 12. 22. 18.) the Chris- tian life are manifold. All men is recognize that the moral character of ar act always determined by the moral character of the pi'n- ciple or affection which prompts to actions. if he not in the present exercise of trust in him and love for him. any action he can perform will lack the essential element which makes it a true obedience." Isa.SOO slialt xii. it must spring from a principle of faith and love in the heart. Col. 16. " voluntary humility" and "will-worship. v. that we should walk in them. In order that a work may be truly good. 18. effects The and uses of good works in (1. ii. having their root in regeneration. not add tliereunto nor diminish from . Good works " accord- ing to the Scriptures are the fruits of sanctification.

V. iv. Mate. our own gracious state naturally increases with the strength and evidence of those graces unto which the ])romise of salvation is as to attached. 15. the consubstantial sanctification and means of is and glorification.) As they spving from the performance of them exercises grace in to the nature and each grace severally according of ^he work performed. Jolin xiv. 15.) disprove the cavils and render nugatory the opposition of wicked men. 1 Pet. 10. glori''1 Tim.GOOD WORKS. ii. and excite all who behold them to appreciate and proclaim his glory. God. and by the force of example inducing 1 Thcss.) They 10). (6. 10. Pet. Good work. and a holy soul in one whose are all in engaged works of loving obedi- ence. Good works edify others.) They are necessary to the attainment of salvation. so ge:/:ral. nre to express our love for hira iiiandnients. but as elements of that salvation. 7. they render manifest the excellent working of the Spirit. prerequisite to justification. (2. ii. 12.cannot exist without the increase of the graces which are exercised . same reasons good works the For 1 (5. 12. 301 his cora- by keeping As they are the fruits of thW Spirit. Tit. i. ii. 1 Pet. Grace as its the heart cannot exist without good works consequent. is A saved soul faculties a holy soul.) They edify the brethren. (3. not in any sense as a men to practice the same. 1 Tim. ii. 3. V. Thus by the universal law of And the assurance habit grace grows by its exercise. 23. 16. both as confirma- tory evidence of the truth of Christianity and the power of divine grace. nor as in any stage of the believer's essential fruits i)rogress meriting the divine favour. grace. Since God is their author (Eph. they manifest the excellency of his grace. (4. ii.

CONFESSION OF FAITH. Ixiv. Eph. besides the graces they have is already received. as before in evil ones. But. 11. Heb. 3. ii. wherein continues graciously to sustain. as if they were not bound to perform any duty unless upon a special motion of the Spirit but they ought to be diligent in stirring same Holy Spirit to work . i." 27. The regenerated man depends upon (he continues' indwelling. as we also saw under Chapter sanctification is a li'^ work of God's free grace. 27. John XV. 6. Heaven could not exist except as a society of all holy souls mutually obeying the law of love in the good works that law requires. but wholly from the Spirit of Christ.. 21. Jude 20.—" Phil. 7. 10. i. Acts xxvi. 25-27 ." And that may be enabled thereunto. xxi. : Ezek. 4-6 Phil. v. Section they III. up the grace of God that ^i is in 2fi. gracious affections and holy exercises do this In respect to the implantation of per- manent holy principle by the Holy Spirit the soul is passive. in regeneration Holy Spirit implants a permanent holy principle or habit in the soul which ever continues the germ or seed all from which proceed. 6. 7. the As we have seen under Chapter x. 7. iv. the prompting . 12. 13 . 5. 2 Cor. iv. and the it soul becomes active in good works. nourish and guide the exercise of the permanent habit of grace whiirh he had Implanted in regeneration. iii. 12. there required an actual influence of the in them to will and to do of his good pleasure :^^ yet are they not hereupon to grow negligent. vi.. Isa.302 in them. 5. ii. Rev. 1 Thess. had been xiii. xxxvi. as a matter of course exercises is the moral character of its changed. —Their ability to do good works is not at all of themselves. 13 . 2 Pet. 11. them._u Tim. But the instant this new moral disposition or tendency is implanted in the soul. 2 6.

nor does he work irrespectively of our constitutional faculties of reason. nevertheless as the acts of obedience to the performance of which the Spirit prompts and enables him are his own acts. but through . moHence this Section asserts 1st. God's Avill is the written word. It is never the . whereby the Christian will enabled to and to do of his good pleasure. or to abate in any degree our sense of personal exhibited to ns objectively in obligation to voluntary obedi- obligation. conscience and free will. while seeking his guidance and assistance. it follows that he. in addition to the grace implanted in regeneration. must actively co-operate with acting like every free agent under the influence of tives and a sense of personal responsibility. but through them. The ence binds our consciences. this doctrine of the absolute 3d. use of grace and all all means our doing all that the law of own best energies in being and God requires. but wholly from the of Christ.the Word. and tlie 303 sustaining and the enabling jiower of the Holy Spirit in every act of obedience in the exercise of grace. and support of grace. It hence follows that we can never honour the Holy Spirit by waiting for his special motions. That is dependence of the soul not to be perverted into an occasion to indo- lence. The Holy Spirit does not work independently of the Word. That the is ability of the all Christian to do good works S])irit not at from himself. 2d.GOOD WORKS. there is needed a continual all influence of the Holy Ghost upon the faculties of is the renewed soul. while seeking the guidance it. That in order thereto. but that we always yield to and co-work with him wiien we.

5-7. Rom. . Job ix. 20 . 6. is pleased to accept and reward that which sincere. Gal. viii. That works of supererogation are so far from being possible. Isa. xxv. ii. 8. viii. and to do njore than God requires. Gen. James his word. 17. or eternal life. Tit. Matt. Lxiv. fections. as they are wrought by us. v.'"' not as though they were in this . cxxx. xvii. Ps. 2. 23. 2. 10. These Sections teach 1st. xiii. vi. that they cannot endure much weakness and the severity of God's judgment. xxviii. in —Yet. 21 18. Job xxii.-22 Heb. xi. they proceed from his Spirit. 22. as they are good. 20. iii. 5 . .s positive oblip-ntioTia. are so far from being able to supererogate. 7. cxliii.^* and. even for the most eminent saint. 23. 2 Cor. 18. 8. We cannot. iv. waiters for grace. their good works also accepted him . xvi. v. 4. Heb. Gal.304 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Eph. ii. 38 xiii." but when we have done all we can." »5 Luke xvii. 6. as that they fall short of much which in duty they are bound to do.^* Section V.^® Section VI.'' and because. Rom. the persons of believers ai'e being accepted through Christ. and the infinite distance that is between us and God. whom by them est height — — we can dutj'. 4 . Section IV. Heb. 4. 21. Luke xi.- Nch. They who in their obedience attain to the greatwhich is possible in this life.—" Luke vii. although acccT-panied with many weaknesses and imper17. merit pardon of sin. 20. 3. 3. 22. 2.—™ Eph. in.— 1« Bom. 22. Ex. iv. 23.^' life wholly unblam- able and unreprovable in God's sight but that he. by our best works. 2. 12. 2. xxxv. looking upon ia them in his Sod. that in tliis life it is not possible for the most thoroughly sancto discliarge all hi. 15. bj' reason of the great disproportion that is between them and the glory to come. we have done but our and are unprofitable servants . i. v. 6.— '9 ix. neither profit. 9. whom God approves. nor satisfy for the debt of our former sins .—18 GaL cxliii. iii. 1 Pet. tilied one fully .-21 job Ps. notwithstanding. they are defiled and mixed with so imperfection. at the hand of God. but always the active seekers for grace And doers of 9-13. Ps. i. 2. 3. 10.

and their observance necessary in order to salvation. of course. to teaches that good works subsequent grace and eternal baptism merit increase of felicity ." Works of supererogation aj'c in their own nature impossible under the moral law of God. AVe have already. consisting The as of advice. vi ch. 20 Sess. former are binding upon all classes The of the people. for several reasons assigned.GOOD WORKS. Canon 24 32. . accepted because of their union with Christ Jesus. so far from meriting either the pardon of sin or eternal life at the hands of God. seeking a higher degree of perfection and a more exalted reward. The phrase ** supererogation" means "more than is demanded. obedience to monastic rule. for his sake.* and (6) it distinguishes between the commands and counsels of Christ.. xvi. under Chapter state of sinless perfection in this life. of surpassing them. seen that a is never attained by Christians and it of course follows that much less is it possible for commanded. 2d.. voluntary poverty. The Romish (a) Church teaches tionism. not of commands — such celibacy. the ordinaiy Arminian theory of it In addition to this error. —are binding only on those who voluntarily assume xiii. In man's present state even the most eminent saint all is inca- pable of fully discharging his obligations — much perfec- more. them. etc. and rewarded 1st. That works of supererogation are always and any to is do more than essen- * Council of Trent. 3d. the best 306 works of believers. the works of sincere believers are. latter. like their persons. That. in spite of their imperfections. nevertheless. cannot even endure the scrutiny of his holy judgment. That.

(5. If it be not it is. If it is cf course.) — God declares Tim. or reserved for him in that eternal inheritance which he is to receive as a joint heir with Christ. xv. 18-22. right under any relation intrinsically obligatory upon the moral agent standing in that rela- If it be moral it is obligatory.) The doing of that which God is has not made men's duty to do him. If it is not moral. they rest radically immoral and 2d. What not obligatory is what is . — all manner of will-worship and an abomination Matt.306 CONFESSION OF FAIIH. The are — (1. ii. from is law. it is not supererogatory. is That which tion. it is not moral. voluntary poverty and monastic vows. 9. of no moral value or mei'it. and our neighbour as ourselves. 1 commandments of men to (3. duty 10. obligatory." as distinct from his commands.) Increase of grace and eternal is felicity. and all else which the believer needs or capable are secured for him by the purchase of Christ's blood.) As above shown.) is From the very nature of the moral law. and either given freely now without price. Christ has given no "counsels. (4. xxii. of. covers the whole ground of possible ability or God with opportunity on earth or in heaven. and judgment. it is obligatory. The best works of believers. their xvii. Matt. iv. pardon of sin and eternal of his holy cannot endure the scrutiny reasons for this assertion the nature of the moral not moral. 3. love His absolute and universal command to the whole soul. to When men do what it. instead of meriting life. worlds is tially impossible to all creatures in all also evident — (1. it do they are to claim nothing for Luke (2. 37-40.) The working of the Romish system of celibacy. has produced such fruits that prove the principle on which false. Col.

are in tions. then. iccepted.) trust to works seek to obtain through them. When we at have done our utmost we are only unprofitable servants. ii.) moral desert. because of their union with Christ Jesus. They need to be atoned for by the blood. on Sanctitication. and presented through the mediation. Nevertheless. our works. to the relation of As good works to rewards. Much less.GOOD WORKS. can any possible obedience one moment atone for any disobedience in another moment." Col.) The word merit. not moral can have no 307 (2. iii. Eph.. his absolute proprietorship in us as our Maker. the best of them. in word or deed. perfect. most imperfect. 17. in the strict sense . All that is possible to us already a debt we owe him as our Creator and Preserver. The best Moiks possible compared "vvhich for man are infinitely unworthy to be in value with God's favour. Whatever we do. the good works of sincere believers are. All our approaches to It is God made through have access " Christ. of Christ. (4. in spite of their imperfections." we are commanded to ''do all in the name of the Lord Jesus. No action of ours can profit God or lay him under is obli- gation to us. before they can find acceptance with the Father. only tJwough him that we to the Father by the Spirit. and the rewards men who (3. 18. like their persons. 3d. and are rewarded for his sake. necessarily exclude the possibility of our actions deserving any reward at his hand. and sovereignty over us as our moral Governor. because of remaining imperfectherefore. which could merit nothing even if this'' life.) As already proved under Chapter xiii. it may be observed — (1. God's infinite su|)eriority to us.

because («) all the ficulties he possesses were originally granted is and are continuously sustained by God. he would have "merited" the reward conditioned upon it. but because of the terms of the covenant which Gt^d had graciously condescended to form with him. It evident that. because they are imperfect. They can have no merit all intrinsically. however. in this strict sense. But hy covenant the Creator voluntarily bound himself to owe the creature eternal life. the crea- owed the Creator obedience. so that he already so far in debt to God that he can never bring God in debt to him. It is evident that in this life the works of God's people can have no merit in either of the senses above noticed. not because of the intrinsic value of that obedience. but of grace.308 of llie CONFESSION term. They can part. means that «)F FAITH. upon the condition of perfect obedience. quality of all common is actions or services to \vhich a reward due in strict justice on is account of their intrinsic value or worthiness. and the righteous- ness of Christ. constitutes by meritorious ground upon which our salva- received faith . the sole alone. (6. another sense of the word. have no merit by covenant concession on God's because we are not now standing in God's sight in the covenant of works. and therefore themselves wor- thy of punishment rather than of reward.) Nothing the creature can do can be a just equivalent for the incomparable favour of God and There it its is consequences. while the Creator owed the creature nothing. no work of any creature can in itself merit any i^eward from God. ture By nature. in which affirmed that if may be Adam had in his original probation yielded the obedience required.

and what is for its own ben- alone. The one grace is set opposite to the other grace : as a reward. 2 Cor. Because a certain gracious proportion in the holy exercises of the saJce. tion.''® they are therefore sinful. has been established between the grace given in the reward and the grace given heart and life.GOOD WORKS. Cor. 8." nor are done in a right manner.''^ j'et. in heaven — because . the glory of God. but both are alike given for Christ's This proportion has been established — the . God so in and because the grace given and exercised 1 obedience prepares the soul for the reception of the further grace given in the reward. 27 iii. rests. on Justification. tlie at once for the infusion exercise of grace in the life and the reward of the grace so exercised. and cannot please God or make a man meet to receive grace from God. although. the more grace of reward the more grace on earth. they maj' be things which to themselves mands. lu the dispensation of the gospel. because the}' proceed not from a heart purified by faith. for tlie —Works done bj' unrcgeneratc men." . the more glory wills it.) is its duty. Section VII. 17. God promises to reward the Christian just as a father promises to reward his child for doing efit what (6. the gracious work of the believer and the gracious reward he receives from God are branches from the same gracious root. of its stages. xvi. and of good use both end. iv..) To act upon us as a suitable stimulus to duty. in all 309 See Chapter xi. according to the Word. It is all of grace a grace called a reward added to a grace called a — work. for these reasons (a.'^ nor to a right matter of them. more grace of obedience. Matt. God comand others. Tlie y same covenant of grace provides of grace in the heart.

Heb. Isa. and his personal A rebel against sovereign authority may do It is rviny amiable things and many acts of real virtue as far as his relations to his fellow-rebels are concerned. 30. 27. Matt.—" Hag. xxi. and the same action viewed it in relation to the person performing relations. not good works. not only imperfect works' morally considered. and considered motives and object. 4. iii. 5. xiii. for the matter of them. This Section teaches 1st. 6 . 2d. i. 5. and others. Amos 12. Tit. 41-43. and we believe by any party. xiv. vi. 9od. xxv. There viewed is also an obvious distinction between an act in itself abstractly. IS. Hos.— 2' 15.—26 Matt. ix.— «* Gen. in tiie scriptural sense They are. 45. 31 . xxiii. 14. good use both is to themselves The truth of this all verified in the experience it is and observation of called in question men. xi. That unregenei'ate men may perform many are of ac- tions which. 3 ii. nor soul fit make the for the reception of grace. None of the un regenerate man are of this character. i. but ungodly works religiously considered. Tit. Job xxi. 4: xxxvi. 16. 14. 1 Kings v. 21.22. 6. 15. nor merit grace. . are such as God and not commands. nevertheless true that a rebel during the whole j)eriod of his rebellion is in every moment of time and every . 16. Nevertheless. 2. i. Phil. i. they are at best. Rom. 3'et And •'^ their neglect of them is more sinful acd displeasing unto 15.— 2« Ps. iv. A truly good work is one which springs from a principle of divine love. 1 Cor. The distinction is plain between an action in itself in its consiilered. 16. therefore. all of them. 29 . and has the glory of God as its object and the revealed will of God actions of an as its rule. 3. nor can they satisfy the requirements of God.^ 2 Kings X. 4.310 CONFESSION OF FAITH. 23.

QUESTIONS.GOOD WORKS. 4. and . all their use of the means of grace and Iheir natural virtues are sins in God's sight. xxi. and second Soc-tions good work ? to be tlie What is there taught us as to the effects and uses of good works? 3. Christ. 3d. but in their personal attitude of rebellion and in the absence of the proper motives and objects. is In this sense the ploughing of the wicked Prov. in obedience to the revealed will of 4. and yet he would be more to be con- demned without them than with them. said to stay And thus as long as to men away from and refuse submit to the righteousall ness of God. the same. These ougiit they but not to leave the weightier matters of the law The amiable acts of a rebel must involve ele- ments of rebellion. which would remain undone. What are taught in tlie first essential characteristics of ever}' truly 2. God. State the proof derived froiu the nature of the moral law that every work in order to be truly good itself. These works done by unregenerate men are comrtianded by God. and hence are lies their bounden duties. all Show ttat all virtue is obedience. 1. If they neglect to do them. grounds of condemnation. action of his life 311 to that a rebel with reference su- preme be sin. must be wrought sin disobedience. the neglect to the other all would be added to do. Their sin not in the doing them. authority which through all he continues to defy. Nevertheless God is more displeased with duties at all their neglecting to do these is commanded than he with their doing them sinfully as sinners.

that they stop the mouths of adversaries. 9. and obedience to God's occurs.312 5. gust'iining the severity of Prove that the best works of Christians are incapable of God's just judgment. 17. spring. manifest grace and adorn the Christian profession. ences of the Spirit to prompt him but in reliance on in the constant assistance of the Spirit. 8. 12. 16. will revealed in his word. 11. 7. CONFESSION OF FAITH. and on what grounds. G. 14. 10. sustaining and enabling influences of the Holy Ghost. in order to good works. 21. Prove that they tend to increase the grace from which they and to strengthen the assurance of hope on the part of those who perform them. Show Show Show that they edify the brethren. ? the second proposition there taught? that. fifth and sixth Sections? 10. looking for and expecting more as the necessity What is the^?-s/ proposition taught in the fourth. 20. that they are necessary to the attainment of salva- tion. What What What What is is the second proposition there taught? the third taught? are works of "supererogation?" is tlie Romish doctrine as to the merit of good ? works. from the word of God and from the practical effects of the Romish system that their doctrine as to works of supererogation is immoral. Show that good works express gratitude. What Show is the third proposition there taught? is that the Christian not to wait for special influto duty. 13. 1 5. the constant prompting. and of works of supererogation 23. 24. . What is What is Prove the Jirst pi'oposition taught in Section iii. Prove that they glorify God. 22. Prove that God abhors all "will-worship" and uncom nianded service. besides the grace granted in regeneration. Prove from the nature of the moral law. 18. the believer needs. Prove that a work in order to be truly good must spring from a principle of faith and love in the heart. to use with diligence the grace he already has.

27 works of any creature can posis sibly merit 28. sist then. 29. but religiously ungodly. between good works and rewards? Why are any of God's purely gracious gifts called rewards? 32. the secondary sense in which the word used? that the term in neither of those senses can be aplife. ing than in performing these duties. 34. tion ? 33. 35. anything at the hands of the Creator. is What Show What.GOOD WORKS. plied justly to the works of Christians in this 30. 25. is the relation which the Scriptures teach sub- 31. 313 On what What Show is grounds are the good works of believers accepted the strict sense of the word " merit?" by God ? that in that sense no 26. What is the first proposition taught in the seventh Sec* Prove that the best works of the unregenerate are not Prove that nevertheless they commit greater sin in neglect- only imperfect morally. What is the first and absolutely binding duty of every rebel against God and his Christ? .

— " Isa. ^ — upon their own free will. 31.-8 pg. Ilcb. John xvii._9 jga. ix. 5. xvi. ii. 1 John iii. can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace but shall certainly persevere therein to the end. 11.^° come to be deprived of some measure of their graces and comforts. 2-4. . Ixxxix. 27.xi. 9.'* and bring temporal judgments upon themselves. 314 xii.S." have their hearts hardened. 1 ICi. 2 Sam. 1 John ii. 12: Rev. XVII. 25. xxvi. 27 iii.—* John John ii.— '» Eph. —" 2 Sam. i. 1 3. Nevertheless they may through the tempta- — tions of Satan remaining servation. 32. xxxii. and sanctified by his Spirit. 29. the prevalency of corruption thoni. xi. 6. 3. Cor. 40. . i.*^ and their consciences wounded . l4. 14. 21. but upon the immutability of the decree of election.-^s Ps. 4 . Ii. xiii. and the neglect of the means of their preinto grievous sins. . 7. 17. 18. f). 11. 10. W. 10. Jer. Rom. Section II. 21 Luke x.-15 1 i.33-39. 9.x. Cant. 9. 28. Tim. ii.—^ Jcv.^^ hurt and scandalize others. 17 . . and of the seed of God within them .\ii. 1 Pet. 28.—* 2 12-15.^ and for a time continue there- whereby they incur God's displeasure. 14.— » Heb. Ixiii. 74. li. 4. V. 14. b.* and the nature of the covenant of grace f from all which ariseth also the certainty and infallibility thereof* Section III. xi.'* Spirit 1 Phil. John x. 10.CHAPTER Section I. 20. OF THE PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAINTS. Ixiy. —They whom God hath accepted in his Beloved. 72. 52. 19. flowing from the free and unchangeable love of God the Father .—" John x.^ and grieve his Holy . 9. 70. 30. 2 Theas.x. xxxii. iii.—" Ps. 32. i.— ' Matt. 19. in :* in fall and of the world. . xiv. 8. 2 Pet. x. and be eternally saved. . 32. viii. 5. This perseverance of the saints depends not effectually called .* upon the efiicacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ f the abiding of the Spirit. Mark vi. vii.

holds — (1.) That Christ iudirtJ-tcntly died to render the salvation of men . That the principle of this certain perseverance is not in any degree in the free will of the saints. the merits and intercession of Christ. their hearts being hardened and their consciences visited with temporal wounded. and for a time continue therein. The true believer may (1) nevertheless fall into grievous sins. having been once regenerated totally nor by God. and an occasion of sorrow to their fellow- Christians. 2d. This Cliapter 1st. and their persons ments .) That God therein till elects persons to eternal life only on condition of their voluntary reception of grace and perseverance death. must take opposite as sides on this The Arminian. The true aiul justified teaelies the 315 following propositions believer. we have seen. all (2. The effects of which falls are (1) God is displeased and the Holy Ghost grieved (2) they are — . (4) the neglect of the means of grace. and (4) in the constant indwelling and pre- serving power of the Holy Ghost. 3d. themselves to a degree deprived of their graces and comforts. (2) in (3) in the ])rovisions of the eternal covenant of grace.PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAINTS. can never afterward froui linally fall away grace. as foreseen by him. the occasions of which falls are — the temptations of the world. (3) the remaining corruptions of their own nature. but altogether (1) in the inherent ininuitability of the eternal decree of election . but shall certainly per- severe therein to the end. (2) tlie seductions of Satan. judgall (3) their conduct is a stumbling-block to who It see them. is obvious that adherents of the Arminian and systems Calvinistic question.

: declares in her authoritative Standards " If man once justified cannot lose grace. ates with grace is is Holy reason why regenerated. and to secure for theiu all the rewards of the covenant. and that the other to Thus in the personal application of redemption the Arminian makes everything creature. upon the free will of every in his man also own case — it necessarily follows that the persever- ance of any man is in the grace once received his must depend entirely upon own will. depend upon the free will of the Since. neither the decree of God. whose maintain that a doctrine is purely Arminian. Hence the any one "vas Romish Church. and that another conthat the former voluntarily co-operresists it. but also a frequent fact. that he truly justified. dying in that state." The Protestant Arminians also hold that it is not nly possible..316 possible. then. and. is follows of course that the believer at all times liable to total apostasy. and not all as the substitute of certain persons definitely to discharge all their legal obligations. to final perdition.) That men have the same gracious influence of the Ghost operating upon them. nor the atonement of Christ. Canon 23. therefore. it in this life exposed to seduction. Sess. let who falls and * sins never him be accursed. CONFESSION OF FAITH. nor the grace of the Holy Ghost determines the certain salvation of any individual since the application and effect of the atonement and of the renewing and sanctifying influences of the Spirit depend. and. vi. . and that the one believes and tinues reprobate. in their view. that persons truly ••^generate. (3. And since the human and will essentially fallible and capable of change. by neglecting grace and grieving the Holy * Council of Trent.

The Arminians themselves to heaven. from grace into eternal reprobation. God is graciously causes a It man is to persevere in willing. and at length finally. 13. on the ground that if w^e are once in grace we cannot lose grace or be lost.) This doctrine is not liable to the charge of fostering a spirit of carnal security. 3 ii. so he does not constrain him to continue Christ irrespective of his will. that this doctrine not open to the objections which are often brought it. they can be none the on earth. tlie loill making them in them ' and to do of his good pleasure. clearly revealed. that God can and does control the free wills of his people without limiting their liberty. Let it be observed (a) that tlie true doctrine is not that salvation is certain * Confession of tlie Kcnionstrants." and " w^orlcing both to Phil. as stated in this Chapter of is our Confession. do what we please. fivll SAINTS. and therefore he obvious. that he will never he allowed to never can It is is fall away totally away finally. against (1. That the whole truth. believe that falling saints will be rendered secure from grace when they go and yet that they will be none the less so less perfectly free as to their wills. " willing in the day of his power. 317 away totally. xi. from Ps. ex. If the tw^o are consistent conditions in heaven. that God has revealed his gracious ])urpose to cause every true believer to persevere in his liiith and obedience fall till death . 7.) It is absurd to say that it is inconsistent with man's free will.PERSEVERANCE OF THE Spirit with sin. . from this statement. which the Arminian Christian can no more aiford to give up than the Calvinist.* The Calvinistic doctrine. As God does not make a man come in to Christ. (2. from grace. a precious truth.

but that in this effort we are certain of success. (6. but altogether (1) in the inherent immutability of the eternal decree of election." John x. ''for it is God that worketh in us both to will ii. [b) chooses them to sal- vation and all the means thereof. a good work in them (Phi]i])pians) will perform it (finish completely) until the day of Jesus Christ. and is not the perseverance of the saints. and hence that the threatening3 of the law and the invitations of the gospel. that God's decree of election {a) respects individuals. the probability. is xi. is a direct evidence that we are not in a gracious state. nay. and they shall never perish. The ground of this certain })erseverance not at the free will of the saints. 6. Believers are said to be kept by the poioer of God through faith unto salvation. Rom. 5.) holi- ness certain if we have The cer- tainty.) the special truth This doctrine teaches not is that persistent effort on our part not necessary in order to secure persevei^ance in grace to the end. 29. 13. " I will give unto them (my slieep) eternal life. We saw under Chapter iii. but is ." Phil." Phil. applicable to our case." 1 Paul was confident " that he who h^d begun Pet. neither shall any man pluck them out of 2d. (c. of an individual's salvation is known grow to him only through the fact of his perseveroffort ance in holiness. i? The fact of this certain perseverance distinctly ^' asserted in Scripture. 28 . bcliev^ed.318 if confessio:n of faith. (c) is not conditioned on the use he foresees they will make of grace. all in my hand. i. i. we have once is but that perseverance in truly believed. because true Christians will fall not be allowed to away totally. and to do of his good pleasure. 'to A tendency to relax watchful in grace. Jesus said. 1st.

determining explicitly to who were to be saved. etc. (d) as to all the it advantages embraced their salvation. and for for ness. makes and for those only. for whom he hath purchased redemption. ^•ation (c/) is 319 immu- Hence those elected to sal- through grace must persevere in grace unto salva- tion. (6) what Christ was as to do and suffer in order to save them. wrought out a perfect righteousness in all the stead of his people. We saw under Chapter vii.) them out of is my Father's x. We saw under Chapter viii. My Father which gave them is me is greater than all. it evidently impossible that those for whom he was sub- stituted. and whom he acquired a perfect righteouswhom he offers an effectual intercession." John able to pluck (3. that the Scrij)was a covenant or personal counsel (a) tures teach that there from eternity between the Father and the Son. and that he tual intercession in heaven for all those.) The ground of the certainty of the perseverance of saints is also laid in the provisions of the eternal cove- nant of grace. neither Christ's redemption nor his intercesfor sion can fail of is the ends which it is designed. which people were ually individ- and certainly designated in the eternal covenant in effec- ])ursuance of which he acted. Since. by his vicarious obedience and suffering as their federal representative. . (c) how and when in the redemption of Christ was to be personally applied to them. that the Scriptures teach that Christ. Hence " follows necessarily that those embraced in this fail covenant cannot of the benefits provided for them.PERSEVERANCE OF THE SaINTS. as the Surety of the elect." table and certainly efficacious. and no man hand. therefore. This certainty grounded in the merits and intercession of Christ. 29. (2. fbunded on " the counsel of his own will.

The the perseverance of believers in grace wrought by a duty as Holy Ghost. not irrespective of. grace of should be preached for the encouragement of the diligent. 17. and yet so as the ultimate victory of the new spiritual principles and tendencies implanted in regeneration. The is certainty of the perse- verance of the saints in grace secured by the constant indwelling of the Holy Ghost. 16. should be preached to quicken the slothful and to increase the sense of obli- gation felt by all. and ab- to salvation. The contents of the third proposition taught in in this Chapter should be examined carefully further illustrated connection with the proof-texts annexed to the several clauses. Observe the cases of David (2 Sam. 5. Ps. QUESTIONS. 3. but through. John 3d. 9. 2-4. li. Therefore it well as a grace. iii. 1 John xiv. in perfect He acts upon the soul constitution to secure accordance with the laws of its as a rational and moral agent.) FAITTI.) and Peter (Luke is xxii. (4. What is What is the first proposition taught in this Chapter? the difference between falling totally and finally? Calvinists take opposite sides on Wliy must Arniinians and this question ? 4. solute necessity of The duty.320 can fail CONFESSION OF of salvation. What What What IS is is the Arniinians' doctrine as to election? their doctrine as to the design of Christ's death? th ir doctrine as to the relation of the free will of . 5. They need not be therein contained is by us. 2. 61. since all a matter of plain meaning and of universal experience. 1. 62). the it is free will of the man The it himself. xi.

and the relation which his merits and intercession sustain to individuals. to the indwelling of the 19. State the doctrine of the Romish Church on this point. 17. State the Calvinistic doctrine of this subject. Show of the dom 12. all in and finally to fall from grnce. 13. 9. believers will not be allowed totally 14. 15. 321 the sinner to the gracious influences of the Holy Ghost in rcgen' eration ? 7. Show that it necessarily follows from what the Scriptures teach as to the decree of election. The same from what they teach as Holy Ghost. The same from what they teach as to the eternal covenant of grace. human will.PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAIN're. Show that their position on all these points renders the con elusion inevitable that the true believer may totally and therefore may 8. 11. Show that the ground of this certainty does not consist at the free will of the believer. 16. ing Show that this doctrine is not open to the charge of fosteramong those who think themselves believers a spi^-it of carnal Show that the Scriptures explicitly teach the fact that true security. that doctrine does not involve any denial of the free- 10. finally fall from grace. Do the same of the Protestant Arminians. 18. 20. The same from what they teach as to the design of Clirist's death. What What What 21 is the third proposition taught in this Chapter? are the principal sources is liable ? and occasions of which they give falling to which a true believer 21 are the principal eflfects to rise ? .

' the testimony of the Spirit of adoption witnessing with our spirits that which Spirit is we are the children of God . 24. i. whereby we are sealed to the day of redemption.— 8 Rom. iii. 15. —This certainly is not a bare conjectural and pro- bable persuasion. xxix.. 39 2 Cor. make them ashamed. may in this life be certainly assured that they are in the state of grace. 11. 41. 19.' the earnest of our inheritance. vii. v. 18. 17. 5. s 23. iii. 1 John ii. jy. Section I. 22. . Mic.— 19. endeavouring to walk in all good conscience before him.' . 18.—* Rom. 2 v. John viii. 14. 22. 11 .—' 2 Pet.' and may rejoice in the hope of the glory of God which hope shall never sumptions of being in the favour of tion.' 1 Job viii. 21. 13.CHAPTER XVIII. ii. 3. 14. Sections teach the following propositions: is There a false assurance of salvation winch indulge. . 16. 4. i^^ 14. Cor.-3 vi.* Section II. in which they are unregenerate men sometimes deceived and which shall be finally disappointed. 1 Jolin 3. 14. 13. may vainly deceive themselves with false hopes and carnal pre- God and estate of salvawhich hope of theirs shall perish. These 1st. 19. vi. and other unregenerate men.. gi-ounded upon a fallible ho])e f but an infaUible assurance of faith. 10. 11. 5. 1. 21. Deut. and love him in sincerity. iii.' the inward evidence of those graces unto which these promises are made. 12. 322 .—" Matt. —Although hypocrites.* yet such as truly believe in the Lord Jesus. viii. OF ASSURANCE OF GRACE AND SALVATION. Heb. 2.-9 Epj. i. founded upon the divine truth of the promises of salvation.—«lleb.

inflillible certainty. li. Job 13. is rendered antecedently probable from what we know rendered certain as a fact from human nature. wliich shall not be confounded. 13.) The true leads to constant aspirations after 1 more intimate fellowship with God John iii. The true leads to candid self- examination and to a desire to be searched and corrected by God . Ps. 12. we are the That unregenerate men. however. 10 Gal. flattered should frequently indulge an unfounded assurance of their own gracious condition. witnessing with our spirits that children of God. 323 There is.) and self-indulgence. 24. anjounting to lievers ?. a true assurance. vi. 14. 1 Cor. iii. 23.) begets spiritual pride. 14. and betrayed by a spirit of self-righteousness and self-confidence. true leads to increased diligence in the practice of holiness. 1st. that which True assurance. .) The testinn)ny of the Spirit of adoption. viii.) (2. and common observation and of from the declarations of Scripture. Mic. (4.ASSURANCE OF GRACE AND SALVATION. Upon Upon the inward evidence of those graces unto which those promises are made. 19. This infallible assurance of faith rests — (1. the false leads to sloth (3.) the divine truth of the promises of salvation. (3. may be distinguished from is false by the following tests: (1. 2. 3. xv. beguiled by the natural by self-love. 11 . cxxxix.) True humility.n which sincere be- may entertain as to their own j>ersonal salvation. The Ps. . 3d. on the other hand. assurance begets unfeigned false assurance (2. desire for happiness. the false leads to a disposition to be satisfied with a])pearance and to avoid accurate investigation. 2(1.

a crown of righteousness.) The attainment of it is commanded as a duty in beareth witness with our children of God. if we keep his commandments. because we love the brethren. 16." 1 John iii. 11). 10. 2 Pet. 14. 3 . for iv. (4." 1 John ii. That true believers certainty with regard to their may in own is this life attain to a personal relations tc Christ. and that this certainty not a bare conjectural and probable j)ersnasion founded on a fallible hope.) There are examples of its attainment in Scripture. i. (2. and am laid i. " Hereby we know that we know him. (3. . and to " give diligence to election sure. The Proqualified Reformers as a class were eminent examples of the possession of this assurance. persuaded that I have able. for if fall." we do these things make our calling and we shall never Thus Paul: fight." Scripture. and in which their entire lives have vindicated the genuineness of their testant faith. me 7. by ancient believers recorded " I he know whom is I have believed. 3. God had them ists for their great sure of this grace." etc. but is an infallible assurance of faith. " I have fought a good henceforth there is kept the faith np 12. proved from the fact (1) that it is directly affirmed in Scripture: itself "The Spirit s})irit that we are the Rom. also led work with an extraordinary meaTheir controversy with the Romanto lay great stress them upon the duty of . 2 Tim. in There have been times in unquestionable instances modern which sincere Christians have enjoyed a full assurance of their personal salvation." etc. 14. CONFESSION OP FAITH. We full are exhorted " to show the same dili- gence to the vi. " We know that we have passed from death unto life. assurance of hope unto the end" (Heb.324 2d. viii. and John : 1 John ii. xiv.) 8.

. and hence that no one could this life with- attain to any certainty upon that point in out an extraordinary revehition. and * Council of Trent. went so of justifying faith Christ's sake. Thus Luther. not involving trust. 3d. as will be seen below. Thus includes trust. . juaiving essential to salvation. vi. God fl'jd we might have strong vi. connection with a sense of our personal reliance upon directly to strengthen our assured hope that it will be fulfilled in our case also. on the as to teach that the special object is the favour of God toward is us for Therefore to believe to be assured of our own personal salvation.* other hand. consolation. it is one thing to upon Although be assured that the promise is true. taught in any other of the Reformed Confessions. cli. and. ix. Trust rests upon the divine truth of the promises. 325 even going so it far as to identify assu- rance and faith. is The Homanists held that faith mei'e intellectual assent to the truth. own i)ersonal interest yet assurance of the truth of the promise tends. " That by two immutable things it is promise and his oath). in which to lie. and another thing to be assured of our in it." lleb. his promise (his Therefore God confirmed impossible for by an oath. this attainment. however. in it. fiir The Reformers. This infiillible assurance of faith rests (1) the divine truth of the promises of salvation. and that hence faith has nothing to do with the judgment any one makes of his own personal salvation.ASSURANCE OF GRACE AND SALVATION. Melancthon the doctrine taught in the and Calvin taught. is not the doctrine of our Standards. Sess. who have for refuge to lay hold of the 18. hope faith set before us in the gospel. This is Augsburg Confession and Heidelberg Catechism. It is not.

16. the Some have maintained that the passage teaches that Holy Spirit in some mysterious way directly reveals to our spirits the fact that we are the children of God. Hence when these are graces possessed in such a degree.S2G CONFESSION OF FAITH. that Christians are not and cannot be conscious of any sucli injection of information from without into the mind. in turn supports hope. then is the conclusion in immediate and irresistible that we are union with Christ and have a right to appropriate to ourselves. to those who hunger and thirst after righteousness. we would be un- able to distinguish cei'tainly the testimony of the Spirit . witnessing with our spirits that we are the children of God. strength and purity that we are conscious of their genuineness. The objections to this view are. is Hence the conclusion obvious that he shall have everlasting to all The same promise is given to all who love God. and that. The believer whose faith is vigorous and intelligent has a distinct evidence in his own life. consciousness that he for one does believe. And the fuhiess of hope is assu evi- This assurance rests (2) upon the inward tlic dence of those graces unto which promises are made. to all who keep his commandments. The sense in which is this witnessing of the Holy Spirit to our spirits to be understood has much debated among theologians. as one man immediately conveys information to another man. to the pure in heart. been viii. as far as such testimony alone is concerned. Thns shall the Scriptures promise that whosoever believes have everlasting life. the promises This assurance rests (3) upon the testimony of the language taken from Spirit of adoption. is This Rom. ra'ice. etc. who love the brethren.

it is is a state of mind which to induce in the office of the Holy Ghost In whatever our minds in connection with the evidence of our gracious character above stated. correthe marks of character which are associated (3.) The the sponding to Author of the graces of the saints. that he pret the promises and the characters to which they are limited in the Scriptures. so that. the grace of may possess a keen insight into his own character.ASSURANCE OF GRACE AND SALVATION. The true view appears to be that the witness of the Spirit to our spirits that we are the children of God comprehends a number is of to particulars.) which are combined by the Spirit Spirit The the Author of the promises of Scripture. especially to the Christian eminent for diligence and faithfulness. therefore. on the oppo- extreme. he may draw correct and unquestionable conclusions. Spirit is (2. all of this end: (1. 327 from the conclusions of our own reasons or the sug-gestions of our own hearts. way he works in us to will and to do of his own good . which is the fulness of hope resting on the fulness of faith. that he may rightly interspiritual illumination. as also of love and hope.) The Holy Spirit is the direct Author of faith in all its degrees. The Spirit gives to the true believer. (4. and of the marks of character indicating the persons to which the promises belong. comparing the outward standard with the inward experience. site Some have maintained.) with these promises in the Scripture. Full assurance. An expectation of such direct to generate communications would he likely enthusiasm and presumption. that he may judge truly of the genuineness of his own giaces. that the Spirit witnesses with our spirits the evidence aiforded by the only indirectly through graces he has formed within us.

" In whom also (Christ). or sheds abroad the love of God in our hearts (Rom. and suffering even such as fear him to * See Chalmer.** And. but that a true believer may wait long. attain thereunto. 14. before he be partaker of being enabled by the Spirit to know the things which are freely given him of God. pleasure. vol. 5). 2 Cor. ye were is sealed with the Ploly Spirit of promise.e. (5. he may. until the redemption of the purchased possession. v. diminished and intermitted as. . which woundeth the conscience and grieveth the Spirit by some sudden or vehement temptation. 27 . by God's withdrawing the "ight of his countenance. by negligence sin. granted to whom they were purchased. ii. and therefore the pledge and earnest of the completion of that redemption in due time. on Rom." Section IV. without extraordinary revelation. ill. —True believers may have the assurance of their preserving of salvation in divers in ways shaken. iv. pp. . it. 13. or begets us again to a lively hope. i. 64-68. i. 5. and : clining men to looseness. therefore. that V." the proper fruits of this assurance so far is it from inGod.s' Lee.. it is the duty of every one to give all diligence to make his calling and election sure.) The presence of the Holy Spirit is the first instal- ment of the those for benefits of Christ's redemption. which the earnest of our inheritani.. after that ye believed. by falling into some special .'* that thereby his heart maybe enlarged to in peace and joy in the Holy Ghost." Eph. and it:*" j'et. in love and thankfulness in strength and cheerfulness in the duties of obedience. 22 . 30. Thus Paul says of the Ephesians. in the right use of ordinary means. not as a blind and fortuitous but as a leo:itimate and undoubting conclusion from appropriate evidence.328 CONFESSION OP FAITH. with many difficulties.* Section TIL conflict —This infallible assurance doth not so belong to the essence of faith. hi way he gives origin to the grace of full assurance feelinix. 1 John 20.

