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ELEMENT 9: MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE AND VEHICLES HAZARDS & CONTROL.

Q.1. a. Give FOUR reasons why accidents may occur on stairs. (4) Answer: Most candidates were able to gain all the marks available for the first part of the question by giving reasons such as poor design of the staircase (inadequate handrails, steep, poor tread/riser ratio, etc.), slippery condition of the stairs (highly polished, icy, oily, etc.), a poor state of repair, (e.g. worn steps or loose coverings), obstructions on the stairs, a p oor standard of lighting, and bad practice (including the carrying of loads, rushing, improper footwear, etc.). Q.1. b. Outline ways in which accidents on stairs may be prevented. (4) Answer: Part (b) was not so well answered even though it should hav e been relatively straightforward to link control measures with the deficiencies identified in part (a). Candidates could therefore have referred to the removal of obstructions and the provision of non -slip surfaces, reflective edging and adequate lighting. They could also have mentioned maintenance as an important issue, together with the safe design and construction of the staircase, including the provision of handrails. The introduction and monitoring of site rules and procedures for using stairs could also have been included. Q.2. Outline the means by which the risk of accident from reversing vehicles within a workplace can be reduced. (8) Or a. Outline the precautionary measures to be taken to avoid accidents involving reversing vehicles within a workplace. (8) Answer: Avoiding the need for vehicles to reverse (one-way & drive-through systems, turning circles etc). Through the separation of vehicles & pedestrians (barriers, signs, etc) & aspects of vehicles & workplace design (audible alarms, m irrors on vehicles & at blind corners, refuges, lighting etc). To procedural measures (use of banksmen, site rules, driver training etc. Q.3. Outline the factors that should be taken into account when planning traffic routes for internal transport. (8) Answer: The purpose of the routes. The types of vehicles using the routes. The likely volume of traffic. The layout of the area. The possible need for one-way systems. Speed limits. Marking Crossing points & signs. And the importance of separating pedestrians and vehicles by the use of physical barriers. The suitability of floors. As well as environmental issues such as lighting levels. And ventilation when diesel powered transport is to be used inside a building.

List Eight Items to be included on a checklist for the routine inspection of a fork lift trucks at the beginning of a shift. (8) Answer: The condition & pressure of tyres. The integrity & proper functioning of lights, horn, brakes and mirrors. The absence of oil leaks & A seat that is securely fixed (with properly functioning & intact restraints where fitted). The fork-lift truck should also be checked for obvious sign of danger to Bodywork. & lifting mechanism. & for the security of any equipment fitted such as an LPG tank. Q.4. Q.5. Outline the precautions to be used when using a mobile elevating work platform (MEWP) to reach a high point such as a streetlight. (8) Answer: The need to inspect the equipment before use & ensure it is in a good state of repair. Using only competent workers using outriggers & brakes. Erecting warning signs and barriers to avoid collisions. Ensuring the platform is not overloaded. Avoid overhead obstructions. & wearing a harness. Q.6. Identify Eight ways in which a fork-lift truck may become unstable during operation. (8) Answer: Insecure, excessive or uneven loading. Incorrect elevation of forks when traveling. Uneven or unconsolidated ground. Slopes (& incorrect procedures for dealing with them) Obstructions (overhead or low level) or changes in level (e.g. edges of loading bays). Cornering at excessive speeds. Sudden braking. Poor condition of tyres. & mechanical failures. Q.7. Identify Eight rules to follow when a fork-lift truck is left unattended in a workplace. (8) Or Outline Eight rules to follow when a fork-lift trucks is left unattended during a drivers work break. (8) Answer: Returning the truck to a designated parking area where possible. Applying the brake and leaving controls in a neutral position. Ensuring the forks are resting on the floor & the mast tilted slightly forward. Avoid the obstruction of walkways, exist & fire points. & removing the ignition key & returning it to a responsible person.

Q.8.

Battery-Powered fork-lift trucks are used to move palletised good within a warehouse. a. Describe FOUR hazards associated specifically with battery-powered fork-lift trucks.

(4) Answer: Explosive hydrogen gas released when batteries are recharged. Electrical arcs / shock. Manual handling of liquids. Corrosive acid. Q.9. Outline the precaution that may be needed to ensure the safety of pedestrians in the areas where the fork-lift trucks are operating. (8) Or a. Outline the health & safety considerations when a forklift truck (FLT) is to be used to unload palletised goods from a vehicles parked in a factory car parking. (8) Or a. Outline the precautions that might be needed to ensure the safety of pedestrians in a vehicle manoeuvring areas. (8) Or a. Outline measures to be taken to prevent accidents when pedestrians are required to work in vehicle manoeuvring areas. (8) Answer Segregated systems for vehicular & pedestrian traffic. Appropriate road markings. Maintaining good visibility (mirrors, transparent doors, provision of lighting etc). & audible warnings on vehicles. Drawing up & enforcement of site rules. The provision of refuges. The wearing of high-visibility clothing. A good standard of housekeeping. & training for, supervision of all concerned. Q.10. Describe the physical features of traffic routes within a workplace to ensure the safe movement of vehicles. (8) Answer: Adequate width of traffic routes with the avoidance of blind corners. Separation of vehicles & pedestrians with the provision of barriers & refuges. A one-way system with turning circles to reduce the need for reversing. Firm, even & well maintained road surfaces. Roadways unobstructed & signed to indicate speed limits, rights of way & no entry. Visibility aids such as mirrors, transparent screens across doorways & lighting. Traffic calming measures such as road humps. Marked pedestrian crossings points on vehicle routes. Q.11. a. Identify Two occasions when a through examination of a fork lift trucks (FLT) is required. (2) Answer: Before its first use by an employer. At 12 monthly intervals (or 6 monthly if the trucks is to be used for lifting persons). In accordance with an examination scheme drawn up by a competent person. Or following circumstances that might have compromised the safety of the lifting equipment.

Q.11. b. Outline a range of circumstance that may cause a FLT to become unstable. (8) Answer: Travelling on gradients that are too steep; Fork-lift trucks travelling forwards when descending slopes; Being overloaded, unevenly loaded or carrying unstable loads; Travelling on soft or uneven ground or falling into excavations; Travelling over slippery services, e.g. oil or grease patches; Travelling too fast, especially around corners; Travelling over kerbs, steps or other edges; Poor maintenance, e.g. of tyres; Poor driving / driver training; Not being suitable for the task; and Carrying loads at a dangerous height, e.g. a fully raised fork-lift truck load. Q.11. c. Other than those associated with instability, identify FIVE hazards presented by a dieselpowered FLT And describe the precautions that might be necessary in EACH case (10) Answer: Vibration (e.g. spring mounted seats). Noise (wearing ear defenders of fitting silencers on exhausts). Diesel fumes (the provision of ventilation or prohibiting indoor use). Falling materials (provision of protective cage). Collision (the use of barriers &/or speed restraints). & environmental health hazards associated with the use of diesel oil (control of spillages & the wearing of gloves).

ELEMENT 10: MANUAL AND MECHANICAL HANDLING HAZARDS & CONTROL. Q.1. An automated piece of equipment designed to lift boxes weighing 20kg from a conveyor and place them on to pallets has failed and is likely to be out of action for several weeks. During this time, the task will be carried out manually. a. Outline the factors that should be considered when undertaking a manual handling assessment of the task. (8) Answer: The main elements to be considered in a manual handling assessm ent are task, individual, load and environment. Candidates who approached the question in this way tended to produce better-focused answers that applied each element to the practical task outlined. Under the heading "task" for instance, there was a range of issues to be considered such as frequency of the activity, vertical and horizontal distances to be lifted/transported, distance of the load from the body, awkward body movements and so on. Under "load", marks were available for considering factors such as the size and weight of the boxes, their stability and the ease with which a good grip might be gained and under "environment" for referring to the condition of the floor, space constraints, temperature and the standard of lighting provided. Lastly, the individual would have to be considered in terms of age, gender, stature and physical capability. Q.1. b. Outline the measures that may be needed in order to reduce the risk of injury to employees carrying out the manual handling task. (12) Answer: Part (ii) of the question required candidates to outline practical measures to reduce the risk of injury to employees carrying out the manual handling task and was generally answered more successfully than the first part. These would include: improving the task layout and work routine so that adequate rest periods were provided; reducing the weight of the loads and using two persons where this was possible; ensuring that due attention was given to the selection of those involved including their physical capabili ties; providing appropriate information and training on good lifting practice; ensuring that the floors and walkways were in good condition and kept free from obstruction and that the standards of heating, ventilation and lighting provided were adequate. T his question was answered reasonably well by most candidates. Q.2. Outline the issues to consider when undertaking a manual handling assessment of a task that involves lifting buckets of water out of a sink. (8) Answer: The main elements to be considered in a manual handling assessment are task, individual, load and environment. Candidates who approached the question in this way tended to produce better focused answers that applied each element to a practical and familiar operation. Under the heading 'task', for instance, there was a range of issues to be considered such as frequency of the activity, vertical and horizontal distances to be lifted/transported, distance of the load from the body, awkward body movements and so on. Under 'load', marks were available for considering factors such as weight, the type/size of bucket and water temperature; and under 'environment' for referring to wet floors, space constraints and ambient temperature. Lastly, the 'individual' should be considered in terms of age, gender, stature and physical capabilities. The question related to the assessment of a manual handling task. Some candidates, however, chose to answer it in terms of control by outlining alternative ways of filling the

bucket or transporting the water in order to reduce risk. This is, of course, the next stage of the process that was not addressed by the question. Q.3. A store man is required to place boxes of metal components by hand on to shelved racking. a. List Four types of injuries to which the employee may be at risk while carrying out this task. (4) Answer: Slipped disk, torn ligaments. Tendon sprains or hernia. Manual handling and stacking potentially heavy boxes, there was, in addition, the possibility that the boxes or their contents could fall. Causing cuts. Abrasions & even fractures. Q.3. b. Outline the factors in relation to the task & the Load that will affect the risk injury. (10) Answer: The factors in relation to the Task: The number of boxes to be lifted & the frequency of lifting. & the vertical & horizontal distances that the boxes are required to be lifted or carried, particularly if they have to be lifted from the ground & / or placed on high shelves. The need for excessive Pulling or pushing of the load. & twisting of the body should also have been considered. The factors in relation to the Load: The weight & size of the boxes. The weight distribution. The provision of handles or other means to ensure an adequate grip. The presence of sharp edges. & the security of the loads within the boxes to prevent unexpected movement. Q.3. c. Outline a good manual handling technique that could be adopted by the employee when required to lift one of the boxes from ground level. (6) Answer: Address the size & weight of the load. & the location to which it is to be moved. & then outlined a technique that included issues such as the correct positioning of the feet. Keeping the back straight. Bending only the knees. & lifting smoothly which keeping the load closer to the body. Q.4. List the possible indications of a manual handling problem in a workplace. (4) Answer: The results of health surveillance. Absence records. First-aid treatment observations of the work in process (up to full ergonomic assessments). & complaints from employees.

Q.5.

An office employee is required to replace 20 liter (20 Kg) water bottles located on top of water coolers. a. Identify FOUR factors specific to the employee that nigh increase the risk of injury when carrying out this task (4) Answer: Physical strength & stature, the state of health of the employee & the level of training in manual handling techniques. Related to these are the persons perception (or misperceptions) of the requirements of the task or their own abilities.

Q.5.

b. Outline a good handling technique that could be used when lifting a full bottle from the floor (4) (Or) Outline a good handling technique that could be adopted by a person required to lift a load from the ground (6) Answer: Firstly by making the initial assessment of the load. Then the need to take a firm grip of the bottle to be lifted. Before moving it smoothly, keeping the back straight & using the leg muscles. Ensuring that the trunk is not twisted during the operation. Q.6. Outline the factors that may affect the level of risk from manual handling in relation to. a. The Load. (4) Answer: The size & weight of the load. The possibility that the contents might move & the load become unbalanced. The position of the centre of gravity. Difficulty in securing a firm grasp of the load. & the presence of sharp edges. Q.6. Outline the factors that may affect the level of risk from manual handling in relation to. b. The Individual (4) Answer: Body size & strength in relation to the task to be carried out (which can be age or gender-related). Physical handicaps or restrictions caused by illness, disability or pregnancy. Lack of training in manual handling. & inappropriate clothing or footwear. Q.7. An assessment has concluded that the person carrying out a particular manual handling task is fit & capable of lifting the loads involved. a. Outline the factors to be considered with the task & the work environment that would need to be considered in order to complete the assessment. (8) Answer: The factors that should be considered for the task include: The need to hold or manipulate the loads at a distance from the trunk. Frequent or prolonged physical effort with insufficient rest or recovery periods. Excessive pushing or pulling of the loads.

Excessive carrying or raising / lowering distances. & the need for the person involved to adopt unsatisfactory body positions. The factors that should be considered for the work environment: The structure & condition of floors & walking in the working area. Space constraints. Lighting temperature. Humidity & ventilation.

Q.8. a. Identify TWO types of injury that may be caused by the incorrect manual handling of loads (2) Answer: External Injuries: Cuts, bruises, abrasions and crush injuries to figures, hands, forearms, ankles and feet. Internal Injuries: muscles and ligament strains and tears, hernias, knee, ankle and shoulder injuries. Cumulative back injuries: slipped disc (prolapsed inter vertebral disc). Q.8. b. Give Two examples of how a manual handling task might be avoided (2) Answer: Frok Lift Trucks. Hoists. Cranes & Conveyors. Q.9. An automated piece of equipment designed to lift boxes weighing 20 kg from a conveyor & place them on to pallets has failed & is likely to be out of action for several weeks. During this time, the task will be carried out manually. a. Outline the factors to be considered when undertaking a manual handling assessment of the task. (8) Answer: The main elements to be considered in a manual handling assessment are Load. The size & weight of the boxes. Their stability & the ease with which a good grip might be gained. Individual. Age. Gender. Stature. & Physical capability. Task. Frequency of the activity. Vertical & horizontal distance to be lifted / transported. Distance of the load from the body. Awkward body movement. Environment. Condition of the floor. Space constraints. Temperature. & the standard of lighting provided.

