Address: Opp. Jalvayu Vihar, Hiranandani Garden, Powai, Mumbai - 400076 Web site: 61327321 Email id: Telephone: (91-22)

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This is to certify that the undersigned have assessed and evaluated the project on “AUDIT OF BANK A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF INDIA ”, submitted by PRATEEK KUMAR UDAYRAJ UPADHYAY student of M Com part – II. This project is original to the best of our Knowledge and has been accepted for internal Assessment.

Internal Examiner Prof. Vinayak Joshi

External Examiner

Principal Dr. Sridhara Shetty



Address: Opp. Jalvayu Vihar, Hiranandani Garden, Powai, Mumbai - 400076 Web site: 61327321 Email id: Telephone: (91-22)

Telefax: (91-22) 61327304

DECLARATION BY THE STUDENT I, PRATEEK KUMAR UDAYRAJ UPADHYAY, student of M Com Part – 1 Roll Number hereby declare that the project for the paper Advanced Financial Acconuting , titled, “AUDIT OF BANK A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF INDIA” submitted by me for semester – 1 during the academic year 2012 – 2013, based on actual work carried out by me under the guidance and supervision of PROF. VINAYAK JOSHI I further state that this work is original and not submitted anywhere else for any examination.

Signature: (Prateek kumar Udayraj Upadhyay)





AUDIT OF BANK Sr. Table of Content Page No INTRODUCTION 24 . No.

In today’s competitive world audit is very much necessary as well as compulsory .AUDIT OF BANK The audit of banking companies plays a very important role in India as it help to regulate the banking companies in right manner. the rules and the regulation relating to the conduct of various types of audit or inspections differ from a bank to bank expect the statutory audit for which the RBI guidelines is applicable. In this. the above audit is mainly conducted by the banks own staff or external auditor. because investor investing decision is depend on that particular concept if auditor has expressing his view about particular organization is true and fair then investor can get his ideas about how much he should invest in particular companies. ORIGIN AND EVOLUATION OF AUDITING 24 . I have given more importance on the overall bank audit system. In audit of banks includes various types of audit which are normally carried out in banking companies such as statutory audit. However. computer and system audit etc. concurrent audit. revenue/income expenditure audit.

1913 made audit of company accounts compulsory.Ancient origin : Auditing is as old as accounting. Egypt. the Guptas and the Mughals had developed and accounting and auditing system to control state finances. Thus U. audit of accounts of limited companies became compulsory in 1900. 2. the companies act. the object of audit also shifted to ascertaining whether the accounts were “true and fair” rather than “true and correct”. 4. Greece. the emphasis was not arithmetical accuracy but on fair representation of financial affairs. an auditor used to listing to the account read out by the accountant in order to check them. It was in use in all ancient countries such as Mesopotamia. Arthashasastra by Kautilya gives detailed rules for accounting and auditing of public finances. basically. accounting and auditing had their origin in the need for the government to control the income and expenditure of the state and the army. The original object of auditing was to detect and prevent errors and frauds. The Mauryas.. Origin of term : The term audit is derived from the Latin term “audire” mean to hear.Compulsory audits of companies: With increasing number of companies. Rome.Ramayana.K. the companies’ acts in different countries began providing for compulsory audit of accounts of companies. In India. Thus. Thus. and India. U. Mahabharata contain references to accounting and auditing. 3. With increase in size of companies. The Vedas.K. In early days.Development of accounting and auditing standard: 24 .AUDIT OF BANK 1.

Computer technology: The latest development in auditing pertains to the use of computers in accounting as well as auditing. 24 . creditors. investors. shareholders. Different authorities have defined auditing as follows. 5. All these users need to be sure that the final accounts prepared by the management are reliable. with determining the accuracy and reliability of accounting statement and reports”. auditing has come a long way from “hearing” the accounts in the ancient day to using computers to examine computerized accounts of today. Really.AUDIT OF BANK The international accounting standards committee and the accounting standards board of institute of chartered accountant of India have developed standard accounting and auditing practices to guide the accountants and auditor in their day-to-day work. use the final account of business concern for different purposes. DEFINITION OF AUDITING Various persons such as the owners. government etc.  International auditing guidelines defines the auditing as “auditing is an independent examination of financial information of any entity with a view to expressing an opinion thereon”.  Mautz define the auditing as “auditing is concerned with the verification of accounting data. An auditor is an independent expert who examines the accounts of a business concern and reports whether the final accounts are reliable or not. lenders.

keep his eyes and ears open but his mouth shut. He should not disclose such information to any third party. He should prepare an audit programmed to complete the audit efficiently and in time. He should. decisions of courts etc. 3. He should also be independent. 4.Confidentiality: The auditor should keep the information obtained during audit. confidential. He should have a professional qualification ( i. objectivity and independence: The auditor should be honest and sincere in his audit work. He should be aware of recent developments in the field of auditing such as statement of ICAI. changes in company law.e.Skill and competence: The auditor should have adequate training.AUDIT OF BANK BASIC PRINCIPAL OF AUDITING: 1. experience and competence in Auditing. be a Chartered Accountant) and practical experience.Integrity.Working papers: The auditor should maintain working papers of important matters to prove that audit was conducted with due care according to the basic principles.Audit evidence: 24 . He must be fair and objective. 5. 2.Planning: The auditor should plan his audit work. 6.