1. 3. Ps. 2. 69-72. 1 Cor.Isa. v. in tlie preced- 2d. Tit. because this assur- instead of inclining men (c) to negligence. Ixxiii. this assur- ance may in due time John ii. attainable in this the use of ordinary it is means. 3. 1.—" 1 John ii. as taught life in ing Sections. by the operation of the Spirit.*® and by the which. 32. 1. diminished and intermitted. Ps.— i^ Cant.^* 32J) yet arc they never God. 11. 12.'assurance of grace and salvation. 8.art and conscience of duty. his calling and election sure. 1. These Sections teach 1st. and life of faith. 15. (c) some sudden and vehement temptations. 13. xv. True believers after it having attained this assur- ance may have shaken.—" 2 Pet. 7-9. 7-10. That this infallible assurance is not of the essence a true be- of faith liever —that on the contrary a man may be and yet destitute of this assurance. Ps. 5. xxxi. 1. 2. 9. liv. Jer. Ps. xxii. without extraordinary revelation. i.. V. 12. 1. 8. 17-19. Isa. Ixxxviii. 6. 11. in the mean- time.—12 10. 15. 13. xiii. vii. tends love ])roperIy to increase («) spiritual peace and joy. cxxx. xxvi. [a) negli- the cause or occasions of which are such as gence in preserving this grace in into full exercise. Matt. vi. 1 John iii. 12 Eph. 2. 12. 14. that love of Christ and the brethren. Heb. 1-10. 7. 40. Isa.—13 Rom. vii. iv. Isa. . Ps.. Ps. 7. Eph. xiv. Ixxxviii. — i^ 1 1. 13. xxxii. to God. Ii. . 2 Cor. 2. 12. vi. 1. nevertheless.—17 Mic. ii. 3. Job 10. 1 John iv. Ixxxviii.. cxix. 22. viii. 30. 1-12. iv. 1 John i. 17. 4. 32. 10. 1. {d) God's temporary withdrawing of the light of his countenance. and to have no light utterly destitute of that seed of . Rom. be revived. Eph. they are supported from utter desjiair." 10 1 V. Luke ^xii. 2. 31. Ixxvii. quently the duty of every one to give all conse- diligence to make ance. out of which. 4. (b) and thankfulness 3d. 14. that sincerity of h(. 10. Ps. and strength and cheerful- ness in the works of obedience. Ps. John iii. iii. Ii. walk in darkness. 12. i. Ixxvii. (6) falling some special sin . 24. 6. Mark ix. 6. Rom. That being.

it is of Christ and the truth of the prom- not in any degree essential to a genuine faith that the believer should be persuaded of the truth of his own experience and the safety of his estate. Nevertheless. affirmed over and over again true. shown under totally) lapter no true believer grace. a certain persuasion that Conf. the root of faith rem this assurance 1st." in this Chapter. But exists its in very various degrees of strength. ch. our Assurance. Cat. Q. xiv. § 3. does not relate to the certainty of faith or trust as to the truth of the object our upon which the faith rests in Christ to —but it.* Besides this. foil is /s that the assurance which accompanies true faith not always a full assurance. Theolo- gians consequently have distinguished between the as- surance of faith (Heb. L. the divine promise of salvation to the certainty of our hope or belief as our own personal relation to Christ and eternal salit vation. 81. 22) to the truth of Christ vi. we are tru^ bft- — that is. a strong faith as —and the assurance of hope (Heb. as was xvii. because jus' in is proportion to the strength of our faith of the truth of that which faith our assursince we believe. 11) — that is. and other of it. Hence follows that while assurance. Faith. he is is ever permitted o ^t fall away from never left entirely with- any token of God's favour. is That this infallible assurance not of the essence i of saving faith Standards.. and.. 4th. uing. may is is in due time be revived.'530 CONFESSION OF FAITH. the phrase " full or infallible assurance. — that is. since. in all real some faith degree of does belong to the essence of in the sufficiency ises.. x. in one degree or an- is of the essence of faith. . it since exercises are sometimes intermitted.

to classes — All the promises of the Bible are to believers.ASSURANCE OP GRACE AND SALVATION. etc. and terliis minat'^" directly is upon Christ and its promise. I believe That the matter of co> a'ious experience. This it latter is also called the asslu'diice of sense. because and as is called the it is drawn upon an inference from the exp "^ience of the graces of the Spirit which the soul 'TOS when it reflects its is own saved is consciousness. and hence is called the direct act of faith. is not that is God is reconciled to me in Christ. lieverajT 331 nd therefore safe. made * Dr. the /t of direct faith. and will save me is do truly It is evi- dent that trust itself certainty that something dilferent from the we do (2. — and not to William Cunningliam's Keformers and Theology of the Refiii. fruit." The matter revealed. of faith. Essay . ormation. but act of faith. Tiie latter not of the reflcv essena.) trust. let "Whosoever " by faith. but that Christ truth. and therefore the truth accepted will. to saints." Whosoever cometh unto me I will in no wise cast out. Therefore I am saved That is the matter of inference and the essence of full assurance. TFiat is says that whosoever believes 0. and that our trust is of the right kind." him come. The first is of the essence of faith. presented to if I me as the foundation of trust. tures. is set forth in the Scrip" Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. because rests its upon the inward sense Kii'<3 soul has of the reality of own spiritual ex- perieur>2S. and thou shalt be saved. is the object of saving faith.) From which the form in which the offer of salvation in Christ.* That this full assurance of our own gracious state is is not of the essence of saving faith proved — (1.

i. On the contrary. genuine assurance naturally leads to a legitimate and abiding peace and joy. and one of the highest attain- ments of the divine dinary revelation. under Sections i. vi. (4. CONFESSION OF FAITH. that all that leads to all that should be diligently sought. strength and chterfulness in the pracIt of obedience in every department of duty. to greater buoyancy. but its fruit. proving witness of the Holy above. life. as something beyond their present 11 . 10. and by the strength of those and (6) upon the apSpirit.) The expein rience of the great body of God's people modern times proves the same thing. hence follows that every princij)le of self-interest and every obligation resting upon us as Christians conspire to . and that should be carefully avoided. As we have seen and ii. Since this infallible assurance is not of the essence of faith. Heb. tainments. (3. and to love and thankfulness to God. since its very existence depends (a) upon the evidence afforded in those duties. the Bible contains many at- exhortations addressed to believers to go on to the grace of full assurance. practical marks. from the very laws of our being.. prevents it Genuine assurance can- not lead to looseness and indifference in the cultivation of grace and the performance of religious duties. without extraorit follows necessarily that its attain- ment it is a duty as well as a grace. and since it may be attained in this life in the use of ordinary means.) Paul appeared to doubt as tc the genuineness of his faith long after he was a true believer.332 individuals. that we are true believers. 2d. (5.) As we saw above. a false and presumptuous assurance is to be discriminated from a genuine assur- ance by certain clear. by diligence graces. and tice these. 2 Pet.

necessarily follows that the as- surance which rests upon them must be subject to be shaken. tlie witness of the Holy and we have fall seen under Chapters xiii. by any notable fall into sin which grieves the Holy Spirit and wounds the conscience. by any want of diligence in preserving it in full (6. through the means. diminished (a. and. Since this assurance rests upon the consciousness of gracious experiences and Ghost. (c. Since the true believer may it fall is into sin.) The same effect may be produced by God's withdrawing the light of his countenance. if not intermitted. as may never fall totally from grace. as xvii.) and intermitted in it divers ways. it must be marred. covered when . from the exercise of grace. though never totally. and that hence. [d. that true Christians may temporarily. induce us to use all ooo diligence in seeking the full attain- ment and the abiding enjoyment of this grace. that he may lose tiie exercise of full assurance. 3d.. and relost. thus clouding the sense of forgiveness and diminishing the evidence of grace. for the jiurpose of trying our faith and convincing us of our entire dependence and of the all-sufficiency of his gracious help.) Since it rests upon the consciousness of gracious exercises. 4th. but self-evident.) The same may evidently be effected by some vehement temptation. but that he cannot lose the principle from which blessing of it springs.ASSURANCE OF GRACE AND SALVATION. and since life it these exercises in this are never perfect and unmixed with carnal elements. Since it is a duty as well as a grace. it God upon the diligent use of the appropriate may be strengthened Avhen weakened. in the way of fatherly discipline. taught in these Sections. must be im- perilled exercise.

all the ways in which the Holy Spirit bears witness with our 17. 19. spirits. What the degree of assurance attainable ? How can you prove that such an infallible assurance may be attained? 8.^ In what sense does some degree of assurance belong to the very essence of faith ? 22. 4. 12. Explain the distinction between the assurance of faith and the assurance of hope.334 CONFESSION OF FAITH. QUESTIONS. 7. 21. ? What is the second proposition there taught? What is the third? What reason have we for believing tliat a spurious assurance i. 18. To what subject does the assurance spoken of in this Chapter relate? 23. By what ? is tests may spurious be distinguished from genuine assurance 6. 15. 1.. What was the experience and what the position of the Prothis point? testant 9. 2. Why is the latter called also the assurance of sense? . 24. Reformers on What position was maintained by their Romish antagonists? 10. What is the first proposition taught in Sections iii. What is the ^rsf-mentioned ground upon which this as11. 13. ? What is the second there taught? What is the third? What is the /ow?Y/t . 14. and iv. What is the second ground mentioned? Show how it springs fcom the inward evidence What is the third ground mentioned? of grace. 3. is What is the first proposition taught in Sections and ii. possible to the unregenerated ? 5. surance rests ? Show how it results from the divine truth of the promises of salvation. What State different opinions have been entertained as to the nature of the witness borne by the Holy Spirit to our spirits? 16. 20.

ASSURANCE OF GRACE AND SALVATION. it may be diminished or 31. 29. 25. Show that genuine assurance cannot lead to spiritual sloth- fulness or neglect of duty. on the contrary. Show why can never be lost beyond recovery. 335 Wliy is it called also the rejiex act of faith ? this full assurance of 26. why its exercise must lead to joy. . gratitude and diligence.«) well as a grace. 27. 30. 28. Show. State the various ways whereby this assurance lost. Show that the attainment of this assurance is a. Prove that our own gracious state a duty is not of the essence of saving faith.

1. 12. after his fall. 17: Rom. 4. all . supreme moral Governor of the universe. xxxiv. under inalienable and ])erpetual subjection to an all-perfect in all moral law. promised life upon the fulfilling. by which he bound him. introduced the as human race into existence an order of moral creatures. ii. as the natalso the federal constituting him head of mankind. v. 28. siii. and written in two tables. ii.' 14. vii. — . Ex. Gal. 12. i. and his posterity. and requiring from him. head of all as the Guardian of the entered into a special covenant with ur:d th(> race. Rccles. i. entire. 10. 37-40. the first four commandments six our duty to ii. to personal. Deut. 2(1. as a covenant of works. 336 to the law above . 26.* Section II. iii. Adam. 15. containing our duty toward God.—« Matt. OF THE LAW OF GOD.' exact and perpetual obedience . human race. . 10-12 . This law. Sections teach the following propcsitions as the That God.CHAPTER XIX. continued to be a perfect and. 8. — God gave to Adain a law. That God. and threatened death upon the breach of it and endued him with power and ability to keep it. 27. was delivered by God upon rule of righteousness Mount Sinai in ten commandments. 5. xxii. Skction 1. 8.-2 James 25 . These 1st. x. 19. as such. and the other »Gen. 9 32. Avhich the elements thereof binds man's conscience and requires perfect obedience. Rom. during a j)orfe(t ol)edience period of probation. man. V. x. 29 Job xxviii. .

THE LAW named. God upon Mount and written by him on two tables of stone. When we affirm that God is holy. in the " which were delivered by the voice of Ten Commandments. and The are recorded in the twentieth chapter of Exodus. promising to OV GOD. to his descendants in felicity as the 337 him and him confirmation in lioliness and eternal reward of obedience. to each other. of ground the ceased to offer salvation on it nevertheless continued to be the revealed expression of God's will. to man. to God. and from the nature of man as a moral agent." L. in their application to the main relations men sustain to 4th. 98. absolute standard of righteousness 22 is the divine nature. This punishment of disobedience. we do not mean that he makes right to be right by simply willing it. This fore be some absolute standard of righteousness. binding all human consciences as the rule of life.. but There must therethat he wills it because it is right. . Cat. Of this law we remark (1) that it has its ground in — the all-perfect and unchangeable moral nature of God. Q. first four Commandments containing our duty and the other six our duty 1st. That this moral law has for our instruction been summarily comprehended. which binds his conscience and requires perfect obedience. God and Sinai. as to its general principles. hw after the fiill. and the introduction of while the dispensation of salvation through the Messiah. God introduced man at his creation as a moral agent under inalienable and perpetual subjection to an all-perfect moral law. and threatening both his wratii and curse as the 3d. This follows self-evidently nature of God as a moral very the from and necessarily Governor. obedience.

and Avhich gives binding moral obligation. These continue unchanged as long as the present constitution of nature continues.338 CONFESSIOX OF FAITH. their immediate ground in the (c. Of this class is the great mass of the civil and judicial laws of the ancient Jews. alike because of their natural propriety as because of the will of God by which the they are enforced.) are either Such as are grounded directly in the perfections of the divine nature. and all to man. although God. which express the will of for God them in their peculiar circumstances. as he did the case of po- lygamy among the ancient Jews. and are of universal binding obligation. infallible The judge of righteousness is the divine intel- The all-perfect executor and rule of righteousness among the creatures is the divine will. is But the is invariable principle it upon which its duty grounded. the laws which protect the rights of property and regulate the relation of the sexes. for instance. All the divine laws belong to one or other of four classes.) our relations as to our fellow-creatures. nature. Such have their immediate ground relations of manent nature and men. The form of our duties springs from our various relations to God ligence.) Such as have chano-iuir relations of individuals and communities. and are hence absolutely immutable and irrepealable even by God himself as the These are such duty of love and obedience in to God. They (a. as. rooted in the changeless nature of is God. of which his will the outward expression. and which of course are intended to be binding only so long aa . who is Author of may in special instances waive the application in of the law at his pleasure. and of love in the per- and truth (6.

This is certain [a) because i. . at least in essential principles. make a more full and his law to man in the inspired whole. which faith is Hence God has been explicit revelation of Scriptures taken as a the only and the all-sufficient rule of and practice. from the fact 10. he is fell in under his present circumstanccb altogether as pleased to we saw under Chapter i. it is asserted and argued by Paul (Rom. (6) that all heathen do possess and act upon such an innate sense of right and of moral accountability. was revealed and although in the very constitution of it man's nature. § 2. etc. however suffiit may have been for the guidance of n)an before the natural relations hn sustained to his Creator. as Adam's original endowment when we saw under Chapter iv. and only so long as the positive enactment endures. all rites (2. but bind tho^e ptr^-ons only to whom God has addressed them. although they may in various degrees be ignorant of specific moral duties. ii. wliich are neither universal nor perpetual. § 1. 339 special conditions to wliich they are appropriate exist..) This d&ss includes and ceremonies. We remark its in the second place that this moral law. the heart was part of lie This moral law written upon was (3. 14.THE LAW OF tlie GOD.) Such as depend altogether for their binding obli^tion upon the positive coniniaiid of God. insufficient. (cZ.) created.. this We remark that the revelation of moral law of cient God made in the human constitution. 20. as we saw under Chajiter i. it has been greatly obscured by sin. 15). and as far as was necessary for the guidance of men in a state of innoccncy. remains sufficiently clear to render even the heathen without excuse.

into a human family. the the law in us. no part of our moral obligation the head and 2d. and on that basis we are justified. unreChrist personal relations. so that they wlio are under grace are no more under the law in that capacity (Rom. quirements of the legal covenant in behalf of his and to secure for viii. vi.revealed therein as his is will. the law for us vicariously as the condition of salvation. Chapter vii. That God introduced Adam. §§ 1 and 2. at all. Holy by sanctifying us into couiplete conformity .. making perfect it obedience to for a probationary period the condition of his character and destiny for ever. pleased God made under the law. at his crea- covenant relation to the law. §§ 1 and 2.. After the fall of Adam. as representative of the whole tion.} CONFESSION OF FAITH. them all its benefits. as we saw under covenant of Chapter 3d. being born of a woman. 14). Therefore while Spirit fulfils Christ fulfilled the law for us. See Chapter xvi. But no one can be vicariously conformed to the law for us as a rule of conduct or of moral character. to fulfil as the second Adam all the reelect. both he and all his race became incapable of and it satisfying that covenant themselves. and whatever is not. While the law in its relation of a by our Surety. whatever is revealed therein as the will of God is part of the moral law for Christian men. We remark in the fourth place that the Scripliires behig the only and a complete rule of faith and practice. to send forth his Son.340 (4. either dii-ectly or by necessary implication. we have already discussed. nevertheless the law as a rule worlis has been fulfilled of action and standard of character laxable and inalienable in fulfilled its is immutable.

as adjusted to the general relations sustained by men This to is God and to one another. (4. xxii. because The two tables of the law were placed under the mercy-seat. but that the general principles of the infinite law of moral perfection. xvi. Ex. this Christ said. 341 believer brings And in obedience to this law tlie forth those good works which are the fruits though not the ground of our salvation.) 37-40. The first . upon the "covering" or mercy-seat.) Every specific duty taught in any portion of the Scriptures may more or less directly be referred to one or other of the general precepts taught in the Decalogue. and which of is the testimony })ropitiated God (2. may be found there. (1. Lev. 25-28. the 6 . The Ten Commandments ^latt. 4th. hang all and the prophets. if teach love to God and the law to man. They therefore rep reis sented that all-perfect law of righteousness which foundation of God's throne. Christian a fact not disputed. 15. that a man keep law he shall live. xxxi. xxx. the high priest sprinkled the blood of the sin-offering. the Saviour said. By this it is not meant that every duty which God now<. and were called the testimonies of God against the sins of the people.THE LAW OF GOD. which was God's throne.) certain. and which is by the atoning sacrifice of Christ. 18 . called the Ten is Commandments. 14. That this prehended in the moral law has been summarily comtwo tables of the law. and on these. requires of men may be directly derived from the deca- logue. to it. Luke x. These commandments were originally written by the finger of God himself on two tables of stone. and over them.) against human sin. (3.

The rules of interpretation laid down : . she divides the Tenth the first into two — making the reis clause the Ninth Commandment. the (2.. and we owe to our assigns the re- fellow- men. niandments to the in order to false table and seven She unites the First and Second Commandments together. in the L. while the images of the true God and of saints are not excluded from the instruments of worship. (3. four relate to the duties maining six reUite to the duties man owes to God. together with all that . appli- cable to a wide variety of particular conditions.) and every threatening a corresponding promise. requiring perfect obedience. as well as action itself. feelings. least shortcoming. and every prohibition a corresponding command. and every promise a corresponding threatening. and in order to keep up the number. respect- ing the motives and ends of action. make it appear that only the worship of gods and images of them are forbidden.) That under one or are forbidden sin or duty all of the same kind commanded. The Romish Church first only three comto the second.) spiritual. and maining clauses the Tenth. motives and inward states of hearts. are in substance as follows (1. That every command implies a corresponding prohibition. The great rule for interpreting the Decalogue in to keep constantly not the law of mind that it it is the law of God and man — that respects and requires the conformity of the governing affections and dispositions of the heart as well as the outward actions. Q. Every commandment involves a general moral principle. i-especting thoughts. Cat.342 CONFESSION OF FAITH. as well as actions. (4. as sin. 99. and condemnino.) The law It is is perfect.

further than the general equity thereof may require. ix. xxi. 8-10. 14.ect of the authority of God. 10. comnionly called moral. 1-29 . Matt. 17. and (6) certain moral truths in1st. 1 Ccr. vi. 16. John ii. 1 V. v. 3. the Creator. 17.* All which ceremonial laws are and partly holding forth divers instructions of moral now abrogated under the New Testament. as a Churpli under age. 17 . prefiguring Christ. 10. sufferings and benefits duties.—» 1 Cor. ll. Gen. 38. —Besides this law. 8. xiii. wherein. To them. Pet.-6 xxii. but also can. ii. Rom. . his graces. he gave sundry judicial laws. (5. 1 . ix. 14.—8 Rom. X. ii. v. 7 ii. That he also gave to them as a body politic a system of judicial laws. Gal.) That we are not only bound to helj) to fulfil the law ouiselves. . containing several typical ordinances: of worship. 8_10. Col.-9 James ii.'" Ileb. 2 Cor. actions. 31. . 2d. Eph. Judo 2.' Section V.3. but much strengthen this iv. 27. to the obedience thereof.symbols. 8.—' Ex. ii.THE LAW OF GOD. 16. vi. but also in resi. ._io Matt.® s. by means of types and . 15. Eph. ix. 4. — not obliging any other now. 2. God to give to the people of Israel. culcated.' Neither doth any way dissolve. 13. 7. who gave it. are the causes or occasions of them. 39. directly 343 or indirectly. as a body politic. which expired together with the state of that people. xlix. 17-19 James ii. others to do so as far as v/e Section was pleased 111. (a) Christ and his work were set forth. 17.* . as well justified persons as others.nd that not only in regard of the matter contained in it. partly ceremonial laws. iii. —The moral law doth for ever bind all. 1-3 : Col. God gave the Jews a ceremonial law.' Section IV. These Sections teach That besides the moral law summarily expressed in the Decalogue. also. Christ in the gospel obligation. 1 Dan.

he furnishes new motives. still continues to enforce it. that those only works which are done in obedience to the law. Christian economy. it was precisely the law of perfect moral rectitude that Christ vicariously fuliillcd as our representative. Christ also redeemed his people from that they might be zealous of good works (Tit. God was ])leased under the Mosaic dispensation to a degree. their Those commands which have ground or reason either in the essential principles of the divine nature or in the permanent constitution of things. iniquity. And Christ. ii. Christ has brought his people under new and higher obligations to obedience. as in the case of marriage and divorce. under the preceding Sections of this Chapter. but because. has greatly increased the obligation to fulfil We have already stated. That on the other hand the moral law continues its of unabated authority. also. of the authority of God.344 3d. On the contrary. the principles which distinguish the different classes of divine commands. That both the ceremonial and judicial la^v^ of the to have any binding force under the Jews have ceased 4th. instead of lessening. and we have seen under Chapter are irood xviii. new Some of to relax these original laws. of course have not been abrogated by the introduction of the Christian dispensation. By redemption. and in the graces of regeneration and sanctification he communicates to the soul for powers and encouragements the same. also. founded on the constitution of things. but . not only because elements are intrinsically binding. 4). 4. X. CONFESSION OF FAITH. and thus became the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. who it. Rom.

and wiiat element remains in full force : under the new dispensation. or its expliiitly reis abrogation implied by what is taught in plain. wheji the enactment pealed. and the law has never been explicitly repealed. has been restored to and authe thority by Christ and his apostles. Thus the provisions of the moral law are constantly recognized in the New Te. are the following (1. recorded of Matthew. a careful '.'^tament. The Mosaic aspects (1. whereby. under his theocratic government.) institute may be viewed poliiic'al in three different As a national and covenant. iu eveiy case the original 345 law.) the New Tesiament. is On the other hand. is in the fiftii. The Sermon on in Mount. (2. If the original enaetmein universal and permanent. then the law anides in force. the case is also made Where there no direct information upon the question to be gathered from the as to is New its Testament.) is When it is the continued obligation of any commandment asserted or practically recognized in the New Testament. The is principles by wliich we are to determine what element of the law enacted under the old dispensation abrogated.x- aniination of the rea'^on of the law will afford us godd ground of judgment reason for its perpetuity. its instead of being abropristine breadth gated.THE LAW OV GOD. its If the reason of the law is is transient binding force transient also. the Israelites became . plain that the change of dispensations has made no change in the law. sixth an<l seventh cha})ters an example of the manner which the letter spirit of Christianity exalts tlie and expands the it ' of law beyond any revelation of which had pre- viously been made.

xiii. 11. E|>h.6iQ CONFESSION OF FAITH. antitypes. and in which the Church and the State are identicah (2." and figures. wherein spiritual truths were significantly set forth by outward visible jon and signs. (3. was now prominently set forth in the Ten Commandments and made the basis of the new covenant of God with his people." Col. 26. 17.'' Dviut. that they were the shadows vf wlii^h . 2 . xxvii.) It contained also an elaborate system of symbols. and especially in ihe Epistle to the Tiiey Hebrews. 23. setting forth the per- work of Chrict and the benefits of his re- demption. Heb. in «t3 its merely literal and apart from : ceremonial aspect. as Christ is said have effected our salvation by offering himself as a sacrifice and by acting our High Priest. or prophetic symbols. for us.) In another aspect it was a legal covenant. for That the coining of Christ has suptv. obedience to life which was the condition of Adamic covenant. because the moral law. 26. the vast majority of which were types. That the ceremonial law typical of Christ ii:tiv^duced is by ISIoses was and his woik taught throughout the New Testament. the people of Jehovah and he became then* King. but the body of Chr'Su " The taber- and its services were "patterns of tilings in the heavens. 12. Even the in the ceremonial system. was a rule of works " For cursed :vas he that confirmed not all the words of the law to \o them. 28 . 24.ssded and \s ever done away with the ceremonial law also evi\vere lie dent from the very fact just stated — tluii' ihese types of him. nacle were declared tc be a "shadow of is things to come. Heb. ix. of the ^'ivue tabernacle into which Christ has now entered ix. to ii. v.

15. they may come to further conviction of. 14-17.'''' discovering also the sinful pollutions of their nature. and the tln-eatand what they may expect for them." It is likewise of use to the regenerate. xxvii. as a rule of life. and what blessings they may expect upon the performance afflictions in this life ." The promises of it. Eph. informing them of the will of God and tlieir duty." so as. in that enings of it serve to show what even their sins deserve. ii. thus to all.'* of his obedience. in like manner. ii. to be thereby justified or of great use to them. clearer sight of the need they and hatred against sin ." together with a have of Christ. and therefore it i-s not only a truth taught in Scripture (Heb. but an undeniable historical fact. 50. humiliation for. 51). is it now no longer exist. Section VI. although freed from the curse thereof threatened in the law. and the perfection forbids sin . from the fact that the peculiar relations of the people to as theocratic God tliese King. x. and dispensing with and their ceremonial for ever. to it restrain their corruptions. show them God's approbation of obedience.THE LAW OF was the substance. and to one another as fellow-memState. the veil separating the throne of God from the approach of men " was rent in throwing the way open priests twain from top to bottom" (Matt. to bers of an Old Testament Church which laws were adjusted. it directs and binds them to walk accordingly. The instant of Christ's death. as well as to others in that. —Although true believers be not under the law a3 condemned. 16). satisfaction GOD. hearts and lives. Col. 347 Their whole purpose and design were evidently discharged as soon as his real work of was accomplished. That the judicial laws of the Jews have ceased to have binding obligation upon us follows plainly. that the priestly work of Christ immediately and definitely superseded the work of the Levitical priest. 1-14. examining themselves thereby." yet : a covenant of works.

sinned because men's natures are depraved because demands perfect and perpetual obedience.—" Ezra ix. 1. 12." Gal. Heb. 11 123. cxix. vii.-22 Ezek. vii. 21. Matt.—" James i. 10. is no evidence of his being under the law. Acts xiii.^^ although not as . vi. 2 Cor. 21. In these Sections 1st. but do sweetly comply with the Spirit of Christ subduing and enabling the will of to do that freely and cheerfully which the done. iii. xxxvi.^® of works so as a grace. Rom. Ixxxix. 39 Rom. vi. Gal. 16. 12-16. God . 1 Pet. 24. it is affirmed That This . v. 25. 24. 25. That those who have embraced the Gospel of Christ are no longer under the law as a covenant of life. due to them by the law as a covenant man's doing good. 27. 11.) To all men generally the law is a revelation of . Heb. 23-25 Rom. vii. 7 iii. 12. is through obedience to the all beyond question. Luke xvii. . 30-34. xix. 4. then Christ the law is dead in vain. v. 5. Jer. 29.-21 Gal. tlie law is of manifold uses for of men. Gal.348 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Eph. iii. 20. iii. vii. 13.—i* Gal. 3. 16. cxix. 11.— 16 James ii.—^ Rom. 101. 10.'* Section VII. Ps. . 22. Ps. That nevertheless. 1-14. xii. . under the gospel dispensation and in perfect harmony with all classes its principles. vii. and refraining from evil. 1823. 16. 1 Cor. "If righteousness come by the law. 28. 9. 5. Ps. ii.— 1* Rom. 14. but grace. 19. 16. since the fall no life man is able to attain to righteousness and eternal law. Ps.— 19 Gal. and especially in the following respects (1 . 3d. xxxvii. iii. 4-6.'*^ . viii. 24. it:^^ —Neither are the forementioned uses of the law man will of contrary to the grace of the gospel. 2. vi. and because. 14.— is Lev. 13 iv. viii. 3. 33. and not under tbereof. because men have . 104. ii. 14. xxvi. revealed in the law requireth to be ii Rom. 8-12. Ps. viii. " Rom. Ps. vi. because the law encourageth to the one and deterreth from the other. ii. 2d. 14. xxxi. 14. 4. xxxiv.

and so to act as vii. ii. 349 the character and will of God.. schoolmaster to bring them to Christ. to render their disobedience without excuse. John 18. James 94-97. i. shows them the extent of their obligations to Christ. James speaks. (3. Gal. See L. a standard of moral excellence (2. they are from having apprehended that in whereunto they were apprehended viction of sin Christ Jesus.) . considered in relation to is the gospel. It remains to Holy Ghost them It an inflexible standard of righteousness. Cat. 20. and to render 1 warning to others. Tim. 8. thus tends to set up in the regenerate the habit of con- and of repentance and faith. Rom. In respect to regenerate men. and thus leading the soul onward to that blissful attainment when the sovereignly im- posed law of our spirits. Qs.) 7-13 . and how It far short. 12.THE LAW OF GOD. is With respect to incorrigible sinners. the law of use to restrain the outbursts of their evil passions. the law continues to be indispensable as the instrument of the in the work of their sanctification.) and a rule for the regulation of action. . 36. in their condemnation. to which their nature and their actions ought to correspond. i. 9. To unregenerate men. Rom. iii. a. Its threaten- ings and its promises present motives deterring from sin and assuring of grace. the law of use to convince them of the holiness and justice of God. God will become the spontaneous law of and hence that royal law of liberty of which i. to vindicate the justice of their cases a ii. 25. 24. of their own guilt and pol- lution. 15 (4. of their utter inability to fulfil its requii^eraents. as yet. God iii.

What was the issue of that arrangement? 20. to Where is the only complete revelation of the will of God man ? What practical conclusions follow from the fact that the Scriptures are the only rule of faith and practice. law makes upon us 22. 1. Who Have has taken Adam's forfeited place in that covenant? the elect been delivered from the claims which the in every relation. relation in this regard does the divine will sustain to ? the divine nature 8. in what respect does the law remain binding? What is meant when it is asserted that the whole moral law is summarily comprehended in the Ten Commandments? 23. Into what special relation to the law was man introduced at his creation ? 19. 13. How was this moral law at first revealed? State proof of your answer. 4. 3. and if not. QUESTIONS. 10. 21. r>. the same of the third class. the same of the /o?(r//t class. Prove that such is the fact. and complete as such ? 18. Do Do Do the same of the second class. 14. Is this law as thus revealed sufficient for man's needs since the fall? 16.350 CONFESSION OF FAITH. 11. In what way and for what purpose has the Church of Rome tampered with the Decalogue? . the ultimate ground and rule of all law? 7. 2. 15. how many classes may all divine laws be distributed? State the characteristics of ihejirst class. made 17. 12. 9. What is ihejirst proposition taught in tlie first What is the second pronosition there taught? What is the third taught? What is the /o?<?YA taught? two Sections? Why is it certain What What Into is that at his creation God phiced man under an inaHenable and perpetual obhgation to obey the moral law? 6. 2i.

Show that the ceremonial system was superseded by Show that the judicial laws of the Jews are no Christ. 38. 25. How can you prove that the ceremonial system introduced by Moses was typical of Christ and his work ? 37. State the difference between a sj'mbol and a type. fifth What is Sections? the first proposition taught in the third. Q. the second proposition there taught? 42. of the Christian dispensation ? 33. 32. 351 mind in inter- What What What is tlie great principle we are to bear in preting the Decalogue? 26. 30. 99? the third. 46. In what different aspects may the Mosaic institute be By what viewed? 36. 43. What What What are its uses to unregenerate men in view of the offers of grflce 45. Cat. is the third? are the uses of the law to men in general under the Gospel dispensation? 44. is the second rule there laid down ? What fourth and fifth? 28. longer binding. 40. principles are we to determine what laws are of permanent and what are of temporary obligation ? 35. fourth and 29.THE LAW OF GOD. What is the second proposition there taught? What is the third ? What is the fourth? What laws were not abrogated by the introduction Prove that the moral law was not abrogated. in the gospel? are its uses with respect to incorrigible sinners ? are its uses to the regenerate ? . What is thefirst What What What is proposition taught in the sixth and seventh Sections? 41. is the Jirst rule laid down in the L. 39. 31.. 34. 27.

^ yielding obedience unto him.-6 Rom. 71. 18. bondage to Satan. Gal. v. 7. 2. Acts xxvi.^ and their guilt of sin. not out of slavish fear. Col. 38. We there saw that freedom of the its will is an inalienable constitutional faculty of the human soul. viii. 10. Gal. 17. I Thcss.^ but under the liberty of Christians New Testament. vi. iii. 1 John iv. 13. 9. This liberty of wiU 352 . Roiu.^ is All which were common also to behevers under the law. 14. 14. viii.* from the evil of afflictions. 14. and everlasting damnation .—8 Heb.—« Gal. v. i. but a childlike love and willing mind. —The liberty which Christ hath purchased foi beUevers under the gospel. to which the Jewish Church was subjected. the curse of the and in their being delivered from this present evil world. the sting of death.CHAPTER XX. Ps.—9 JoLin vii. 11. 13. 4. OF CHRISTIAN LIBERTY AND LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE. 2 Cor. cxix. 1. whereby whole it it always exercises volitions as upon the pleases in any given case.* and in greater boldness of access to the throne of and in fuller communications of the free Spirit of God than believers under the law did ordinarily partake of® 1 Tit. iii. the victor}' of the grave. 14. Acts xv. Cor.—T 1-3. 16 x. consists in their freedom from the condemning wrath of God. the further enlarged in their freedom from the j'oke of the ceremonial law. ii. 14. 13.—* Rom. and dominion of sin. 10. is that liberty wherewith is Christ malie^ his people which very different liom that freedom of the will which we discussed under Chapter ix. The subject of tliis Chapter free. 1. the moral law . 1 i. 15.' as also in their free access to God. i. Gal.' grace. 1. 6. : 19-22. iii. 39 . Section I. Eoui. 54-57. iv. ^ Rom 28. 18. xv. 18.—^ viii. iv.

17. This liberty involves the change of nature effected in regen- and perfected in sanctification. as it is it is common to all believers at all times. and brought under the ennobling impulses of love and hope. in the grace of adoption. as we saw under . seaoud. old. an enjoyed })re-eminently in certain respects by believers under the new dispensation in contrast to believers under the 1st. and is therefore attributed to him (Gal. Rom. is 353 essential to free agency. it is applied and effectually wroiight in us by the Holy Ghost. and the change a main element of relation involved in justification. This Section sets forth this precious and most comprehensive Christian grace in two orders -fird.) They are delivered from the guilt of sin and the curse of the moral law. As this Christian liberty it is common to all be- lievers in all ages. good or bad. and therefore attributed to him. 2 Cor. 1). It is dren of God. or they could not be held accountable. and. possessed by all free agents. and a privilege of all the chil24. iii. and such relations to Satan and evil men that he is delivered from their coercive influences. It was purchased for as by Christ.CHRISTIAN LIBERTY is —LIBERTY and OF CONSCIENCE. This is done. viii. v. consists mainly in the following particulars (1. and such providential circumstances that he has knowledge of his privileges and gracious aid eration in availing himself of them. Christian liberty on the other hand implies two things. (a) such an inward spiritual condition of soul that a man has full power through grace to desire and to will as he ought do in conformity to the law of is God deliv- and [b) such relations to God that the person ered from the constraining motives of fear.

) wlK)k'. The guilt of his sin hav- ing thus been actually extinguished. liis guilt in rigour of justice cancelled. The Holy Ghost himself and TT^Itnesseth is the earnest of our inheritance.. is they can no GoD that justifiviii. and our reconciliation Ghost. and carried on and perfected X. vii. Tims having a High the Priest over the house of God. as and A law still we saw under Chapters remains in their members warring a^-ainst the law of their mind. Rom. John iv. 23). ETH: who is he that condemneth ?" (2. 34. nevertheless the indwelling Holy Spirit works with tliem to will and to do of his g6od pleasure. and thus secures them. lb. u})on the the victory. This includes the two precious benefits of God's reconciliation t" us through the propitiation of our High Priest.) They are delivered also from ance is Rom 33. confiding love shed abroad in 1 our hearts which casteth out all fear. the bondage of sin as an inherent principle of their nature. They thus have peace with God. with our spirits that Ave are the childnMi viii. See Chapter xvii. we have great confidence in entering into the very holiest through new and living wa^ . CONFESSION OF FAITH. satisfied. This deliveris commenced xiii. in regeneration. and all the demands of the law satisfied by crediting to his account the perfect righteousness of Jesus Christ. in sanctification.354 Chapter strict xi. and the demands of the law having been perfectly " It longer hold him in bondage. and bringing them into captivity to the law of sin which is in their members (Rom. and have tSat filial. IG. of God. when the believer is justified. (3. him through the work of the Holy Tlius we are delivered from that fear wliich to hath torment and gendereth to bondage. submissive.

the strength of sin is The sting of death is sin." Heb. They are also delivered from the victory of the grave and everlasting damnation. are. (5. (4. where tions God makes and fullest communications of grace to his beloved. Tims Satan. but Christ has delivered them from the curse of the law. x. 1 Cor. 355 the clearest revelahis opened by Christ. and foi the law. being made a curse them. xii. he helps us to resist Satan and put him to flight. 13.) They are delivered from the evil of afflictions and the sting of death. 15. and all the sorrows incident to to the which are the consequences of sin. 6-11. The first effect of . It is no more the basis of his salvation. this life.) They are delivered from the bondage of Satan this present evil world. which reprobate are parts of the penalty of sin inflicted ia pursuance of law." or the corrupt state of the tnan's own Christ " was in all points tempted like as we without sin. delivered from the fear of death. subject power. Heb. and the dominating influence of The power upon the " heart. iv. 15. By the death of Christ believers are ii. act of justifica- tion has consecrated the believer to sanctificatiou breaks the The work of every case either power of temptation. or providentially escape for us. too. And death. (6. is In justification the believer's relation to the lau permanently changed. and the excess of his malignant power he prevents and restrains. God in graciously enabling us to resist and opening a way of is come to his off conqueror.CHRISTIAN LIBERTY — LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE. The God. designed for their 'mprovement. to the true believers are elements of God's chastening grace.) 14. yet of the " world" and the " devil" depends flesh. Heb.

1). (1. which heaven. and therefore an inestimable bless- was comparatively so obscured with material symbols and ceremonies. the penal consequences of " There is therefore them must be reraoved. given. Rom. viii. and " carnal ordinances imposed ix. 15-19." Heb. 11 Phil. largely by coercive measures." under which the Jews were in bondage (Gal. on them until the time of reformation. 2d. which the true believer sensibly experiIf his sins are for- onces is the forgiveness of his sins.356 his redemption CONFESSION OF FAITH. the Old Testament but it believer the revelation of the Gospel of the Son of God. 3) "a yoke of . In certain respects. the Christian Galatians to "stand fast wherewith Christ made us free. And has in contrast therewith he exhorts in that liberty 1. 21. We enjoy the clear light shed from the person and work of our adorable Redeemer in person. believers under the Gospel it enjoy this Christian liberty in a higher degree than was enjoyed by believers under tlie Old Testament. . bondage" (Gal. 10. that the Apostle called the whole system " the elements of the world. and enforced obedience so ing . v. 1. now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus." Gal." Rom. viii. v.) The New Testament believer is delivei'ed from This law was to the obligation of tlie ceremonial law. . We have the direct instead of the retiected ray —immediate access to the Father instead of a constrained approach through the medium of priesta and an outward sanctuary. There can therefore is be nothing to fear beyond death. iv. 1 Cor. iii. the gate of Even our mortal bodies are members of Christ and temples of that Holy Ghost who will quicken them and transform them into the likeness of our glorious Redeemer. vi.

and the promise of Christ." So that to believe such doctrines. as we know. This divine Person. or to obey such is to commandments out of conscience. 17." to destroy liberty of conscience and an absolute and rea- Section III. 39." betray true liberty of confaith. in this Christ promised Holy Ghost pre-eminent measure John xv. because that Jesus was not yet glorified.) Ill —LIBERTY with this. and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost." John vii. After his ascension on the great day of Pentecost. hath shed forth this which ye now see and hear. upon pretence of Christian liberty. son also." Acts ii. The greater boldness clearer now enjoyed evidently results from the fuller revelation now enjoyed of the method and completeness of redemption and the greater fulness in the communications of the Holy Ghost. OF CONSCIENCE. believers 357 connectiou under the present dispensation have great boldness in approach- ing God and and fuller communications of his Spirit. —They who. 27). are in anything contrary to his word. or beside in matters of faith or worship. xxxvi. Ezek. science . 26. nevertheless and the sanctified the Old Testament is new dispensation pre-eminently characterized by revealed and the clearness with which the truth with respect to the office of the Holy Ghost is is the fulness with which his influence the gift of the dispensed. . 33.CHlilSTIAN LIBERTY (2. and the re(iuiring of is an implicit and blind obedience. —God alone tlie is from doctrines and Lord of the conscience. Peter said that in fulfilment of the Old Testament prophecy (Isa. . Section Isft it free II. 3 "he being by the right hand of God exalted. of it after his ascension.^" and hath commanduients of men which it. inspired the Old Testament prophets saints. "The Holy Ghost was not yet given. xliv. Previously it was said.

2. 32. .3-5 ii. end of Christian liberty in holiness the hands of our enemies. — Gal. i. 20 . . . Isa. 1 Cor. or in the manner of publishing Church they or maintaining them. God himself has set the human conscience free from obligation to believe or obey any such doctrines or com- . . Rom. 5. as either in their own nature. V. 1' Rom. 1. 23. 1 Tim. 10 . whether it — . xiv. i. v.— 16 Rom. 75. x. Jer. iii. 17. 9. Luke xiii. 25 Pet. And because the powers which God hath ordained. Rom. 19 . viii. 1 22.^* Section IV. 11.—^'^ Col. sin. 19 . : God is alone is Lord of the human conscience. xii. viii.—" Acts iv. may lawfully be called to account. responsible only to his authority. xiv. 17. V. Heb. 9. 11. Tit. and righteousness before him. 10. resist the ordinance of God. vii. or to the known prin- ciples of Christianity. 20.S58 do practice any CONFESSION OF FAITH. . but mutually to uphold and preserve one another they who. 20 Rev.^° And for their publishing of such opinions. xv. 2 Thess. i. — . 29 1 Cor. 14. which is. r. 11 iii. 2 Cor. ii.—i* 2 Pet. 1-8. be civil or ecclesiastical. Rev. 20: Acts xvii. . 15. John 1 Pet. xiii. i. 5. 11. iv. . 2 John 10. 16 11. and the liberty which Christ hath purchased. or cherish any lust. 9. 13. xxiii. 34. being delivered out of we might serve the Lord without fear. v. or the lawful exercise of it. viii. all the days of our life. are destructive to the external peace and order which Christ hath established in the . Gal. or to the power of godliness or such erroneous opinions or practices. shall oppose any lawful power. as are contrary to the light of nature. Matt. 23. iii. 23 Matt. 16. do thereby destroy the . 15 jyiatt. i. iv. ii. 8-10. the only perfect revelation of which in this world is the inspired Scriptures. 17. Hos. . 10 . upon pretence of Christian liberty. or maintaining of such practices. 13. 15-17 1 Tim. which 2d. . are not intended by God to destroy. 19. 13. and proceeded against by the censures of the Church. 12. xviii. whether concerning faith. 13. ii. Matt. 12 . worship or con- versation . These Sections teach the following propositions 1st. 4. 16.^® 1" James 1. that. ii. 24 4. 14. . vi. Rom. 14 i. 74. ii. John xiii. 22. God has authoritatively addressed the Human Hence all conscience only in his law.

relates to the standard which God has "iven us of hi* . distinct end and to serve limits. 1st. is to destroy the most precious It has liberties of 4th.) authority of God. should have opportunity God according to his will. the doctrines of the Scripture or the peace and welfare of the Christian community. acting within their rightful sphere. The The equal liberties and rights of our fellow-men. This Christian liberty its not. That. in the highest and only absolute sense. : The limits of this liberty are of two kinds (a. obedience to the legitimate authorities either. The real question by Romanists. 6th. the Lord of conscience. tlie as are either contrary to or aside teachings of that AVord. however. absolute. Since God has established both the Church and the State. is God alone Lord of the human conscience. with whom we dwell in organized societies. without hindrance of his fellow-men. 359 mandments of men from 3d. and to require such an obe- dience of others to be guilty of the sin of usurping the prerogative of God and attempting men. Its end is that every person. The Church discipline ing its has the right from God of exercisupon any who maintain or practice opinions or actions plainly contrary to the light of nature.CHRISTIAN LIBERTY— LIBERTY OF CONSCIEKCE. is of an essential part of obedience to God. has never been raised denied. is tw be guilty of ttie sin of betraying the liberty of conscience its and its loyalty to only Lord is . and the authority of those in general who have claimed binding and loosing the consciences of their fellow-men. 5th. or to obey such commandments as a matter of conscience.) (6. Hence to believe such doctrines.

Protestants insist That God has given only one. define doctrines They hold that this in communion with the Church has power to God's name.* By far the what the Church of Rome actually enforces in the way of faith and practice is derived from ecclesiastical tradition and evidently perverted interprelarger part of tations of Scripture. the to right. to all this. to bind or loose the subject and open or shut the kingdom of heaven. absolve or condemn in God's name. and that a perfect. binding it and enact laws the consciences of men . i. 18 . in the power of the keys. or body of bishops ordained regularly in a dii'ect line from the aj^ostles and in See of Rome. Beilarmine Eccle. Mil. in spite of the conscientious scruples of multitudes of their best citizens. . Cateohisiu of ihe Council of Trent. on the plea that the right and responsibility of regulating the ecclesiastical as well as the civil interests of the nation devolve upon the civil magistrate. 10. and that he has hence set free tlie human conscience from all obligation to believe or obey as are con- any such doctrines or commandments of men trary to or aside from the teachings of that * Catechism of the Council of Trent. ch. 11. and the means he has chosen to enforce Romanists maintain that the true standard and the will of Th* orffan ot God in the world is the infallible inspired Church. it. The Erastian State churches of Germany and Eng- land have often attempted to enforce outward uniformity in profession and worship. and that possesses. i. in execution of these laws.360 will.. rule of faith and practice in spiritual matters in the inspired Scriptures. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 4. and to impose ecclesiastical penalties. Word. xiv. . In opposition 2d.

§§ 6. 1 15 . and supreme judge of can be true. Col. i. 11 2 Tim. i. Acts i. have already proved. that nothin (c) in addition to what is revealed or commanded Scripture can be binding upon the conscience. xvi. 19. but the body of the as . Those who claim. The "Church" which Christ promises and to preserve to into all truth from fatal error is hierarchy or a body of officers. 18. etc. 18 Eph. (2. — the Tim. 3. . (1. and to give a reason for their fiiith (1 Pet. to that of the Lord guide not a iv. to exercise this authority. All Christians promiscuously are . and to resist the authority even of legitimate it church rulers when of conscience. and practice..) is opposed 20.) i. search the Scriptures (Acts xvii. is every believer personally responsible for interpreting Scripture and all judging of human doctrines and commandments by Scripture for himself. v.) This is further proved Because the Scriptures are addressed immediately either to all men promiscuously. While ])ravision was made the regular perpetuation of the offices of deacon and . Gal. 1 Cor. all It hence follows self-evidently (a) that to Scripture (6) nothing contrary iny.. (4. 20. 1^')-17 John iii. are utterly destitute of all the "signs of an apostle.CHRISTIAN LIBERTY —LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE. John 27. Gal. Luke i. Deut. i. to . body of believers as such. 2 . 9. 24. that Scripture is at once a complete and perspicuous rule of faith controversies. 1 . Acts (3. 3G1 We 10. xii.) ii. Rom. sioce the Scriptures are perspicuous. body of believers iii. under Chapter i. ix. and that. 7. 15). 1 Cor. 2. "called" or "elect" 1 V. Matt. 5. commanded iii. sucl. 1 Pet. 27 ii. for 1. 12 . i. 22. 21. or else to the whole vi. 7 . 39)." 2 Cor. as the successors of the apostles. 12. 4-9.