Q.9.

b. Outline the measures that may be needed in order to reduce the risk of injury to employees carrying out the manual handling task. (12) Answer: These would include Improving the task layout & work routine so that adequate rest periods were provided. Reducing the weight of the load & using 2 persons where this was possible. Ensuring that due attention was given to the selection of those involved including their physical capabilities. Providing appropriate training on good lifting practice. Ensuring the floors & walkways are in good condition & kept free from obstruction. & that the standards of heating, ventilation & lighting provided were adequate. Q.10. Employees working for a charity are required to collect plastic bags of clothes, books & other donated goods from outside household er premises & carry them to a waiting company van. a. Giving reason in EACH case, Outline the types of injury the employees may sustain from the activity. (8) Answer: There is a wide range of possible injuries which employees might sustain. These would generally result from the manual handling hazards to which they would include: Muscular strains. Torn ligaments & injuries to the spine from handling & carrying bags of unknown weight over varying distance & then lifting them into the van. There was also the danger of cuts & abrasion arising from contact with the contents of the bags with possible bone & flesh injuries following slips, trips & falls, over kerbs & other obstructions. There would always be the possibility of being struck by passing traf fic while injuries arising from assaults by members of the public or more probably dogs, could not be ruled out. Q.11. Outline a procedure for the same lifting of a load by a crane, having ensured that the crane has been correctly selected & positioned for the job. (8) Answer: The correct selection of the sling & its inspection for damage before use. The employment of competent persons to attach the sling to the load in order to ensure a correct balance. The provision of an unrestricted view for the carne driver or, where this is not possible, the use of competent banks men to maintain effectives communication with the driver. Checking that the area where the lift is to take place is kept clear of employees. & ensuring that the load is raised at the correct speed, lowered slowly to its landing position & controlled during its passage, possible by the use of tag lines. Q.12. a. Outline the possible causes of a dumper trucks to overturn on a construction site. (6) (Or) Outline the possible causes of a dumper truck to overturn. (6) Answer: Overloading or uneven loading of the bucket. Cornering at excessive speed. Hitting obstructions. Driving too close to the edges of embankments or excavations.

Mechanical defects. Inappropriate tyre pressures. & driving across slopers.

Q.12. b. Identify the design features of a dumper truck intended to minimise the risk of, or severity of injury from, an overturn. (2) (Or) Identify TWO design features of the vehicle intended to minimise the consequences of an overturn (2) Answer: Rollover Protection & seat belts. Design to prevent over turning, such as the width of the wheel base & the position of the centre of gravity of the truck. Q.13. Outline Four hazards & the corresponding precautions to be taken when using conveyor precautions to taken when using conveyor systems for moving materials within a workplace. (8) Answer: Typical hazards & precautions. Traps & drawing-in (with nip guards & trip devices as possible precautions). Entanglement (fixed guards, avoidance of loose clothing). Impact against overhead systems (bump caps, restricted access, warning signs, cushioning). Items falling off (edge guards or barriers). Contact hazards (belt edge protection, restricted access, elimination of sharp edges). Manual handling hazards (appropriate height of conveyor, the use of mechanical aids). & noise (various attenuation methods, hearing protection). Q.14. An organization is about to purchase a fork lift truck (FLT). With reference to its possi ble intended use & working environment. a. Outline the particular features of vehicle that should be taken into account when determining its suitability for the job. (8) Answer: The feature that should be taken into account are: The power source of the truck. Its size & capacity. The height of the mast. The type of tyres & warning systems fitted. & the protection provided for the operator. The Factors that should be taken into account in determining suitability in each case: (For example, in the case of the power source, the choice of battery, diesel or LPG would depend partly on whether the truck was to be operated indoors or outdoors. Which in the case of tyres, the choice of solid or pneumatic would depend on the nature of the terrain over which the truck was to run

Q.15. Outline the precautions to be taken when employees are working at ground level in a workshop where loads are lifted & transported by means of overheads gantry crane. (8) Answer: People must be aware of the Use of the crane. Training & competence of key personnel (operator, signaller, slingers) are of utmost importance to general crane safety, as are the requirements for Maintenance. & statutory inspection of the crane & lifting tackle. Warnings of a lift taking place (audible & / or Visible). Ensuring that the load is secure. Does not exceed the safe working load. Is lifted to the correct height & moved at an appropriate speed. & ensuring that all those working in the are have been properly trained & are adequately supervised.

ELEMENT 11: WORK EQUIPMENT HAZARD AND CONTROL. Q.1. An employee is to use a petrol-driven chainsaw to fell a tree from ground level. a. Outline the hazards faced by the employee in carrying out this task. (10) Answer: Part (i) of the question was generally well answered with most candidates able to outline a number of hazards associated with this task. They include: contact with moving parts of the chainsaw (the chain in particular); exposure to fumes and dust; manual handling hazards; noise and vibration; ejected particles and fragments; falling objects (ultimately, the tree itself); and fire and explosion hazards from the fuel. Better candidates were able to extend their answers to include some possibly less obvious hazards associated with hot parts of the chain saw, uneven and/or wet ground, the use of lubricating oils and exposure to sunlight. Q.1. b. List FIVE items of personal protective equipment that should be provided to, and used by, the employee. (5) Answer: Candidates experienced more difficulty in answering part (ii). They were expected to list five items of personal protective equipment associated with this task and, while the majority were able to cite ear defenders, gloves and helmets, only the more astute (or perhaps those with knowledge and/or experience of the activity) alluded to such items as face visors, forestry boots and specialized, (e.g. kevlar) protective clothing designed to choke the chain if contact is made. Q.1. c. Outline control measures other than personal protective equipment that would be necessary to ensure the health and safety of the chainsaw operator and other persons involved in the operation. (5) Answer: Weaker responses to part (ii) tended to continue in the same vein in the final part of the question. Again, only better candidates could outline a range of suitable control measures. Such measures might include: proper planning of the job; placing barriers and warning signs to restrict access to the felling area; ensuring that the chainsaw is suitable for the task, that the guard is always in place and that the equipment is properly maintained; using only certificated operators; providing information, instruction and training for the job in hand; ensuring adequate supervision to check that procedures (relating to safe felling methods, refuelling, exclusion zones, etc.) are followed; and introducing. a system of health surveillance, (e.g. to look for signs of hearing loss and/or hand-arm vibration syndrome).

Specialist knowledge of chainsaw operations was not needed in order to provide a good answer to this question. It required candidates to be aware of the sort of work involved (from seeing such operations on television perhaps), to speculate on the hazards that might face operators, and then to apply generic controls to the situation in order to protect against those hazards. For instance, other than suggesting that appropriate protective clothing should be worn, candidates were not expected to know specifically about kevlar clothing and its means of providing protection. Similarly, a detailed knowledge of safety features on chainsaws (such as chain catchers and anti- kickback devices) was not needed. However, candidates should be able to apply their knowledge of health and safety generally to situations that are not immediately familiar to them and this was one such example

Q.2.

Outline the FOUR main categories of guards and safeguarding devices that may be used to minimize the risk contact with dangerous parts of machinery. (8) Answer: Answers to this question were rather variable. Many candidates could name the four main categories of guards and safeguarding devices (often inspired by the acronym 'FIAT') but were either unable to provide the necessary additional detail that an outline requires or became confused between the various types. Most candidates initially mentioned fixed guards, described as a physical barrier held in place at all times, not linked to the machine operation and requiring a special tool for its removal. Next, interlocked guards could have been described as a guard linked mechanically, electrically, hydraulically or pneumatically to the machine operation and preventing access when the machine is in a dangerous condition, while also preventing operation of the machine when the guard is open. A third category of guard, the adjustable or self-adjusting guard, is essentially a fixed guard that has elements that can be adjusted (or which adjust themselves) to allow for the material being processed. Typical examples can be found on circular saws and drill chucks. Lastly, the trip device (for example, a pressure mat, probe or photo-electric system) stops movement of the machine when approach is detected. While not really a 'main' type of guard due to its limited application, cred it was given to candidates who referred to automatic (or self-acting) guards within their four types. An automatic guard is linked to the machine mechanism and physically removes an operator from the danger zone. Q.3. Bench-mounted saw are operated in a workshop to cut wood to size in the manufacturer of wooden pallets. a. In relation to the use of the circular saw, identify Four risk to the health AND Four risks to the safety of the saw operators. (8) Answer: Four Risks to the Health: Hearing damage. Hand-arm Vibration. Respiratory problems such as asthma Nasal & or lung cancer. & dermatitis. Four Risks to the Saw operator: Amputation or cuts from contact with the rotating blade. Injury caused by entanglement on rotating parts such as the spindle or parts of the transmission machinery.

Q.3.

Injuries caused by flying particles & the ejection of wood being processed Manual handling injuries as a result of slips or falls b. Outline the measures that can be taken to minimize the health & safety risk to the circular saw operators. (12) Answer: Measures to minimize the health & safety risk to the circular saw operators: The completion of a risk assessment for the activity. The provision of an adjustable guard for the top of the saw exposing as little of the blade as possible & a fixed guard for that part of the blade below the bench. Protection at the rear of the blade in the form of a riving knife. The use of jigs or push sticks to keep the operators hands away from the blade at the end of the cut. The provision of emergency stop buttons & means of isolation for the machines. The provision of adequate space around the machines with the floor being maintained in a sound condition & free from debris & loose material. The fitting & regular maintenance of a properly designed Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) system Ensuring adequate levels of lighting & heating & providing appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as goggles, ear defenders & gloves. Q.4. Outline the sources & possible effects of Four non-mechanical hazards commonly encountered in a wooden working shop (8) (Or) Identify Four non-mechanical hazards to which woodworking machine operators may be exposed & Outline the possible health & safety effects in Each case (8) Answer: Dust from sawing & sanding operations (leading to lung disorders & possibly cancer). Chemical hazards from varnishes, glues etc (leading to a range of ill-health effects). Noise from machinery (causing noise-induced hearing loss & other auditory & nonauditory effects). Sharps & splinters (causing eye injuries, cuts & infections). Manual handling hazards (resulting in musculoskeletal disorders). & electricity (causing shocks, burns & fire). Q.5. a. Define the term ergonomics (2) Answer: The study of the interaction between workers & the work environment or making the job or task fit the person Q.5. b. List Six observations made during the inspection of a machine made during the inspection of a machine operation which may suggest that the machine has not been ergonomically designed. (6) Answer: The need for excessive force or repetitive movements by the operator. The need for operator to stretch or stoop. Machine controls sited in awkward positions. Controls & displays unmarked or poorly marked & their functions not obvious. Lack of visibility of the task by the operator. The work piece difficult to position because of its size or weight or because of the type of machine protection provided. & the difficulty experienced in changing, adjusting or cleaning machine tools.

Q,6.

A cleaner is required to polish floors using a rotary floor polisher. a. Identify the hazards that might be associated with this operation (4) Answer: Entanglement Slips, trips & falls Noise & vibration Electrical & ergonomic hazards & the possible use of chemical cleaning agents Q,6. b. Outline suitable control measures that might be used to minimise the risk (4) Answer: Guarding. Cable management. Isolation of the machine for changing brushes. The wearing of appropriate footwear. Regular maintenance & testing of the machine. Together with the use of residual current devices. & the provision of training for the operator with emphasis placed on pre -use checks. Q.7. Provide Sketches to show clearly the nature of the following mechanical hazards from moving parts of machinery i. Entanglement (2) ii. Crushing (2) iii. Drawing-in (2) iv. Shear (2) Answer: Assess the strength. Rigidity & durability of the material from which the guard is made. The security of its fastenings in requiring a special tool for its removal. & the importance of securing sufficient ventilation when required. The use of a fixed guard only when frequent removal of the protection is not required. The need to ensure that the guard neither interferes with the operation of the machine nor obstructs the vision of the operator. & any openings in the guard should be of such size as to prevent access to the danger point. Q.7. b. Outline the issues that should be addressed in assessing the appropriateness & suitability of a fixed guard used to protect against dangerous part of a machine (6) Answer: Assess the strength. Rigidity & durability of the material from which the guard is made. The security of its fastenings in requiring a special tool for its removal. & the importance of securing sufficient ventilation when required. The use of a fixed guard only when frequent removal of the protection is not required. The need to ensure that the guard neither interferes with the operation of the machine nor obstructs the vision of the operator. & any openings in the guard should be of such size as to prevent access to the danger point.

Q.7.

c. Identify Four non-mechanical hazards to which woodworking machine operators may be exposed & Outline the possible health & safety effects in Each case (8) Answer: Dust (causing lung disorders & fires/explosions) Noise (resulting in hearing loss or tinnitus) Vibration (causing hand-arm vibration syndrome) Splinter (resulting in injuries to the eye, cuts & infection) Manual handling (which could result in musculoskeletal disorders) & electricity (with its associated risk of shock, electrical burns & fire) Q.8. a. Outline the possible hazards from using a petrol-driven strimmer to maintain road verges (8) Answer: Exposure to fumes The possibility of fire or explosion Contact with the moving parts of the strimmer Being struck by flying stones & fragments Noise & vibration Manual handling Slips, trips & falls The possibility of being struck by moving traffic & exposure to extreme weather conditions Q.9. List Eight non-mechanical hazards associated with machinery (8) Answer: Electricity Noise & vibration Radiation Extremes of temperature Fire & explosion Hazardous substances (both by direct contact with for instance Oils & greases & by exposure to dust & fumes) & those related to insufficient attention to ergonomic issues Q.10. a. Outline the principles of the following types of machine guard i. A Fixed Guard (2) ii. An interlocked guard (2) Answer: A fixed guard is physically attached to the machine & normally requires a special tool to remove It., it provides a physical barrier that has no moving parts & is not linked to the controls, motion or hazardous condition of the machine. Interlocked guards , on the other hand, work on the principle that a machine cannot start or otherwise become dangerous until the guard is closed, & that when the machine is in a dangerous condition either the guard cannot be operated or opening the guard causes the machine to come to a rest.

Q.10. b. Identify Two advantages & Two disadvantages of fixed guard (4) Answer: A fixed guard is easy to inspect & maintain & the fact that there are no moving parts leads to increased reliability. On the other hand, the fact that it is not linked to the machine controls means that no protection is afforded should it be removed &, since it is fixed & requires a special tool for its removal, access, when required, is more difficult. A physical barrier, particularly if it is solid rather than meshed, may also hamper visual inspection of the machine or the work being performed Q.11. Identify Four mechanical hazards presented by pedestal drills & Outline in EACH case how injury may occur (8) Answer: Entanglement of hair with the drill bit or chuck Stabbing injuries from the end of the bit Contact with the drill bit or chuck resulting in abrasions & ejection of, or impact by, unclamped work pieces, made worse by the fact that t he work piece may be spinning at fast speed on the bit Cutting hazards may also be presented by metal swarf produced by the drilling process Q.12. Identify Four hazards when cutting grass on roadside verges with a rider -operated motor-mower & Outline the precautions to be taken against EACH One (8) Answer: Hazards Associate with the use of a motor-mower: Fast rotating blades & the potential for the machine to overturn when operating on inclines. Noise & vibration Collision with road traffic or pedestrians Fumes Dust Flying objects (e.g. stones from the machine) & hazards associated with fuel
Environmental issues such as extreme exposure to sunlight & the presence of stinging insects

Precautions: The fitting of guards to protect the blades The provision of personal protective equipment such as ear defenders, eye protection, & high visibility clothing Coning off areas in close proximity to moving traffic & training drivers in operating the machine on sloping ground, in re-fuelling procedures & in carrying out routine maintenance work.

