Back ground: There was no concept of history in India, until the arrival of Europeans. Earlier only stories were known and generally it used to begin with “Once upon a time” or “Long ago”. Europeans had given a major thrust on this area and the history of India began towards development to flourish. Europeans had started with modern concept of Schools and Colleges and children were allowed from all castes and community. The teachers were all Europeans at initial period. As a result educated Indians were all impressed and influenced by Europeans teachings and their thoughts were also influenced accordingly. Indian elites were at infancy stage and as a result the Europeans who were already advanced were able to dictate over Indian elites/pundits. In fact they had hijacked the Indian Civilization. The effects have been so great that even today we recognize an Indian and honored him, when he is recognized and appreciated by Western Countries. It is a fact we have to accept, whether we like it or not. It is a bitter truth in all disciplines, be it literature, or science or sports, movies etc. We do not know when we Indians will overcome this problem. It is seen that some people tried to overcome this problem but they get very little attention in our country. It is hoped that more and more people will come forward to think independently and will try to establish their thought in Indian way so that real history of India will come out soon. This work is a small effort to put forth this idea into that direction. Author has taken the references and help from various historical books of repute as well as from religious holy books. The author is basically a mathematician, hence only analytical study have been done on our popular history . The analyses have been presented here. To begin with, author has considered about the history of Bengal and tried to analyze the geographical area, its Language, Religion, and Culture etc. It is left to readers to form their opinions and also hopes their critical comments will be received by author for any correction, if required.


It is stated in the various texts Book on history of Bengal that the original inhabitants of Bengal were all low caste people. They are Kol, Sabar, Hari, Dom, Pulind, Chandal etc. Present day they all belong to schedule caste category as per the Laws of Hinduism. The people belong to other communities or so called higher caste people are the descendent of Noble Aryans, who have migrated between 5th to 4th centuries BC to Bengal from Magadha (present Bihar state). The Gotras of a person is identification that the person is a descendent of the Aryan Sage, on whose name the Gotras are defined. The language Bengali is a derivative of Aryan Language Samaskrita. From the beginning of our childhood, we were told and studied that Bengalis were of Aryan origin and we were taught to believe the above theory. We were also taught to believe that our ancestors' i.e. Aryans were a great noble race, who migrated to India from central Asia. Some are of the opinion that they actually migrated from Caucasian region around Danyub River via Northwest frontier country like, Iran and Afghanistan. Their initial settlement in India was around Sindhu river valley. This migration and settlements took place around 1500 BC. These Aryans were not believers of idol worship and used to invoke various Gods through various yagnas. Their religion was known as Vedic religion and the society was controlled by the scriptures of Vedas. Physically they were very fair, tall and of good features. Their males were very handsome and female were extremely beautiful. Their Language was Deva-Bhasha Samaskrita and the Script was Deva-Nagari script. The high caste Bengalis are a different race from the aboriginal inhabitants of Bengal the intermediate caste peoples are of mixed race of Aryan male and NonAryan or aboriginal Bengali female. These were some of the important things we were taught to believe from our child hood days. The history of a society or a community of people at a certain place is identified by the general features of the people, their language, religion, culture and its social and political system. This can not be identified in isolation by language only or by religion only or by its culture independently. Therefore, the history of Bengalis will remain incomplete, if certain conclusion is made based on certain issue independently. Hence, all the issues as stated above (viz. Location of the place, feature of the people Language, culture, religion, social system, political system, food habits etc) are necessary to be studied and analyzed together to arrive at a certain inference. If the outcomes of an analysis on all the issues are found to be different, no definite conclusion can be made. In case, some issues converge and some diverges, the conclusion becomes contradictory. But if the result of analysis of all the


The author has only tried to compile the opinions and findings of modern historians and researchers. Without this. 5. d) Development of Bengali Language. f) Development of Social system in Bengal. 3. an integrated study has been made on the history of Bengal from the ancient period to Islamic period. Bangalir Itihas by Dr.Sen 4 . whenever required for a comparative study. While carrying out this study. author has not brought out any new findings. History Of Kerela by Prof E. K. as all are interlinked in the context of overall Indian civilization. the analyses would have been incomplete. An attempt has been made to find out who are Bengalis? Are they outsiders and descendents of certain Aryan Rishis? What is their faith and religion? Are Bengalis followers of Aryan religion? Is the Bengali civilization and culture are same or different than that of Aryans? Is Bengali Language is a derivative of Aryan Language? Which area of India is known as Bengal? All these issues have been described and analysed in this article. To analyse the history of Bengalis. the histories of neighbouring areas and to some extent history of India have also been analysed. 1. e) Bengali rituals and culture. R. The study has been made based on various historical information and records as described by prominent historians. Sahityacharya Dinesh ch. following major issues have been considered:a) Geographical location or Area of Bengal with respect to India. While doing so. b) Political History of Bengal. The analysis covered a period from ancient time to the time of Invasion by outsiders having Islamic faith at around 12th century AD. History of Ancient India Vol-I and Vol-II by Prof Sunil Chatterjee. Rakhal Dass Banerjee 6. researchers and other intellectuals. then the outcome becomes conclusive. c) Development of Religions of Bengalis in Bengal. Bangalar Itihas by Dr. Pillai 4. Nihar Ranjan Roy. Keeping these points in mind. Based on these findings an analytical study has been made and co-relation has been established among all the various issues pertaining to Bengali civilization. the following books have been referred. In this article. History of Ancient India by Prof.issue converges to a certain point logically. Banga Bhasha O Sahitya by Dr.S Tripathy 2.

Subramanya Ayer. Geeta Lal Sahai 17. Cooch Biharer Itihas by Mr. 108 Upanishads (Gnyan Khanda. 20 Smirithias (Vol-1 and Vol-II) by Vedamurthy Pandit Sree Rama Sarma Acharya and Bhagavati Devi Sarma. Bangla Sahityer Kahini by Shree Haren Ghose. Are the Bengalis a Non-Martial race by Mr.7. S. Eight Upanishads (Vol-I and Vol-II) with commentary of Sankaracharya translated by Swami Gambhirananda 26. The Indian Temple Art and Architecture by Mr P. 16. Jawaharlal Nehru 14. Yadu Vamsi 18. Bandopadhya. 22. 8. Sreemad Bhagvata Geeta by Bhagawan Sankaracharya Translated by Swami Gambhirananda 29. Roy Choudhury 11. 24. Yajur-Veda Samhita by Vedamurthy Pandit Sree Rama Sarma Acharya and Bhagavati Devi Sarma. Indus civilisation by Dr. 25.H Risley 12. Sanatana Samaskriti by Mr S. 28. Atul Sur 13. Hemanta Kumar Roy Barman 9. Jain Dharma ka Itihas Evam uski Prachinata by Acharya Shree Muni idyananda Ji Maharaj and Pandit Balabhadra ji Jain 20. Caryagiti Paricaya by Dr. Saiva mata by Dr. Artharva-Veda Samhita by Vedamurthy Pandit Sree Rama Sarma Acharya and Bhagavati Devi Sarma. Sudhamsu Vikash Dev Sarma and Prof. Balabhadra ji jain 21. Satyabrata De 10. Tribes and Castes of Bengal by Mr H. Sama-Veda Samhita by Vedamurthy Pandit Sree Rama Sarma Acharya and Bhagavati Devi Sarma. 23. World famous civilisation by Mrs. Rig-Veda Samhita by Vedamurthy Pandit Sree Rama Sarma Acharya and Bhagavati Devi Sarma.R. Dancing with Siva by Satguru Sivaya Subramaniyaswami 19. Sadhana Khanda and Bramha Vidhya Khanda) by Vedamurthy Pandit Sree Rama Sarma Acharya and Bhagavati Devi Sarma 27. The light at the Center by Swami Agehananda Bharati 5 . Discovery of India by Pt. Choubish Teerthamkar by Pt.Srinivasan 15. P.

Ramamurthy Tripathy 31. Nath Sampradaya Aur Sahitya by Dr. Dr. Briggs 35. Gorokhnath and Kanphata Yogis by Mr G.W.30. Divakar Pandey 34. Raj Guru Yogivamsha by Mr. Suresh Chandranath Majumdar 6 . Nath Sampradaya by Prof. Ved Prakash Juneja 32. Hindu Gods and Goddesses by Swami Harshananda (Sri Ramakrishna Matha) 36. Hazari Prasad Dwivedi 33. Tantra Aur Sant by Dr. Gorokhnath our Unki Paramparaka Sahitya.

the place Vangadesha. Boxaduar. It is stated by historians that during the period of 6th century BC. Samatata. Karna subarna. which were in existence prior to birth of Gautama Buddha. The same way Haradwar is named for the gateway to the kingdom of Hara (or Lord Siva). were named. which were the gateways or entry point for entering to the kingdom of Bhutan. It appeared during Upanishad period for the first time. during seventh century BC and early sixth Century BC. The similar way the people of South of Hindu 7 .GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF BENGAL In the Vedic literature of Brahmanas and Aryankas of 800 to 600 BC. as mentioned in ancient Brahmanic literatures was not the present Bengal but present Dwar Vanga and the Adjoining areas on its eastern side. Jadu-Madhu. two countries viz. The present Location of Bengal appeared in the History for the first time during the Islamic period around 13th century AD only. Therefore. and Anga-Vanga etc. like. Earlier to this the present area of Bengal was divided and different parts of it were known by different names. Magadha and Anga were still regarded with aversion. This also contradicts the popular belief that Aryan from Magadha migrated to Vanga or Bengal during 6th to 5th century BC. In the similar manner. the places Alipurduar. This gives an indication that the place mentioned as Vanga in Satapatha Brahmana may not be the place as Vanga of today. even in Buddhists and Jaina literature. The word Vanga which was used in post Vedic literature of Brahmanas and Aryanyakas was probably appeared due to use of dual words. as Aryans were not found to be settled during the said period at Magadha. Len-Den. The name Mithila was not mentioned in the Vedic test. Rardh. Buddhists literature mentioned about sixteen great powers or solasha Manajanapadas. The mountain range named as Sivalik range. The people of these places were described as Vratyas. The present area of Bengal was comprised of Pundravardhana. Chamurchi duar etc. there was no particular place found as “Vanga”. However. neither Magadha nor Anga was influenced by Vedic culture and their inhabitants were regarded as strangers in Vedic Literatures. Kosola was the eastern limit of Vedic culture. it might be referred to Mithila and Dwar-Vanga. However Jaina literature mentioned that “There was a place called Mithila in Banga desha where Lord Rama’s wife Sita Devi was born”. Anga was found to be at the east of Magadha and its capital was Champa (Near present Bhagalpur). The other possibility is that. Gauda. outside the pale of Brahminism or Vedic civilization. Jat-Pat. in all probability. Anga and Vanga at the eastern part of India were mentioned. The name Dwar Vanga implies that the place is situated in Vanga and was used by outsiders as an entry point or gateway to Vanga desha . and Dandabhukti of Ancient India.

is known as Bengal. the people of Ganges Valley or Bramhaputhra Valley and the Deccan were also called as Hindustan/Indian. this great valley is surrounded by Great Himalayas on the North. R. The people living in this valley are having similar culture and habits. Dr. in general it may be said that the area or valley formed by the conjunction of two great rivers Ganga and Bramhaputra surrounded by Himalayas on the North. Bay of Bengal at south. the Valley was referred as Hindus Valley and the civilization was identified as Hindu Civilization. even though there is no state or place or locality is named as Hindustan. Garo Hills on the eastern side. in reality the Eastern and South Eastern part of Sindhu Valley gradually became known as Hindustan. Lalmai Hills. Therefore. Dr. Arakani Hills. Roy in his book “Bangalir Itihas" has mentioned that the area DwarVanga was probably the North West frontier of Bengal. Banerjee in his book "Banglar Itihas" has stated that the lower part of present Bengal was covered by huge dense forest and the people of East Asian countries used to refer this area as Vang-Lang. Lalmai.. Bay of Bengal at south. extending up to Orissa through Chotonagpur hills etc. Arakani. D. Chotonagpur hills extending up to Raj-Mahal Hills at the western side and the people living in this valley may be referred as Bengali and the civilisation may be referred as Bengali civilization In fact the king of Magadha ruled over this valley and people of this valley became the kings of Magadha as well and there was no Bihar during those period until the arrival of Islamic Rulers from RigVedic places. Therefore. R. However. 8 . N. which was gradually changed to Vangal or Bangal in course of time.Kush Mountain were termed as Hindus and the main river was named as River Sindhu / River Hindus / River Indus. The area from Dwar-vanga to Vangal is a great plain valley formed by the two great rivers Bramhaputra and Ganga of India. Garo hills at the east and Raj Mahal hills at the west. Orissa Hills. The civilization of this valley may be referred as Bengali civilization.

The book "Peripius" by an Egyptian author mentioned that Bengalis were familiar with Mediterian countries and they had established themselves in those places successfully. it is observed that at about 550 BC. From the earliest history of Bengal. A Bengali Prince Bijaya Simha. "While the epic stories recall the military powers of Bengal rulers of fierce energy. On the other hand we were taught to believe that Aryans came to Bengal from Magadha during 5th or 4th century BC. As per the Sumerian folklore. They were in fact of praise of the people of Bengal.POLITICAL HISTORY OF BENGAL 1. their ancestors were migrated to sumeru from far-eastern country. invaded present Sri-Lanka and settled there. The university publication of Dacca. The Name of the island conquered by him was named after his name as "Simhala". the pali chronicles of Cylon preserve memories of another field of their activities. 2. A prince name Simhabahu. 4. The date assigned by the Ceylonese tradition to the arrival of Vijaya and his lionmen (Simhalas) in the island is the year of Parinirvana. Magadha was a country adjacent to Bengal on the western side. The prince had to embark again and eventually landed in Lanka in the region called Tambapani. It was described by valerious-flukes in his book "Argantika" that Bengali Heroes of Ganga. that the heroism and bravery of Bengalis of Gangaridoi deserved to be mentioned in golden words. R. Renounced his claim in favour of a relation and built a new city in the Kingdom of lata which came to be known as Sihapura. Which was edited by Dr.ridoi fought with followers of Kolchions and Jewons at a place near Black Sea (Krishna sagar). Vargil had stated in the book "Gorgikus". 9 . Particularly regarding their strength and business ability. a place north of present Mumbai. 3.C Majumdar gave a details of this invasion and reproduced below. But violence of his attendance alienated the people of the locality. The eldest son of Simhavahu was Vijaya with the followers he sailed in a ship to sopara. They never mentioned about Aryan settlements in Bengal neither they mentioned about Kol Pulind etc tribes. This incident is being treated as the starting point of Simhala history. The Greek and Roman writers mentioned in their literature regarding Bengal of 4th century BC. according to the reckoning of Cylon (544 BC). son of King Simhavahu of present Hoogly Dist of Bengal. Some researchers opined that the far-east country was non-other than Assam and Bengal. who inherited the kingdom of Vanga. 5. According to him this incident took place around 1500 BC.

It is also stated that before him. His descendents were weak as well as unpopular. a sister of Pasanedi. Magadha (present Bihar) was found to be ruled by King Bimbisara. Sisunaga made Girivraja as his residential place and placed his son as the Governor of Kasi. Campa. On the other hand. at the end of 6th century BC. Malava and other Kingdoms of North. the Capital of Anga was a major part for this business. Magadha came into prominence at the time of Brihadratha. Taking this opportunity. this clearly indicates that Bengal was not annexed to any kingdom of the western India and was independent even during the period of Ajatasatru. Bengal was already having linkage to south India through sea and to Campa through the river Ganga and Bengal was an independent country at the east. no other king had an empire so large like him. King Bimbisara annexed Anga after defeating Brahmadatta of Anga. Jain and Greek literature mentioned him as a son of a Barber. there is again no mention of him for conquering or annexing of Bengal. Pasanedi was the king of Kosola and Kasi. He destroyed the power of Prodyatas and captured Kosambi (the capital of later Kuras. indications are there that. Around middle of 4th Century BC. Bimbisara also was married to Cellana. a Licchabi Princess (Vratya Khastriya) and also to madra (present Punjab) Princess by name Kshema. As per the scholars and researchers. Ajatasatru was succeeded by his son Udayin (Udai Bhadra) at around 459 BC. It is opined by historians and researches that the empire of Ajatasatru was extended from Varanasi at the west to the border of Bengal in the east. As per the Brahmin literature he was described to be born out of a Sudra woman. The period of Ajatasatru was defined by historians from 493 BC to 462 BC. He annexed Anga completely and opened business with south India through the river Ganga. This indicates that he was not 10 . Further to this. i. These above historical facts indicate the power of Bimbisara in Indian political arena. However. near Allahabad). However. Prodyotas dynasty of Malava thus disappeared from history and Sisunaga became the ruler of whole Madhyadesh (Central India). Bimbisara was succeeded by his son Ajatasatru. His son Jarasandha was probably the most powerful king of this dynasty.e. This dynasty came to an end at about 6th century BC.Let us look what was happening in Magadha from 6th century BC onwards. However. Sishunaga appears to be of Non-Aryan origin. a minister by name Sisunaga became the King of Pataliputra by overthrowing the descendant of Ajatasatru. During the time of Lord Buddha. He was married to Kosola Devi. Sisunaga dynasty was over thrown by Mahapadama. He was credited as a founder of the city of Pataliputra (Modern Patna). Anga was at the east of Magadha with its capital at Campa (Near present Bagalpur town). The name itself indicates towards animistic origin. The Licchavi Princess Cellana was his mother. there is no mention of him about conquering of Bengal Vangadesha. the founder of Nanda dynasty. there was no mention about his annexation of Bengal into his Kingdom.

under his control and for extending his Kingdom beyond Indian frontier. This probably indicates that Magadha and Bengal were having a friendly relationship. At a later stage Magadha under Nandas became weak due to internal problems and Chandragupta Maurya with the help of wily Brahmin Chanakya dethroned Nandas in the year 321 BC and founded Maurya dynasty.from Aryan community as per the general perception of Brahmi script. Almost 1 Lakh people died in this war and approximately 1. Buddhist and Greek writers mentioned that Pundravardhana of Bagura district was a prosperous town. This might be the reason that the origin of Nanda Dynasty was not put in high esteem. Kandahar and Kabul valley to his Kingdom. Greek writers also expressed a similar view. However it is mentioned that Bengal (Gangaridoi) was under the administrative control of Dhanananda. which could be used during famines. for uniting entire north India. Further it indicates they were of Non_Aryans origin.5 lakhs people were made prisoners by Ashoka and Kalinga became a part of Ashoka’s Empire. Chandragupta Maurya belonged to Sakya clan. Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded by his son Bindusara and probably expired at about 272 BC (300 BC-200BC). However. He was credited as the first Indian. Samatata. who was a contemporary of Alexander. Pundravardhana (North Bengal) and at Karna Subarna (Bardhaman and Murshidabad dist). Kalinga was also defeated by him. Bengal was a very strong and powerful country around 2nd century BC. Kurus. Ashoka's war against Kalingas is well known to almost everybody. Evidences were found of Ashoka's monument at Southeast Bengal. Mahapadma was stated to have defeated the Aryans like Iksvakus. The surname Maurya also indicates towards a Non Aryan animistic origin. and Surasenas etc. Bangladesh) for the storage of food Grains. Mahapadma was followed by his eight sons. He annexed Arian (Herat). Some evidences of Chandragupta period was found at Mahasthangarh (Bagura dist. Panchalas. no mention is available about him towards his invasion or annexation of Bengal. 11 . Greek writers mentioned that Kings of Prasei (Magadha) and Gangaridai (Bengal) jointly formed a huge army for the defeat of Alexander. Historians opined that Bengal was a part of Mauryan Empire. which was not an Aryan community. The last in the line of Mahapadma was Dhanananda. It is believed that Bengal was already a part of Mauryan Empire and hence there was no need to invade Bengal. It is stated by Historians that Alexander was invited and instigated by Chandra-Gupta Maurya to invade Magadha to overthrow Nanda King. However Alexander did not take any adventure to invade Magadha. He was succeeded by his son Ashoka. According to Peripius the capital Gangaridoi was Ganga (it is Gaur?) and that of Prasisui was Pataliputra.