Thess. but a regulated It is God without hindrance from man. as well as wicked. There can be no . and to accept as a matter truly binding the con- science anything not authoritatively taught in the Scriptures. 3. presbyter (1 Tim.. and imposed 4th. It is the only legitimate hence absurd. for a man ])lea to make his Christian liberty to obey only God a to disobey God. even our sanctifiiv. in order that we may be the more perfectly subject authority. there was no direction given for the perpetuation of the apostolute. clearly to understand that Christian liberty an absolute liberty to do as liberty to obey not we choose. to a freedom from usurped authority. and a violation of our own nature as moral and rational beings. . involving at the same time sacrilege. for men to arrogate the prerogative of any man God and or to attempt to bind the consciences of their fellow-men by any obligation not certainly imposed by God and revealed in his woi'd. iii. on the other is hand. At the same time it is a sin of disloyalty to God. 1-13). It hence follows That it is a great sin. It is of the highest importance. as he does whenever he violates any of the principles of natural right or of revealed truth which express at once the unchangeable nature and the which eation. liberty sets a always the 1 man independent of that will and this is will of God concerning us. They are utterly without credentials. The question as to the right of the civil magistrate to articles of faith or rules of § 3. set of and treason to the human race.362 CONFESSION OF FAITH. to yield to any such imposition. impose religious worship will recur again under Chapter xxiii. 3d. all-perfect will of God.

because not either commanded or forbidden. It follows also that both the civil magistrate courts and the must have the right of enforcing of discipline appropriate to both obedience by a mode spheres of authority. How does it differ from that of Chapter What is implied in Christian liberty? In what two aspects is this 4. 363 also further limited by the mutual we owe one another. Christian. therefore.CHRISTIAN LIBERTY Christian liberty duties is — LIBERTY The The OF CONSCIENCE. xxv. however. ity it follows necessarily that the author- of tlie officers of each.. 1. but he not at is all at liberty liberty that his fellow-man injured thereby. 3. The Christian. These matters. ? 2. But Paul comlest mands the Corinthians this liberty of theirs to "take htcl by any means to becomes a stumbling-block viii. What is the subject of this Chapter? ix. when acting legitimately Avithin their respective spheres. 5. is To allow this would be may be at liberty to eat so to use his or not to eat. therefore. is liberty set forth in this Chapter? which What several particulars are to all believers? embraced in that libf d'ty common . and xxx. QUESTIONS. 5th and 6th. eating of meat offered to idols is in itself a thing indifferent." 1 Cor. 9. The tlie lib- erty ceases to be liberty it and becomes licentiousness when transcends the law of God or infringes upon rights of our fellows. come up appropriately under Chapters xxiii. them that are weak. represents the authority of God and binds the Christian ecclesiastical to obedience for conscience' sake. a sin. Since both the Church and the State are divine institutions. is at liberty either to eat or not to eat.

How 8. In what sense have they peace with Grod ? How have they liberty from the dominion of Satan and the world ? 10. 20. 17. what follows? all Show Show that the Scriptures are addressed directly to men. How have How they freedom from the evil of afflictions and the sting of death ? 11. How have Christians freedom from the guilt of have they liberty from the hondage of sin ? sin and the curse of the moral law? 7. the common all as to the true standard of God's will in 25. and is why that an advantage? 14. and practice. What is What is What is What is What is the second proposition there taught? the third there taught? the /owr^/i.364 6. 21. 19. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 9. What is the first proposition taught in the second. Has it ever been denied by theists that God is the only Lord of the conscience? What is the Romish position on What that of the Erastian State What. 29. third and fourth Sections? 16. that all believers are couinianded to search the Scrip- tures and to judge of the truth of every doctrine by that standard. 23. 26. In what part of this book is this question discussed? If the Scriptures are a complete and perspicuous rule of faith 27. Why have believers now greater boldness in approaching God and fuller communications of his Spirit? 15. or to Christians as such. liberty 13. are they delivered from the victory of the grave and this the second death? 12.there taught? the fifth there taught? the sixth there taught? in the absolute sense 22. In what respects do behevers under the gospel enjoy more freely than did believers under the law? How is the believer under the present dispensation deliv- ered from the obligation to observe the ceremonial law. is this subject? churches of Europe? Protestant doctrine questions of conscience? 24. 28. on the contrary. 18. Show that the Church which Christ has promised to lead .

but the entire company of the 30. 35. civil Where will the questions concerning the authority of the magistrate in matters of conscience be discussed? 32. 37. 36. is the^?-s^ limit to Christian liberty? is the second limit to Christian liberty? these ways. What is the natur^ of their sin who attempt to impose their authority upon the consciences of others? 33. civil Show that it must be limited in both Where will the questions relating to the authority of the magistrate and of the ecclesiastical courts be discussed? . not the priesthood. What What What is the nature of their sin who give up their con- sciences to the control of others? 34. 365 knowledge of the truth faithful.CHRISTIAN LIBERTY to the — LIBERTY is OF CON . Show that the Romish hierarchy have no support for their claims.SCIENCE. 31.

. 10. 2d. Josh. iv. 9. 6. XV. 10 John v. loved. Ps. and that it is an offenoG 366 . 1-20. therefore. xvii. OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP AND THE SABBATH-DAY. x. 14. These 1st.—» Deut. trusted in. and with all But the acceptable way of worshipping the true Grod instituted by himself. 25. or II. Acts xvii. 25. Son and Holy Ghost and to him alone not to angels. Rom. 7. 6S Ixii. Deut. xix. the :* Father. Sections teach to render is That the obligation to supreme Avorship and devoted service God a dictate of nature as well as a doctrine of revehition. or any other way not prescribed in the Holy Scriptures. Section good unto all L—The light of all . to be feared.' is all the heart. praised. 14. xv. 32. —Religious worship . Ps. Matt. 23. under any visible representation. 9. Col. Ex. x. 10. ii. 8. . xx. 18.-5 John xiv. not without a Mediator. xxxi. i. 5 Eph. with the might. since the fall.'* Section saints. 3. 2 Cor.—« Col. 4-6. is is a God. or the suggestions of Satan.-3 Matt.CHAPTER XXI. i.3. is to be given to God. Rom. xiii. 20. ii. cxis. iv. nor in the mediation of any other but of Christ alone. xii. and doeth and is. ii. 1 Tim. Rev. 17. and with the soul. 18. 3. 23. Col. any other creature:* and. and so limited by his own revealed will. 23. 12. ii. Matt. 24. . and served. Mark xii. xxiv. iii. That God in his word lias prescribed for us how we ma} worship him acceptably. Acts xvii. ysho hath lordship and sovereignty over good. nature showeth that there all. that he may not be worshipped accord- ing to the imaginations and devices of men. called upon.^ 1 Rom. Ps. Jcr.

obeyed and served.) His commands The impulse of ouj nature as agents. concerning all . religious beings and morally responsible (g. and is witnessed to by the common (6. requiring this at our hands. 3d. praised. and the abso- moral Governor of all moral agents. That That religious worship is upon no pretence to be rendered to angels or to saints or to any other creature. Fatiier. to hi in AND THE SABBATH-DAY. 1st. (/. thanked. and that since the full Mediator.RELIGIOUS WORSHIP.) His absolute perfection in himself (c. Possessor and sovereign Lord. and our obligations for his infinite goodness to us. authoritative. That the only proper objects of worship are the Son and Holy Ghost. it is a dictate of natural reason and coninfinite science that a Being of and absolute perfection.) The fact that our faculties find their high- est exercise. We have already seen. 2d. His relation to us as Crea(d. and our whole being its highest development and blessedness in this worship and service.) tor.) con- sent of all nations of all ages. complete and perspicuous rule of faith and practice. or to attempt to serve him in any way not prescribed. That " the whole counsel of God. 4th. 06 and a sin in us either to neglect to worship and serve him in the way prescribed. Preserver and moral Governor. under Chapter i. Our absolute dependence upon him for every good. should be adored.) [e. is self-evident. supplicated.. The reasons for this are — (a. the Preserver and bountiful Benefactor of lute all creatures. these are to be approached only through a and through the mediation of none other than Christ alone. that God has given us in the Ploly Scriptures an infallible. the Creator.) His in- finite superiority to us.

conscience and religious instinct might have sufficed to direct liini in his worship and service. depraved. there are." It heuce necessarily follows that since Grod has prescribed the mode in ir ably to worship and serve him. is either express. as the principles the Confession admits. positell tive revelation necessary not only to at all. ly set or by good and necessary consequence down in Scripture. according irordL light of nature and to the general rides of the These relate obviously to the application of the ' principles and " general rules for laid down in Scripture our guidance to in worship and ecclesiastical govern- ment the varvinc times and cirenmstances of the . As before shown from Sc-ripture. tairh and lite. reversetl and relations to God that by sin. of course. may be deduced from Scripture. and the methods in which. Chapter i. common to human actions and societies. which are to be ordered by the Christian prudence. of selt^hosen acts and torms of worship. At the same time. not only all teaching for doctrine the commandments of men. that worship and service may be rendered. men God will admit his worship but also to prescribe upon which.. but all manner of will-icorship. hira which we are acceptmust be an offence to way. § 6. his natural reason. are an abomination to God. or It and a sin in us for us either to neglect his »n preference to practice our own. and his rehis But since man's moral nature is ligious instincts perverted. tilings necessary for his own glorv and mau's salvation. some circumstances concerning the worship of Grod and the government of the Church.56 CONFESSION OF FAITH. it is self-evident that is an explicit. may well have been that in the natural state of relations to Gixi in man and in his moral which he stt>od before the fall.

as the subjects of redemption. 24 That they are to be . the ground of taste. (b.SHIP. it gracious benefits come to us follows that all our approaches to God should be made through him. nor to saints. That the divine worship is to be addressed equally to Father. AXD THE SABBATH-DAY. 4th. God through anv other mediator save Christ The most authoritative Standards of the Church of saints Rome teach — (a. yet each equally. in obeying in their stead and in and suffering vicarioasly making intercession in their behalf. will be shown under the next head.EELIGIOUS WOR. nor to alone. and that is Christ the only Mediator through whom we may to be of- approach Gtxi. all and if he is the medium through which from God.) and angels are to receive true religious worship. (6) as to the justic-e of God. — ther. and (c) as to the &ct that God has from eternity determined to deal with men. nor to upon no pretence any other creature.) That the Virgin Mary. Son and Holy Ghost follows necessarily from what we have proved under Chapter ii. the one That God can now be acceptably approached only through a Mediator is proved by what we have already prove<l (a) as to the guilt of man by supreme God. That God is the only proper subject of worship. in proportion to their respective ranks. to go beyond the clear warrant of Scripture. arc same absolute sense. in the Son and Holy Ghost being distinct persons. If Christ as our High Priest truly represents the elect before the Father. nature and in consequence of habitual transgression. only through a Merliator. fashion or expediency.. § 3 ^that Fa3d. ca=e in hand. 369 open But we have in no case any right. Religious worship is fered to angeLs.

.tf objection to this entire system is That a it has. and therefore is not to be classed as an object of worship with any other.* (c) Tluit tliey are to be invoked to intercede with for us. our Creator. Some due also mark a middle degree of worbetween (a) that di- which is to the Virgin !Mary alone. to help us in our times of need. iv.370 invoked CONFESSION OF FAITH. it. . they distinguish between (a) Latvia. eorum 10. (2. stands apart from all other objects.. 2. Cat. 25: "Boimin atque utile esse. auxiliumque confugere. Rom. by the term Sy'pe7'douUa. 25.) God or with Christ Some of their most authoritative books of worship teach that God is to be asked to save and help us on the ground of the merits of the* saints. and (6) that indirect worship which terminates upon the picture or image which represents to the worshipper the direct object of his worship. [d. That reason and revelation unite in tcachintj. 8. The (1.) That the reasons for worshipping God apply to the worship of no other being. 5.) (. opem." iii. which due to God alone. To avoid the charge of idolatry made upon them is for these practices.. ad 2. 2. and is (b) Doulia. or that inferior religious worship which due in various degrees to saints and angels.- according to their rank. 8. and iii. ship. 23. Preserver and moral Governor. (e) that the pictures. us that a Bein^r of infinite and absolute perfection. iii 2. images and relics of saints and martyrs are to be retained in churches and worshipped. Sess. Sess. or the highest religious worship. t Council of Trent. '^Council of Trent. orationes. iii. neither as a whole nor in any element shadow of support in Scripture. Rom. and 8... Cat. to the Virgin or to the saints and angels. rect They is also distinguish worship which due severally to God.

to them with the educated If the Romanists be not among all idolaters. (6. in order that the saints of the doctrine (7. omnipresent and omniscient. When the people of Lystra proposed to worship Saint Paul and Saint Barnabas. and many tell cases. they in cannot hear us.) God and man. is or of God. Ex. they cannot help us. Ex. by images. 5.RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. discharged 1 Tim. 14. us and The saints and God or us and is ii. 5.) AND THE SABBATH-DAY. because [a) it is explicitly asserted that Christ the only Mediator between 5. that God may perhaps it the saints what in turn tell we is pray. both .) 4. are class it. and between the indirect worship which terminates upon the image or picture and the direct worship which ter- minates upon the person represented by then knows. (5. Christ has exhaustively every requisite mediatorial function.) may God. but. xx. saying. XX." Acts xiv. unless they are om- nipotent. (3. as every missionary to the hea- common idolaters. (4. the sins forbidden in the First and Second Commandments have never been committed." " and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God. Christ or saints forbidden in the Second Command- ment." " We also are men. angels are not mediators between Christ. 15. 18. 3. The Romish explanation. The distinctions they degrees of worship due to make between the different God and to holy creatures. 371 is The sin of worshipping other gods and angels explicitly forbidden. ii. are not their peculiar property. " they rent their clothes and ran among the people. (6. Col.) The invocation of the saints is a pure for unless they are absurdity. worthy explains.) The worship of images.

^" with standing. 6. -»i. in a known tongue. xvi. 28 . (c. viii.^ according to his will. 14. faith. reverence. xi. because Christ xi. ix. for the cry. 10 . They are absent. i. Mark 24 . xii.—8 John xlvii. 16." and.—'' Ps." and but not sorts of men living. 2. being one is . ir. 7 . Col. Gea. Eph. Because we are "complete" in Christ. they cannot hear when we They are dependent. of liberty. fervency. 18 . Heb. in They enjoying Christ person.-9 Rom. it is be made in the name of the Son.*® 6 Phil iy. and to come immediately to God through come with the utmost boldness and sense to ii.* under- by the help of his ance . that they have sinned the unto death. X. John for vi. Section that it III. for foi Spirit. ai'e busy worshipping and and have neither the time. 12. may be accepted. 13. 26. v. Heb. .14. 12. Matt. Ixv. xiv. love and perseverif vocal. 27.) men to Christ. the opportunity nor the ability to manage the affairs of the world. Col. 28).—" Ps. vii. 16 : 19-21. 2 . 14. or that shall live hereafter. office and because it is the of the Holy Ghost to draw (e. and therefore cannot lay in our behalf a foundation for our accej)tance with God.'^ the dead.^hip. James v. 13. I. 14. xviii.*" is to Section IV. all —Prayer sin be made for things lawful. 6. 5. 1 Pet.** nor for those of whom it may be known ii. The veiy suggestion of supplementing the that of other mediators is work of Jesus Christ with infinitely derogatory to him.special .) are exliorted Christ. they cannot help others.'' part of religious wor. As seen. Heb. (d) There can be no room is for intercessors between us and Christ. humility. Even if there was need fit other mediators. iv. iii.^ by God required of to all men and. —Prayer with thanksiriving. 7. 44. and we on earth and in heaven. 24. the saints would not be place. 25.—"' 1 John V.S72 CONFESSION OF FAITH. 15. they we have have no supererogatory merits. ii. 14. x. 12 . our tender Brother (Matt. Ecclcs.

.— 16 1 John v. what the Scriptures teach on These Sections teach That prayer is a principal part of religious worThe word " prayer" is used constantly in a more general and a more specific sense. . the act of the soul engaged to gratify God. manifested by the natural conscience. and of the unregenerate in who are morally unable to pray manner pleasing to God. 2. (c) thanksgiving. ii. and enjoined in the Scripresponsibility. (c) suj)[)lica- tion.state more this subject. (6) confession. because neither our knowledge of moral truths nor our moral ability to do what is right is the measure of our a The duty of prayer is a natural duty growing out of our natural relations to God. and asking God them and to supply all the necessities of the supplicant. . and as to the source of our knowledge of nature and proper methods. Our as to Confession having establislied the general truth the object to whom religious worship is to be its rendered. In its general sense. 21-23 Luke svi. its Thus prayer in wide sense includes all direct acts of worship.\iv.—'* 1 Tim. . And liymns and psalms of praise are in their essence only metrical and musically-uttered prayers. 25. 29 Ruth iv. In this sense the main elements it embraces are (a) adoration. 14. 26. . xiv. prayer is used to exin presenting its desires to press every act of the soul engaged in spiritual inter- course with God. . Eph. Confession here asserts that prayer is required of all This is absolutely true. The men. 1. 18. In its more specific 1st. 20 2 Sam. vii. Rev. 13. vi. sense it is equivalent to supplication. 2d. 373 2. John xvii. particularly now proceeds to -. ship.-15 2 Sam. 14. 12. even of the heathen who know not God.\ii.—" 1 John v. 16. AND THE SABBATH-DAY.RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [d) intercession.— 12 1 Cor.

1 Tliest v. It has been shown above. inditing is our prayers. Acts 22. relying upon his merits. Thus Christ as our Advocate makes intercession 16. therefore. John 13. We are told not S])irit. xvi. because of our guilt and pollution. John xiv. and that his prayer be offered in reverence for the . 23. only to pray after we receive the Holy j^ray also that but to we may receive him. it is transwhen applied to Christ advocate (1 John ii. taught (2. Luke 9-13. the help of the is Holy Ghost. con- . 3d. 34). Besides. for us in heaven (Rom. submission to his will. xi. that all relig- must be presented through Christ intercession. viii. and xiv. true of the class true of all all its elements. — that is. it is here may be acceptable to God and it is taught that necessary (1) that it should be offered through the mediation of Christ. this truth follows from that is revealed of our redemption through the merits is of Clu'ist. What. 26. and thus maintaining harmony earth the constant current of petition ascending from Christ the liead in heaven viii. 27.) in Scri])ture. 14. all men indiscriminately. and comforter when applied to the Holy Ghost. must be made by The same word paraclete It Holy Ghost. kindling our desires for that which according in the wull of God. 1).374 lures CONFESSION OF FAITH. 17. under §§ ious worship 1 and 2. In order that prayer effectual. the Holy Ghost as our applied to Christ and to the lated Advocate niakes intercession within to us. 24.) It essential to acceptaole prayer tnat the lu^art of the worshipper should be in the proper state. and approaching his present personal God through is Prayer is a kind of is religious worship. directly 23. mnjcsty and moral })erfections of God humility. (3. and is his members on Rom. upon viii.

yet of course giving a precedence in our desires for the "best things. corresponding fully to all the words whereby our prayer severance. l-IO. it must cease to be in any sense the prayer This point is aimed of those who fail to understand it." Desires for unlawful things are of course unlawful desires. xiv. wliich the vast majority of her worshippers an unknown tongue. Hdcnce in liis -uO ability and willingness to help ns. objects of petition and the subject-matter of our prayer and and real earnestness and fervency . it is self-evident must be expressed in a language common to all otherwise. of course. of heart. As to the objects (^f petition. AND THE SABBATH-DA. be- we depend upon God for all things. Even concerning those things which it is in general lawful for us to desire. is expressed. make our petitions the will of in conditional upon God's will. at the Romish custom of is uttering to many of her public prayers in Latin. and therefore should ask him for everything we need. as our blessed Lord did Gethsemanc. the nature of the service we in. intelligent apprehension of the relitions are enj^^aged we sustain. and should be laid aside and repented of. 1 John v.RELIGIOUS WOIl:^HIP. cause This self-evident. Luke xxii. And when the prayer is common between two tliat it or more persons. . Luke 1-8." " seeking^?*s^ the kingdom of heaven and God's righteousness. we is are here taught that they cover the whole ground of things that are at once desirable and lawful. there uncertainty whether it is may be in many instances God that we should have them at the time and in the way we desire. and upon his covenanted grace. and with inijjortunity and perxviii. 4th. In every such case we should. 1 Cor.Y. 42. This is explicitly forbidden. 14.

{b. 25. men living or to live. to But not for those already dead. Tim.) That there through which imperfect Christian Tiiat the souls temporarily suffer- souls must pass. Section V. ii. and a im- passable gulf fixed between. two states of existence beyond death." Luke xiii. there can be no prayers since those in heaven need no intercession. Those who are hell. the practice of praying for the dead direct or has no warrant. Luke xvi. Scss. to the subjects As for all of intercession. 25. purgatory. 2. as will be shown under for the dead. Besides. They hold ^hat those who are perfect at the time of death go immediately in to heaven. io the sound preaching. 25.376 CONFESSION OF FAITH. have committed the unpardonable dead The doctrine of the Romish Church concerning for the is prayers a dependent part of their doctrine con- cerning the state of the souls of men after death. the Council of Trent teaches a purifying fire — (a. 1 we are taught to pray 1. —The roadintr of the Scriptures with godly fear:" Word. in Scripture. nor for those knoicn sin.'* and conscionable hearing of the * Council «r Trent. and for those u hell none can avail.* no purgatory. must stay is until they get fit for heaven. . infidels or die mortal sin go immediately to But the great where they Concerning mass of imperfect Christians go to puryatory.. John xvii. 26. But if there is Chapter xxxii. to assail It is as presumptuous as it is futile the throne of God with supplications " when once the master of the house has shut to the door.) ing therein may be materially benefited by the prayers uj) of their fellow-Christians and the masses offered their behalf in on earth. by remote implication. The Scriptures teach of only great. 20.

— 2^ John iv. xii. v. 19. These are the regular and the occasional acts of worship. Esth. 16. vi. . vi. . with understanding. iv. v. x. 6.— . xi. 21 1 15: Cor. i. the gospel.— is 2 Tim.— ". of psalms and the administration and receiving of the sacraments instituted by hinj. 13. 42. 15 Matt. ''J . 2.^ which are.'" daily. ii. Ivi. Acts 42.RELIGIOUS WORSHIP.''® in spirit and in truth as in private families.** Section VI. 2. 42. . xix. . 12 Esth. vi. 24 viii. 23. Acts x. Neither prayer.— 2.—22 Deut. 22. 8. Luke iv. The worship God in the public assembly is to consist in the read- ing.-23 isa. 20. 29. faith. 33. prayer. 22. is. 21. 18-20 1 Eph. iii. xi. xxviii. Ixvi. .. cvii.-29 John iv. singing In the Word.— ioCol. 13. i. ii.^^ and in secret each one by himself.^* and thanks- givings ujion special occasions. now under b}'. " Matt. in their several times and seasons. by his word or providence. 7 . These Sections proceed to particularize the diirerent tlie ways in which God requires us under present dis- pensation to worship him. o77 obedience unto God. Matt. Acts x. iv.—26 Heb.Matt. James vi. Rev. 34. 23-29. V. and reverence . 18. AND THE SABBATH-DAY.^' God to be worshipped everywhere. iv. when God. are all parts of the ordinary religious worship of vows. 21. x. private family and personally in secret. 6 . 1 Tim. 24. ix. xiii. preaching and hearing of the Word.-" as also the due administration and worthy receiving of the sacraments instituted by Christ. 25 Deut. vi. Job i. Ileb. iii.^^ and solenm fastings. 7 . 2. or in made more acceptable any place :-^ which is it is performed. Ilcb. which are not carelessly or wilfully to be neglected or forsaken." singing of psaluis with irrace in the heart. properly preached God speaks and we worship . 19. 11 2 .-31 Matt. Isa." "Acts XV. nor any other part^of religious — worship.— 21 Joel ii. Sam. 25 Prov.—33 Isa. vii. Neh. Eccles.-28 Mai. 1 Cor. or toward which it is directed but . Acts xiii. X. 21. 5. read or to us. 4. 3. 5. Acts .Tames i. either tied unto. 5 . 28. 16: Eph. ix. 1 1. . calleth there- unto."''^ God :" besides religious oaths. i. The regular worship of in the God of is to be conducted in the public assembly.— 25 Ps. G. to be used in an holy and religious manner.— 30 Jer. 19.'^ so more solemnly in the public as- semblies. 7 ii. Pet.

self-application and obedience. vi. 6. the as acceptability of this worship depends not at Ritualists fondly imagine. (6) its being the fruit of the Holy Ghost. in upon the sanctity of the place in which it is rendered or the direction dispensation in which it is addressed.378 CONFESSION OF FAITH. and of every family by worship God. to spend some time in prayer. ])ersons and seasons has been done away with by our Lord. But its ac- ceptance depends upon (a) being accompanied with and founded upon the pure. ajiart is itself in private. vi. to pray to and most plainly enjoined by our Lord. alone in secret. (c) its through the mediation of the Lord Jesus. as we have seen under Chapters the vii. In this duty every one. to In prayer and the singing of praise desires we address God in the holy affections. "Secret worship ^[att. is 18. diligent attention and him by hearing with reverence. The which worship was limited to holy places. and we com- mune with and enter into covenant with him. God communes and enters into covenant with our souls. John its iv.. 20-24. and as Christ plainly teaches woman of Samaria. and xix. and thanksgiving inspired In the sacraments our hearts jy his with Holy Spirit. Eph. it is the indispensable duty of each person. read- ing the Scriptures. The many advantages arising from a con- scientious discharge of these duties are best known to those who are found in the faithful discharge of them. " Besides the public worshij) in congregations. by himself. holy meditation and serious self-ex- amination. the re- sult of enlightened. reverent off'ered entirely and fervent love. . unadulterated truth of God's word being . And all.

The occasional modes by which God may be in proper seasons worshipped are such as religious oaths. —As it is of the law of nature general. and gravely attend to the same." Directory for Worship. the exam[)les of God's word (Ps. if with the above important and necessary duty.-liip of God.RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. " Let the heads of families be careful to instruct their children and servants in the principles of religion. bath evenings. or any other practices. Therefore. should be sacredly preserved for this purpose. and vows. Every proper opportunity ought to be embraced for But we are of opinion that the Sabsuch instruction. chap. admitting strangers into the families. Of oaths Of the propriety and usefulness of special seasons of fasting and of thanksgiving. after public worship. except when necessity or charity requires it. a due proportion of time be set apart for the wor. and vows we will treat under Chapter xxii. of the family. less than when pi'ayer and praise is offered up. in Church modern time leave no room Section VII. Matt. xv. consists in prayer. reading the Scriptures and singing praises. in ix. ordinarily morning and evening. all household duly attend Belves unnecessarily and that members of his none withdraw themthe business while from any part of family* woi'ship. and fasting. AND THE SABBATH-DAY. be careful that . cvii . and special thanksgiving. o79 ''Family worship. which ought to be performed by every family. tliat. " The head ouuht to who is to lead in this ser- vice. whatever plausible pretences may be offered they interfei'e in their favour. we highly visits dis- approve of paying unnecessary private on the Lord's day. from their and that no all refrain common the Scriptures are read. . 15) and the experience of the Christian for doubt.

Matt. . 10 .^* and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath. 15-19.) binding only so far and so long as commanded. Acts XX. 2.) Those having ground. 8. xx.3 . Iviii. was changed into the week. from the first day of the called the Lord's day. when men. in his CONFESSION OF FAITH. and to which alone they were intended to apply. Under Chapter God. xvi.** which. known to us. 13. xii. 7. the duties of necessity and mere}'. XX. Iviii. moral. and (3. E. i. words and thoughts Lord. 13. we saw that the different laws of classified according to their respective grounds (1. 30. 22. after a Section VIII. v. 10.x. 1 Cor. 31 . 2. 26. Matt. might be grouped as follows: liaving their ground in the divine nature. 10.380 so. 1. 6. was the last resurrection of Christ. (4. when xix. xvi.** but also are tlie public and private exei'cises of and in 11 .) or reasons. 8. (2.sal Those their in the and therefore and immutable.—39 Isa. Those having their ground and reason in the temporary circumstances to which they were adapted. from the beginning of the world to the resurrec- tion of Christ.^^ which in Scripture is day of the week.) Those which have state their ground in the universal in this and permanent and relations of men world. 17. 25. xxxi. he hath particularly ap- t)ointed one day in seven for a Sabbath. IS. binding men in all ages. so that they cease to be binding as soon as those circumstances cease to exist. per- and hence are intended to be as universal and as manent as those relations. xiii.-35 Qen. 23. ii.'® Isa. Neh. do not only observe an holy rest all the day from their own works. Isa. as far as divine Avill. 2 . Ivi. and. 15-17. 4. 8. and ordering of their common aifairs beforehand.-36 Kev.^' Sabbath is then ke])t holy unto the due preparing of their hearts. and perpetual command' all uient. 7. . to be kept holy unto him . by a positive. xx.— ss Ex. —This about their worldly employments and recreations taken up the whole time in his worship. 29. 1-13. simply and purely hence called positive commandments. univer.-37 Ex. 21. word.

eternal Sabbath of the saints which remains. and was then enjoined upon man as man. xxix. 3. the great (c. which rendered alike physically and morally necessary from the present constitution of human nature and from the condition of man in this world.) central fact in the religion of Christ.RELIGIOUS WORSHIP.) God and To afford a the religious instruction of suitable period of rest from is the wear and tear of labour. To afford a suitable time for the public and private worship of the people. created the world and all ii. and 10. (b. ii. xx.) To keep jn rememits brance the fact that inhabitants (Gen. (e. viii. Job 18). 3. 1st. 27. To be a perpetual type of the iv. whether natural or revealed. hence upon the race generally and in perpetuity. 11). Heb. Gen.) As changed to the first day of the his session week it is designed to keep in remembrance the fact of the ascension of the crucified at the right Redeemer and hand of power. (d. AND THE SABBATH-DAY. ii. Hence the Sabbath was introduced as a divine institution at the creation of the race. Hence we find that the Jews (Gen. which is the great fundamental fact in all religion. God 2. 28. It is (a. vii. All of these reasons for the institution of the Sabbath have their ground force in human of all nature. 2. Ex. designed and especially of men embraced under an economy of I'edemption. 10.) 3-11. The law of the Sabbath in part has its ground in the universal and permanent needs of human nature. and remain in full among all men nations in all stages of intel- lectual and moral development. and all Gentile na- . It is 381 evident that the scriptural law as to the Sabbath t!ie comes partly under fourth and partly also under the second of these classes.

and which forbid unchastity and murder. generalized and condensed. or periods of seven days. in fact. e. to honour finger of his name. is a positive in the will of God as supi'eme Lord. CONFESSION OF FAITH. the fact out of which the Sabbatic institution had originated thousands of years before. Hence before the giving of the law the Jews were required to observe the Sabbath. as before shown. That is a certain portion of time should the religious be set apart for the woi-. That a . " I appoint to you a Sabbath-day.382 tioDS also."-t. from the xvi. 27. as a part of the " testimonies of It was put hence. keep to it holy. Arabians." but " Remember the Sabbath-day pre-existent institution Gentiles. touching is all our relations to God and It to our fellow-men. Indians. " Foi' in six days the Lord and earth. having its ground 2d. earliest ages. and. The law of the Sabbath. So Christ says. commandment. God" under the " mercy-seat" at the foundation of his throne.ship of God and instruction of men a plain dictate of reason. 23. Sab- Hence also the law with respect bath has been incorporated into the Decalogue. etc. as the Egyptians." etc. was written by the God on stone. It is put side by side with the commandments which require us to love God. does not say. And God when the great commandment to is uttered.. Mark made heaven "The Sabbath ii." evidently implying that he was referring a well-known and common to the Jews with the And is the reason annexed for the enactment of the law not a fact peculiar to Jewish history. divided their time by weeks. the sea. but all a fact underlying the relations God sustains to the entire race. was made for raan. to the Ex. as one of the ten requirements in which the entire moral law. for mankind..

because of Christ. wbich of its origin. as "the Lord's day" (Rev. and that precisely one whole day in seven should be allotted to that purpose. and believe (a) We it accept to be aca})t)stolic cording to the will of God. and binds us as first Ions: as the indications of the divine will in the matter remain unchanged. seventh and afterward the day of the week. i. should be instituted. and the approbat. on physiological and That some monument of the creation of the Avorld and of the resurrection of Christ.EELIGIOUS WORSHIP. as the foundation of the Christian religion. . 383 certain portion of time should be set apart for rest from labour is by experience found to be. 10).'on of the Holy Ghost that dwelleth creation of the world in them that is implied thereby. and (c) because of the universal cousent of Christians of all generations and denominations. and that this one day in seven sliould be at one time the being. considered as a religious But that all these ends should be combined and secured by one institution. (b) of the transcendent importance of the resur- rection is thus associated with the by God. and consequently with their sanction and that day. has ever since been observed in the stead of the ancient Sabbath in all portions this and ages of the Christian Church. As to the observance of the Christian Sabbath. (1) not . is evidently a matter of positive enactment. AND THE SABBATH-DAlf . and that some permanent and frequently-recurring type of the rest of heaven. obvious general rule that it is to be observed. the is. is eminently desirable for man. moral grounds. change as it comes to us. The time of observance was changed from to the first the seventh day of the week in the age of tlie apostles. highly desirable.

which Christ condemns (Matl spirii in the spirit of the law. 1. 3. according to our Confession. lead our fellow- raen to avoid. And nothing is to be allowed to interfere with this consecration of the day except the evident and reasonable demands of necessity as flir as our own interests are concerned. the worship of God and the religious instruction of our fellow-men. QUESTIONS. and to avoid. 15). but in the holy and free of the gos])el. We should be diligent in using the whole day for these purj)oses. (2) in accordance with the ends for which it is instituted. — that rest from worldly labour. . without Since God has appointed the Sabbath to bt one day in seven. to the purpose designed is. 7. 4. all that hinders the most profitable application of the day to its proper ends. What is What is What is the second proposition there taught? the third there taught? the fourth there taught? it Sliow that is a dictate of natural conscience tliat God should be worshipped. we should curtailment or alienation. and which have been above enumerated. What is the first proposition taught in the first and second Sections? 2. as far as lieth in us. and. xii. and of mercy and of de- as far as the necessities of our fellow-men pendent animals are concerned. 1 . 6. consecrate the wliole day. left our manner of wor- shipping 9. God open to our discretion? State the only proper object of worship. What arc Show tlie tlie grounds of the obligation? reasons why we are shut up is to worship God in those ways only which he has prescribed? 8.384 CONFESSION OF FAITH. How far. Luke xiii. 5.

26. 25. W^hat 26 relation should our desires expressed in pra3'er sus- tain to the will of God? . 27. since the fall. What state of in mind is necessary on the part of one ap- proaching 28. Show why the invocation of saints is a pure absurdity.RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 21. 19. What distinction do they make between the different kinds tlie per- of worship to be rendered to an image or picture and to son thereby represented? 14. ought to pray? Show why even the unregenerate ought to pray? Show that in order to be acceptable prayer must be Show that it offered through Christ. be approached by )nly 11. Show that the Romanists do not differ from other idolaters. What elements are embraced in the wider sense of the term? 23. Who. do they make between the different kinds to creatures? of worship due to 1 God and 3. 17. 15. must be offered with the help of the Holy Ghost. according to the Confession. through a Mediator. 10. 30. Do the same with respect to the worship of images. What is the ^rs^ proposition here taught? is In what two different degrees of latitude the word prayer used? 22. and why ? 31. God prayer? all Why ? should social vocal prayer be offered in a known tongue 29. or between us and Christ. Sections of this Chapter? 20. To what does the Confession proceed in the third and fourth 18. and is forbidden. What is said as to the objects for which we may pray? Of things lawful what is to have precedence in our prayers. o85 men Prove tliat God can. 24. What What do the Standards of the Rojuish Church teach as to distinction the worship and invocation of the Virgin and of saints and angels? 12. Prove that saints and angels are nob mediators between us and God. AND THE SABBATH-DAY. 16. Show manded and that the worship of saints and angels is is not com- not approved by reason.

What does our Directory of Worship teach as to secret worship? 42. 43. 33. 47. CONFESSION OF FAITH. and as to the proper ? time for the performance of the duty 44. as to persons upon whom the obligation rests.S86 32. Upon what Upon what does the acceptability of this worship not does depend ? 40. What elements of the law of the Sabbath are purely positive ? 52. God subdivided ? Of what elements does the regular public worship of God consist? 39. 50. 41. When the seventh to the and why was the time of observance cluinged from first day of the week ? . 49. Show the same from the histoiy of its subsequent promul- gation and observance. 34. 46. and that it is not an institution peculiar to the J ews. What two general classes of acts of worship are spoken of in the fifth 37. it depend. is false. 48. 51. worshipped How may the different laws of God be classified? To which class does the law of the Sabbath belong ? State the different ends the Sabbath is designed to sub- serve. and sixth Sections? Into what two classes are the acts concerned in the regular worship of 38. What are the kinds of action by which ? God may be occa- sionally 45. For whom ought we to intercede ? Prove that it is right to pray for those not j'et born. Show from Show the nature of these ends that it is designed to be perpetual and universal. What is the Romish doctrine as to the intermediate state and prayers for the dead ? 35. that the Sabbath was originally enjoined upon man- kind in general. Prove that their doctrine 36. the What does it teach as to family worship ? What as to the instruction of children and servants.

. 387 State the reasons for our believing that this change cor•will responds with the 54. State the second general principle which determines tho same. Why should the whole day be devoted to the special ends ' of the Sabbath ? < 57. State the only exceptions allowed.RKLiaiOUS WORSHIP. 56. of God. 55. 53. State the Jirst general principle which determines the is man- ner in which the Sabbath to be observed. AND THE SABBATH DAY.

Lev. or promiseth wherein. 2 Cor. although own hurt nor » is it made to heretics or infidels. 25. 7. xx. V. 9. and to be abhorred. xix. 22. v. . or to swear at all by any other thing. iv.* Section IV. being . 7 . 5. 2 Chron. without equivocation or mental reservaIt cannot oblige to sin it . Ixv. 2. being imposed by lawful authority." taken.—" fien. 23. and to judge hin: according to the truth or falsehood of what he sweareth.' Neither may any man bind himself by oath to anything but what is good and just. OF LAWFUL OATHS AND VOWS. 6. 37 James xiii. 12. Jer.—« Ex. XX. Isa. Matt. —The name of God it is onl^^ is that by which men and ought to swear. 2 Cor. 7 vi. and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth.—4 Heb. x.—* Ex. 20. although to a man's to be violated. in matters of weight and moment. binds to performance. xxiv. XXII. vi. 16.x. —A lawful oath is a part of religious worship. Jer.* Section reverence :' II. tion. . 23. upon just occasion.CHAPTER Section I. 31.'* i. an oath is warranted by the word of God under the New Testament as well as under the Old . 8. 23 . ought to be taken. Whosoever taketh an oath. the person swearingsolemnly calletb God to witness what he asserteth . vi.—« 1 Kings viii. Ezra 388 16 . Neh. and what he is able and — resolved to perform.—' Ex. X. Dout.' so a lawful oath being imposed by a lawful authority. 2. and therein to be used with all holy fear therefore to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name. in such matters. 5.* Yet as. 13. r. is sinful. 7. ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act.* Section III. 12. v. —An oath is to mon sense oi the words.'" but in anything not sinful. 3. . and what he believeth so to be.—» Deut. 34.® Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching be taken in the plain and com- anything that is good and just. i.

iv. And (e) The extent and grounds of 1st.) The be interpreted. xxi. A lawful oath consists in calling upon God.. xvii. omniscience. 19 . or as I will keep is my promise. is invoked. the occasion being of sufficient seriousness and importance. abso- lute justice and sovereignty of the person whose august is witness as final. It hence follows that it is a sin equivalent to that of worshipping a false god if we swear by any although it other than the only true and living God. 4. v. 18.—" Ezck. 19. 18.^ (d. e. Josh. 21.LAWFUL OATHS AND VOWS. or our voluntary assumption of an obligation to do something in the future — with lie an implied imprecation of God's or prove unfaithful to our engage- disfavour if we ments. 7-11. of taking oaths upon the sense in which an oath is to (6. preserves and governs all things. swear by the God who reveals him- . 389 Ps. Hence an oath since it an act of supreme religious worship. 19. Neh. The The which subjects treated of in these Sections are {a. . 16. oaths. xxiv. lifted hand swear by the God who created. recognizes the omnipresence. it is lawful to swear. and a sin of idolatry if we swear by any thing or i)lace. 12 Ex. 4. and whose judgment appealed to 2d. 2 Sam. ix.—1» 1 Sam. its binding obligation.— i" Jer. 2. —» Num.) nature of a lawful oath. to witness the truth of what we affirm as true. 1. " This last is generally expressed by the phrase forming the concluding part of the formula of most So help me God. xxii. 32-34." i. xv. 22. Those who swear with hands upon or kissing the Bible. XXV. be asso- Those who swear with upciated with the true God.) The propriety and duty proper occasions. v. Ps. Let God so help me as I have told the truth.) The 'only name in (c.

i. 16 " Thou shalt fear Jehovah God and 13. knee shall bow and every tongue shall swear. 13 . for J a record upon my soul. Christ himself. We are told to swear by the true God : " Unto me every Isa. 2 Cor. contsistently with their integrity. Josh. 63. 20. This principle is fully recognized in Scripture. 64. xlv. Jews. Deut." 23 . 7." " I call i. a . Hence the oath is enjoined in the Old Testament as a recognized religious institution. God for the truth of his state- —thus : " God is my witness . and swear by his name. The — command mission to not to take a false oath or any oath upon a trifling occasion. And it is no evident that it is dishonest for an at all. The literal meaning of the Third Commandment is. etc." Deut. 7 ." Isa. God thy vi. by the true Cliristian God. call by implication carries with it the per- upon the God of truth to confirm the truth upon all worthy occasions. swear by a god. are forbidden to swear We : by the name of false gods " How shall I pardon thee for this ? Thy children have forsaken me and sworn by them that are no gods. of truth. v. " He that sweareth in the earth shall swear by the . the when put upon oath Paul often appeals ments to in the form common among INIatt. x. did not hesitate to answer. vi. xxvi. serve him. Jer. thereby professing to invoke a God in whose existence he does not believe." 3d. It is evident that none who believe in the true God false can. " Thou shalt not take the name of thy God in that which is false" that is. to confirm an untruth.590 CONFESSION OF FAITli. or for atheist to go through the form of swearing to an infidel swear with his hand upon the Christian Scriptures. xxiii. Ixv. 9 . God 23. self in the Bible — that less is." liom.

vi. posed by competent authority upon those subject to In the oath is last case. and also whenever the oath is imit. 33-37). by the and tlie God appealed to the true God of creation. the establishment of conmen — ought always be administered to and taken a reverent manner. our Confession says that the taking the its a duty and refusal a sin." and. and which an appeal to the witness of strife God is necessary to secure confidence and end (Heb. The oath is always to be interpreted and kept . both because of its nature as effect an worship and because of the by it designed fidence among in — namely. 4th. providence and Christian revelation. to signify that —as all by common parties is understood. The proper taken are all upon which an oath may be in those in which serious and perfectly lawful interests are involved. V. 13-18) Paul declares that God." cannot be intended to forbid swearing upon proper occasions in the name tlie of the true God.LAWFUL OATHS AND VOWS. but must be designed to forbid calling upon his name in ordinary conversation on is tri- fling occasions. f391 Hebrews (Hcb. and the swearing by that which occasions not God. therefore. placing it outward action — such as upon the Scriptures or kissing them consent are generally witnesses. confirms it by an oath. and with whatever raising the hand. that the words of our Saviour (Matt. " Swear not at all. " because he could swear by no greater. 16). in order " to show unto the heirs of the promise the iinmutahility of his counsel. he swears by himself. vi." It is evident. The oath of act of divine to be attained course.

and therefore takes precedence of or all obligations imposed upon us by the is men do by ourselves. and honouring him by invoking his witness to a falsehood. and the lesser obligati<m cannot relieve from the greater. Therefore Luther was Neitlier can right breaking monastic vows. for of its an expression of the will in itself right God. it. The obligation of the oath arises (a) out of the to speak the truth . the The in sin in taking the oath to unlawful thing. (c. oath cannot bind to that which in itself unlaw- because the obligation of the law imposed upon will of us by the will of God. not in breaking his it. It is evident that the government. is is An ful.) The profanity involved in suspending our hopes of God's favour upon the truth of that which we know and intend to be false. original to and universal obligation in all and keep faith engagements (6) and. the sin of perjury. is an oath to do that which impossibility is impossible bind. 6th. sacred by the person taking in the sense in which he honestly believes that it is understood by the person if who imposes the judge. fellow-citizen the magistrate or a private require an oath from us for their satisfaction. our obligation to honour God. it. and if we put a private sense upon the matter upon which we Invoke the witness of God different it. from that which we in- know they understand by tiiat we deceive them by calling God to witness our truth while we are engaged in the very act of a lie.592 CONFESSION OF FAITH. and. we commit tentionally. in addition to avoid dis- to this. But an oatii to do what is and binding it imposes an additional obligation to perform — the ob- .