Q.13. A chainsaw is to be used to fell a tree from ground level. In relation to this task a. Identify Four hazards associated with the use of the chainsaw (4) Answer: The wide range of mechanical and non-mechanical hazards: Contact or entanglement with the chain Noise & vibration Dust & fumes Ejected particles Hot surfaces Manual handling & ergonomic hazards & being struck by falling branches or trees

Q.13. b. List the items of personal protective equipment that should be used by the chainsaw operator (4) Answer: Forestry boots Helmets fitted with meshed face shields Hearing protection & specialized gloves & clothing (e.g. kevlar) that would afford the necessary body & leg protection Q.14. a. Identify i. Two mechanical hazards associated with moving parts of machinery (2) ii. Two non - mechanical hazards associated with moving parts of machinery (2) Answer: Mechanical hazards (i.e. those from, moving parts of machinery &/or the material being worked) include Impact Entanglement Crushing Shearing Ejection Cutting & abrasion Where as a list of non-mechanical machinery hazards includes Noise Vibration Electricity Hazardous substances Radiation Extremes of temperature & ergonomic issues Q.14. b. Outline a hierarchy of control measures that may be used to reduce the risk of injury from dangerous parts of machinery (4) (Or) Outline a hierarchy of control measures that may be used to eliminate the risk of injury from dangerous parts of machinery (4) Answer Fixed guards Other types of guards or protective devices Safety aids such as jigs Holder & push-sticks & the provision of information, instruction, training & supervision.

Q.15. In relation to machinery safety a. Outline the principles of operation of the principles of operation of i. Interlocked guards (2) ii. Trip devices (2) Answer: Interlocked guards One that is linked to the machine controls (by mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic means) So that the machine will not operate until the guard is closed & when the machine is in a dangerous condition The guard is either prevented from opening or If it is opened The dangerous parts of the machine are made safe Trip device A trip device, on the other hand, operates when a person approaches a danger area Typical examples are trip bars or probes, pressure mats & photo -sensitive systems (light curtains) Once the device is triggered, it trips the machine, which either stops or otherwise becomes safe Q.15. b. Identify Four types of danger against which fixed guards on machines may provide protection (4) Answer: reducing noise emissions by containing hazardous substances such as oil, mist or dust by providing shielding against heat or electricity & by preventing the ejection of particles from the machine Q.16. Identify the hazards associated with the use of a cement mixer & explain how they should be controlled (8) Answer: Manual handling (which might be controlled by the use of mechanical aids, reduced weight of loads, the siting of materials to reduce twisting &/or the provision of training) The corrosive & irritant properties of cement (which could be countered by the provision & use of appropriate personal protective equipment, safe systems of work & good hygiene practices) inhalation of the cement dust (against which masks might be provided) & machinery hazards such as moving parts, ejection of materials & noise (where the control measures would include, where appropriate, the provision of guarding, goggles & hearing protection) If petrol-driven, requirements would include storage facilities for the fuel to protect against the risk of fire, training in refuelling procedures, & the prohibition of the use of the mixer in confined areas to protect employees against inhalation of fumes If electrical, a similar system of regular inspection & testing of the equipment, & the use of residual current devices to minimise the risk of shock, should be in place

Q.17. In relation to cutting timber using a bench-mounted circular saw a. Outline the mechanical hazards to which the operator may be exposed (6) Answer: The most obvious & serious hazard is the cutting hazard associated with the rotating blade Entanglement with rotating parts (such as the spindle or parts of the transmission machinery) & the hazards created by flying particles & ejection of the wood being processed Q.17. b. Identify the guards & protective devices designed to prevent contact with the saw blade, & in EACH case, explain how the operator is protected. (6) Answer: An adjustable or self-adjusting guard for the top of the saw, exposing as little of the blade as possible Fixed guards over the part of the blade below the bench & around the motor & drive mechanism Protection at the rear of the blade in the form of a riving knife & the use of a push-stick to keep the operators hand away from the blade at the end of the cut. Q.17. c. Outline Four non-mechanical hazards presented by the operation identifying the possible health & safety effects in EACH case (8) Answer: Noise-induced hearing loss, The possibility of lung disorders or nasal cancer from exposure to dust Electricity when in contact with un-insulated power cable. & shock or burns from contact with a defective electricity supply to the machine Q.18. Identify the factors to consider when assessing the suitability of controls (including emergency controls) of an item of work equipment (8) Answer: In assessing the suitability of controls on an item of work equipment, factors that would need to be considered include Their accessibility (within reach of the operator) The protection of starting devices against inadvertent operation (shrouded or recessed) The clear marking or labeling of the controls to indicate their purpose The color of stop & start controls & their siting outside the danger in a safe position As for emergency stop controls They should be mushroomed shaped Red in colour Adequate in number Sited inside the danger zone & arranged so that the equipment cannot be re-started from the emergency stop button but would need to be re-set

Q.19. a. Describe when a fixed guard would be an appropriate means of providing protection against mechanical hazards (2) Answer: Fixed guards may be an appropriate method of providing protection against mechanical hazards when infrequent or no access is required to dangerous parts of a machine during its normal operation. Q.19. b. Outline the features of fixed guards designed to minimise the risk of injury or ill health from dangerous parts of machinery (6) Answer: The material of construction, which should be sufficiently robust to withstand the rigours of the workplace & be able to contain any ejected material, but still allow sight of the process when required The method of fixing, usually requiring the use of a special tool for the guards removal The need to ensure that any necessary openings in guards are such that they do not allow access to the dangerous parts (a function of the size of any opening in relation to the distance to the hazards & the need to address the possibility of the guard reverberating & exacerbating a noise problem

ELEMENT 12: ELECTRICAL HAZARD AND CONTROL. Q.1. In relation to electrical safety; Explain the meaning of the following terms: a. Isolation. (2) b. Earthing. (2) c. Reduced low voltage (2) d. Over-current protection (2) Answer: The question aimed to test candidates' knowledge of some key electrical terms. 'Isolation' refers to shutting off the electrical supply to an item of equipment or part of an electrical system and preventing inadvertent reconnection in order, for instance, to carry out maintenance work. 'Earthing', on the other hand, is a means whereby electrical equipment and conductive items are connected to earth by a cable or metal pipe-work such that the route to earth provides the path of least resistance to a current flowing under fault conditions. 'Reduced low voltage', commonly used on construction sites, involves the reduction of mains voltage by a transformer to a lower, safer voltage typically 110 or 55 volts; while 'overcurrent protection' is a method of preventing the flow of excess current by cutting the supply under fault conditions by means of a fuse or circuit breaker. Despite the question, or parts of it, having appeared on previous papers, it was poorly answered by most candidates, with only the more able producing answers to a reasonable standard. Q.2. Outline the practical measures to reduce the risk of injury from electricity when using a portable electrical appliance on a construction site. (8) (Or) Outline ways of minimising the risk of serious injury from electricity when using a portable electrical appliance (8) Answer: The appropriate selection of equipment such as battery-operated appliances or those operating at a reduced voltage (typically 110v) Cables connected to the power supply with proper connectors The use of RCDs Training of operators in the checking procedures to be followed before use The introduction of a regular appliance inspection & testing procedure & the avoidance of using in wet conditions Q.3. Give a suitable example in Each case, Identify particular conditions of a working environment that may increase the risk from the use of portable electrical equipment (8) Answer: Environments that might expose equipment to mechanical damage such as a construction site where there is a risk of cables being run over by vehicles or coming into contact with sharp edges Work outdoors where equipment could be exposed to the elements such as rain, wind & snow Environments where equipment could be exposed to high or low temperatures such as in foundries or cold stores Environments where chemicals & corrosive liquids such as acids &/or alkalis are used Flammable or explosive atmospheres where equipment could be exposed to dusts, vapours or gases

Dirty & dusty environments such as construction sites or saw mills Wet & humid environments such as laundries & swimming pools Environments involving work at heights or in confined spaces where there would be the likelihood of trailing cables

Q.4.

a. Outline the precautions to take to protect against electrical contact when i. Excavating near underground cables (4) ii. Working in the vicinity of overhead power lines (4) Answer: Precautions against excavating near underground cables: Isolation of the supply The identification of cable routes from plans & by the use of cable detectors Checking for service box covers Marking of cable routes on site & digging with hand-tools rather than with a mechanical excavator Precautions against Overhead power lines: Isolation Erection of goal-post barriers to define clearance distances Clear marking of danger zones (for example with signs & bunting) Ensuring safe access routes under lines (for instance with tunnels) the appropriate use of marshals & banksmen when there is a possibility that cranes Excavators or tipper lorries might approach overhead lines & the restricted use of items such as metal ladders & scaffold tubes near live lines Q.5. State the items that should be included on a checklist for the routine inspection of portable electrical appliances (8) Answer: Precautions against excavating near underground cables: The need to check that the appliance is of a suitable type for the operations to be carried out That the connecting plugs are in sound condition & sockets not overloaded that the fuses fitted are of the correct rating That the appliance is operated at reduced voltage (where appropriate) &/or protected by a RCD That cables are undamaged & routed safely & that the casing of the appliance is in good condition Need to check that a PAT has been carried out & is current, & that the relevant information is provided Q.6. A decorator uses a large portable electric steamer for wallpaper stripping (Or) A decorator uses a hand-heal electric sander for the preparation of wood prior to painting. a. Identify Four hazards associated with the use of the steamer (4) (Or) Other than electricity, Identify Four hazards associated with the use of the sander. (4) Answer: Manual handling Contact with the steam & hot surfaces Eergonomic & electrical hazards & slips, trips & falls

Q.6.

b. Outline the checks that should be made to ensure electrical safety when using the steamer (4) (Or) Outline the checks that should be made to ensure electrical safety of the sander (4) Answer: Visual inspection of cables plugs & sockets. The equipment conforms to relevant standards (CE marking) That it has been subject to portable appliance testing That the equipment does not show signs of damage That fuses are of the correct rating That residual current devices are in use & that there are appropriate means of isolating the steamer Q.7. Outline a range of checks that should be made to ensure electrical safety in an office environment (8) Answer: Damage to cables Plugs & sockets The need to ensure that all fuses are of the correct rating & checking that equipment is sited such that outlets are not overloaded & cable are not in vulnerable positions The equipment itself should be checked to ensure suitability & conformity with recognised standards (e.g. CE marking) & a specific testing procedure for portable appliances should be in place As well as a procedure for reporting defects or damage Q.8. a. Describe the possible health effects of electricity on the body (4) Answer: Nerve/muscle action & tissue burns Cardio-respiratory effects: In particular the risk of fatal injury due to disruption of heart rhythm Tissue burns: Main sites of damage as being the entry & exit points & to the possibility of damage to internal organs Q.8. b. Outline Four factors that may affect the severity of harm of injury from contact with electricity (4) Answer: Voltage The route taken through the body The length of contact time The general health & age of the person involved & those factors that might affect the size of current passing through the body Resistance Dryness of the skin Natural body resistance Ground conditions & type of footwear

Q.9. a. Outline the dangers associated with electricity (4) Answer: Burns to tissue Fire & explosion & secondary effects such as falling from a height as result of an electric shock Q.9. b. Outline the emergency action to take if a person suffers a severe electrical shock (4) Answer: The first action on discovering a person having suffered an electric shock should always be To summon help & following this If the person is still in close proximity to the live part Isolate the supply or push the person clear using a non-conductive implement First-aid should then be administered, which, depending on the severity of the shock, may include cardio-pulmonary resuscitation If successful, an airway should be maintained by placing the victim in the recovery position & breathing should be monitored until medical help arrives Q.10. A joiner has received an electric shock from a hand-held, 230V drill while fitting floor boards to an upstairs room of a new property; the drill is 5 years old but has not been tested during this time, the injury to the joiner was fortunately not serious. a. Identify the factors that may have limited the severity of injury o this occasion (4) Answer: High earth path resistance from the wooden floor or the dry conditions The age & health status of the joiner & the length of contact time which could also have been reduced by the speed action of the fuse or circuit breaker Q.10. b. Outline the physical effects on the body that such contact with electricity could have caused under different circumstances (4) Answer The main sites of damage as being entry & exit points & to the possibility of damage to internal organs Nerve/muscle action (leading to involuntary grip) & cardio-respiratory effects In particular the risk of fatal injury due to the disruption of heart-rhythm Q.10. c. Describe the type of inspections &/or test to which the drill should have been subjected, identify the particular features that should be checked by Each type & the factors that might affect the frequency required. (12) Answer The 1st type of these should have been carried out by the joiner (the user) He should have checked the general condition of the drill for signs of damage or overheating & the integrity of the connectors (plug & socket) & cable This type of inspection should be carried out on every occasion that the equipment is to be used. The 2nd type should have been a more formal visual inspection carried out at periodic intervals (weekly or monthly) depending upon the extent & conditions of use

It should take the form of a more thorough inspection of the equipment & its connectors & cable & additionally should include a check to ensure that the fuses fitted were correctly rated The 3rd type should have involved a combined inspection & test (PAT), carried out by a competent person on a 3 monthly Half yearly Or annual basis (Again depending upon the extent & conditions of use) with the objectives of both checking That the equipment was functioning correctly & of detecting potential faults such as loss of earth integrity Deterioration of the integrity of insulation & possible contamination of internal & external surfaces The factors that might affect the frequency of inspection (apart from the ext ent & conditions of use) would include: The age & robustness of the equipment The type of cable fitted The number & competency of the users Manufacturers recommendation foreseeable misuse or abuse & the results of previous inspections

Q.11. a. Outline the Three levels of inspection that should be included in a maintenance & inspection strategy for portable electrical appliance (6) Answer: The 1st level of these should have been carried out by the joiner (the user) He should have checked the general condition of the drill for signs of damage or overheating & the integrity of the connectors (plug & socket) & cable This type of inspection should be carried out on every occasion that the equipment is to be used. The 2nd level should have been a more formal visual inspection carried out at periodic intervals (weekly or monthly) depending upon the extent & conditions of use It should take the form of a more thorough inspection of the equipment & its connectors & cable & additionally should include a check to ensure that the fuses fitted were correctly rated The 3rd level should have involved a combined inspection & test (PAT), carried out by a competent person on a 3 monthly Half yearly Or annual basis (Again depending upon the extent & conditions of use) with the objectives of both checking That the equipment was functioning correctly & of detecting potential faults such as loss of earth integrity Deterioration of the integrity of insulation & possible contamination of internal & external surfaces The factors that might affect the frequency of inspection (apart from the extent & conditions of use) would include: The age & robustness of the equipment

The type of cable fitted The number & competency of the users Manufacturers recommendation foreseeable misuse or abuse & the results of previous inspections

Q.11. b. Identify the reasons for keeping centralized records of the results of PAT within an organization (2) Answer: Demonstrate compliance by the employer such records could be used for: Setting the frequency for appliance testing To verify whether unlabelled equipment had been tested or had merely lost its label & to provide a record of past faults on appliances that had been recorded Q.12. With respect to the use of portable electrical appliance in the workplace. Identify Eight examples of fault & bad practice that could contribute to electrical accidents (8) Answer: Fuses. Overloading sockets. Checking cables. An initial failure to select the right equipment for the job &/or environment Inadequate user checks on the equipment before its use to ensure it was not damaged & a lack of procedures for its regular maintenance Misuse & abuse of the equipment by employees Poor earth protection The use of coiled extension cables & cables that were insufficiently protected & liable to damage particularly in workshop or construction environments.