7. 24 . qualified or adverse. Law should require the content and form of audit report. He should see that all the transaction have been properly recorded. verification of assets and liabilities.Opinion and report: The auditor should arrive at his opinion on the account based on the audit evidence and submit his report. The opinion may be unqualified. ratio analysis etc. The audit report should clearly express his opinion.AUDIT OF BANK The report of the auditor should be base on evidence obtained in the course of audit. The evidence may be obtained through vouching of transactions. He should study and evaluate the internal controls.Evaluation of accounting system and internal control: The auditor should ensure that the accounting system is adequate. 8.

1995. therefore. ADVANTAGES OF AUDITING 24 . Considering the coverage of this audit assignment and the specialized nature of work there is also a need for training to be imported to the staff of the auditors. nominees of Central Government and the RBI. and areas of income leakage. This training has to be given in specialized field such as foreign exchange. The membership of the audit committee is restricted to the Executive Director.AUDIT OF BANK AUDIT COMMITTEE In pursuance of RBI circular September 26. a bank is required to constitute an Audit Committee of its Board. their remuneration and the quality of their work is to be reviewed by the Audit Committee. fraud prone areas. The bank can organize such training programmed at various places so that it can ensure the quality of audit. determination of credit rating and other similar specialized areas. The committee also has to review the internal inspection function in the bank. It is in this context that periodical meeting by the members of the audit committee with the concurrent auditors help the audit committee to oversee the operations of the total audit function in the bank. computerization. The audit committee is. connected with the functioning of the system of concurrent audit. The committee has to review the system of appointment and remuneration of concurrent auditors. with special emphasis on the system. Chartered Accountant director and one of the non-official directors. One of the functions of this committee is to provide direction and oversees the operations of the total audit function in the bank. The method of appointment of auditors. its quality and effectiveness in terms of follow up.

investors. the income-tax officer can start with the figure of audited books profit. 2) True and Fair balance sheet: The user accounts can be sure that the assets and liabilities shown in the audited balance sheet show the concern. make adjustments and compute the taxable income. neither more nor less. An outside user need not go through the entire books. 3) True and fair profit and loss account: The user can be confident that the audited profit and loss account shows the true amount of profit or loss as it is i. neither more nor less. audited accounts are based on objectives standard and not on personal whims and fancies of a particular accountant or auditor. 6) Detection and prevention of errors and frauds: 24 . government’s etc. that the accounts are true and fair. 4) Tally with books: The audited final account can be taken to tally with the books of accounts. management. Thus. lenders.AUDIT OF BANK 1) Assurance of true and fair accounts: Audit provides an assurance to the various users of final accounts such as owners.e. 5) As per standard accounting and auditing practices: The audited final accounts follow the standard accounting and auditing principles laid down by professional bodies. creditors. as it is i.e. Thus.

Audit evidence is not conclusive in nature thus confirmation by a debtor is not conclusive evidence that the amount will be collected. An auditor cannot be expected to discover deeply laid frauds usually involves acts designed to conceal them such as forgery . internal control. Audit cannot assure the users of account about the future profitability. finance: The auditor can also advise the client about the accounting system. value’s etc. engineers. taxation. An auditor cannot check each and every transaction he has to check only the selected areas and transaction on a sample basis.AUDIT OF BANK Audited accounts can be assumed reasonably free from errors and frauds. The auditor with his expert knowledge would take due care to see that Errors and frauds are detected so that the accounts shoe a true and fair view. false explanation and hence are difficult to detect. prospects or the efficiency of the management. for estimating contingent liabilities. taxation. internal audit. 4. An auditor has to rely upon expert auditor may have to rely on expert in related field such as lawyers. It is said evidence is rather than conclusive in nature. 5. 3. 7) Advice on system. celibate failure to record transactions. 2. valuation of fixed assets etc. finances etc. internal check. 24 . LIMITATIONS OF AUDITING 1.

the auditor should familiarize himself with the relevant provisions of applicable laws and ascertain the scope of his duties and responsibilities in accordance with such laws. 1956 in the case of audit of a banking company as far as they relate of preparation and presentation of financial statements and their audit. loan and treasury services that are offered and continue to be developed by banks in response to market conditions. relating to the work of the other auditors. b) The auditor should also acquire knowledge of the economic environment in which the bank operates. the auditor should undertake the following: I. c) The auditor should also obtain and understanding of the nature of books and records maintained and the terminology used by the bank to describe various types of transaction and operations. it would be preferable that the auditor also obtains a general understanding of the books and records. the auditor needs to be aware of the many variation in the basic deposit. inspection reports and concurrent audit reports pertaining to the bank/branch. etc. Similarly.AUDIT OF BANK STAGES IN AUDITING 1) Preliminary work: a) The auditor should acquire knowledge of the regulatory environment in which the bank operates. In addition to the above. To do so. acceptances. forward contracts and other similar instruments. In acquiring such knowledge. inspection reports. In case of joint auditors. Thus. the auditor needs to acquire good working knowledge of the services offered by the bank. the auditor needs to understand the nature of services rendered through instruments such as letters of credit. 24 . Obtaining internal audit reports. He should be well acquainted with the provisions of the Banking Regulation act.