393 imposed by the law. Church of releasing persons from all the obligation of oaths to infidels or heretics. 4. the interest of the making and the Church is not the superior law which takes precedence of all oaths. * oath. And thus Joshua kept the oath to which the Gibeonites had induced him through deceit swear in their behalf. is and that the highest of obligations to subserve at the interest of the Church. but the clearly revealed will of (2. and to be performed with the like faithfulness. because they are voluntarily assumed in preference to the alternatives presented. xv. as An oath to an infidel or a heretic binds much as an oath to a the practice of their The Romanists excuse saint. and of breaking faith generally with with whom she has ' controversy. 3-29.) God only. And (1) this obligation evidently does not depend upon the goodness or badness of the persons imposing the oath. The Nor obligation of the oath binds even when a man swears to his is own disadvantage. . (3. A vow is of the like nature with a i)roiMissory and ought to be made with tlie like religious care. Besides. when the oath is Thus the oaths imposed by conquerors upon the vanquished bind. Joshua ix. Section V. on the plea that an oath cannot bind to that which all cost is unlawful or release all from a prior obligation. Ps. Charles Hodge's Lectures on tlie — Law.) the obligation impaired extorted either by violence or fraud.LAWFUL OATHS AND VOWS. But they deliberately it. ligation tarily thinsj. and the obligation volunassumed by ourselves." * Dr. And an oath to do anyis which lawful binds both for truth's sake and for God's sake. make lie the oath in order to break and therefore both and profane God's holy name in the breakinir.

are so far from being degrees of higher perfection. 5. or to other and so long as they may fitly conduce thereunto. Ps. or for tlie obtaining of what we want . so far — manded. xix. vi. 14 Mark 9 . S. 4. Eccles. Ps. i. or which is not in his own power. 26 iv. Ixvi. 1 Cor. 11 . 11. or having to vow on it. Ixi. whereby we more strictly bind ourselves to necessary duties. i. tural sanction for the 1 vow.*® In which respects popish monastical vows of perpetual single life. . in way of thankfulness mercy received. 1 26. 12. As in the case of the oath. . In the vow. . that they are superstitious and sinful snares. . Ps. 23.-16 Acts xxiii. xxx. In tlie oath. ia which no Christian may entangle himself" 13 Isa. 21-23. vowed keep an act of i)rofanity God. Sam. 13. we have abundant v. 11 xviii. and God is invoked as a witness. 2-5. God made. the parties are both men. It is the party to whom the promise is of like nature with an oath. 21 . 12. xliv. out of foith and conscience of duty. is a trifling occasion." and that it niaj' be accepted. xix. 11 . 4-6 . Gen. professed poverty. — It is not to be made to any creature. 2 1 Cor. and the same is repeated whenever in prayer. 14. Sam. Jer. xxviii. 14. Ixvi. Eph.** Section VII. and regular obedience. or what would hinder any duty therein comthings. No man may vow to do anything forbidden iri the word of God. 8 . it is be made voluntarily.—" Matt. . vii. but to to God foi alone .S94 Section VI. 1. 25. 13. iv. 28 1 Pet. and the case of Paul. Eccles. because we are bound to observe them on the same grounds. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 2.—" Ps. v. and because of our obligation to reverence God. 20-22. Num. 18. scrip. Ps. Ixxvi. and for the perform- ance whereof he hath no promise of ability from God. Ixxvi. The vow is a promise made to is God. vii.—15 Deut. cxxxii. 13. 12. because of Lightly to to fail to our obligation to truth. 11 . 14. xxiii. Acts Re- ception of either of the sacraments of baptism or the Lord's Suj)per involves very sacred and binding vows to God.

A oath. The multiplica- tion of self-imposed duties dishonours him. When the matter of the vow is is not unlawful. specially to Thus a vow. by God and plainly revealed in the QUESTIONS. as any may bind to generally to loyal obedience or some particular action. and greatly harasses us and endangers our to safety. is a lawful oatli ? . vow cannot bind do that which is unlawful or impossible. for reasons before explained in relation to an Nor when made by a child or other person under authority and destitute of the right to bind themselves of their own will. Vows had better be restricted the voluntary assumption and promise to observe. Num. duties imposed Scriptures. 1. ^trally or 395 in writing. and a promise can never bind when the party it is to whom made does not desire it kept. but morally indifferent. other promise. its Nor can it con- tinue to bind in cases in which is continued observance found clearly to be inconsistent with our spiritual interests.LAWFUL OATHS AND VOWS. What What are the subjects treated of in the first four Sections of this Chapter ? 2. but experience abundantly proves that to accumulate such obligations i-? very injurious. with the help of divine grace. 1-8. xxx. we formally or informally renew our covenant promises to God. the vow binding. The word of God in the Scriptures imposes upon us by his authority all that it is his will or for our interest for us to observe. for then it is certain that God does not wish it.

In what sense is the matter of the oath to be interpreted and why? 14. Under what circumstances does the obligation of an oath fail to bind? If the matter of the oath is 16. and how is this implication generally expressed ? 4. Prove from Scripture that it is right to swear by the true God on proper occasions. v. In whose name must every lawful oath be taken ? and show it is why 6. In what manner and with what forms is it right to swear ? 13. Show how the oath is an act of religious worship. Is a man bound by an oath extorted from him by violencw or deceit. In what sense are the words of our Saviour. 9. and how does it differ from an oath? Upon what Show from principle does the obligation of a Scripture that it is right to vow rest? vow upon proper occasions. 8. does the oath add to the obligation already existing. in itself a duty. . sinful to swear in any other name. 22. 23. 5. 17. From what does the obligation to keep the oath arise? 15. 3. 11. who impose On what principles do the Romanists defend the flagrant violations of oaths of assumed right their oaths? to which their Church is guilty. What is a vow. " Swear not at all" (Matt. 33-39). not consistently swear by the true Who may and who may God? Prove from Scripture that it is wrong to swear by false gods. Upon what occasions and for what purpose is it proper to swear ? 12. to be taken? 7. Does tlie obligation of the oath it? and why ? depend upon the character of those 18. What is implied in it. and why ? 21.CONFESSION OF FAITH. What was the example of Paul and of Christ on this point? 10. and her absolve her members from the obligations of 19 Is a man bound by an oath the execution of which would work his own disadvantage? 20.

25. or to duties antecedently binding ter? t. that as a general thing.. VOAVS. matwill.LAWFUL OATHS AND 24. things indifferent. our vows should . imposed upon us by the will of God. Show. and when does What is the lesson experience teaches cease to bind? as to the wisdom of relate to to multiplying vows. e. it 397 When does a vow fail. and not by our own . 26.

xiii. 4. xxiii. the supreme Lord and world. for his . xvii. that the divine will is . Section office —It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute . hath armed them with the power of the sword. now under the New Testament.* wealth . 15. viii. 3. 10. for that end. 2.CHAPTER XXIII.—s Ps. Sections teach as follows : Civil government God. OF THE CIVIL MAGISTRATE. 1 Pet. 4. wage war upon just and necessary occasions. Ixxii. 3." "the will of the majority. hath jrdained civil magistrates to be under people. 16. however. is a divine institution. when called thereunto to the in the manag- ing whereof. ii.' and peace. 13. ii. 2 Sam. These 1st. ii. King of all the him over the own glory and the public good and to this end. It is self-evident. ii. 13. 10-12. * Luke iii. for the defence and encouragement of them that are good.—« Prov. 2. 4. 14.* II. Ps. 14. Rom. 16. according so. 1. 2. 1 Tim. 1-4. and is hence the duty of obedience to our legitimate rulers a duty owed to as well as to our fellow-men. and for the punishment of the evil-doers. 1 Pet. they J Rom. 9. justice wholesome laws of each commonmay lawfully. Some have^ supposed that the right or legitimate authority of auman government has its foundation ultimately in "the consent of the governed. viii. Matt. Rev.^ of a magistrate. Rom. 1. xiii. Acts x. 14. as they ought especially to maintain piety. Section ] —God." or in some imaginary "social compact" entered into by the forefathers of the race at the origin of social life. xiii.

) govern- ment an absolute tial Because as a providencivil Ruler of the world God uses government as his instrument in ])romotiiig the great ends of redemption in the upbuilding of his kingdom in the world." Rom. (e.m. morally responsible free agents. is To the good the magistrate and to the evil "a minister of God for good. families and has providentially organized him civil and communities.) is This is explicitly affirmed in Scripture . resist- eth the ordinance of God. and thus made necessity. xiii." to he is "a ininister of God. the })0wers that be are ordained of resisteth the xiii. and is the Lord of the conscience. therefore.) is absolute Possessor of men. 4. "There power 1. an avenger all execute Avrath upon him that doeth evil.) Because all human governments. is and {d. 399 and the obligajion to obey This that will resting upon all moral agents the ultimate ground of all obligation to obey certain — (a.) forbids all that is moral obligation of every kind Because Hence every a duty owed to God." R(.THE CIVIL MAGISTRATE. Because he has formed their Because he constitution as intelligent. course God has not prescribed for men any particular form or order of succession of civil govern- He has laid the general foundation both for the :n duty and necessity of government the consciences in the and in the social natures of all men and he circumeveiy stances of all communities. 2. God is the Creator and (b. no power but of God God. while has left . God has constituted man a social being ii ii his creation. and because his all-embracing moral law of absolute perfection requires all that is morally right of every kind. morally wrong.) is the supreme moral Governor of moral agents. all (c. Whosoever. Mic source of all government. Of ment. : (/.

their his historical antecedents. 9-11. xix. and the promotion of his the ultimate end own glory. 17-23. 9-13. Eph. that all his enemies should be subdued and finally judged and punished. As the it universe constitutes one physical and moral system. xv. Heb. The proximate end is is which God has ordained magistrates the promotion of the j)ublic good. But development of the plan of redemption the God-man i. whose will -all laws should be conformed. the present providential 6. as his Father had determined. Phil. 13. as mediatorial King has assumed xxviii. 16. and that all creatures should worship him. ii. written. and among of all ages all peoples and nations in the and generations. word and In led and sustained by this sense God as Creator.400 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Hence Governor of the physical universe and "Ruler among the nations" to all is Jesus of Nazareth. Matt. their social and political condition." and a "He hath on his vesture and on his thigh name 2d. 1 Cor. as revealed in the light of nature. in order that his people all things should work together for good to and for his glory. viii. x. - men should acknowledge vjrds. v. was necessary that his headship as Mediator should extend to the whole and to every department thereof. Rom. 18. King of kings and Lord of for Rev. Rev. This evidently follows from the revealed fact that th« . the government of the universe. in people free to choose their o vn form of government their own wav. 25. 28. i. the King of the Jews. and as they are instructed by his providence. has established civil government among men from the beginning. and whom nations and all rulers of serve. according to their various dea-rees of civilization.

mar capital punishments. istrate is to other objects and designs are subordinspecific The way which the civil magis endeavour to advance the glory of God through the promotion of the good of the community (Rom. Christian magistrates should influential positions to their promote piety as well as order. iv. glory or inanifesterl excellence 401 Creator is of the the chief end he had in the general system of things. 5. xi. the oath. ix. including educaprosperity and the protection of tion. to do." and by the enactall ment and enforcement of laws conceived in the true Spirit of the Gospel. not 2 Tim. it is that to which ated as ends. Eph. ii. 1. 26 "iage and divoro^ . touching all questions upon which the Scriptures indicate the will of God specifically or in general principle. and be made the govall erning pui'pose of every individual his relations and actions. and Pet. Eom. public and official. life xiii. 4) in temporal concerns. i. and the preservation of order. 6 . as well as private and is personal. nor by attempting by endow- ments officially to patronize or control the Church. and officially by giving impartial protection its and all due facility for the Church in work. and especially as touching questions of the Sabbath day. And all if the glory of God in his chief end. etc. it must be the chief end equally of all nations and ought to in communities of men. 1 If the glory of God it is the chief end of every man. and also seek in 3d. i. 16 . physical and property. 11. 22. morals. but personally by their example. 36 .THE CTVTL MAGISTRATE. etc. 23 . by the explicit recognition of God and of Jesus Christ " as Ruler among the nations. hence the appointed chief end of each intelligent agent. This they are by assuming the functions of the Church.. Col.

402 4th. lawful for Christians to accept aid execute magistrate. under the New Testament. . and pla(!e to not our consider such questions. life in is it right for an individual self-defence. the word of God and the universal consent it of mankind. Christian magistrates may glory of lawfully. Indeed in the highest sense lawful for none other or than Christians to since it is be magistrates anything else. and of cases both parties are thus in in the vast majority the wrong. in oi'der that he for the may be qualified to dls(. and duty of self-defence instincts of nature. involved dous guilt of unjustifiable war. it the office of a This is is evident enough. It is CONFESSION OF FAITH. 5th. to munity It it is is do so must be equally right on the same principle. And the greater the portance of the relations a number and the imman assumes. wage war upon just and necessary ocTlic right casions. is a violation of God's will that any man not a Christian. sides — upon the in van- quished and the victor. But the fol- lowing general principles are very plain and very certain. much less justify. because of the lives destroys. the greater beall comes his obligation to be a Christian. wai . gloiy or aggrandizement. is estab- lished by the inalienable If by reason. it War it is an Incalculable it evil. to take conscience. the misery infallibly occasions and the moral degraall dation works on wrong. policy or profit can excuse. No plea of honour. nothing short of necessity. for a com- very difficult to decide in particular cases when it is right for a Christian nation to go to war.harge them God and the good of all concerned. the party originally in the right nnd the party at least in the Jn every war one parly the tremen- must be in the wrong.

to offer any indignity. is made. not the for latter — upon the pur[)ose in which. A in spirit and intent while it is it is war may be purejy defensive aggressive in the manner which conducted. to 403 existence. or which. no law of any commonwealth should interfere with. either upon pretence of religion or infidelity. it is the duty of civil magistrates to protect the Church of our common Lord.* the administration of the word and sacraments or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven f or. the attack III. among the members of any denomination of Christians. abuse or injury to any other person whatsoever tliat all religious : and to take order. but also (a) that the wrong he it. without violence or danger. as Jesus Christ hath appointed a regular his government and discipline in Church. in such a manner. without giving the preference to any denomination of Christians above the rest. and not upon the mere order theatre upon which.* And. Section — Civil raagist^ates may not assume to themselves .THE CIYIL MAGISTRATE. interfere in matters of faith. attemj)ts should life.'oluntary due exercise thereof. free and unquestioned liberty of discharging every part of their sacred functions. it the end of the preservation of national Id order to make a war right in God's sight^ is not ou^y necessary that our enemy should aim to do us a wrong. according It is the duty of civil magito their own pi'ofession and belief* strates to protect the person and good name of all tlieir people. let or hinder.' Yet as nursing fathers. violence. the . directly or remotely threaten the national and in (6) that war be the only means to avert Even this case every other means of securing justice and maintaining national safety should be exhausted before recourse is had in to this last resort. The question of right de- pends upon the former. in the least. and ecclesiastical assemblies be held without molestation or disturbance. that all ecclesiastical persons whatever shall enjoy the full."* . in such an effectual manner as that no person be suffered.

—" 1 Pet. xlix. the whole nation being a portion of the Church universal.— '6 Rom. 1 1 Kings ii. Section IV It is the duty of people to ytvay for magistrates. are independent of each other. 17.—6 Matt. 1. released subj(.—7 John xviii. ii. 14. xiii. having different objects and spheres of action. xxiii. therefore idtimately responsible to it for the ex- ercise of the authority delegated. . the is comprehended within the Chui-ch and is members civil organization for certain ends subordinate to the great end for which the Church exists." to paj' tlieni tribute and other dues. 1 Tim. Sam.-10 2 1=* . This 1st. ii. 16. 6 2 Chron." —5 18.'^ from which hath the their less Pope any power dominions or or jurisdiction over . Rom. 10. different governments and hence.— 15 1 Pet. 35 Acts xxv. or difference in reli- gion. cv." to obey their lawful commands. xiii. whenever the Pope has been in a condition to vindicate his authority. 1. 36. them in their dominions. 2. 19. 13. . 11 Jude 8-11. and to be subject to their auCO — thority. . 4 Rev. 23.'" him much . . or upon any other pretence whatsoever.cts he has put kingdoms under from their vow of allegiance and deposed sovereigns be"ause of the assumed heresy or insubordination of the . interdict. is opposed the Papal doctrine of the relation of the State To to the Church. 4. 15. for conscience' sake." Infidelity. 1.— Rom.—" 2 Thess. 9-11 2 Pet.'* honour their persons. xvi.—" Rom. . ii. 5 Tit. 1. if and least of all to deprive them of he shall judge them to be heretics. xxvi. ii. Hence. 3. and owing mutual good offices. or over any of their people lives. 7. These Sections teach that the Church and the State are both divine institutions.—" 1 Tim. xiii. doth not make void the magistrate's just and legal authority. ii. 15-17. while officers. Ps.404 CONFESSION OF FAITH. ii. nor free the people from their due obedience to ecclesiastical persons are not exempted .-8 ig^. According to the strictly logical ultrain all its montane view. iii. xiii. 6. xiii.

over all ecclesiastical and that has civil jurisdiction persons.THE CIVIL civil rulers MAGISTIJATE. the order of worship and the entire course of ecclesiastical administration. to to support the Church. The statements of these Sections are opposed also to the Erastiau doctrine as to the relation of the State to the Church. ecclesias- own conscience. which has prevailed in all the nations and national churches of Europe. to appoint its define laws and to superintend their administration. in the State churches of Protestant is Thus Germany and EngChurch system magistrate has land the sovereign the supreme ruler of the as well as of the State. Our Confession teaches that the State is in its sphere entirely it independent of the Church. designed to provide foi wants of men. all the This doctrine regards the State as a divine institution. the of government. . 405 of the land. on the it same principles and to the same extent has over any other class of persons whatsoever. our Confession teaches that re- an inalienable prerogative of mankind it (Chapter xx. rulers. spiritual as well as temporal. 2d. Jt is the duty of the civil magistrate therefore its officers. and the civil chosen and imposed the confessions of faith. while bound to protect Hence. althongh endowed with the power of the keys. the civil magistrate. In opposition ligious liberty is to this. and that involves the unlimited to i-ight upon the part of every man to the dictates of his tical worship God according Hence. and is that it consequently charged with the duty of pro- viding for the dissemination of pure doctrine and for the proper administration of the sacraments and of discipline. also.). are not alhjwed to apply any civil j)ains or disabilities to coerce men to obey the laws they administer.

and not of constraint. objects. to the superior authority of commanded to God that it 10 . is nevertheless allowed no official jurisdiction whatever son in the affiiirs of the Church.106 CONFESSION OF FAITH. his jurisdiction in each case would have entirely inde- pendent grounds. a duty binding upon all the subjects of government for conscience' sake by the autiiority of God. as well as render mere technical (2. since it it is disobedience to God.) them That is obedience to obedience this ouglit to be from the heart and for conscience' sake. also teach that obedience to civil when making or executing laws witliin the is proper sphere of the State. a ruler — in the other a subject. This follows directly from the civil fact. follows hence — (1. The same per- may be a civil magistrate and a church member.) obedience. modes and subjects of operation. V. s and ecclesiastical organizations in peaceful enjoyment of their rights and discharge of their functions. that government is an ordinance for of God — that the powers that be are ordained of God It certain ends. anil when the civil government has it become so radically and incurably ceased c()rru[)t has to accomplish the ends for which was cstalr . and since necessarily works such permanent [)hysical ruin and social demoralization among our fellow-men. 29) . as before shown. Rebellion is a grievous sin. These Sections magistrates. is In the one case he the same person officer. The limit of this obligation to obe- dience will be found only when we are do S(^mething contrary (Acts iv. hence obedience to God. Or But may be a civil magistrate and a ciiurch and rule at the same time in both spheres. tlie church menibe. spheres. tarily assist Hence W'e will pray for and volun- our rulers.

To whom has Grod left the decision of the to be particular form of government 6. lias by some been presumed to be the ultimate governnient? to foundation of 3. without avail. tliat civil government is really a divine ordinance. What is the proximate end he sjiecial is intended to promote? is 13. adopfed b}' any people? is What circumstances and what rule to determine them in the choice? 7. all means of redress have been exhausted itself. appointed Prove your answer. By what means is the civil magistrate to seek to promote piety as well as peace and justice? . 1. Prove the same from Scripture. then to the privilege their and duty of a Christian people change if government —peacefully if they may.THE CIVIL MAGISTRATE. civil Prove the answer you 10. In what sphere and by what means he to promote the public good ? 14. when there appears no prosj)ect of sccurint^ reform in the it government and sonic good it is ))rospect of securing by revolution. What What State is the first proposition taught in the first and second Sections of this Chapter? 2. 12. QUESTIONS. 407 beoii When when tliat point lias uiiqiicsLionably readied. lislied. Redeemer? divine Person all What is now the supreme Ruler among the nations and head of 9. What is is the ultimate end to promote which the ? magis- trate 11. governments? give. forcibly they must. 5. civil tlie proof from the general facts of God's relation its the world and inhabitants. Was civil government originally instituted by God as Cre- ator or as 8. 4.

Why is rebellion When is . 18. 16. 20.408 15. What is the only proper excuse for war? What ought in every case a Christian people to attenii)t before appealing to the arbitrament of war? 19. 29. What is the duty of the Church with respect to the State? On what grounds do the subjects of civil government owe What kind of obedience do they owe? against legitimate authority a great sin? resistance to civil rulers lawful ? obedience to those in authority over them ? 28. 27. What does our Confession teach What is the Erastian doctrine to the State ? in opposition to it? as to the relation of the Church 23. 30. 24. CONFESSION OP FAITH. Upon what ground may the lawfulness of defensive wars ? be maintained 17. 22. What What churches are organized upon this principle? does our Confession teach in opposition to that doc- trine? 25. What do the third and fourth Sections teach? What is the Papal doctrine as to the relation of Church ? the State to the 21. Show why it is lawful for Christians to accept civil office. What duty do the civil magistrates owe with respect to the Church? 26.

Ocn. neither should such as are godly be unequally yoked.^ Section II. « 1 vii. II. It is affirmed that the law of marriage allows it to be contracted only between one man and one woman. .—^ Gen. Mai.— » Mai. 3 Kings is 4. 1 Cor. It taught in these Sections Tliat niairiage 1st. 2.-6 1 1 Cor. 3. 40'J . 3fi-38 Gen. maintain damnable heresies. ii. by marrying with such as are notoriously wicked > in their life or ii. 4. xxxiv. iii. xiii. Section I. 30. Ex. 14. xi. 67. xix. Marriage was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife.' C. 16. 24.xxxiv. Deut. involving a religious as well as a civil contract. Papists or other idolaters . 17. vi.^ yet it is the duty of Christians to marry only in the Lord. 4 . Prov. : ii. vii. vii. was ordained of God. vii. ii. OP MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE. Cor.' and for preventing — of uncleanness. 25-27. : neither lawful for any man to man and one wohave more than one nor for any woman to have more than one husband at the same tinie. 18. xxiv. ii.-6 Hcb. Tiie ends designed to be promoted by marriage are specified. I Tim.'' for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue and of the Church with an holy seed.CHAPTEK XXIV. 2 Cor. 12. iv. Matt. 68. Nch. 3d.—2 Gen. and is there- fore a divine institution. — Marriage is it is to be between one man wife. U. 9. 7. — are able with dels.® And therefore such as profess the true reformed religion should not marry with infi- Section III. 15.* It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry who judgment to give their consent. 2d.

or the conditions upon which may be lawfully constituted or dissolved. is sanctity of a life of celibacy is denied. and the parties contracting pledge their truth and constancy to to society. are laid . and the lawfulness of marriage for all classes of men is 5th. as to its character or duration. No State has any right change it the law of marriage. from that which God has is ordained as marriage. ami that a man can have but one wife and a woman but one husband at the same time. (2) because the its contract. continu- down in the is word of God. 4th. under the law of marriage. The pre-eminent affirmed. and This so is therefore a divine institution. tract Hence marriage a human con- under the limits and sanctions of a divine consti- tution. and not otherwise law of marriage. 1st. as these have been ordained by God.e a religious as well as a civil contract.410 CONFESSION OP FAITH. — (1) because God created man male and ally female. and every marriage involves many ob- vious civil obligation? and leads to nia:iy civil conse- . Marriage was ordained of God. physicto each and morally. God as well as to each other vows of and is But bound it is also a civil contract. the conditions of ance and dissolution. and so constituted them. Neither has any man or woman a right to contract any relation different in any respeot. It taught that persons of different religions should not intermarry — that true believers is should not be unequally yoked with the ungodly. to Hence it follows that marriao. that they are mutually adapted and other and are mutually helpful to each other. because every State to protect the foundations upon which social order reposes.

) The prevention of uucleanness. but be made in all cases all respects to conform to them. (2. (4. The proof of 2d. plainly does so. for conscience' The law of the it it land is to be obeyed sake whenever \\'hen does not contravene the higher law of God. then Christian are to act themselves men and church sessions and to treat others just as if the ungodly human enactment had no existence. because of some illegality as to the it time in which or the persons by whom was solemnized.) The increase of the Church ^f Christ with a holy seed. touching property. In Great Britain the civil authorities have transgressed the authority of chiefly God in tiiis matter. In of such con- Christians and Christian ministers mus^ obey God rather than men. (3. to be trivial and void ab initio.) The increase of mankind wit) a legitimate issue. and then take the consequences. The State must tlierefore define tlie nature and civil effects of marriage and prescribe conditions upon which in wliich it and modes shall be publicly acknowledged and ratified or dissolved. It is of the highest import- ance that (he haws of the State do not contravene the laws of God upon this subject.. the custody of chiklreii. The law of God makes marriage a contract for life between one man and one woman. etc. by declaring marriages. 3d. — this is as follows : . flict. 4 1 1 quonces. in the In this country the sin is chiefly committed matter of allowing the mar- riage-bond to be dissolved for nized as valid in the many causes not recog- word of God.) The mutual help of husband and wife. really })inding null in God's sight.MARRIAGE AND DIVORCi. The main ends designed to l)e promoted by marriage are stated to be (1.

and shaU marry another.) Experience shows that both physically. and whosoever marrieth her which xix. and whenever. while monogamy jn'oves in the highest degree adapted to effect those ends. and inconsistent with numan nature and the relations of the sexes. (2. number of births of each (3. living at tiie . except be for fornication.) He all has providentially preserved in nations an equal all ages and among se. origuial basis. or a woman two husbands. is not the putting away a adultery.412 (1. Hence for a man to have two wives. and its non-observance ceases to be Thus Moses as God's agent allowed a dispensation of this law of monogamy which not so.) CONFESSION OF FAITH. but is the marrying another before she dead. economi- cally and morally.) hatl been long disregarded among it the ancestors of the Israelites. and to what- soever extent it is thus dispensed it ceases to be binding. 9. It is put away doth it commit adultery. but in marrying another man while her husband lives." Matt. "but in the beginning was Ciirist expressly withdraws this its dispeusation. polygamy defeats is all the ends for which marriage was designed. obvious that it is wife improj)crly. committeth adulis tery . that is the act of And on the woman's side the adultery can- not consist in being put away. (4. God instituted marriage at fii'rft between one man and one woman." (5. it and " Whosoever restores the law of marriage to shall put away his wife..) This original law of God and of nature is of course dispensable in special cases and under peculiar conditions by the lawgiver. sin.s.

xix. 23-33. This (1. and hence the as a universal Romish Church imposes obligation and imperative upon their clergy.) The vast experiment of celibacy on the part of the priesthood and of the monastic houses of the Roman . divorced or not. v.) Word with Church. The best and noblest men in the Old AVorld and the New have been formed the family.) The relation is honored in being selected as the highest earthly type of the grandest heavenly fact namely. is lawful The Romish Church allows that marriage for the great mass of men as a concession to life the weakness of the flesh. is 413 tl'. snmo time. and ordained marriage in Paradise when man was Marriage. the mystical union of the eternal his Bride the (3. witli sole exceptions noted below.e adultery. but maintain that a celibacy is of both more meritorious and more conducive to spiritual elevation. and constiinnocent. in Reason and experience unite is showing that the relation the best conceivable condition for the bring- ing out and educating the noblest moral instincts and faculties of oi' human nature.) Our Confession teaches tliat marriage is lawful for all sorts of people who have intelligence sufficient to consent. 10-12) as one of recommended by is his evangelical counsels. (2. fore. tuted the relation of the sexes.) all Protestants deny for the following reasons: created God man. Eph.MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE. male and female. thereitself. must be purely good. (6. by the observance of which supererogatory merit may it be attained. (4. and a means of good in except when abused by man. Hence they say a life of celibacy Christ (Matt.

12. the marriages at present so common between the converted and unconverted are unquestionably valid. the Christian brother or sister remains bound by the marriage-tie as before. true meaning of wliat is The taught by our Saviour (1 (Matt. and brings in question not the reality of the marriage it. when the no longer bound. 13. our position by sliowing tlie impoverish' ing and degrading tendency of the opposite system. righteousness. It appears evident that even in the present age some kinds of missionary service both at home and abroad might be more efficiently accomplished for the glory of God and the good of men if our younger ministers would consent to regard marriage as less than absolutely esseutial. On same principle. vii. thei'efore. and so dissolve the Christian the is relation. M'hen formed. . unless the heathen party voluntarily abandon them. and with reference to some special kind of service to which God providentially calls a man. vii. that in times of persecution and public danger. 1-40). and by Paul Cor. 10-12).-are is that the unmarried are exposed to less worldly than "the married." The principle that professors of the true should not intermarry with professors of a false religion. touches not that which is essential to the validity its of marriage. the other remaining a heathen. and that true believers should not intermarry with the un- godly. (.414 Chiircli proves CONFESSION OF FAITir. but the propriety of forming Paul teaches that if one of the parties of a previous marriage becomes a Christian. and in this respect also to -his "seek jirsl the kingdom of God and 4th. xix. but that which belongs to perfection. and to be respected as such. it may be both his interest and his duty not to marry. 1 Cor.

vi. —Marriage ought not made to be within the degrees of consanguinity or affinity forbidden in the incestuous marriages ever be Word live .' The man may not marry any of lie his wife's kindred nearer in blood than may of his own/** nor the woman husband's kindred nearer in blood than of her own. yet nothing but adultery or in no way be remedied by the Church cause sufficient of dissolving the bond of ia marriage . with 2 Cor. flesh in the aims and inspirations are heavenly. dwell most intimate of all possible communion." wherein a public and orderly course of i)rocccding .* nor can such lawful by any law of consent of parties.^* Section VI. become one and heart. For how can one who mind and the spirit of Christ. Section V. as if fending party were dead. ^'^ In the case of adulthe of- lawful for the innocent party to sue out to and after the divorce marry another. —Adultery or it is fornication committed after a contlie being detected before marriage. or in the intimate fellowship of soul with soul the believer will be greatly depressed in his inward spiritual life and greatly hindered 1 in his attempts to serve his Master in the world. whose afiections are as a fact set practical upon things above. —Although the corruption of man be such as ia apt to study arguments undul}' to put asunder those whom God Buch wilful desertion as can or civil magistrate is hath joined together in marriage. whose motives. 14. giveth just occasion to innocent party to dissolve that contract. Cor. a soul dead in trespasses and sins (see 18)? If such a union is formed. tract. vii. 39. It nevertheless it 415 remains ti"uc tliat true Christians owe the ]>oth to Christ and to their own souls not to conti-act })ossesses such alliances. so as those persons may together as man or man of her and wife. it must is f(^llow either that the sacred ordinance of marriage is desecrated by a union of bodies where there no union of hearts. Section IV.MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE." tery after marriage. a divorce.

xviii. xix. from the highest to the least measure of criminality. xx. xix. 18. The Greek and Roman holding that this law is Catholic churches agreed in binding. XX. —10 19-21. — ^ Mark vi.—i* Matt. Matt. 8: R-iD.cv. xix. Since the is degrees of relationship within which marriage ex- cluded differ in nearness. so the crime of incest differs. 6. 10-21. Incest consists of sexual intercourse between to marry. is The only law on is this subject in the Scriptures the Levitical law recorded in Lev. 8. still If this law it is binding.^^ Lev.—" Matt. vii. v. no other law of If this law is not binding new. 32. xxf. to and as to divorce.T. because parties forbidden by the divine law of their relationship.— i^ Deut.416 to CONFESSION OF FAITH. such pretended marriages are void ab sence as well as improper and initio — invalid in es- injurious. and the persons concerned wills not left to theii own 8 and discretion . xviii. 2. Lev. and not . in it be observed. vii.—" Matt. 1. 15. These Sections teach the divine law of marriage as incest 1st. and no matter what of human laws or the decisions of may be the provisions human courts. 7. ii. 1-4. in their own case. v. 1 Cor.—" Matt. I. according to these varying degrees. since the reason still of the law rests upon permanent relationships. is Marriage between these parties impossible. 24—28. there the subject of incest God remaining on except the law of nature. 31. 1 Cor. 18-20. Amos i. The obligation to is avoid intermarriage between^ near blood-relations dictate of nature as well as of the a word of God. 3. 9. it carries with it the principle that incest for a man to cohabit with any one of his deceased it is wife's relations nearer in blood than to is lawful for him do of his own.

ipso fcwto. causeless and incurable desertion. heathen ])artner. (2. (1. explicitly allowed (6) by Christ (Matt.) Such oiiuses. It asserted in these Sections of our Confession. since such desertion. do not. dissolved only and that the only causes upon which any authority can dissolve the union of those whom God has joined together are (a) adultery. is Cor. The reason in the case also self-evident. and for the most of this rule has been ity left to the enforcement the discretion of *the major- of each local church court. But a great diversity of sentiment ])art and practice prevails in different j)arts of our Ciiurch on this subject. by death (Rom. being total and incurable. xix. to the Christian 1 This is allowed by their husband or wife deserted by vii.* have this Section of this Chapter changed. 3). is The divine law life it is. 1845 and 1847. 9). party without remaining rights to be defended. Paul 31. in Several efforts have been to made. all makes the marriage an em])ty name. that marriage a contract for between one man and one woman.32. 1826 and 1827 and 1843. apon any special circumstances peculiar to society 417 among main- the Jews. causeless and incurable desertion. . however. ipso facto. as to DIVORCE is. void of and. dissolve * See Baird's Digest. 2. and wilful.MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE. (6) wilful. leaves the deserting reality. 15. this v. 2d. 163-168. but without effect. pp. being causeless. tained the Lutheran and Presbyterian in their is — have same principle Confessions of Faith or canons of discij)Iine.) The only causes upon which {a) it is is lawful to gi'ant a divorce are adultery. civil and that vii. All branches of the Protestant Church Episcopal.

they are not left to their own cretion in the case. 3. 9. and if treat such unlawful divorces as null and void. What What is involved in saying that a religious as well as a civil contract. if they so elect. 1. the civil authorities divorces put themselves into direct conflict with the law of in the case. Chapter? the second proposition there taught? the third tliere taught? thiifoarfh there taught? 4. who fear God as living new marriages in the sin of adultery. Whenever they do so. as is constantly done in fact. 19. is and what consequences follow therefrom? involved in saying that it is also a civil contract. the marriage bond. (3. xix.) The civil law. God Hence and all Christians and church courts are bound in such cases to disregard the judgment of the to regard civil authority. but they must seek for the vindication of their rights at the hands of the public authorities and according to the law of the land. And the parties to a mar- riage unrighteously dissolved marry again. 6. they are to be regarded and treated by those in those 8. 8. Matt. v. however. it is 7. to demand that it shall be dissolved by competent authority. And if tliey do dedis- mand the dissolution. is the fifth there taught? is Prove that marriage a divine institulinn.118 CONFESSION OF FAITH. 6. has no authority to grant upon any other grounds than those above defined as allowed by the law of God. 29. but only give the right to the in- nocent party. and what consequences follow tiicrefioui? . Actsiv. QUESTIONS. What What What What What is tliis is is is tlie first proposition tauglit in the first three Sections of 2.

(1 six. 10-12) 19. and enjoin all upon all their priests? Upon what grounds do Protestants maintain an oppo- opinion? 18. 26. What is the prevailing opinion and practice of our Church in recent times? event alone. In what respect have they chiefly erred in this country? 12. ipso facto. 23. W^hat has been historically the judgment of the Cliristian Church as to the continued obligation of the Levitical law ? 28. What What human tribunals? . 21. How Show could it have been right in patriarchs to practice polygamy ? 15. Prove that polygamy not lawful according to the orig- inal law of marriage. 22. ? civil In what respects have the laws of marriage in Eng- land for the most part erred? 11. 30.MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE. 25. that Christ explicitly withdrew the permission. dissolves a marriage? causes alone justify the dissolution of a marriage by 29. and of Paul practical Cor. site of celibacy. Where is the biblical law of incest to be found ? What does that law teach as to the prohibited degrees of affinity as well as relationship ? 27. 9. 24. What is the true meaning of the teachings of Christ (IMatt. What is What is Show the subject of the fourth Section ? incest? ia that marriage within the forbidden relationship impossible. What are the main ends designed is to be promoted by mar- riage? 13. 16. 1-40) ? What bearing have these teachings upon the duties of Christians in these days? 20. vii. On what ground life do the Romanists maintain the superior it sanctity of a 17. Does difference of religion invalidate the marriage bond ? Prove that true believers ought not to be unequally yoked with the ungodly. Which should control man law of marriage? and 419 the other — the divine law or the hu- in cases of conflict which should takp precedence 10. 14.

32.420 31. Prove the truth of your answer. How must a divorce upon these justifiable grounds be ob- tained ? which the ought Christian and church courts to act in cases in have granted divorces. 33. Prove that no other causes justify divorce. civil authorities How . and pei'mitted new marriages not allowed by the laAV of God ? 34. CONFESSION OF FAITH.

CHAPTER XXV.
OF THE CHURCH.
Section
I.

—The

catholic or universal Church,

visible, consists

of the whole

number of the

are, or shall be,

gathered into

which is inhave been, one, under Christ the head thereof;
elect that

and
in

is

the spouse, the body, the fulness of

Him
is

that filleth

all

all.»

Section
fore,

II.

—The

visible

Church, which
all

also catholic or

universal under the Grospel (not confined to one nation, as be-

under the law), consists of

those throughout the world
;'

that professrthe true religion,* together with their children
is

and

the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ,^ the house and family
is

of Grod,^ out of which there

no ordinary possibility of salvation.*

Section IIL —Unto

this catholic visible

Church Christ hath
the end of the world
to his pro-

given the ministry, oracles and ordinances of God. for the gathering and perfecting of the saints in this
life to

and doth by
mise,
1

own presence and Spirit, according make them effectual thereunto.'
his
i.
;

Eph.
ii.

10, 22, 23

;

v. 23, 27,

32

;

Col.

i.

18.—2

I

Cor.
;

i.

2

;

xii. 12,

13

;

Ps.

8

Rev.

vii.

9

;

Rom.

xv.

9-12.—3
;

1 Cor. vii. 14

Acts

ii.

39
;

,:

Ezek.

xvi. 20, 21;

Rom.
19;

xi.
iii.

7.-5 Eph.

ii.

xvii. 7.—* Matt. xiii. 47 Isa. ix. 16; Gen. iii. 15 15.-6 Acts ii. 47.—' 1 Cor. xii. 28; Eph. iv. 11-13;

Matt, xxviii. 19, 20

;

Isa. lix. 21.

The

word

catholic

means universal, and therefore

is

the proper

title

of the true Church of Christ, viewed as

one body, composed of
ferent places

many members,
and

existing in difis

and

at different times,

consequently

very improperly applied to that corrupt and schismatical

body, the Cliureh of

Rome.
421

422

CONFESSION OF FAITH.
in the

The word

New Testament
is

corresponding to the

English word church
rived from the

ecclesia (ixxlr^aca); this is de-

word calein {xah7v), to call, to call out, and thus constitute a separate body, which word is used
to life in the

Holy Spirit, whereby work of regeneration. Rom. viii. 28-30; 1 Pet. ii. 9; v. 10. The word church, therefore, is a collective terra including the whole body
to express the effectual call of tlie

he brings dead souls

of the " called "

{x?.7]toc)

or the " elect " {ixhxzoc) or of
;

" believers." Rev. xvii. 14

1 Cor.

i.

2, 24.

To
It
(1
is

this

Church, or collective body of the "effectually

called," all the promises of the Gospel are addressed.

said to be the "pillar
iii.

Tim.
;

15)

;

and ground of the truth" the body and fulness of Christ (Eph. i.
2, 9)
;

22, 23)
it is

the Bride, the Lamb's wife (Rev. xxi.

and

affirmed that the gates of hell shall not prevail
it.

against

Matt. xvi. 18.

As

every part of this entire body possesses the com-

mon

nature of the whole, the

common term Church
i.

is

naturally applied sometimes to the entire body of
nations and ages conceived of as a unit (Col.

all

18); and
city,

sometimes
as " the

to the

church of a particular province or

Church of the Thessalonians " or " the Church of Ephesus" (2 Thess. i. 1 Rev. ii. 1) or in the plural for
;

;

the several individual churches of a province, as " the

churches in Asia" or "the churches of Macedonia"
of " Galatia" (1 Cor. xvi.
1,
is

oi

2

;

2 Cor.

viii. 1

;

Rev.

i.

4)

and sometimes the word
cilla

applied to designate somo

Christian family, as "the Church in the house of Pris-

and Aquila." Rom. xvi. 5; Col.

iv.

15; Philem.

2.

Our
1st.

Confession teaches in these Sections

That there

is

such a collective body, comprising

THE CHURCH.
all tlie elect

423

of

God

of

all

nations and generations, called

The fact that tliere is such a Church invisible. body must be believed by every person who believes that all men, of every age and nation since Adam, wlio received Christ and experienced the power of his redemption, are to be saved, and that all who reject liini will be lost. That this entire body in its ideal comthe
pleteness, not one true

member wanting,

not one false
j)res-

member marring
ent to the

its

symmetry, has been constantly

by

all

persons

mind of God from eternity, must be believed who acknowledge either or both the divine
in its absolute fulness

foreknowledge and foreordi nation.

This body, thus seen
fection

and per-

by God from

eternity, will be at last revealed to

the universe in

all its

completeness and glory, so that

it

will transcend all the other

works of God
in,

in

its

visible
in

excellences.

And
a

it

is

seen in part by us

now

the

successive ages as

it is

gathered

because every

mem-

ber of

it

is

man

or

woman
life

living and acting in the

world, and the spiritual

whereby they are constituted

members of the Church makes itself manifest by its fruits. This Church is called invisible, however, because
(«) the portions

of

it

at

any time or place

visible ^re

im-

measurably small

in

comparison with the body as a
all

whole

in its full

comj)lement of saints of

nations

and

generations, and (6) because even in the sections of this

body visible

to us its outlines are very uncertain.
it

Mai y
it,

who many may
manifest.

appear as parts of

do not really belong
it

to

and
not

really belong to

whose union with

it is

The

lines are not to

human

eye drawn with

any degree of accuracy between the Church and the world. In the mean time, the true Church, not yet per-

424
fectly

CONFESSION OF FAITH.
developed and manifested, lurks
in

the

phenom-

enal Church, as the grain of the growing corn lurks ir
the ear,

and

in this sense it is invisible.

For

that which

constitutes the essence of this

Church

is

not the visible

profession or fruitfulness, but that invisible indwelling

divine

life,

from which the profession and the

fruitful-

ness proceed.
2d.

These Sections teach that there

is

also a catholic

or universal visible Church, consisting of those of every

nation

who

profess the true religion, together with their

children.

This proposition involves

(1.)

The

truth

that the true Church, consisting of persons, a part of

whom

are always living, and, with
forth

more or

less faithful-

ness, bringing

visible fruits

of holiness on the

earth, of course

is itself

always in part, and with greater

or less clearness, visible.
is

The

therefore not a different

universal visible Church Church from that which has
It
is

just been described as invisible.
as
its

the same body

successive generations pass in their order and are

imperfectly discriminated from the rest of
the eye of man.
(2.)

The

truth that

mankind by God has comconstitutions,

manded
visible

his people to organize themselves into distinct
ec«;lesiastical
officei's,

communities,

with

laws and

badges, ordinancses and discipline, for

the great purpose of giving visibility to his kingdom,

of making
gathering in

known

the gospel of that kingdom, and of

all its ele<!t subjects.

Each one of
is

these
to the

distinct organized

communities which

fjiithful

great
all

King

is

an

i)itegral

part of the visible Church, and
nations, constitute

together, of all

names and

the

catholic or universal visible Church.

The

conditions

of

human

life,

physical, political

and

social,

and the

THE CHURCH.

425

imperfections of Christians, render impossible a practical

organic union of all these organized bodies
all

;

yet that they
fact

are one visible

Church

is

self-evident,

from the

that they are all visible parts of the true spiritual or invisible

Church, which, being "the body of Christ," can
(3.)

never be divided.