ELEMENT 13: FIRE HAZARD AND CONTROL. Q.1. a. With reference to methods of heat transfer, Explain how fire in a workplace may spread.(8) Answer: Part (a) of this question was generally well answered with most candidates able to refer to the methods of heat transfer. Several, however, found difficulty in giving a clear explanation of how each of the methods actually contributes to the sp read of fire. They were expected to explain that heat can be transferred through metal beams or other parts of a structure by conduction; it can be carried by rising air currents (convection) to cause a build-up of hot gases under ceilings; it can be transferred through the air by radiation causing heating of material at a distance from a fire; and, perhaps what should have been the most obvious, combustible material in direct contact with flames can itself catch fire. The purist might argue that the last of these, direct burning, is simply a combination of the other three main methods but, in fire safety terms, it is normally treated as a method in its own right. Q.1. b. Outline measures that should be taken to minimise the risk of fire from electrical equipment. (8) Answer: The proper selection of equipment to ensure its suitability for the task Pre-use inspection by the user Establishing correct fuse ratings, ensuring circuits & sockets are not overloaded Disconnecting or isolating the equipment when it is not in use & ensuring that electrical motors do not overheat (e.g. by checking that vents are uncovered) Additional measures include the need to Un-coil cables (particularly extension leads) to prevent the build up of heat & protecting cables form mechanical damage Importantly, electrical equipment & systems should be subject to regular inspection, testing & maintenance by competent persons, This should ensure, for instance, that contacts are sound, thereby reducing the likelihood of electrical arcing. Q.1. c. Explain why water should not be used on fire involving electrical equipment and identify TWO suitable extinguishing agents that could be used in such circumstances. (4) Answer: For part (c), most candidates could explain that using wate r on an electrical fire can lead to electric shock since water is a good conductor of electricity. Carbon dioxide and dry powder were correctly identified as suitable extinguishing agents where electrical equipment is involved but references to halon were discounted due to the fact that its use has been banned.

Q.2.

Outline the requirements to ensure the safe evacuation of persons from a building in the event of fire. (8) (0r) In relation to a workplace fire risk assessment, Outline the issues that should be taken into account when assessing the means of escape. (8) Answer: A good answer to this question would have included an outline of requirements such as: the means for raising the alarm; an acceptable distance to the nearest available exit; escape routes of sufficient width; clear signing of escape routes; the provision of emergency lighting; escape routes kept clear of obstructions with fire doors closed to prevent the spread of smoke; the provision of fire-fighting equipment; the appointment of fire marshals; procedures for the evacuation of those with a physical impairment (in relation to hearing sight or mobility); and the need to practice the evacuation plan at regular intervals. This question was generally well answered though there were a few candidates who were content to rely on the well rehearsed "carry out a risk assessment" while a few who had not read the question with sufficient care, provided lengthy answers on the action to be taken in the event of fire rather than on the requirements for ensuring safe evacuation. Q.3. With respect to the handling of flammable solvents in a workshop, outline types of inadequate working practices that could increase the risk of a fire or explosion. (8) Answer: Leaving containers of flammable solvent open on the shop floor or work benches Leaving flammable liquids in direct sunlight Failing to use the exhaust ventilation provided resulting in a build up of vapour Decanting solvents into unsuitable containers such as those made from plastic Failing to introduce & then to adhere to an adequate procedure for dealing with spillages Failing to introduce procedures for the disposal of empty containers & the control of flammable waste & allowing larger quantities of solvents than where necessary to be brought into the area. Q.4. Outline the factors to consider when carrying out a fire risk assessment of a workplace. (8) Answer: Possible ignition sources, the quantities of flammable & combustible materials The siting & testing of detectors & call-points The siting, suitability of alarms The means of contacting the emergency services The siting, suitability & maintenance of fire extinguishers, sprinkler systems Training of personnel in the use of fire extinguishers The adequacy of emergency signs The provision & testing of emergency lighting The number of people to be evacuated &particular groups at risk The adequacy of the escape routes & staff training in evacuation procedures.

a. Explain , using a suitable sketch the significance of th e Fire triangle. (4) (Or) Explain using a suitable sketch the meaning of the term Fire triangle (4) Answer: Fuel. Oxygen. & a source of ignition. That must be present for combustion to occur. Q.5. Q.5. b. List the type of ignition source that may cause a fire to occur, & give an example of Each type (4) (Or) List Four types of ignition source that may cause a fire occur, & give an example of EACH type (4) Answer: 1. Electricity, from arcing or from overheating due to faulty wiring, poor connections, excess current etc 2. Chemical reactions 3. Hot work such as welding or cutting; discarded smoking materials 4. Friction caused by, for instance, inadequate lubrication of machinery 5. Hot surfaces such as those on cooking or heating appliances 6. & sparks from static electricity. Q.6. Identify Two methods of heat transfer & explain how Each method can contribute to the spread of fire in work premises (4) (Or) Identify Four methods of heat transfer & explain how Each can cause the spread of fire (8) Answer: The four methods of heat transfer that should have been identified are: Conduction. Heat can be transferred through metal beams or other parts of a structure. Convection. It can be carried by rising air currents to cause a build-ip of hot gases under ceilings. Radiation. It can be radiated through the air causing heating of material at a distance from a fire. & direct burning. The most obvious method, combustible material in direct contact with flames can itself catch fire. Q..7. List Eight ways of reducing the risk of fire starting in a workplace (8) Answer: The control of smoking & smoking materials, good housekeeping to prevent the accumulation of waste paper & other combustible materials Regular lubrication of machinery Frequent inspection of electrical equipment for damage Ensuring ventilation outlets on equipment are not obstructed Controlling hot work Security measures to prevent arson The provision of proper storage facilities for flammable liquids & the segregation of incompatible chemicals .

Q.8.

a. Outline The various ways in which a person might be harmed by a fire in work premises (4) Answer: In a fire situation, people may be harmed by Being burned By inhaling toxic fumes By the effects of smoke By depleted oxygen supply By falling parts of a building or by being crushed or suffering some other type of injury in an attempt to escape Q.8. b. Outline The additional measures that may be required to ensure the safe evacuation in the event of a fire of employees with a range of physical impairments (4) Answer: The provision of aural & visual alarms for those employees with impaired vision or hearing. The positioning of the disabled within the workplace to facilitate their evacuation. The provision of a dedicated lift or where appropriate or purpose-built evacuation chairs. Ensuring that doorways & passageways are sufficiently wide to accommodate wheelchairs & that ramps are positioned where necessary. & the need to provide training in the evacuation procedures for those involved (both the disabled persons & the able-bodied persons given responsibility for them) coupled with practices at regular intervals. Q.9. a. Explain Two ways in which electricity can cause a fire at work (2) Answer: The two principal ways in which electricity might cause a fire are: Sparking or arcing, caused by a short circuit or loose connection & from overheating cables or equipment as a result of overloading The use of incorrect fuses or coiling of the cable Sparks from static electricity created a third possibility Q.9. b. Outline the various ways in which a fire in work premises may cause harm to persons within a building (6) Answer: In a fire situation, people may be harmed by: Being burned By inhaling toxic fumes By the effects of smoke By depleted oxygen supply By falling parts of a building Or by being crushed or suffering some other type of injury in an attempt to escape Q.10. In relation to the classification of fire, give an example of material (fuel) that falls within Each of the classes of A, B,C & D (4) Answer: Class A: these are fire involving solids materials, normally of an organic nature, such as paper, wood, coal and natural fibres. These fires usually produce burning ember.

Class B: these are fire involving flammable liquids solids, such as petrol, oil, grease, fats and paint. Class C: These are fire involving gases or liquefied gases, such as methane, propane, and mains gas. Class D: These are fires where the fuel is a metal such as aluminium, sodi um, potassium or magnesium.

Q.11. a. Identify Two ways in which an alarm can be raised in the event of a fire in a workplace (2) Answer: Automatic methods such as smoke detectors. & manually operated devices such as break glass alarms. Q.11. b. Outline the issues to consider in the selection & siting of portable fire extinguishers (6) (Or) Outline the main factors to be considered in the siting of fire extinguishers (4) Answer: Accessibility Visibility Proximity to exits & escape routes The means of supporting the equipment off the ground & free from obstruction & the need to protect extinguishers from the weather & other sources of damage. Q.11. c. Outline suitable arrangements for the inspection & maintenance of fire extinguishers in the workplace (4) Answer: Inspection of fire extinguishers typically takes the form of routine (perhaps monthly) visual checks to ensure that the extinguishers are in place, have not been discharged & bear no obvious damage. Maintenance, on the other hand, is something rather more extensive & usually involves an annual examination & test by a competent person according to the manufacturers instructions in order to ensure the integrity of the extinguisher With the removal & replacement of equipment found to be faulty & the date of the examination recorded on the extinguisher. Q.12. Outline the benefits of undertaking regular fire drills in the workplace (8) Answer: Satisfying a legal requirement, or one specified in a fire certificate, to provide instructi on to employees on the action to be taken in emergency situations Checking that the alarm can be heard in all parts of the premises Testing the effectiveness of the evacuation procedures both generally & in relation to specific requirements (such as the need to ensure the safety of disabled employees & visitors) Familiarizing employees (particularly those new to the undertaking) with the Alarms Evacuation procedures Escape routes & assembly points So that, in the case of a real emergency, they would know the actions to be taken & providing an opportunity for fire wardens & others with specific functions to practice their designated roles

Q.13. Outline the issues that should be included in a training programme for employees on the emergency action to be taken in the event of fire (8) Answer: Recognition of fire alarms & the actions to be taken Meaning of emergency signs Location of fire escape routes & assembly points Requirements for safe evacuation (e.g. non-use of lifts, no running, etc) Location & operation of call points & other means of raising the alarm Location & use of fire-fighting equipment Consideration of people with special needs & the identity & role of fire marshals Q.14. With respect to the design features of a building a. Identify Two types of emergency warning systems that can be installed in the building to ensure that all employees can be made aware of the need to evacuate the building (2) Answer: An audible system (such as a klaxton or rotary hand bell dependent upo n the nature & size of the building) & a visual system foe those with hearing deficiency A more elaborate system would Combine both & use different coloured lights or different sound Indicate the nature of the current emergency & the action to be taken by employees Q.14. b. Outline Six structural measure that can help to prevent the spread of fire & smoke (6) Answer: There is a wide range of building design features that are intended to afford protection against the spread of smoke & flame including for example The provision of protection for structural steelwork The treatment of timber with a fire retardant The use of fire resistant materials in the construction of walls, floors & doors, & the provision of resisting closures to stairways & lift shafts Compartmentation of large areas Fire doors which were self closing in the event of a fire & fitted with intumescent strips The installation of fire resistant partitions in interconnected voids in roofs & ceilings & fire dampers or breaks in ducting & the provision of automatic roof vents

ELEMENT 14: CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARD AND CONTROL. Q.1. A Company produces a range of solid and liquid wastes, both hazardous and non hazardous. Outline the arrangements that should be in place to e nsure the safe storage of the wastes prior to their collection and disposal. (8) Answer: The completion of risk assessments that address the nature, properties & quantities of the wastes likely to be stored Minimizing the quantities stored by organizing regular collections Ensuring the separation of incompatible wastes Providing appropriate means for containing the wastes in secure storage vehicles (e.g. protected against un-authorized persons, weather, vehicles etc) Installing & maintaining fire protection & fire-fighting systems in case of flammable or combustible wastes Installing bunds & drawing up procedures to deal with spillages that might present environmental risks Providing safe means of transport & access to the storage site Ensuring that wastes are correctly identified & that warning signs are in place where appropriate Training employees in the precautions to be taken & ensuring that they are provided with, & use, appropriate PPE, such as gloves, overalls & eye protection Q.2. A person is employed to lay carpet tiles using a solvent based adhesive. In relation to the use of the adhesive in such circumstances: (Or) A furniture factory uses solvent-based adhesives in its manufacturing process a. Identify the possible effects on health (4) (Or) Identify the possible effects on health of employees using the adhesives (4) Answer: Irritation of eyes Skin & lungs Dermatitis Headacheas Nausea & dizziness The more able candidates also referred to The psychological effects of exposure to the adhesive With the possible secondary effect of an increased risk of accidents Q.2. b. Outline the control measures that should be considered. (4) (Or) State Four Control measure to minimize such health effects (4) Answer: Discontinuing the use of the adhesive or introducing a less toxic alternative Minimizing the use of the product or limiting the surface area of application Providing ventilation for the area where the adhesive is to be used Introducing good housekeeping & work procedures (e.g. to ensure that containers are not left open) Providing suitable personal protective equipment Ensuring good standards of personal hygiene & providing information, instruction & training for the employees

Q.3.