d) RBI has introduced and offsite surveillance system for commercial banks on various aspects of operations including solvency. e) In a computerized environment the audit procedure may have to appropriately tuned to the circumstances. It will be appropriate to be familiar with the reports submitted and to review them to the event that they are relevant for the purpose of audit. III.AUDIT OF BANK II. and has indicated that such reports shall be submitted at periodic intervals from the year commencing 1-04-1995. performance. security in the matter of access to EDP system. use of codes. insider trading etc. obtaining the report given by the outgoing branch manager to the incoming branch in the case of change in incumbent at the branch during the year under audit. asset quality. where available.. passwords. data inputs being prepared by person independent of key operators and other build-in procedure for data validation and system controls as to ensure completeness and correctness of the transaction keyed in. system documentation of the software may be obtained and examined. to the extent the same is relevant for the audit. The emphasis would have to be laid on internal control procedure related to inputs. liquidity. f) One set of tests that the auditor at both the branch level and head office level may apply for audit of banks in analytical procedure. 24 . particularly as the books are not authenticated as in manually maintained accounts and the auditor may not have his in-house computer facility to taste the software programmes. earnings. In the case of branch auditors. Obtaining the latest report of revenue or income and expenditure audits.

Accounting system envisages the processing of the transaction and events. 24 . Internal controls are techniques. a) Accounting controls: Accounting controls cover areas directly concerned with recording of financial transactions and maintenance of such registers/records as to ensure their reliability. method and procedures so designed and usually built into systems.AUDIT OF BANK 2) Evaluation of internal control system: It may be noted that transaction in banks are voluminous and repetitive. Internal accounting controls are also envisaging such procedures as would determine responsibility and fix accountability with regard to safeguarding of the assets of the bank. It would not be out of place of mention that there is a distinction between accounting system and internal accounting controls. If the exercise of internal control evaluation is properly carried out. their recognition. as would enable prevention as well as detection of errors. It may. The internal accounting controls as would ensure prevention of errors. and fall into limited categories/heads of account. be more appropriate that the evaluation of the internal control is made for each class/category of transaction. and lay appropriate emphasis on the risk prone areas. and appropriate recording. Internal control would include accounting control administrative controls. it assist the auditor to determine the effectiveness or otherwise of the control systems and accordingly enable him to strengthen his audit procedures. omissions and irregularities would include following: I. No transaction can be registered/recorded unless it is sanctioned/approved by the designated authority. therefore. omissions or irregularities in the process of execution and recording of transaction/events.

AUDIT OF BANK II. Accumulation of transactions/balances in nominal heads of accounts like suspense. III. or other nominal head of accounts particularly if there accounts particularly if these accounts are extensively used to balance dual control/supervisory procedures ensure that there is an independent automatic check on input/vouchers. V. despite availability of information. inter alias in the following: I. Accumulation of old/large unexplained/unsubstantiated entries in accounts with Reserve Bank of India and other banks and institutions. No single person has authority to initiate transaction and record through all stages to the general ledger. Origination debits I head office accounts/inter-branch accounts. stationery forms. Each day transactions are accurately and promptly recorded. sundries. Analytical review procedure. and the control and subsidiary records are kept balanced through personnel independent of each other. omissions and irregularities. Missing/loss of security paper. III. VII. The auditor would be well advised to look into other areas may lead to detection of errors. II. Built. Serious irregularities pointer out in internal audit/inspection/special audit 24 . Transaction represented by mere book adjustments not evidenced/substantiated or upon non-honoring of contracts/commitments. IV. VI. inter-branch accounts.

It is desirable that the branch auditors’ 24 . etc. Complaints/matters pending in the vigilance/grievances cell. The audit programme for the statutory auditors would be different from that of the branch auditor. there are weaknesses in the internal controls. if observed as adverse. the auditor should prepare an audit programme for substantive testing which should adequately cover the scope of his work.Preparation of audit programme for substantive testing and its execution Having familiarized him the requirements of audit. the head office use the zonal/regional offices do not conduct any banking business. etc. It may be noted that in the normal course.AUDIT OF BANK VIII. In framing the audit programme. IX. due weightage should be given by the auditor to areas where. the statutory auditors at the head office (provisions for gratuity. basic banking operation are to be covered by the audit. in his view. as they considered necessary. inter.Preparation and submission of audit report The branch auditor forwards his report to the statutory auditors who have to deal with the same in such manner. 3. Results of periodic analytical review.). They are generally responsible for administrative and policy decisions which are executed at the branch level. The scope of the work of the statutory auditors would also involve dealing with various accounting aspects and disclosure requirements arising out of the branch returns. as regards discrepancies in accounts of constituents. b)Administrative control: These are broadly concerned with the decision making process and laying down of authority/delegation of powers by the management. 4. On the other hand. At the branch accounts.

an item though not material. The LFAR should be used to further elaborate matters contained in the main report and as substitute thereof. is followed. in the judgement of the auditor. As far as possible. In preparing the audit report. he should consider whether qualification in his main report is necessary by using his discretion on the facts and circumstances of each case. the financial impact of all qualification or adverse comments on the branch accounts should be clearly brought out in the branch audit report. However. is contrary to accounting principles or any pronouncements of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India or in such as would require a review of the relevant procedure. it would be appropriate for him to draw the attention of the management to this aspect in his long form audit report. items which do not materially affect the view presented by the financial statements may be ignored.AUDIT OF BANK reports are adequately in unambiguous terms. In may be emphasized that the main report should be selfcontained document. commencing with assets. matters covering the statutory responsibilities of the auditor should be dealt with in the main report. the significance of various comments in his LFAR. say. Similarly while framing his main report. the auditor should consider. where any of the comments made by the auditor threrin is adverse. Thus. the auditor should keep in mind the concept of materiality. 24 . wherever practicable. then liabilities and thereafter items related to income and expenditure. head wise. In all cases. It would assist the statutory auditors if a standard pattern of reporting.

