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Develop a research design 5. Collect data 6. Analyze the data 7. Draw conclusion Either to accept or reject the hypothesis
Group 6: Sis. Melfa Marivic Maricel Jen – siya gagawa ng powerpoint
REPORT IN SS 1 and 4 ISSUES, TRENDS, AND CAUSES TOPIC: POVERTY IN THE PHILIPPINES OUTLINE: COUNTRY OVERVIEW and Definition of Terms like Issues, Trends and Causes according to Wikipedia (search pa s Wikipedia) Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, such as clean water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them. This is also referred to as absolute poverty or destitution. Relative poverty is the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country, or compared to worldwide averages. About 1.7 billion people live in absolute poverty; before the industrial revolution, poverty had mostly been the norm. Poverty reduction has historically been a result of economic growth as increased levels of production, such as modern industrial technology, made more wealth available for those who were otherwise too poor to afford them.  Also, investments in modernizing agriculture and increasing yields is considered the core of the antipoverty effort, given three-quarters of the world's poor are rural farmers.
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What is issue? Meaning of issue as a legal term. What does issue mean in law? ... Wikipedia encyclopedia .... A formal issue is one which is formed according to the rules required by law, in a proper and artificial manner. ... These feigned issues are frequently used in the courts of law, by consent of the parties, ... legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/issue - Cached - Similar
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(show the map of the Philippines s powerpoint) . Vietnam to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. The most commonly spoken language in the Philippines is Filipino. Jackie) The Philippines is an archipelago comprising some 7. English is also widely spoken. The capital city. Malaysia and Brunei border the Philippines to the south. Luzon and Mindanao together make up 65 per cent of the Philippines' total land mass. with about 15 per cent belonging to indigenous groups. There are some 87 ethnic languages and dialects spoken throughout the Philippines. and Mindanao in the south. Manila.000 square kilometres. Indonesia. the Visayas in the centre.Country overview (Why we need this? We have a Chinese classmate. is located on Luzon. Three main island groups divide the country: Luzon in the north.100 islands with a total land area of almost 300. It is estimated that about 80 per cent of the population are Catholics and 5 per cent are Muslims. a language derived from the Tagalog language of central and southern Luzon. The projected population of the Philippines is 94 million in 2010. China—and Taiwan—to the north. particularly in urban areas.
which are very basic if humans are to survive. the Filipinos (or Filipino people) must meet their immediate needs which are indicated in the first level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs that is food. shelter. Problem: Mayroon bang direktang kaugnayan or relasyon ang kahirapan sa nagiging pag-uugali o pagpahalaga ng mga Filipino sa nakaugaliang kagandahang-asal na nakagisn na? Is there a direct relationship (or link) between poverty and moral values of the Filipino people in the present time? II. Hypothesis: (tentative or intelligent answer to the problem) Yes. etc.I. there is a direct link or relationship between poverty and moral values of the Filipino but first of all. Yes. mayroon direktang (or tuwirang) ugnayan ang kahirapan sa nagiging pagpapahalagang moral ng mga Filipino sa mga nakaugaliang kagandahang-asal pero kailangan muna na ma-meet or matugunan ang mga pangunahing pangangailang ng bawat Filipino bago niya mapagtuunanan ng pansin ang kanyang pagpapahalagang moral (moral values). . clothing.
Collection of Data: (Facts and Figures) A. MASLOW’s HIERARCHY OF NEEDS (SHOW THIS SA POWERPOINT) .III.