An engineering company has noticed a recent increase in work-related ill health amongst the shop floor workers who use a degreasing solvent for which a Workplace Exposure Limit (WEL) has been assigned a. Explain the meaning of the term WEL (2) Answer: This is concerned with concentrations of hazardous substances in the air that people breathe averaged over a specified period of time & referred to as a time weighted average Two time periods are used Long term (8 hours) intended to control effects by restricting the total intake by inhalation over one or more work shifts & short term (usually 15 minutes) to control effects that may be seen after a brief exposure Q.3. b. Give possible reasons for the increase in work-related ill-health amongst the shop floor workers. (6) Answer: An important reason for the increase in work related ill-health might have been the inadequacy of the original risk assessment carried out for the operation or a subsequent increase in the frequency & duration of the exposure of employees Additionally, the original degreasing solvent might have been replaced by a new solvent for which no risk assessment had been carried out Other reasons would include Failure to carry out health screening of new employees or to give them adequate training on the precautions to be observed An increase in the quantity or concentration of the solvent An inadequate or poorly maintained LEV system & a failure to carry out regular monitoring to ensure the work exposure limit was not exceeded Q.4. An employee is engaged in general cleaning activities in a large veterinary practice a. Identify Four specific types of hazard that the cleaner might face when undertaking the cleaning (4) Answer: Cleaning fluids Manual handling Slips/trips/falls & sharp objects & those associated with the working environment Such as biological hazards Contact with animals & those arising from the use of specialised equipment Q.4. b. Outline the precautions that could be taken to minimize the risk of harm from these hazards (4) Answer: The provision & use of personal protective equipment (including overalls & gloves) The introduction of a procedure for handling & disposal of sharps The need for animals to be kept in secure enclosures & the possible need for immunisation against diseases known to be transmitted by animals Employee would need specific training

Q.5. a. List Four respiratory diseases that could be caused by exposure to dust at work (4) Answer: 1. Asbestosis 2. Silicosis 3. Asthma 4. Bronchitis 5. & cancer of the lung or other part of the respiratory system Q.5. b. Identify the possible indications of a dust problem in a workplace (4) Answer: Visible signs of dust (in the air or deposited on surfaces or clothes) & complaints of discomfort by employees Other examples could have included cases of Impaired health linked to exposure (possibly detected by health or medical surveillance) The results of workplace monitoring & problems associated with plant & equipment such as blocked filters Q.6. a. Describe how the body may defend itself against the harmful effects of airborne dust (6) Answer: Coughing & sneezing. Filtering effect of nasal hairs & to the role of the mucus in the respiratory tract & bronchi, which allows dust particles to be trapped & then carried upwards by tiny hairs (Cillia) Fine dust particles reaching the bronchioles may be subject to the engulfing action of scavenging cells (macrophages) & absorbed into the blood stream, or causing the eyes to water & dust particles to be removed Q.6. b. Outline, using practical examples where appropriate, the control measures that may be used to reduce levels of dust in a work environment (10) Answer: Elimination (e.g. by introducing pre-formed components or outsourcing the dusty operation) Substitution (e.g. of powder by granules, liquid or paste) Isolation of the process in a separate room Enclosure (in a glove box, for instance) The provision of LEV & suppression by damping down & carrying out cleaning operations by vacuuming rather than sweeping Q.7. A factory uses small quantities of various chemicals which are obtained from & returned to a central storeroom. a. Identify Four possible routes of entry of toxic substances into the body &, in Each case, describe a circumstance in which the storeroom staff might be at risk of such exposure (8) Answer: Inhalation Ingestion Absorption Injection For instance

Inhalation in relation to spillage & the build up of vapours, ingestion due to poor personal hygiene practices Absorption through the skin as a result of inadequate personal protective equipment or uncovered wounds & infection from the use of damaged, broken or unsuitable containers for handling the toxic substance

Q.7.

b. Outline the factors to consider when assessing the health risks to storeroom staff from handling the chemicals (4) Answer: Degree of toxicity of the substances used The methods of work adopted (which may determine the routes of entry) The possible duration & frequency of exposures & an assessment of the effectiveness of existing control measures Q.7. c. Outline the control measures that might be required in order to minimize the risk to the health of those working in the storeroom (8) Answer: The use of suitable containers for the chemicals & the methods for handling t hem The provision of ventilation & appropriate personal protective equipment Procedures for dealing with spillage The introduction of site rules to ensure personal hygiene & the provision of information & training to the staff involved Q.8. Outline the precautions necessary for the safe storage & handling of small containers containing flammable solvents (8) Answer: The removal of potential sources of ignition from the site of the operation The provision of adequate ventilation limiting the quantity of solvent in use at any one time Clear marking of containers Ensuring that suitable fire-fighting equipment is in place The provision of personal protective equipment such as gloves, & eye & respiratory protection & ensuring that operatives are informed of, & trained in, the procedures for the safe use of solvents, especially those concerned with the cleaning of brushes & disposal of rags. Q.9. Outline the factors to be considered when making an assessment of first-aid provision in the workplace (8) Answer: Number & distribution of employees The hazards & associated risks in the workplace The distance of the workplace from the nearest emergency hospital The need to provide cover for shift work, staff holidays & sickness & the possibility of cooperating with other employers in shared premises

Q.10. Identify the TWO main functions of first-aid (2) Answer: Firstly, the preservation of life &/or the minimisation of the consequences of serious injury &, secondly, the treatment of minor injuries that do not need medical attention Q.11. Identify Four possible routes of entry of toxic substance in the body &, in Each case Describe a circumstance in which an employee might be at risk of such exposure (8) Answer: Inhalation, ingestion, through the skin & by injection. Inhalation due to a build up of fume or vapour, either as part of a process (e.g. welding) or accidentally (e.g. spillage) Ingestion caused perhaps by poor personal hygiene (e.g. eating or smoking without first washing the hands) Entry through the skin if wounds are not covered or by contact with chemicals (e.g. solvents) that may be absorbed through the skin & injection possibly caused by the handling of contaminated sharp objects 12. Question. a. Outline the factors that may indicate a need for health surveillance of employees in the workplace (8) Answer: Ill-health & absence records First-aid treatments Complaints from employees The findings of risk assessments The results of inspections or monitoring activities Changes in methods of work & the relevant requirements of current legislation & approved codes of practice. Q.13. a. Explain the term respirable dust (2) Answer: Respirable dust is an atmospheric dust of a particular particle size range that ena bles it to enter the lungs during respiration. Q.13. b. Outline the ways in which the levels of dust in a workplace can be assessed (6) Answer: Qualitative ways of assessing dust levels (e.g. visual examination of the accumulation of dust on surfaces or the use of a dust lamp to highlight sources of dust emission) & quantitative methods (sampling methods or direct reading instruments) As far as sampling is concerned, the basic sampling strategies (personal versus fixed or area sampling) & the principle of assessing the concentration of airborne dust by noting the weight difference of a pre-weighted filter after a known quantity of contaminated air is drawn through it.

Q.14. Outline the health & safety risks associated with welding operations (8) Answer: Electric shock Tripping over trailing cables or pipes Injuries from the handling of cylinders & the problems associated with oxygen enrichment leading to an increased risk of fire & /or explosion Fume inhalation Damage to the eyes from UV light Burns to the skin & the increased risk of fire from hot materials or sparks. Q.15. a. Define the term target organ within the context of occupational health (2) Answer: The organ/s of the human body upon which a toxic material exerts its effec ts. Q.15. b. Outline the personal hygiene practices that should be followed to reduce risk of ingestion of hazardous substance (6) Answer: Washing hands before eating The avoidance of eating Drinking & smoking in the workplace Utilizing facilities for contaminated clothing Appropriate use of gloves & avoiding hand-to-mouth contact. Q.16. a. Identify possible routes of entry of biological organisms into the body (4) Answer: Inhalation Injection Entry through broken skin Exchange of body fluids & Ingestion Q.16. b. Outline the control measures that could be used to reduce the risk of infection from biological organisms (4) Answer: Cleaning & disinfecting PPE Engineering controls (such as containment & the use of microbiological safety cabinets) Vermin control, good personal hygiene & immunisation.

Q.17. For Each of the following types of hazardous substance Give an example & state its primary effect on the body. i. Toxic (2) ii. Corrosive (2) iii. Carcinogenic (2) iv. Irritant (2) Answer: Toxic substance examples are Lead, Mercury, or pesticides. The primary effects are headaches, dizziness, nausea, inflammation, eye irritation, unconsciousness. Corrosive substances, are strong acids or alkalis, which cause the destruction of living tissue at the point of contact (e.g. skin, respiratory tract or digestive tract) Carcinogenic substances can cause cancer & the part of the body normally affected (e.g. the lungs for asbestos & the nasal membrane for chromium). Irritants cause inflammation on contact with the skin, eyes or mucous membranes, & adhesives & detergents are prime examples of this type of substance. Q.18. a. Identify Two respiratory diseases that may be caused by exposure to asbestos (2) Answer : Asbestosis mesothelioma or lung cancer Q.18. b. Identify where asbestos is likely to be encountered in a building during renovation work (6) Answer : Pipe lagging Roofing materials Loft & wall insulation Sprayed coatings (for example, in fire-resistant encapsulation of metal girders) & the use of asbestos in ceiling tiles, panels & textured finishes The possibility of Gaskets, Packing & plugs made of asbestos -containing materials. Q.19. a. Identify the Three types of asbestos commonly found in buildings (3) Answer: White (chrysotile) Brown (amosite) & blue (crocidolite)
Q.19. b. Explain where asbestos is likely to be encountered in a building during renovation work (5)

Answer: Pipe lagging Ceiling tiles Asbestos cement roof & wall sheets Sprayed asbestos coatings on structural members Loft & wall insulation & asbestos rope & gaskets

Q.20. Outline the precautions to ensure the health & safety of persons engaged in paint spraying in a motor vehicle repair shop (8) Answer: Segregation of the activity, typically by means of a a spray booth fitted with local exhaust ventilation & protected electrical equipment Suitable storage & fire precautions for flammable paints & solvents The provision & use of personal protective equipment (clothing, respiratory protection etc) Monitoring employees exposure to airborne substances Ensuring the examination & maintenance of control measures Providing appropriate training to employees & maintaining welfare & hygiene facilities Q.21. a. For Each of the following agents Outline the principle health effects And identify a typical workplace situation in which a person might be exposed. i. Carbon monoxide (2) ii. Asbestos (2) iii. Legionella bacteria (2) iv. Hepatitis Virus (2) Answer: Carbon monoxide: The principal effects from exposure to carbon monoxide are headaches, drowsiness & possible asphyxiation Exposure could occur when working near a vehicle exhaust in an unventilated area (e.g. vehicle repair premises or underground car park) or to a boiler w ith a defective flue Asbestos: Exposure to asbestos may cause asbestosis (a fibrotic disease of the lung), lung cancer or mesothelioma (cancer of the lining of the lung). Those at risk include persons engaged in maintenance or demolition work where asbestos is contained in the fabric of the building. Legionella bacteria: Legionella bacteria for, may cause legionellosis, which is characterised by flu -like symptoms, pneumonia &, in about 15% of cases, death. Any workplace has untreated water tanks & systems from which water droplets may be released into the atmosphere (e.g. from air-conditioning systems or cooling towers) poses a risk to those in the vicinity Hepatitis Virus: hepatitis virus affects the liver & may result in Jaundice, Fever, Abdominal pain &, ultimately, liver failure Any workplace situation that exposes people to infected persons or to used hypodermic needles presents a particular risk of the disease The hepatitis A virus, which is normally less serious, is transmitted via the mouth; hepatitis B & C via the blood

Q.22. a. For Each of the following agents Outline the principle health effects And identify a typical workplace situation in which a person might be exposed. i. Isocynates (2) ii. Asbestos (2) iii. Legionella bacteria (2) iv. Lead (2) Answer: Isocynates: Isocyanates are a respiratory sensitizer & may also cause dermatitis Persons carrying out work involving the use of isocyanate-based printing inks, adhesives or paints would be at risk Asbestos: Exposure to asbestos may cause asbestosis (a fibrotic disease of the lung), lung cancer or mesothelioma (cancer of the lining of the lung). Those at risk include persons engaged in maintenance or demolition work where asbestos is contained in the fabric of the building. Legionella bacteria: Legionella bacteria for, may cause legionellosis, which is characterised by flu -like symptoms, pneumonia &, in about 15% of cases, death. Any workplace has untreated water tanks & systems from which water droplets may be released into the atmosphere (e.g. from air-conditioning systems or cooling towers) poses a risk to those in the vicinity Lead: A heavy, soft and easily worked metal. Nausea, headaches, nervous system, death. Batteries, plumbing and roofing work. Q.23. a. Describe the difference between acute & chronic health effects. (4) Answer: Acute health effects, the adverse effects appear after a single or short term exposure to the agent, & the response is invariably rapid or immediate In most cases, acute effects recede on cessation of exposure (the obvious exception being death) Chronic health effects, on the other hand, usually result from prolonged or repeated exposure to the agent The response is normally gradual, often progressive & irreversible, & may go unrecognized for long periods of time Q.23. b. Identify the factors that could affect the level of harm experienced by an employee exposed to a toxic substance. (4) Answer: The route of entry of the toxic substance into the body & the associated mode of exposure (e.g. contact, inhalation etc) The concentration Physical state & toxicity of the substance The level, duration & frequency of exposure The effectiveness of the control measures in place & the personal factors such as the age, gender, health status & susceptibilities of those exposed

Q.24. In relation to the spillage of a toxic substance from a ruptured drum stored in a warehouse. a. Identify Three ways in which persons working in close vicinity to the spillage might be harmed. (3) Answer: Skin or eye contact Inhalation of fumes or particles & ingestion.
Q.24. b. Outline a procedure to be adopted in the event of such a spillage. (5) Answer: Isolation of the area & evacuation of employees at risk The provision of bunding to contain the spillage The issue of appropriate personal protective equipment to those involved in carrying out the procedure Contact with the emergency services & the safe disposal of the spilled substance & any absorbent material used. Q.25. a. Draw a labeled sketch that shows the main components of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system. (5) Answer: Hood. Ducting Air Cleaning device. Fan & exhaust outlet.

Q.25. b. Outline the statutory requirements for the examination & testing of an LEV system. (3) Answer: Under Regulation 9 of the COSHH Regulations 2002, LEV plant must be thoroughly examined & tested at least once every 14 months, or more often when used with certain specified processes Records of such examination & testing, & any repairs carried out as a result, must be kept for at least 5 years Employers general duty to maintain plant & equipment in a good state of repair under section 2 of the HASAWA 1974.
Q.26. A local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system is used to extract welding fume from th e working environment in a fabrication workshop.. a. Outline the factors that might reduce the effectiveness of the LEV system. (6) (Or) Outline the factors that may reduce the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system. (8) Answer: Damage to the system Blocked or incorrect filters. & fan efficiency. Process changes Unauthorized alterations Incorrect use (e.g. failure to position hoods on flexible ducting correctly) & the failure to provide a system of regular maintenance, inspection & testing

Q.26. b. Identify the possible effect that the use of the LEV system may have in the local & wider environment. (2) Answer: Air born pollutants into the atmosphere. Noise, Odour & the disposal of solid waste from the filter.

Q.27. a. List the elements of a hierarchy for the control of airborne contaminants. (6) Answer: The first method to be considered would be the Elimination of the substance or its substitution for something less harmful This would be followed by consideration of the possibility of reducing exposures by introducing changes to working methods, such as the use of a brush instead of a spray, or to work patterns The next controls to be considered would be the segregation or enclosure of the process & the provision of local exhaust ventilation The final control measure would be the provision & use of personal protective equipment Q.27. b. Outline Two reasons why a cartridge- type respiratory may in practice fail to provide a sufficient level of protection. (2) Answer: Identified as a reason the possible poor fit of the respirator. Either because of the use of other personal protective equipment at the same time or the presence of facial hair. The use of an incorrect cartridge for the particular contaminant. The cartridge itself not being properly fitted. Failure to change the cartridge at appropriate intervals. & inadequate storage facilities for the respirator leading to damage or contamination. Q.28. Occupational health hazards can be classed as chemical, physical, biological & ergonomic. a. Give an example of a specific workplace health hazard for EACH class.(6) Answer: Physical hazards Examples: Noise, Vibration, or Radiation. Chemical hazards Examples: Asbestos, Lead, Mercury & Organic Solvents. Biological hazards Examples: HIV Virus, Legionella, Bacteria. Ergonomics Hazards: Posture Problems, Fatigue, Work related upper limb disorder (WRULDs), poorly designed workstation. Q.28. b. State the primary health effect of exposure to EACH of the examples given in part (a). (4) Answer: Asbestos with asbestosis. Noise with noise induced hearing loss. Legionella bacteria with legionellosis. & repetitive task with WRULDs.