one for debit and the other for credit. The general ledger trail balance is extracted and agreed every day. the totals of each are posted to the control accounts in the general ledger. SUBSIDIARY BOOKS OF ACCOUNTS • • • Personal ledgers: Bill Registers: Other subsidiary registers: 24 .209 of the companies act. device their accounting system to suit these requirements. The vouchers entered into different personal ledgers each day are summarized on summery sheet. certain imperatives in banking business they are the requirements to maintain accurate and always up to date account. and agreed with the general ledger control accounts. usually every two weeks. however. This system ensures double entry at the basic level and obviates the possibility of errors in posting PRINCIPAL BOOKS OF ACCOUNT • • General ledger: Profit and Loss ledgers. B. Banks. always two vouchers are prepared for each transaction. A trial balance of the detailed personal ledgers is prepared periodically.AUDIT OF BANK BOOKS OF ACCOUNTS OF BANKS A banking company is required to maintain the books of accounts in accordance with sec. There are. The main characteristics of a banks system of book keeping are as follows: A. C. therefore. D. Expecting for cash transactions.

1949.AUDIT OF BANK VERIFICATION OF ASSETS AND LIABILITES Capital and Liabilities: 1) Capital The following particulars have to be given in respect of share capital in the balance sheet  For nationalized banks The capital owned by central government as on the date of balance sheet including contribution from government.  For other banks Authorized capital Issued capital Subscribed capital Called-up capital Less: calls unpaid Add: forfeited shares (shares of Rs…….each) (-do-) (-do-) (-do-) 24 .  For banks incorporated outside India Capital (the amount brought in by banks by way of start up capital as prescribed by RBI shown under this head) Amount of deposit kept with RBI under section 11(2) of the banking regulation act. for participation in world bank project should be shown. if any.

In case there has been increase in capital during the year. The auditor should verify the opening balances of various reserves with reference to the audited balance sheet of the previous year. An increase in subscribed and paid-up capital of a banking company. In the case of statutory reserves and share premium. etc. 2) Reserves and surplus: The following are required to be disclosed in the balance sheet under the head ‘Reserves and Surplus’.AUDIT OF BANK The auditor should verify the opening balance of capital with reference to the audited balance sheet of the previous year. For example. e) Balance in profit and loss account. with reference to board resolution.g. should be verified with reference to prospectus/ other offer document. reports received from registers to the issue. compliance with legal requirements should also be examined. c) Share premium. bank statement. in case of an increase an authorized capital of a banking company. the auditor should examine the relevant documents supporting the increase. Addition to or deductions from reserves should also be verified in the usual manner. Thus. e. a) Statutory reserves. b) Capital reserves. d) Revenue and other reserves. the auditor should specifically examine whether the requirements of 24 . on the other hand. the auditor should examine the special resolution of shareholders and the memorandum of association.

AUDIT OF BANK governing legislation regarding transfer of the prescribed percentage of profits to reserve fund have been complied with. II. Deposits of Branches outside India. Demand Deposits (i) (ii) from banks from others II. it should be examined whether the appropriations from share premium account conform to the legal requirements. the auditor should examine the relevant documents granting such exemption. A. I. B. From Others. In case the bank has been granted exemption form such transfer. I. Saving Bank Deposits III. 3) Deposits: Deposits are required to be classified in the balance sheet under the following heads. Deposits of Branches in India. Similarly. Term Deposits (i) (ii) From banks. 24 .

Inoperative accounts are a common area of frauds in banks. While examining current account. It is not usual for branches to interest saving bank up to a date close to the end of the accounting period for e.g. He should also examine whether the balances as per subsidiary ledgers tally wit the related control accounts in the general ledger. Saving bank deposits: The auditor should verify the balances is individual account on a sampling basis. The auditor should consider the debit balances in current account are not netted out on the liabilities side but appropriately included under the ‘advances’.25th March based on the actual balances with interest of the remaining period on an estimated basis at the head office level. Current account: The auditor should verify the balances in individual accounts on a sampling basis. I. II. The auditor should ascertain whether inoperative are ‘revived’ only with proper authority. The auditor should also check the calculations of interest on a sampling basis. the auditor should identify cases where there has been a significant reduction in balances compared to the previous year and examine the authorization for withdrawals. III. Term deposits: 24 .AUDIT OF BANK The auditor may verify types of deposits in the following manner. He should also examine whether the balances as per subsidiary ledgers tally with the related control accounts in the general ledger. the auditor should specifically cover in his sample some of the inoperative account revived during the year. For this purpose.

g. The auditor should also examine. The auditor should verify the deposits with reference to the relevant registers. IV. Deposits designated in foreign currencies: In the case of deposits designated in a foreign currency. Interest accrued but not due: The auditor should examine that interest accrued but not due on deposits is not included under the deposited but is shown under the head ‘other liabilities ad provision’ 2. b. the auditor should examine whether they have been converted into Indian rupees at the rate notified in his behalf by the head office. Other banks. Borrowing: Borrowings of a bank are required to be shown in balance sheet as follows: I. c. foreign currency non-resident deposits. They are considered time liabilities of the bank. Other institution and agencies. on a sampling basis. Borrowing in India.AUDIT OF BANK Term deposits are deposits repayable after a specified period. 24 . a. for e. Reserves Bank of India. the registers with the counter-foils of the receipts issued and with the discharged receipts returned to the bank. V.