RURAL and URBAN POVERTY Rural poverty in the Philippines About half of the Philippine’s 88 million people live in rural areas. most of whom depend on subsistence farming and fishing for their livelihoods. In general. unemployment and the incidence of poverty are higher among indigeneous peoples and people living in the upland areas. pede pa rin mag-add) C. Causes of Poverty in the Philippines Various factors have contributed to the lack of progress on poverty reduction in the Philippines. Poverty is most severe and most widespread in these areas and almost 80 percent of the country’s poor people live there. 4. 5. more than a third of the people in the Philippines live in poverty. (discuss ng konti bawat isa kung me ma-add na ideas. which averaged 2 per cent annually over the past decade.B. Overall. Agriculture is the primary and often only source of income for poor rural people. which increased in the 1990s and remains relatively high —the poorest 20 per cent of the population accounting for only 5 per cent of total income or consumption inability of the government to provide sufficient basic services. 7. illiteracy. high population growth. 6. . pede rin baligtarin kung alin ba sa mga ito dapat na mauna. Unemployment Underemployment Illiteracy 3. especially to people in poorer remote regions vulnerability of poorer communities to natural disasters and civil unrest which adversely affects livelihoods. and places additional strain on the cost of household living and demand for basic services income inequality. Some of these are: 1. 2.
and people lack access to microfinance services and affordable credit. Indigenous people living in highly fragile and vulnerable ecosystems. Women have limited roles outside of marketing and family responsibilities.The poorest of the poor are the indigenous peoples. For example. Fishers face continuing reduction in their catches and they have few opportunities or skills outside of fishing. This is partly because poor people have little access to productive assets and business opportunities. pede po makisearch s internet. (wala pang urban poverty . landless workers. Among the causes of rural poverty are a decline in the productivity and profitability of farming. Thanks.) . fishers. Some vulnerable groups also face specific problems. people in the uplands of the Cordillera highlands and on Mindanao Islands are among the poorest in the country. indigenous peoples have high illiteracy rates and are affected by the encroachment of modern technology and cultures onto traditional norms and practices. smaller farm sizes and unsustainable practices that have led to deforestation and depleted fishing waters. small-scale farmers who cultivate land received through agrarian reform. The causes of poverty in rural areas in the Philippines vary widely from island to island. There are substantial differences in the level of poverty between regions and provinces and the poverty gap between urban and rural areas is widening. Rural areas lag behind in economic growth and they have higher underemployment. people in upland areas and women. They have a few non-farm incomegenerating activities.
IV. Analyze the Data .
The report shows most regions in the country as on track to meet targets on poverty. gender equality. Promote gender equality and empower women o Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015 High 4. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling High 3. between 1990 and 2015. the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day Halve. However areas identified as needing improvement include achieving universal primary education and improving maternal health. boys and girls alike. between 1990 and 2015. and access to safe drinking water and sanitation. between 1990s and 2015. by 2015.V. . Suggestions and Recommendations Millennium Development Goals The Philippines Government acknowledges in its 2007 Midterm Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals that it needs to increase its efforts to meet a number of targets. Reduce child mortality o Reduce by two-thirds. children everywhere. the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Low o 2. child mortality rates. Likelihood of achieving each of the Millennium Development Goals Millennium Development Goal Likelihood of achievement Medium 1. Achieve universal primary education o Ensure that. Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty o Halve.
Combat HIV/AIDS.the under-five mortality rate 5. Productive employment and decent work have been integrated as one of the key indicators in achieving this goal. the proportion of population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation n/a 8. labor and employers’ groups. a member of the technical working group of the National Tripartite Advisory Council of the Decent Work country programme. involving the tripartite participation of the government. Develop a global partnership for development Source: Philippines' National Statistical Coordination Board Poverty goal Decent work Julius Cainglet. the maternal mortality ratio High 6. between 1990 and 2015. . addressing basic labour issues such as providing decent work has become more difficult to achieve – potentially undermining the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating poverty and hunger. Even before the International Labor Organization (ILO) successfully advocated for the inclusion of productive employment and decent work in the MDG in 2006. malaria and other diseases o Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases High o 7. Improve maternal health o Low Reduce by three-quarters. said the financial crisis “has made it more difficult to achieve the MDG goal as far as decent work is concerned Yet with the global financial crisis wreaking havoc on local employment. the Philippines had began laying the groundwork in pursuing these goals. Ensure environmental sustainability o Halve. by 2015.
sought to push issues such as rights. Some are employing fewer work days or work hours. The government has announced a $6 billion economic recovery package. to cushion the financial crisis’ impact. it covered three cycles beginning in 2002. covering the period 2008-2010. social protection and social dialogue among government. But the jobs are mostly on a contractual basis. effectively undermining these goals. The decent work framework. Conclusion: . But some companies are using the financial crisis to lay off workers and hire contractual ones. The last cycle. while others resort to immediate closures without a month’s notice as required by law. has the theme “Narrowing Decent Work Deficits” as an action framework. VI.Dubbed the Philippine Common Agenda. workers and employers. promotion of employment. he said. Other firms are using the financial crisis as an excuse to compromise labour standards on the pretext of cost-cutting. of which $2 billion is for infrastructure projects.