Q.29. An inefficient local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system has been identified as th e main cause of excessive dust levels in a workplace. a. Identify Four possible indications of a dust problem that may alerted staff of the inefficiency of the LEV system. (6) Answer: Deposits of dust on people & surfaces. Particles visible in the air. Complaints of discomfort & irritation by the employees. & Results of air monitoring or actual ill health effects. Q.29. b. Outline the factors that may have reduce the effectiveness of the LEV system. (8) Answer: Poor design & a lack of maintenance &/or periodic testing. & the more immediate factors. Such as the hood being placed too far from the source of the emission. Damaged or blocked filters. Unauthorized alteration to the system. Incorrect settings. A faulty fan. & possible changes to the process leading to increased dust emissions. Q.29. c. Describe control methods other than LEV that might be used to minimize levels of airborne dust (8) Answer: The cessation of the activity creating the dust. Changing the process to reduce the amount of dust produced. Substituting a dust creating material for another in paste or liquid form. Segregating or enclosing the process. & damping down the dust to enable it to be removed by vacuum. Q30. a. Explain the meaning of the terms: i. Occupational exposure standards (OES). (2) ii. Maximum exposure Limits (MEL). (2) b. Identify FOUR duties place on employers by the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1999. (4) Answer: An occupational exposure standard (OES) is the concentration of an airborne substance, averaged over a reference period of usually either 8 hours or 15 minutes, at which there is currently no evidence of injurious effect Inhalation exposure should not be above this level & any excursions that may occur should be identified & remedied as soon as is reasonably practicable. A maximum exposure limit (MEL), on the other hand, is the maximum airborne concentration of a particular substance to which a worker may be exposed An MEL must never be exceeded & the aim must be to reduce exposure to a level as far below the MEL as is reasonably practicable Substances are assigned an MEL when it is considered that control at a safe limit is not reasonably practicable or where no safe limit can be determined (e.g. carcinogens) Part (b) Preventing or controlling employees exposure Ensuring the proper use of control measures

The examination, testing & maintenance of control measures Monitoring exposure at the workplace Health surveillance where appropriate & the provision of information, instruction & training to those exposed to hazardous substances.

Q31. a. Describe the typical symptoms of occupational dermatitis (2) Answer: Reddening Blistering & cracking of the skin Infection or ulceration Q31. b. Identify the factors that will influence the likelihood of dermatitis occurring in workers handling dermatitis substances. (6) Answer: The nature of the agent Concentration levels & the duration & frequency of exposure Cuts & abrasions (which would allow chemicals to be absorbed more readily) Existing skin conditions The type of skin & its sensitivity The specific site of skin contact Poor personal hygiene & the misuse or non-use of protective measures Q.32. In relation to occupational dermatitis. a. Identify Two common causative agents (2) Answer: Acids Alkalis Detergents Mineral oils Organic solvents Or metal salts & a variety of specific substances such as latex & wet cement. Q.32. b. Describe the typical symptoms of the condition (2) Answer: Reddening of the skin Soreness Itchiness Flaking Cracking & bleeding with possible infection & ulceration The areas of the skin most likely to be affected are between the fingers & sensitive parts such as the forearms The actual site affected will, of course, depend on the parts of the body in contact with the substance

Q.32. c. Outline specific measures designed to prevent the occurrence of occupational dermatitis (4) Answer: A change of process or a substitution of the material or substance being used A reduction in exposure The provision of PPE (gloves, aprons, etc) The use of barrier & after-work creams The provision of adequate washing facilities with employees being encouraged to improve their standards of personal hygiene & the provision of information, instruction & training on the causes & prevention of dermatitis Q.33. a. Outline the health & safety risks associated with welding (8) Answer: Electric shock Tripping over trailing cables or pipes Injuries from handling cylinders & the problems associated with oxygen enrichment leading to an increased risk of fire &/or explosion Fume inhalation Damage to the eyes from UV light Burns to the skin & the increased risk of fire from hot materials or sparks Q.34. A shoe repairer is required to trim soles by hand after gluing them on to shoes with a solvent- based adhesive. (Or) A fitter is employed to lay carpet tiles in new premises using a solvent based adhesive. In relation to the use of the adhesive in such circumstances. a. Identify the possible effects on health (4) Answer: Skin & eye irritation Dermatitis Headaches Nausea & dizziness With possible & more serious effects such as narcosis & loss of consciousness Q.34. b. Outline the measures to minimize the health risk from these tasks (8) (Or) Outline the control measures that should be considered (4) Answer: The possible substitution of the adhesive for a less toxic or volatile one Ventilation of the working area Using the minimum amount of the substance for the job Adhering to good housekeeping procedures (e.g. keeping lids on containers & avoiding contaminated rags) The use of a respirator & other PPE Good personal hygiene & the provision of information, instruction & training to the fitter

Q.35. Identify the information that should be included on a hazard data sheet supplied with a hazardous substance (8) Answer: The name of the substance Its chemical properties & composition The nature of the hazard Relevant standards (e.g. occupational exposure standards) Precautions to be taken in its transport, handling & use Measures to be taken in an emergency (e.g. spillage or accidental exposure) including first-aid treatment. & disposal requirements.

ELEMENT 15: PHYSICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARD AND CONTROL. Q.1. a. Outline the possible health risks associated with working in a seated position for prolonged period of time. (4) Answer: The question required candidates to demonstrate their knowledge both of the health risks associated with sedentary work and the appropriate design features of a seat that could be used by employees for much of their working time. In response to part (a), Examiners were looking to candidates to identify health risks such as vertebral or muscular damage, cardiovascular problems (e.g. elevated blood pressure), problems with circulation (e.g. thrombosis) and musculoskeletal disorders with consequent effects on joints, tendons and ligaments. They often looked in vain since many answers consisted of vague terms of possible back problems and others introduced the abbreviations RSI and WRULD without any explanation of their meaning. Q.1. b. Identify the features of a suitable seat for office work. (4) Answer: Good lumber support The ability to adjust both seat back & seat height The provision of foot-rests The stability of the seats base The provision of arm rests where appropriate & a choice of material suitable for the environment. Q.2. a. Explain the following terms in relation to noise exposure at work: i. Noise-induced hearing loss (2) ii. Tinnitus (2) Answer: For part (a), a general understanding of the effects of noise on hearing was required. Noise-induced hearing loss is normally caused by prolonged exposure to high noise levels causing damage to the hair cells of the inner ear and leading to a permanent threshold shift at particular frequencies, which worsens with continued exposure both in terms of the extent of the threshold shift and of the frequencies affected. Tinnitus, on the other hand, is typified by a ringing or similar sound in the ears caused by overstimulation of the hair cells. It can be acute or chronic, permanent or intermittent. Most candidates provided good answers to this part of the question. Q.2. b. Identify FOUR limitations of personal hearing protection as a means of protecting against the effects of noise. (4) Answer: The main limitations of hearing protection, for part (b), were correctly identified by the majority of candidates in terms of poor fit, resistance to use, comfort factors, incompatibility with other protective equipment, costly in terms of replacement and maintenance, interference with communication, hygiene problems and the need for constant supervision and attention (unlike some engineering solutions to noise problems).

Q.3.

Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health & safety of persons who are required to work on their own away from the workplace (8) Answer: The type of work to be done & its attendant hazards & risks The equipment to be used The work environment & the control measures in place The competence & suitability of the persons involved. The methods of communication with the home base & emergency & first-aid procedures. Q.4. Inadequate lighting in the workplace may affect the level of stress amongst employees. Outline Eight other factors associated with the physical working environment that may increase stress at work (8) Answer: Cramped conditions Dirty or untidy working conditions Workplace layout resulting in a lack of of privacy or security Problems with glare Extremes of temperature &/or humidity Inadequate ventilation resulting in stale air (or conversely, draughty conditions) Exposure to noise & vibration Inadequate welfare facilities &, for those working outside, inclement weather conditions Q.5. Other than those relating to the physical environment a. Outline Eight possible causes of increased stress levels amongst employees other than those associated with the physical working environment. (8) (Or) Outline the options that might be available to an organization to reduce stress levels amongst its employees (8) Answer: Shift-work Unsocial hours Excessive overtime Lack of adequate breaks, etc) Work demands Too high or Too low Repetitive or monotonous work Lack of control over the job Mismatch between skills & job requirements etc) Relationships with others General relationships with supervisors or peers Poor lines of communication & issues of harassment, bullying discrimination, abuse & violence Employees may also, of course, face pressures in their private lives (financial, marital, etc) that can increase general stress

Q.6.

Outline the issues that should be considered to ensure the health & safety of cleaner employed in a school out of normal working hours. (8) Answer: Relevant issues fall into three key areas are: Those relating to cleaning in general (the use of chemicals & electrical equipment, dealing with sharp objects such as broken glass, manual handling, etc) Those particularly to the school situation (e.g. laboratory & workshop hazards) & those associated with out-of-hours work (lone working, communication, supervision, security, emergency arrangements, etc) Q.7. Outline the specific risks that should be considered when assessing the risks to employees working on night shifts. (8) Answer: Relevant issues fall into three key areas are: The effects of fatigue & the increased likelihood of human error. The number hours worked & the period allowed for recovery between shifts. General well-being when normal routines are disrupted. The level of supervision provided & excess to specialist advice if required. & the possible increased risk of violent assault on the way to & from work. Q.8. Outline the practical measures that might be taken to reduce the risk of violence to employees who deal with members of the public as part of their work. (8) (Or) Outline the measures an employer might consider to minimise the risk of violence against employees (8) Answer: Environment, Job factors, Individual protection & general security The design of public areas, in terms of dcor, seating, the means of providing information (e.g. on waiting times) & the absence of obvious barriers, can help to reduce the build-up of confrontation & violent episodes. A balance must be drawn, however, between presenting a calm & open environment & protecting staff from any violent incidents that could arise. Hence, there will often be a need for Wide counters, Coded locks on doors, CCTV systems, Panic buttons, & alarm systems Whether these are made discreet or obvious will depend upon the particular circumstances Some situations, particularly those involving money, may mean that the risk is too great to avoid the use of some sort of physical separation, such as security screens, between employees & members of the public Many occupations, such as estate agents & social workers, involve interaction with the public outside work premises, In these cases, measures such as the Avoidance of carrying large amounts of cash Implementing appointment systems Client risk assessment & accurate record-keeping may need to be considered The risks to lone workers should be given particular attention, with the need in certain circumstances to avoid lone working altogether &/or to implement regular check -in procedures & to issue panic alarms

In addition to designing the workplace & the task to minimize the risk of violent assault, staff will need to be trained in the procedures & possibly how they might recognize the early signs of aggressive behaviour & avoid, defuse or otherwise deal with a violent situation In certain circumstances, the employment of security staff & the provision of PPE (e.g. bullet or stab proof vests, helmets etc) may be required

Q.9. Outline the possible effects on health & safety of poor housekeeping in the workplace. (8) Answer: Slips, & falls (from spillages, oil/grease & slippery materials such as plastic) Trips & falls (e.g. from articles obstructing walkways) An increased risk of fire (from a build-up of combustible materials) & falling materials (e.g. from poor stacking arrangements) An increased chance of coming into contact with chemicals (e.g. from poor storage arrangements) The possibility of infestation, particularly if food is involved Vehicle collisions if traffic routes are blocked & the effects on emergency evacuation if fire exits are obstructed Q.10. a. Identify the type of hazards that may cause slips & trips at work (4) Answer: The floor being poorly maintained Changes in level caused by ramps Slopes or kerbs Slippery surfaces caused by oil or water Inappropriate footwear & general obstructions in walkways such as trailing cables, pipes & air hoses Q.10. b. Outline how slips & trip hazards might be controlled. (4) Answer: Improved work layout with designated walkways Using non-slip flooring Highlighting changes in level with hazard warning strips Providing good lighting Introducing procedures for reporting defects & for dealing with spillages & ensuring high standards of housekeeping to keep floors clear of obstructions

Q.11. An office building is about to be occupied by new owners. a. Identify the factors that should be considered by the new owners when assessing the suitability of lighting within the building (8) (Or) Outline the factors to consider when assessing the adequacy of lighting within an open plan office (8) (Or) Outline the factors that should be considered by the new owners when assessing the suitability of lighting within the building (8) Answer: The tasks to be undertaken & the equipment to be used The availability of natural light The adequacy of the existing lighting levels including that provided for specific areas such as stairs & corridors Significant contrasts in lighting levels between different areas The layout of the office, including the position of screen dividers in relation to overhead lighting & other areas that may be in shadow The appropriateness & condition of the particular type of artificial lighting installed (e.g. florescent & spot lighting) Possible glare created on computer screens & workstations & the provision of local lighting for specific tasks The availability & adequacy of emergency lighting is another issue that should have been considered Q.11. b. Other than lighting, Outline Four factors associated with the physical working environment that may affect the health & safety of employees. (4) Answer: Noise (as a stress factor) Temperature Humidity air quality/ventilation The condition of the floors (e.g. undamaged), non-slip) space constraints, workstation design & other features of the physical environment in which people are required to work. Q.11. c. Outline the requirements with respect to the welfare facilities that should be provided in the building. (8) Answer: An adequate number of well ventilated & lit sanitary conveniences in relation to the numbers of male & female employees Washing facilities with hot & cold running water & means of drying A suitable source of drinking water (clearly marked where appropriate) Facilities for taking rest & refreshment away from working areas Accommodation for clothing not worn during working hours First-aid facilities Rest facilities for pregnant women & nursing mothers & protection for non-smokers from the effects of smoke

Q.11. d. Describe Four effects on health & safety that might result from inadequate lighting (4) Answer: Eye strain Headaches & increased levels of stress Trips & falls & the possibility of errors in performing tasks that might put others at risk Q.12. A newly established company is to refurbish existing office accommodation before recruiting staff. a. Outline the welfare facilities that should be considered when planning the refurbishment (8) Answer: An adequate number of well ventilated & lit sanitary conveniences in relation to the numbers of male & female employees Washing facilities with hot & cold running water & means of drying A suitable source of drinking water (clearly marked where appropriate) Facilities for taking rest & refreshment away from working areas Accommodation for clothing not worn during working hours First-aid facilities Rest facilities for pregnant women & nursing mothers & protection for non-smokers from the effects of smoke Q.12. b. Outline the main issues to be addressed in a general health & safety induction programme for the new staff (6) Answer: The company health & safety policy Emergency procedures Specific risks associated with the working environment Procedures for reporting incidents First-aid arrangements Information on welfare facilities Consultation procedures & the responsibilities of employee Q.12. c. Outline the procedure that might be needed in order to ensure the health & safety of visitors to the premises during working hours (6) Answer: The initial reception process involving the registration of personal details & the issue of identification badges The provision of information on site rules (including emergency procedures) & information on the hazards & risks within the establishment that might affect the visitor Q.13. Outline a procedure designed to ensure the health & safety of visitors to work premises (8) Answer: The need for visitor identification (e.g. with badges) with a routine for signing in & out Prior notification to those members of staff to be involved in the visit The provision of information to visitors on hazards & emergency procedures An explanation of specific site rules, for example the wearing of personal protective equipment & the need for visitors to be escorted by a member of staff.

