A Nonlinear Engine Model for Drivetrain System Development | Internal Combustion Engine | Throttle

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A NONLINEAR ENGINE MODEL FOR DRNETRAIN SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

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P R Cmssley, Fod Motor Company, U K J A Cook, Ford Motor Company, U S A

INTRODUCTION

Throttle Body

The development of integrated vehicle/powmain control systems requires the existence of a nonlinear mathematical engine representation for incorporation into an overall vehicle driveline model. This paper develops such a model of a four cylinder spark ignition engine. Emphasis is placed on the formulation of engine component functional relationships and the validation of modeled system dynamics by engine dynamometer testing. The utility of the engine model as an element of the complete p o w e m i n representation in the development of a aaction control system is illustrated by simulation.

The basic throttle body model assumes one-dimensional, steady, compressible flow of an ideal gas as developed by Novak (2) and Hamburg and Hyland (3). Two distinct regimes describe the mass flow rateof air through the throttle: for intake manifold pressures less than about half atmospheric, the resulting sonic flow is a function only ofthrottleangle. Otherwise, the throttleflowisdescribedas afunction of throttle angle and manifold pressure. For the particular engine modeled:

AIF J m.M N P T Torque

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f 3 Y
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air-fuel ratio polar moment of inertia, kg m2 mass, g flywheel speed, rad./sec pressure, bar temperature, degrees K toque, Nm specific gas constant throttle angle, degrees ratio of specific heats spark advance, DBTDC

where the throttle function was generated by linear regression of steady state engine dynamometer data and the pressur? function was developed by Prabahakar (4).

Intake Manifold Dvnamics

subscripts:

0 a e
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atmospheric air egr,engine in load intake manifold out

The dynamic relationship for the mass flow rate of air and EGR out of the intake manifold was developed by Powell ( 5 ) and Moskws and Hedrick (6) employing the principles of conservation of mass and energy, the equation of state for an ideal gas, and Dalton's law of partialpressures.Homogeneoustemperatureand pressure and complete mixing of air and EGR a e assumed. The partial pressure rate equations for the two manifold constituents are:

MODEL DESCRIPnON

The engine model presented here is alow frequency phenomenological representation ofa four cylinderpowerplantbdsedon the fundamental work of Powell and Powers (1). The throttle body and inlet airflow, engine pumping and toque generation are included as nonlinear algebraic relations based on experimental evaluation in an engine dynamometer facility. Important dynamic elements such as the inlet and exhaust manifold plena, rotating inertia and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve are represented by physically based differential equations. The inclusion of EGR in the system model influencesthestatic torque representationas wellas thedynamicEGR relatedelements such as the intake manifo1dpressurerateequation.The following sections will describe each of the engine submodels.

meo =

+

YM,

P,=P,+P,
The total mass rate of air and EGR pumped out of the manifold by the cylindersisaregressedfunctionofthe sumofthe partial pressuresand engine speed. For the particular engine under consideration the pumping mass rate relation is:

M o = -0.366 + 0.08979NPm 0.0337 NPmZ+ O.ooO1 N Z P ,