(Wala pa pong conclusion) VII. TRIVIA .
000 people have been laid off. The Philippines is the biggest producer of coconut and third largest producer of bananas. or whose jobs do not fit their education or skills. possibly hitting 11 million this year.000 workers are vulnerable to retrenchment due to the downturn. ACKNOWLEDGMENT: . Thousands of jobs at risk The National Economic Development Authority projects that 800.7 million . These include workers in export-oriented industries. an independent think-tank. said SocioPlanning Economic Secretary Ralph Recto. Labour Secretary Marianito Roque reported that since October at least 34.12. roughly one in three.000.4 million Filipinos are estimated to be living below the Asian Poverty Line of $1.by 2015. particularly semiconductors and electronics.35/day.53 million. estimates that unemployment and underemployment are above 10 million. VIII. while the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) target aims to halve the number of Filipinos living in extreme poverty . the IBON Foundation. while those underemployed. numbered about six million.About 25. with this year’s job losses expected to reach 300. as well as Filipinos employed abroad. government data showed unemployment in October at 2. In October. However.
Useful websites • Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade—Philippines Country Brief • World Fact Book—Philippines • • • • • • • • • • • World Bank Country Office in Manila Asian Development Bank MDGs in Asia–Pacific UNDP—Philippines UNICEF Philippines UNFPA Philippines Philippines Department of Education National Economic and Development Authority Philippine Institute for Development Studies Asian Institute of Management Policy Center International Crisis Group—Philippines .
barely the UN poverty threshold of $2 a day. The government defines the unemployed as those who are simultaneously without work.1 percent from 2007.000-strong workforce. If the 4.000 jobs with an average daily pay of $9. The Labor Department report acknowledged that losses of better-paid jobs in other areas had been high.000 jobs created in 2007 and far less than the government’s annual target of 1. The Department of Labor said that for the year 2008 alone 530. Another electronics company. . Accenture. In manufacturing. are a gross understatement.000 jobs were generated but the figure was well below the 924. 20 percent of its workforce.6 million jobs. with 60 employees to be terminated. “working” is broadly defined to include unpaid work for family business (a small farm or a small variety store) and working for oneself (street vendors. however. Nearly half 262. looking for work and immediately available for work. to take effect on April 18. comments.4 percent or 2. Amkor Technology.000 job cuts last month. These figures. jeepney drivers). 135. Fujitsu announced 2.500 workers. 9.800 workers. More recently. In transport. By the midyear.000 were in agriculture.000 jobs with an average basic daily pay of $6 were axed.1 million unpaid workers in family businesses. Panasonic announced plans to close a battery factory. The government’s minimum cost-of-living for a family of six is over $18 a day. retrenched 1. Moreover. forestry and hunting.000 workforce.000 jobs with an average daily pay of $7 were destroyed. and just half over 10 million “self-employed” were included. with average pay of $US2. more than half its 3.7 million – an increase of 0. violent reactions?) Rising unemployment and poverty in the Philippines (as of April 2009) The Philippine economy is reeling under the impact of the global recession. The business processing and outsourcing company.(Ito yun data na dapat i-edit… help! Any suggestions. Intel Corporation shut down an assembly test facility on Luzon Island and terminated 1. The official estimate for unemployment in 208 was 7.7 a day. The electricity sector lost 5. announced a 50 percent cut in its 1. the jobless total would be more than 11 million people among those 15 years and older. it expected to halt production altogether.