Q.14. Outline the precautionary measures that may be needed to prevent slip & trip hazards in an engineering factory (8) Answer: The initial design & layout of the workplace, with designated walkways & non-slip floors A system of maintenance that ensures the prompt repair of floor defects such as holes & bumps Procedures for avoiding & dealing with spillages The provision of adequate lighting & highlighting strips to warn of a difference in levels A good standard of housekeeping (including the proper management of cables & hoses) & procedures for reporting defects & incidents Q.15. Outline the measures that may be needed to reduce the risk of slip & trip accidents in a large supermarket (8) Answer: Housekeeping issues & cleaning up spillages. Workplace design & layout issues (such as displays & warehouse storage arrangements) The provision of non-slip flooring A procedure for the identification & repair of floor defects such as holes & bumps The provision of an adequate standard of lighting in all areas Highlighting changes of level The provision of handrails on stairs The use of procedures for re-stocking to minimize the need to block aisles Cable & flexible hose management & the wearing of suitable footwear by employees Q.16. a. Give Four reasons why accidents may occur on stairs (4) Answer: Poor design of the staircase (inadequate handrails Steep Poor tread/riser ratio etc) Slippery condition of the stairs (highly polished, icy, oily, etc) A poor state of repair (e.g. worn steps or loose coverings) Obstructions on the stairs A poor standard of lighting & bad practice (including the carrying of loads, rushing, improper footwear, etc). Q.16. b. Outline ways in which accidents on stairs may be prevented (4) Answer: The removal of obstructions & the provision of non-slip surfaces Reflective edging & adequate lighting Q.17. In relation to the Noise at Work Regulations 1989. a. State, in dB(A) the first & second action levels (4) Answer: Noise at Work Regulations 1989 as 85 dB(A) & 90dB(A) respectively.

Q.17. b. Outline the measures that should be taken when employees are exposed to noise levels in excess of the second action level (6) Answer: Employers must reduce exposures so far as is reasonably practicable by means other than the provision of hearing protection. Noise assessment in order to evaluate the possibility of applying engineering controls. Only where these prove insufficient or impracticable is there a need to Define & mark hearing zones Provide suitable hearing protection & inform, instruct & train employees on the risk of hearing damage & the preventative or protective measures required to minimise such risk Limiting employees exposure to noise by time &/or distance Q.18. a. Describe the Two main types of personal hearing protection (4) Answer: Earplugs & ear defenders as the 2 main types of hearing protection Ear plugs are cheap, only used in low noisy area and it is only for one time use. Ear Muffs are Expensive, used for high noise areas and it can be used for many times if maintained properly. Q.18. b. Identify Four reasons why personal hearing protection may fail to provide adequate protection against noise (4) Answer: Incorrect selection Incorrect fit Incompatibility with other PPE Damage & lack of maintenance Lack of training in use & the non-use of the equipment, even for short periods, by those requiring protection. Q.19. Outline the possible effects on health from exposure to high levels of noise (8) Answer: Physiological damage to the sensory hair cells in the inner ear Affecting sounds within the audible frequency range & progressively worsening with continued exposure Relatively few candidates differentiated between the acute & chronic effects of noise The acute effect is tinnitus, ringing or other sound in the ears, it is temporary nature Other acute effects include stress & fatigue & trauma (e.g. burst eardrum) caused by exposure to sudden loud noise. Q.20. a. Explain the term Daily Personal Noise Exposure (LEPd) (8) Answer: Daily Noise Exposure, which equates a persons average noise exposure over a particular working period to that received in an 8-hour day. Hence, if someone were exposed to an average noise level of 90dB(A) over 4 hours, with insignificant exposure for the rest of the day This would equate to 87 dB(A) (i.e. half of 90 dB(A), using the rule that a reduction of 3 decibels represents one half of the noise dose).

Q.20. b. Outline the measures that should be taken under the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 when the second action level has been exceeded (6) Answer: Carry out a noise assessment & then initially to reduce employees ex posure to an acceptable level by engineering means. If this measure were found to be not reasonably practicable, or not immediately possible, then hearing protection would need to be provided & maintained, & its use enforced Establishment & signing of hearing protection zones, & for providing information to employees of the risk & the protection required Q.21. A pneumatic chisel is to be used to remove a concrete wall located within a factory. a. Identify by means of labelled sketch Three possible transmission paths the noise from the chisel could take (6) Answer: Direct through the air Reflected from walls or other surfaces. & structure-borne through the wall or floor. Q.21. b. Outline the means by which noise exposures of employees might be minimised (8) Answer: Insulating the noise by the erection of barriers or screens Fitting a silencer to the chisel &/or lagging it with a jacket Covering exposed surfaces with absorbent material Minimizing exposure times by carrying out the operation where possible at times when employees of the factory are not at work & providing hearing protection for the operator & workers Q.21. c. Explain the limitations of personal hearing protection used in these circumstances (6) Answer: Incorrect fit Incompatibility with other personal protective equipment Interference with normal communication Comfort factors & duration of use & the need for regular cleaning & maintenance Q.22. Maintenance workers in a factory are required to clean machinery on a regular basis using high pressure compressed air. Noise levels have been measured at 95 dB (A) a. Explain the meaning of dB (A) (2) Answer: Part (a) dB (Decibel) = Unit of measure of loudness (on logarithmic scale). A = A weighted frequency most cl osely resembling human hearing (filter). Q.22. b. Outline the options that might be considered in order to reduce the risk if hearing damage to BOTH to the maintenance staff AND to other employees (10) Answer: Part (b) Tighten loose equipment. Regular lubrication & maintenance.

Eliminate unnecessary leaks. Properly adjust machinery. Padded container for catching components. Switch equipment off especially fans. Use rubber or plastic bushes. Specify noise emissions levels in order. Location: Move source away from noise sensitive area. Enclosure: Surrounding the noise source with sound insulating material (care to be taken not to overheat machine). Silencers: Reducing noise from exhaust pipes etc. using absorbent materials or baffles. Absorption: Surrounding / obstructing noise source with absorbent materials (e.g. foam). Damping: Reduction In structure borne noise by use of rubber / cork, springs etc. Isolation: Protection of persons from sound source by distance or sound proofed rooms. Lagging: Insulation of pipes to reduce sound transmission. Screens: Acoustic screens placed on the path. Reduce time of exposure. Personnel Protective Equipment.

Q.22. c. Outline the criteria that should be used when selecting suitable hearing protection for the task, identifying the limitations of such protective equipment. (8) Answer: The criteria for selecting the suitable hearing protection depends on the Intensity in dB (A). Frequency. Duration of daily exposure. The limitations of such hearing protective equipment: Last choice. Not worn correctly. Not fitted correctly. Uncomfortable / inconvenient. Management commitment. May introduce new risks. Q.23. a. Outline the possible risks to health associated with the use of display screen equipment (DSE) (4) Answer: Significant health risks associated with display screen equipment relate to a range of work-related upper limb disorders caused by poor posture &/or repetitive movement Such conditions can cause pain, swelling, soreness or stiffness in fingers, wrists, elbows or shoulders Other risks are Eye-strain or migraine from uncorrected eyesight problems or poor workstation layout Fatigue, Stress &, in rare cases, facial dermatitis (which is thought to be more related to the working environment than the workstation or equipment itself).

Q.23. b. Identify the features of a suitable seat for use at a DSE workstation (4) Answer: Stability (or five points contact with the floor) The ability to adjust seat height & seat back (to provide good lumbar support) The provision of armrests where appropriate & the facility to swivel, tilt & move the seat with ease when required Q.24. A computer user has complained of neck & back pain. a. Outline the features associated with the workstation that might have contributed towards this condition (8) Answer: The screen at an incorrect height or poorly positioned causing repeated head movements The chair at an incorrect height or the seat back incorrectly adjusted The lack of a document holder & glare or reflections on the screen that force the computer user to adopt an awkward posture to avoid them Other possibilities, such as exposure to draughts, poor general or local lighting & the siting of ancillary equipment (e.g. printer), also existed. Q.25. a. Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of a display screen equipment (DSE) workstation (8) Answer: The height & adjustability of the monitor Arrangements for the keyboard, such as wrist support, or separate from the monitor The adjustability & stability of the chair provided for the operator The positioning of the pointing devices The location of the workstation with regard to lighting & glare Environmental issues such as noise, temperature, humidity & draughts & cable management Q.26. A glassworks produces covers for streetlights & industrial lighting. The process involves molten glass being blown by hand & shaped in moulds a. Identify Four health effects that may be caused in working in the hot conditions of the glass factory (4) Answer: Heat stress Heat cataracts Dehydration Exhaustion & respiratory distress Q.26. b. Describe measures that could be taken in order to minimise the health effects of working in such hot environments (6) Answer: The gradual acclimatisation of new personnel to the environment The provision & consumption of adequate amounts of fluid The provision of regular breaks away from the work Ensuring adequate ventilation The provision of screens to protect against radiant heat & the wearing of appropriate personal protective equipment

Q.26. c. Outline the factors relating to the task & the load that may affect the risk of injury to an employee engaged in stacking the finished products onto racking. (10) Answer: Task: Holding or manipulating loads at a distance from the trunk The need to twist the body Excessive pushing or pulling of the load or excessive carrying distances Unsatisfactory posture caused perhaps by space restriction Excessive lifting distances (e.g. from the floor &/or on to high racking) & frequent or prolonged physical effort coupled with insufficient rest or recovery periods. Load: Its weight & size or shape The ease with which the load can be held or gripped The presence of sharp edges & the possibility that some components might still retain process heat Q.27. a. Outline the factors that could contribute towards the development of work -related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) amongst employees at a supermarket checkout. (8) Answer: Space constraints Poor equipment (such as chairs that are not adjustable) Bulky or heavy items Poor design or reliability of scanning equipment High levels of repetition Working at a fast pace Over-reaching (often from a seated position) Insufficient rest breaks Environmental conditions such as temperature & humidity & lack of appropriate training Q.28. a. Identify the possible effects on health that may be caused by working in a hot environment such as foundry. (2) Answer: Skin burns from radiant heat Dehydration & heat cramps Heat cataracts & heat stress Q.28. b. Outline the measures that may be taken to help prevent the health effects identify in (a). (6) Answer: Shielding Minimizing the exposure time of employees Ensuring fluid intake Increasing ventilation Provision of suitable clothing Health surveillance & the need to allow workers to acclimatise gradually to the environment

Q.29. In relation to work related upper limb disorders (WRULDs). a. Identify the typical symptoms that might be experienced by affecting individuals. (4) Answer: Pain to the back, neck, shoulders &/or arms Swollen joints Reduced mobility & stiffness Cramps & muscle fatigue Affect sleep & normal functioning Q.29. b. Outline the actors that would increase the risk of developing WRULDs. (4) Answer: Space constraints resulting in poor working postures Excessive force or awkward hand movements needed to carry out an operation The frequency with which tasks need to be repeated The use of vibrating tools & equipment & the involvement of vulnerable workers such as those with pre-existing conditions & pregnant women Q.29. 30. In relation to the ill-health effects from the use of vibrating hand held tools. a. Identify the typical symptoms that might be shown by affected individuals. (4) Answer: Numbness & blanching of the fingers & swollen painful joints, leading to a reduction in both the manual dexterity & tactile sensation. Q.29. b. Outline the control measures that may be used to minimise the risk of such effects. (4) Answer: In some cases, it might be possible to alter the work process in order to eliminate or reduce the use of vibrating tools (or perhaps to reduce the pressure upon the tool required by the operator) Ways of reducing the degree of vibration, or changing its characteristics, should be explored by proper selection of equipment &/or by good standards of maintenance Risk can also be reduced by: Limiting the time that operators are exposed By introducing a health surveillance/health promotion programme & by appropriate personal protective equipment (such as gloves to keep hands warm) Q.31. The number of absences due to upper limb disorders (ULDs) in an organization appears to be increasing. a. Outline the possible sources of information that could be consulted when investigating the problem. (8) Answer: Risk assessments The results of task analyses & the identification of repetitive actions The organizations employees & safety representatives Ill-health reports & the analysis of absence records The observation of supervisors & the complaints that may have been made to them by members of their teams Manufacturers information Ergonomists or occupational health practitioners & perhaps even information supplied by the social activities coordinator on out-of-work activities such as tennis, squash, etc

Q.32. a. Outline the issues that should be addressed by an organisation when developing a system for the safe collection & disposal of its waste. (8) Answer: Its hazardous properties (e.g. general, biological or special waste) & by its nature (e.g. solid or liquid) The quantity produced The need for separation of incompatible wastes The means for containing waste & its marking & labeling The provision of safe storage on site & the methods of transportation to & from the storage facility The appointment of a competent &/or licensed waste carrier Possible pollution issues arising from spillages The competence & training of staff & the keeping of the necessary records. Q.33. Absorbent mats & granules have been used to soak up a chemical spillage. a. Outline the issues that will need to be considered in relation to the handling, temporary storage & final disposal of the waste material. (8) Answer: Procedures would have to be drawn up for handling the waste material which would include. The use of competent employees who had received training in the risks arising from the operation & the precautions to be observed. The provision & use of PPE such as gloves, overalls & eye protection. The protection of drains against pollution from spillage & safe means of transport of the waste to a temporary storage site. The storage area should provide adequate containment for the waste material & should be protected & made secure against Fire Vehicles Trespassers & the weather The waste would need to be marked, labeled & an accurate inventory kept & arrangements made for separation of incompatible materials Final disposal would have to be carried out by a licensed waste carrier Q.34. a. Give an occupational source of Each, identify TWO types of non-ionising radiation. (4) Answer: Examples of non-ionizing radiation. Ultraviolet light (welding) Infra-red (lasers) Microwave (ovens, radar or mobile phones Radio waves (communication transmitter) & electromagnetic radiation (high voltage sources) Q.34. b. Outline the health effects associated with exposure to non-ionising radiation (4) Answer: Photokeratitis or arc-eye from welding Retinal burns Corneal damage & cataracts from exposure to infra red-radiation & the heating of, & damage to skin & internal organs by radio frequencies, particularly microwaves.