Maps of India during Maurya and Gupta Periods India Map-Maurya Period Chandragupta goes on to create the Maurya Empire that for the first time unites India and brings on its “Golden” age.Gupta 12 . Maurya-Asoka Asoka .

During their period. Sungas were of Bharadwaja Gotra. 13 . however.However. title etc. They could not establish themselves in any field. to elevate their status in the society. This may be an exaggeration. It is stated by historians that during the struggle for the throne of Pataliputra.It was probably modified and further refined and in course of time became known as Brahmi script. Khorosthi writing was made from right to left like Urdu. others say that they belonged to Brahmanic community. then Panini's Period comes down from 300 BC to 187 BC Modern Historians opined that most probably. but during Ashoka's period Tarmalipti became a major important port. using their power and influence. It is opined by researcher and historians that the rich and powerful people used to purchase Gotra. the truth might be that he worked against Buddhism as a patron of Brahmanism.Earlier to Ashoka. Some say that they were descendent of Mauryas. which was different than DevaNagari script. and was the oldest script of India . Sungas were over thrown by Kanvas and seized the power at Magadha around 72 BC. one of his son or brother of Ashoka took shelter in disguise of Buddhist monk in Bengal. Therefore. During the period of Sungas and Kanvas. As per Panini. Sungas successfully purchased the Bharadwaja title and became known as Brahmin. He made a declaration of an award of hundred gold dinners on the head of every Buddhist monk. The total duration of this dynasty was 45 years only. There are different opinions about the origins of Sungas. it may be concluded that Sungas were basically NonAryan and in all probability got converted and became known as Brahmin of Bharadwaja Gotra. a script called Khorosthi was used. This Dynasty continued to rule up to 75BC. Bengali's were familiar with the Brahmi script during 2nd century BC itself.During 18th century this practice was also noticed in Bengal Bihar and Orissa. Otherwise probably. At the northwest and Northern part of India. the Brahmins of Vedic religion converted them from NonAryan faith to Aryan faith for their own interest and later on added the name of Panini. probably Bengal became independent. Ashoka used Brahmi script in central and eastern part of India. as Pushyamitra was described as a champion of Brahmanism and a killer of Buddhists. to become a part of elite group. when war broke out among the children of Bindusara. Parthian Greeks (Yavans) invaded India on many occasions. This indicates that already Buddhism was quite popular in Bengal even before Asoka’s period. Researches revealed that Brahmi script was developed from original pre-Aryan script. Campa was a prominent port. From him the people of Vedic faith were benefited a lot. if we believe this. Probably these Kings were busy in their internal problems and invasion from west as well as from south. Being such a case. He was the founder of Sunga dynasty of Magadha. Maurya dynasty was overthrown by Pushya mitra at 187 BC. nothing was known about Bengal.

At this time Magadha was termed as a country of Vratyas and it became a centre of Buddhists. and Ajivakas etc. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Sri Gupta Ghatotkacha Chandra Gupta-I Samudra Gupta Rama Gupta Chandra Gupta-II Kumar Gupta-I/Mahendraditya Skanda Gupta/Kumaraditya Puru Gupta Narasimha Gupta/Baladitya Kumara Gupta-II Budha Gupta Bhanu Gupta/Bainya Gupta Tathagatha Gupta Baladitya-II Krishna Gupta Deva Gupta Harsha Gupta Name Period in AD 275-300 300-320 320-335 350-375 375-375 375-415 415-455 455-467 473-474 476-494 495-510 14 . The period assigned to his rule was from 275AD to 300 AD. the Guptas originally hailed from a place near Malda town of West Bengal. after the fail of Maurya dynasty and there was no strong and powerful King to rule from Himalaya to Bengal and North Karnataka. SI No. Founder of this Dynasty was named as Sri Gupta. After the fall of Maurya dynasty.It is stated that there was no unity in India. The name and chronological sequence of various Gupta Kings are given below. Jains. According to some Historians. The Guptas were termed as Vratya Khastriya (similar to Licchavis of Nepal) indicates they were not from Aryan stock. Magadha was frequently changing hands and finally it became a part of Kushana Empire until the raise of Gupta dynasty of Magadha.

Kurus. Bogura. It may be noted here that Chandragupta-I was trying to establish himself and for this purpose. He fought at western front and many of the Kings of Ikhshavakus. he was found to be busy in western and southwestern Kingdom of Magadha. Kamarupa. otherwise separately the defeat of Aryan tribes would not have been mentioned. Cooch Behar up to Gauhati. Nepal. Some of the Historians opines that there was no invasion of Samudragupta towards eastern India. Goalpara. Dinajpur and Rajsahi III. the states that paid taxes and accepted the rule of Samudragupta were as follows: I. which finally they succeeded by joining the Brahminic groups and by encouraging Brahmanic rules in the society. Both Licchavis and Guptas were termed as Vratya Khastriyas in Brahminic literature. These above facts clearly indicate Magadha as well as Bengal was a Non-Aryan country. Historians are of the opinion that probably Licchavis were very prominent and Guptas wanted to increase the level of their prestige in the society by linking them with Licchavis. the period of Guptas was termed as a golden period of India in Brahminic literatures. near Kumilla II. On the eastern side. hence Bengal except Samatata was perhaps under the rule of ChandraGupta-I. Davaka. ChandraGupta-I was succeeded by his son Samudragupta. 15 . were defeated by him. capital was Karmenta or Bada-Kamata.19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) Jivita Gupta Kumara Gupta-III Damodara Gupta Mahasena Gupta Aditya Sena Deva Gupta Vishnu Gupta Jivita Gupta-II Jivita Gupta was the last King of Gupta Dynasty found in Magadha. Guptas repeatedly used the name of Licchavis in their records.. This indicates Guptas and Licchavis were both of Non-Aryan race and Guptas were continuously trying for their elevation in the society. This logic appears to be quite illogical and Bengal was probably independent during this period. Madras etc. IV. Samatata. Chandra Gupta-I was married to Licchabi Princes. As a result of this.

He Killed Hun King Rajya-vardhana King of Thaneswar (west Punjab at Pakistan). Further down to the history of Bengal. The names of the rulers of Samatata were Bijaya Sen and Rudra Datta. Though Gupta Empire was disintegrated by this time. Dharmaditya and Samachar deva others were Prithvi-vir and Sudhanyaditya. He annexed Magadha and brought it under Gauda rule. until the downfall of Guptas. He is said to have defeated a combination of force of Bengal under a leader Chandra. Some of the prominent Kings were Gopachandra. it is definite that during the period of transition from SamudraGupta to ChandraGupta-II. The day corresponds to 12th April 593 AD. Bhanu Gupta or Bainya Gupta annexed Samatata to their kingdom. His Kingdom was extended up to Chilka-lake towards south. This declaration was recorded on a copper plate and available at Tripura. and the elder brother of Harsha Vardhana. several petty Gupta princesses continued to rule here and there up to 12th and 13th century AD. two strong Kingdoms were found to be established. They had donated huge land to one Pradosh Sarma for establishment and construction of temple.Samudragupta was succeeded by ChandraGupta-II. Sasamka established himself at the throne of Gauda around 593 AD. They ruled independently but accepted the sovereignty of Guptas. from the above.Sasanka also occupied Kannauj (beyond present Kanpur of UP) for some time. The founder of this dynasty was Shree Nath. Gopachandra ruled for 18 years and succeeded by Dharmaditya. During the period of ChandraGupta-I and SamudraGupta. His capital was Karna-Subarna (Kan-sona near Rangamati of Murshidabad district). the eastern part of Samatata was being ruled by Lok Natha. He was further succeeded by Samachar deva and ruled for 14 years. It is interesting to note that the Bengali calendar (Bangabda) also started from 593 AD. This is first time that the name "Gauda" had appeared in the history of Bengal. Bengal was independent. At the time of Bhanugupta. He was the first historical 16 .e. The prominent states were Bardhaman and Sabarnabithi. the rulers of Pundravardhana (North Bengal) were Brahma Dutta and his son Jaya Gupta. This reminds the fighting strength of twelve Bhuias of Bengal against a mighty Mughal at a later date. They were ruling independently except the fact that they used to pay taxes to Guptas and used to work as vassals of them during war. at the time of Bhanugupta/ Bainya Guptas). a fifth descendent of Nath dynasty. It was a Monday which corresponds to the day. Bengal was thus brought under Guptas and continued to be a part of Gupta Empire up to 551 AD. Historians opined that Gopachandra was the founder of independent Kingdom of Samatata around 507 AD (i. The first one was at Samatata (East Bengal) and the other one was Gauda (present Malda). However. dedicated to Lord Siva and King Sasamka was a devout Saiva.

In spite of all his effort he failed to defeat Sasamka. They fought to the last person with Kashmir Army at Srinagar. The period of various Kings of Pala dynasty are given below: Sl. On hearing the death of Bengal King. 2. After some time. All these Kings were believers of either Buddhism or Nathism. The Gauda king was forced to join Lalitaditya to accompany him to Kashmir. Name of the Pala King Gopala Dharma Pala Deva Pala period in AD 750-775 775-812 812-850 17 . During this period King Lalitaditya of Kashmir defeated Yosovarmana at the beginning of 8th century AD. His surname "Naga" indicates that he was a Non-Aryan by race. During the period of turmoil. 3. No.Bengali king who made Bengal as a major political power and player at National level. Another prominent dynasty was Nath Dynasty. They destroyed the Dynasty of Bhaskar-verma. 1. After the death of Sasamka. During this period Tibetans occupied Kamrupa and Assam. Bengal Army of elephants probably joined with the army of Yosovarmana in the battle with Lalitaditya. Part of Bengal was annexed by Harsha to his Kingdom and a part was occupied by his friend Bhaskar verma of Kamrupa. The Father-in-law of Licchavi King Jaideva-II. By religion he was a Vaishnava. Historians opine that they had migrated from Nepal and ruled in Bengal at the end of 7th century AD. Thereafter Bengal probably was divided into many small Kingdoms. Harsha-Vardhana succeeded in his effort. a local by name 'Gopal' was made the king of Gauda to bring good Administration in Bengal. where he was killed by Lalitaditya. The next one-century of Bengal was found to be in Darkness. Harsha Vardhana tried his level best to defeat Sasamka and to annex Bengal into his Kingdom. Kannauj King Yosovarmana also occupied Gauda and Bengal for some period. the Bengali Army marched to Kashmir and destroyed the household deity of the Kashmir King as revenge. Jayanaga established a strong Kingdom at Gauda. Next. The prominent Rauts were Jeevandharan Raut and Sree Dharan Raut. Bengal was under attack by Saivas and probably they occupied Pundravardhana around 725 AD. This Tibetan rule was ended at 702 AD. During that period. the Bay of Bengal was termed as Tibetan Sea. This was the beginning of Famous Pala dynasty of Bengal who ruled for a period of almost next 400 years. by name Harsha also defeated Gaudas subsequently. Palas are said to be from Samatata area. He also took the help of Kamrupa King Bhaskar verma. other family was Rat or Raut. Kharga dynasty was one of them.

13. 7. 12. 6. 8. 5. 14.4. 15. 9. 10. 11. 17. 16. Mahendra Pala Narayana Pala Raja Pala Gopala-II Bigrahapala Mahi pala-1 Naya Pala Bigraha Pala-II Mahi Pala-11 Sura Pala Ram Pala Kumara Pala Madan Pala Govinda Pala 850-865 875-932 932-967 967-987 987-992 992-1042 1042-1058 1058-1085 1085-1086 1086-1092 1092-1141 1141-1143 1143-1177 1177-1180 Pala Empire (Dharma Pala) Above is the map of Pala empire during the period of Dharma Pala 18 .

which was inherited by him from his father. Nalanda Vihar became a prime Buddhist cultural center and educational institute of international repute.Below is the map of Pala Empire during the period of Deva Pala Deva pala empire Prominent Pala Kings: 1. During his period. Narayanapala: He was the son of Mahendra pala. Dharmapala: He was probably the most prominent king of Pala Dynasty. His mother was a Chedi Princess Lajja of Ilaihaya Dynasty. The Gurjara invasion towards east was successfully controlled by him and they were defeated by Devapala. During his period Kamarupa kings Ilarjar and later on his son accepted the Sovereignty of Palas. He humbled the pride of Huna Aryans of Central Asian countries. Odantapuri Vihar was constructed during his period. He succeeded in establishing his authority over entire Bengal. At least for some time. He established his authority beyond the area of Bengal Bihar and up to Kannauj also. He ruled from Bengal up to Rewa. He encouraged intellectuals. who were Brahmins. 2. Devapala: He established his authority over Kamrupa He invaded Orissa (Utkala). His ministers were Darbhapani and his son Kedar Mishra. 19 . He extended his Kingdom. 3. however he was a true secular as could be observed that his ministers were found to be Brahmins. is a district now. near to Allahabad. Gopala: He was the founder of the Pala dynasty of Bengal. Rewa is in Madhya Pradesh. He was also a Devout Buddhist like his father. He was a devout Buddhist and Patronized Buddhism in Bengal. 4.

The dynasty began with Samanta Sen. The Senas were Staunch believers of Vedic Brahminism . would have been an Aryan. The Palas were finally dethroned by Senas around 12th century A. Bijaya Sen son of Hemanta Sen extended the areas by defeating other adjoining Jamindar Kings of the surrounding areas and finally occupied East Bengal and some part of North Bengal. He regained the lost kingdom of his fore fathers. the lost prestiges of Palas were regained. An agreement took place between Cholas and Palas. They did not go back to Andhra and instead settled down at the lower part of Bengal. a Bengal Prince. During his period Bengal once again became the prominent power and played a major role in the political game of North India. The army of Cholas then turned towards north.He was married to Chalukyan Princess Rama Devi. He was succeeded by his son Ballala Sen . However if the 20 . The later Palas could not maintain the Kingdom established by their ancestors and thus began the decay of Pala dynasty. Rajendra Chola succeeded initially and defeated Dharma pala of Danda bhakti (Balasore and Midnapur dist.D. Thus he was left only to rule the eastern part of South Bengal. Some historian opines that Vijaya Simha. (Near present Bangalore of Karnataka) They migrated to Kolar then to Andhra and from Andhra they came to Bengal along with the army of Rajendra Chola-I. The Sena king was not prepared for the sudden invasion of Bakhtiar and fled to East Bengal. who settled in Sri Lanka during 6th century BC. This Govinda Chandra was a cousin of Palas. He was the most prominent king of Sena dynasty. where he was successfully checked by Mahipala and the Chola army could not cross the river Ganga. Many towns and lakes were made named after his name in his honour. Mahipala: During his period. His son Hemanta sen defeated other small Jamindar Kings of the surrounding areas. Ranasur of southern Rarh including Howrah and Hoogly dist and Govinda Chandra of Vanga Desha. where he and his descendant ruled for another fifty years. Analysis: This is all about is available regarding Political history of Bengal. As per historians. It was during his period that the famous Chola invasion of Rajendra Chola-I took place. He was succeeded by Lakhsman Sen at around 1202 A. During his period Bengalis regained its lost pride.D. Palas agreed to dispatch the holy water of the Ganges to south and Rajendra Cholas daughter was married to Govinda Chandra. From these historical facts. His popularity could be measured by the fact that a lot of folk songs were made in his name. During his stay at Nadia it was attacked by the first Aryan but of Islamic faith by name Mohammed bin Bahktiar. we could not trace out any Aryan invasion to Bengal or their mass settlement by defeating the local and original inhabitants of Bengal or Magadha. due to his name. until it passed away into the hands of Aryan Muslims of Rig-Vedic places.).5. originally the Senas were from area of Nandi Hills.