The

truth also that since the

Church is rendered visible by the profession and outward obedience of its members, and since no class of

men

are ever

endowed with the power of disqriminating
necessarily follows that a credible pro-

with absolute accuracy the genuineness of Christian characteristics, it

fession, as

presumptive evidence of real religion, consti-

tutes a person a

member
is

of the visible Church.

By

a

credible profession

gion sufficiently

meant a profession of tiietrue reliintelligent and sufficiently corroborated

by the daily life of the professor to be credited as genuine. Every such profession is ground for the presumption that the person is a member of tiie true Church, and consequently constitutes him a

member
all

of the visible Church,

and lays an obligation upon

other Christians to regard

him accordingly. This visible Church is called "the kingdom of heaven'' in the earth, and its nature and progress are set forth in the parables of the "sower of the seed," the " field and the tares," the " mustard seed," the " leaven," the " net which was cast into the sea and gathered fish of every kind," etc. Matt. xiii.
and
treat
^^4.)

Also the truth that the children of all professors of

the true religion are, on that account, fellow-members

with their parents of the visible Church.
proof under Chapter xxviii.

This import-

ant principle will properly come up for discussion and
§ 4.

3d. These Sections teach that

God

has (jiveu to this

426

CONFESSION OF FAITH.
its

universal visible Church, in all
Btituent

branches and conScriptures
as
(b)

elements

(a)

the

inspired
faith

an
the

infallible oracle

and rule of

and practice;

Gospel ministry

—an order

not qualified and indicated
gifts

by manual

contact, but
(c)

by the

and graces of the
preaching,

Holy Ghost;

the ordhiances, such as

prayer, singing of praise

and the holy sacraments of

Buptism and the Lord's Supper, and discipline. And (d) that the great end designed to be accomplished by
this grant
is

(1)

the gathering in

oi

the elect from th:

children of the

Church

or from the world,

and

(2) the
iv.

perfecting of the saints

when thus gathered. Eph.

11-13.

And

(e)

that the success of these agencies in
is

attaining this end

secured beyond peradventure by

the promise

of Christ to be with them and to ren-

der them effectual until the end of the world. Matt,
xxviii. 20.

4th.

These Sections teach that out of the bounds of

this universal visible
bility

Church
all

there

is

no ordinary possiis

of salvation.

This proposition

believed

by

our Church and by
apj)ly only to adults

other evangelical Christians to
are out of the pale of the visi-

who

ble Church.

All the members of the
Since, then, the

human

race

dying

in infancy are believed to

be saved through the merits
universal visible
tlie
is

of Christ.
consists of

Church
tlie

all

the professors of
it

true religion in

world, to say that out of
bility

there

ordinarily no possi(a.)

of salvation
in

is

only saying

That God has

any way revealed his intention of saving any sane adult destitute of the personal knowledge of Christ.
never
(h.)

That an unexceptional experience

in

heathen lands

leads us to the conviction that no e in such a condition

THE CHURCH.
uve saved,
(c.)

427

That God has very emphatically dewho deny his Son before men shall not be saved. JNIatt. x. 33. (d.) That every man who
clared that those

hears the gospel

is

commanded

to confess Christ before

men
laid
il'ss

— that
down

is,

to

become a public

visible professor of the

true religion. Matt. x. 32.
in

The
10 are

Rom.
tiiat

x, 9,

— "If thou

conditions of salvation
shalt con-

with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe

Avith

thy heart

God
;

hath raised him from the dead,
the heart

thou shalt be saved.
unto righteousness

For with and with

man

believeth
is

the

mouth

confession

n)ade unto salvation."

There are obviously various

ways

in M'hich Christ

may be

publicly acknowledged

and confessed.

In some way every person having the

love of Christ in his heart will confess him.

But our

Confession intends in these Sections to teach further
that ordinarily, where there
tunity,
fess
is

the knowledge and opporloves Christ to con-

God requiresevery one who
in

him

the regular

way
is

of joining the

community
shown

of his people and of taking the sacramental badges of
his discipleship.

That

this

commanded

will be

under Chapters xxvii.-xxix.
tially possible

And

that

when providenor

every Christian heart will be prompt to
matter,
is

obey
fear

in

this

self-evident.

When shame

of persecution be the
is

preventing considerations,
equivalent to the positive

then the failure to obey

rejection of Christ, since the rejection of
to

him

will have

be publicly pretended in such case in order to avoid

the consequences attending upon the public acknowledg-

ment of him.
Section IV.
more,

—This

catholic
vi>il)lo.*

Church hath been sometimes

soiuetinie.s less

And

particular churches, which

428
are

CONFESSION OF FAITH.
members
thereof, are
is

more

or less

pure, according as ihe

doctrine of the gospel

taught and embraced, ordinaroes ad

ministered, and public worship performed

more

or less purely in

them.*

Section V.

—The

purest churches under heaven are subject
;'"

both to mixture and error

and some have so degenerated as
but

to

become
ship

no churches of Christ,
according to his
will.*^

sj'nagogues of Satan."

Nevertheless, there shall be always a Church on earth, to wor-

God

Section VI.
Ivord

no other head of the Church but the Jesus Christ :" nor can the Pope of Rome in any sense be
is
is

—There

the head thereof; but

that Antichrist, that

son of perdition, that exalteth himself in the
Christ,
8

man of sin and Church against
7.—^
2;
1 Cor.

and

all

that
;

is

called God.'*

Rom.

xi. 3,

4

Rev.
iii;

xii. 6,

14.—9 Rer.
xiii.

ii., iii

;

1 Cor. v. 6,
xviii.

xiii.

12; Rev.

ii.,

Matt.

24-.30,

47.—" Rev.
cii.

18-22.—12 Matt.
13

xvi. 18; Ps. Ixxii. 17;
i.

28; Matt, xxviii.
ii. 3,

Rom. xi. 19, 20.—
9; Rev.

Col.

i.

18; Eph.

22.—"

Matt, xxiii. 8-10; 2 Tliess.

4, 8,

xiii. 6.

All tlmt

is

taught
liave

in these Sections necessarily follows

from what we
of the visible
1st.

above ascertained as to the nature

Church

Since the catholic or universal visible Church

consists of all the professors of the true religion in the

world, and of
tions

all

the particular ecclesiastical organizaloyal to the
it

which continue

Head, and maintain

doctrines essentially sound,

that the
visible,
less

Church

as a

whole

is in

must necessarily follow any age more or less
the })urity of the doc;

and any particular constituent church more or

pure in proportion

(a) to

trine they profess
tc their zeal

and the worship they maintain

(6)
(c)

and spiritual character and energy; and

to the purity of their
pline.
fection,

membership maintained by
all

disci-

In proportion as these are

advanced

in per-

and prevail generally throughout the whole

THE CHURCH.

429

body, in the same degree will the cntin? Church appear

more

visibly discriminated

from the world and maniIn the same measure also

fest in

her entire outline.

will every individual ecclesiastical organization be pure

—that

is,

free

from heterogeneous elements

— and conseit is

crated to the accomplishment of the ends for which

designed.
2d. It follows, also, from the very nature of the visible

Church and

its

condition in this world, that

its

i:)urity is

a matter of degree, varying at different times

and

in different sections.

The

teaching of Scripture as

to the nature of the

sation (Matt,
sanctified,

xiii.),

kingdom under the present dispenthe nature of man yet imperfectly

and the universal experience of the churches, and
will continue so to the end,

lead us to the conclusion that the very purest churches

are yet veiy imperfect,

and that some will become so corrupt

as to lose their

character as true churches of Christ altogether.

This was the case with the ancient Church under the reign of Ahab, when the children of Israel had apostatized

from the service of the true God
in that state of affairs the
left

to

such an extent that
left faithful.

Elijah thought he was the only one

Lord

declared, "
all

Even Yet have I
Even more

me

seven thousand in Israel,
1

the knees that have

not bowed unto Baal."
entire deterioration has

Kings

xix. 18.

happened

to the ancient churches

founded by the apostles in the East and by their successors
in

Northern Africa.

The churches which acknowledge

the supremacy of the Bishop of

Rome

have abandoned

the faith and obscured the glory of their
direction, while
as the English

Lord

in

one

many

professedly Protestant churches

and American Socinians and the Ger

130

CONFESSION OF FAITH.

limn Rationalists
other.

— have
Rome

made an eqnal apostasy

in an*

The Church
visible

of

maintains that the promise of

Christ secures the infallible orthodoxy and purity of the
organization, in subjection to apostolically-or-

dained bishops, to the end of the world.

But the
is

Church whose
anteed

infallible

orthodoxy and purity
is

guar-

by the divine promise

no outward visible
it

organization or succession of bishops or priests;
the particular

is

Church of no nation or generation, but it is the true invisible bady of the elect or of true believThat it is so is proved ers of all nations and ages. (1.) From the fact that for eighteen hundred years the
promise has been
fulfilled in the sense
fulfilled

we have

defined,

but has never been

in

the sense the

Romish

Church demands.
tion

They have themselves

led the defec-

from the

faith

and practice of the apostolic Church.
alike, visible

And among
ecclesiastical

Romanists and Protestants
organizations
are

continually

changing

their character

and relations to the truth. (2.) The Kpistles are addressed to " the Church," and the saluthat phrase

tations explain

by the equivalents " the

called," "the saints," etc. See the salutations of First and Second Corinthians, Ephesians, Colossians, First and Second Peter, and Jude. The same attributes are ascribed to the members of the true Church in the body of the Epistles. 1 Cor. i. 30; iii. 16; vi. 11 Eph. ii. 3-8, 19-22; Col. i. 21; ii. 10; 1 Pet. ii. 9. (3.) The
;

attributes ascribed to the true

Church

j)r()ve

it

to

be

spiritual, and, in the sense explained, invisible,

and not
Pet.
ii.

an outward organized succession. Eph. v. 27
5; John X. 27; Col,
i.

;

1

18,24.

THE CHURCH.
3(1.

431

It follows, nevertheless,

from the relation which
Church, that
never

the visible

Church sustains

to the invisible

?ince, according to divine promise, the latter can

entirely fail

from the earth (Matt. xvi.

18), so likewise,

however the former may be obscured by heresies or lessened by defection, it can never be entirely wanting.
AVherever the true Church
visible
;

is, it

will be

more or
the
it

less

not in

proportion, however, to

size

or

])retension of the organization

with which

may
its

be

associated, but in proportion to the purity of

faith

and the
bership.
4th.

spiritual activity

and fruitfulness of

its

mem-

That the Lord Jesus Christ is the only absolute and supreme Head of the Church is self-evident, is abundantly asserted in Scripture (Col. i. 18, and Eph. i. 20-23), and has never been denied by any Christians.

Many

have, however, maintained that, as the visible

Church on eartli has a government and laws, and since tliese must be administered by a visible authority, so the Church must liave an earthly visible head, acting u[)on authority delegated by Christ and as his represent-

The Church of Rome claims "So has Christ— the Head and Spouse
ative.

this for the pope.

— placed
power;

over his
Spirit, a

Church, which he governs by his most inward

man
\

to be the vicar

and minister of

his

for as a

isible

church requires a visible head, our Saviour apState churches of

pointed Peter head and pastor of all the faithful."*

The Erastian
as

Germany and Great

Britain have acknowledged their respective sovcreisjns

supreme heads of the Church
war> recognized as
* Cat.

as well as of the State.

Henry VI IT.

"supreme head cf
Q.
11.

the

Uum., Part

i.,

cli. x.,

and are unable to prove their claims by unquestionable credentials. as a matter of fact. called Anglicana Ecclesia.. as all honours. On the contrary. if they have no such authority. and shall have and enjoy. i." and king. . it Church of England.^ 2(3 Homy VIII. it is a mere question of fact and evidence." in all cases In both these ecclesiastical cases. being incorporated Article of the into esty Church of England " The queen's majhas the chief power in this realm of England. in all causes. profits and commodities to the dignity of supreme head of the said Church belong- ing and appertaining. annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm. etc. In the ab'sence of any duly-accredited visible head of *TV.432 CONFESSION OF FAITH. and of like claims to supremacy. c^aid title thereof. immunities. and our disobedience treason to Christ. and that upon the slightest interrogation they fall of their own weight. obvious that neither party can show any plausible foundation for their clainis. visible heads of his Church. as then his vicars. If. whom the chief govern- ment of all estates of this realm. cai-. whether they be ecclesi- astical or civil."* This supremacy of the reignis ing sovereign over the Church even made an article the Tliirty-seventh : of faith. as well the style and dignities. his heirs. and made them. was enacted "that the and re- shall be taken. is we onght to obey them. and unto other her dominions. Christ delegated his authority cither to the poi)c or to national sovereigns.. accepted puted the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England. then their assumption of such power tives is a blasphemous intrusicm to (he upon divine prerogaIt is and treason human race. doth appertain.

or principles and systo him and his cause. it form and effect wholly anti- and that marked a and defection from aposforetold in Scripture. complete and per(2. ''even 18. to remember that as the forms complications of the kingdom of of evil change. 4. and Christ with that of Satan vary with the progress of events. 3. upon the great invisible Head. New Testament John ii. and endures 0(. iv. xxviii. predicted in to 2 Thess. as well as for redeiDption. 18. ^>he 433 Church. 11.) spicuous rule of faith and practice. The word 1 Antichrist the 7. as the istry. 22. Eph. now are there many Antichrists. He presides over and (1) through his inspired an infallible." 1 John ii. We have need. The authors of is our Confession can hardly have intended to declare that each individual pope of the long succession sonal Antichrist." ii.'curs in end of in the world. 20. as we have seen. word. governs his Clmrch whicli is. we are forced back to direct dependence for its hiw and administration. tolical Christianity foreseen All of which was true tiie in their day. Matt. the sacraments." the '*son of perdition. 28 . to the iv. 3. Interpreters have differed as to whether these phrases were intended tems antagonistic designate a personal opponent of the Lord. Through the min- apostolical institutions transmitted to us. however. in spirit. 2 John The coming is of the "man of sin. etc.THE CHURCH. the ordinances. and is the perthat they probably meant the papal system christian. xviii. 20. and is true in ours. And (3) through his own spiritual presence. all his which extends to members.

Who are members of the visible Why does the mere fact of profession member is Church ? Church? of the true religion ? constitute a person a 13. To IS. With what effect is gifts has God specially endowed the Church ? 17. How all ecclesiastical organizations extant constitute but one 11. ITow arc men to confess Christ? . What constitutes By what figures a credible profession? the visible Church — its nature and growth 15. 12. 19. — set forth in Scripture ? Who besides professors of the true religion are ? members visible of the visible Church 10. 1. x. What are the conditions of salvation set down in Ucm. How ? does the fact of organization affect the visibility of the can you prove that the various Church 10. What 9. What does our Confession teach as to the universal invisible Church? 6. in the New Testament? tliat it is the invisible spiritual Church to which the promises of the Gospel are addressed. What What Prove is the true sense and right applicadtjn of the word " catholic?"' 2. of the visible Church 14. Why is this Church called "invisible?" 7. When will it be seen in its completeness and unveiled glory? What relation does the universal visible Chui-ch sustain to the invisible Church ? 9. 10? 20.434 CONFESSION OF FAITH. In what uiore general and more particular senses are the words "church" and "churches" used? 5. 8. QUESTIONS. is the etymology and usage of the word translated "church" 3. 4. what ends were these gifts given ? meant by the assertion that outside of the bounds of the visible Church there is no ordinary possibility of salvation.

THE 21. in company of God's elect of all ages and nations? How may the perpetual continuance of the visible Church some form on the earth be argued? Who acknowledge the Lord Jesus as the supreme Head of the Church? 30. claims 35. How does the truth of this proposition result from what has been taught above as to the nature and relations of the visible Church? 24. of the whole Church ? is or those denying their how does Christ act as the true 36. Head In what passages of Scripture the doctrine of Anti- christ taught? 37. but to the great 28. 33. —does the burden of proof lie? In the absence of a visible head. What ia meant by the declaration that the pope is Anti- christ? . How can you show that these promises of Scripture are not addressed to any visible organization or succession. Upon what grounds are all such claims to be decided? fail What is the nature of svich claims if they to be proved ? 34. What is proposition taught in fourth. Upon which party— the claimants. What does the Romish Church teach as to the headship of the pope? 31. State ation. On what ground does the Church of Rome maintain that she is incapable of doctrinal or moral deterioration? 27. fess CHurvCii. for salvation for visible 435 men to con- In what sense is it necessai-y Christ by communion with the the first Church ? tlie 22. What is the doctrine of the Church of England as to the 29. fifth and sixth Sections? 23. some historical instances of ecclesiastiqal deterior- 26. How can it be shown that the purity of the visible Church varies in difi'erent ages and sections? 25. headship of the sovereign ? 32.

as do conduce to their mutual good. iii. 6. Isa. upon the name of the Lord Jesus. Ps. 1 John Tiii.^ And in being united to one another in love. 5. resurrection. ll. —All saints that are united to Jesus Christ. ii. Which communion. —Saints. 10. 16-19 John 12. xi. V. Eph.—« Eph. 18. i. —This stance of his Godhead.—» Ex. 16. and glory.— «Col. have fellowship with him in his graces.ii. 8. 45. John iii. is to be extended unto all those who Section Christ. 2 Eph.' communion which the saints have with doth not make them in any wise partakers of the subin every place call III. xlv. Tim. in his goods and John vi. 19. Section I. i. and by faith.—5Acts i. 44. xi. Isa. xlii.' 11 man hath Eph. as saints. 14.® another. 25. 1 viii. iv. i. by his Spirit.CHAPTER XXVI. vi. 24. 11. public and private. both in the inward and outward man. 1 21-23. 5. . 8. iii. ii. 1 Cor. 3. Gal. Heb.i. sufferings. xii. vi. Phil. take Nor doth or in- communion one with away fringe the title or property which each possessions. iv "8. 20. OF COMMUNION OF SAINTS. 7. iii.^ Section II. their L3ad. death.'^O.. 6.14:Roui. 2 Cor. 15. 16. X. 1 Cor. 1 Cor.7. 4. ix. or to be equal with Christ in any respect either of which to affirm their is impious and blasphemous.— Sl Thess.—Ilcb. ii. 9. Acts 436 . Rom. iii. 15.12. and in edification performing such other spiritual services as tend to their mutual . according to their several abilities and necessities. xx. Col. ii. .46. are bound to maintain an holy fellowship and communion in the worship of God. 29. Acts ii. they have other's gifts and graces . 16-18. 6. 15.* as also in relieving each other in outward things.l9. 3. 16. 17. v. 10. Acts 42..** communion each and are obliged to the performance of such duties. by profession. Tim. as God offereth opportunity.

(2. As to the nature of this union of the believer with (a. and hoio (1. in our stead and for our benefit. fellowship between him and them resulting therefrom. federal whereby Christ acts in all things as our Head. 2d. The union between The communion of the true people of Christ growing out of their union with him. the Scriptures teach — That it is federal and representative.) John xvii. As foundation of the union subsisting be- tween the true believer and the Lord Jesus. 6. the Scriptures teach that it rests in the eternal purpose of the triune God. The mutual duties of all who with regard to 1st. 2. Of The the union of Christ and his people. and providing tion in him. and with for their salva- the members in the Head. 5th. 3d. and the eternal covenant of grace formed between the Father and his word as the mediatorial people.) is established. saints growing out of their profess to be saints union with each other. treating with the Head of his Head for the members." i. 437 Communion parties is a mutual interchange of offices between which flows from a common principle in which they are united. We is need to know what to the is the foundation and what it the nature of this union. Eph. expressed in the decree of election (" We were chosen in him before the foundation of the world.) Christ. All saints are united to the Lord Jesus. The nature and degree of the com- munion will depend upon the nature and intimacy of it the union from which proceeds. 4th.COMMUNION OF SAINTS. Hence. . This Chapter teaches 1st. all their fellow-professors. 4).

438

CONFESSION OF FAITH.
is

our legal status

determined by
all are
it

his,

and

his

rights,

honours, relations,

made ours
is

in

copartnership

with him.

(6.)

That

is

a vital and spiritual union. the Spirit of the Head,
vi.

Its actuating source

and bond
24;
iv.

who
xii.

dwells and works in the members. 1 Cor.

17

;

13; 1 John
his

iii.

13.

Hence our

spiritual

life is

derived from
life,

him and sustained and determined

which we share. Gal. ii. 20. (c.) It is a union between our entire persons and Christ, and there-

by

fore one involving our bodies
vi. 15, 19.
(3.)

through our souls.
union

1

Cor.

As

to the

manner

in

which

this

is

estab-

lished, the Scriptures teach that the elect,
in the divine idea

having been

comprehended under the headship of
his
Spirit,

Christ from eternity, are in time actually united to him
(a)

by the powerful operation of
in

whereby

they "are quickened together with Christ," which Spirit

evermore dwells

them

as the organ of Christ's {)res-

ence with them, the infinite
fulness of his love and
life,

medium through which
all

the

and

the benefits purchased

by

his

blood, pass over freely from the
(6.)

Head

to the

members.

By

the actings of

faitii

u[)on their part,
his

whereby they grasp Christ and appropriate him and
live in
iii.

grace to themselves, and whereby they ever continue to

him and
is

to

draw

their resources

from him. Eph.

17.
illustrated in Scripture
its

This union

by the

relation

subsisting between a foundation and
(1

superstructure

Pet.

ii.

4-6); a tree and

its

branches (John xv. 5); the
iv. 15,

members of the body and the head (Eph.
a husband

16);

and wife (Eph.

v.

31, 32);

Adam

and his

descendants.

Rom.

v.

12-19.

COMMUNION OF
1'liis

SAINTS.

4o9

union has been called by theologians a "mystiit

cal" union, because

never could have been known

unless revealed by the

Lord himself, and

l)ecause
it

it

is

so incomparably intimate and excellent that
all

transcends

other unions of which
it is

we have

experience.

Never-

theless,

not mysterious in the sense of involving

any confusion between Christ's personality and ours,
nor does
it

make

us in any wise partakers of his
in

Godis

head or to be equal with him
union between persons,
identity,
in

any

respect.

It

a

which each

retains his separate

and

in

which the believer, although immeasuris

ably exalted and blessed, nevertheless

entirely sub-

ordinated to and continued dependent upon his Lord.
2d.

On

the basis of this union a most intimate
offices

fel-

lowship or interchange of mutual
to be sustained between believers

ever continues

and Christ.

(L)

They have

fellowship with Christ (a) in all the

covenant merits of his active and passive obedience.
Forensically they are " complete in him."
his
iidieritance, his

His Father,
a.

throne, his crown, are theirs,
acts as prophet, priest

their

mediatorial

Head he

and
v.

king.

In union with him they are also prophets, priests
1 John ii. 27 1 Pet. ii. 5; Rev. iii. 21 They have fellowship with Christ also in
; ;

and kings,
10.
(6.)

the
his

transforming, assimilating power of his
fulness

life.

"

Of

have we

all

received,

and grace

for

grace."
Christ,

Thus they have
and bear
ii.

the "spirit" and "the

mind" of
viii.

his "likeness" or "image.''

Rom.

9; Phil,

This includes the bodies also, 5; 1 John iii, 2, making them temples of the Holy Ghost, and in the
1

resurrection our glorified bodies are to be like his,

Cor. XV. 43, 49.

(^,)

They have

fellowship with Christ

440
in all

CONFESSION OI FAITH.
their experiences,

inwara and outward,

in their

joys and victories, in their labours, sufferings, temptations :ind death.

Rom.

viii.
xii.

37; 2 Cor.
3;

xii.

9; Gal.

vi.

17; Phil.
(2.)

iii.

10; Heb.

1 Pet. iv. 13.

to

to

iu

They belong They are devoted his service. They are co-workers together with him building up his kingdom. They bear fruit to his
Christ has fellowship with them.
as the purchase of his blood.

him

praise and shine as stars in his throne.

Their hearts,

their lives, their possessions, are all consecrated to him,

and are held by them

in trust for

him. Prov. xix. 17;

Rom.

xiv. 8

;

1

Cor.

vi. 19,

20.

3d. Since all true believers are thus intimately united
to Christ as the

the Source of a

common Head of the w hole common life, it follows that

body, and
they must

be intimately united together.

If they have but one

Head and are all members of one body, they must have one common life, and be all members one of another. The Romish and Ritualistic view is that individuals
Church through the sacraments and through the Church to Christ. The true view is that
are united to the

the individual

is

united to Christ

he

Head by

the

Holy
he
is,

Ghost and by

faith,

and by being united
all

to Christ

ipso facto, united to

Ciirist's
is

members, the Church.
there the

The
The

holy catholic Church

the product of the
is,

Gliost.

Wherever the Spirit
of the Spirit
is

Holy Church is.
which
All be-

})resen(!e

known by
Gal.
v.

his fruits,

are " love, joy, ])eace,"
lievers receiving the

etc.

22, 23.

into

same Spirit are by him baptized "one body," and thus they all become, " though many members," but "one body," "the body of Christ"
in particular."
1

and " meuibers

Cor.

xii.

13-27.

COMMUNION OF SAINTS.
4tli.

441

Hence

truo believers, all being united in one liv-

ing body, sustain

many

intimate relations, and discharge

many important
of the saints."
(1.)

offices for

one another, which are sum-

marily expressed by the general phrase "the communion

They have

with respect to him, a
system of faith to
a

common Head, and common duties common profession, a common maintain, a common gospel to preach,
a

common worship and service to maintain. (2.) They have a common life, and one Holy Ghost
are involved in the ties of

dwelling in and binding together in one the whole body.

Hence they

sympathy and
all
all suf-

identity of interest.

One cannot

prosper without

prospering with him
fering with him.
(3.)

one cannot suffer without

As

they constitute one body in the eyes of the

world, they have a
severally

common
all

reputation, and are all

and

collectively

honoured or dishonoured with
schisms in the body, injurious

each other.

Hence

controversies, malignant misrepresentations of Christian

by Christian, are self-defaming as well as wicked. (4.) The body of saints is like the natural body
this also, that,
is

in

although one body, each several member
s})ecial

an organ of the Holy Ghost for a
his

iunction,

and has

own

individual difference of qualification,

and consequently of duty.
the body, each
tion

Hence,

in

the

economy of
in his

member

is

to contribute his special func-

and

his sj)ecial grace or beauty,

and has
4-21.
x.

turn

fellowshi}) in the gifts and complementary graces of all

the rest.

Eph.

iv.

11-16;

1

Cor.

xii.

This shall
;

be perfectly realized in heaven.
5th. Since this
is

John

16

xvii. 22.

the union of all true believers with

4J2
the

CONFESSION OF
Lord and with each
other,

FAI'l H.

and

since, consequeutly,

a "comninnion of saints" so intimate necessarily flourishes

among

true believers in proportion to their intelliit

gence and their advancement in grace,
all

follows that

branches of the visible Church, and

all

the individ-

ual
to

members thereof, should do all within their power act upon the principles of the "communion of saints"

in their intercourse with all
ligion.

who

profess the true re-

If the Church
are one,
all

is

one, the churches are one.
in this

If

all saints

and are embraced

holy

"communion,'' then
regard and treat

who

profess to be saints should

all their fellow-professors on the presumption that they are saints and " heirs together with

them of the grace of
all controversies

life."

Think of

it

!

In spite of

and jealousies, one
!

in the eternal electsacri-

— one the purchase of Christ's — one the beautifying indwelling of the the eternal inheritance of glory Holy Ghost! — one
ing love of
ficial

God
!

in

blood

in

in

!

Surely,

we should be

also

one

in all the charities,

sym-

pathies and helpful offices possible in these short and
evil

days of earthly pilgrimage.

These mutual duties

are, of course,

some of

tliera

public

—as between
of tiiem

differ-

ent evangelical churches

— and

many

private

and personal.

Many

of them relate to the souls, and

many

also to the bodies of the saints.
in the heart,

The

i-ule

is

the

law of love

and the

princij)los

and exam-

ples of saints recorded in Scripture applied to the special

circumstances of every individual case.

But while

these mutual relations

and

offices

of the saints sanctifyj

they are not designed to supersede the fundamental principles of

human
tie.

society, as

the rights of proi)erty am!

the family

CX)MMUNION OF SAINTS.

443

QUESTIONS.
1.

2.
3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

What What What What What What What What
What

is

communion, and what does

it

presuppose?
r

is t^hejirst

subject taught in these Sections

is
is is

the second subject here taught? the third f the fourth?
the //;Af

is is

the foundation of the union of the believer and

Christ?
8.

three points are here taught as to the nature of that

union?
9.

10. 11.

do you mean by saying that it is federal? AVhat by saying that it is vital and spiritual?

What

by saying that

it

involves the entire person?

12. 13.
14.
15. 16.

How

is this

union accomplished?
to
it ?

What is the office of the Holy Spirit in respect What is the office of faith in respect to it? By what similitudes is this union illustrated?

Why has
What

this union
is it

been called " mystical?"
is

17.

In what sense

not niy.sterious, and what

not involved

in it?
18.
is

the great practical consequence of our union with

Christ?
19.

In what respects does the believer have fellow.ship with In what respects does Christ have fellowship
witli the be-

Christ?
20.

liever?
21.
22.

What What

follows if
is

all

believers are united tO the one Christ?
Ritualistic

the

Romish and
in

and what the true

view as to the way
to Christ

which the individual members are united
?

and

to the

world

23.
24.

How

can the presence of the Holy Spirit be determined
is
all

?

What

the great practical consequent which flows from
saints in

the union of

"one body?"
in

25. State the principal particulars •which are involved

the

"communion

of saints."

444
26.

CONFESSION OF FAITH.

What

practical duties hence belong to every branch of thu
to

visible

Church with reference

every other branch
'

?

27.
tlie

What
What

practical duties hence belong to every professor of
all

true religion with reference to
is

his fellow-professors?

28.
29.

the rule for our guidance in such matters?
dofts ih\s doctrine not lead ?

To what consequences

CHAPTER XXVII.
OF THE SACRAMENTS.
Section
I.

— Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the
him
difi"erence

cove-

nant of grace, ^ immediately instituted by God,^ to represent
Christ and his benefits, and to confirm our interest in
also to
;'

as

between those that belong unto the Church and the rest of the world,* and solemnly to engage them
put a visible

to the service of Grod in Christ, according to his word.^

Section
whence
it

II.

— There

is in

every sacrament a spiritual relation

or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified

comes

to pass that the

names and

effects

of the one are

attributed to the other.*

Larger Catechism,
ment?

Q. 163. —What are the parts of a sacra—The parts of a sacrament are two the one, an outward
:

and sensible sign used according to Christ's own appointment; the other, an inward and spiritual grace thereby signified.^
1

Rom.
14.
;

iv.

11; Gen. xvii.
;

7,

8 1

Cor. X. 16

xxxiv.
27. 28

xi. 25,

26

;

Gal.

iii.

10.—2 Matt, xsviii. 19; 1 Cor. xi. 23.— 27.—* Rom. xv. 8 Ex. xii. 48 Gen.

5

Rom.

vi. 3,

4; 1 Cor. x. 16, 21.
iii.

;

;

6

Gen. xvii. 10

;

Matt. xxvi.

Tit.

iii.

5.—' Matt.

11

;

1 Pet.

iii.

21.

The
In

Avord sacrament does not occur in the Scriptures.

its classical

usage

it

designated anything which binds

or brings under obligations, as a
in

sum

of

money given

pledge, or an oath,

and especially the oath of mili-

tary allegiance.

In

its ecclesiastical

usage, the

word while retaining

its

general sense of something binding as sacred, was at

an early period used as the Latin equivalent of the
445

4-lG

COXFKSSIOX OF FAITH.
(/^Ufrr'-j^'^'rov),

Greek word mysterion
until revealed,

that which

is

unknowti
having

and hence any symbol, type or

rite

a latent spiritual meaning.

Hence the word naturally

came

to

be applied in a general and vague sense to the

Christian ordinances of baptism and the Lord's Supper,

'and with them also

to

many

other religious doctrines

and ordinances.
It
is

plainly, therefore, impossible to determine the

nature or the number of the sacraments from either the

etymology or the usage of the word sacrament.

We
name.

want a thorough
Supper, which

definition of the thing, not of the

This we can get only by taking baptism and the Lord's
all

men acknowledge

to

be genuine sac-

raments, and, by a strict examination of their origin,

nature and uses, determine
class

[a] the true character

of the
{h)

of

ordinances

to

which

they belong,
to the

and

whether any other ordinances belong
or not.
in our

same

class

In

this

way
:

the definition of a sacrament given

Standards was formed.

This definition involves

the following points
1st.

A

sacrament

is

an ordinance immediately insti-

tuted by Christ. L. Cat., Q. 162, and S. Cat., Q. 92.
2d.

A sacrament
The

always consists of two elements
(Z>)

(a)

an outward sensible sign, and
grace thereby signified.
3d.

an inward spiritual
sacramentally
this

sign in every sacrament
it

is

united to the grace which
I'.nion

signifies;

and out of

the scriptural usage has arisen of ascribing to the
is

sign whatever
4th.

true of that which the sign signifies.
to ^'represent, seal

The sacraments were designed
benefits of Christ

and apply the

and the new covenant

to believers." S. Cat.,

Q. 02.

THE SACRAMENTS.
5tli.

447
fidelity

They were designed

to

be pledges of our

to Christ,

binding us to his service, and at the same

time badges of our profession, visibly marking the body
of professors and distinguishing them from the world.
1st.

The
is

first

Section of this Chapter says that a sac-

rament rament
over.

an ordinance " immediately instituted by This
is

God
sac-

to represent Christ," etc.
is

true if thb

word

used in

its

general sense to include also the

Old Testament sacraments of circumcision and the pass-

But
that

it

is

an important distinction of the

New

Testament sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper

they

were both

immediately instituted by

Christ himself.

Therefore, both the Larger (Q. 162)
it,
''

and Shorter (Q. 92) Catechisms have
is

A

sacrament

an holy ordinance

instituted

by Christ in his Church."
it

This should be remembered, because from any right to
dinances.
2d.

serves to exclude

most of the pretended sacraments of the Church of Koine
a-

place in this olass of Christian or-

Every sacrament

consists
(6)

of two elements

(a)

an outward sensible sign, and
thereby signified.
sign
is

an inward spiritual grace

In bnptism the outward sensible

{a) water, and (6) the water applied in the

name

of the Triune

God

to the person of the subject baptized.
is

The inward

spiritual grace thereby signified

(a) pri-

marily spiritual purification by the immediate personal
j)»wer of the

Holy Ghost

in

the soul, and {b) hence,

secondarily, the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, hence

the union of the baptized with Christ, hence regeneration, justification, sanctification, perseverance to the end,

glorification, etc.

i. e.,

all

the benefits of the

new

cove-

nant.

In the Lord's Supper, the outward sensible signs

148
are
(a)

coxFESsroN of faith.
bread and wine, and
(6)

the consecration and the
to,

bread broken, and the wine poured out, distributed

and received and eaten and drunk by, the communicants.

The inward
mal
ily

spiritual grace thereby signified
flesli

is

[a) pri-

Christ crucified (his

torn and blood shed)

for us,

and giving himself

to

us to be spiritually re-

ceived and assimilated as the princii)le of a

new

life,

and

(6)

hence, secondarily, union with Christ, the inS])irit,

dwelling of the
cation, etc,
i.

regeneration, justification, sancti-

e.,

all

the benefits secured by the sacrificial

death of Christ. 3d. " There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation
or sacramental union
signified."

between the sign and the
the

thino;

This sacramental union between the sign and
it

the grace which

signifies,

Romish and Lutheran

churches understand to be, at least in the case of the

Lord's Supper, a

literal

identity.
is

Thus when Christ

took the bread and said, "This
that
it

my

body," they
body.

insist

means that the bread

is his

All other

Christians understand the ])hrase to mean, " This bread
represents sacramental ly

my
is (a)

body."

This sacramental union, therefore, between the sign

and the thing
tive

signified

symbolical and representa-

— the
(6)

one symbolizes and so represents the other

and

instrumental because by divine appointment,
is

through the right use of the sign, the grace signified
really conveyed.

Tiie grounds of this sacramental union are

(a.)

The

natural fitness of the sign to symbolize the grace signified, as

washing with water

to

symbolize spiritual puri(6.)

fication

by the Ploly Ghost.

The

authoritative
rightly used

ai>pointment of Christ that

these signs

to baptism with Ananias said to Paul. and that these spiritual effects are due outward ordinance. 16. But must be observed that tne attributes of Scriptures do not assert these spiritual water baptism as the sign or in itself considered.) 449 grace tliey signify truly represent and convey tlio The spiritnal faith of the believing recipient. Tiius. is })roper use of the 1 enabled to discern "the Lord's body. he xi. a gift tiie of the Spirit of Christ. and whatever is is grace signified asserted of tiie sign which signiin fies it. It does not 29 . "Christ gave himself for the Church. whereby in sign. but of water baptism the emblem of baptism by Holy Ghost. every one of you. the one of tiie whidi we have true thus explained by a natural and legitimate use of lanis put for the other. and wash away your sins. union between the sign and the grace guage. Hence Romanists and Ritualists 38. that virtue of his death." V. and drink the true of baptism blood of Christ. Hence the doctrine of bapit tismal regeneration.THE SACRAMENTS. by the These Spirit. to participate in the sacrificial And is whatever attributed is with the Holy Ghost water. with the washing of water by the Word. or sacramental signified." " Repent and be baptized. sins. "Arise and be baptized. that he raiglit sanctify and cleanse it Eph. tjhall (c." Acts xxii. for the remission of ii. in the Acts name of Jesus Christ. to eat the bread is and drink the wine the Lord's Supper to eat the flesh is. Out of this spiritual relation. 26. is have inferred that the sign to the inseparal)le from the grace signified." Cor. 29. is spiritual attributes belong only to baptism and they accompany the sign only when the sign accompanied by that which it signifies.

450 CONFESSION OF FAITH. (1) to 4th. is a visible representative of the blood. declared to be the circumcision of Christ. united him in his death. In the sacrament God sensibly and authoritatively pledges himself to invest us Avith this grace if we believe and obey. by which therefore since it it new covenant was a visible confirmation of the covenant. actively assume all the obligations implied in fulfil the gospel.. " is . signifying inward and (2. In receiving the sacrathem. iv. to their being outward. he was a debtor to do the whole . We are said to /. my and blood. inseparable from the experiencic teaches The it is grace is sovereign and us that is least often absent from the sign. sensible signs. This follows from what has just been shown as spiritual graces. the benefits of Christ's redemption are offered upon the condition of faith. 11 and baptism ii. This cup represents ratified . and that the sign frequently honoured by the presence of the grace when it is itself most implicitly relied upon. and hence present those truths to the eyes and other senses of the recipients in a manner analogous to that in M'hicli they are presented to the ears in the preaching of the Word. They are as signs or pictures of the truths they represent." Rom. The gospel is preSalvation and all sented under the form of a covenant. Col. If a nian was circumcised. be actually buried with Christ in baptism. 11.) of the benefits of the They were designed to be "seals" new covenant. and bind ourselves to Circum- Paul says. follow. 12. in Jesus says. is . that the sign grace. ment we cision." is the new covenant my is blood the that is. " This cup . the seal of the righteousness of is faith. The sacraments were designed represent the benefits of Christ and the new covenant. lijwever. to e.

Cat. Conf. "The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments. Gal. Q.. by sensible signs. put on Christ. they must of course. "A sacrament is a holy ordinance instituted by Christ in signify. or the key handed over the presence of witnesses the possession of a house from the owner to the renter. in them.st 27. the grace promised not only offered. V. word "exhibit. showing that the sacraments have no inherent power or vutue at all. seal and exhibit unto those that are within the his Church. Our Confession is explicit and emphatic on this subject. moment of time wherein administered yet notwithstanding. Q. to covenant of grace the benefits of his mediation. chap. Christ efits a holy ordinance instituted by wherein. carefully guards in the third Section of this Chapter. estate.) The sacraments were the benefits of the new believers to at'tually to convey — covenant. but that the right use of the sacranient is . Gal. does not derived." there used. liave 451 As many as are baptiiced uiitu Chri. to apply. 3." is not conferred by any power § 3. iii. Faith. If they are ''seals" of the covenant. Faith. designed to "a])ply"— i. law. but really exhibited and conferred by the Holy Ghost. actually to convey the grace represented to those Til us a deed conveys an in whom it belongs. (3. to administer. it but in the sense of the Latin exhibere. Christ and the ben- sacrament is of the new covenant are represented. § 6." This the Confession etc. The old English mean to shoiv forth.. as a legal form of investiture. Conf. e.. 92. xxviii. rightly used.. by the right use of is this ordinance." L. chap. from which is Compare the follow- ing: "A .. 162. xxvii. Cat. sealed and applied to believers. is " The efficacy of it is baptism not tied to the ." L.THE SACRAMENTS.

give visibility its Church.* and the word of institution. 29. and upon what is it it does. gether with a precept authorizing the use thereof. (6) and hence are badges of our putting a visible difference between those to the to the who belong the world.) grace-conferring virtue depends upon two things: of the Holy Spirit. Holy Ghost conveys longs. is a mere instrument but it is an in- STPvUMENT OF DIVINE APPOINTMENT. — they of course to the (a) mark us as and bind us performance of profession.'i.452 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Pet. Having asserted that the sacraments actually confer the grace which they represent to worthy recipients. . our Confession in this Section proceeds to guard this important truth from abuse. iii. which contains. This grace not contained in the sacraments conferred by any power in them. by the Church and the rest of the world. .) The The sovereign will and power lively faith of the recipient.— » MaU. l. II . 21. iii. 1 Cor. a promise of benefit to ' worthy receivers. depend.' but upon the work to- of the Spirit.xxviii.' 28. this grace-conveying efficacy of the sacraments docs not. our duty. and. nor "is ." themselves. ii. tlie by divine appointment occasion upon which thfe. The sacraments being seals of the covenant of grace — at once pledges of God's faithfulness to us and of our obligation to him the divine property.wi. 1 Rom. the grace to those to whom it be- So that this (a. The sacrament 5th. by carefully showing u})on what 1st. not conferred by any power in them doth the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth administer it. 20.— » Matt. rightly used. (6. x. and separate III. 27.\ii. . 28. members from is Section \ieither —The grace which is exhibited in or sacraments. 10.

. signijBed is contained in the sacrament as qualities inhere in substances. 11.* This whole view Confession.. secret intention and yet if the priest in the of conferring the grace through the vii. the grace itself. and together with the outward sign presented as a real objective sense to every recipient.f The priest may outwardly fulfil pro- nounce every word and perform every action prescribed in the ritual. uses the sacrament as his instrument and medium. but they insist that the fact that the administrator {h) is it depends (a) upon canonically authorized. intention" of The efficacy of the sacraments does not depend '• upon either the personal piety or the the person who administers them. Cans. The Romanists admit that the efficacy of the sacra- ments does not depend upon the personal piety of the administrator. vii. v.. Avhether believer or unbeliever.. is is explicitly rejected as false by our And the whole efficacy of the sacrament it said to depend not upon any part of the whole together. 127. Trident. upon the fact that the administrator exercises at the moment of administration the secret " intention" of in the definition doing thereby what the Church intends of the sacrament. who 2d. Can. vol. According to the 453 Romish and it is Ritualistic view. nor upon upon the sovereign always present and power of the Holy Ghost. Sess. as hot iron burns. Dens. They hold also that the sacrament confers this grace upon every recipient who does not positively resist. as an opus operatum — by the sole force of the sacramental action. but is separately.. 6 and 8.THE SACRAMENTS. and the recipient may every condifails tion required of him. Sess. t Ibid. * Cone. p.