Q.35. a. For Each of the following types of non-ionising radiation, Identify a source & state the possible ill-health effects on exposed individuals (i) Infrared radiation (2) (ii) Ultraviolet radiation (2) Answer: Fire or furnaces, & UV light as the sun or welding operations Health effects: burns to the skin & eye damage are common to both types of radiation Effects of the sun (sunburn & skin cancers). Q.35. b. Identify the general methods for protecting people against exposure to non-ionising radiation (4) Answer: Shielding Increasing the distance between a source & person Reducing the duration of exposure Appropriate PPE (such as clothing & eye protection) & the use of barrier creams. Q.36. a. Identify Two types of ionising radiation (2) Answer: Gamma radiation. X-rays. Q.36. b. Outline the ways in which exposure to ionising radiation at work may be controlled (4) Answer: Shielding Increasing the distance between source & person Reducing the duration of exposure & the use of appropriate personal protective equipment. Q.37. a. Identify the persons that an employer may need to appoint to comply with the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 . (2) Answer: Radiation protection supervisor & the Radiation protection adviser. Q.37. b. Outline the means of controlling exposure to ionising radiation (6) Answer: Enclosure (ranging from a concrete &/or lead encasement to a glove box) Shielding by barriers or screens Segregation by distance, reducing the exposure time of the employees involved, the use of personal protective equipment Environmental or personal monitoring (with, for example, the use of film badges) The correct disposal of radioactive waste & training, supervision & good personal hygiene practices

ELEMENT 16: CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES HAZARDS & CONTROL. Q.1. a. Outline the possible causes of a dumper truck overturn on a construction site. (6) Answer: 1. This previously used question was generally well answered. Many of the issues apply equally to other types of vehicles, such as fork-lift trucks, and reasonable marks could be obtained for simply addressing these general issues. Candidates, who excelled, however, were those who related their answers specifically to dumper trucks and to the construction environment. For part (a) of the question, Examiners were expecting candidates to outline causes such as overloading or uneven loading of the bucket, cornering at excessive speed, hitting obstructions, driving too close to the edges of embankments or excavations, mechanical defects, inappropriate tyres pressures and driving across slopes. The bald statement of 'driving too fast' could not be given credit unless it was specifically connected with cornering or manoeuvring since speed by itself would not lead to an overturn. Q.1. b. Identify the design features of a dumper truck intended to minimize the risk of, or severity of injury from, an overturn. (2) Answer: In answering part (b), most candidates gained credit for referring to the use of seat belts and roll-over protection. A few expanded on this to include other design features such as a wide wheelbase and a truck's low centre of gravity. Q.2. Identify the main hazards associated with excavation work on construction sites. (8) Answer: Who might be harmed by a collapse of the excavation Contact with buried services Ingress of water Build-up of fumes or being struck by falling materials The excavation machinery (e.g. contact with overhead lines) The effect on adjacent structures & the possibility of vehicles or people falling into unprotected excavations Q.3. Outline Four duties of the following persons under the Construction (Design & Management) Regulations 1994. a. The Planning Supervisor (4) Answer: The Planning Supervisor has to co-ordinate the health and safety aspects of project design and the initial planning to ensure the Regulations are able to flow quit e smoothly. To ensure the designers, if more than one, co-operate with each other in all aspects of health and safety on the project To ensure individual designers comply with their duties, particularly with respect of risk avoidance and reduction To ensure that the pre-tender stage health and safety plan is prepared before arrangements to appoint a Principal Contractor are made and work begins on the project To give advice if requested, to the Client or the Clients agent, on the competence and whether or not the allocation of resources by designers and all contractors is adequate To advise other contractors who may be appointing designers and also advise the Client on the health and safety plan before the construction phase starts

To ensure the health and safety file is prepared and delivered to the Client at the end of the project The Planning Supervisor needs to consider how the different aspects of planning and design interact with each other general principles of prevention and protection should be followed.

Q.3.

b. The Principal Contractor (4) (Or) Outline the main duties of a planning supervisor under the Construction (Design & Management) regulations 1994 (4) Answer: Co-ordinating the activities of all contractors on site Developing the health & safety plan & enduring compliance with it on site Displaying statutory notices Proving health & safety information to contractors Ensuring effective consultation with employees Controlling access to the site Ensuring the competence of all contractors involved & passing to the planning supervisor any information that should be included in the health & safety file. Q.4. a. Identify Four items of information in the health & safety file for an existing building that might be needed by a contractor carrying out refurbishment work (4) Answer: Drawings & plans Location of utilities & services Details of construction methods & material used & details of installed equipment (e.g. lifts, air-conditioning systems) including manuals produced by specialist contractors & suppliers Q.5. List Eight components of an independent tied scaffold that has been erected by a competent person (8) Answer: Standards Base plates Sole boards Ledgers Bracing Ties Working platforms Toe boards & guard rails, safe means of access such as ladders internal to the structure & brick guards & chutes to dispose of waste

Q.6. Explain how a person may be injured when using a mobile elevated work platform (MEWP) to undertake maintenance work at height (8) Answer: The overturning of the equipment because it was positioned on an uneven floor or because the outriggers were not fully extended Falling from the platform because no hand rails were provided Inadvertent movement of the equipment because the brakes were not applied before raising the platform Trapping in the scissor mechanism Mechanical failure of the lifting mechanism Striking or being crushed against overhead obstructions Failure of the MEWP because of overload & following a collision with moving vehicles Q.7. a. Outline the checks that could be made in assessing the health & safety competence of a contractor (8) (Or) List the factors that could be considered when assessing the health & safety competence of a contractor (8) (Or) List the factors that might be considered when assessing the health & safety competence of a contractor (8) Answer: The contractors previous experience with the type of work The reputation of the contractor amongst previous or current clients The content & quality of the contractors H&S policy & risk assessments The level of training & qualifications of staff (including those with H&S responsibilities) Accident / enforcement history Membership of accreditation or certification bodies Equipment maintenance & statutory examination records & the detailed proposals (e.g. method statements) for the work to be carried out Q.8. Outline the precautions that should be taken to reduce the of injury when work is carried out on a pitched (sloping) roof. (8) Answer: The provision of safe access to the roof & roof edge protection The use of crawling boards or roof ladders Iidentifying & covering roof lights Arrangements for moving tools & materials to & from the roof The issue of wearing of PPE such as helmets, footwear & harnesses The employment of a trained & competent workforce & the need to stop the work activity during adverse weather conditions Q.9. a. Explain the meaning of the term hazard. Answer: A hazard is the inherent potential to cause injury or damage to peoples health, or something with the potential to cause harm. Hazard can be defined as potential to cause injury or damage to people, equipment or material. The various types of hazards are physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic or psychological.

Q.9.

b. Outline the particular hazards that may be present during the demolition of a building. (8) (Or) Outline the main hazards associated with demolition work (6) Answer: Falls from a height Falling debris & premature collapse Use of explosives Contact with noise from equipment & heavy plant Dust (possibly including asbestos) & the possible presence of services such as electricity, gas & water

Q.10. Mobile tower scaffolds should always be used on stable, level ground. List Eight additional points that should be considered to ensure safe use. (8) Answer: Ensuring the correct ratio between the height & base dimensions of the tower The use of diagonal bracing The use of stabilisers The provision of toe boards & guard rails Ensuring that wheels are locked Ensuring that the scaffold is not overloaded & ensuring that it is not moved when loaded with persons &/or materials. Secure means of access & maintaining safe distances between the tower & overhead power lines Q.11. Outline the control measures needed to ensure safety during excavation work on a construction site. (8) Answer: Support of sides (shoring, benching, etc) Detection of services (e.g. from plans, use of cable/pipe detectors, etc) Storage of materials, equipment & spoil away from edge Means of preventing vehicles falling into the excavation or causing collapse (e.g. stop blocks) Means of preventing people falling in (guard-rails, barriers, crossing points & covers) Means of preventing collapse of adjacent structures Safe means of access & egress Testing for, & ventilation of, noxious fumes Means of pumping out water Procedures for working with mechanical plant, & general issues such as Inspection, Training, Supervision & the use of PPE (e.g. for protection against contaminants). Q.12. Outline Eight precautions that may be taken to ensure the safety of children who might be tempted to gain unauthorized access to a construction site. (8) Answer: Use of fencing. Warning against the dangers by means of signs. & monitoring using security patrols or CCTV. This was followed by reference to the need, should entry be gained to make the site itself safe by

Isolating services Reducing heights of materials Covering or fencing excavations as well as removing ladders & denying access to scaffolding Securing: Tools, Chemicals, Equipment & vehicles & working with the community including visits to schools.

Q.13. Outline the precautions to be taken when carrying out repairs to the flat roof of a building. (8) (Or) Outline the precautions that may be needed when carrying out repairs to the flat roof of a building (8) Answer: The provision of safe access to the roof (by scaffolding &/or ladders) Edge protection to prevent the falls of people or materials & restricting access to the area below the work by means of barriers & so forth. Falling through fragile roof-lights & voids & from harmful contact with overhead obstructions & services The means of transporting materials to & from the work area The possible need for netting under the roof Protection from the weather & the positioning & use of hazardous equipment such as bitumen boilers & gas cylinders Q.14. Damaged corrugated roofing sheet on a single storey factory are to be replaced. Access to the roof will be via a mobile tower scaffold a. Identify the hazards that are likely to be encountered during such work. (6) Answer: Working at height, falls of material & exposure to extreme weather conditions. Work equipment (including access equipment) Manual handling Work on or near fragile material & contact with hazardous substances, particularly the possibility of asbestos. Q.14. b. Outline the precautions needed to ensure the safe use of the mobile tower scaffold. (6) Answer: Ensuring that the ratio of the height of the tower to its base dimensions is appropriate The provision of adequate diagonal bracing A fully boarded working platform with toe-boards & guardrails in place Safe means of access to the platform Means for locking the wheels of the tower when work is in operation The use of outriggers Checking that the condition of the ground on which the tower is sited is suitable (e.g. level & firm) & the erection & inspection of the scaffold by competent persons.

Q.14. c. Outline the further precautions that may be required to control the hazards identified in (a) (8) Answer: The provision & use of Roof ladders, Crawling boards, Protection at roof edges & voids & harnesses. The provision of Hoists, Chutes & covered skips for the removal of material being stripped from the roof. Protection for those working below (e.g. Barriers, Netting, Signs, Safety helmets). Isolation of overhead services or ensuring safe distances. The use of reduced low voltage or residual current devices for portable electrical tools. & protection against extreme weather conditions. Particular precaution would be required If asbestos were involved, including The avoidance of breaking the sheets The provision of respiratory protection & overalls The need for damping down & ensuring the safe disposal of waste Q.15. Mobile tower scaffolds should be used on stable, level ground. a. List Eight additional points that should be considered to ensure the safe use of mobile tower scaffold. (8) Answer: Ensuring that the ratio of the height of the tower to its base dimensions is appropriate The provision of adequate diagonal bracing A fully boarded working platform with toe-boards & guardrails in place Safe means of access to the platform Means for locking the wheels of the tower when work is in operation The use of outriggers Checking that the condition of the ground on which the tower is sited is suitable (e.g. level & firm) & the erection & inspection of the scaffold by competent persons. Q.16. Outline the precautions that might be taken in order to reduce the risk of injury when using stepladders. (8) Answer: The need to ensure that the stepladder is inspected for defects before use That it is correctly erected on level ground with its chain or rope fully extended That it is suitable for the task to be performed & does not involve carrying out work from the top step That it is footed by a second person when necessary That it is correctly positioned to avoid over-reaching & that it is not overloaded. Q.17. Identify ways in which accidents may be prevented when using ladders as a means of access. (8) Answer: Ladder is of the correct length/type & that it is sound (e.g. not painted or damaged) The ladder: Must be placed the right way up On firm ground

& at the correct angle Securely footed &/or tied & positioned to avoid over-reaching or contact with live cables. The base of the ladder should be protected from collisions by people or vehicles Finally, users of the ladder should have suitable footwear free from mud or grease & be provided with means of keeping their hands free (e.g. tool belts)

Q.18. Explain the issues that would need to be addressed if work is to be carried out safely from a ladder. (8) Answer: The type, duration & extent of the work to be undertaken The suitability of the ladder for the work (e.g. its height, condition, material of construction, etc) The safe positioning of the ladder & protecting it from impact The ability of the user to use 3 points of contact The competence of the operative Weather conditions & the type of tools to be used for the work Q.19. Identify Eight safe practices to be followed when using a skip for the collection & removal of waste from a construction site. (8) Answer: Ensuring the integrity of the skip Locating the skip on firm, level ground away from excavations Ensuring clear access for filling & for removing from site by vehicle Filling by chute or by mechanical means unless items are to be placed in the skip by hand Introducing controls to prevent overfilling & the tipping of incompatible wastes & netting or sheeting when the skip is full Ensure precautions from fire hazards created by the skips & the probable need to site away from buildings & to protect against arson Construction waste is controlled waste & must be carried by a licensed waste carrier, under a waste transfer note system, to a disposal site capable of accepting the waste. Q.20. A contractor has been engaged to undertake building maintenance work in a busy warehouse. a. Outline the issues that should be covered in an induction programme for the contractors employees. (8) Answer: General site safety rules regarding Smoking Clothing & PPE Use of electrical equipment & so on Requirements for PTWs & other controls Exclusion zones & traffic routes Arrangements for the storage of materials Particular risks in the working area (e.g. Movement of FLTs, Falling materials, Conveyors, & the possible presence of asbestos)

Accident reporting & other emergency procedures (e.g. action to be taken in the case of fire) & the location & use of welfare facilities including first-Aid Person on site to report to if the need should arise & the procedures for signing in & out

Q.21. The water main supplying a school is to be repaired, The work will be carried out in a 1.5 metre deep excavation, which will be supported in order to ensure the safety of the employees working in the excavation. a. Identify when the Three statutory inspections of the supported excavation must be carried out by the competent person. (3) Answer: These are at the start of every shift before work commences, after any event likely to affect the strength or stability of the excavation, & after any accidental fall of rock or earth or other material. Q.21. b. State the information that should be recorded on the excavation inspection report (5) Answer: The name & address of the person for whom the inspection was carried out The location of the place of work A description of the place of work inspected Details of any matters identified that could lead to risks to the H or S of any person The action to be taken to reduce the risk Any further action that might be needed The name & position of the person making the report & the sate & time of inspection. Q.21. c. Other than the provision of supports for the excavation, outline additional precautions to be taken during the repair work in order to reduce the risk of injury to the employees & others who may be affected by the work (12) Answer: The detection of underground services, safe digging, preferably by hand, near to the services & the provision of adequate support for them once exposed The isolation of the water supply to reduce the risk of flooding the excavation Ensuring the stability of adjacent buildings if this was thought to be necessary The provision of safe access in & out of the excavation & placing blocks to prevent plant from approaching too close to its edge & using appropriate PPE such as head protection, ear defend ers & safety footwear As for the possible risk of injury to others who might be affected by the work, there would initially need to be close liaison between the contractors & the school authorities to ensure, whenever possible, that work in the excavation was carried out outside school hours. Additionally, barriers would need to be erected to provide a safe walkway for teachers & children & other members of the public & precautions would have to be taken to ensure that materials & equipment were stored in a safe compound & plant immobilized when not in actual use.