Sasamka. On the other hand. Arjunayanas Yaudheyas and Madrakas and conquered North India. As per Atharva Veda. Raja Janaka of upanisadic fame of Mithila was also not Aryan. Kosola was the eastern boundary of Aryan civilization and culture. Further. Samudra Gupta and his son Chandra-Gupta-II who were also non-Aryans defeated the Rig-Vedic Aryan tribes eg.. The Mauryas were also a Non-Aryan tribe. Magadha and Anga were still regarded with aversion and the people were described as Vratyas.. The Nepalese also bears names which are not of Mongolian origin. He checked the combined forces of Harsha Vardhana of Thaneshwar and Bhaskar varmana of Kamrup. The names of the Cooch kings of Kamarupa were also found to be as Nara Narayan. However their races were not originated from any Aryan race. the Non-Aryan Kings only found to control 21 . Even Lord Buddha was termed as Vratya Khastriya and belonged to Nepal. During the period of Sena dynasty. Gauda Empire was extended up to Kannauj and Rewa area of Vindhya. outside the pale of Brahmanism. during the Pala dynasty of Bengal. The title of most of the people of Manipur is found to be Singh. The name Radha Vinod is not originated from any Mongolian word. he was described as a Vratya (Non-Aryan) King. He was also a ruler of North India including the places which were ruled by Aryan Kings. all the Kings of Magadha and Bengal were termed as Vratya Kshatryas in Brahmanic Literature. Thus the above facts indicate that the Bengal was never invaded nor annexed to any Aryan Kingdom. the time from where more or less the historical records are available. Nripendra Narayan. it is observed that the Non-Aryan kings ruled over these places and on many occasions the Rig-Vedic Aryan tribes were defeated by them and those places became a part of their Empire. Magadha and Anga was not yet influenced by Aryan culture and the inhabitants of these places were regarded as strangers as per Vedic literatures of Brahmanas and Aryanyakas. Bimbisara was termed as Vratya. Lord Mahabir Jaina was also termed as a Vratya Khastriya and usually called as Jaina-Muni. He was termed as Sakya Muni and never as a Rishi. Radha Vinod Koijam. They had expanded their empire beyond the Frontiers of India. a strong and powerful King by name "Prithu" was the ruler of the East. even though. it is not possible to accept that the race of Vijaya Simha was Aryans. For example the name of the Chief Minister of Manipur during 2000-2001 is Mr.above logic is taken as granted then Manipuri people can be termed as Aryans. Rishi was a title for Vedic intellectuals and spiritual leaders. and Jagaddipendra Narayan etc. They were all belongs to Non Aryan race found to be closed to Mongolian race. Hence. On the other hand starting from 550 BC onwards. In fact. Hence this logic can not be acceptable. Their names are found to be like other Indian names. Magadha was under the rule of Gauda kingdom. the King of Gauda successfully checkmated the invasion of Thaneshwar (West Punjab of Pakistan) King Rajyavardhana successfully and killed him. the Nepalese are of Mongolian race and not belong to any Aryan stock. It is stated by the Historians that during the period of 6th century BC.

Even today the name of the National Airlines of Afghanistan is called as Aryana Airlines and from this name "Aryan" the countries Iran. Further to note that Parthian Greek's and Bacterian Greeks during their peak days declared themselves as rulers of Aryasthan and Hindustan. Therefore. which others had done could not find places in historical records. This clearly indicates that India was never termed as Aryasthan. recorded in our history.handsome tall Aryan males and black skinned sort Non-Aryans female is ruled out. caste. 22 . Mr. We will see further details on Bengalis in religion. culture and Language sections. as the Aryan females were fair and beautiful than Non-Aryan females. Chola princess and Sena Kings were married to Chalukyan Princess. Arab.D Banerjee the famous personality of Bengal also recorded that "There is no mention of any Aryan Invasion or settlement at Magadha and Bengal in any ancient literature of India" He also stated that "Bengalis can be said to be of mixed blood of Dravidians and Mongols irrespective of their castes". the reverse may not be true. These are commonly known as Vedic religious system and Non Vedic (Vratya) religious system. Iraq. These are the only prominent cases. the marriage or union of a fair tall and Handsome Aryan male with a black skinned short NonAryan female is impossible to believe. Similar to these. Maurya kings Chandragupta Maurya and his son Bindusara were married to Greek Princess. Pala kings were married to Chedi Princess. Religious Developments in Bengal/Banga Desha According to modern historians and researchers primarily two religions were in existance in India. When the Non Aryan rulers defeated the Aryan Kings and annexed Aryan Kingdom.successfully Aryavarta. must have been taken place. However. It is evident from the fact that king Pasanedi was married to Madra (Present Panjab) Princess Kshema. it is natural that Non Aryan Army also captured Aryan female and brought along with them. Even today a marriage between a fair male and a black female is very rare. As a natural phenomenon. R. Aryasthan is the place beyond the mountain of HinduKush. Europe etc were derived. Bengali is a mixed race of fair.

some other Gods like Rudra and Vishnu became more prominent and the prime Gods of earlier period were put at back side. Vaisnava religion etc. Saiva religion. Abhinandana Nath.Vedic Religion: Vedic people were followers of Vedic system. means person who keep silence. Religious Developments of Bengalis: According to modern historians and researchers the earliest religion of Bengalis was Jainism. Lord Chandra. Suma Veda. Buddhist religion. animals used to be sacrificed and followed by a great feast. The prominent religions among them are Jaina religion. The followers of this religion were believers of multiple Gods and the main God was Lord Indra. The last Bhagawan Mahaveer was born at Vaisali (Present Mazaffarpur of Bihar). The Yagna was the main rituals of Vedic believers and during this ritual. Non Vedic Religion: Those who were not believer of Vedic religion have been classified as Non-Vedic or Vratyas. They address their enlightened teachers/preachers as “MUNI”. During the post Vedic period from 1200 BC to 700 BC. They used to address their enlightened ones as “RISHI”. In his honor a place was named as “Bardhaman” which is now a district of West Bengal. Padmaprabha Nath. Sambaba Nath. They were believer of simple life and were believers of spirit and destiny. Almost all the slokas/verses of Vedas were dedicated to their Gods and praying for obtaining cows. and their holy books were Rig Veda. Other deities were Lord Surya. Two Theerthamkaras Viz. Lord Mahaveer. Historians believe that the 1st mandala and the 10th mandala of Rig Veda were compiled at a much later stage. Sumit Nath. Atit Nath. The main characteristic of Non Vedic people are that they used to believe in austerity or vrata. the last Teerthamkar spent 18 years of his spiritual life in this land and preached Jainism. 19th Lord Malli Nath and the 21st took birth at Mithila. Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. It is in this Bengal where 23 Theerthamkaras. Ajeevaka religion. They used to invoke their Gods through Holy fire known as “HOMA or YAGNA”. Lord Mitra. All their Gods are of male characters.and the last 24th Teerthamkar Bhagawan Mahaveer left his body at 23 . 2nd Teerthamkar Muni Vasupujya Nath left his physical body at Champa (Capital of Anga near present Jamalpur of Bihar). Theerthamkaras viz. out of a total 24 Theerthamkaras left their temporal world. At a later stage Rudra become synonymous with Shiva and slowly Prajapati appeared as God during this period.20th Teerthamkar Muni Subrata Nath was born at Rajgriha of present Bihar. and Lord Varuna etc. The word MUNI was derived from MOUNI. women and wealth indicating their materialistic approach to their life. and Bhagawan Parsha Nath left their temporal world at a hill named as Parsha Nath Hill near present city of Ranchi.

Further to this. The founder or the 1st Teerthamkar of Jainism was Lord Adi Nath. And in course of time become the fundamental source of all Indian philosophies. 24 . meditation. Upanishadic philosophies were developed. energizing the individual soul to the highest level is the principle of Jainism. to wards the end of Vedic age (end of 5th Century BC). Jain religion was originated at eastern India. The place where these philosophical discourses (as described in Upanishads) took place was Mithila at the court of King Janaka. D. 22nd Teerthamkar Lord Aristha Nami Nath was born. Probably during this period or subsequent period. There was no concept of “atma/spirit” in Vedic religion and was introduced at a very later stage. Historically Lord Nami Nath was a cousin of Lord Krishna of Mahabharata and this indicates how old the Jainism is. Probably at a later stage Lord Shiva was mapped on Adi Nath and Lord Shiva started his own philosophy and people who followed him were identified as Saivas. there appeared Upanishad. He was also addressed as Brishav Nath or Rishav Nath. According to Swamy Adidevananda of Ramakrishna Math. According to historians Upanisads were written around 700 BC to 600BC. control of body and mind together in a synergic way to wards salvation. which is nothing but the state of Shiva or Bramha. As per historians and Prof. On the other hand the concept of “Atma/Spirit” was already available in Jainism much earlier in this Banga Desha of eastern part of India. The concept of “atma/spirit” was defined and for the first time appeared in Bhihadaranyaka Upanishad. In modern Hinduism Adi Nath or Brishav Nath or Rishav Nath is known as Lord Shiva. The word “jeena” or conquering of body and mind is the essence of life and from this only “JAINA” was derived and the religion was name as ‘JAIN”. the main Vedic rituals of sacrificing of animals was totally discarded and chosen the path of “ahimsha” and huge yagna was replaced by meditation or austerity /Vrata. This highest level of soul was defined as the Universal soul in Upanishads. R. Banerjee. From this only the fundamental principle of Upanishads was derived as “TAT TWAM ASHI” or “AHAM BRAMHASMI” and the syllable “OUM” were derived. and further 300 yrs earlier to Lord Parsha Nath. If we look at Jainism.Apapa puri of Magadha. This also shows that Upanisads are not as old as we used to think. Lord Mahaveer was born during 600 BC and 200 yrs earlier to him was Lord Parsha Nath took birth. again in Banga Desha. One important change was observed by researchers about Vedic religion that during this Upanishad period. All these were flourished in the very region of eastern /north eastern India and the spiritual concept was spread to north and rest of India.

Saiva and other non Vedic religions are known as Vratya religion as these religions are based on austerity and vratas. Bajra yana. Gautama Buddha was the prince of Kapila vastu. Buddhist. Kapalikas etc and these systems do not recognize the authority of Vedas. the 12th April of 593 AD. most of the spiritual leaders were kings or princes and all of them belonged to Royal families. Mantra and Yantra were developed by Buddhism and in course of time Buddhism was also modernized and god divided into many divisions like Hina yana. and during his period north India was ruled by Hun King Harsha Vardhan. On the other hand all the Vedic intellectuals/Rishis worked for material gain and pleasure as evident from verses written by them addressing to their Lords (ref.Besides this. Thus it is clear that during this period. and Sahaj 25 . Banga Desha was occupied by invaders and Buddhism spread over Banga desha. These religions never recognized the authority of Vedas. Ajeevakas and Saivas at a later period were further divided as Pasupatas. King Harsha was a Buddhist and as a result Shasanka was against Buddhism. and Nami Nath was the prince of Mithila and so on. Nathas. Aghories. Jain. whereas Pasupatas. The famous ladies like Maitreyi. The primitive form of Jainism and Saivaism was followed by Buddhism and Ajeevakas and Saivaism in Banga Desha. Maha yana. It is well known fact that he was a devout Saiva. it is interesting to observe that during this Upanishadic period. The Banga calendar (Bangabda) was inagurated by King Shasanka during 593 AD. The day it was inaugurated was Monday the day of Lord Shiva. A similar situation could be observed during the period of Bhagawan Sankaracharya. Parsha Nath was the prince of Kasi. the Vedic religion took a total change and absorbs almost all the important features of non Vedic philosophy in it and as a result of this Jainism might have been perished from this part of India. Gargi participated in various religious discourses during Upanishadic era were from this eastern part of India. However they lived on austerity or on vratas by ignoring and leaving the material gain and temporal comfort and pleasure. Rig Veda Samhita). All of them are seen in almost naked state. During the period of Pala kings (750 AD – 1180). Janaka was the king of Mithila. We can not find such examples in Vedas. Kalachakra yana. Banga Desha was under the influence of Buddhism and during this period Tantra. Kalamukhas. Ajeevakas were the believer of destiny. Kalamukhas and others were various divisions of Saivas. when he single handedly converted Buddhist people and Jain people to Vedic people by adopting all the good features of those faiths into Vedic system and as a result Buddhism perished from India. Naths. However after the death of King Shasanka. Bardhaman Mahaveer was the prince of Vaisali.

yana etc. Historians opine that Tantra, Mantra and Yantra were originally developed by Buddhist followed by Jains and finally hijacked by Vedic system. Tantra means cultivation of Tan or body, and Mantra means cultivation of Man or mind and finally Yantra originated from Yoni, about the cultivation of body and mind through Yoni Vidya. Buddhism collapsed due to its misusages of Tantra, Mantra and Yantra. Lord Sankaracharya however could not convert entire Banga Desha people in to Vedic fold. This was done by Sena kings of Bengal. During the ancient period there was no state of Bihar. The area beyond Anga and eastern part of Gandak a river was known as Banga Desha. During the invasions of Afghani people under the leadership of Md. Bin Bakhtier and others who were having Islamic faith used to call this area as Bihar due to huge population of Buddhist Mathas or Bihars. In course of time this area become famous as Bihar and ultimately got the name Bihar. Similar situation was prevailing in North Bengal and that place became known as Cooch Bihar. Cooch name came from the name of Cooch community and Bihar from Buddhist Bihars. However this system of naming failed at mainland of Banga Desha due to its high cultural and civilization background. During the period of Palas, Buddhism and Saivaism were at peak at Banga Desha. Both were under the influence of Tantra, Mantra and Yantra. During this period there was not much difference between Buddhists and non Buddhists as all were under the influence of Tantra, Mantra and Yantra. From Yantra system Famous Siddha Lord Matsendra Nath introduced “Koula” system, and on further development of the Koula system, on further development on Tantric field, the Koulas gradually developed Shakti Sadhana. In this Shakti system the fundamental objective remains same but the process is changed and the importance of female in sadhana was introduced. Finally due to some inherent faults in the system, the Kula system of Sadhana was further modified and help of women in Kula system was discarded and in place of it worship of women as Mother Godess started. The first one is known as “Bamachari system” while the second one was known as “right handed system” under main Kula system of Tantra. Thus Koula system was modified and ultimately “Kula” system was introduced. To days” Kumari Puja” is a modified and refined version of the same. This introduction of Yantra system of Buddhists and Saivas finally leads all the Bengalis towards Sakta system and this ultimately leads us towards Sakti Puja system, like Goddesses Durga, Kali etc. from Buddhist came Goddess Chinna masta, Raksha kali etc. In this system a disciple needs to be highly enlightened or intellectual and influential person in the society. Hence, only few

people were able to practice this type of meditation. The people who were under Koula- Kula shadhana system initially were named as Natha-Koula-System due to its origin and in course of time it became known as Kula system and the practitioners were termed as “KULIN”. During the period of Sena kings it was regularized and legalized once these people embraced and accepted the authority of Vedas over non Vedic religion. They were also given high position in the court of king and suitably rewarded and they were named as “KULIN”. Those who opposed to acknowledge the supremacy of the Vedas were made outcaste, tortured and extradited or banished from his state. After the period of Sena dynasty, Bengal was ruled by Afgani kings of Islamic faith. They used to call people as Hindus who were not following Islamic system and gradually the revised religion got its name as “Hinduism”. Along with Invaders various Sufis and saints also came to Banga Desha and the people who were having no place in the Hindu/Brahminic society found Islam as place of solace and they embraced enmass Islamic faith. In fact it is wrong to say that Hindu people were converted to Islam, the fact is that people having no place in Hinduism embraced Islamic faith. Also, Tantra, Mantra and Yantra were further modified and finally Bhakti was introduced in the religion, the followers were known as Vaishnavas. During the period of Sree Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, it got a major boost and gradually the Hindu society was divided in to two major groups as Saivaits and Vaishnavites. The influence of Vedas remains at backyard, but in the society the division of labour system was introduced as a caste system. The present Hindu systems are the continuation of the same with reformation wherever felt necessary. Some prominent personalities of Banga Desha of ancient period: 1) Siddha Kapil: He was one of the greatest and most distinguished Siddha of India for all times. The philosophy introduced by him is famous as “Saamkhya Darshan”. It is the oldest philosophy based on “purush” and “prakriti”. It is classified as one of the six premier Indian philosophies. It does not recognize Vedas. Muni Kapil established his seat at Gangasagara. Every year annual festival is held at this place in his honour.The temple dedicated to Kapil Muni is still maintained by non Vedic people. In his honour the city of Kapilavastu was named. The earlier name of Hardwar or Haridwar was Kapilasthan or Kapilashram. A stream fountain at Bodhgaya is also found to be named after him as Kapildhara .This is a very holy place particularly for Sadhus and Yogis. He was well respected in Holy book Bhagvata Gita as greatest among all sages.


2) Bhagawan Buddha (563 BC-483 BC): He belonged to Sakya community bordering present India and Nepal. He was the originator of Buddhism. This religion was flourished throughout India as well as abroad. The last fortress of Buddhism was present Bihar and Bengal. Even Lord Sankaracharya could not make it to perish it from present Bengal. The philosophy preached by Buddha does not recognize the authority of Vedas. Buddhism was the principal architect for the development of vernacular languages. The Language used by Buddhists are called “Prakrit “which means natural. On the other hand Vedic people were using “Sanskrit”, which means refined. It was not easy to eradicate Buddhism from India, until he was given the position of Lord Vishnu and was declared as an “AVATAR” of Vishnu.