These include Demand Draft. other banks/financial institution etc. Borrowing from RBI. 24 . The auditor should also examine whether a clear distinction has been made between ‘rediscount’ and ‘refinance’ for disclosure of the amount under the above head since rediscount does not figure under this head. Traveller cheques. Pay order. 1949. Other current liabilities: The third schedule to the banking Regulation act. • Bills payable Bills payable represent instrument issued by the ranch against money received from customers. which are to be paid to the customers or as per his order. Interest accrued Other (including provisions) The auditor may verify the various items under the head other liabilities and provision in the following manner. and Mail transfer and Mail Transfer. requires disclosure of the following items under the head ‘other liabilities and provision’ • • • • Bills payable Inter office adjustments. and similar instrument issued by the bank but not presented for payment until the balance sheet date. should be verified by the auditors with reference to confirmation certificated and other supporting document such as agreements. Banker cheques.AUDIT OF BANK II. Telegraphic Transfer. correspondence etc.

Surplus in aggregate in provision for bad and doubtful debts provision account. Provision towards standard assets. which are actually in the nature of reserved but are not disclosed as such. 24 . the following items are to be included under this head. These are to shown separately as contingent standard assets. The auditor should examine this with reference to terms of various type of deposits and borrowings. It should be specially examined that such interest has not been clubbed with the deposits and borrowing shown under the deposits and borrowing. • • • • • Net provision for income tax and other taxes like interest tax. Contingency funds. less advances payment and tax deducted at source.AUDIT OF BANK Interest accrued: Interest accrued but not due on deposit is to be shown and borrowing is to shown under this head. Proposed dividend/transfer to government. issued by the Reserve Bank of India. Other According to the notes and instructions for compilation of balance sheet and profit and loss account.

sale etc. he should take particular care to see that only genuine investment are produced before him. the auditor is primarily concerned with obtaining evidence about following 24 . In current account 2. 2) Investment: The auditor should verify the investment scripts physically at the close of business on the date of balance sheet.Advances: In carrying out of audit of advances. With other institutions 1.AUDIT OF BANK ASSETS: A) Balanced with banks 1. 3. B) Money at call and short notice 1.1949 corresponding requirements for schedule bank is contain in the Reserve Bank of India.Cash Reserved: One of the determinants of cash balance to be maintained by banking companies and other schedule is the requirement for maintenance of certain minimum cash reserve. In other deposits account. While the requirement for maintenance of cash reserve by banking companies is contained in the banking regulation act. With banks 2. In exceptional cases where physical verification of investment scripts on the balance sheet date is not possible the auditor should carry out the physical verification on a should take in to consideration any adjustment for subsequent transaction of purchase. the auditor of advances.

The auditor should also pay attention towards interest-accrued part from the banks point of view. There are no unrecorded advances. a copy of the sale deed and receipt of the salve value should examined by the adjustments. 4) Fixed assets: In carrying out an audit of fixed assets. The auditor should see that internal control over stationery items. 24 . The auditor should verify the opening balance of premises with reference to schedule of fixed assets.AUDIT OF BANK Amount included in balance sheet in respect of advances are outstanding at the date of balance sheet. The auditor should verify the stationery and stamps. 5) Other assets: The auditor should see that whether there are any reversals entries indicating the possibility of irregular payments or frauds in case of inter. In respect of fixed assets sold during the year. Similarly. and that the recoverability of advances is recognized in their valuation. The branch auditor should ascertain whether the accounts in respect of premises and/or other fixed assets are maintained at the branch or centrally. The stated basis of valuation of advances is appropriate and properly applied. a) b) c) Advances represent amount due to the bank. the auditor is concerned primarily with obtaining evidence about their existence and valuation. ledger or fixed asset register. he should ascertain the location of documents of title or other documents evidencing ownership of various items of fixed assets.

Standard asset:A standard asset is one. Of N.A.A.A for period exceeding 18 months. which remained has N.P. 2.P. but the amount has not been written off wholly or partly in other words such asset is considered uncollectible and of such little value that its continuous as bankable asset is not warranted through although there may be some salvage or recovery value.Loss asset: It is one where the loss has been identified by the bank or the internal or external auditors or the RBI inspection. 4. and which does not carry more than normal risk attached to the business such asset is not a non-performing asset. from the year ending 31st March 2004.Doubtful asset: It is one. With the view to moving towards international based practices and to ensure greater transference it has been decided to adopt the 90 days overdue norms for identification. a non-performing asset shall be a loan or advances where. 3. which has been classified as N.AUDIT OF BANK N.P.Sub-standard asset: It is one. for period not exceeding not more than 18 months. according with effect from 31st march 2004.P. 24 .GUIDELINES The guideline requires the banks to classify their advances in four broad categories as follows:- 1. which does not disclose any problems.A.