) The effi- cacy of the sacrament resides in the sovereign and ever- Holy Ghost. iv. t. 1 Cor. But they to u. They were not devised by man themselves to produce a moral impression. who uses them rightly in the Christ seals his gracious covenant by them. (6. which the priest has ostensibly professed to 3d. But the efficacy of the sacraments depends — (a. Christ our Lord in the gospel that is to say. —There . The Spirit is the executive of God.454 sacrament tlien CONFESSION OF FAITH. Through omni- him even present. 2. He is takes of the things of Christ and shows them unto us. and hence God virtually pro- mises to meet every soul sacrament.3. bapti?:m and the supper of the Lord neither of which may be dispens&l by any but a minister of the Word. xi. lawfully ordained. Heb. be only two sacraments ordained by . and we are commanded them as means of grace. Section IV. xxviii. As we have rite seen. the all humanity of Jesus the benefits secured virtually and by his sacrifice are revealed and applied.~e were appointed by God. and confer.^" 10 Matt. A pre- eminence was always awarded Baptism and the Lord's . the Indefinitely in the early Church word sacrament was used very to include any religious spiritual to which had a latent meaning. who uses the sacraments as his instruments and media of operation. 1. in their use invests with the grace of that it and hence covenant every soul to which present personal agency of the belongs. and there. lie the recipient goes away destitute of the grace supposes himself to have re- ceived. 20.) Upon their divine appointment as means and channels as suitable in of grace. 4. 19 .

and These ai^ baptisni. it under laws executed by regularly-appointed . And we do this by applying the definition of a sacrament above given. seal or confer Christ and the benefits of the new covenant. and orders were instituted by Christ. Marriage was instituted not by Christ. but by God. by the Council of Trent. baptism and the supper of — have only show that the other sois Ave to five sacraments claimed by the Romanists do not belong to the same class of ordinances with Baptism and the Lord's Supper.THE SACRAMENTS. confirmation and eytreme unction are not divine institutions in any sense. extreme unction. penance. the Lord's Supper. nor (6) does either " of them represent. orders. But since the Church is an organized society officers. Thus — Penance. 1439. as there were any grace or grace-conferring virtue transmitted by ordination in succession from the apostles to the person or- dained. priestly sacraments is save in a lawfully-ordained interest This not said the if of any theory of the ministry." the Our Confession also adds that no one has a right to administer minister. and determined by the Council of Florence. but neither of these ordinances (a) consists of an outward visible sign signifying an inward spiritual grace. At last the number seven was suggested during the twelfth century. In order to prove that " tliere be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lt>rd in the gospel the liord" called — that to say. 15G2. marriage. authoritatively confirmation. Slipper as forming a class by themselves^ but the 455 num- ber of ordinances to which the term sacrament was applied varied at different times and in different places from two to twelve.

those who are commissioned as ambassa- dors for Clirist to treat in his 1 . 1 Cor. Avhicii are evident tlmt ordinances. they. . iv. 20. Matt. in regard same with those of the New. §§ 5 and 6. for 1 Cor. the —The sacraments of the Old Testament. 16 : xxx. We saw. be essentially the same then and now. the and seals of the covenant formed by the great his living Head of tlie Church with members.siUxN of hahh. ii. as to form. X. 29." »J of the spiritual things tliereby signified and exhibited. therefore. more gross spiritual and carnal then. to be revealed then (6. Col.456 is CONPi!:s. The difference is (a) that they were more prospective and typical then. under Chapter vii. the gates of the discipline fold. xxvi. Circumcision was Jewish baptism. Thus the Lord's Supper grew out of the Passover. Section V. substance. The sacramental seals of the covenant must.) . 1-4. budges of elinrci instruments of membership. 10-12. that the old and new dispensations were only two diiferent modes iii which the one changeless covenant of grace was administered and its blessings dispensed. name with men. V. They were. signify a grace already re- vealed now. 2 Cor. and that they They signified a grace are more commemorative now. x. now.. were. Christian circumcision. 27. can propofficers erly be administered only by the highest legal of the Church. as re- Thus baptism has taken the place of circumcision They both signify spiritual Deut. He took the old bread and the old cup and gave them consecration a new and a new meaning. sreneration. and bnptism Gahiii. and more the rite of initiation. is 6.

what In the case of baptism." Cor. signified ? to the true doctrine. 7. What is the fifth point involved ? 9. What was the classical usage of the word sacrament? What was the early ecclesiastical usage of the word ? Ou what principles. Quote instances of this manner of speaking in the Scrip- tures in the case of each of the sacraments. 18. 1. is involved in the sig- What. What is the third jjoint involved ? 7. are we to form bur definition of a sacrament? 4. What is the fourth point involved? 8.ilse inferences do Romanists and Ritualists deduce from manner of speaking? . therefore. according sacramental union or relation between the sign and the grace nified ? 17. 14. What is the Jirst point involved in the definition of a sacra- ment given 5. In the case of baptism. signified ? 13. Wliat^do the Romish and Lutheran churches regard as the nature of the " sacramental union" subsisting between the sign and the grace 16. 3. 26-29. what is is the outward visible sign? the inward spiritual grace 12. 20. Of what two parts does every sacrament consist? 11. QUESTIONS.sustains sacraments has grown out of this relation which the sign to the grace signified ? 19. In the case of the Lord's Supper what is the sensible sign? In that case what is the inward spiritual grace signified? 15. " Christ our passover is 457 1 sacrificed for us.THE SACRAMENTS. 2. V. in our Standards? What is the second point involved therein ? 6. What does our Confession teach as to the person by whom our New Testament sacraments were immediately ordained ? 10. What are the true grounds upon which that relation rests? What manner of speaking of the sign or visible part of tlie . What this f.

In what sense do our Standards use the word "exhibit" Prove that our Standards teach that the sacraments do convey the grace they signify. in this connection? 27. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 23. 31. In what sense do they afl&rm and upon what do they of our pro- teach this grace-conveying efficacy depends ? 29. really 28. When What was the number seven authoritatively established? are the seven sacraments acknowledged by the Roit manists? 39. it depend upon the sovereign will and power of the Holy Ghost? 36. What was taught in the early Church as to the number of the sacraments? 37. Prove that they are so. do the Romanists teach are the conditions on the part of the administrator upon which the efficacy of the sacra- ments depends ? 34. is the true explanation of iht usage ? 22. What is the object of the third Section of this Chapter? What is the Romish doctrine as to the manner in which What What does this Section teach in opposition to this? the sacraments "contain" and "confer" grace? 32. What ? is meant by saying they are " seals" of the covenant of grace 25. 26. How do the sacraments become badges fession? 30. on the contrary. 33. Why can the sacraments be administered only by a lawfully- ordained minister ? .458 21. this. What How is the design of the sacraments ? do they " represent" the benefits of Christ and the new covenant? 24. How How dees the efficacy of the sacrament depend u])on does its divine appointment? 35. How can class be proved that baptism and the Lord's Supper form a 40. 38. 41. by themselves ? that the definition of a sacrament will not apply to Show the rest. What.

42. 459 What were the sacramental seals of the covenant of grace corresponds to baptism and which to the Lord's under the old dispensation ? 43. In what respects do they dififer ? And show that they aro virtually the san a .THE SACRAMENTS. Which Supper? 44.

"^ but also to be unto him a giving sign and of the covenant of grace. Baptism is a sacrament. 3.— » Rom.-9 Acts ii.— » 1 Cor. grace. L.—' Rom. 10-21. 27. 27. and of the Holy Ghost. 19 Mark . xxii. 19. 47. 41. X. 12. through Jesus Christ. vi. 16.® III. Gal. Mark vii. 20. 38. 33. and of the Son. 38. by a minister — of the gospel. Section necessary . Rom. in the name of the Father. x. xvi. 36. xii. Mark i. iii.^ of remission of sins. iii. —Dipping is of the person into the water is not but baptism rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person.^ up unto :'' Grod. and of the Son. lawfully called thereunto. doth signify and seal our ingrafting into Christ. 11 . 5. to walk is in and of his newness to be of life which sacrament by Christ's own appointment continued in his Church until the end of the world. Matt. ^ of his ingrafting into Christ. 6. 4. Heb.-8 Matt. The outward element to be used in this sacrament is water. 94. xxiii. Section I. vi.\vi. viii. xxviii. OF BAPTISM. wherewith the party is to be baptized in the name of the Father.-6 Tit. Matt. 4. Q. Section II.—* Acts ii. Cat.CHAPTER XXVUi. Col.. In thefe Sections we are taught the following propo- eitions 460 . iii.—* Gal. 13 . ordained by Jesus Christ/ not only for the solemn admission of the party baptized into the visible Church. 16. 165. 19. 1 — and partaking of the benefits of the covenant of and our engagement to be the Lord's.'" Sjialler Catechism.* of regeneration. Q. iv. wherein the washing with water. and of the Holy Ghost. . xxviii.-10 Acts ii. 11. 28. —Baptism seal is a sacrament of the New Testament. 4.

into Christj our partaking of the benefits of his covenant.) the faith of Christ. the Father. 461 Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament. it is maimer of the washing not being essential). and not a New Testament Luke (c. and eminently among the Jews. ix. 3d. It is done with the design and effect of signifying and sealing our ingrafting his. As to the action a washing of the subject with water (the which constitutes baptism. John. Acts 41. in the name of the Father. He did not by baptism in- troduce men into the fellowship of the Christian ii. 47. (6.) He did not baptize in the name of Ghost. Paul summarily describes meats and 10. 2d. not Christian baptism. came baptizing also. and of the Holy Ghost. and of the Son. 1st. pre- Brahmins. and by his authority continue in the Church until the end of the world. Those baptized by John were baptized over again liy .) 17. as the Persians. not {d." Heb. the forerunner of Jesus. pro})het. and designed until the be observed Church end of the world. and of the Holy into His baptism was unto repentance. Because (a) But this was John was the last Old Testament apostle.BAPTISM. the ancient ceremonial as consisting " in drinks and divers baptisms. (e. and our engagement to be Christian baptism is an ordinance immediately to instituted in the by Christ himself. i. Washing the consecration body with water to represent spiritual purification and was a natural symbol which prevailed all among ancient Eastern nations. and of the Son. Church. Egyptians. 1st. Greeks and Romans. instituted immediately to by Clirist.) as the apostles did at Pentecost. by a lawfullyordained minister.

— («. given to me in heaven and in earth. even unto the end of the woild. and (2) the end this woild [auoi). as the Quakers. 2) was not the permanent Christian sacits rame'it of baptism. have not undcrstt)od that this command imposes the obligation of the perpetual ob- servance of this ordinance. but that. Lord (John and 22. and initiating them into the Christian Church. and the reason it tor its observance remains precisely what [b. and all lo. xix. in Matt. 18— is 20: " All power ye. it was a purifying rite. binding to re- pentance and preparing the way for the coming king- dom.62 the apostles CONFESSION OF FAITH. of the Holy Ghost. like the baptism of John. 1. adniitted to the Christian 24. Amen. Acts disciples previous to the crucifixion of the iii. iv. That the observance is ])lain is to endure until the second coming of Christ. and of the Son. xxviii. binding subjects to the faith obedience of the Trinity.) was when the command was given. and disciple all nations." Some. teaching them to observe things I whatsoever I have commanded you .) From the universal it is maxim that every law continues it binding until has ceased. 7. The plain terms of th^ until command ol' reaches (1) to all nations. when they were xviii. It is certain that we have the true warrant of the the lips of the Christian sacrament of baptism from great Head of the Church in person. and am with you always. baptizing them in the name of the Father. (c.) The example . on the contrary. Go therefore. For analogous reasons we believe that the baptism performed by his Church. or until the reason for But this command has never been recalled. abrogated.

The by reason that baptism should be administered only minister a lawfully-ordained last has been considered under the Chapter. they immerse we affirming that the only right — is affirming that the best mode (p. The true position maintained by other Christians is that wash with water. the essential matter the water. of tl.int practice of all branches of the Christian Church to the present time. and the application of the water in the name of the Trinity. often. is The Confession teaches that the command to ba])tize a command to wash with water in the name of the It is Trinity. Acts ii. tist position. is According to our view. is This a great mistake.e 463 (d. Alexander Carson to baptize is that the command to a simple and single command burial immerse. in order to symbolize the death. and of the Holy Ghost. It is necessarily perfectly in- be decent. The coii- 8t.BAPTISM. and resurrection of the believer with Christ. by a lawfully-ordained minister. The real Bap55). 33. xvi. in order to symbolize the purification wrought by Hence the mode of washing has the Holy Ghost. is to sprinkle. As to the action which constitutes it. is According to their view. but eri'oneously supposed that the controversy between our Baptist brethren and the rest of the Christian Church with respect to baptism question of is a mode is to mode. baptism to a simple and single command nothing to do with different.) apostles. as stated by Dr. and of the Son. 38 . baptism is a washing with water (the different) in the manner of washing being in- name of the Father. The . from the beginning 2d. the essential matter the burial. is. total im- mersion^ in water or sand as the case may be. so that it it.

Carson admits that he has him. xix.) The same vii. Ecclesiasticus xxxiv.) is When iii. persons reclined at table). In pots.) ably with to wash. 4. 25: " He that baptizeth himself after the touching of a dead body. expressly said to have been a dispute about piirijieaJolin tion. See also v. for the unbaptized hands are called the un- washed and unclean hands. Num. The poor pour the water on their own it hands. Matt." but this purification was per- formed by 2 Kings (3. (c. evidence of the truth of the view entertained by the vast majority of Christ's (1. iv. Luke 38. Compare Mark and observe vii. moisten. and Judith xii. to wash. 2-20. These things eould not . wash. 7. John's disciples disj)uted about ba{)tism. used interchangeto effect (a) that to baptize is there (6.) spi'inkling. Thus. 22. BarcriCco used interto changeably with viTTTco. is In the New Testament. The rich have servants to pour the water on their hands. (5. 14. 3. 3. 13. Nebuchadnezzar is said to have been wet {baptized) with the dew of heaven.) The common mode of washing hands in those countries is to pour water upon them.) the lexicons against In the Septuagint. 9. to (baptizo) in usage means.464 CONFESSION OF FAITH. (2. xv. which only means xi. idea is uniformly exjircssed by the word bapfisin or baptisms in the New Tcstainvnl. Dan. all Dr.) Church is as follows: its classical The word Banrc^co to dip. (4. to wet. l)razen vessels and tables (couches upon which several bo. 33. Mark 2-8 we read of the baptisms of cups. The washing was purification. iv. 20. Banrco and Danzc^co occur five times. to purify.

16. 13. The real order is." (6. into his death. Matt. in new life unto God. to rise to be buried with him. Paul says that the tabernacle "stood only in meats in verses and drinks and diverse baptisms. and the tabernacle and the vessels of the ministry. but puii'ficatlon. in his resurrection. so as to walk put on Christ (as a gartree). into one body. etc." and below. the Holy 5. 16. 33. 21. Mark 8. baptism carries these consequences. he specifies " For if some of these diverse baptisms: the blood of bulls and goats. immersed. all his inheritance." and the puri- "Moses sprinkled both the book all and all the people. first In Heb. 19. i. putting on clothes and i)lanting trees. and water bap- tism represents spiritual baptism. ix. to ment). to be })lanted together with him (as a None of ihe these have anything to do with the it is mode of baptism. i. Baptism with water symbolizes baptism by the Holy Ghost. is spiritual purii.. 465 object of the ser- dHQ were vice not. But baptism by the Holy in Ghost his unites us to Christ. xi." Titus iii. with him in newness of life. Washing of the Spirit unites to . iii. therefore to we are said be baptized into Christ.) Baptism with water is emblematical of baptism by the Holy Ghost. washing with washing of the Spirit. Spiritual righteousness. etc. object of which 11. Luke iii. The whole was not burial. and the ashes of sanctifietli td' an heifer sprinkling the unclean. Spiritual baj)tism "the washing of regeneration and renewing of Ghost. because simply absurd to suppose that same action can at the same time syml)olize things wat(U' represents so different as burial. and makes us one with him his his death. the fication. etc. with him. Acts 5. fying of the flesh.BAPTISM. is John called 20. 10.

4G6 Clirist COXFESSTOX OF FAITIT. — union with Christ involves the emblem." "shed forth." -'fell was "poured out.) Cor.) will I sprinkle clean water upon you. 32. immersed were not baptized But the Egyptians who were . 2. from 2 Chron. 6. Dr. XXX." nations." will on them. 15. 1-4." but always as a "pom'ing'' and "s2)rlnk- lingy Acts gift ii. 29 : " I will pour out niy upon all flesh. . instances of baptism per- jVmong all the recorded . 7. 27-39. 33. Ex. Heb. 20.) Baptism of the Holy Ghost. In 1 ix. 7 ." 15: "I "So : shall he sprinkle many Ezek. 18. pour my Spirit upon thy seed. 28. See viii. of which water bapnever set forth in tism is Scripture as an " immersion. is all the I'onscqucnfes above meptioned. said that baj)tisra was the antitype of the salvatit)n ol' the Yet tiie very gist of their salva- tion consisted in their not being (10. xxiv. 44-48. 6 which water jDoured out through spouts or cocks.) immersed. X. 21. (7. xi. 1. Hi. from the analogy oi which Christian baptism was taken. iii. Joel ii. iv." The universally prevalent manner of effecting the rite of purification among the Jews. In Pet. . also Lev. viii. the Israelites are said to have in been "baptized unto Moses in the cloud and the sea." Isa. 12-22. Carson 1 Moses got "a dry dipT eight souls in the ark. and the Israelites (p. was by sprinkling. xxxvi. and not by immersion. xiv. (9. it is Of the of the Holy Ghost said he ''came from heaven. 16. x. Ex." etc. 1 Kings vii. 21 . 30 . 51 . 25-27 "Then Spirit (8. priests The hands and feet of the were to be washed at the brazen laver. who were 418) says it is baptized were not immersed." Compare Ex. and ye shall be clean. xiv 19-31. 5-8 Num.

The design of baptism is (1) and . seal and the Holy Ghost. xxii. That the it is essential that this baptismal washing should be done in the name of the Father.) to that effect expressed in the words of institution.) 18. formed by John the Baptist and not one in which immersion is 4G7 tlie apostles. datall indicate ing from the second or third century. accustomed to purify by pouring and sprinkling. The earliest pictorial representations of baptism. the fact that baptism. who 3d. which depends water stored in tanks and cisterns. jailor baptized prison at Paul was ba])tized by Ananias right at his Ananias " standing baptized. [d. and of Holy Ghost is plain (1) from the explicit command (2. The said. and "standing up he was (c. and the known scarcity of Vater in the apostles baptizing Jerusalem and generally in the situations spoken of. The vast multitudes in swarming midnight.) Because of the vast multitudes baptized at one time. (6. while there ai'e many in which it was highly improbable — (a. to John. the true God. as a seal of the covenant of and as the divinely-a])pointed rite of initiation into the Christian Church. thtre is asserted. is none other than the Father and the Son to signify. bedside. and the })nblic profession of. introduces the baptized into covenant with. the dry city baptized on the roadside in a des(M-t in Three thousand were baptized one day in rainupon of Jerusalem.'" up Acts he be baptized" ix. The eunuch was country. and of the Son.) Because and the early converts bapti/ed were all Jews.) It is done in the same way universally by Eastern Christians at the present time.BAPTISM. 16. that the manner of applying the water to the body of the baptized was by pouring. From grace.

1 Cor. xvi. our Standards teach not to be administered As to adnlts. that it be a visible sign of our covenant to be the Lord's and devoted to his service. and to S. Cat. (2. 166. Rom.) The design of baptism is. is This of course self-evident. are to be baptized. Col. 16. and so strangers from the covenant of promise." whereby we are united to Christ and made participants in all his redemptive grace. 39. till they profess their faith in Christ and obedience to him. Not only those that do actuallj'^ profess faith in and obedience unto Christ. As 1st." but also the infants of one or both believing parents. 37. Acts ii. Acts viii. 38. 12. Luke xviii. Q.—12 Gen. Matt. Section IV.4C8 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Thus symbolizes the "washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost. and a symbol of our union with our fellow-Christians." — " Mark 14. xxviii. 9j Gal. Cat. seals the truth of his covenant. 9. 7. xvii. 11.) Christ herein to and thereby conveys of that covenant the grace intended for tliem. confer to those to whom they belong the benefits ol {a) it signifies or Christ's redemption. 15. since the intelligent and itself honest reception of baptism obviously involves precisely this profession of faith in Christ to him. iv. "Baptism is any that are out of the visible Church. 14. 38. to the subjects of baptism. 11. 12. all tlie beneficiaries (6. and obedience usage of the And in order to secure this. and hence of our formal initiation into the Christian Church. 13." L. the Presbyterian Chnrch requires that the pastors and church session should inform the api)licant thiit only a person . Q. 15.. ii. 95. 1 C(n\ xii. iii. vii. Mark x. 19. 13-16. and hence it is a public profession of our faith and badge of our allegiance.

and of the nature and binding obligation of baptism . men the ability to Some churclies. After lie this. we tlie believe to be entirely unauthorized. for our Covenanting Presbyterian brethren. judge aright of such instance. adherence to certain "testimonies" embodying This is non-fundanicntal denominational peculiarities. man holds the fundamentals of the gos- pel and professes allegiance our common Lord. and rio. designed for all his sheep. And to this end must require of the applicant the evidence (a) of a competent knowledge of the funda- mental truths of Christianity. God has given to no class of mattoi's. just as presumphas make terms of communion which Christ . de- mand. and of due subjection to the constituted authorities of the Church (c) of the fact that his outward walk and conversation do not belie his profession. (6) of the fact that he makes a consistent profession of a personal experimental faith and promise of obedience to the Lord. The Church Christ's fold. we have no It is exclude him from tuous to his Father's house. Baptism and Lord's Supper are the If any common to rights of all the Lord's j)eople. as a condition of adult baptism same thing. as.BAPTISM.ht to acts consistently therewith. can honestly do what all profess to do the pastor and session when they are baptized. wlio has experienced the grace of regeneration. iviid 409 wlio has consequently truly repented of sin and faith in exercised necessarily Christ. admission to the Church — — or. what is the to in addition the profession of faith in the fundamental truths of the gospel. must upon the person making to sit in The church officers have no authority judg- ment upon the genuineness of because his Christian character. the entire re- sponsibility of the step it.

because the " promise (covenant) is to you and to your children. and again (Dent. As to infants.. the covenants formed with Adam. Testament Christian Church. one or both of whose parents to profess faith in Christ and obedience him (L. viii. Abraham (Gen. Acts ii. is one or both of whose parents chap. XX.. Faith. e. 7) is the gospel. Old Testament ritual xvii. xxviii. with Israel through . all God The has in respects made the standing of the child while an sin of infant to depend upon that of the parent. 7). Abraham . [h. kind has included the child with the parent g. (2. is (3. the covenant '^ (a. so the faith of the parent brings the infant near to God.^' etc. xii. A bare outline of the abun- dant scriptural evidence of this truth may be stated as In constituting human nature and ordaining the propagation of infant children from parents.) Faith was the condition oi' salvation then as well as now. the parent carries away the infant from God.) Paul says (Gal..) The Old Testament Church that the same as the New iii." and in the whole Epistle to that the the Hebrews he shows was a setting forth of the person and work of Christ. Cat. 5). Moses (Ex. § a believer (Conf. Noah (Gen.) — is to be baptized. xxix. 38. our Standards teach that an infant. made as it would be to make terms of salvation which he does not require. See above. 8) made with Abraham (Gen. 0-17). 10-13). 166) follows (1. 2d. and in the opening sermon of the New Testament dispensation men are exhorted to re])ent and believe.. under Chapter vii. 39. 3 xvii. 2.) Every covenant God has ever formed with mane.470 not CONFESSION OF FAITH. Q. 4) i.

All the Israel- even those only ''according to the flesh. precisely in the same sense and same extent as baptism. 13-23. faith and obedience. It seal of the which Paul says the gospel. neither in the flesh. ness 11). all circumcision unites to Christ and secures of his redemption. not changed. the same old Church Ix. iv. is not a Jew which is is is one outwardly. heirs aceording to the promise. believed God. The ancient covenant which . It was the seal of the True 28. sacraments force. The is ancient prophecies declare that to be enlarged. and circumcision that of ii." 28. Rom. xiv. New Testament Church. See also the eleventh ehapter of Hebrews. according to the promise. Col. 29. the same condition of membership. the beneflts And baptism has : now taken the precise place of circumcision " For as many of you as have been baptized unto Christ have put on Christ. (c. was the is as witness Deut. same with the {d. Abrahamic covenant. 6.) Kom. represented a spiritual grace and bound to a spiritual profession. 11.) This Church is 29. It has the same foundation. and ites. identically the 27. the heart.BAPTISM. and all who believe in Christ ''are Abraham's seed iii. xlix. is that ciris cumcision which outward But he is a Jew that one inwardly. 29. of the same spiritual significancy and binding Isa." Gal. and 471 it was imputed to him for righteous(Rom. in the spirit and not in the letter. ii. 3). This is to the in the taught Old Testament. Circumcision. righteousness of faith. seed and heirs. "< processed " He to believe. 16 . then ye are Abraham's iii. so tliat he was the great tyi)ical believer. XXX. And all " true" Israelites did believe. 1-14." Gal. iv. and if ye be Christ's. iv. 29. 10. ii. "the father of all them that believe" (Horn. 11.

speaking lo tion they have always occupied. Now as tiie Church is as the conditions of niembership the same Church were the same then as now. as circumcision signified and bound to precisely what baptism does and since . being circumcised upon the faith of their parents. xi. which this conclusion could be obviated would bo that Christ in the gospel explicitly turns them out of their ancient birth-right in the Ciiurch.472 CONFESSION OF FAITH. was the fundamental charter of the Church included "many iii. . the Gentile branches to be re- and hereafter the Jews are "into their ii. 8). stored." new Church. See also Eph. without exce})tion.) now as it was then. into which they had been themselves born and ciicumcised (and their infant circumcision was the only baptism they ever received). Christ and his apostles uniformly. The only ground upon On the contrary. baptism has taken precisely the place of circumcision. a})ostles. lemains the same tiirough — the olive Jewish branches being cut being grafted in. 18. Gal. but 18-24. 4: Rom. who had all their lives never heard of any other than the old Piedwbaptist Church. which was never fulfilled until after the ex])an- sion of the Church in the JMew Testament dispensation. 17. change And Paul says that the Jewish Ciiurch. off. instead of being all abrogated. not to a tree.hildren of professors should be recognized and that they should be baptized. 11-22.) Infants were members of the Church under the Old Testament from the beginning. never once warns them that he had . iv. nations" (Gen. (4. it follows that the cliurch membership of the (. (5. xvii. speak of and treat children on the assumption that they remain Jewish in the same church relaChrist. own Rom.

On the contr. of the Crispus." by first baptizing and then If ohly one of teaching them. This has been the belief and of a vast early majority of God's people from the The . 18. i.BAPTISM. 19. and tles to disciple the apos- all nations. iii." or "saints. There are oidy eleven cases of baptism recorded Acts and the Epistles. Matt.iry. lu the old Jewish Church every proselyte from the heathen brought his children into the Church with him. there were no children to be baptized." Paul baptized his househoIcL jailer. xxviii. is the kingdom of heaven" c. Of 16. new dispensation the old Chureh). changed such oi" 473 this relation. the children are said to be is "holy. He commissioned Peter to feed the lambs as well ^' as the sheep of the Hock (John xxi. (6. itself. xix. he says. everi/ case in ThuS is which the household existed faith of the it was bap- tized. " (i. Matt. 14. children as mem])ers of the 1 The apostles also address Church.) vi. 1. the parents is a Christian. New Testament. 2 witli Col. Compare Eph. The head of the household menone tioned. 1-3. 15-17). excej)t in and that as a general fact. 20. 14. with Eph. and as no Baptist missionary ever wrote from the first rise of their denomination. |)ractice first. Luke all xviii. After Stephanas was baptized with the crowd " the among of in many Corinthians. Also were the households of Lydia. Five of the cases were large crowds. in the these. baptized. So the Jewish apostles write the brief history of missionary labors precisely as all their modern psedobaptist missionaries write theirs. In the case of two of Paul and the Ethiopian eunuch. but not that of the household case. i. and Col. 1 Cor." which church members in the a common designation of vii. and probably of Cornelius.

and branches of the Lutheran in this and Reformed churches. declared that the above passage tory to be understood as bringing the parent to under an express engagement minister.. quire of the parents. 1G37. pray with and for (the child) of })iety example all and godliness before and endeavour by means of God's appointment to bring uj) their child in The Gentiie imrture and admonition of the Lord. which opposes is modern party. Cat. agree fundamental point. " infants of one or both believing parents. into follows from tiiat thai every ]ierson who was himself introduced the Church by baptism iu infancy has an indefeasible rigli * I>aird's Digest. unbroken continuity from the days of the custom on all apostles. SI.. other things. in answer to an overture on the in the Direc- subject. Q. a very tion of approach to the Lord's table." and Conf. p.474 Church. . ch. S. dating from the Anabaptists of Germany." In the is Directory for Worship. 95 " Infants of such as are members of the visible Church are to be baptized. since the church-membership of the parent. Cat. 4 166 : infants " of parents. " that they that they set an it. testify to their this subject. ill CONFESSION OF FAITH.* do as there required by the Some have of the child suj)posed. A... Faith." This is explained. Our Standards teach that precisely the same requirejaents are made the condition on the part of the parent of having his child baptized that are made the condiChristian world in this matter. vii. one or both of them profess§ : ing faith in Christ. L. ch. the whole The Baptist denomination. The Greelv and Koman. the minister to re- among ." eral Assembly is in 1794. D. Q. xxviii.

47. Acts ii. It is a sin for them to do it. iv.) Because all all But this is manifestly members of the Church have of church-membersliip.x. 30. . These suspended their chil- communing and having dren baptized. 23. is — not only but really exhibited and conferred by the Holy Ghost to such (whether of age or infants) as that grace belongeth unto.'' j'et grace be a great sin to contemn or neglect and salvation are not so inseparably as that no person can be regenerated or saved without it/* or that that are baptized are undoubtedly regen- Section VI. 5.BAPTISM. 22. (6. 25." Section VII. 31. the grace promised offered. according to the counsel of Grod's own will.^* 13 Luke vii.—17 Qal.5. 4. to 475 have his children baptized. 38. 5. Eph. Tit.) A person destitute of personal commit perjury and sacrilege by making the solemn professions and taking the obligations involved in the baptismal covenant. 11. faith can only Section V.—15 Acts viii. 26. absurd — (a. 27.—16 John iii.^* — Although it all it this or4inance. in his appointed time. Until they do this they are like citizens under age. iii 5.—18 Tit.—" Roin. 13. iii. E. 2. as a just pun- ishment for their refusal rights are those of to believe. with their rights held in suspension. by the right use of this ordinance. whether he proitsses per- sonal faith in Christ or not. 41. The efficacy of baptism is nut tied to that moment of time wherein it is administered . V. and a sin for the minister to help them to do it. iv. These Sections teach . 24-26. not a right to privileges Thus baptized members have no riglit to come to tiie communion until they make a profession of personal faith. Acts x. annexed unto erated. 8.^^ yet notwithstanding. —The sacrament of baptism is but once to be administered to any person. iii.

The sacrament of^ baptism to be administered but once to any person. That the to the efficacy of baptism. opposite extremes The ground taken here is intermediate between two (1. or tliat all 2d. nevertheless. but really exhibited and conferred to by the Holy Ghost 3d. for that observance is com- manded. the princi[)lc that. Acts ii. but the prcrequisites 'c. but conveyed to the recipient according to the counsel of God's own will. James 18. in virtue of the sacramental union between the sign and the one is is tlie grace signified. a great sin to contemn or its it.476 1st. neglect this ordinance. Pet. 38 . John xvii. not taught in Scripture. l)rove it (a. 19. . There is i. in his ai)pointed time. 23. Acts 38) is easily explained. CONFESSION OF FAIx^H. But the mere hearing of the truth saves no one.) of baptism. relied upon to on (John iii. That.) This is The language ii. such (whether of age or infants) as the grace belongeth unto.) The extreme held by Papists — 5 and Ritualists of baptismal regeneration. what is true of metaphorically predicated of the other. even in cases in really conveyed. (6. is which the grace signified is not tied is down moment is of time wherein the sacrament administered. That grace and salvation arc not the baptized are saved. 37 . is in the right use of the grace promised not only offered.) Baptism cannot be the only or ordinary means of regeneration. 47. and. nothing said of the efficacy of baptism which not likewise said of the efficacy of the truth. Universal experience in Romanist and Ritualistic . i. viii. it is so inseparahl)" united to baptism that only the baptized are saved. because faith and re- pentance are the fruits of regeneration. is 4th. xi.

) Our Standards oppose the other extreme. vii. but the it minor may not actually enter into the fruition of until such time and upon such conditions as are predeter- mined (c. shall Our Saviour says. So property may be to a sealed and conveyed in a deed minor.) in his father's will. But is that this actual conveyance of the grace sealed is not tied to the is administered.) That through these channels the grace signified is really conveyed to the persons to whom.) That baptism does not only signify* but really and truly seal and convey. to the elect.) Fri)in power of the truth which the the fact that legal it is symbolizes. baptism mere sign of grace and badge of Christian Their doctrine is profession. 477 eoraiminities prove that the baptized are not generally regenerated. that is a. yet this grace and the influences of the Holy Ghost are not so tied to the . {e. " By their fruits ye know them. but moment in which made according the sacrament to the precise provisions as to time and circumstance predetermined in the eternal covenant of grace. 20.) communicated rite this efficacy does result (1) from the moral (2.) — that is. it truly belongs. From the personal presence and sovereignly gracious opera- Holy Spirit.BAPTTSTVf. (2. (a. spiritual or magical quality {d.) covenant with the graces promised therein." Matt. who uses the sacrament as his instrument and medium. The But efficacy of the sacrament is not due to any to the water. and a in the form of investing those persons embraced (3. grace to those to whom it belongs according to covenant (6. according to tion of the the divine counsel. a seal of the covenant of grace.

from the symbolical It signifies spiritual regenerlife. baptism ? Give your reason for believing that the baptisms performed . What is the second proposition there taught? What is the third proposition there taught? What was the origin of ceremonial washing. and is often subsequently experinecessity for being baptized arises (1) enced through other channels.) coming more than The apostles baptized each in- dividual but once. QUESTIONS.) and allegiance means of to Christ. observance was diffused ? State the evidence that the baptism of John was not Chris- tian 6. It is eminently helpful grace. for getting is Of is course it can have but one commencement. initiation into the Christian (2. and its the extent to which 5. The very grace conveyed by the pacrament requisite to must be jjossessed by the adult as a prebaptism. tion —the inauguration of the divine made there once. or even infrequently.478 CONFESSION {»F FAITH. is That baptism never to be administered more than (1) once to any person appears significance of the rite. 1. * (/.) is of course neis knowledge.) It the rite of is Church. so no provision made (3. and as there out of the Church for no provision when in once in. con- veyed in any other way. 3.) Hence the from the divine command. It the proper and only as a eflScient method of making a profession of faith (3. 6acram?nt that they are never. What is the Jirst proposition taught in the first three Sections of this Chapter? 2. cessary where there is Obedience (2. 4.

Why may What What What is only lawfully-ordained ministers baptize? 11.. ever said that John the Baptist or the apostles of Christ baptized by immersion? 26. Taking all the recorded circumstances of the several bap- . x. Of what is water baptism emblematical? 20. and 20. What is the classical usage of the word haptizo f How often does it occur in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament. Cor. In what sense was the term baptism used by the disciples of John ? used 18. Why are we said to be " buried with Christ in baptism. State the proof that it is designed to be perpetually observed until the second 9. 15. and what accord- ing to our view ? 14. In what sense is the term " baptism'' or " baptisms generally in the New Testament ? 19. were not the same with the permanent Chri>tian sacrament of that name. In what sense is haptizo used in the New Testament? 17. Where do we sacrament? find the true act of institution and wan-ant for this 8. the true statement of the Baptist position with respect to the act intended in the 12. rite "a pouring" and "a sprink- What was What Is it the generally prevalent mode of Pet.BAPTISM. etc. coming of our Lord. and in what sense ? 16. 7. What consequences does baptism by the Holy Ghost carry ' with it? 21. effecting the of purification light among do 1 the Jews? 1 24. iii. by tlie 479 disciples of Clirist. previous to his resurrection. What is the precise action indicated in the cpmmand to baptize ? 10. ? 22. In what terms is baptism by the Holy Ghost expressed in Scripture? as an immersion or as ling?" 23. throw upon this subject? 25. is essential according to their view. is command to baptize? the precise statement of our view of the subject ? 13. 12." etc.

38. are the pastor and church session competent to require and to judge ? 32. Show that Christ and his apostles always spoke of and treated children on the assumption of their church membership. of the Holy Ghost ? What was the Jii-st design of baptism? What is the second design of baptism? What do oui. Why is it essential that the rite should be performed in tho name of the Father and of the Son and 28. 43. Prove that baptism has taken the precise place of circum- 42. do our Standards teach as to the rights of infants to baptism 36. 29. and show how infant bap- tism follows as a necessary consequent. Prove that infants were recognized as members of the ancient Church from its ver}' beginning. 44. 33. on wliich side and to what degree is tisnis into account. 40. Prove that circumcision had the same meaning that baptism 41. 30. State the argument derived from the constitution of human nature and the ordinary providence of God. Upon whom ultimately must the responsibility rest? for baptism. cision. Prove tliat the Church under the new is identically tho same with the Church under the old dispensation. 45. now has.480 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Do the same from the fact that all God's covenants with mankind include the children with the parents. 37. What do some churches require of applicants in addition to a credible profession of Christianity? 34. Prove that faith was the condition of salvation then spiritual as now. Prove that the gospel Church existed under the Old Tes- tament.Standards teach are the prerequisites What for bap- tism on the part of adults ? 31. the bal- ance of pvohabiUtv? 27. How can you What ? show that such requirements are unwarrant- able? 35. 39. Show from the record that the apostles ahcays baptized the households of believers wherever they existed. .

57.BAPTISM. 53. What is What is What is the second proposition there taught? the third proposition the /owr^/if is ? Between what two extremes the doctrine as to the effi- cacy of the sacraments held by our Church? 56. according to our Standards. State the different points involved in the doctrine of our Standai-ds as to the efficacy of the sacraments. Why ought What such parties to be denied the privilege of havproposition taught in the sixth and ing their children baptized? 51. On what ground and to what extent is baptism necessary? 62. Show that it is to be administered to the same person but once. What is the position and what the rights of those adults in infancy. and what 47. and draw the necessary inference. having been baptized have never professed per- sonal faith in Christ? 50. From what sources does this efficacy result? Show that baptism presupposes as well as conveys grace. 61. and what conclusion follows? 49. 81 . 54. 60. 58. arc to be bap- 48. seventh Sections? 52. What does the Directory of Worship require of parents bringing their children forward for baptism. tize 1 the force of that argument? Whose ? children. 481 Cliristian '\Miat has been the faith is and practice of the Chinch. is the^first fifth. 55. What Show is the Romish and Ritualistic doctrine on the point? that the doctrine of baptismal regeneration cannot be true. iCi. v?ho. 59.

teaches us — (a. 25).) Of its design and Lst. the Lord's Supper was (6.) Of effect. its perpetual obligation. 17. (c. the sealing all benefits thereof unto true believers. xi. called the Lord's Supper.CHAPTER XXIX. 23-26. to the associated. Mark xiv." drink in and again. 20) and by Paul (1 Cor. xii. 23. and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with him and with each other. 21 . 13. 26.) Of the time in which. I»ei'son Of the fact that it was instituted by our Lord lie in on the night in wliieh was betrayed there can be no doubt. Section I. "Do remembrance of me. " This do ye 482 as oft as ye remem- . of the evangelists (Matt. as members of his mystical body. the words of the institution. insti- and the person by whom. in the night wherein he "was be- trayed. for the perpetual remembi-ance of the sacrifice of himself in his death. This Section tuted. their further engagement in and to all duties which they owe uilto him. OP THE lord's supper. their spiritual nourishment and growth in him. xxvi. 16. and the truth of the remains to this day a monument of it is gospel history with which 2d. Luke it xxii. 19.^ • 1 Cor. That it was designed is to be observed perpetually (L) end of the world evident this in From it. The fact is explicitly declared by three 22-25. — Our Lord Jesus. xi. instituted the sacrament of his body and blood. x. to be observed in his Church unto the end of the world. 29.

Luke xxii.) The in is frequent references (irdinance all which occur imply that it the apostolic writings. that the bread is evident — (a.." (2. and "to show forth his death come. Q. is is Q. 19. but as he intends them. and this cup is the symbol of my blood. Conf. sealed § and . Cat. me.THE lord's SUPPEK. bi'ance of 483 Acts ii. 20) i.) : may be exhibited under the follow- The Lord's Supper This is is a commemoration of the death of Christ. and to demption. my blood is is the seal of the covenant of grace. As to the design of the Lord's Supper. 1 L. In its use Christ ratifies his promise to save us on the condition of faith.) The apostolic example. not as we understand them. Matt. and the for us.) From the fact that the act is of eating the bread and of drinking the wine declared both by Christ and by Paul. chap. The uniin form and universal practice of the Christian Church all its branches from the beginning. xxix.. and which (4.) of perpetual obligation. wine of his blood shed upon the cross 28. endow us with all We. which ." (2. Cat. in taking this the benefits of his re-l pledge.) till he It is a seal of the gospel covenant wherein all the benefits of the new covenant 92. Testament (covenant) of shed for you " (Luke xxii. 162. Christ says. S.. It is a ." the teach- ing of our Standards ing heads (1. to be done "in remem- brance" of Christ. (6. " This cup the New my e. Faith. (3. xxvi.. and as such offered to you.) From the fact an emblem of his body broken. blood. applied to believers. are signified. 3d. solemnly bind is ourselves to entire self-consecration and to all that involved in the requirements of the gospel of Christ. to this 42.

yet truly and i-eally.484 CONFESSION OF FAITH. faith. and my blood It is drink indeed. 10).) of allegiance of a of the kingdom heaven. x. for my meat indeed. life. The bread represents the flesh and the wine represents his blood. . 1 Cor. It was designed to signify and effect our com- munion with Christ. Whoso .) was designed show forth and to effect t)ie mutual communion of believers with each other as members of one body and of one blood. while by faith they receive and apply unto themselves Christ crucified and all the benefits of his death. " . is it communion of the blood of tlie Clii'isf?" L. and blood symbolized by and drinkcth my blood flesh is hath eternal . Q." to (5." Union with a common Head necessarily implies communion with etch " >ther in that Head. 170: " So that they that worthily communicate sacrament of I^ord's Supper. Cat. universal principle that all oaths bind in the sense in winch they are understood by the persons who impose them. We we receive the symbol with the mouth corcateth receive the flesh yet really. in tlie do therein feed upon the body and blood of Christ. 17: For we being many are one bread and one body. in his offices and in fruits.) Hence it is a badge of Christian profession citizen — of mark (4. porally.. their precious Paul says not tlie (1 Cor. for we are all partakers of that one bread. not after a corporal or carnal. not the is it communion (xoivojiia) of the blood of Christ? and the bread which we break. x. in his person. but in a spiritual manner. (3. "The cup which we drink.

' as likewise the denial of the cup to III. Lute xxii. is repugnant not to Scripture alone. 22. in substance and nature. is most abominably injurious pitiation for all to Christ's one only sacrifice. or any other alone . yea. and thereby to set them apart from a common to a holy use and to take and break the bread. vii.' spiritual oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same so that the popish sacrifice of the mass. 26-28.—* Heb. Matt.' 1 Cor. to take the cup. 27. appointed his ministers to declare his word of institution to the people. and bless the elements of bread and wine. 12.® Section IY. as they were before." ' Heb. or them about for adoration. 22-24.—» 1 Cor. —That doctrine which maintains a ciiange of the substance of bread and wine into the substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly called transubstantiation). x. 485 — In this sacrament Christ made at all -^ is not offered up to his Father. 20. as that truly.. and (they communicating also themselves) to give both to the communicants f but to none who are not then present in the congregation. Mark xiv. 7. 20.wi. and hath been. . Section —The — the people carrying f worshipping the elements. but even to common sense and reason . 25. 11. 24-26 . they still reiuain trul}' and only bread and wine. and the reserving them for . of gross idolatries.xi. they are him crucified.THE lord's supper. 27 x. . . 1 Cor. nature of the sacrament. 18." Section VI.* Lord Jesus hath. 26. xxvi. the alone pro< the sins of the elect. to pray.^" albeit. by consecration of a priest. have such a relation to sacramentally only. is. yet sometimes called by the name of the things they represent. as they call it. xi. xi. up of himself by upon the cross. 23. 14. . nor anj^ real sacrifice the quick or dead ing for remission of sins of offer- but only a commemoration of that one himself. any pretended religious use are all contrary to the nature of this sacrament. 19. or by any other way. 1 Cor. and the cause of manifold superstitions. 24. overthroweth the is.—« Acts xx. Section II. Private masses. the lifting them up.^ Section V. duly set ajiart to the uses ordained by Christ. and to the institution of Christ. 23-26. 28. to wit: the body and blood of Christ. and a . 26.—* Matt. or receiving this sacrament by a priest. —The outward elements in this sacrament. once for all. in this ordinance.

xiv. 1 : Cor. sacrifice of the mass. upon the points above are — The true doctrine (1) as to the elements. 29.—^^ 21 : Mitt. sv. or the change of the entire substance of the bread and wine into the b<xiv. Tho Romish and Lutheran churehes ho] 1 that unleavened bread should be used : the Re- . and because bread as the body is the proper symbol of that nourishes the soul. x:.) elements to persons not present at the administration of the ordinance. Luke xxiv. because it is in the command. staff of life for spiritual food that Christ instituted the supper at the when the only bread at hand was unleavened.) Bread. 2c-2'?.—9 Mart. (5.) The use.4S6 X. blood. The worshipping and reservation of the elements for any pretended religious Denying the cup to the laity.—" Acts iii. present the opposing papal stated. passover. 2:^ : Mark 2S. soul and divinitv of the Lord Jesus. In order to make the statements of these Sections plain.) Private communion of the priest alone. (3. These tbe 'O. xxri.— * coNFissrox of faith.) The doctrine of transubstantiation.s in is which the statements made in these Sec- are put rather negative than positive —rather de- signed to opp4)se certain Eomish and Ritualistic errors than to make a simple statement of the true doctrine of the sacrament. i'.) (2. xi. The form tioii. The early Church always used the common bread of daily life. signifieil and secondlv. we will Jirsl state the true doctrine (1) as to what elements and actions are essential to the sacrament.—u 1 Cor. and (2) as to the true relation between the sign : and the grace errors 1st. 1 Cor. This is essential. or the sending of the (4. 24-26 39. — The errors which are here opposed are (1. 26 26-25 Matt. xi. 9. sj ri. 6.

the fermented juice of the grape. Matt.THE lord's supper.) Wine ii. as upon one bread. common to a The words which (1 express this in the Scripture are loyapcazico (Luke xxii. 3. x. Titus ii. 1 Cor. and that best bol. xxvi. and of the com- municants being many feeding upon one Christ. 42 the whole ordinance designated from this constituent action. 18 . is fulfils the conditions of tue sym- the cake used in so that ix. Rom. Eph. is. — orvo7. This in- cludes the repetition of the words of Christ used in the institution. Mark xiv. xiv.) As to the sacramental actions (a. {b. 24. 17. (See § of this Chapter). iii. This is madfe essential by the command and example of Christ. xxvi. 19. 487 formed churches liave uniformly held that the bread intended. together with a prayer in which the divine in the use of blessing is invoked upon the worshippers the ordinance. 26. 23. This is symbolical of the all rending of Christ's body on the cross. sacred use. 16. The consecration. and by the uniform custom of the Christian Church from the beginning. 36). which is not completed when the minister consecrates the elements. x.) which are essential to this ordinance. xi. The breaking of bread. (2. 1 Tim. common bread of daily life not the swe*it many of our old churches. John 3-10. ii. and Cor.Qe This an essential part of ordinance. 8. {b. v. nor until they are actually received and eaten and drunk . Matt. In Acts 22. and so much of the elements as shall be used in the sacrament set apart from a iii. (c. v. Luke xxii. 21. 19). 16).) The is distribution and reception of the elements i.) and iuloyho (Matt. It is particularly mentioned in every ac- count given of the institution by the evangelists. See is 1 Cor.