3) Jaina Munis: As already described, there are 24 Jain Teerthamkar found in Jain religion and the Last was Bardhaman Mahaveer (600BC-527BC). He had spent 18 yrs of his spiritual life in Banga Desha. In his honour a place (Bardhaman) was named after him and now it is a district. The Jain religion does not recognize the supremacy and authority of Vedas. 4) Gouda Pada: He was the grand Guru of Bhagawan Sankaracharya, the great Advaitavadi and reformer of Vedic system. Gouda Pada was the first person to write explanatory note on Upanisads, known as “GOUDAPADA KARIKA”. Lord Sankaracharya included this karika in his books on Upanishads. He belonged to “GOUDA”, the ancient capital of Banga and the place of learning of Vedas. The surname Pada indicates that he belonged either to Buddhist community or Nath community of Bengal. This further it indicates that there were highly learned people, who were very proficient in Vedic philosophies. It is quite interesting to mention here that, there were five Vedic centers in ancient India. These are Saraswat (Taxila) in Punjab, Kanouj (between Allahabad and Kanpur) in present UP, Mithila in ancient Banga Desha, Goud/Gour in ancient Banga Desha and Puri in Utkala. Thus out of five centers two were in Banga Desha and one bordering Banga , and 4th one was at middle India and the 5th one at present west Punjab in Pakistan. This

In Buddhism. as one of the incarnation of Buddha. His famous mantra “Om Manipadme Hum” was adopted by Mahayani Buddhism. He is worshipped at Amarkantka (source of origin of the river Narmada) and the temple is named as “Matsendra Nath” temple. the famous Kashmiri Pandit expressed his deep respect and honor towards him as per Kashmiri literature.According to historians. He was the person who brought Buddhism closer to Saivaism and under his influence. Even though he was a Saiva Siddha. He was a great Hatha yogi and invented many yoga mudra which were named after him in his honor . the famous Buddhist personality Atish Dipnakar become his disciple and embraced Saivaism. Famous saint poet of Maharastra like Sant Gnaneshwar and Sant Tukaram are few among the parampara established by 29 . Even to day he and Lord Gorokhsha Nath are being worshipped at the Pashupati Nath temple of Nepal. Beside this. He was Saiva and founder of Sakta system in Bengal and India. he was highly respected in Buddhism. Sree Abhinavagupta Acharya. In Gujarat and Maharastra a lot of places still bear his name. He and his famous disciple Lord Gorokhsha Nath are worshipped even to day in Nepal.contradicts the theory that there were not Vedic intellectuals in Banga Desha prior to Sena Dynasty of Banga. Kastha Mandu became as “Kath Mandu”. He was equally respected among Kashmiri Saivaits. Mantra and Yantra in Bengal and from this at a later stage “Koulinya” or “Kulin” system was formed. He was also known as “Adi Kavi” of Bengali literature. it again contradicts that Vedic religion was an imported religion in line with Christianity and Islam. 5) Matsendra Nath: He is one of the most prominent Bengali. His wooden statue was being worshipped at a place and the place was named as “Kasthamandu” due to the Kastha Murthy (Wooden idol) and in course of time. He along with his disciples Lord Gorokhsha Nath and Bhartrihari / Bhartrhari Nath (Elder brother of King Vikramaditya of Ujjain) are worshipped at the famous temple of “Mahakal” at Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh. who had changed the religious history of Bengal as well as India and Nepal. he belonged to Mahesh Khali of present Bangla Desh. he is worshipped as “Avaloketishwara”. He had written books on this subject and is known as “KOULA GNAN NIRNAYA”. and capital of Nepal. He was the founder of “KOULA” and “KULA” system of Tantra.

He traveled throughout length and breadth of the country to spread the philosophy of Siddha-siddhanta and fought for a unified society. This Saktipeetha was discovered by Maharaja Vishwa Sihma (1496AD-1533AD) of Cooch Bihar and a temple was constructed by him. At Kolkata one of his disciples “Chourangi Nath” built an ashram and made a road from there to Kalighat temple for devotees. Afghanistan and Nepal. He is credited as the founder of the great Sakti temple of “Kali” of Kalighat at Kolkata. According to historians Prior to Bhaki movement. but now it is with Gowda community. The city of Gorokhpur was named in his honor. when a calf is born.him. They are still in occupation of Kamakhya Temple. He is also called as “Manasputra” of Matsendra Nath. He was credited as the founder of Famous Saktipeetha of Kamakhya of Assam. Lord Gorokhsha Nath was the undisputed socio-religious leader of India. He and Lord Matsendra Nath brought Buddhism closer to Sivasaktaism. His holy seats are available in all parts of India. The Gorkha race of Nepal was named after him in his honor. The Adichunchungiri math was established by his parampara. In Karnataka where he preached and temple was built by his disciple princess Mangala Devi of Kerala. Pakistan. 6) Lord Gorokhsha Nath: He was the most prominent disciple of Lord Matsendra Nath. He made a great impact in socio-religious movement and was the most prominent and influential leader of pre-medieval India. was named as Mangala Devi temple and the village was named after her as Mangalore. as a sign of respect towards him for his blessings to the kingdom. This family is known as Parvatia Gosain. His faith was found to be well accepted all over India including present Pakistan and Afghanistan and lot of places are found to be named after him in his honor. 30 . It is opened by Historians that “Gorokh Nath is the greatest religious leader and social reformer after Bhagawan Sankaracharya”. The way Bhagawan Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda were related. His foot print was emblemed on the crown of King of Nepal. He is worshipped in the village of Bengal during the Milk ceremony of Cow. Maharaja Nripendra narayana brought a Bengali Brahmin family in 1865 AD from Nadia district of Bengal and the temple was placed under the total administrative and religious control of this family. the same way Lord Matsendra Nath and Lord Gorokhsha Nath were related. Maharaja Naranarayana (1533AD-1587AD) further renovated it. The place was named as “Chourangi” and the road was named as “Chourangi road”. to day it is a major city of Karnataka.

Sahityacharya Dinesh Chandra Sen states in his book on “Banga Bhasha O Sahitya” that. He along with his wife Maa Sarada Devi and his most prominent disciple Swami Vivekananda are 31 . The history of developments of Indian vernacular languages and literatures begins with Nath Literature and Matsendra Nath was named as “Adi Kavi” of Bengali literature. His followers gave further thrust towards the developments of Bengali vernacular language. Hindi. etc. they established known as Nathism was credited to establish the Sakta system and later on many sects were born out of it. Their philosophy however. His followers are now spread throughout India and world over and they have formed a religious platform known as “ISKON”. or Hindi. The manifestation of his strength and character was described in the book named as “Goroksha Vijay”. etc are occupied by Matsendra Nath and Gorokhsha Nath about their glorious work and achievements. or Marathi. In the history of Bengali language we find Bhaki literature after Nath literature. wherein the best of Vratya and Vedic religion were amulgated. not recognized the authority of Vedas. The way Asoka pillar stands as a symbol of Buddhist era of India. the same way the philosophy of Siddha-siddhanta documented in “Goroksha Vijay” stands as a symbol of Nathism of Banga Desha. Historians say that Lord Sankaracharya kept Buddhism in a coffin and Chaitanya Dev put the last nail on it. HP Dwivedi in his book on them said that it was in Bengal. Telegu. The parampara. Himachali. He was credited to remove the last sign of influence of Buddhism from India. This also shows the nature and maturity of Bengali literature of ancient India. character of Gorokhsha Yogi was like a spotless white jasmine or parijat flower of sarad ritu. Prof. The Sampradaya established by Lord Matsendra Nath and Lord Gorokhsha Nath was also credited for the developments of the vernacular languages of India. 7) Chaitanya Maha Prabhu: He is known as the founder of Bhakti movement and establishment of Vaishnava Sampradaya of Bengal. Punjabi. Marathi. whether it is Bengali. The folk literatures of Bengali. 8) Bhagawan Sree Rama Krishna Paramahansa: Sree Rama Krishna is known as the greatest saint of modern India. to preach Bhakti philosophy. which is the oldest book in Bengali literature. the most famous Sakta worshipper of Bengal of modern period. where Lord Sankaracharya was defeated by a Bengali Sakta Tantrik Siddha of Nath Sampradaya.

He had established the modern Hindu religion and philosophy before entire western civilization. which were necessary for the society during the period they preached their philosophy and thoughts. creed. community and religion. This is how He used to command the respect throughout India and world. It was proved before great pundits of India by his Tantrik Guru Maa Bhairavi that he is a “Bhagawan” and declared Ramakrishna as “Paramahamsa”. an institution devoted to the study of Indian religions and dedicated the same to the service of mankind irrespective of caste. He combined Bhakti with Sakti. He was a Siddha in all respect and a great Tantrik philosopher. it is from this Bengal. 32 . He had established Ramakrishna Math. The world renowned Saint Swami Vivekananda was a great disciple of Bhagawan Sree Ramakrishna. while he was preaching the philosophy of Upanishads at the initial stage. All these great personalities of Banga Desha had adopted all the good qualities from various religions and faiths. 9) Swami Vivekananda: He is known as the greatest Indian Monk of Modern India. He introduced Bhakti in Yoga and Tantra. saying that he was not a Brahmin by caste and not eligible to preach . Prof. sex or religion. He declared that Vedas and Gayatri Mantra must be propagated among all.being respected and worshipped throughout the world. keeping their identity separately in a logical and rational way. irrespective of caste. Sahidulla of Dhaka University expressed that. It says “Service to anything is a service to lord Shiva” or “Siva gnyane jeeva seva”. where three greatest religious personalities were born in three different periods of time. and was one of the critical factor for the downfall of Nathism. The branches of Ramakrishna Mathas are now spread all over the world with its head quarter at Belur in Hoogli district of Bengal. This Bhakti was lagging in the philosophy of Matsendra Nath and Gorokhsha Nath. It is said that he was abused by orthodox Brahmins of South India. His simple preaching was “Jeeve prem koriche jei jon sei jon sebiche Ishwar. The teaching of Bhagawan Ramakrishna was very simple like nature. However at a later date they came to know about him and ultimately became his disciple and they were proud to introduce themselves as disciple of Swami Vivekananda.

Popularly it is said that Bengali Language was derived from the language Samaskrita. Historians have observed that politically. as per 'Lalita Vishtara’. Traditionally it is believed that Samaskrita is the mother of all Indian Vernacular language except four South Indian languages like Telugu.Viz. a) In ancient period. a book written by Buddhist scholars around 1st century BC. Sahityacharya Prof. Dinesh Chandra Sen mentioned in his Book "Banga Bhasha and Sahitya" that Bengali script was in existence prior to Vedic period when DevNagari script was not in existence. It has also been observed that the religions developed in this eastern part of India. the civilization at Bengal was in existence long before Aryan invasions (i. towards the development of Bengali Language. c) During the modern period Bhagawan Sree Ramakrishna Paramahamsa gave us “Seva Dharma” or “Shiv Gnyane Jeev Seva”. 33 . Kannada Tamil and Malayalam. b) During medieval period Bhagawan Sree Chaitanya Mahaprabhu gave us “Vaishnava Dharma” or “Bhakti Yoga”. and Samaskrita was the language of Aryans.e. DEVELOPMENT OF BENGALI LANGUAGE In this chapter an analysis has been carried out. socially. i. religiously and culturally. China and other Central Asian countries. Lord Matsendra Nath gave us “Nath Yoga” and “Sakta Dharma” or “Kula Dharma” and credited as the “Adi Kavi” of Bengali literature.They become immortal due to their credit for successful preaching of three different ideologies at three different periods to the people of India. “serve the people in the name of Lord Shiva”. actually spread out to Afghanistan. prior to 1500 BC) and the civilization of Bengal was much superior to than of Aryans.e.

The language of Hindustan was named Hindi. We should not forget the fact that during those periods there was no country by name as Uttar Pradesh. They were not familiar with the people of Ganges valley beyond Hindukush Mountain and Hindu valley. the Aryans of central Asia. Further. Thus. 34 . Sindhu. the same way the languages of various parts of Bengal are also different. the language Bengali began to develop from the time of Lord Buddha and taken some shape during the period of Mauryas. Karna-Subarna. On the other hand. Even though the area was named as Hindustan by Aryans. Samatata. Koshal. Pundra Vardhana. The way the Hindi language of Bihar is different than that of Lucknow or western UP. the southeastern part of present Bengal was termed as Vang-Lang by East Asians countries. Mathura. Dwar-Vanga. Chamurchi-Dwar etc. Brahmi and Magadhi Languages from his teacher Vishwamitra. Banga. Magadha. Sravasti. Hastinapura. Bihar. Radha. Mithila. according to “Lalita Vishtara". Lord Buddha learnt Anga. Since the country or state of Bengal by name was not in existence in particular during ancient time. Therefore we could see that both Bengalis and Maithilies claim the works of poet Vidyapati as their own. Vijji. The states were named as Mathura (Surasena). in all respect there is a possibility that DwarVanga probably was a part of Vanga and the town was being used as a gateway to enter into Vanga Desha. Panchala. Vaishali. Kasi. Gouda. Bengal or Assam. Some of the Historians opine that the place Dwar Vanga was the neighboring state of the then Mithila and Dwar-Vanga was the gateway to enter Vanga-Desha. It is similar to Boxa-Dwar. Thus. These names were introduced at a much later stage. According to some historians. Samatata. Bairat. Karna-Subarna. Jaina literature confirms that Mithila was a part of Vanga Desha.Also. During the Mahabharata period itself we could see Kingdoms like Gandhar. used to call the place beyond south of Hindukush mountain as Hindustan and the main river was termed by them as river Hindus or Indus. evidences on similarities can be observed in Bengali scripts and Maithili scripts and these two languages are also found to be very similar and close to each other in all respect. Pundra Vardhana. it was divided into various small Kingdoms. which are the gateways for entering the country of Bhutan. Panchal. in Ancient India the area from DwarVanga on the northwestern side and Magadha and Balasore on the west and Arakan. Meghalaya on east might have similar cultures and language and may be termed as Bengal. Indraprastha. Kamrupa etc. The similar ways Bengal as defined above were also divided into many independent kingdoms like Dwar-Vanga. On a similar terminology. and these Kingdoms were more or less independent. then Dwar-Vanga was definitely a part of Vanga Desha during those periods. however in broad sense the people beyond south of Hindukush range were used to be called as Hindus and thus the name Hindustan came. the languages used by the people were also not termed as Bengali language in general belief and hence sometimes confusion arises. Malla. Dandabhukti etc. Kasipa. Madra. Magadha. during the ancient period. the same way the language of this Bengal was named as Bengali. Koshal etc. If this is true.

Maithili Prakrit. It is also observed that during the period of Mahabharatha around 1000 BC. there was a need for a common Language. Goudiya Prakrit etc. from Iran. as it is necessary to analyze the development of Samaskrita language and Deva-Nagari script and essential to know the relation between Bengali language and Samaskrita language. i. Afghani etc rulers of Islamic faith at Bengal.The name Prakrita means natural. French. This is also true for poet Jaideva the writer of famous "Gita Govinda". they were definitely not familiar with the language of Indians of that period. an original. These places were the cultural hubs during tose period. hence these Prakrita languages were nothing but the natural languages which people used to speak among them for communication. it was not possible to record their civilisation in a documented form. remembrance through listening and chanting. Thus. be it Hindi or Bengali or Marathi or Gujarati. The languages and literatures were not standardized. how the communication was made? Further to this. particularly for communication. Hence. which they were able to recollect from their memory. depending on the place of origin of development. 35 . At a later date Muslim Aryans. When such was the case. Portuguese. Russia. The Standardization of Bengali language actually started from the time of turkey. which got matured during English rulers of Christian faith in Bengal. Thus it is very clear that during the Aryan ruling and their settlement at NorthWestern part of India. and Spanish etc from European countries invaded India. these are known as Magadhi Prakrita. This was a common feature during those periods. This was the reason that intellectuals termed Veda as Sruti. Turkemenia etc and Christian Aryans like English. This explanation has been felt necessary. This necessity probably became the cause for the invention of a standard language which was named as Samaskrita language. the story of Pandava Ghatha (Later it was expanded and named as Mahabharatha) was not recorded when it was narrated to the descendents of Pandava by the descendents of Vyasa. Historians opine that these Aryan invaders were not from the same place. Historians have proved now that Aryan people of Vedic civilization were not familiar with script. they were not familiar with Deva-Nagari script. religion and culture were passed on from generation to generation through listening. sometimes Bengal was ruled by kings of other places and some time others were ruled by Kings of Bengal. The names of these Prakrita languages were also named after the place from where it was originated and thus we have Suraseni Prakrit. They were from various parts of Central Asia and Western Asia etc. This was due to the fact that the areas of each state were not standardized.e. adventures. As a result of this.The same is true for Charya Padas also. Magadhi Prakrit. Gaudiya Prakrita. what has been termed as Pali or Apavramsha were in fact the local non-standard language. The Smrities are the literatures. their victories. These non-standard languages were termed as Prakrita or Apavramsha and were localized. Therefore. Since they were foreign invaders. people of present Bihar and Orissa claim this work of Charya Padas as their own work. Suraseni Prakrita etc.

3. The Brahmin literatures again tried to connect Vyasa as the son of Vedic Aryan Rishi Parasara. the son of Lord Siva and Parvati. These. The Title of "Adikavi" of Samaskrita was awarded to Valmiki. However He was not credited as the writer of Vedas or Puranas or Mahabharata. During the period of Kanva the Aryans were not aware of River Ganges and further Eastern areas and therefore the period of Kanva and the period of Valmiki could not be the same and thus treating Valmiki as the son of Kanva is not correct. This is further crystallized from the story that his descendant/ disciples narrated the story of Pandava Vijaya Ghatha to the descendent of Pandava. The credit for compilation of Vedas. The sage Kanva was credited as one of the composer of the RigVedic verses as per Rig-Veda. It has been opined by Historians that Deva-Nagari script was developed during later or post Vedic period at around 800 BC to 700 BC. 36 . not as a Rishi Ganesha as per Vedic tradition. who belonged to Non-Aryan community. Further. He was named as the composer or compiler only. Siddha was a Title for non-Vedic spiritualistic persons of very high calibre.This shows that the Deva-Nagari script was not developed even at 1000 BC. indicate that Vyasa was a pure Non-Aryan intellectual person. The credit for recording of Mahabharata was given to Lord Ganesha. Valmiki belonged to hunter (Nishad/Baheliya) community. if Vyasa was the son of sage Parasara and Satyavati. He was the son of an unwed mother Satyavati. The time Lexicon does not co-relate the time of sage Parasara to the period of Satyavati. Later on Brahminic literature tried to present him as a Brahmin by connecting him as the son of some Aryan Rishi Kanva. Satyavati was a non-Aryan and was the daughter of a fisherman. Mahabharata and Puranas was accorded to Vyasa. Vyasa was a very dark complexioned person and was born at Lake Dvaipayana. Some of these hidden clues are described below for ready reference: 1. Thus the invention and development of Samskrita both were credited to NonAryans and non Vedic personalities.. Lord Ganesha was a famous intellectual and a Siddhayogi. 2. This indicates that the script was not developed at that time. This fisher woman became the Queen of Hastinapur at a later stage. Rishi Parasara was the son of Suktri and grand son of Bramharshi Vasishtha. as a result of this he was named as "Krishna-Dvaipayana". As a result he was honored as Siddhi-data Ganesha. then Vyasa's complexion could not be very dark and feature should not be of demonical type. It has been opined by Historians and Researchers that there are many hidden clues available in the Vedic or Brahmanic literatures that Non-Aryans were the inventors and developers of Samaskrita language and Deva-Nagari script.