P. v. without having any regard to performing status of other facilities.5 years in the case of advanced granted for agriculture purpose. The bill remains overdue for period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted. Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in of other account.P.P.AUDIT OF BANK i. 24 . Interest and installment of principle remains overdue for the period of more than 90 days in respect of term loan. iii. is to be on the basis of the position as on balance sheet day if an account has been regularized before the balance sheet day by payment of overdue amount through genuine sources and not by sanction of additional facilities or transfer of funds between accounts.P. Nonsubmission of stock statement. The identification of N. iv.A. the bank should however ensured that the accounts remains in order subsequently. classification will be as per borrower wise and not facility wise. ii. non-renewal of due date.P.A. Interest and installment of principle remains overdue for two harvest season but not exceeding 2.A. N. the accounts need not be treated as N.A. In respect of overdraft or cash credit limit. The account remains out of order for period of more than 90 days. will not classify as N. Some of the Exemptions are their as follows. It means that if any of the credit facilities granted to a borrower becomes non-performing all the facilities granted to a borrower will have to be treated as N.A. If the account is out of order or deficient for a temporary period due to non-availability of adequate drawing power.

P. like PMRY. finance given for industrial project or for agricultural status where moratorium period is available for payment of interest. The overdue status should be recognized from the date when there is default in payment of interest on due date of payment. payment of interest becomes due after the moratorium period is over and not on the date of debit of interest.  Advance to Staff: As in the case of project finance in respect of housing loan all similar advances granted to staff members where interest is payable after recovery of principle.A.AUDIT OF BANK  Project finance: In the case of bank.  Loans and Advances backed or supported by government: Any loans and advances provided by the bank under any scheme introduced by GOVT. in to term loan or reschedule the repayment and sanction them short term loan loans in such cases the term loan as well as fresh short term may be treated as current dues and need not be classified as N. 24 .  Agricultural Advances Affected by Natural Calamities: In terms of RBI instruction where Natural calamities in fairs the repayment capacity of agricultural borrower the bank can convert short term production loan.A.P. though the account in overdue or outstanding for more than 90 days. Scheme will not be treated as N.

The systems of internal audit in different banks also have a system of regular inspection of branches and head office. 3.Internal audit: Banks generally have a well-organized system of internal audit. which is compulsory as per the law. documented and vouched.System audit: 24 . The statutory audit of banks includes examination and inspection of internal audit. It has perceived the effective means of control. etc. concurrent audit.AUDIT OF BANK TYPE OF AUDIT IN BANK 1. The suggestions of the statutory auditors can assist the bank management in improving the effectiveness of internal audit/concurrent audit/inspection functions. There internal auditors pay frequent visit to the branches. 4. A separate department within the banks by firms of chartered accountants carries out the internal audit and inspection function.Statutory audit: The statutory audit. 2. The statutory audit of banks is like a post mortem activity. The main view of concurrent auditors is to see that the transactions are properly recorded. etc. They are an important link in internal control of the bank.Concurrent audit: Concurrent audit is the system which introduced by the RBI with the view that interval between the occurrence of transaction and it’s over view kept to the minimum extent and examination of transactions by the auditors take place as soon as the transaction take place. In this way statutory plays a very important role in regulating the banking companies.

24 . auditors go through the various sources of revenues from which bank earn income. it is very necessary to conduct ‘system audit’ in order to evaluate the computer system for effectiveness. banking companies are using a well-organized computer system to perform their transactions.AUDIT OF BANK In today’s technological advancements. timely processed manner which in turn are verified by computer.Revenue audit: Revenue audit refers to the audit of revenues/ incomes. accurately. the auditor inspects that all the records are showing true and fair picture of revenues or not. System audit is the audit of such computer environment/system and comprises the following internal controls over EDP activities and with application controls specific control procedures over accounting applications/assuring that all transaction are recorded and authorized and completely. 5. In revenue audit of banks. So. In revenue audit of banking companies.

drafts. In olden days. Acceptance of Deposit A bank accepts money from the people in the form of deposits which are usually repayable on demand or after the expiry of a fixed period. It receives money from those who want to save in the form of deposits and it lends money to those who need it. It gives safety to the deposits of its customers. banking sector acts as the backbone of modern business." Characteristics / Features of a Bank 1. commerce and industry. The term bank is derived from the French word Banco which means a Bench or Money exchange table. It also brings bank money in circulation. 4. 3. European money lenders or money changers used to display (show) coins of different countries in big heaps (quantity) on benches or tables for the purpose of lending or exchanging. Definition of a Bank Oxford Dictionary defines a bank as "an establishment for custody of money. Development of any country mainly depends upon the banking system. Payment and Withdrawal A bank provides easy payment and withdrawal facility to its customers in the form of cheques and drafts. etc. 5. Dealing in Money Bank is a financial institution which deals with other people's money i. firm or a company. This money is in the form of cheques. 2. Now-a-days. which it pays out on customer's order. It also acts as a custodian of funds of its customers. A banking company means a company which is in the business of banking. Giving Advances A bank lends out money in the form of loans to those who require it for different purposes. A bank is a financial institution which deals with deposits and advances and other related services.AUDIT OF BANK What is a Bank ? Finance is the life blood of trade. Individual / Firm / Company A bank may be a person. money given by depositors.e. 24 .