As the economy sinks further and unemployment continues to grow. SWS surveys have shown unemployment rate in double figures. In 2007. the Social Weather Station (SWS). SWS reported a record 23. President Gloria Arroyo’s administration has responded by shifting the burden onto working people. Nearly half the workforce is employed in the so-called informal sector where workers are not even protected by the country’s weak labour code and regulations and receive less than the minimum wage.000 overseas jobs are under threat. . according to Agence France Presse.500 people across the country. to 4.000 housemaids are employed in Hong Kong and Singapore.000 crewmembers on car carriers.000 Filipino factory workers. There are 129. garments and ignition wiring sub-sectors.9 percent 9 of the adult labour force (over 18 years) were unemployed. In addition. The figure includes those who would not “provide in a sustained manner for their minimum basic needs for food. found that 11 million people or 27.In its fourth quarter. a social explosion is building up as working people fine it increasingly impossible to make ends meet. The figures are undoubtedly worse today. According to a 2006 government survey. In another survey. Over 362.7 percent increase in the number of families experiencing hunger at least once in three months. the government estimates that 130. which are both contracting economically.700 workers are at risk of losing their jobs both locally and abroad this year.9 percent of the population are poor.5 percent were unemployed despite record economic growth of more than 7 percent. and other social amenities of life. More than 500.000 seamen on cruise ships are facing layoff. Japanese ship owners. a survey group. Labour regulations are set to be relaxed to allow for unpaid overtime and a compressed work week. Also in recession are South Korea and Taiwan.2 million. which between them employ 200.000 jobs in the export sector are under threat – 90 percent of those are in the electronics. 17.” The number of “subsistence poor” – those unable to provide enough to eat – were over 12. have notified the government that more than 40. bulk carriers and container ships will be laid off as world trade continues to slow. Another 48. housing.00 temporary workers in the recessesion wracked US. health. Since 2005. more than 27.3 million families or more than 20 million people. The result was based on face-to-face interviews with 1. The government estimates that 935. education.6 million Filipinos or 32.
such as an inward-looking economy and low levels of investment.and highincome households. Unemployment and underemployment continue to remain high. Reforming the tax system so the government has sufficient revenue to fund its priority development programs in education. many Filipinos migrate overseas to secure better paying employment. Overseas remittances are disproportionately important components of middle. With a good command of the English language they are attractive in the global labour market. suggest a more moderate growth outlook for the Philippines compared to its East Asian neighbours. as well as an eroding human capital base. Combined with the healthy margin of victory of the new President. especially young adults under the age of 25 that comprise about half of the unemployed.Economy (as of 2010 mgkaiba kc ng source yun ns itaas at ito) The Philippines economy is unique in East Asia for having a large service sector and private consumption comprising around three quarters of the economy. Under these conditions. leaving less opportunity for cheating. The government is running a large fiscal deficit of 3. but their pro-poor dimensions are questionable. It is estimated that 9 to 11 million Filipinos are currently working overseas. The prospect of securing a well-paying job is beyond the reach of many. Benigno C Aquino III. In response to the global recession. The elections were widely seen as the cleanest and most peaceful since the restoration of democratic elections in 1986. health and transport is one of the most pressing issues facing the government. Restoring the budget to a more sustainable footing will be challenging as the government’s revenue base has declined in recent years and now comprises only 13 per cent of GDP. Remittances from these overseas workers help drive the consumption-fuelled Philippines economy and accounted for about 10 per cent of the country’s GDP in 2009. the Government of the Philippines implemented an Economic Resiliency Package in 2009 to stimulate the economy.5 per cent of GDP in 2010. The manufacturing sector is comparatively small and public and private investment is very low. Long-standing binding constraints. Elections Filipinos went to the polls on 10 May 2010 to elect a new President via the first-ever automated national elections in the Philippines—and the Asian region. poorer households have little access to them. and combined with the 2009 deficit. is the largest fiscal easing by the government in over two decades. The computerised process enabled quick counting of votes. well below most East Asian countries. Overseas remittances play an important macroeconomy stabilising role. the relative success of the .