Urdu language is popularly known as the language of Muslim people. Urdu was born in the market places of Shahjahanabad (Delhi) after 1648 AD. Even in remote South Indian villages. This was between 1347 and 1518 AD much earlier to 1648 AD. The highest mountain of the world was discovered by Rakhal Das Bandopadhyaya but it was named after the Director General of GSI who had patronized this work. Since they were patrons for this development it was patented or branded in the name of that community. It can be observed that almost 80% words of Urdu are Hindustani and balance 20% are borrowed from Iranian/Arabian etc. In the similar way. Sherwani also mentioned that Urdu had its embryonic form in the shape of Dakhinis under the rules of Bahamanis. the question appears in mind of every body that. Another classic case is the development of Urdu language. This language became popular among Muslims (native as well as invaders) of India and patronized by Aryan Muslim rulers. His name was Everest and hence the mountain was named as Mount Everest. if we extrapolate in a backward direction towards Vedic period. The script and style of writing (from right to left) was borrowed from Arabian script and Arabian style of writing. The question is. Prof. from the above. Naturally. we could observe a close similarity of development between Urdu and Samaskrita Language. According to Prof. when they speak among themselves. Similar cases could be seen. The only difference is that when Aryans of Islamic faith invaded India. when the Aryans of 1500 BC invaded India and became the ruler of North western part of India.Therefore. The Muslim rulers patronized for the development of Urdu Language. Languages. This was the main reason 37 . According to Syed Ahmed Khan. Now Urdu becomes a national language of Islamic State of Pakistan. Native Muslim people are found to use Urdu language in their home. Hence it was branded as a Muslim language. Sherwani "the word Urdu is a kin to the word Ordu in Turkish meaning the Army". even in modern times. being such a case. it may be inferred that the Samaskrita Language and development of Deva-Nagari Script were primarily developed by Non-Aryan intellectuals. had patronized for the development of this language. was this language brought to India by the Aryan Muslim rulers from Central Asian countries (the homeland of Aryan) or developed by Indians in India? The history is very well known as this process of development of Urdu Language is not that old and full historical details are available to us. why this language was branded as Aryan Language and script as Deva-Nagari script? The probable reason could be that the Aryan Kings who were ruling at the NorthWestern/Northern part of India. they were not having any script or any knowledge of writing. The style of speaking is more or less in Hindustani style. a language and script was already available with them. where as.

Kuyub. 8. 2. Vritra was the king of the area which was South West of Satudri and Vipasa River. Let us look at the word "Samskrita". Hence if Samskrita scripts language is of Aryan origin. 7. Kushwa. Ataka and Brihadratha. called "Khorosthi" at North Western part of India and a script called "Brahmi” at the Eastern parts of India. The word "Samas" implies to equality and "Krita" implies to done. He destroyed cities like Mahabalistan. This may be observed from the various verses of Rig-Veda also. Namamuni. Briddha. This means that these names were in existence before the Aryan rulings in India. Sambar and Pudhyamedhi. Anurnabha. The leader of this army of 10. Indra killed Sushna and destroyed his cities and looted his wealth. However. killed by Aryan leader Indra were Non-Aryans. Indra killed Pipru. 9. Ahisucha. Another hidden clue but most is the name of the language itself. Kheshpal. Also. In this battle. When the Aryan Muslims came to India. This is probably the main reason that most of the words of Samaskrita are found to be of Non-Aryan origin. 1. and Arbud. 6.000 men on the bank of river Amsumati (presently known as river Yamuna). That is the work probably was shared equally by Aryan invaders and NonAryan natives. Indra killed Vritrasura. He killed Devaka. The style of writing of "Khorosthi” was from right to left where as for "Brahmi" it was from left to right. Pravik. The work was probably initiated and patronized by Aryans where as Research and development work was probably carried out by non-Aryans. Sruta. It is observed that during 6th century BC. as these non-Aryans were already experienced and familiar with the some script. 4. 5.000 was a non-Aryan by name Krishna. Vyamsa. they came with Knowledge of writing with a style from right to left and hence adopted both the script and style of their home land. Some of them are quoted here for ready reference. Indra destroyed 100 cities of Sambar and handed over to Divodas. Byarn. The Mauryas were using a script. most probably Indra was defeated and fled. the part of North West India was under the rule of Iranian Kings and during the 4th century BC it was ruled by Mauryas of East India. Arna and Chitraratha. it should have been from right to left not from left to right. Therefore justice is done by honouring both the groups by naming the language as "Samaskrita". these names are now branded as popular Samaskrita names. it was stated in Rig-Veda that Indra fought a battle with a Non-Aryan army of 10. 4. He killed Garchi. Bramha Kurush. All these people. Naitandhav. 3.that the style of writing of Samaskrita is from left to right which is of pure Indian thought and origin. He killed Twasta and his son Vishwarupa. He killed Navavastra. Hence the names which are now found in Samaskrita are actually pre-Aryan pre-Vedic and PreSamaskrita names. like Mohammed Ghori 38 .

It is a fact that nothing is found to be perfect in this Universe if it is natural. If Indra was the winner. Thus in other words it may be inferred that the majority words of vernaculars are in fact of non-Aryan origins. On the other hand the features of Bengalis can not be said to be close with the features of the people of Rig-Vedic places.or Mihir Gula of later period. hasta became hattha and finally became hath. Historians also observe that the grammar of Samskrita language is almost perfect in comparison to any other Language of the world. from 600 BC to 2000 AD) covering a period of more than 2500 years. it has to be mixed with Rajas and Tamas to 39 . Majority words of Vernacular languages of India thus found their way in Samaskrita and it has been shown that majority of Samaskrita words are of nonAryan origin. as a result words also used to get distorted in terms of pronunciation and hence in spelling too. there is no way to derive the name Hindustan or Bharat Varsha or Banga from the word Aryan.e. There are many words/names like this. it may not be unnatural to assume that it is the mother of all vernacular language. Babylonian kings of Iran used to call themselves as Aryans. Exactly. the language/pronunciations vary from place to place. The words of Samaskrita were thus heavily dominated by pre-Aryan/ pre-Vedic words and later on new words in modified and refined form were also added to suite the style or pattern of Samaskrita Language. As per historical records. on the other hand there is no historical record of such type in the History of Magadha or Bengal from the historical time (i. which are available in Vedas. Further. Even creation is impossible out of pure satta. These incidents also points us towards the fact that the word "Krishna" was not an Aryan name but a non-Aryan name and originated from non-Aryan language. That might be the reason for Krishna to become Kanha and to Kanai. As mentioned earlier. It is because of these heavily populated non-Aryan words in Samaskrita. as it was the first standard recognised language of India. the same way the name of the places of Aryan settlements also changed gradually as Aryan to Airan to Iran Airan to Airab to Arab Airab to Airaq to Iraq Airab to Airap to Europ to Europe The features of the people living at these above said places are found to be very similar to the features of Aryans as described in Vedas. until standardization took place. In fact all kings of eastern India were termed as Vratyas. Krishna would have been killed by Indra and Indra would have been further glorified as a destroyer and killer of demon Krishna and his ten thousand army men in Rig-Veda as per the style of RigVeda.

"Samaskrita" means refined i. Exactly the same way the rich 40 .. Archeologists discovered the sites of copper age civilisation in various parts of Bengal and Eastern parts of India. This also indicates that the Samaskrita words and language was found and developed from these Prakrita words and language by refinement and ornamentation.e. at Pandurajar Dhibi. were united and was brought under the control of Muslim rulers. On the other hand.) A good civilization could not be in existence unless there was a good language for communication. The literature up to 12 century AD was fully dominated by Bauddha and Natha-literatures. These intellectual wise people were using this language as a secret weapon and exploited to their own advantages. It may be noted that as per Historians Samaskrita script was developed around 800 to 700 BC and the first Samaskrita grammar was written by Nirukta around 700 BC and the final grammar on Samaskrita language was written by Panini around the end of 4th century BC or early 3rd century BC. it could never become a language of common people as a natural language and remains under the control of few intellectual wise men. Mahabalistan. Keeping this in mind. The standardization of Bengali Language actually started from Islamic rules of Bengal when the entire Bengal consisting of Gauda. Some flaws and exception always exist in any natural phenomenon or processes. Modern Historians opines that there was no influence of outside towards the development of Bengali Literature up to 12 century AD. This standard language is termed as the language of Bengal and now is in use in our literature. that language was probably not termed as a Bengali language and it might be varying in pronunciation and accordingly in spelling from place to place in Bengal.affect it as stated by Swami Harshananda of Sree Ramakrishna Matha (Mylapore. the name "Prakrita" means natural or the language of the common people. This we may refer as a non-standard Bengali Language. Samaskrita language was not a natural language but a refined version of natural language or artificial language. Karna-Subarna and Pundra Vardhana etc. ( Namely. Darjeeling etc. Also it is interesting to note that the Maithyli language (language of Dwarvanga) is closer than that of Chattagram and Shillet to the standard Bengali language. Similar opinion is found in our Puranic stories also. it appears that in all probability the language Samaskrita was developed by some wise men of ancient time and the formula and processes were kept as secret like the formula of an atom bomb. The outside influence on Bengali language was started only from 12th century AD during the time of invasion of rulers from the land of Rig-Veda of Islamic faith. In case of river it flows on its own way. Which was commonly termed as Pali or Prakrita or Apavramsha language of Bengal. Chennai) in his book "Hindu Gods and Goddesses". Since Samaskrita was an artificial language. It has been proved by modern researchers and Historians that a good civilization was in existence in eastern part of India and in Bengal. However the spoken language can be seen varying from place to place. but an artificial river or canal flows in a controlled way as desired by human. As already stated earlier. This process of standardization was completed during the British period. However.

and powerful countries of today having nuclear weapon are exploiting other nonnuclear countries for their own advantages and benefits. based on heredity as specified in Vedic 41 . DEVELOPMENT OF ARYAN SOCIAL SYSTEM/ VEDIC SOCIAL SYSTEM OF CASTEISM IN BENGAL Aryan Social System As we know the social system of Aryans were based on the division of labour. There were primarily four divisions. probably under the patronization of some good Aryan rulers. it probably may not be illogical to infer that Samaskrita language was not the language of Aryans. It is a language developed scientifically by Non-Aryan’s wise intellectual men. Hence it may not be fair to say that Bengali Language has been originated from Samaskrita Language. Thus looking back at the various Historical/Religious/Linguistic points of view as described.

They were the policy/rule makers and kings were to execute these rules over the society. Vaishya and Sudra. Their role was to look after the defence of their state/country. These Vratya civilizations do not recognize the division of Labour based on heredity or as a birth right of the people. Buddhism. They were supposed to help Kings in financial affair. next to Brahmins in the society 3.literatures. They were supposed to work for other three communities. Ajeevakas etc. Brahmin: This was the intellectual community and was placed at the highest rank in the society. That is to say that at any organization there is a supreme head. Varnashrama system and its development It is a natural phenomenon that any administrative system. These people were supposed to look after “Vishaya” means wealth. These people were supposed to know “Brahma” and live on “Brahma”They were the social administrators and were in the ministerial and advisory posts for kings. They were at the lowest category of the society. followed by few assistants and each of these few assistants is further assisted by a few more and like this. These people were supposed to look after the “Kshetra” and protect it form others. 90th Sukta (which is known as famous Purusha Suktam) about the origin of four castes namely Brahmin.”Kshetra” means Area of Land. not as a father's son.e. the system of control normally looks similar to that of pyramidal structure. whether it is an industrial system. Again same Rig-Veda mentioned at 10th Mandala. i. These four categories of people were in existence and were in practice during the ancient period at the areas of central Asian countries. Vaishya: This was the community of Traders of Business people. Kshatriya: This was defined as the martial/military community. This is also the fundamental principle towards the development of famous ABC 42 . 2. Sudras: This was a community of people of working class and known as Labour community. This community was ranked as third or next to Khastriya community. This civilization believed on the ability of an individual. Tthey were also to look after the political administrative affairs with the help and guidance of minister. The Hallmark of Vratya society was castelessness. These are: 1. Saivaism Nathism. 59th Sukta at 8th Sloka about 5 different Varnas. Khastriya. Rig-Veda mentioned at 3rd Mandala. Non-Aryan/Non-Vedic social system Non-Vedic/Non-Aryan or Vratya civilizations are Jainism. They were ranked as number two. the control or governance follows from top to down level. 4. as per the rules formed by Brahmins. They were the priest community and were entitled to study and learn Vedic rules/rituals and preach accordingly. or a political system or any social system.

whose contribution with respect to total contribution is very low. if resources fall under A-class does it mean that in subsequent years. However. the same items will remains under A-class category? The answer is may be or may not be. The ABC theory states that in any resource system. which was earlier classified under A-category. In similar way. These are called A-class resources and utmost care normally given to these few resources. These obsolete resources may be terminated under one more category called as “D” category of resources. Therefore based on Utilisation resources may be classified as under: A-class: B-class: C-class: D-class: These 10% of the resources. any resources can not remain at a fixed position permanently. The next 70% of the resources. it is classified as A-class and will continue to remain. Thus. of resources in this category is thus comes to 70% but the value of contribution becomes only 10%. There are other resources. The resource which becomes contribution less in the organization are 43 . If the resource contribute in such a manner that its contribution to the organization in the year considered. The last category of items are defined as those items. These large numbers of resources are called C-class resources. resources coming under B or C category may also come under Acategory depending upon the contribution to the total contribution (value addition to the organization). but number wise may be significant. The next 20% of the resources. These are called B-class resources. may become an obsolete resource in future and come out of the slot of ABC analysis of the society of items under ABC categories in course of time. which contribute the next 20% of the total contribution. whose contribution is 20% in terms of total value based contribution. In case. there is no contribution from a resource. as long as it continue to dominate the total contribution (value addition) otherwise it may fall under B or C category. The numbers of such resources are also found to be approximately 20% of the total number of resources. whose contribution 10% in terms of total value based contribution. It totally depends on its contribution to the organization/Institute/society/State/Country. The Nos. are called as A-class resources. are defined as C-class resources. This is due to the reason that almost 70% of the contribution depends on these few resources and also maximum benefit is earned from these mearge resources. there are hardly few resources estimated around 10% of the total resources whose contribution is 70% of the total resources. are called as B-class resources. remains at the top of 10% of resources in terms of its value contribution.rules for effective Resource Management control system in any business organization. whose contribution is 70% in terms of total contribution with respect to value. as the contribution from these resources are quite moderate.

like creative thinkers. These four categories of people are the constituents of any society or organization or institution under normal and natural condition.Statistically. whether it is internal affairs or external affairs of the society. These people have to be very courageous and brave to overcome the hurdles to execute and govern the task. They are therefore subjected to maintain the integrity of the society or nation from external invaders and also from the internal trouble creators towards peace and harmony. This is found to be true for all resources. Each of these above groups can be further subdivided based on the theory as stated above and further Sub-categories or classes can be derived among each 44 . policy makers etc. They constitute the typical work force of the society. This is universally true in human society. laid down by the policy makers. These people are very courageous and brave and responsible to execute the policy. Therefore. Their contribution to the society is most in terms of value addition.. Non-Aryans or Mongolian.termed as D-class resources. These four categories now may be named as Brahmins for A-category. executives. There are some people who normally control the financial affairs of the society and handles trade. Statistically there strength is found to be around 5% with respect to the total population. This group of society may be referred as C-category of people. These groups statistically found to be comprise of 10% of the total population of the society and enjoy the status only next to A-category people. may be referred as D-category of people. to keep the society intact towards the upliftment and development of the people and society as guide. The next category of people can be termed as administrators. These people may be referred as A-category people of the society. Kshatriyas for B-category. be it human resource or material resource of any society /community etc. commerce. This small group of people makes the policy and rules of the society. The rest 70% of the total population. To execute the policy the society needs various resources. philosopher. whether the society or community is Aryans. the strength of this group is estimated around 15% of the total population. which constitute the think Tank or brain of the society. administer the policy and protect the policy or rules as defined by the A-category of people. scientists etc. managers etc. These 10% people may be called as B-category people of the society. Towards the establishment of facilities there is need of money and its proper management. and industry and also preserve material wealth towards the development and further progress of the society. there is a need for the people who are responsible towards the necessary supply of resources and facilities for the establishment. who also contribute to the society through their labour. Vaishyas under C-category and Sudras under D-category. In every community there exists a small minority of intellectuals.

the other executives. Hence. Initially. the chief executive was elevated with the highest authority with supernatural power (may be defined as God) and a policy was made that the son of a king would be the natural successor of the king. Jains and Ajeevakas. Thus. In course of time the theory of monopoly was developed as it was found to be advantageous and beneficial to Acategory people.) Therefore. For this purpose. and as a result they got the status next to Acategory. The sprit and hallmark of the Non-Vedic society viz.e. Therefore. However. However. Governors Etc. this was accelerated due to the tendency to protect the interest of individual and his descendents. who were against this theory of casteism or monopoly. Anyone who could compose hymns (poems). The word Brahmana or Kshatriya had no bearing on caste consideration.e. However. i. In course of time. This process continued to the grass-root level of the society and thus the caste system was firmly established in the society. a Sudra male could raise to level of a Brahmin and a Brahmin boy also could fall to the level of Sudra. nathas were found to be strong opponents of casteism. which attracted the attention of people and became popular and also commanded the admiration of people and Kings was honoured with the title "Brahmin". The chief executive officer was titled as king and declared as the representative of God or simply as God. a person born to a C-category parent also could become an A-category citizen and vice-versa according to the ability. Historically. since without them the rules/policies could not be executed. there was a need of support from king B-category and C-Category people. it became impossible for those Brahmins to establish the caste system without wiping off the Buddhists. the dispute for the future king was eliminated. Next in the line were executives. By this method. king was isolated from the rest of the people of the society. who are for casteism and who were against casteism. which was of tremendous advantageous and beneficial to the King and by this. it had no bearings on the birth of the individuals.category separately. the policy could not be implemented without the help of the cruel executive or the king and his associates (i. administrators. who were the staunch followers of casteism. As a result they became the main enemy and target of Brahmanism. This was the hallmark of Non-Aryan/Non-Vedic culture. Vratyas and Dravidians were castelessness. there were people or groups of people. Buddhists. A man who rose to the distinction in the profession of arms was eulogized as "Kshatriya" and so on. the conflicts started between the people. Thus in a Non-Aryan Non-Vedic Society. due to their virtue. these group or categories were formed accordingly to the ability and interest of the individuals. dilution took place in this labour system. came the ruling that son of a chief executive would also become a chief executive and automatically followed by that the son of Brahmin would also became a Brahmin and so on. 45 . Among them Buddhism not only was opponent but they really fought against casteism.