which satisfy the criteria laid down vide section 42 (6) (a) of the Act. they may be publicly listed and traded on stock exchanges) and foreign banks. In 1969.AUDIT OF BANK 2. The General Bank of India and the Bank of Hindustan. agriculturists and budding Indian industrialists. In a Fixed Deposit Account. which started in 1786 were the first banks in India. Bank Fixed Deposits Bank Fixed Deposits are also known as Term Deposits. 14 largest commercial banks were nationalized followed by six next largest in 1980. The origin of banking in India can be traced back to the last decades of the 18th century. Indian banks can be broadly classified into public sector banks (those banks in which the Government of India holds a stake). The rate of interest for Bank Fixed Deposits depends on the maturity period. The commercial banking structure in India consists of: Scheduled Commercial Banks and Unscheduled Banks. private banks (government doe not have a stake in these banks. which in 1935 formally took over these responsibilities from the then Imperial Bank of India. RBI includes only those banks in this schedule. But with adoption of economic liberalization in 1991. It is higher in 24 . a certain sum of money is deposited in the bank for a specified time period with a fixed rate of interest. Both the banks are now defunct. SBI is presently the largest commercial bank in the country.Banks in India India has a well developed banking system. which have been included in the Second Schedule of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Act. The State Bank of India came into existence in 1806. The oldest bank in existence in India at the moment is the State Bank of India. The role of central banking in India is looked by the Reserve Bank of India. Scheduled commercial Banks constitute those banks. Reserve Bank was nationalized in 1947 and was given broader powers. 1934. Most of the banks in India were founded by Indian entrepreneurs and visionaries in the pre-independence era to provide financial assistance to traders. private banking was again allowed. At that time it was known as the Bank of Calcutta.

it was nationalized in 1949. The main advantage of Savings Bank Account is its high liquidity and safety. 1934. Current Account Current Account is primarily meant for businessmen. Its central office is in Mumbai where the Governor of RBI sits. we need to open a demat account in order to buy or sell shares. firms. public enterprises etc. at the end of which the principal sum as well as the interest earned during that period is returned to the investor. Recurring Bank Deposits Under a Recurring Deposit account (RD account). Savings Bank Account Savings Bank Accounts are meant to promote the habit of saving among the citizens while allowing them to use their funds when required. companies. Just as a bank account is required if we want to save money or make cheque payments. Current Accounts are cheque operated accounts meant neither for the purpose of earning interest nor for the purpose of savings but only for convenience of business hence they are non-interest bearing accounts Demat Account Demat refers to a dematerialised account. a specific amount is invested in bank on monthly basis for a fixed rate of return. Demat account is just like a bank account where actual money is replaced by shares. that have numerous daily banking transactions. Reserve Bank of India The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1. 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act. 24 . There is great flexibility in maturity period and it ranges from 15days to 5 years.AUDIT OF BANK case of longer maturity period. The deposit has a fixed tenure. Though initially RBI was privately owned.

83 billion) (2012) 1.Union Bank of India Profile Union Bank of India Type Industry Headquarters Key people Revenue Net income Employees Website Public (BSE: 532477) Financial services Mumbai. Sarkar (Chairman & MD) 21. India D.45 billion and all the bank's 24 .144 crore (US$3.43% of its share capital remains public. It has assets of USD 13.787 crore (US$ Union Bank of India (UBI) (BSE: 532477) is one of India's largest public sector banks (the government owns 55.746 (2011) www.45 million) (2012) 27.AUDIT OF BANK 4. private organizations and foreign companies).unionbankofindia. is listed on the Forbes 2000.

which was attractive to UBI. UBI still only had four branches . Peoples Republic of China. In 1999 the Reserve Bank of India requested that UBI acquire Sikkim Bank in a rescue after extensive irregularities had been discovered at the non-scheduled bank.individual as well as corporate.Union Bank Name D Sarkar Suresh Kumar Jain B M Sharma N Shankar S Ravi M V Nair Name S S Mundra Chandan Sinha Baidya Nath Bhattacharjee M S Sriram Atul Agarwal A Bhattacharya Designation Chairman & Managing Director Executive Director Director Director Director Director Designation Executive Director Director Director Director Director Director 24 . In 2009. and Shanghai. its first branch outside India. it had grown to 240 branches in 28 states.AUDIT OF BANK branches have been networked with its 3025 ATMs. Peoples Republic of China. Sikkim Bank had eight branches located in the North-east. After Independence UBI accelerated its growth and by the time the government nationalized it in 1969. United Arab Emirates. and a branch in Hong Kong. The next year. Then in 1985 UBI merged in Miraj State Bank. UBI opened a representative office in Sydney. United Arab Emirates. It has representative offices in Abu Dhabi. At the time of India's Independence in 1947. History Union Bank of India (UBI) was registered on 11 November 1919 as a limited company in Mumbai and was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi. a private sector bank established in 1930 that had itself merged in a bank in 1964.three in Mumbai and one in Saurashtra. the Shri Jadeya Shankarling Bank. UBI began its international expansion in 2007 with the opening of representative offices in Abu Dhabi. Australia. Its online Telebanking facility are available to all its Core Banking Customers . Shortly after nationalization. which had been established in 1929. all concentrated in key trade centres. Management . UBI merged in Belgaum Bank. and Shanghai. UBI established a branch in Hong Kong.