and the quality of. Progress is not sufficient for the Philippines to meet MDG 2 (Achieve Universal Primary Education). Primary school enrolments are high (84 per cent) and completion rates stand at 73 per cent. international humanitarian organisations and donor agencies. Coordination of humanitarian efforts and developing sustainable solutions to the plight of internally displaced people remain major concerns for the Philippine Government. By international indicators. Economic growth in the Philippines has not been strong enough to speed up the pace of poverty reduction. This sparked armed conflict between forces from the Philippine Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. maternal mortality ratio (MMR) went down to 172 . Since 1990 the Philippines has reduced child mortality rates from 80 to 26. MDG 5 (Improve Maternal Health) will not be met on current trends. The natural disasters that strike the country (e.g.elections contributed to the new Aquino government assuming office on 1 July 2010 with a clear mandate for change. However. education. The decline in the number of maternal deaths per 100. The deteriorating security environment and protracted violence has displaced close to 500. average of 20 typhoons yearly) continue to stunt economic gains and hamper growth potential. gender equality is quite high in the Philippines. In contrast. meeting MDG 3 (Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women) will require ensuring women’s equal share in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector and an increased proportion of seats held by women in national parliament. The continuing armed conflict in Mindanao also threatens to deepen existing disparities by disrupting growth and worsening poverty—with the conflict affected areas being the poorest in the country. The country has made strong progress in reducing child mortality and is on track to meet the target under MDG 4 (Reduce Child Mortality). Peace in Mindanao The peace process in Mindanao stalled with the cancellation of the Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral Domain in August 2008.000 people in Mindanao.000 live births has slowed down: from 209 deaths in 1993. but insufficient investment in education (teaching and infrastructure) has negatively affected access to. This in turn would impact on the country’s progress towards MDG 1 (Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty).7 per 1000 live births.
This includes support for school based management. four-year country program strategy. and improving the management of roads at the provincial level. Afghanistan and Vietnam. the Philippines has made considerable progress towards combating malaria and is likely to meet its target of 24 malaria cases per 100. Australian assistance to the Philippines Country program estimate 2010–11: $105 million Total ODA estimate: $118. rationalisation of teacher deployments to ensure coverage of remote schools. through support for programs under the Philippine Government’s Basic Education Reform Agenda to assist the Philippines to achieve its MDG target for universal primary education. However. basic education and national stability and human security. In 2007. Improve basic education. through support for peace building programs focused at the community level. provision of economic .1 million Australia is one of the three largest bilateral grant aid donors to the Philippines.in deaths in 1998. Australian assistance to the Philippines in 2010–11 will: Support economic growth and infrastructure. More support will be provided to continue improvements in basic education delivery and increased access to quality education for Filipino girls and boys with disabilities. the 2015 target of 100 per cent access is difficult to achieve. Under these themes. enhancing the efficiency and transparency of national level budgeting and public financial management. and school classroom construction.000 by 2015. through programs that focus on increasing the quality and level of government expenditure on social services and infrastructure. Papua New Guinea. along with the United States and Japan. and in 2006 to only 162. Australia's aid program in the Philippines has three focus areas: economic growth. Solomon Islands. Access to reproductive health care improved at a modest rate for currently married women aged 15-44. Muslim and indigenous children and children in disadvantaged and conflict-affected areas. especially in reducing poverty. increasing economic growth and maintaining national stability. With MDG 6. at this rate. Australia revised its approach to development in the Philippines and began implementing a new. The Australia–Philippines Development Assistance Strategy 2007–2011 has an overarching objective to assist the Philippines to meet its development goals. it is unlikely that the 2015 target of 52 deaths in the MMR will be met. The Philippines is among Australia's largest development partners after Indonesia. At this slow rate. Promote national stability and human security.