Further to this. 3. Gradually Brahmanism grew by destroying Buddhism and Jainism and Ajeevakas with the help of Kings and Merchants and simultaneously by assimilating the tenets of these religions and cultures.Thus it could be seen from the various historical facts that Caste system or Varnashrama system gained real strength only when Brahmins (A-category) and Khastriyas (B-category) joined hands together. how the AIDS of casteism in the name of religion was spread in India: 1. VI. which was converted to Hindu temple. Tirumangai Alwar became famous for the stealing of Gold idol of Buddha from a Buddhist temple at Nagapattinam and for building the famous Sriranganatha temple with these stolen properties. The present Hindu temple of Tiruchanam near Kuzhithurai was originally a Jain temple. Even today. Buddhism could not be perished and were in existence even after the period of Sankaracharya but their power was reduced to almost nil at most of the parts of India. . there were persistent efforts of Brahmins to establish their own strength and glory by-liquidating Buddhism completely. The Mudiumpalli temple was originally a Jain temple. This temple contains idols of Parshvanath. Finally Shree Chaitannya Mahaprabhu cremated the rest of the Buddhism at Varanasi. The Tagara temple at Sholapur of Maharashtra was originally a Buddhist 46 . II. this incident is celebrated at Madurai temple. Some of the notable historical events are described below. The Jain goddess Padmavati was converted as Goddess Bhagavati. III. However. the image of Tirugnana Sambandar was installed in all temples for worship due to his great achievement 2. during 14th century A. The famous Saivas Appara and Tirugnana Sambandar with the connivance of the Queen and the Chief Minister managed to convert the Great King Mayura varman of Kanchipuram from Jainism to Saivaism. The Nagaraja temple at Nagarcoil was also a Jain temple.D. Historians opine that from the time of Samudragupta to the time of Sankaracharya. IV. There are many incidents where Buddhist/Jain temples were converted to Hindu temples. Mahavira and Padmavati Devi. It is said that Sankaracharya put the final blow on Buddhism. and on the day of conversion 8000 Jain monks were beheaded. The Kallil cave temple near Perumbavoor was originally a Jain temple. Nambi Andar Nambi at 10th century AD and Sekkizhar of 12th century AD considered the act of converting the king to Saivaism and slaughter of Jain monks as "heroic" deed of great victory of Saivaits. V. Kapoteswara temple at Chezarla in Andhra Pradesh was converted to Hindu temple around 5th/6th century AD. Few of them are quoted below : I. 4.

This was converted into a Brahmin temple. Earlier to this Vedic learning was primarily found to be family oriented. The world famous Pashupathinatha temple of Kathmandu was also originally a Buddhist temple which was converted at later stage into a Saiva temple. It is also believed that the present idol of Lord Venkateshwara was actually idol of “Neminatha. The establishment of Mathas by Lord Sankaracharya is the living example towards this The educated persons or poets who encouraged Varnashrama system were 47 .temple. there is no evidence of sudarshan chakra of Vishnu or Krishna. At present she represents a form of Shakti Goddess Kali. These were too copied by Brahmanism from Buddhism. libraries. No record or any idol of Vishnu was found in Hindu literature prior to 500 AD. This Tirupathi temple came into prominence during the period of Krishnadev raya of Vijaya Nagar Dynasty of Karnataka around 16th century AD. Buddhism actually introduced the dharma chakra in this religion which during the period of King Ashoka. It was dedicated to Jaina Thirthankara “Neminatha”. The practice of running schools. According to Jaina literature the famous Thirupathi Temple of Lord Venkateshwara was originally a Jaina temple. The idle of Buddha in the form of a Bauddha Bhikhsu made of black stone had been converted as an idle of Mahakala. At this temple every Hindu is required to offer Pindadanam at the lotus feet of Buddha in the name of Vishnu towards relieving of the soul of their ancestors to merge with the universal soul. whereas Kalahasthi and Srisailam temple were famous in those period. Earlier to Buddhism. This conversion probably took place during 500 AD during the period of Guptas. The present temple of Kala-Bhairava or Mahakala near Bodhgaya was originally a Buddhist temple. According to historians. The classic one of this is the conversion of famous Buddhist temple of Gaya and conversion of Buddha as Vishnu. attached to temples and Mathas were ail originated from Buddhism and practiced by them. there are examples. it was known as Ashoka chakra. But converted to Hindu temple during 5th century AD. there is no existence of Thirupathi temple in ancient period. The Anantasayana posture of Lord Vishnu was actually that of Buddha and modified to the present form. where Buddhist temples were converted to Hindu temples and Buddha was converted as Vishnu or Buddha was made as an incarnation of Vishnu. Buddhism was the first religion to make public institutions like Mathas for education to common people. The famous Chinnamasta Goddess of Bengalis was originally a Buddhist Tantrik Goddess. In a similar way at north India too. hospitals. which was converted as Hindu Goddess. Later on Brahminism borrowed it from Buddhism and made Buddhism to perish from India. VII.

Vyasadeva etc got the status of Brahmins in Brahmanic Literatures. researchers that in a family. which was a Buddhist educational centre and intellectuals of south used to study and teach there. They became equal with Brahmins around 500 AD. the famous Nalanda University was burnt for more than a week. the communities like Valmikis. the period of Gupta Dynasty of Magadha. It is opined by historians. As per historians. Thus. It is interesting to note that Malayali Brahmins are all Nambudri pada Brahmins. the people. Kapilas. Mallas. However. Sena Dynasty of Bengal. Researchers. During the re-organization of social system. The Panas who opposed casteism were placed out of Brahminical society and today referred as Harijans. At a later date Muslim fundamentalists also did the similar things by destroying/converting Hindu temples into Mosques. that during the reorganization of the society. during the restructuring of the society at the time of downfall of Buddhism. The use of Pada was found only in Buddhists. whereas other rich and powerful people were declared as Brahmin. who opposed this Varnapratha system. In the south. Many educated Panas and Poets declared Brahmins during the reorganization of society towards casteism. Vyasas. Pandians and Kalasekara dynasties of South India were declared as golden periods in Brahmanic literatures. It is also stated by Historians. Khastriya. became the enemy of the kings and other supporters of Varna system and ultimately fallen under category of Sudra and Untouchables. does it mean that these Nambudris were Buddhists at earlier period? In north India. in a similar manner (like Panas) became Sudras/Untouchables and now belongs to Harijan community. there is a community in south India by name "Panas". On the other hand. It is said that the educational and cultural center of Buddhism. Palas of Bengal. and Harsha of Kannauj were much more powerful and glorious than Guptas & Senas. some member became Brahmin. Jainism etc. Nishads etc. to bring the people under the fold of Brahmanism most of the 48 . the fact is that the period of Mauryas of Magadha. Their temples were converted to the temples of Brahminism. However people of Panas' community were more respected than Brahmins during 400 AD. while others fall under different categories of caste. It may be noticed that the ruling dynasty that had supported this Brahminism policy of casteism and worked to establish caste based social system had been highly praised and their period was termed as golden period. the Buddhist and other Vratya literatures were completely burnt. However.declared as Brahmins and other people were classified according to their social status. the educated poets of Panas community who supported Varnashrama system were declared Brahmins. Vaishya according to their influence or purchasing capability in the society. Today these people belong to Harijan or Untouchable Community. This was captured by Lord Sankaracharya by defeating the intellectuals of Kanchi and got the credit to convert them and becomes the Killer of Buddhism from India. Thus Adikavi Valmiki. poor Brahmins were classified as Sudras. Mouryas. their establishment and Mathas were destroyed. King Asoka built Kanchi Puram University. However.

Thus on the ruins of the Vratya system.Vratya tradition & practices were accepted under the new socio-religious system. the casteism in Bengal has been analyzed. DEVELOPMENT OF VARNAPRATHA SYSTEM IN BENGAL 49 . All the Gods and Goddess were mapped with Brahminical God and Goddess. the Brahminical system was born in the name of Hinduism. Keeping these in mind.

Interestingly. their original place could have been recorded. in present Bihar & UP). regarding the existence of Brahmins prior to 12th century AD. present people of Vaidya community were converted/embraced Brahmanism and were probably the 50 . Hence. Besides this. They embraced Vedic religions and philosophy. it can be safely inferred that at the time of Senas. not as Brahmin. It also can be observed that Varnashrama System of Bengal does not conform to Vedic Varnashrama system. Their chief ministers were found to be followers of Brahmanism. In fact they were the native intellectuals of Bengal. Buddhism and Ajeevakas/Nathism were main religions of Bengal. On the other hand the spiritual leaders of Vedic society were referred as Rishis. The Siddhas who were Specialists in medicine were called as Raseshwar Siddhas. This does not mean that there were no intellectuals in Bengal. Vaishya and Sudra. Most of the Bengalis are found to be either Brahmin or Vaidyas or Kayasthas or Sudras. even though casteism was firmly established in the adjoining areas viz. As well as due to strong support of Pala kings. Magadha. Pala kings were found to be secular. the origin of Vaidya community could be traced to Siddhas and not to Vedic Rishis. which was equally contributed to remain secular. As per historical records Jainism. Vaishali. who had written a 'Karika' on Upanishad and it is known as 'Gauda Pada Karika’. the vaidya community. as they were supposed to be literate and by that time Samaskrita Scripts were well known to keep record. It is now established by historians and researchers that casteism was not in practice in Bengal prior to Sena dynasty.. Kasi etc. Buddhism. Besides this. at the time of Gupta Dynasty. it is also the basic characteristics of Bengalis. Gaudapada was the first person. which used to be called as Brahmanic religion. from the time of Gupta period. Anga. There are many instances found in historical records. Khastriya. If they were Aryan and came from outside Bengal.It is a fact that Bengalis are very rational as well as very emotional. Because of this strong background. was not in existence prior to 12th century AD. The Jaina intellectuals and spirituals were termed as Munis. the casteism could not be traced in Bengal until 12th century AD. It is very interesting to note that as per the historians. These Brahmins might not be outsiders. Historians opine that the Grand Guru of Lord Sankaracharya belonged to Bengal. The name is found to be closer to Vratyas. Ajeevakas and Nathism. even though it was firmly established in Madhya Desha (i. the caste system in true sense is neither strong in Bengal nor it conforms the Vedic rules. Saivaism.e. The rational mindset of Bengalis made them to be closer to non-Vedic or Vratya system. In Bengal this Varnashrama system could not be established in the society due to strong influence of Jainism. The rational mindset of Bengalis made them to be closer to Non-Vedic or Vratya civilization. This was the situation up to 11th and early 12th century AD. (Prior to Sena dynasty) The spiritual leaders of Buddhism and Nathism were referred as Siddhas. who is ranked next to Brahmins in social status in Bengal. His name was Gaudapada.

This might be the reason for getting the position next to Brahmin as a reward. who embraced to Brahminism? The Puranic theory and Smriti rules of casteism are rejected by Historians and Researchers. This is true for Gupta dynasty of Magadha. The King was declared as God or Representatives of God during the ancient period. who was placed as God or representative of God found himself and his descendents at the best place of the society and they in turn supported the Brahmanic. This group formed a type of shield around the king and controlled the king. for their own interest. Let us assume that this theory is proper and correct. Pandian dynasty and Chera dynasty of south. Thus the society was completely divided into various castes and sub castes and these preachers of Casteism had no problem in controlling the society. Sena Dynasty of Bengal. It is observed by Historians and Researchers that the elite group as described earlier first impressed upon King praised him and finally separated him from the others. Even though the period of Mauryans (Chandragupta Maurya. It can be noticed that the King/Dynasty who had supported the Brahmanic rules and help these elites to establish these caste system. The Gotra name is the name of some Aryan/Vedic Rishi. had been praised and their period was termed as golden period in India as per the Brahmanic literatures. Harsha of Thaneshwar and Kannauj. the Sena Kings themselves were followers of Brahminic rules and hence there was very little problem to establish the Brahmanic rules of Casteism. This was one of the reasons that almost all the Gods Goddess of India are found to be dressed and decorated with all sorts of arms and ammunition. Once the Vratya society got divided. In such cases. These phenomenons were occurred throughout India. as it was found to be biased. and gradually extended to his relatives.second community of Vratyas to join Brahmanic stream in Bengal. we have to agree that there was no male other than these Rishis and their descendents in this country except females and in particular at Bengal. Vedic social rules in the society. Bindusara and Ashoka) of North India. one sided and very illogical and there is no historical basis of this theory. Chola dynasty. The person bearing the name of the Rishi as his Gotra is supposed to be the descendent of that Rishi from Male hierarchy and hence marriage is prohibited among the people of same Gotra as per Brahminical System. then distant relatives and finally on other people. The king. In Bengal. Sasamkas and Palas of Bengal were much more powerful and glorious than Guptas and Senas. 51 . It is a fact that today almost all Hindus of Bengal and of India are identified with some Gotra name. whether it was north or south or west or east as explained earlier. Let us now look at the question of who were these Brahmins of Bengal? Are they really descendent of Aryans from central Asian countries in general or are they NonAryans. it became easy to divide the society further and establish effective control.

Lucknow. wrote first note on Upanishad. and Nepal to study Buddhism and other religions and subjects. However. They have rejected this strong story of family dictionary. It is a popular belief that Brahmins and Kayasthas were not Bengalis. MP Etc.. they were supposed to be aware of Samaskrita writing and hence they were in a position to record about their original place of ancestors and their movements from the land of their origin to the land of Bengal. many Bengali intellectuals and learned people were found to be settled at various places at Allahabad. who were donated lands by Kings at Bengal. However neither local blood could be polluted by these Bengali intellectuals nor was the Bengali blood found to be polluted by locals. Many of them went to Tibet and China. China. Hence it may not be proper to conclude that the Brahmins. people used to come from other parts of India. 52 . historians could not trace out so far any king by name Adi Sur in Bengal of above fame. It is in this Bengal where Gaudapada. it is impossible to believe that these few outsider Brahmins could pollute the blood of Bengali community. Also Bengalis used to dominate in other professions of Administrations and other allied services in Assam. During the British period in India. However. Thus there should not be any shortage of educated and learned people in Bengal. Patna. Some of the historians opine that many Brahmins were donated lands in various parts of Bengal at various points of time and they were outsiders or migrants to Bengal. It is well known fact and proved by researches that Bengalis were quite educated and learned long before 12th century AD. This is really ridiculous. where besides Bengalis. It is definitely neither practicable nor realistic and hence this theory can not be accepted. Nepal to preach Buddhism. These Bengalis were the leaders in the academic fields and positioned themselves in the Universities and Colleges established at these places. Many of them became the chiefs of Nalanda University. and there was no reason available for which some King needs to bring outsiders to educate Bengalis. who was a Bengali and grand guru of Lord Shankaracharya. Let us assume that they are outsiders. five families of Brahmins and same numbers of families of Kayasthas were invited by one Bengal King Adi Sura at 12 century AD to come and settle at Bengal from Kannauj for preaching Vedic religion and Philosophy in Bengal. the logic that males were Aryans and females were Non-Aryans is not agreeable. Orissa. Bihar. Since they are knowledgeable in various Vedas etc. were outsiders. Banaras. This is as per the family dictionary or Kula Panjuka. there are also enough evidences available which indicates that educated people having faith in Vedic religion were in existence in Bengal even at 5th century AD. The Palas established various Institutions in Bengal and Bihar. These Brahmins were most probably learned and wise Bengalis who were authorities in various kinds of Vedas and the corresponding rituals by embracing Vedic religion and its ideology. of present UP and Bihar. Gaya etc. Besides these. Tibet. UP. However. no Historians/Researchers were able to trace out their original place and also about their movements/migration to Bengal. even if it is assumed that they are outsiders.Hence.

The teachers who were expert in various Shastras were used to be honoured as "Shastry" etc. Odantapuri etc) where as to become an Acharya the experience of 6 years was sufficient. Vikramashila University. and Professors etc. Their descendents also continued to use the same title for their identification that they are the descendent of some noble and intellectual persons. In Bengal and Eastern part India it can be noticed that Upadhyayas are placed at the highest rank than Acharyas in social hierarchies. the Buddhists of those periods were not believers of Gods. Odantapuri University etc. According to the Brahmanic System Teacher or religious leaders were placed with Acharya title in the society. This indicates that the Bengal Brahmins do not follow the Aryan Vedic/Brahminic system. They were very learned people and many of them were in the profession of teaching in these Universities. Bengali Upadhyayas are known as Kulin Brahmin or highest class of Brahmins. It is also quite interesting to note that. 53 . These were the primary reasons that majority population is found to be of Islamic faith in North West India and Eastern India. Dronacharya. viz. Hence it might be possible that when these teachers embraced Vedic Brahmanic religion.. Also some of them became the head of these Universities. To become an Upadhyaya a person must have had an experience of 10 years as a Buddhist monk in the Universities (viz. where as the other people who were believer of God escaped this onslaught from these invaders. The teachers were normally titled as "Upadhyaya” and the teachers who were dealing in the subject of Astrology (Akash Vidya) various rituals of worship used to be honoured as "Acharjee" (Acharya). Historians opine that the main reason for this is that. on this Eastern part of India. On the other hand in Buddhism Upadhyaya were placed at a much higher status than Acharya. where as Acharyas are not enjoying that status. These Universities were centers for not only for Buddhist philosophy but also for other religions and philosophies. Readers. Kripacharya. they kept their title as stated above according to their profession even after the destruction of these Universities/Mathas. Shankaracharya. Madhavacharya etc. Hence they also forced these non-believers to embrace Islam. This was further strengthened due to the influence of Sufism or Bhakti culture and total surrender to God. On the other hand the religious leaders or teachers with titles Upadhyaya were placed at lower states. Vikramshila. Nalanda.In fact Historians opines that lot of Bengalis were associated with Nalanda University. These are similar to present day designations or titles like Lecturers. At a later date they might have embraced Brahminism as there was an intrinsic advantage to safeguard their interest and also the interest of their children and descendents. but follow the Buddhist system and that the ancestors of present day Bengal Brahmins were in fact honourable Buddhist monks/Teachers. the initial Aryan invaders of Muslim religions were not very much against Brahmanism as they were against Buddhism.