And objectively pre- sented to and drunk by every recipient. xxxvii. and the seven good ears are the seven years." consists in the eating 2d. " This my body. Dan. brance of me. so that only the appearance or sensible properties of the bread and wine remain. ivifh and under the bread is and wine." Gen. are really present in. " For as oft as ye eat this bread and drink this cup. though invisible. The Council literal is cans. ." They This the word of our " hold the word " is it literal. Godhead and manhood shut up in a vessel. The Ivutherans hold that while the bread and the wine remain. all the Reformed churches hold is must mean " represents. xiii.488 CONFESSION OF FAITH. xli. worshipped. Ezek. 1 Rev. ye do show the Lord's death till he (3omes. 20. 11. elevated. and the only sub- stances present are the true body and blood. believer and unbeliever indifferently. 1-4. his very body and blood. papal errors condemned in these Sections are of transubstantiation or conversion of of Trent teaches. Luke xii. nevertheless at the words of consecration the real body and blood of Christ. that the whole substance of the bread changed into the stance of the wine body. and thus he remains before and after the connnunion. sess. 24. Christ says : by the people. is (1) their doctrine substance. "The seven good kine the seven years. vii. soul and thus he is divinity of our Lord." of the a frequent aisage a7"6 word in Scripture. The is only ground of this doctrine is Lord. 2(). Tlie So that the essence of the sacrament and the drinkino-. etc. 27. is eaten and carried about. when our Lord . i." " This do ye. and the whole subblood of changed into the literal Christ. in remem- Paul adds." " symbolizes. Besides.

it is " an eats in the form of a wafer. making nifies.THiL lord's supper. taste and feel bread and wine. for the greater worship of God ind edification of the peo . said this 489 he was sitting and gave them the bread in his to cat. cans. smell. with the addition of certain prayers and ceremonies pn scribed by the Church.) sacrifice. and and therefore not omnipresent in all places on earth. and that substance cannot be known and cannot act except by But this doctrine supposes that the qualiits qualities. sacrament. (2. is still material. (cL) It con- tradicts reason.) It out any qualities. since wd see. eating and drink- ing with them.) It contradicts our senses. xxii. is false (a) because it is not taught in Scripture. 1-3) that the Eucharist is sacrifice. then. the soul of the recipient real nourished by the body. and that the substance of flesh and blood remains withimpossible. blood. This doctrine. is absurd and (e. external oblation of the body and blood of Christ offered to God in recognition of his supreme lordship under the appearance of bread and wine visibly exhibited by a legitimate minister. soul and divinity of Christ. and do never either see or smell or taste or feel flesh and blood. undivided flesh.. which he As a sacrifice. ties of bread and wane remain without any substance. (6) because it tlie confounds the very idea of it sign identical with the thing sig- (c. The As a Council of Trent teaches (sess. but absent at the right hand of God in Their doctrine as to the mass as a both a sacrament and a is heaven. by them sound. sacrament. exist except as they inhere in because Christ's glorified body therefore finite. for reason teaches that qualities cannot some substance.

blood. Since the Papists hold that the entire substance is of the bread and wine permanently changed into the body. Hence the bread * Dens. This is not a mere act in commemoration of the one real.f is false.. can. f Council Trent. soul and divinity of Christ. All this stands or falls with the doctrine of transub- stantiation.) The one sacrifice of all Christ on the cross was perfect. before refuted. (6.) The same ordinance cannot be" sacrament and a sacrifice. they conse- quently maintain that the principal intention of the ordinance is accomplished when the words of consecra- tion are pronounced and the change effected. although bloodless." The same act cannot be a commemoration of one sacrifice.) The Christian ministry are never called or spoken of as priests." and "to do this in remembrance of him.) After the establishment of the doctrine of tran- substantiation. . (d. 10-27. but as " teachers " and " rulers. and itself an actual sacrifice (3. there arose the natural fear lest some of the august person of the Lord should be spilt or losl from the crumbling of the bread or the spilling of the wine. and excludes others.490 pie.) having intrinsic sin-expiating efficacy. xxii. 3. expiatory atoning for 'An and propitiating God. 358. but a constantly-repeated sacrifice. 25-28 both a X." (c. sess. p. elevate and adore and carry it about in their processions. Heb. is prepared in little wafers which vol. Christ says that by eating and drinking we are "to show forth his death.. Hence they preserve the host carefully shut up in the pyx. sacrifice U])on tlie cross. v. ix. (4. This doctrine in because (a) it is nowhere taught Scripture."* CONFESSION OP FAITH.

and tlie 491 to cup is denied the laity and confined to the priests. —Wnrtliy receivers. but siiiritually. to blood. cans.^' . present to the faith of believers in that ordinance as the elements themselves are to their outward senses. nor istered adminIn in by the officiating priest to it himself alone. .* In opposition the manifold abuses of this ordinance which prevail among the Romanists. and as the soul is in the body. —Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament.. may be administered officers private honses for the benefit of Christians long confined by sickness. cannot crumble. and as the divinity the whole person in the soul of Christ. as the blood is To comfort the laity they teach is in the flesh. 1-3. but receive and feed upon Christ crucified.) receives the bread receives all.THE lord's supper. yet as really. outwardly partaking of the visible elements in really spiritually. so that ' he who (5. faith. of his death the body and blood of Christ being then not corporally or carnally in. yet not carnally and corporally. and all benethis sacrament. Section VII. It follows that it should not be sent to persons not present at the administration. our Standards. yet they receive not the * Council of Trent. provided that the and a sufficient number of the serve the true members of the church be present to precharacter of the ordinance as a communion. sess. fits do then also inwardly by and indeed. that —body. with or under the bread and wine. in which the fellowship of the believer with Christ and with his fellow-believers is set forth by their eating and drinking of the same bread and the same cup. particular cases. however. teach that the Lord's Supper essentially a communion. xxi." Section VIII. in common with the general judgment of is the Reformed churches. soul and divinity— of Christ is equally in eveiy' particle of the bread.

6. 14-lC. the flesh and blood of the Reoffered deemer as a sacrifice The relation is between the bread and wine and the body and blood purely moral or representative. V. 6. xi. may be stated as follows The bread and wine bread and wine. the worthy recipient is said to feed upon the body and blood of the Lord. consequently. 15. appointment. it is meant that they receive not by the mouth. This Reformed doctrine 1st. Matt. vi. 2 Cor. but through faith. unfit to enjoy communion with him. Tlie body and blood are present. These Sections teach the Reformed doctrine as to the which in the Lord's Supper subsists between the sign and the grace signified that is. 14. xi. as they are tiling signified thereby. without divine —always remaining mere change — represent. x.— '5 1 Cor. as to the relation — nature of the presence of Christ in the sacrament. so are they unworthy of the Lord's table. 7. and cannot. that is. only virtually fice — the virtues and effects of the sacri- of the body of the Redeemer on the cross are made present and are actually conveyed in the sacrament to the worthy receiver by the power of the Holy Ghost. who uses the sacrament as his instrument according to his sovereign will. 2d. 3d. partake of these holy mysteries. 2 Thess. while they remain such. 16.'^ or be admit- ted thereunto. are guilty of the nation. therefore. iii.— 16 1 Cor. but by their unworthy coming thereunto body and blood of the Lord to their own damWherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons. 6.492 CONFESSION OF FAITH.—" 1 Cor. therefore. the benefits secured by Chrisis sacrificial death upon .^® i=« 1 Cor. that believers receive and feed upon the body and blood of Christ. by the for sin. vii. 27-29. and the sense in which. 28. When it is said. 13. without great sin against Christ.

receiving the outward sign with inward grace mouth while he fails to receive the in his soul. and through the instrumentality and it in the exercise of faith alone. both for their own sake and for the Church's sake. Hence. 19-26. should be prevented. 1. vin.* QUESTIONS. it State the proof that was designed to be jjerpetually served in the Church until the second coming of Christ. own condemnation and hardens hia own heart by the exercise. etc. med- itation on the Word. make a credible profession of their 4th. accomplished through the free and agency of the Holy Ghost. therefore. State the evidence that this ordinance was instituted immeob diate]}' 3. and whose unbelief is made only increases his manifest either by their ignorance or their ungodliness. All. also. (lie 493 is cross — that this feeding upon Christ purely spirsovereign itual. The unbeliever his therefore. What is the first point taught in our Standards as to the design of the Lord's Supper? 5. The Consensus Tignrinus of Cal- . Charles Hodge's Lectures. in the use of other means of grace — as prayer. * Dr. What are the subjects treated of in the first ^Section? 2.THE lord's supper. inchisive. from coming to the Lord's table until they are able to faith. So that in no case is ever done by the unbeliever. by the Lord in person. it follows that believers do in the same sense and receive and feed upon the body and blood of Christ at other times without the use of the sacrament. 4. caps. State the proof upon which that position rests. who are known to be unbelievers.

and how far does agree with and how far differ from the Romish docfor this doctrine? trine? 2'1. and assign the reason that 18. "This 26. are the elements essential to this ordinance? 15. What. What kind of bread is proper? and assign the reason. it is one of the essential sacramental actions. Show tliat this doctrine is unsupported by how it contradicts the senses and reason. fifth and sixth Sections of this 13. 8. to Prove that the distribution of the elements and their reception by the commiuiicants are integral and essential parts of the ordinance. 21. my body" and prove your answer. according to the true doctrine. the ordinance. 22. Scripture. 2. What What is the second point taught as to position.491 6. 17. fourth. third. CONFESSION OF FAITH.ymbolical import of the "breaking of bread?" And 20. In what/(5r??i are the statements involved in second. 16. its design Prove the correctness of that is the fJu'rd point taught as to the design of this ordi nance ? 9. blood. What What is their only biblical ground ? is the true meaning of the word "is" in the worda is of institution. What it is the Lutheran doctrine upon the subject. 7. and divinity of Christ. its use How are the elements consecrated. What is the prove that s. and in this application of it? what is intended by that term 19. Prove the correctness of that 11. and ihovf 27. and assign Prove that bread is essential to the reason. soul and wine into the 23. 10.5. Prove that the "wine" intended is the fermented juice of is essential. Chapter presented? What are the five Romish errors with respect to the Lord's Supper there denied ? 14. the grape. What does the word " transubstantiation" mean? State the Ron)ish doctrine as to the change of the bread flesh. What is the fourth point taught? position. . Show why it is absurd and impossible. What is i\\Q fifth point taught as to the design of the Lord's Supper? 12.

THE lord's supper. the believer said to feed upon this alone accomplished? ' ' the body and blood of Christ"? 41. Why do Romanists hold that the distribution and reception of the elements are not essential parts of this ordinance. it and the blessing 43. 38. and on what grounds? 35. By whose agency 42. believers ever receive the same grace without the use of the sacrament. and how do they treat the consecrated elements? table altar. 28. What an are the serious objections to calling the communion- and the minister a priest? 32. and in what manner may the communion be properly administered in private houses ? 36. What are the subjects treated of in the seventh and eighth Sections of this Chapter ? 37. Why do they withhold the cup from the laity. 31. 45. 30. In what sense are the body and blood of Christ present in In what sense is the sacrament? 40. is What papal and Ritualistic error as to private communion opposed in these Sections. Under what circumstances. 495 pretended What distinction do they make in I'egard to the twofold character of the Eucharist? 29. conveys ? What What relation does the faith of the recipient sustain to the blessing signified and conveyed ? 44. What What is is thejirst proposition taught? the true nature of the relation subsisting between the sign and the grace signified? 39. and on what grounds do they pretend that the cup is not necessary as well as the bread to valid communion ? 34. What is their doctrine as to the sacrifice of the this doctrine is radically false mass ? Prove that and injurious. 33. and how? . effect has this ordinance upon the unbeliever? How Do are those known to be ignorant or unworthy to be treated in this regard ? 46. is What is the relation of the Holy Spirit to the sacrament.

17. In opposition to this doctrine. distinct 1 the hand of church from the 1 civil magistrate. The principle designated in Erastianism. 7. 6. Section I. Acts xx. ordinances.CHAPTER XXX. all wliicli lias been practically embodied the State churches of the Old World. includes the following elements: (1. 17. church officers include simply the functions of teaching and administering the ordinances. Heb. 1 Tim. 18. xii.) That all the subjects of the State are. its the State. xxviii. and do not include discipline. according to this view. and consequently that there no government of the Church indepen(tent of that of its its officers. ix. 18-20. Cor. to exclude a man from Church oi-dinances is to deny him his civil rights as a citizen. Isa.' Thcss. (3. 24. 17. ipso members of the Church. OF CHURCH CENSURES. 1 xiii. 7. in hath therein appointed a government officers. because.) That the Church is an organ of the State to accompli. and entitled to all its facto. v. but that istration are in all laws and their admin- things subject to the civil govern- (2. —The Lord Jesus. .) That the duties and prerogatives of ment. 28 Matt. as King and Head of his Church. our Confession Section teaches 496 in this . v.«h one of is general functions. 12.

and to execute the laws he has given. This theocratic government of the Church which is Christ has established entirely independent of the civii in government. 2d. has appoiuted a government for his Church is . 1st. and not of the Church. as mediatorial King. and by authority of which he faithfully discharged acts. and not of man. appointed a govern- ment time. by his inspired apostles and their writings. and to administer the penalties he has designated according to his will and in his name. and does not ascend. authority and power descends. Pastors and elders teach and rule in the name of God. The Church only witand it. Tliat this church goverunient respects from the civil government. To very many Europe it appeared im- possible that two independent governments should exercise jurisdiction at the without constant dissenting bodies collision. and of all the churches in America. is They have only to define carry that teaching to all and declarative. and. what Christ has taught. as meditatorial King. 1st. that the minister carries with him. and by his providence and Spirit it he continues graciously to administer to the end of All Hence the Church is a theocratic kin".CHURCH CENSURES. 497 That our Lord Jesus Christ. distinct in all Christ the God-man. same time pver the same subjects But the experience of the free and churches of Great Britain. for his Church. either in their several collective or capacity. It is the commission of Christ. to men. 2d. nesses to the genuineness of this commission.dom. it is sees that by the bearer of ministerial Hence all the power of church officers. abundantly proves is that there no danger of interference whatever when both the Church and the State confine themselves to a2 .

The j)ersons subject to the juiisdiction of the suljject to tlie jurisdiction government of the Church are also of the government of the State. The prelatical theory assumes the perpetuity ctf . they differ very to the much as human agents with whom Christ has deposited this power. theories on this subject: 1st. vicar. a j)erpetual (college of aposto their infallible control. but the ends. A vicar of Christ. and the is apostles. and it. and designed to be perpetual. as perpetuated in continued in his successors. The popish which assumes that Christ. so now no one can be a prelate who is not subject to the the order of prelates. the laws. Peter became his the universal bishop. their resi)ective provinces. this organization the apostles and believers constituted the Church while our Saviour was on earth.498 COXFESSIOX OF FAITH. Tliis is the Romish theory of Church. so who now no the one can be a Christian who tlie not subject to the poj)e prelates. and the people subject "2d. with the exception of the Eras- tians. And as then no one could be a Christian to Christ was not subject and Jes. the the apostleship is bishops of Rome. agree with the two princi[>les taught in this Sec- tion as thus generally stated. is This primacy of Peter. was After the ascension of our Lord. whom he uses as his instruments in different administering " There are four radically theory. While all Christians. pope. the methods and the sanctions of the two are so different that the one never can any more interfere with the other than waves of colour can interfere with vibrations of sound. and took his place as the visible head of the Church. and As in the primitive Church no one could be an apostle who was not subject to Christ.

oard of Puh. that the governing and exis Church in the brotherhood. one.) Presbyters who labour in word and doctrine are the highest permanent officers of the Church.) The outward and visible Church is. which. that the church organization complete in each worshipping assembly. none of power in the members being excluded yet not in the Church as a mob. but as an organized body consisting of members. and is secondly. but them all. F. . The fourth theory is the Presbyterian. their representatives ruling Elders or bishops elders. Hodge. . and a larger his holding to the whole. "3d. or should be. In its Low-Church form. which is independent of every other. : Pres. in the sense that a smaller part is is subject to a larger. (3. The Independent or Congregational theory : in- cludes two principles ecutive power in the first. the apostleship as the governing 499 in the power Church.) The people have a right to a substantive part in the governmentof the Church. and ministers or bishops. This includes the following affirmative statement: (1. . C. But ii does not affirm that mode of organization to be essential.CHURCH CENSURES. . try."* all ecclesiastical its Christ has in fact vested Church as a whole. D.D. * " What is Presby terianism ?" Rev. therefore consists of those religion who profess the true and are subject to apostle-bishops. (2. "4th. This is tiie Ancrlican or Hiffh-Church form of this theory. It not holding one oi' these j)rinciples that makes a man a Presbyterian. and all belong to the same order. the prelatical theory simply teaches that there was originally a threefold order in the minis- and that there should be now.

iv. § Pre. 12.sbyteriuiiisin ?" Rev." "They are chosen by them to act in their name is in the government of the Church. Hodge. therefore. C." chnp. 11. if t "Form " What of Government. and for preventing die wrath of God. — against the impenitent. then. — Church censures are necessary for : the reclaim- ing and gaining of offending brethren like offences. which might justly • fall upon the Church 2. 1 Eph. v. as occasion shall require."t Section II. or rather to e^^ercise the powers which radically inhere in those for whom they act."* " The powers. To these officers the kej's of the kingdom of heaven are conmiitted by virtue wliereof they have power respectively to retain and remit sins. to A representative one chosen by others do in their name what they are entitled to do in their own persons. botli by the Woi-d and censures . choscu by them ercising for the purpose of exin conjunction government and discipline with pastors or ministers. and were designed to be perpetuated as 1 the highest class of officers in the Church. iii. D. is iii. to shut that kingdom . exercised by our ruling elders are powers which belong to the lay members of the Church. wore ordained by the apostles. for deterring of others might infect the for purging out of that leaven which whole lump for vindicating the honour of . have always continued in the Church. in the ministers together with the people.* it Section from the III. The members of a State Legislature or of Congress. All Church power vests. can exercise only those powers which are inherent in the people. Christ and the holy profession of the gospel. .D. chap. Tim.. jointly in the lay and clerical element. and to open unto penitent sinners by the ministry of the gospel and by absolution from censures.600 CONFESSION OP FAITH. for example. " Ruling elders are pi'operly the representatives OF THE PEOPLE.

* 1 v. . 1 Tim. of selecting teachers. 1 Cor. 17.CHURCH CEXSURES. That is. 5. suspension from the sacrament of the Lord's Supper for a season. 4. Thess.-3 i Cor. 10. 18 vii. 6. Jude 23. 19 v. These Sections 1st. 2d. . and by excommunication from the Church. the offiChurch are to proceed by admonition. and deposing them when unfaithful. 6. She has a right to — . 20. creeds or confessions of faith. 2 Cor. freely chosen for this purpose by the brethren and it relates " 1. according to the nature of the crime and demerit of the person. 21-23 Tim. of judging of their ordaining and sending them forth into the recalling of field. i. And as slie has been commissioned to toach all nations. as her testimony for the truth and her protest against error. All Church power must be exercised in an orderly manner through the officers spoken of above. John xx. and of 2. 1 Cor. For the better attaining of these ends. 1 20. she has the right fitness. 14. 3d. Tit. . ii^ 6-8. iii. 27. they should suffer his covenant and the seals thereof ti 601 he pro- faned by iiotoi'ious and obstinate oflFcnders. Matt. Matt. As As to the to the ends of this discipline. xviii. methods through which it should be administered.' Section IV. v. and of disciplining its members. teacli ferred As to the nature and extent of the power conupon the Church of admitting and excluding from the fold. 13. 2 Thess. To matters of doctrine. iii. to set The Church has pow^r public worship down rules for the ordering of to '^.* cers of the ' — Matt. 17. xviii. She has power make rules for .— V. 12. set forth a public declaration of the truths which she and which arc to be acknowledged by all who enter her communion. 15. she has a right to frame believes. xi. xvi.

is. The ends of Church discipline arc declared to be The purity of the Church. (c. and because they do.) ness and fidelity to principle presented to the world vithout. constitution or canons. is commonly styled " the power of the keys . facts In view of two unquestionable an incommunicable attribute [a) to forgive sin is God and Christ. spoken of in Matt. the niind and will of Christ in the case. D.) The force of example to deter others from like sin." of opening and closing the doors of the Churc/i. . in the opinion of the church officers pronouncing them. And is they have direct binding effect only in so far as the relations of the person censured to the visible Church far as concerned They can have to effect upon the relations of the censured God and to Christ only in so they represent the will of Christ in the case.) The recovery of the erring brother himself. The better to attain all these ends. D.602 lier CONFESSION OF FAITH. [d. and hence the glory and approbation of God. 4. and to exclude the unworthy from her own communion. (6) God has given to no class of men the faculty of absolutely discriminating the good of from the bad — it follows that the Church power of open- ing and shutting. purely ministerial and declarative. She has power to receive into fellowship. * power e." This last i. xvi. C. Hodge. for i. Church censures declare simply what to the best of their knowledge. own government. of binding and loosing. 19. of admitting or excluding from sealing ordi- nances. Matt.) The exhibition of righteous(a. such as every Church has etc. in its book of discipline. 19 and is in the second Section of this Chapter. xvi. (6.s which the dls- * " VVIiut Prosbvteriaiiisiu?" Kev.

Church to the State? What What What first is is the second point involved? the third? point in opposition to this heresy taught in is t\\Q first the 5. 1.) Pro- ceed in ii order to administer discipline. 3. the ehurcli officers should rej^iihir — (1. using. What diflFerence of oi)inion has prevailed as to huuian agents witli uliom Christ has vested this power? 12. Why. Europe? has this jealousy been shown to be groundless? u})on How 10.is 503 intended." which forms Church. folded of the Confession of Fajth of our The successive stages of discipline there un- are — («) private admonition. and what conditions. State the main elements of the Popish theory. What What the second point here taught? the source of is all Church power? Wliat. . is of procedure. (6) public admoni(cZ) tion." QUESTIONS. What is the first point involved in the Erastian doctrine as to the relation of the 2. then.) excommunication. is there no danger of interference between the two orders of 1 government? tlie 1. The discipline should be wisely and justly pro- portioned " to the nature of the crime and demerit of the person. The proper method stances. first all according to their character. (c) suspension. 7. Section of this Chapter? is is 6. agents? What in has been the ground of tlie independent self-government of the Church has always been garded D. (2. means of" moral re- clamation before they proceed to absolute exclusion. ciplint. under all circum- plainly stated iu the j)art "Book of Discipline. 4.CHURCH CENSURES. the nature of all Church power as exercised by jealousy with which the re- human 8.

committed office ? What What are elders or bishops ? is the character of the of the ruling elders? exei'cise their Whom What do they represent. 26. How must all Church power be exercised? 22. 15. to whom the government of the Church 17. is are the several ends which Church discipline is designed to 3(>. 16 Do the same with regard to the Presbyterian What are the two orders of church officers is theory. What is the second province? What is the third ? What is the fourth? What is the power of discipline called ? What do you mean by saying that it is Prove that State it is so. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 25. simply ministerial and declarative? 28. State the main elements of the Prelatical theory. them? are the three subjects set forth in the second. 24. 27. 14. What is the Jirst principal province of Church power? 23. and what parties inherent powers through 20. third and fourth Sections ? 21. 29. what effect. down? What is the second thing that must be observed? . What the first thing that must be observed in the duo adnnnistration of discipline? 31. Do the same with regard to the Congregational or Inde pendent theory.604 13. 19. 18. Where are the rules regulating discipline in the Presbyte- rian Oliurch laid 32.

This necessarily gives origin to the session or })arochial presbytery. Section I.-2 Acts xv. all Church vested by Christ in the Church as a wliole. Ab we have power is seen in the last Chapter. OF SYNODS AND COUNCILS.' 1 Acts XV. to appoint such assemblies. 4.* and to convene together in them as often as they shall judge it expedient for the good of the Church.' such assembUes as are couiit nionly called synods or councils seers and belongeth to the over- and other rulers of the particular churches.—s Acts xv. and not for destruction. In this body the gregation entire ecclesiastical is power of the whole conto vested. but as an organized body. not as a Hiob. In the Congregational churclu'S 605 In the Episcopal Church this governing power vests with the rector. As organized. consisting of the bishop or pastor and the ruling elders or representatives of the people. it i. ought to be .CHAPTER XXXI. — For the better government and further edification tliere of the Church. 6. 25. 23. people as represented by lay or ruling elders. by virtue of their office and the power which Christ hath given them for edification. 2.« . 22. the Church and tilt consists of presbyters or bishops and the people. exercises pastoral care and discipline over the members and provides for the instruction of the flock and regulates public worship. It admits candidates sealing ordinances.

one one baptism. and those whom it excommunicates according to the scriptural off theory. while every particular its church has a right to manage ister its own affiiirs and admin- own disci})line. As its mem- bers are the members of the Church are. and therefore the whole lias a right to see that they are performed accord- . universal. and when rightfully deposed to be a minister in any. one he ceases Hence. by the whole body of the biotheiit exercised immediately liood in person. delivered unto Satan and cut from the com- munion of the saints. every one rightfully ordained to the is ministry in one church a minister of the universal in Church. and the same grounds for deposition. as tlie in preceding Chapter. is one in such a sense that subject to a larger. acting only through their permanent representatives. laid down The terms in the Scriptures of admission and the legitimate grounds of exclusion are everywhere the The same qualifications are everywhere to be demanded for admission to the sacred office. The principles of government bind the whole Church. excluded from a parti(nilar church is excluded from the whole Church . Every man who is properly received as a member of a particular church becomes A member of the Church universal. In the Presbyterian Churcli vests with pastor and people — the people. it cannot be independent and irresponsible in the exercise of that right. But stated tlie third great principle of Presbyterian ism. the acts of a particular church become the acts of the whole Church.506 CONFESSION OF FAITH. every one rightfully same. however. It has one Lord. is is tliat the whole Church of Christ on earth " a smaller part M'hole. and a larger to the faith. the ruling elders.

4. instead of settling among themselves it as an independent body.) Every particular congregation i^s is governed.' Acts xvi. by a session or parochial presbytery. as we have seen.' ' Acts XV. but by the apostles and elders and the whole Church.SYNODS AND COUNCILS. and there was authoritatively decided (not by the apostles alone. the decrees for to keep. in his next missionary cities. "A controversy having arisen in the Church at Anit tioch. ing to tlie 507 law of Christ. Hence.' it is said. journey. and all for tiie discipline of any of members must with respect to f ll)iil. the conI."t Hence. the right of appeal. they referred the case to the apostles and elders at Jerusalem. Hodge. stitution of the Presbyterian Church (see Book of Government). as 'he passed through the tlicm. consisting of pastor and the ruling elders as the representatives of the people. originate there. The whole govermental power of vests in that i)articular church trials that its session. which were ordained of the apostles and elders which were at Jerusalem. and it been practically recognized and acted upon with more or less fidelity in all branches of the Christian Church ever since. therefore."* The principle contained in the above statement was has certainly acted upon in the a})ostolic age. C. provides for the erection and operation of a regularly-graduated series of ecclesiastical councils. Paul. in carrying these principles into effect. on the one hand. 22) — not ' for that church (Antioch) only. concerning the Mosaic law. (1. but delivered to for all others. * " Wliat is Its decisions are final Presbyterian ism?" Dr. and on the other the right of review and control. .

except wl. that they may pass their final judgment ui)on his qualifications fur the ministry. and unite tives in the exercise The churches appear lated that the in the Presbytery by representa- from the sessions of particular churches. by them sej)arately or even jointly in any other capacity. and not in the members AVhatever they are competent to decide or to execute. A He is licentiate is in no sense or degree a minister. respects exercise equal power with severally. and as a part of his trials or tests tempoi-arily allowed to preach be- fore the peo])le. can be done only by the members jointly while in session. uhich consists of all the pastors or bishops and the churches in a city or neighbourhood who can conveniently meet together of ecclesiastical government.en. examines and decides upon the qualifications of candidates. in the first instance. All the powers of these bodies vest in them as bodies. its the matters subject to jurisdiction. therefore. purely a layman e.608 CONFESSION OF FAITH. and cess in the case of the discipline of a minister the pro- originates in is the Presbytery to which alone the pastor directly responsible. licenses and ordains them. i. after liaving been regularly carried up by appeal. but belong in the first and not at all i'nstance tg the Presbytery.. so regu- equal the number of lay representatives shall exactly number of pastors. and these representatives in all of the people the pastors. and acceptability as a candidate . (2. The Presbytery. they have been reversed by a superior court.) There is the classical Presbytery. a private member of a particular church — taken under care of Presbytery experimentally. Ordained ministers are not members of particular churches.

and therefore has an inherent right of supervision and of governmental control over the entire field subject to their jurisdiction." and of course to judge of those proceedings.SYNODS AND COUNCILS. M^ell as including the church session. determine controversies of faith and cases of conscience rules to set down and directions for the better ordering of the public worship of God and government of his Church . may inaugui-ate investigation and apply discipline imits mediately in the case of any person within legiti- mate bounds. of necessity is composed of the representatives of the constituent Presbyteries. in default of the proper action of the inferior judicatory to which the case more immediately belongs. instead of the Prtsbyteries themselves in full. —It belonsretli to synods and councils ministerially . to review each (thurch court of every grade above a church session has the right and is under obligation " the records of the proceedings of the judicatory next below. like the other bodies. (4. is And each court. may be carried up in succession through all the series to the General Assembly. and secure their correction when wrong. consisting of the Presbyteries in full of a province. In virtue of the principle of appeal. any question rriginating in a chur(. Hence a superior judicatory. to receive com- .) The General Assembly of all the whole Church.h session. or any other subordinate court. (3. Section to II. an executive as a judicial body. which. whose decisions final. when once made are In virtue of the principle of review and control. consists of an equal the representatives of the peo- number of pastors and of ple.) all 509 Synods are only large Presbyteries.

) The grounds u])on which. ii. 27-31. if they be thereunto required by the civil magistrate.) The come before these church courts — diiferent subjects for decision. 20. All synods or councils since the apostles' times. that which affairs is and councils are to handle nothing but and are not to intermeddle with civil which concern the commonwealth.—6 Luke xli. 24. 1 Cor.* Section III. 15. 4. 'These Sections state (1. 2 Cor. M^hcre the interests of the Ciuirch are immediately concei'ned. which (2. Negatively. by the way of satis- humble petition. Negatively. appointed thereunto in his word. whether general or particular.* * Acts XV. but al:>o power whereby they are made. and the conditions under which. John xviii. as being an ordinance of God. or by way of advice for satis- faction of conscience. presume attempt influence tlie officers of the civil government in their action as civil officers. 24. or to have no right to. and many have erred — therefore they are not to be made the rule of faith or practice. ii. 13. their decisions are to be regarded as requiring submission. Synods and councils have no right which concerns to whatever to intermeddle with any the commonwealtli. —Synods ble petition in cases extraordinary. to which that submission affair is to be carried. Eph. may err. if they be thereunto required by the civil magistrate. Matt. or {b) by way of advice for faction of conscience. and autlioritativelj' to de same which decrees and determinations. 6 . except (a) in extraordinary cases. xvi. 19. but to be used as a help in both. 2d.* Section IV. i. unless by way of humecclesiastical . xviii. 14. and the extent 1st. 17-20. torniine the nant to for the submission not only for their agreement with the Word. are to be received with reverence and . The powers of synods and councils . if consothe word of God.—6 Acts xvii. and tliey to give advice to. 36.510 CONFESSION OF FAITH. plaints in cases of maladministrntion. 11.

) Church.. Positively. therefore they are not to be made the rule of faith or practice. Wherefore ye must need be subject not only for wrath. and in legislative. to the civil it and of enforcing the performance of " as a re- ligious obligation. Rom. are purely nnnisteriul and declarative. The powers that be are ordained of God. To determine parti(!ular controversies of (c. apostles' times.SYNODS AND COUNCILS. ligious duty. To prescribe regulafor the tions for the public worship of God. 4th. and authoritatively to determine the same. to receive appeals and complaints in all cases of maladmin- istration in the case of individual officers or subordinate courts. but also for conscience' sake. and. in the case of the superior courts. and governall cases ment of (d. and many have erred both. It belongs to synods and councils («) proper times to form creeds and confessions of to faith." 1-7. . All synods and councils since the err. the Church. 5th. 511 relate sini])ly and execution of the will of Christ.) To take up and issue of discipline. but to be used as a help in Tint is. they. . and faith adopt a constitution for the government of the (6. is xiii. right to handle or While ecclesiastical courts have no advise upon matters which belong to the jurisdiction of the civil magistrate. Negatively. Positively. may .) and cases of conscience. to the declaration i. That is. consisting of . . They are therefore wholly judicial and executive. these synods and councils. on the other hand. e. whether general or particular. obedience to the civil authorities a re- and may be taught and enforced by Church courts upon clunvh members. evidently possess an inalienable right of teaching church members their duty with respect j^owers. no instance at 3d.

not only because of the they do agreee with the word of God. system? In what body does ? is vest according to the Presbyterian system 7. uninspired men. but not directly opposed to the will of God. appointed by him. member sliould disregard them and take 6th. vest according to the Episcopal 5. In whom does tliis system? power vest according it to the Congrega- tional 6. they are fact that be received by all subject to the jurisdiction of said court. him in all of its legitimate QUESTIONS. What the third fiindamciital principle of Presbyterianism. In whom has Christ vested all Church power? Through whose agency do the people exercise the powers inherent in them ? 3. but also because of the proper authority of the court itself as a court of Jesus Christ. nor excuse the obligation. made under unit}- the last Chapter? In what sense ought the its of the Church to be ex' pressed in outward organization? . If the private member should submit opposed plainly for peace' sake. 2.512 CONFESSION OF FAITH. Positively. the the private penalty. and their authority cannot exclude the right. But to in every case in which the de- crees of these ecclesiastical courts are consonant to the word of God. If their judgments are unwise. to their decisions are the word of God. of private judgment. To wliat body does this necessarily give rise? 4 In whom does the governing power in each congregation 1. have no power to bind the conscience. according to the statement 8. and therefore ministerially representing actions.

To what extent may the right of appeal be carried in the Presbyterian Church at present? 23." and liow carried out by the church courts? is it practically 24.SYNODS AiXD OOUNCILS. church courts 16. with greater or less consistcncj'. Who Who compose a provincial Synod. Under the jurisdiction of what body do immediits ately stand as professing Christians? 20. functions? Of what members its does a classical Presbytery consist. and what 14. and what are its functions? 22. functions? all the powers of the members of these and not several? In what sense are joint. do all church courts sustain and what 3:i special functions must their governmental agency bo confined . To which body does a minister immediately is belong. and each larger part he subject to the 10. 1 1.s acted on the apostolic age. What What is the principle of " review and control. compose the General Assembly. and to which 17. 12. to magistrate?' exceptions to that prohibition are relations made? to Christ. 613 Why should each smaller part of the Church be subject to a larger. Of what members are its does the church session consist. What is the lowest church court according to the Presby> terian system y 13. What rights What What ? are denied synods and councils with respect civil to matters belonging to the jurisdiction of the 26. subjects are defined in the second. therefore. and what are func- tions? 21. Wliat is the precise standing of licentiates? licentiates 19. acted upon ill all churches. third and fourth Sections of this Chapter? 25. and what are 15. 27. whole? in Prove that Pz'ove that this principle wa. 9. he immediately responsible? body. it is. judges of and decides upon the Which office? qualifications of ministers and admits them to or deposes them from 18.

State the several classes of matters which may be legiti- mately considered and determined by church courts. to enforce by proper eccle- 30. What What What from that ? fact? 32. What do our standards teach with regard to the practical consequent follows necessarily liability of church courts to err? 31. Upon what grounds does every Christian owe submission to and compliance with those decisions of the courts of God'a house which are consonant to his word ? .514 28. Prove that it is the duty of church courts to instruct those under their jurisdiction with respect to the duties which Chris- tians siastical owe to the civil magistrate. What is he to do in case the decision is directly opposed to the word of Christ? 35. 33. is the true sphere of private judgment in the case should the Christian do in case the decision of the council be unwise. 29. CONFESSION OF FAITH. but not positively opposed to the revealed will of Christ? 34. and means due compliance.

That man consists of two Boul distinct elements. 23. xii. Acts xiii. 24. 36. reBesides these two served to the judgment of the great day. . Jude 6. 6. Section I. iv. 21. 19. having an immortal subsistence. 1. waiting for the full redemption of their bodies into hell. 23. 10. That while the body is resolved into its constituis ent chemical elements. The bodies of men after death return to dust. • Gen. immediately return to God who gave them. where they behold the face of God in light . Acta 1 iii. intermediate state (6) during all the from death until the resurrection. Eph. a in their and a body. 23. 2 Cor.* places for souls separated from their bodies the Scripture ac- knowledgeth none.' but their souls (which neither die nor sleep). vi.—* Luke xvi. xii.' and glory. Tuis Section teaches 1st. iii. Acts 25. Eceles. 7 Pet. 7. —'Luke i. or THE STATE OF MEN AFTER DEATH.CHAPTER XXXII. 8. and see corruption. Phil. active and happy. iii. 19.* — The souls of the righteous. and that death consists tempo- rary separation. the soul of the believer (a) immediately made perfect in holiness. (o) is in continues conscious. AND OF THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD. xxiii. —'Hob. and the 615 . 43. being then made perfect in holiness. are received into the highest heavens. 2d. and the souls of the wicked are cast where they remain in torments and utter darkness.

the breath of ii. hand of God. Thus God made soul. reserved to the judgment the great day. 2d. a being in with Christ. i. 8 . after his ascension. dissolution of the personal .'' for " then shall the dust was. though not final. and none of those 5th. the body out of it the dust of the earth and breathed into life. 28." Matt. 4th. but a state of penal torment. That the souls of the wicked also continue. and the spirit shall return unto v. And death is defined in Eccles. God who gave Phil.. is We know that its when the soul leaves it the body resolved into original chemical elements. has sat clown at the riglit 3d. as consisting of dis- two separable elements tinct —a soul and a body — iiaving and independent attributes and subsistence. is taken for granted and constantly implied in the lan- guage of Scripture. who. and so man became a living kill Gen. a kill the body. durin oi' ing this internicdiate state. union of these two elements return to the earth as it it. torment will be ever saved. 1st. the The Romish Scriptures afford no ground whatever for doctrine that there are other places or con- ditions occupied by deceased men than the two above mentioned. xii. a being absent from the body on the part of the conscious personal soul. x. ble i. The duality of human nature. These conditions. presence of Christ. In like manner Paul (2 Cor. e. a ceasing to abide the flesh. but are not able to the soul. are irreversi- none of those with Christ in will be ever lost. which . Christ bids us not to " fear them which 7. it 22-24) defines as a departing.516 CONFESSION OF FAITH. conscious and active. 7.

) The souls of the reprobate are at once introduced /' into the place provided for the devil and his angels. although they remain until the resurrection separate from their bodies.) That possibly. however. the real identity of our bodies preserved. thus perfected. The 517 are gradually incorporated with the shifting currents of matter on the surface of the earth. what the Scriptures teach us may (1. are diately introduced into the presence of Christ and con- tinue to enjoy bright revelations of God and the society of the holy angels.) and bodies are separate.) The The souls of believers are at their death made imme- perfect in holiness. intermediate in the sense (a) that tlM men (continue incomplete while their souls (6. (c.) souls of believers. (5. in the case . as essential to members of be Christ. and that. and location of the souls of men during the interval which elapses between the death of As to the condition each individual and the general and simultaneous resurrection of the bodies of all. reached That neither the redemp- tion of the saved nor the perdition of the lost has yet its final stage.«TATE OF MEN AFTER DEATH — RESURRECTION. (2. (3.) This state of both classes admits of no exchange is or transfer. it is Nevertheless. but their present condition the commence- ment of an persons of inevitable progression in opposite directions. that. in S])ite Scriptures of this flux of their is is material constituents.) summed up under the following heads The souls of both believers and the reprobate be continue after death conscious and active. and J continue in unutterable misery. teach us. (4. all that them will ultimately preserved and brought to a glorious resurrection.

prepared for the devil and his angels. the terms ''up" or "down. 1—8. 41.518 of the last.) As to the location of the place where the redeemed are now gathered. all the scenes opened in the Apocalypse. it is said. the Judge at the last day says to those " on the left hand." " the right hand of the Maj- esty on high. In Jude. sat down Heb. and cannot indicate absolute direction when addressed promiscuously to the inhabit- ants of a revolving and rotating sphere. etc. but left their The angels which kept not own habitation. " the right And Christ at his ascension. he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. while his brethren were alive on earth." " under " or " above. i." X. except that Christ is. being in torstill ment. absolutely nothing is revealed. This must be a locality. also. 2 They Cor. Depart from me. it is wherever the glorified humanity of are with him. See. into everlasting fire. (7. verse 7. at hand of God. 12. must be simply metaphorical. " their first estate." applied to such a subject. xxv." The rich man But (Luke xvi. and behold his glory. the human- . no man can God has not revealed Of course. judgment. because. and whether the because locality now it. where these places are of torment after the situated. and very probably localities in the ca&e of the re deemed. is identical with the locality of torment tell. V. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 3. Rom. As to the location of the place in which the souls of the reprobate suffer. 23) lifted up his eyes in hell. ye cursed. Mark xvi.) after the final award." In Matt. 34 . viii. the Scriptures give us no clue. 19 . the in which they are at present art not the same as those in which they are to dwell per- manently (6.

Endor Sam. 23. viii. his presence marks a definite " evidently place . for ever irreversible — can be better presented collectively is : than distributively. receive my spirit! and so died. being full of the Holy cried.STATE OF MEN AFTER DEATH ity of Christ — RESURRECTION. 24) active in Lazarus rich is conscious and in con- Abraham's bosom. the propositions above stated is — viz. Christ's address to the thief on the thou shalt be with me in paradise" . 2 Pet. and so seeing he "Lord Jesus. 3) cross — " To-day xxiii. first ished. he saw the heavens opened. As to the location of the place in which Christ and his glorified eternity. that the intermediate state of souls one of conscious redeemed being perfectly holy and happy and that these conditions are It as follows state. Of dying Stephen it is de- clared (Acts vii. the man scious torment in hell (Hades). Rev. God 519 being finite. xvii. (Luke 43) the parable of the rich : man and is Lazarus (Luke xvi. while his brethren are still living in the flesh. See Rom. 7-20) the appearance of Moses and Elias at the transfiguration of Christ on the mount (Matt. si30use will hold their central home throughout it a strong probability earth. The proof of the main activity." . and Jesus Christ Kitting at the right hand of God. 55-59) that. xxi. at the call (1 the use of of Saul and the witch of . is raised that fire will be our present burned with and then gloriously repleniii. yet the phrase " right hand of marks rather the condition of honour and power to which Christ is raised as mediatorial King. xxviii. in with Christ. 19-23. and the reprobate being with the devil and his angels in torment. 1. 5-13. Ghost. . The reappearall his ance of Samuel in a conscious faculties.