it includes collaborating with multilateral agencies and other bilateral donors to support common policy agendas. health and infrastructure. early warning systems and disaster preparedness in response to the devastation caused by Typhoons Ketsana and Parma in late 2009. In addition to the current bilateral program. Australia is supporting the Philippines Government’s Conditional Cash Transfer program. Australia will support reconstruction efforts. As well. climate change and emergencies. Approach to aid delivery Australia's approach to aid delivery in the Philippines over the years to 2011 includes expanding our policy and sectoral expertise to strengthen the impact of our programs. These reforms have improved the level and quality of expenditure in key sectors such as education. For example. Aid achievements In the three years to 2009. . volunteer programs. which provides the poorest families with a cash payment if they keep their children in school and ensure that they receive regular health checks. and improved delivery of health services. and improve disaster preparedness and response capability. and incorporating conflict risk management and peacebuilding principles in Mindanao initiatives. Increased funding will be provided to support efforts to reduce the high maternal mortality rate in the Philippines. Enhance disaster response capabilities by working with the Government of the Philippines and the public to provide better protection from natural disasters. the Philippines will receive an estimated $13. Australia’s aid program in the Philippines achieved some major results: Economic growth • Supporting the Philippines Government to implement budget-related reforms developed with Australian technical assistance.1 million in other Australian aid flows in 2010–11. embedding anti-corruption measures throughout the program. Australia’s aid program is also providing support as the impacts of the global recession unfold in the Philippines. including regional projects.opportunities through small scale infrastructure development. non-government organisations assistance and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR).
The guidelines will be used to improve budget execution and ensure the efficient management of departmental resources in the biggest spending government departments • Launching of Australia’s $100m provincial roads maintenance and governance program in the southern Philippines.000 schools are now implementing school based management. XII and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) have been trained in alternative teaching and learning strategies and techniques to improve student performance. Science and Mathematics in Regions XI. including Muslim and indigenous peoples. 54. community/tribal learning centres. 8. water and sanitation. . Basic education Enhanced teaching and learning outcomes.000 indigenous children are taught in 71 schools in Mindanao according to the Indigenous Peoples Education Curriculum. environmental preservation and management. an approach that encourages community/parent involvement and helps school principals to mobilise resources to address local education priorities.000 children. XII and the ARMM are now actively participating in the formal and non-formal education system which include “School on the Air”.000 Filipino Muslim students now directly benefit from better access to responsive and culturally-appropriate schooling through the Arabic Language and Islamic Values (ALIVE) curriculum. • Supporting community-driven development projects which have benefited more than 2 million people over 5 years by: improving access to basic social services such as health. enhancing agricultural productivity. education. distance learning courses. • • 5. • Over 10. parents and out-of-school youths from 169 remote and disadvantaged communities across Regions XI. enhancing and improving livelihood opportunities. o More than 28.• Addressing corruption by developing national guidelines on internal control systems and internal audit. improved access to and quality of education for Filipino schoolchildren.000 teachers in English. empowering community members to participate and have an increased stake in their own development. functional literacy and livelihood classes. through innovative approaches developed in partnership with the Philippines Department of Education (DepEd): • Throughout the country.
and the inoculation of more than 700. Small-scale peace-building initiatives in Mindanao have included: supporting inter-faith dialogues sensitising military officers in Mindanao to build their capacity to act as peace keepers. The project has benefited an estimated 6 million people living in malarial areas. AusAID supported selected local governments in Mindanao and Visayas to strengthen maternal and child health care delivery systems. in 10 provinces in the Visayas and Mindanao in partnership with the United Nations Children’s Fund. National stability and human security • Across Mindanao. support for women’s organisations to build constituencies for peace.000 children under age six against polio. In 2008 around 145 health facilities received equipment and supplies.000 people) now have improved access to basic infrastructure and economic opportunities. improve resource allocations and strengthen human resource management. and support for media to provide balanced reporting with a focus on successful peace building efforts. and provided training (including approximately 650 rural midwives) in basic emergency obstetric and newborn care. • • Immunisation of over 213. Former rebels now act as peace advocates and lead planning and resource mobilisation efforts for their respective communities. • Significant reduction of 32 per cent in malaria cases and 86 per cent in malaria deaths in 12 provinces in Mindanao through support to the Roll Back Malaria project since 2004. . • Through UN partners. 246 communities (over 24.• AusAID’s basic education initiatives also support the broader implementation of the Philippine Government’s Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda. AusAID’s technical assistance to the Philippine Government’s Department of Education continues to help the development of school based management.000 children from vaccine-preventable diseases.
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