The strength of Brahminism was further increased from the time of Lord Sankaracharya towards the revival of Brahmanism. This benefits must had been attracted other influential and rich people of Bengal to send their ward to Kashmir to study Vedic literature. for higher education is continuing. when the strength of the Bengali students became significant and their behaviors and customs were found to be significantly different than that of Kashmiris under the normal condition. According to historians many Bengalis used to go to Kashmir around 10th and 11th century for studying of Vedic literatures.During the period of Aryan invaders of Islamic faith. There are many evidences that people with knowledge of Vedas and other related literatures were honored and were granted lands by Kings of Bengal. almost all the Historians/Researchers agreed that the rich and influential people could obtain their caste according to their choice. are on increasing due to obvious advantages. Now it can be seen the inflow of Bengalis to Bangalore/Karnataka towards study of Engineering etc. In this ceremony the Brahmin Pandits acknowledged. 54 . present Afghanistan. a story had been built up to support this claim. Also there could not be sudden increase in strength of Bengali students at Kashmir. Hence it might be possible that the learned and elite Buddhists of that period embraced Brahmanism to evade the conversion into Muslim. The number of students from Bengal probably thus increased in course of time and became noticeable to the Kashmiris. The similar situation of Bengalis going abroad for education could also be observed during European period and even now Indian going to USA etc. The Journey of these elite Bengali students to Kashmir and their behaviors and characteristics had not come to the notices of Kashmiri’s just like that. where elite people embraced Brahmanism from other religions. Pakistan and Bangladesh were dominated by Buddhist religion where as Central India (Madhyadesh) was dominated by Brahmanic religion. It increases gradually and takes a long time under normal circumstances. In this regard the prominent personality of Raj-Vamsi community of Cooch Behar Late Pandit Panchanan Thakur invited prominent Brahmins from various parts of Bengal and India and made an elaborate yagna ceremony. These Bengali students could not be from ordinary family and should belong to the elite groups of Bengalis. Further to this. The craze to identify oneself as an Aryan has gone to such an extent that RajVamsi people of Cooch Behar had also claimed that they are the descendent of Aryans. and their language is derived from Sanskrit. In fact. The details of these Bengali students are available in Kashmiri literature. This was only possible. Besides it depends upon the benefit while on return after successful completion of their studies. in those days the invaders of Islamic faith used to call this skin headed (tonsilled) Buddhist monk as Brahmin. These Bengalis were probably the earliest Brahmins of Bengal of 5th century AD onwards. accepted and declared that Cooch Raj-Vamshis are descendents of Aryans and accordingly. because socially and religiously and culturally Brahmanism was closest to the Buddhism than Islam.

in a similar fashion. He defeated the first Brahmin King Lakhsman Sena and eventually became the ruler of Bengal. The Aryans of RigVedic places of ancient period also used to call the Non-Aryans of India as Asuras. means fools as they were fighting a lost war on casteism. The only difference is the change of words but their attitudes and behaviors towards Indians remain same. Rakshasas etc. The followers of Buddhism or Buddhist people were also being humiliated by the followers and promoters of casteism and Buddhists were termed as "Buddhus". it was not at all difficult to become a part of any Aryan/Vedic caste of choice. This was the main reason for a large volume of Muslim population in Bengal and in West Pakistan.. Thus began the conversion of people from Non-Islamic faith to Islamic faith. defeated Bengalis and became their master until 12th century AD. it became easy to establish the rules of Smrities to non-Muslim people and paved the way towards the establishment of Caste system. and came from the places of Rig-Veda. 27th of Magha month). Thus the Bengali society was divided into two main groups as Muslims and Hindus under Brahminic culture. where Buddhist lost ground against Brahmanism. that no Aryan king or Dynasty invaded Bengal. who were non-believers of God. During the beginning of invasion of Aryan Muslims to North and North western part of India. It is seen from the political history of Bengal. it is very clear that by influencing the celebrities. The fact is found to be just opposite. To avoid the killing. either to embrace Islam or get killed or join Brahmanic society. As far as the fusion of blood/races between Aryans and Non-Aryans in Bengal is considered. This Aryan people of Muslim-faith of 12th century AD were against Buddhists.In this ceremony the Cooch Raj-Vamshis took the holy thread (Upabita) like Vedic Aryans. His name was Mohammed bin Bakhtiar. Dasas. The name was given by Aryan Muslims. no record is available regarding the name 'Hindu' as the name of a religion. it is found to be impossible the way we have been taught. These Aryans Muslims used to call the Non-Muslims of India as kafir. the last alternate option was to join the Brahmanic group. Earlier to 800 AD. and non-believers. It was the Bihari and Bengali Kings who had defeated various Aryan tribes and 55 .e. they used to call non-Muslims as Hindus and clean headed Buddhist Sramans as the Brahmins. Gradually this name “Hindu” became popular as the name of major religion of India i. Historians also opined that during the Islamic invasion. These Buddhists were thus left out with few options. Vedic or Brahminic religion. This grand ceremony took place on the bank of river TORSA in 1911 AD (1319 Bangabda. West Pakistan and Bengal were dominated by Buddhist and others parts like Central India was dominated by Brahminic culture. the first Aryan invader to Bengal was found to be of Islamic faith. Daityas. Thus. The Bengali Buddhists were their main targets. Under this condition. This also indicates that elite Buddhist or educated Buddhist embraced Brahmanism and accordingly their caste was decided . infidel. As per historical facts.

Bindusara was also married to Greek princess. Arab etc. Greeks. present West Pakistan. uncivilized and inferior. who were described as black and short. Further to these example.g. the non Bengali population today in Bengal is quite high and at central Calcutta the population of non Bengalis is more than 50%. it would not have been even 1% of the population and definitely could not pollute the Bengali blood. but they don't identify themselves with Moors Italy. But the English people never identify themselves as descendent of these outsiders.g. Syria etc. the number of marriages between Bengalis and NonBengalis might not have been exceeded even 1% in spite of being so liberal and rational. Thus if this is the situation at the most liberal period. Iran. Let us look at the history of some other countries of the world. the Royal blood of England contains higher percentage of German blood than English blood. Iranian people also ruled part of Europe. Thus Bengalis are a mixture of Aryan male and Non-Aryan female is unrealistic and illogical. before the development of Greek Civilization. where these countries were invaded and occupied by outsiders. Iraq. However. Even today. uncultured. On the other hand the chance of marrying of an African black male to a European white female is very high. The English towns/cities suffixed entered with 'Shire' (Yorkshire. it would be natural that. The chance of marrying of an African black female to a European white male is almost nil. during their return after victories. the topography of features of Bengalis would be similar to the people of Rig-Vedic places. Had it been succeeded. e. England: It was occupied and ruled by Romans.ruled over those Rig-Vedic places. Iraq. a good lot of Aryan women were brought along with them e. but what is the percentage of blood fusion? Finally. Asia-minor. as a natural tendency. Afghanistan. tall and handsome would not like to marry Non-Aryans. if any fusion took place. Spain: It was ruled and occupied by Arabian and African Moors. Pala king was married to Chedi princess and Chola princess. and Romans etc. Nottingham Shire etc) were Roman colonies and settlements. During the 20th century. Hence. Later on England was occupied by Danes and other Scandinavian countries and finally by Vikings (Belgians & Germans) people. Neither they acknowledge that their languages were derived from the languages of those rulers nor they believe that they are the 56 . Besides this. the people of these countries never identified themselves as the descendent of those outsiders. including Egypt were invaded and ruled for many centuries by Africans. Chandragupta Maurya was married to Greek princess. Even Greek text themselves acknowledge that Greece had effectively been an Egyptian Colony. In spite of these above ground condition. Aryans who were described as fair. we can easily imagine and extrapolate the condition of marriage during ancient period. Huns had invaded and ruled over Asia and part of Europe.

their greatest leader Indra. The bon-fire used to be regular feature for Aryans. Indra was credited for the destruction of more than 100 cities or forts of Non-Aryan Kingdom of King Sambar. for relaxation after the days of fighting and looting and also to prevent any attack from animals of Aranya. The recitation of slokas/Verses or poems in praise of their ancestor was used to inspire and motivate the Aryan warriors with killer instinct. This Bon-fire was probably used also for get-together to bring unity and strength of the Aryans for further invasion. even today are found to be of similar habits. where as the Aryans were of Gypsy type and were not aware of peaceful settled life. The Muslim Aryans used to call the Bengalis as Kefir. Non-Believers etc. The invasion which began around 1500 BC is still continuing today if we look carefully to North West frontier areas of India. They were not founder of any great cities but destroyer of cities/town. The word Aryan probably came from the word Aranya (means forest or jungle). It is noted by Historians and Researchers that Aryan/Caucasian antiquity were fabricated and fathered by European scholars during 18th Century and the term "Indo-European" was first introduced in 1816 AD. where people preferred to be identified as the descendent of Aryans invaders through a non-Aryan native mother. Dasas. 57 . Dom. civilization was stable and based on town and village. Dasyus and speakers of unknown birdslanguage. We people feel proud to be called our selves as the descendent of the male people of Aryasthan (Afghanistan. In Rig-Veda more than 1000 verses were dedicated to Indra praising him for killing of various non-Aryans tribes and for destruction of their forts and towns. Modern researchers opine of that non-Aryan (Pre Aryan). They never recognized Bengalis as Aryans and equal to them. pulind. even though it was an artistic creation of their own ancestors. Central Asia and West Pakistan) the land of Rig-Vedic Aryan Rishis and aboriginal female of Bengal. It is the only in this Bengal and India.descendent of those noble invaders. They were so destructive that they awarded the title of "Purandara" (invaders and conqueror of towns or breaker of forts also means burglar) to. That is the Janglee or uncivilized people or the people living in Jungle. These Aryans. The Holy-fire of Yagna was probably a modification and improvement of bon-fire activities. of Central Asia. There cultures also can be observed in those countries. Kol. On the other hand the followers of Rig-Vedic Aryans used to call the Bengalis as Vratya (Patita). Modern Historians & Researchers opined that the Aryans were probably the most cruel and Barbaric race. This was the main reason for nonacceptance of Bangabandhu Mujeebur Rahaman as their leader to become the Prime Minister of combined Pakistan (West and East Pakistan). The recent act of vandalism of destroying the famous Buddha statues of Baniham in Afghanistan is an example towards this. This racism of superiority is still continuing.

Sitala. All the people of high caste of Bengal are the descendent of those Bihari Aryans and others like Dom.R. Chandi. Shiva of Cremation grounds(Rudra). seora tree etc. Dharma-Thakur. are part of daily life of Bengalis. Coconut. chuna (lime) etc are used as offerings to God/Goddess during worship Items required to perform Puja: These are Amra-Pallava (a bunch of five mango leaves). Paddy and rice. Plantain tree leaves. who are being worshipped in various forms of idols at various parts of Bengal. These are worships or 58 . It has been proved by Researchers that the Bengali Brahmins are more close to a Bengali Sudra than that of Brahmins or Sudras of other places and those of North Western India. Holi etc. Chandal. for example the worship of Tulasi plant. Bhairav. Bunch of Paddy leaves along with matured Paddy. they adopted many good features from other religions and societies and assimilated into their religion and society to make it more ornamental and glamorous in their social life BENGALI RITUALS It is stated in our literature that Aryans came to Bengal. Coconut. Daily Usage: Paddy. from Magadha (Bihar). and Pulinds etc are the original inhabitants of Bengal. Aryan cultures become the present Bengali culture. coconut. Banerjee stated that the Bengalis are a mixed race of Dravidian and Mongolian race irrespective of their caste. Ban-Bibi. D. Sashthi. The religions of Bengalis are dominated by Vratya philosophies. Sindoor. Beettle leaf. Rituals: Various rituals are being followed during the year. Bittle nut. plantains. Playing of dice and dry snails. Marriage rituals: Pan-khili before marriage (a ceremony. Let us look at some of the custom and rituals of Bengal and these have been described below: God/Goddess: There are various Gods/Goddess. Sari. Bhairavi. Pan (Bittle leafs). Karali. Dhoti. cow-dung and cow urine. Charaka Puja. when Bittle leaf packed with Bittle nut is offered to guests from the side of Bride groom with Haldi (Turmeric). However. Durga. that the Bengali Brahmins are in fact NonAryan by blood and were original inhabitants of Bengal. Durba grass. This also indicates the fact the Bengali Brahmins and Bengali Sudras are of same race and stock and is different than the other races. In course of time. Dhwaja Puja. Kori(dry snails). Ban-Durga. Bittle nut and leaf. Chinnamasta. Bata (Banyan) tree. and Iron-Bangle etc. worship of various Plants/trees is also in existence at almost every house. normally performed before marriage. Offerings: Items like sugar cane. Shiva. decorated vessels. They are Kali. Sindoor etc. Besides the above. white cucumber. throwing of Khoi (puffed paddy) etc. Thus it can be inferred from these various historical facts as described and from the co-relation of these historical facts. and Beettlenut. tamarind. Samkhya. Manasa.

b) From Islamic culture: During the period of Islamic rule. They are probably the most liberals among all Indian communities. by an elderly person of the family. Out of 51 Shaktipeethas. The idol worship was an invention of Buddhism. During night their palaces. Bengal and Assam. Bengalis are firm believer of idol worship. From the history of Bengalis. the construction of temple and temple architecture was also introduced by Buddhism.Pujas performed during first time tilling of the soil. this necessitates some amendments of certain rituals. circular wheel worship of earthen potters. like Ambubachi vrata. Bengal and Assam. Besides these various ceremonies/rituals are being performed on special occasions like. Surya (Sun) and Chandra (Moon) as witness for the union and saptapadi (encircling of the holy fire seven times by bride and groom together). there was no practice of Idol worship. the marriage ceremony used to be performed during day time. Mantra and Yantra were invented by Buddhism and these were specifically developed and flourished in Bihar. This had influenced the elite Bengalis and gradually they adopted the system of performing marriage during night. Thus the marriage ceremony used to be very glamorous. Hence. Vratas: There are some other types of rituals. Some of them are described below: Marriage: a) From Vedic culture: Some Aryan/Vedic rituals were introduced for marriage ceremony. Idol worship: Among Aryan of Vedic civilization. but the presence of Sun is essential during marriage. that a superior race of Superior culture does not accept the inferior culture of inferior race. kings and rich people of Islamic faith used to celebrate their marriage ceremony during night. It is very natural. more than 50% are located in Bihar. These are. rituals and belief of inferior races of Doms. However. residences and houses used to be decorated by lights and fire works used to be played. Tantra. handing over of bride to the hands of bridegroom (Kanyadan). normally called as Vratas and Pujas. and Pulinds etc. when both are available in the sky. Itupuja vrata etc. during harvest time by farmers. Since Chandra and Surya were required to be present as a witness. during throwing/sowing of seeds. Since Sun is not available during night. logically it may not be proper that High caste Bengalis are of Aryan race having a superior Vedic culture would have adopted an inferior culture. installation of Air-blower system of Iron-smith. and enjoyable. The earliest temples of India were all belongs to Buddhism and followed by Jainism not by Aryans or Vedic people. Thus "Vasi- 59 . it is observed that they had adopted many good features from other religions and races. Chandals. The followers of these Vratas or rituals were probably termed as Vratyas by the Vedic Aryans. which are beneficial and advantageous for them. These are some of the noticeable features of Non-Aryans and Non-Vedic people. and worship of weaving instruments by weavers. Performance of Yagna and taking oath (making promise) in the presence of Agni (Holy Fire). In fact Bengalis are very rational and emotional.

in the name of Modernization. Same way our food habits also have been changed and adopted various types of dishes from various cultures and civilization. 6. Bengalis were not supposed to wear any stitched cloth during marriage ceremony. The Bengali marriage remains incomplete unless this "Vasi-Vivaha" is completed. Greeks. These priests are not Arabians. 4. Historians and researchers opine that 95% of Bengali culture is originals of Bengalis. Punjabis. Many Bengalis became expert on the other languages including European languages and many of them speak in those languages in their house also. when Sun is available in the sky. Bengalis adopted and also continuing to adopt various systems from various culture and civilization. However. Turks. 7. Present day our Bengali mothers and sisters wear Afghani/Punjabi dress of salwar-Kamiz. appointed Authorized Marriage Registrar. Kushans. no civilization could pollute it. now this is not in practice. Sakas. not by Europeans. Their priests are all converted Bengalis and called Maulavi. it may be inferred that Bengalis are not Aryans but pre-Aryan or Non-Aryan and may be termed as Vratyas only. 5. Iranians. The dresses were adopted from Europeans 3. 2. it was modified to suite Bengali system. Bengalis converted to Islam named their children. Many Bengalis have converted/embraced to Christianity and named their children with European names and follow their rituals. These become now part and parcel of Bengali civilization and culture. whenever necessary. which are of Arabic origin and follow the Islamic rituals of Arabians.Vivaha" was introduced. perform the marriage of their children through registration in the presence of a Govt. Chinese or any European races. many of the Bengali families. Thus it is seen that at various points of times. which is pre-Aryan and non-Aryan and rest 5% is taken from other civilizations including Vedic civilization. This ritual is performed on the very next day morning of the wedding night. However a culture when adopted. and some of them wear European dresses. and Kashmiris. Some other features adopted and also discarded at various points of time from various cultures are given below: 1. c) From European culture: Now a day. 60 . Now the priests of the Christian churches are managed by Indians. Present day Bengalis wear shirt and pant in place of Dhoti and chadar. whether it is Hindu Aryan. Thus. as far as Bengali blood or race is concerned.

While migrating. who were to be posted to India. Europeans were of the belief that the origin of entire European civilization was Greece. Who the Aryans are? The credit to bring the race “Aryan” in to history of civilization of mankind goes to Prof. Finally. who are original Aryans are? And his reply was “we the Nordic Aryans”. 61 . during Christian rule of Europeans in India. while other groups migrated to Europe. Thus the entire populations of blacks in those countries were perished. Maxmular was asked. which motivated him to establish the Aryan supremacy throughout the world. as they never dreamt that Greece was a colony of Blacks. This theory also instigated the feelings of Hitler of Germany.Are Bengalis descendent of Aryans Before going into details. through Iran and Arabian countries and the pure Aryan settled at German and Nordic countries. during 18th century it was proved by historians that Greece was originally a colony of “Blacks”. from there one group came towards India. Max Meular. During this migration they killed the entire population of the countries. This forced them to find out a suitable theory to trace their origin to prove their superiority over others. Until 18th century AD. When Prof. Prof Maxmular came out with the theory that Central Asia was the inhabitant of Aryans. However. This gave a very big blow to their belief on the origin of their civilization. let us try to find out who actually Aryans are and what their civilization was. through which the moved. A German by blood and was appointed as professor to teach the English officers. This discovery could not be digested by Europeans.