This responsibility includes the design. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit.62 per cent of deposits.84 per cent of advances 29.Auditors Report of Union Bank of India Auditor’s Report (Union Bank of India) Year ended March 2013 1. 2. Also incorporated in the balance sheet and profit and Loss are the return from 2128 branches.AUDIT OF BANK 9. 1 Treasury Branch and 18 regional officiers audited by us and 1364 branches including 2 foreign branches . whether due to fraud or error. which comprise the Balance Sheet as at March 31. These unaudited branches account for 8. 2013. The branches audited by us and those audited by other auditors have been selected by the bank in accordance with the guidelines issued to the bank by the reserve bank of India . 46 service branches audited by branch auditors. Management is responsible for the preparation of these financial statements in accordance with Banking Regulation Act 1949. 2013 and Profit and loss Account abd tge cash flow statement for the year then ended.15 per cent of interest expenses. We conducted our audit in accordance with the Standards on Auditing issued by the Institute of 12 24 . implementation and maintenance of internal control relevant to the preparation of the financial statements that are free from material misstatement. Incorporated in these financial statements are the return of 19 branches. We have audited the accompanying financial statements of Union Bank of India as at 31st march . 6. Auditors' Responsibility 3. and a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory information. 81 offices/centres which have not been subjected to audit.01 per cent of interest income and 29.

04. Employee Benefits (circular no.1014. An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our audit opinion. read with the notes thereon is a full and fair Balance Sheet containing all the necessary particulars. for the year covered by the account.bC/80/21. An audit also includes evaluating the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of the accounting estimates made by management.BP.AUDIT OF BANK Chartered Accountants of India. 2011) on re-opening of Pension Option to 24 . Those Standards require that we comply with ethical requirements and plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free from material misstatement. including the assessment of the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements. as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. 4. (ii) the Profit and Loss Account. as shown by books of bank. read with the notes thereon shows a true balance of profit. the auditor considers internal control relevant to the Company's preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances. Without qualifying our opinion.09 crore(previous year . and (iii) the Cash Flow Statement gives a true and fair view of the cash flows for the year ended on that date. is properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and fair view of state of affairs of the Bank as at 31st March 2013 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in India.13 of Schedule 18.Rs. 5. and to the best of our information and according to the explanations given to us: (i) the Balance Sheet. In our opinion. describes a. regarding deferment of pension liability of the Bank to the extent of Rs. we draw attention to Note No.13 crore) pursuant to the circular issued by the Reserve Bank of India to the public sector banks on the provisions of AS 15.5. In making those risk assessments.676. Emphasis of Matter 7.018/2010-11 dated February 9. Opinion 6. DBOD. in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in India. The procedures selected depend on the auditor's judgment. whether due to fraud or error.

Subject to the limitations of the audit indicated in paragraph 1 to 5 above and as required by the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act. BAKASUBRAMANIAN) (K. 1949.AUDIT OF BANK Employees of Public Sector Banks.65 crore has been charged to the Profit & Loss account with the balance of Rs. b.25413) PARTNER ( M. In our opinion.S. SHYAM SUNDER0 PARTNER (M. 008744N FIRM REGN NO.3.015747) FOR JINDAL & CO FOR SHAH GUPTA & CO FOR V. 1970/1980.S.V. 112081W (RAJIV KUMAR WADHAWAN) (S.NO. (b) The transactions of the Bank. and subject also to the limitations of disclosure required therein.10 lacs amounting to Rs. 9.002783S FIRM REGN. 10. have been within the powers of the Bank. we report that: (a) We have obtained all the information and explanations which to the best of our knowledge and belief. NO. the Balance Sheet.NO.130 crore being carried forward to be charged over the next 2 years.ROHATGI & CO 24 . MATHUR & CO FOR PRICEPATT & CO FOR SINGRODIA GOYAL & CO CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS FIRM REGN NO. (c) The returns received from the offices and branches of the Bank have been found adequate for the purposes of our audit. Profit and Loss Account and Cash Flow Statement comply with the applicable accounting standards. FOR G. The Balance Sheet and the Profit and Loss Account have been drawn up in Forms A and B respectively of the Third Schedule to the Banking Regulation Act. were necessary for the purposes of our audit and have found them to be satisfactory. which have come to our notice.50 lacs to Rs. regarding deferment of additional gratuity liability which arose on enhancement of Gratuity limit from Rs.NO.091007) PARTNER ( M. Report on Other Legal and Regulatory Requirements 8.


frauds. the overall level of compliances with the standards and codes is of high order. errors. manipulations etc. concurrent audit. which are core principals. internal audit. there is proper follow up of work done in every organization whether it is banking company or any other company or any other company there no misconduct of transactions is taken places for that purpose the auditing is very important aspect in today’s scenario form company and point of view.AUDIT OF BANK CONCLUSION The project the position of Indian banking system as well as the principal laid down by the Basel Committee on banking supervision. what are the various procedure through which audit of banks should be done. 24 . form this auditor get the clear ideas how to recommend on the banks position.e. The project concluded that. This assessment was done in seven major areas. Project also contain that how to conduct of audit of the banks. Form auditing point of view. This project gives the correct ideas about how the major areas can be found by way of effective auditing system i. given the complexity and development of Indian banking sector. loan accounting and transparency and foreign exchange transaction. deposit.

icai.moneycontrol.AUDIT OF BANK BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites Books Auditing 24 .

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