7." to be one In Eph. unto the judgment of the suffering the veno^eance of eternal fire. Paul living together is declares that the sleep of death "a with Christ. and that he was in to "a betw ixt two Christ which Ilesh is having a desire is depart and be with abide in the far better. 3d. the spirits of the just are represented as fect made pervi. V. is gain. declared that after Abraham (and other ancient saints) the had patiently endured. 1. The Papists uold that hades or the under world embraces several . the Ciiurch declared is it whole family. 9-11. In Heb. before the resurrecstion. the souls of believers are represented as being now with Christ and the holy angels. In Rev. 23. of which at present part part on earth. 9. and happy with tlie angels in heaven. the lost angels are said to reserved everlasting chains. vi." In is 1 Thess. nevertheless to more needful for you. for the the Romish intermediate state of deceased men. day. (!0urse vii. to his In Acts place. 10." which promises. in Scripture. Judas said have gone own be In Jude in 6.3. which of v. and to be be present i. 12-20.520 In 2 Cor. in is hciaven and In Heb. ill CONB^ESSION OF FAITH. 15. ])r<iying for the punisiiment of their ioriner persecutors on earth. iii. absent from the body to the believer to (in Phil. 25. " he obtained promises . we know. is 1-8. v. xiv. Our Standards declare that there is no foundation doctrine as to whatever. with the Lord. vii. must be In Hev. last under darkness. were in spiritual to their true i. 9. and hence he says that for 21-24) strait him to die . meaning is and heavenly. the souls of the martyrs are re})resented as under the altar in heaven. Paul declares that to be at to be absent is home the body from the Lord .

and yet without the vision of God. xxv. The great mass of partially-sanctified Christians. This doctrine in Scripture. nent hell. 20. as above shown. etc. without suffering and yet without the God. with imperfections. vi.. as to the sacrifice of the mass.. classes of 521 regions.) All Christians who have attained to a state of Christian perfection (5. during the three days he continued under 1 the power of death. came and released them. they remained the " spirits in prison" until Christ. All unbaptized adults. 19. (2. as to the sin-expiat- ing and soul-purifying efficacy of temporary suffering.) Pet. (4. the Council of Trent teaches (a.) It opposed to the teaching Scripture as to the intermediate state. still dying in communion with the Church. (3.) The souls of unbaptized ijifants go to the " Limbus Infantum. iii. is false. Pt. and those who have subsequently lost the grace of baptism. and die unreconciled to the Church." where they remain with- out suffering.* cumbered Concerning purgatory.) That there is a purifying fire (6.) through which im- perfect Christians must tory may be benefited That souls in purgaby the prayers and masses offered pass. go immediately to the perma. Rom.) It rests upon Antichristian principles as to the efficacy of the atonement of Christ. . * Cat. (3. sess. and as to prayers for the dead. go to purgatory. in their behalf on earth. cli. f Council of Tr<^nt.) Old Testament vision of believers were gathered in the ''Limbus Patrum. to : which difi'erent human souls are destined (1.STATE OF MEN AFTER DEATH distinct — RESURRECl'ION. I." where.) go immediately heaven. because (1) is it is nowhere taught of (2.

Phil. Cor." That the bodies of the reprobate shall be raised — to dishonour. —At the . 2. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 1 Cor. 42- 44. 1 . 43 . 27. xv. body. although with different qualities. shall not die. both of the just and the unjust. to everlasting life. all such as are found ali-\e shall not the but be changed shall and the dead shall be raised up with selfsame bodies. 51.^ 5 1 Thess. " Marvel all coming. the dead. by his to his unto honour. 1st.-6 Job xix. and be made conformable own glorious Cor. the graves siiall hear his voice and shall they that have done good unto the resur- rection of life.—7 Acts xxiv. Tliat at the last all day there will be a simulta- neous resurrection of the unjust.* boclies of the unjust shall. iv. 21. That the bodies of believers shall be made like body " a spiritual body. II. their 3d." Dan. and they that have done evil unto tiie . although their qualities will be changed. iii. which Section be united again to their souls for ever. in the wluch who come arc in forth . identity preserved. 15 John v. III.* last day. — The by the power of Christ. 17.522 Section die. 29 . the bodies of the just. and none other. xv. 4th. 26. both of the just and of That those who then remain living on the earth but be changed. Christ's glorious 5th. 1 xv. and some to shame and everlasting contempt. That the very same bodies that are buried in the earth shall be raised and reunited to their souls. At " the last day there will be a simultaneous resurrection of all the dead. And many of them some that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake. 2d. be raised to dishonour Spirit. not at this: for the hour is xii. These Sections teach 1st. 52. 28. .

31-46.6TATE OF MEN AFTER DEATH resurrei-lion of chisscs — RESURRECTION. Rev. but we shall all be changed in last moment. . and the dead shall be raised incorruptible. to meet the Lord in the air: and so " a shall we ever be with the Lord.S. "This corruptible to put in on incorruption. "All who are their graves shall hear his voice." Matt. and the righteous into ii. 53. 15-17. 2. and we shall be changed. 11-15. are buried in the earth to their souls. in the twinkling of an eye." 1 Cor. We shall not all sleep. For the Lord himself from heaven with a shout. " And away into life i. although their qualities are changed. [)2[\ damnation. pjnishment. 21. The two are to be judged simultaneously. 6-10. The very same bodies that. xx. manner analogous which we know . at the trump for the trumpet shall sound. and shall come forth. . 6-16. 51. iv. John V. xxv." 1 Cor. 54. Rom. The sheep shall stand goats upon the everlasting left.^ 3d." John 28. v. xv. Our now members of Christ." Thess. "Our vile body is to be changed.52. iv. with the voice of an archangel and the trump of God." . immediately after their resurrection upon the second coming of the on the right side and the these shall go Lord. and they are to be raised in a to his resurrect "on. eternal. the dead in bodies iice Christ shall rise. 13-17. "They who 1 are asleep. is This is explicitly declared in Scripture: iii. xv. their identity shall be raised and reunited preserved. 29. 2 Tim. 2d. 1 Thess. Those who are alive and remain unto the comshall descend ing of the Lord shall not outstrip them which are asleep. and the dead in Christ shall rise first: then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds." Phil.

and there a spiritual body. i." It is suited to the present man. social and spiritual. muscle and nerve. but the old changed into the new. the body of the resurrection will be in the same sense and to the same degree one with the body of death death 4th." bone. to his present stage of development. is as the body of one with the body of birth. whether of matter or of form. 3 . Phil. xv. xv. There no upon the authority of God's word. in spite of the lapse of time the changes." 1 Cor. Acts was seen and handled 1 Cor." Not a new body so the substituted for the old. is iii.52-4 CONFESSION OF FAITH. body of the believer glorious body. and moment doubt that the all. nails and of the spear. But " flesh and blood. " cannot inherit the kingdom of God. It to have been of by the print of the for the fact. his identical body. space of forty days in order to establish this very liuke xxiv. As is the seed gives birth to a new organism. it undergoes. The made like unto Christ's The body of man now is wants of " an animal body " (1 Cor. 4. 60. xv. moral. to be 21. and to the physical conditions of the world he inhabits. neither doth corruption inherit incorruption. ** For there an animal body. But this shall be " changed. body is re- mains one and the same throughout difficulty in believing. These changes will doubtless be very great.of the spirits of just men made . unhappily translated *' a natural body. is 3orruptible will give birth to the incorruptible. 44). There are many changes yet no one can for a in the material elements and form of the human body between birth and death. and of all that." The M itli spiritual body will be still material and identical it the body which was once animal. intellectual. 39 . but will be suited to the new want^.

they that have done v. is taught us as to the place to which the reprobate are introduced after death? 14. In ffhat respect are these states not final. State the proof given in Scripture that the fouls of beactive. "All that are in their graves shall hear his shall come forth. What What is taught us as to the place to which believers go immediately upon death? 13. . 2. John 5-29. 1. evil. happy and with Christ between death and the resurrection. The and bodies of the reprobate shall be raised to dishonour. im- In what state do the souls both of believers and of the reprobate continue between death and the resurrection'^ 12. Whatisthe/owr^/t? theyi/c/t? for Prove that Scripture takes the duality of human nature granted. voice. . How do they define death? What becomes of the body after death ? 9. What great change is wrought in the souls of believers mediately upon their death? 11. . intellcctnal social '* and Sj)ii'itiial — to their and to the phj'sical conditions of the new heavens and the new earth. 5th." 2 Pet. relations. 526 — to their new stage of development. What is What is What is Whatis the first proposition taught in the first Section? the second proposition there taught? the third proposition there taught? 4. 7. 6. Will the conditions of either of these classes be reversed or intei'changed ? 15. 3.STATE OF MEN AFTER DEATH perfect — RESURRECTION. 8. wherein dwelleth righteousness. QUESTIONS. lievers are conscious. but inter- mediate? 16. . unto the resurrection of damnation. iii. 5. . 13. 12. What do the Scriptures reveal on the subject? 10.

What is to "up" and "down. dishonour? . do they teach go immediately heaven ? to hell. Patrum and 23. 3t). but will be "changed. Prove from Scripture that the resurrection of the just and will of the unjust 32. do they teach as to the future does the the locality of that scene of bliss ? and state the passages which relate to the subject. at the time of the second Prove that those found living coming of Christ will not die. 29. 22. and who imme- What do they teach about purgatory ? State the reasons which disprove their doctrine upon this subject? 26. Prove that changes as to the form and as to the material elements of the body do not impair its real identity.526 17. 25. is Prove that Christ rose with the very same body. will be made like Christ's glorified body. What What What do they teach as Christ and the blessed dead are gathered? 21. Prove from Scripture that the very same body that placed in the earth shall rise again. be simultaneous. and iii. ? is is is is the second proposition there taught? the third proposition? the /oHr^/i? the fifth ? 31. active. 38." 33. 34." which "under" and "above. 27." 20. What will Prove tbat be the nature of the resurrection body? it 37. CONFESSION OF FAITH. 30. 28. in torment and with the devils in hell immediately after death ? 18. 35. What What What What What is i\iQ first proposition taught in Sections ii. Romish Church teach Ltmbus Infantum? as to the Limhvs Who diately to 24. What do the Scriptures teach as to the absolute location be understood by the words in this relation? to the present location in of the place of suffering ? 19. What is meant by the terms " natural body " and will "spirit- ual body?" Prove that the bodies of the reprobate be raised to 39. State the proof that the souls of the reprohatc are con Bcious.

1 Cor.36. and obey not the gospel of Jesus Christ. ii. 4. ii.' but likewise have lived upon earth appear before the tribunal of Christ. . . Rom. Rom. 21 Acts iii. Section I. 12.* 1 Acts xvii. 10. Matt. and to receive according to what they have done in the body. 16. 10. 2d. judgment into the hands of the God-man in his character as Mediator. whether shall good or evil* Section of the II. 2 Thess. xii. Sections teach judg-- That God has appointed a day of general That he has committed this ment. .—^ ii. Eccles. xii. ix. These 1st. 5. XXV. vi. and disobedient. 37 — 19. 2 Pet. » Matt. 27. who know not God. xxv. 31. shall be cast into eternal torments. Matt.^ to whom all judge power and judgment given of the Father. . and be punished with and from Jude 6. 22. OP THE LAST JUDGMENT. — God is hath appointed a day wherein he will all the world in righteousness by Jesus Christ. to give an account of their thoughts. the glory of his power. 31-46. 1-1 .—'' John v.S . 23. —The end of Grod's appointing this day is for the manifestation of the glory of his mercy in the eternal Balvation elect. who are wicked and of his justice in the damnation of the reprobate. For then shall the righteous life. xiv. words and deeds. 6. 7-10. come from the presence of the Lord but the wicked. go into everlasting ing which shall and receive that fulness of joy and refresh. everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord.' In which day not only persons that the apostate angels shall be judged. 22. i.CHAPTER XXXIII.— * 2 Cor. V.

to be endured with conscious torment 1st. CONFESSION OF FAITH. be judged as to all angels and the whole 4th. because he .528 3d. as the author of the seventy- It third Psalm declares. of unending holiness. an exact account for their character and obvious. severally or collectively. human race. and shall be conconveyed that times of this ignorance all ducted on a certain predetermined day in the future. hai)pi- That the reprobate are to be awarded a place with the devil and his angels. that justice this world. and as many other perplexed souls have thought. 7th. but now eoramandeth men everywhere to rejient. God to is will call all the subjects of his moral government actions. formally or informally. which is enjoyed by them ness and honor. "The God winked at. great end of to their thoughts. and of his glorious grace in the glorification of believers. and shame through a ceaseless eternity. That these persons are words and deeds. 5th. That the persons to be judged include apostate good and bad. That the is God in the appointment of this day the manifestation of his glorious justice in the condemnation of the reprobate. That the righteous are in a state to be awarded admission to be consciously 10 the presence of the Lord. 6th. It that in is a dictate of natural reason and conscience some way. This presumption of reason and conscience fact in the confirmed and declared to be a tion is shall word of God. and the additional informathis judgment of men and angels be general and simultaneous. is not executed upon All this suggests the probability that men in God and will at a future time adjust the disturbed balances call all men to a strict is account.

in the completeness of his reintegrated person.THE LAST JUDGMENT. Matt." him by the Father. 7. 31-46. i. but committed to V. 30. Acts 21. 2d. his resurrection. " He conducts the judgment "the King" earth. Inasmuch these have done it unto one of the it least my brethren. and we shall . entire The subjects of the judgment will embrace the human race of every generation. And his thus. i. but the God-man is in his office as mediatorial King. xxv." 2 Thess. " . iii. All judgment said to be not in- herently his. each individual appearing immediately after body. as mediatorial King. he will consummate work in the destruction of his enemies. John the " Son of man" Matt. 3d. xxv. xxv. 22. the complete redemption of his friends. ." ." Matt. must all be changed the trumpet shall sound. this great occasion is to The Judge on God absolutely considered. 31. and the " As Judge he is called man ordained by God." gathered all "Before him shall be but we nations. 31. etc. 27. in that he hath raised him from the dead. I and as Head of his members who have lived on For I was an hungered and ye gave me meat. and ye gave as ye was thirsty shall me drink. shall not all sleep. ye have done unto me. 16. loth soul and All the generations of the dead are to be raised and the then living "changed." Acts xvii. 7-10. . 32 as Acts xvii. . 35-40. 31 be not Rom. . Rev. and " the restitution of all things. We . And the King of answer and say unto them. Verily I say unto you. and the dead 34 shall be raised incorruptible. ii. hath appointed a day in righteousness in 529 which he will judge the world by that man whom he hath ordained whereof he hath given assurance to all men.

51. xx. which made him ii. saw the dead. 28. 16." Jude 6. a law The Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law.. 2. 1 Cor. XXV. nor any knowledge of the nor upon technical grounds of law. 2 Pet. it as attendants and i. v. 4th. pensation of the gospel shall be judged by the gospel. Rom. 8. 52. and there- "judge nothing before the time.530 be changed. iv. of the great day. Heb.29. x. but by the law written upon the heart. receive the things done in his body according to that he hath done.3. Every man who has lived under the disunto himself. who both light the hidden things . will Good angels be concerned in xiii." 1 ^att. 42. All evil angels are also to be arraigned in this judgment. 48. that every one may I . "The angels which kept not their in everlasting chains. . 11-15. first estate . And in the sea hell : gave up the dead which were they were judged. wliether it be good or bad. Thess. small and great.." "And ." CONFESSION OF FAITir. and death and (Hades) delivered up the dead which were them and man according to his works. hath reserved under darkness. Rev. unto the judgment 4." Rom. We are told not to judge according to the apj)earance (John fore to vii. 12. The judgment will not rest partial upon appearances. 2 Thess. 2 Cor. "We must all appear before the ju<lg laent-seat of Christ. ministers. without the law supernaturally revealed. nor dissociated from the state of the heart specific actions and the motives has sinned which prompted them. Luke xii. xv. he ii. 12-15. every in it. 47. stand before God. facts. 7. will bring to until the Lord come. nor testimony. that The heathen who without the law "shall be judged without the law" is. 31-46. 24). ii. 41. Matt. ii. 10.

12. in order that in them might be " made known the riches And the reprobate in like manner are of his glory. but because their names are found written in " the book of life." to show his righteous wrath and make his power known. in Therefore. 5. 531 of darkness and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts. shown by their works. 5. for ever "vessels of his The redeemed are mercy" prepared beforehand. the ground of their justification. iv. neither hid that shall not be known. faith the instrument of their union with Christ and their faith. and on the in ground of their participation Christ. 3. "Tiiere is noth- ing covered that shall not be revealed. 14. 5th. Rom. ix. § 1. iv." exhibited as the " vessels of wrath.THE LAST JUDGMENT. 3. 2. 22. This shall be done to manifest the right- eousness of God in the condemnation of his enemies. his glorious grace in the sanctification of his people. 23. the righteousness of cited as the Their good deeds will be publicly evidences of their union with Christ. Mark and iv. as the Apostle Jatnes says. whatsoever ye have spoken darkness shall be heard in the light." 1 Cor." Luke viii. 22. that . 8 xx. and that in which ye have spoken the ear in closets shall be pro- claimed upon the housetops." or the book of God's electing love. Christ is is Their union with Their . iii. The saints will not be acquitted in the day of judgment on the ground of their own good deeds. this public unveiling The great end of God in of secrets and manifestation of character in connection with his final disposition of his creatures is of course the manifestation of his own glorious excellences as moral Governor and Redeemer. 15. \t has already been proved. xiii. Rev. 17.. xii.* xii. under Chapter iv. Phil. Eccles. is .

xix. 16. all evil 3. 9 . iv. 2 Pet. their perfect freedom from and from their being with God and 17. 2 Pet. viii." It is called and eter- "everlasting an "eternal weight of glory. i." an "everlasting kingdom. . and as tlie " new heaven " and the " new earth " be jrlo- . 11 . (3. i. chief end of God in the original creation was If the manifestation of his this own glorious perfections. was his end in the original creation. 46 i. Thess. iv. Ileb. appears not improbable that and all that inwhich the Scriptures reveal shall acrompany the judgment. Immediately upon the close of the judgment." an "eternal inheritance. after the great conflagration of the earth habits its surface. xxi. 29 v.) It is to endure for an absolutely "eternal life" *' unending eternity. From such passages as 1. being honourably acquitted. 15. Christ as joint heirs with him. iii." xxv. Rom. in every subsequent step consequent upon 6th. with whom they are ever to continue in a state of conscious and exalted happiness. 9) and exalted in kind (Col. ii. 12). . it Rom. 5-13. nal salvation. the righteous. xxi. 17. Pet. John xvii. excellence and honour for an absolutely un- ending eternity." Matt. 17. and it shall involve every form of blessedness in an (1 inconceivably great degree Cor. this world will be reconstituted. 24 viii. of every kind (Rev. life.) the Scriptures teach — Their blessedness flows from sin. and their sharing the glory of . Heb. 1 Christ.532 the CONFESSION OF FAITH. 19-23. are to be awarded admission to the presence of the Lord. ix. (2. Of the blessed estate of the saints. 7 .) It shall be perfectly free from 4). 1 ii. (1. it of cour:^e must be so it. 4. Rom. xxi. 2 Cor. and Rev. Rev.

" Matt. " neither world nor that which is to come. xxv. holding truth that the penal sufferings of the lost are to last for Certain individuals and heretical societies. 17. etc." "the smoke of ascending up fi)r their torment ever and ever. Besides." 10. and dWioc:) are used (1 to express the eternal existence of xvi. etc. Jude 6. of Christ (Rev. xxv. how- ever. 26). 7th." " the worm that never dies. in xii. 17. xix. 41). have denied it. 14). t The strongest terms which the Greek language affords are em])loycd in the New Testament to expi-ess the lost. rlonsly adapted to be the 533 permanent residence of Christ and his Church. entire Chi-istian The Church. and are there to continue in the con.THE LAST JUDGMENT. and the endless duration of the happiness of the saints vi.. have agreed ever." " fire unquenchable." " bottomless pit. xiv. Christ says that this shall in never be pardoned. it Of the unpardonable sin. 45. Rev. auouio. lost. 32. 46. 29 . Tiie reprobate will be immediately conveyed to the place prepared for the devil and his angels (Matt. Luke iii. 11. XXV. un- ending duration of the penal torments of the The i. Greek and in Roman. Matt.scious endurance of torment and shame for an absolutely unending eternity.). tliis Lutheran and Reformed. same words {dc(6u. God i. (John 58 . and the endless duration of the sufferings of the Matt. 1 8).46. 20." the necessity of paying "the uttermost farthing. ix. Tim. and substituted : in its place one or other of the following hypotheses . their condition is (con- stantly set forth by such terms as. 46 .. i. of the Holy Ghost (Hcb. Rom. Matt. the " fire that shall not be quenched. Mark ix.

i. There is not the slightest trace in Scripture of such an ultimate restoration. On we have seen.) Heb." dieth not. . consistently speak of the fu- ture of the lost as a state of conscious suffering endurin<.534 (1. or the contrary. soul from pollution or to enkindle spiritual (6. This is even of the to result either through the atoning and purifying suffering. and indeed the highest possible means to that end." (c. 26. In the case of the reprobate these have been finally rejected. annihilation. reformation and restoration of devil himself. But ex- remember j)iate — (a. the Scriptures pa-iiively affirm the precise reverse to be true. either in the design of *.) CONFESSION OP FAITH. xx." "unquenchable ever.. has no tendency to purify the life.) The atone- ment of Christ and the sanctifying power of his Spirit are the only appointed means of bringing men to repentance. 27. vi.) That suffering per while it may guilt. or efficacy of protracted though temporary through other moral influences which God will bring to bear upon them in another world.he it. That the "secoiKl which the wicked in deatli " sj^oken of ia Rev. The "worm fire. 14. as means of it.) later. which shall devour the adversaries. but a certain fearful looking-for of judgment and fiery indignation. to shall he subjected after their condemnation the judgment. involves the total and." " the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and and they have no rest day nor night. se. " weeping and gnashing of teeth. sooner oi will secure the repentance and consequent all sinners." (2. The God other hypothesis supposes that." " everlasting fire. or the results of it. But the Scriptures always forever. absolute destruction of their being e. and hence " there remaineth no more sacrifice for sms.

THE LAST JUDGMENT.
Section
III.

535

— As

Christ would have us to b: certanily per-

suaded that there

sliall

be a daj' of judgment, both to deter

all

men from
they

sin,

and for the greater consolation of the

godlj' in

their adversity;* so will he

have that day unknown

to

men, that

and be always watchful, because they know not at what hour the Lord will come; and may be ever prepared to say, Come, Lord Jesus, come quitkly. Amen.'
off all carnal security,

may shake

<

«2

Pet.
yiii.

iii.

11, 14;

2 Cor. v. 10, 11;
36,

2 Thcss.

i.

5-7; Luke xxi. 27, 28;

Rom.

2.V25.— ' Matt. xxiv.

42-44; Mark

xiii. 35-.37;

Luke

xii. 35,

36; Rev. xxii. 20.

This Section teaches
1st.

That God has made the

fact absolutely certain that

there will be a future judgment, in order that this

knowit

ledge

may

act

upon

all

men

as a

wholesome motive deter-

ring them from sin, and, at the same time, that
console the godly in the midst of their adversity.
reference to the first object, Paul says, "

may With

We

must

all aj)-

pear before the judgment-seat of Christ; that every one

may

receive the things done in
it

iiis

body, according to

that he hath done, whether

be good or bad.

Know-

ing, therefore, the terror of the

Lord, we persuade men."

2 Cor.
all

v. 10, 11.

And

Peter says, "Seeing, then, that

these things shall be dissolved,
all

what manner of per-

sons ought ye to be in
ness, looking for

holy conversation and godli-

and hastening unto the coming of the
iii.

day of God?" 2 Pet.
with

12.

With
it is

reference to the

second object, Paul says, " Seeing

a righteous thing

God
and

to

recompen.se tribulation to them that trouble

you

;

to

you that are troubled,

rest

with

us,

when

the Ijord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his

mighty angels." 2 Thess.
2d.

i.

7.

That on

the other hand,

God

has

left

w) in abso-

536

CONFESSION OF FAITH.
tlii?

lute uncertainty with respect to the time at wliich

^reat event shall occur, in order to prevent carnal security and to keep his people ever on the alert and con-

stantly prepared.

Tiiat the time

is

intentionally left

unknown is expressly affirmed again and again in Scri]>ture: "But of that day and that hour knoweth no man no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither
;

the Son, but the Father."
36.

Mark

xiii.
;

32

;

Matt. xxiv.

"

Be
at

ye, therefore, ready also

for the

Son of man
xii.

cometh
" It
is

an hour when ye think not." Luke

40.

not for you to

know

the times or the seasons

which the Father has put in his own jiower." Acts i. 7. "The day of the Lord cometh as a thief in the night."
1

Thess.

i.

2; 2 Pet.
is

iii.

10.

"Behold

I

come

as

a

thief.

Blessed

he that watcheth and keepeth his

garments." Rev. xvi. 15.

The designed
with regard
to the

effect

of the attitude of uncertainty

time of the second advent and general
is,

judgment

in

which the saints are placed
it

that they
liiat

should i^egard

as

always immediately impending;
it

they should look forward to

with solemn awe, and yet
it,

with joyful confidence; and hence in view of
to the j>erformance of ness,
4,

be incited
lioliiii.

duty and the attainment of
sorrow.
is

and comforted
v. 7.

in

Phil.

iii.

20; Col.

5; James

It

their duty also to love, watch,

wait for and hasten unto the
xii.

coming of our Lord. Luke
1

35-37

;

1

Cor.

i.

7,

8

;

Thess.

i.

9,

10; 2 Tin

.

iv.

8; 2 Pet.

iii.

12; Rev. xxii. 20.

THE LAST JUDGMENT.

^37

QUESTIONS.
1.

What

is thc./i/-.s7

proposition taught in the

first

and second

Sections of this Chapter ? proposition there taught? 2. What is the sfcond there taught? proposition third the 3. What is
4.
5. 6. 7. 8.

What What
Wliat

is

the

/ouri/i.

proposition?

^

is

the ffth f
the sixth ?

is
is

W^hat

the seventh f

Show

anticipate a that reason and conscience lead us to

future judgment as highly probable. that God has appointed a certain 9. Prove from Scripture
fixed
10. 11.
'

day

for the general
is

WHio

to

judgment of men and angels. be the Judge, and in what character?

Prove the above answer.

12.
1

3.

WHio are to be the subjects of the judgment? Prove your answer.

14.
1

How
How

transaction? are good angels to be concerned in the
are

5.

By what law
ftir is

men

to

be judged

?

day to the investigation and judgment of that and feelings motives, to also or only, extend?— to overt actions
16.

thoughts?
17.

18.
19.

Prove your answer. Upon what ground will the
WHiat
is

saints be acquitted?

the

"book of

life?"
in his

20.

What

is

God's great end

dealings with the repro-

bate and in his dealings with his saints? Prove your answer. 21
22!

Where

the judgare the righteous to go immediately after
to be with Christ. and degree of their blessedcharacter the be to

ment.
23. 24.

Prove that they are ever

What

is

less?
25.
26*.

Prove that

it is

to

endure for ever.
will

Where

is it

probable Christ and his people

be

finally

located ?

538
27.

CONFESSION OF FAITH.
Prove
tliat

immediately after death the reprobate are

to

go

to the place 28.

prepared for the devil and his angels.
to express the con-

Prove that the same words are used

tinuance of the conscious suft'erings of the lost that are used to

express the eternity of
saints.

God

or the everlasting happiness of the

29.
is to

State other scriptural proof that the condition of the lost

be that of conscious suffering and shame for an absolutely
eternity.

unending
30. 31.

How

generally has this doctrine been held in the

Church?

State the opposing hypothesis of annihilation.

32.
33. 34.

Disprove Disprove

it.

State the opposing hypothesis of restitution.
it.

35.

For what purpose has God made known the certain
Illustrate the truth of

fact

of a future judgment?
36.
37.

your answer by passages of Scripture. Prove from Scripture that the time of the future judgis

ment
38. 39.

intentionally left unrevealed.
left

For what purpose are men

uncertain on this subject?
that day?

How
to it?

should believers regard

how

should

its

constant pendency effect

them

?

and how should they look

for-

ward

APPENDIX
In
tlie

I.

<

debates which preceded the reunion of the two branches of the American Presbyterian Cliurch in 1870, Dr. Charles Hodge represented the Old School branch in the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review, and Dr. Henry B. Smith re[)resented the New School branch in the American 'J'heological. Revieiv. It is a significant fact tliat, while the discussion began in the form of attack and defence, it resulted in the discovery that these truly representative men held precisely identical opinions as to the historical meaning and constitutional force of the formula of subscription to wliicli all ministers and elders must assent as the condition of their ordination. In support of this they mutually cite the history and pledge the faith of their respective denominations pending the solemn covenants implied in reunion. Dr. Hodge discussed this subject and defined the position of his branch of the Church in articles printed October, I80I, and October, He says:* "The two principles which by 1858, and July, 1867. common consent of all honest men determine the interi)retation of oaths and professions of faith are, first, the plain, historical meaning of the words and secondly, tlie animuH impoiientia that is, the intention of the party imposing the oath or requiring the profession. The words, therefore, 'system of doctrine taught in the Holy Script"Again, by ures,' are to be taken in their plain historical sense." the avimus iynponevtig, in the case contemplated, is to be understood, It is the not the mind or intention of the ordaining Presbytery. mind or intention of the Church, of which the PresJ.)ytery is tlie organ." The question, however, is, What is the true sense of tlie phrase "system of doctrine" in our ordination service? or what does the Church understand the candidate to profess wiien he says that "he receives and ado|)ts the Confession of Faith of this Church as containing the system of doctrine tauglit in the Holy Scripture"? There are three diflerent answers given to that question the system of doctrine' '"I. It is said by some that in adoptiug the candidate is understood to adopt it, not in the form or manner in which it is presented in the Confession of Faith, but only tor 'substance of doctrine' that by the system contained in the Confession is meant the essential doctrines of Christianity, and nothing more.' f The objection to this interpretation is that—
;

:

'

'

* Princeton Revieu; October, 1858.

+y/.i(/., .luly,

1867.

639

540

APPENDIX

I.

"(1) It is not the meaning of the words eniployod. The two declarations, 'I adopt the system of doctrine contained in the Confession of Faith,' and 'I adopt the system for sulistance of doctrine,' are not identical. The one cannot, tiierefore, be substitnted for the other In adopting a system of doctrine tlie candidate adopts a series of doctrines in the specific form in wliich they are presented in that system. The plirase 'for substance of doctrine' is ambiguous; the phrase 'system of doctrine' has a definite sense. The system of the lieformed or Calvinistic churches is a known and admitted scheme of doctrine, and that scheme, and nothing more or less, we profess to adopt. " (2) The second objection to this view is tliat it is contrary to tlie mind of the Church. That mind, on this point, is rendered clear beyond dispute by her repeated official declarations on the subject. The famous adopting act of the original Synod, passed in 17'29, is in these words Although the iSynod do not claim or pretend to any authority of imposing our faith on other men's consciences, but do profess our just dissatisfaction with and abhorrence of such impositions, and do utterly disclaim all legislative power and authority in the Church, being willing to receive one another, as Christ has received us, to tlie glory of God, and admit to fellowship in sacred ordinances all such as we have grounds to believe Christ will at last admit to the kingdom of heaven, yet we are undoubtedly obliged to take care that the faith once delivered to the saints be kept pure and uncorrupt among us, and so handed down to our posterity and do therefore agree that all ministers of this Synod shall declare their agreement in and approbation of the Confession of Faith, with the Larger and Shorter Catechisms of the Assembly of Divines in Westminster, as being, in all the essentials and necessary articles, good forms of sound words and systems of (hilstian doctrine, and do also adopt the said Confession and Catecliisms as the confession of our faith. And we do also agree that all Presbyteries within our bounds shall always take care not to admit any candidate of the ministry into the exercise of the sacred functions, but what declares his agreement in opinion with all the essential and necessary articles of said Confession, either by subscribing said Confession and Catechisms, or by a verbal declaration of their assent thereto, as such minister or candidate shall lliink best. And in case any minister of this Synod, or any candidate for the ministry, shall iiave any scruple with respect to any article or articles of said Conlession or Catechisms, he shall, at the time of undoing said declaration, declare his sentiments to the Presbytery or Synod, who shall, notwithstanding, admit him to the exercise of the ministry within our liounds, and to ministerial conununion. if the Sym)d or Pi-esbytery shall judge his scruple or mistake to be only alK)ut articles not essential or necessary in doctrine, worship, or government. liut if the Synod or I'rcsbytery shall judge such iniuistcrs or candidate erroneous in essential and necessary articles of faith, the Synod or Presbytery sliall <leclare them incapable of communion wiili them. And the Synod do solemnly agi'ee that none of them will traduce or use any ojiju-obrious terms of those who differ from us in extra-essential and not necessary
: '

;

APPENDIX

T,

541

points of doctrine, but treat them with the same friendsliip, kindness, and brotherly love as if they did not difler in sentiment.' "On the afternoon of the day on which the above act was adopted, the following minute was recorded viz. "'All the ministers of this Synod now present, except one, that declared himself not prepared, .... after proposing all the scruples that any of them had to make against any articles and expressions in the Confession of Faith and Larger and Shorter Catechisms of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, have unanimously agreed in the solution of those scruples, and in declaring the said Confession and Catechisms to be the confession of their faith, excepting only some clauses in the twentieth and twenty-third ciiapters, concerning Avhich clauses tlie Synod do unanimously declare that they do not receive those articles in such sense as to suppose that the civil magistrate hath a controlling power over Synods with respect to the exercise of their ministerial authority or power to persecute any for their religion, or in any sense contrary to the Protestant succession to the throne of Great Britain. " The Synod, observing that unanimity, peace, and unity which appeared in all their consultations relating to the attiiir of the Confession, did unanimously agree in giving thanks to God in solenui

'

prayer and praises.' "This important document teaches, first, that in our Church the terms of Christian communion are competent knowledge and a credible profession of faith and repentance second, that the condition of ministerial comnuniion is the adoption of the system of doctrine contained in the Westminster Confession of Faith and Catechisms third, that the only exceptions allowed to be taken were such as related to matters outside that system of doctrine, and the rejection of which left that system in its integrity. "In 1730 the Synod declared 'that they understand those clauses that respect the admission of intrants or candidates in such sense as to oblige them to receive and adopt the Confession and Catecliisms at their admission, in the same manner, and as fully as the memljers of the Synod did, who were then present.' In 171)6 the Synod again says: 'The Synod has adopted, and still do adhere to, the Westminster Confession and Catechisms and Directory, without variation or alteration and they further declare that tliis was our meaning and true intent in our first adopting of said Confession.' " When the two Synods (Old Light and New Liglit) were reunited in 1758, the first article of the terms of union was as follows: Eotli Synods having always approved and received tlie \\'estminster Confession, Larger and Shorter Catecliisms, as an orthodox and excellent system of doctrine, founded on the Word of God, we do still receive the same as the confession of our faith, and also adlicre to the plan of worship and government and discipline contained in tlie Westminster Directory, strictly enjoining it on all our ministers and probationers for the ministry that they preach and teaoii according to the form of sound words in the said Confession and Catechisms, and avoid and oppose all errors contrary thereto.'
;
;

;

.

.

.

.

'

" (3)

The

third

argument against

this interpretation of the ordi-

542

ArPENDix

I.

nation formula is that the phrase 'substance of doctrine' has no definite assignable meaning. _" (4) The fourth argument against it is tliat this system has been tried and found to produce the greatest disorder and confusion. "II. The second interpretation of the question presented at ordination is that tlie person who answers that question in the affirmative does thereby profess to receive and adopt eveiy proposition contained in that Confession as a part of his own faith. " The objections to this view are " (1) It is contrary to the plain historical meaning of the words. " (2) It is contrary to the animus imponentis, or mind of the Church." [This also Dr. Hodge proves by the history of the events attending the original adoption of the Confession.] _" (3) This principle is impracticable. It cannot be carried out without working the certain and immediate ruin of the Church. Our Confession is a large book besides the system of doctrine common to all Keformed churches, it contains deliverances on many other topics relating to Cliurch and State and to our social relations. " (4) The office of the Church is purely ministerial, and should be exercised cautiously and humbly. She has no more right unduly to lower or to raise unduly the evidence which she demands of a vocation to the ministry than she has to alter the evidence of a call to grace and salvation. "(5) There is another great evil connected with these inordinate demands. To adopt every proposition contained in the Westminster Confession and Catechisms is more than the vast majority of our ministers either do or can do. To make them profess to do it is a great sin. It hurts their conscience. It fosters a spirit of evasion and
;

subterfuge. " III. The third interpretation of the formula prescribed for the adoption of the Confession of Faith is the true via media. The Westminster Confession contains three distinct classes of doctrines first, those common to all Christians second, those common to all Protestants, and by which they are distinguished from Romanists; thirdly, those which are peculiar to the Keforraed churches, by which they are distinguished on the one hand from Luthei'ans, and on the other from the Arminians and other sects of later historical origin." [All these classes of doctrines we pi-ofess to believe, as far as they constitute a "system of doctrine" i.e. we profess to be Christians more definitely, to be Protestants more definitely yet, to be Calvinists.] " (1) The first argument in favor of this interpetation of our ordination service is that it is in accordance with the literal meaning of the words; (2) that it corresponds with the known intention of the Church in requiring the adoption of the Confession " [this Dr. Hodge had already proved to be the fact by liistorical evidence] " (3) it is the only interpretation consistent with a good conscience, and with the peace and union of the Church." In the October number of the American Theological Revieiv, 1867, Dr. Henry B. Smith says: " No declaration of the New School as a body, nor of those con;
;

;

;

APPENDIX

I,

54S
such
'

eidererl as its representatives, (lonld be, or was, cited in favor of
'

a loose plirase as substance of doctrine,' and by many New School men it was publicly and definitely denied. agreed to the sy.stem-of-doctrine view, and agreed, also, in condemning the 'everyproposition theory as inconsistent with the plain terms of the adopting act, and with the uniform practice of the Presbyterian Church. disallow the phrase 'substance of doctrine/ because it is indefi^nite, easily misunderstood, and does not suggest the right theory. That right theory is found in a simple and honest inter^pretation of the ordination formula that we receive the Confession of Faith as containing the system, of doctrine taught in the Holy Scriptures. This declares that the system of the Confession is the system taught in the Bible. The system of the Confession, as everybody knows, is the Reformed or Calvinistic system, in distinction from the Lutheran, or Arminian, the Antinomian, the Pelagian and the Roman Catholic. No one can honestly and fairly subscribe the Confession who does not accept the Reformed or Calvinistic system. This is the plain sense of the adopting act of 1729. Everybody knows tluit the 'fair historical sense of the Confession is plainly and resolutely

We

'

'

We

'

Calvinistic.

"On this capital point of assent to the Confession, then, we coiirlude that there is no real difierence between the Old School am) the New. are both willing to accept it as containing the Reformed system of doctrine. cordially agree and so, we aie convinced, would our whole New School ministry and eldership to the statement of this theory as given in the Princeton Eevino. Among honest and candid men there is really no doubt or question a»8 to what subscription implies."

We

We

APPENDIX

11.

"The Auburn Declaration" adopted by a representative B(jdy of New Schooi, Presbyterians in 1837, and "The
Declaratory Act," adopted by the United Presbyterian Synod of Scotland, 1879.
The above-mentioned declaratory acts are the only two historical papers autlioritatively interpreting the sense in which the Westminster Confession of Faith is accepted by large branches of the Presbyterian Church. Tlieir historical and interpretative value is obvious, but they are especially valuable as demonstrating the fidelity with winch the Presbyterian churclies on both sides of the ocean adhere to the original type of Reformed theology, and hence their essential unity in spite of their organic difierences.
I.

The Auburn Declaration.

Declaration,"- drawn up by the Rev. Baxter Dickinson, D. D., was issued by an important rejtresentative convention of Presbyterian ministers adhering to the New School branch, at Auburn, New York, August, 1837. It is, therefore, an authoritative explanation of the interpretation given to the Westminster Confession by the leading minds of the New School at the era of its organization as a distinct denomination. The Old School General Assembly in Albany, 1868, in resolutions looking to reunion, endorsed the "Auburn Declaration" as containing "all the fundamentals of the Calvinistic Creed."

"

The Auburn

Remission of Sin.
permitted the introduction of sin, not because he was unable to prevent it consistently with the moral freedom of his creatures, but for wise and benevolent reasons he has not revealed.
1.

God

Election.
Election to eternal life is not founded on a foresight of faith and obedience, but is a sovereign act of God's mercy, whereby, according to the counsel of his own will, he lias chosen some to salvation "Yet so as thereby neither is violence oiiered to the will of the creatures, nor is the liberty or contingency of second cau.ses taken
2.
:

514

ATPKNDIX

II.

545

away, but rather established;" nor does this gracious purpose ever take effect independently of faith and a holy life.

Fall of Adam.
a divine constitution Adam was so the head and representative of the race that, as a consequence of his transgression, all mankind became morally corrupt and liable to death, temporal and
3.

By

eternal.

Hereditary
4.

Sin.

<

was created in the image of God, "endued with knowlInfants come into the edge, righteousness, and true holiness." world not only destitute of these, but with a nature inclined to evil, and only evil.

Adam

Infants involved in the Moral Ruin.
5.

Brute aninuils sustain no such relation to the moral govern-

Infants are a part of the as does the human family. family, and their sutlering and death are to be accounted for on the ground of their being involved in the general moral ruin of the race induced by the apostasy.

ment of God

human

Universal Need of Redemption.
Original sin is a natural bias to evil, resulting from the first apostasy, leading invariably and certainly to actual traiisgrcssion. And all infants, as well as adults, in order to be saved, need redemption by the blood of Christ and regeneration by the Holy Ghost.
6.

Imputation of Sin and Righteousness.
sin of Adam is not imputed to his posteiity in the sense of a literal transter of personal qualities, acts and demerit, but by reason of the sin of Adam, in his peculiar relation, the race arc treated as if they had sinned. Nor is the righteousness of Christ imputed to his people in the sense of a literal transfer of personal qualities, acts and merit; but by reason of his righteousness in his peculiar relation they are treated as if they were rigliteous.
7.

The

Atonement of
8.

Christ.

sufferings of Christ are not symbolical, governmental and instructive only, but were truly vicarious for the i. e. a substitute punishment due transgressors. And while Christ did not suHL'r the literal i)enalty of the law, involving remorse of conscience and the pains of hell, he did ofler a sacrifice wliich infinite wisdom saw to be a full equivalent. And by virtue of this atonement overtures of mercy are sincerely made to the race, and salvation secured to all who believe.

The

35

but that in his wisdom he does not see fit to exert that power further than he actually does. in other words. to salvation. . 14. "determining the sinner to that which is good. implying reliance on Christ aloue for pardon and eternal life.s not save all is not that he wants the power to do it. 9. Saving Faith. 20). While Intercession of Christ. And the reason that God doe. not on tiie giound of personal merit. intercession of Christ for the elect is previous as well as subsequent to their regeneration. a radical change of heart. treat them as if thev were righteous. of Christ. they never will comply with the commands of God. as appears from the following 10. Neither pray I for these alone. but for them also which shall believe on me through their — word" (John xvii. And while that rigiiteousness does not become theirs. 12. and in all cases it is an eflect of the 11. an intelligent and cordial assent to tiie testimony of God concerning his Son.: "I pray not for the world. in the sense of a literal transfer of pergonal qualities and merit. but solely on the ground of the obedience and death. and does eflectually determine it to good in all cases of true conversion. Saving faith is special operations of the Holy Spirit. yet from respect to it God can. but for them which thou hast given me. for they are thine. produced by the s])ecial operations of the Holy Spirit. for sin and faith in Christ are indispensable are saved are indebted from first to last to the grace and Spirit of God. While the liberty of the will Justification. sinners have all the faculties necessary to a perfect noral agency and a just accountability. Regeneration is Salvation by Grace. he can influence it according to his pleasure. 15. 9. Regeneration. all While repentance who Liberty and Will. such is their love of sin and opposition to God and his law that. 13. All believers are justified. nor llio established connection betwixt means and end broken. independently of the renewing influence or almighty energy of the Holy Spirit. by any actit)n of God on the mind. the righteousness.546 APPENDIX MoKAL II. is not impaired. or. The Scripture viz. Ability." and is in all cases instantaneous. and does.

the love of God to all mankind. it. wliicii are. Presbyterian Church of Scotland was formed in 1847 by a union of the United Associate Synod of the Secessjicm Church with the Synod of the Relief Church. that he has provided a salvation suf-. In the doctrinal basis of this union it Avas declared " that the Westminster Confession of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms are the Confession and Catechisms of this Church. 1879 " Whereas. a<lapted to all and oft'ered to all in the gospel and also with the responsibility of every man for his dealing with the free and unrestricted offer of eternal life. not by coercion. and of his loss of all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation. but that all sliould come to repentance. " 2. 547 in Faith and Unbelief. and to which due jiromineuce ought ever to be given." In order to explain the above basis the following Declaratory Act as to tiie sense in which the Confession is to be understood was j^assed by the Synod in May.sphere of rfligioa. That the doctrine of divine decrees. including the doctrine of election to eternal life. Tiuvt tiie doctrine of man's total depravity. iicient for all. That in regard to the doctrine of redemption as taught in the Standards. and contain the authorized exhibition of the sense in which we understand the Holy Scriptures. "3. but freely. or tiiat he does not experience the striving and restraini