The present theory is that they were very cruel. Exactly the same way. It is well known that Egyptian civilization is the oldest civilization. where Lord Nemi Nath was born”. In course of time the entire land mass east of their population also got the name “Asia”. The original Hindustan is present Pakistan and part of Afghanistan. the ancient “Bengal/Bangaesha” was defined. The Egyptians used to call these new emigrants as Aryans. some of them became the followers of Sun God like Egyptians. Sanskrit is the mother of all language of Indian Language. 62 . Chandra became Chanda and finally to Chand. They are also termed as Barbarian (Barbar Aryans >> Butcher/Sloughter Aryans) in Punaic stories of India. Krishna became Kanha and finally to Kanai. According to him. The others were used to be called as “Assyrians”. Therefore. In course of time. and known as the destroyer of civilization. Let us look at the theory of Max Meular of language of Sanskrit. The original Bengal started from Dwarbhanga/Mithila. The place of settlements of Assyrians became known as “Asia”. the meaning of Dwar Banga is gate way of Bangadesha and thus entire plane land mass at the east of Mithila was named as Bengal. All the words of other languages are a derivative of Sanskrit words. However. The ancient Jain Literature says “there was a city by name Mithila of Bangadesha. the entire land mass east of original Hindustan was also named as “Hindustan”. they became known as “Sun Aryans” and later on only as “Su Arian” and finally as “Saurian”. The same way “Hindustan” or “India” was defined.

Aryana was the ancient name of Afghanistan. “Hindu River”. “Hindustan”. Max Meular with the word “Aryan”. Their society was male dominated and the mightiness of the river Sindhu made it named as Male River. All these are now part of present Pakistan.” Hindu Bag” etc. However. Now let us use the same method of Prof. it appears that Hindustan could not become “Aryastan”.Hasta became Hattha and finally to Haath. From the above. Others are shown bellow: Aryan >> Airan >> Iran (present Iran) Aryan >> Airan >> Airav >> Arab Aryan >> Airan >> Airav >> Airaq>> Iraq Aryan >> Airav >> Airap >> Airop >> Airope >> Europe Sun Arian >> Su _ nArya >> Su arya >> Souria >> Syria Iranian Kings used to call themselves as “Aryan”. The word “Aryana” came from “Aryan”. the North West part of Hindustan (Punjab area) was a province of Iranian Kingdom 63 . so all names were pronounced as “Hindu Kush Mountain”. The Iranians of later date were pronouncing Sindhu as Hindu. These Aryans used to call the Mountain which divides there are of settlements with further eastern countries as “Sindhu Kush Mountain”. and the great river flows in the valley was named as “Sindhu River”. Indian Historical Facts INVASIONS: As far as Indian history is concerned. due to its own reason. And the people were called as “Sindhu”.

but this time the religion of those Aryans became Islam. Xerxes(Khshayaarshaa) from 486 BC to 465 BC. Kushans/Sahis and Huns from Europe and various central Asian countries settled at Aryana and Hindustan. Cyrus(Kurush. Hindustan was invaded by the next generation people from central Asian countries and other Asian countries of Aryan settlements. Sakas. Pallavas. Kushans/Shahiyas/Sahis. These people used to claim that they were the rulers of Ariana (Afghanistan) and Hindustan. Cyrus II(Kurush II). 64 . 558 BC to 530 BC. Thus the North West part of Hindustan was ruled by Aryans from 558 BC until the arrival of Aryans from Europe. Scythians.from 558 BC. and at last under Darius III Kondomannos until the fall of Iranian empire due to invasion of Greek King Alexander. the area consisting of Ahganistan and Punjab were ruled by Sakas. At a later date. having Christian faith. Darius I(Daaraayavaush) from 522 BC to 486 BC. like Iranians. In due course they all embraced Buddhism and assimilated with the local/previous settlers. Later on. All these people settled at Ariana and Hindustan.Cambyses II(Kaambujiya II) from 530 BC to 522 BC. Cambyses I(Kaambujiya I). Parthians/Pallavas.g. Greeks/Yavanas. e. and Hunas. The north western part of India(Punjab and further western part) was a part of Iran and was ruled by various Iranian kings. We find from our history that all these foreigners. 1947. After Greek occupation by 326 BC they ruled up to 321 BC and thereafter these areas were ruled by Mouryas from 321 BC from Magadha. And the same continued up to 14th August.

Vedic Cultural centers in India: In Vedic society Bramhins occupy the highest position in the social structure from the Vedic era. These five catagories are Puri Bramhins. Maithyli Bramhins. The Persians/Iranians migrated to India during 5th century AD. Konoujia Bramhins and Saraswat Bramhins. No Vedic centre found to be in west neither in Ariana (Afghanistan). They have neither converted nor embraced Islam nor any Indian religion. Even today they are living in India as a separate community with their religion as Parsi. The places are Puri. They are known as Parsi. eastern India). and neither they have embraced Islam nor of any Indian religion. even though they are living in India for more than 1500 years. They are living in India for more than 2000 yrs. located at Orissa (Adjacent to Baengal and in eastern India). ancient capital of Bang Desha (eastern India). so far they could not pollute the blood of Keralites. Maithily of ancient Bangladeshi(presently in Bihar. The Bramhins are classified under five catagories according to their place of origins. Goudia Bramhins. and now they have been spread all over India. Kanouj. between Allahabad and Kantur of UP (central India) and Saraswat . 65 . Their religion is Judaism. Gouda/Gouda. Punjab (undivided Punjab).Migration: The Jews had migrated to India during 1st century AD at Cochin. Kerala.

Mantra and Yantra were being practiced by Buddhist as well as by Vedic people). 4) At a later date during the fall of Buddhism. by that time all the Buddhists people of Present Pakistan and Afghanistan 66 . 2) They had embraced Buddhism and encouraged the society to be governed in Bhuddhistic way (without caste) in place of Vedic religion. Buddhists were non-believers and they used to be called by Islamic invaders as “Kafir” means non believer. who got converted in to Islam by that time. Thus they were probably converted to Vedic religion. 5) The Rajputs before conversion probably found Vedic religion is closer to Buddhist religion (by that time ritual wise e. Chouhan. Their caste was named as “Rajput”. and Parmer. as Vedic religion needs “Gotram” and a caste to be defined. Thus a new caste “Rajput” was introduced in Vedic religion . Tantra. So all the non believers (Buddhists) were converted to Islam after their defeat at the hands of Islamic Invaders.ANALYSIS>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Analysis on Aryan Invaders Why these Buddhism? foreign Aryan invaders/settlers embraced Possibilities are as follows: 1) They might not have a superior civilization. Solanki. 3) They did not embraced Vedic religion. and they are Pratihar. they were converted into Vedic religion.g. to avoid the conversion into Islam and to fight unitedly against Invaders of Islamic faith. the five clans were established. Towards this a big Yagna was made at Mount Abu and they were brought under Vedic religion. However. Tomar.This was done to fight against the next generation of invaders from central Asian/Iranian belts.

we Indians/Hindus are still not able to overcome the wrong theory of Max Meular and others of Western Scholars. The total number of years ruled by known Aryans is almost 2605 years. when Indians expanded their kingdom towards north and north 67 . we find Chandragupta Mourya married the sister of Greek General Selukas. as Vedic people are also believers like Muslims. Few Vedic people were left out. The interesting part is that during this known period of 2605 years. Prior to that.were converted into Muslims by aggressive Khalifas. there is a natural phenomenon and is very simple logic to prove that Indians are not of Aryan stock. It is very unfortunate that. However the reverse is traceable in plenty. during a battle the first target of winner was looting of beautiful women folk of the defeated side. We are experiencing on our day to day life that a handsome boy of elite family will not get married to girl of black complexion of non-elite family. Thus for a period from 558 BC to 1947 AD. There are many historical facts are available in Indian history. We can see this set of example throughout the World. Max Meular very cleverly invented that Aryans came to India as an invader and settled in India after defeating them. Ariana and part of north western Hindustan were ruled partly/fully by Aryans. when history is unknown and in mistry. If we look back to our Indian history. when become influential/rich/powerful can get a girl in marriage from elite family. A boy of nonelite family. and as result Indians were easily convinced by them whatever they said. and his son later on married to the daughter of Selukas. It is a known thing that in ancient period. the Indian blood did not get polluted by Aryans of Max Meular. Further to this. if we believe Max Meular. Indian education/history was at very infancy stage during the Christian Aryan rules.

the most liberal country in the World. Analysis on Migrations of outsiders Besides this when a group of people peacefully come and settled in another country with the consent of locals. Further to this. and now they have been spread all over India. They have neither converted nor embraced Islam nor any Indian religion. even though they are living more than 1500 years. Gotra is identification. would marry a dark complexioned Dravidian girl? Even today. we find a word by name “GOTRAM”.western side. Their religion is Judaism. who was very fair and handsome. Even today they are living in India as a separate community with their religion as Parsi. the discrimination in South Africa between Blacks and Whites are noticeable. as in such case bride and grooms are treated as brother and sister. because they both are the 68 . They are known as Parsi. that the person is a descendent of that particular Rishi. and neither they have embraced Islam nor of any Indian religion. if we look at Indian society. Kerala. is it believable that an Aryan boy. The Persians/Iranians migrated to India during 5th century AD. Marriage is also prohibited in the same Gotra. The Jews had migrated to India during 1st century AD at Cochin. They are living in India for more than 2000 yrs. When such is the case. All the people of higher caste will have some Gotra (linage). as can be seen form following facts. The same features are seen in United States of America. These settlers also did not pollute the blood of Indians. the situation becomes different. so far they could not pollute the blood of Keralites.

descendent of same person. Even today we are being guided through their great thoughts. We should remember that the spiritual part Veda is called as “Sruti” and temporal part of Veda is called as “Smriti”. then there would be many more Aryans. Hence. three categories were originated in eastern part of India and one at central part while the last one was from Punjab belt of present India. It should be treated as a sin. if we even dream of it. they must be in more than thousands. We respect them as our greatest intellectuals and who guided the people of Hindustan. If there were Aryan settlements in Hindustan by marriage. definitely they were not. 69 . Sruti would not be used to remember Vedas. They are honored as “Saptarshi”. how it is possible? Do the Gotra system was used for different purpose? Analysis on the locations of the origins of (Aryans) It is seen that out of five catagories of Bramhins (highest category among Indians). This is due to the fact that scripts were not invented and Bramhins used to memorize by chanting in a particular way (known as Chandas) through listening to their Gurus. There are various Gotras available. these seven Rishis were great sages. if Bengalis are the off shoots of Aryans. Being such a case. and greatest intellectuals of their time. Under such circumstances. On the other hand Aryans were familiar with the script earlier to the compilation of Vedas. as script was not invented in India. they would have concentrated on the development of policies for the society and other spiritual activities. Did they travel all over Hindustan to create their descendents instead of intellectual work and every family offered their womenfolk for this purpose? Is it believable? With due respect. where are the descendents of Aryan kings and other common Aryans? Next. Therefore. however pravara or origin is from seven Risis.

the Aryan theory was injected so much to Indian people. and became worshipper of Kali/Chandika/Durga etc. From that day the Coochs stated wearing of Yogna-Upabita. that all religious leaders accepted that Aryans were the originators of Vedas. The historical facts says that they were initially Buddhist people and the existence of huge numbers of Mathas/Vihars in that country. They look like Mongoloid origin. father of Rama of Solar dynasty. At that Yagna the Brahmins declared that Coochs is of Aryan descendent and their castes were defined in accordance with Vedic Sastras. one of Cooch literator Panchanan Pandit invited Bramhins from Varanasi and other places of India and performed a very big Yagna on the bank of river “Torsa”. This phobia made Indians to link themselves with Aryan race by hook or by crook. Northern part of present Bangladesh and western part of present Assam from Guahati. while modern Indian education system was at very infancy stage. made the Aryans of Islamic faith to name the place as “Cooch Vihar”. to prove that Indians were superior to Europeans. during those periods they built a lot of Saiva/Ishwara temples. many of the Indian thinkers propagated that India was the native land of Aryans and from here only they migrated to other countries. the built lot of Sakti/Kalika 70 . in line with Bramhins. and all higher caste people not only accepted their theory but they become their propaganda officials. The fact is that. They started calling India as “Aryavarta”. They were told to believe that they are the descendent of King Dasarath. It had affected our religious thoughts in such a manner. Their gotra was defined as “Kashyap Gotra”. The ancient Cooch country was consisting of present north Bengal. Next is Mahabharata compiled by Veda Vaysa and written by Ganesha is in west of the place of Valmiki. They fled from their original inhabitant place to Cooch Bihar in order to escape from the wrath of Lord Parasuram. there was no casteism among Cooch prior to that event prior to the introduction of Vedic religion to them. However. Their physical characteristics are close to Bengalis. Their next religion was “Saktaism”. Bhutanese and Nepalese. Their next royal religion was “Saivaism”. During this British period.We should not forget Valmiki of Ramayana is the “Adi Kavi” was from east India. A classic example of Aryan phobia in India Religion of the Royal family and commoners of Cooch : During the British period. that Indian intellectuals actually started believing the British theory. A classic case is the history of Cooch tribe of North eastern part of present India. During this period.

and the opening of the grand festival used to be inaugurated by King by rotating that Chakra in a circular way. Raja Ram Mohon Roy. Now the district magistrate performs this ceremony in absence of the King. During this period they established “Madan Mohon Temple” complex at Cooch Bihar town. This temple was renovated and built by them and priests from Nadia district of West Bengal were brought to administer the temple. They are known as “Parbatia Gowsain”. after the marriage of Suniti Devi daughter of Maharaja Kesab Chandra Sen and Grand mother of Rjamata Gayatri Devi of Jaipur of Rajasthan. However their western way of living and in their long absence at Cooch Bihar could not make the religion as the religion of common people. Maharshi Devendra Nath Thakur (Father of Rabindra Nath Tagore). will it be fair that Vedic religion was brought by Aryans from outside India through north western frontier of India and Bengalis are the descendent of those Aryans? 71 . The interesting part is that. A similar thing was done at Rajasthan and whole lot of Rajasthanis was brought under Bramhanism (Vedic) fold from Buddhism. founded by Maharaja Kesab Chandra Sen. A very peculiar thing can be observed which is unique to Cooch Bihar. In such case. however the kings did not change the carpenter family of that Chakra. The Last three generations were the followers of “Bramha religion”. Though the Cooch people are no more Buddhists. Every year the “Raas leela” of Lord Krishna is celebrated there for a month. A very large chakra/wheel in the shape of a temple would be made. The present Cooch peoples are part of modern Hinduism and have caste system among them. The similar thing is noticed among Assamese people also. The poor peasants of the state embraced Islam from Buddhism. In next phase. The royal family built a Bramha temple also at Cooch Bihar. they embraced Vaishnaism and became devotees of Lord Krishna. The most famous among them was “Kamakhya Temple” of Guahati of present Assam. This is the effect of Aryanization of Indians by intellectual Europeans. The practice is in continuance even today. this chakra is being made by a Muslim family from the very beginning. Even today they are the priests of this temple.temples. but they could not leave their glorious days of Buddhism and carrying their tradition in a different way.

On the Northern side. Garo hills on the south of Brahmaputra River and up to Himalayas from Kamakhya hills on the Northern side of Brahmaputra River. Language wise there is a very close proximity on the neighboring places.. culture. their dresses are similar. are very close and similar. The food habits are similar. Orissa. Lalmai hills. Geographically the large plain area formed by the two great rivers Ganges and Bramhaputra and their tributaries. Philosophically. The entire area was termed as Vanga or Bengal. its limit was up to Himalayas while on the Southern side. 6. 5. 72 . Assam and Bengal are very closely related. At Eastern side its plain area is bounded by Arakani hills. The languages of present Bihar. extended at West to the hills of Orissa from Balasore Chotanagpur hills of Jharkhand and Bihar extending up to Rajmahal at South of Ganges and up to Dwarvanga and Himalayas on the North of Ganges. 3. and their mentality is similar. it was extended up to Bengal. The general cultures of the people of this area are more close to Vratya culture than Vedic culture. habits etc. even though the local language varies from place to place. the followings have been observed: 1.OBSERVATION AND CONCLUSION OBSERVATION: Based on the various historical evidences and analysis on various features of Bengal and its people know as Bengalis. 2. they are more close to Non Vedic religion than Vedic religion. 4. Their religion.

that all the analyses on Bengalis are converging to one point. then the Bengali Muslim also should be the descendents of Arabians. the language Samaskrita was originated from Vratya Language and this language was also developed by the Non Aryan Vratya people only. 13. by belief etc. also the Bengali Christians should be the descendents of European Christians (specifically. 11. but Bengali civilization and its people are still flourishing which is different than Aryan or Vedic civilization. However they have adopted various good features. Thus.7. it may be concluded that Bengali civilization was older than Vedic civilization and was superior to the Vedic religion in many aspects. who invaded Bengal. Hence. the Christian Missionaries and Priests). If Bengali Hindus of elite classes are assumed to be the descendant of few Aryan Rishis. 10. The Bengalis are thus Bengalis by blood or race. The first Aryan. This is a natural process for any civilization to remain alive and rich. Bengali language is not a derivative of Samaskrita language. However. Mullas). Russians and Afghanis (particularly Muslim Maulavi. Now Vedic civilization is no more existing any where in the world. The concept of Aryan invasion and their settlement in India was fabricated and fathered by Europeans during 18th century AD for their own benefits. These Aryan people of Islamic faith during their rule in Bengal of approximately 500 years could not pollute the Bengali blood. 14. 9. was Mohammad-bin-Bahktiar of Islamic faith from the place of Rig-Veda area around 12th century AD. they have adopted and also are adopting various features from various civilizations. Bengali blood populated by Aryan blood can be ruled out. that Bengalis are Non-Aryan by blood or race. which are of advantageous to them and also got relieved of. In fact. 8. Vratya religion was found to be older than the Vedic religion. which are not advantageous of various points of time. CONCLUSION: It is observed from this analysis. Physically their structures are close to Vratya people than the Aryan/Vedic people. 73 . The term "Indo-European" are "Indo-Aryan" was first introduced by them in 1816 AD only. 12. Iranians.

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