A Nonlinear Engine Model for Drivetrain System Development | Internal Combustion Engine | Throttle





P R Cmssley, Fod Motor Company, U K J A Cook, Ford Motor Company, U S A


Throttle Body

The development of integrated vehicle/powmain control systems requires the existence of a nonlinear mathematical engine representation for incorporation into an overall vehicle driveline model. This paper develops such a model of a four cylinder spark ignition engine. Emphasis is placed on the formulation of engine component functional relationships and the validation of modeled system dynamics by engine dynamometer testing. The utility of the engine model as an element of the complete p o w e m i n representation in the development of a aaction control system is illustrated by simulation.

The basic throttle body model assumes one-dimensional, steady, compressible flow of an ideal gas as developed by Novak (2) and Hamburg and Hyland (3). Two distinct regimes describe the mass flow rateof air through the throttle: for intake manifold pressures less than about half atmospheric, the resulting sonic flow is a function only ofthrottleangle. Otherwise, the throttleflowisdescribedas afunction of throttle angle and manifold pressure. For the particular engine modeled:

AIF J m.M N P T Torque

f 3 Y
( I

air-fuel ratio polar moment of inertia, kg m2 mass, g flywheel speed, rad./sec pressure, bar temperature, degrees K toque, Nm specific gas constant throttle angle, degrees ratio of specific heats spark advance, DBTDC

where the throttle function was generated by linear regression of steady state engine dynamometer data and the pressur? function was developed by Prabahakar (4).

Intake Manifold Dvnamics


0 a e


atmospheric air egr,engine in load intake manifold out

The dynamic relationship for the mass flow rate of air and EGR out of the intake manifold was developed by Powell ( 5 ) and Moskws and Hedrick (6) employing the principles of conservation of mass and energy, the equation of state for an ideal gas, and Dalton's law of partialpressures.Homogeneoustemperatureand pressure and complete mixing of air and EGR a e assumed. The partial pressure rate equations for the two manifold constituents are:


The engine model presented here is alow frequency phenomenological representation ofa four cylinderpowerplantbdsedon the fundamental work of Powell and Powers (1). The throttle body and inlet airflow, engine pumping and toque generation are included as nonlinear algebraic relations based on experimental evaluation in an engine dynamometer facility. Important dynamic elements such as the inlet and exhaust manifold plena, rotating inertia and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve are represented by physically based differential equations. The inclusion of EGR in the system model influencesthestatic torque representationas wellas thedynamicEGR relatedelements such as the intake manifo1dpressurerateequation.The following sections will describe each of the engine submodels.

meo =



The total mass rate of air and EGR pumped out of the manifold by the cylindersisaregressedfunctionofthe sumofthe partial pressuresand engine speed. For the particular engine under consideration the pumping mass rate relation is:

M o = -0.366 + 0.08979NPm 0.0337 NPmZ+ O.ooO1 N Z P ,

. EGRcharge.027N . Torque=-181.000107N2+ Theseare Four steady staterelationshipswcrerequiredforthemodel. fuel and EGR mixture and the related torque production. toEGRmassflowrateandisfedbackviatheon-boardmic~oprocessor to duty cycle modulate a vacuum regulator controlling the EGR valve pintle position.0. Increasing the order of the model gave a slight improvement in these statistical measures however these regression equations included high order terms which were difficult to interpret and it was considered that the small improvementin fit did not justify thecomputationaloverheadwhich wouldberequired in thesimulation model. EGR flow and steady state torque characteristics. These fundamentalevents are the ingestion of a combustiblemixture into the cylinder through the open intake valve as the piston traverses from topdeadcenter O C ) to bottom-dead-center (BDC) of the intake smke. The physical variables selectedtorepresent torque were airandEGRmass a t i o (A/F). Figure 1 shows the experimental set up. For modeling purposes. . Because manifold pressure rate and engine torque are directly influenced by EGR. The minimum induction-to-power stroke lag of 180 degrees was assumed to exist over the entire engine operating range for purposes of this model. iv. Theintentionof the experimental workis to initially identify parame. ii.3+ 379.36ma+21. The EGR system utilized on the modeled engine consists of an orifice installed in the exhaust manifold and connected by a passageway to a vacuum actuated EGR valve on the intake manifold.It isclearthat adelay exists between the ingestion of the air.85(Y+ 0.andthediffcrence between the net toque genemted by the engine and the load torque applied to the output shaft. fuel and EGR along with engine specific physical parameters such as the cylinder head geomeby which affect combustion efficiency. For the dynamic tests the key features of the set up are: i. Forthis reawn only the torque prediction will be discussed here. compression of the mixture as the piston r e m s to TDC.) Fast measurement of exhaust A/F using an NTK UEGO sensor. ignition and rapid expansion during the subsequent power smke driving the piston downward and imparting torque to the crankshaft. That is. Such dynamics are dominated by the valve chamber fding time response to changes in the EGR duty cycle command. the throttle flow.flywheelspeed.00048Nu+2. iii. v. N = Torque. The data were logged on an 8 channel AVL indiskop at 500 Hz per channel. air-fuel r regression analysis for the modeled engine torque equation given below will be examined in detail in a subsequent section. These curves .0028d + 0.26~0. Successive 180degreeincrementsof~sha~rotationdelineatethe basic phenomena of the four-stroke cycle.)A high bandwidth torque transducer located on the driveshaft.0. +2. it is important to define the steady-state torque relationship in terms of physically meaningful and measurablequantities.)The engine was mounted on a dynamometer with a high polar moment of inertia (approximately7 kgmf)to facilitate constant speed operation during transient testing.) A fast throttle actuator in order to apply repeatable fast and accurate steps to the throttle.) High bandwidth Kistler pressure uansducers. This can be seen in Figures 2. engine pumping. Throop and Hamburg (7) have shown that this can be represented as a pure transpon delay (associated with the time required build up sufficient vacuum to overcome pintle shaft friction) cascaded with fust order dynamics incorporatinga time constant which is a function of engine exhaust flow rate. ultimately. A/F andEGRduringthe transients the standard engine management systein was used. spark ignition engine. This allows an estimate of the torque characteristic to be developed by applying analytical curve fitting techniques to dynamometer-obtainedexperimental data. The experimental facilities r e q u i d involved standard engine test bed equipment used for steady state mapping work suitably enhanced for dynamic testing. the torque developed at any particular time is a speed dependent function of the manifold constituents extant during the previous induction stroke.360me 0.3 & 4 which illustrate the variation of torque with the predictors. The flow and pumping characteristics are relatively straightforwardinvolvingonlyoneortwopredictorsinconuast tothe torque characteristic which involved the five predictors mass charge. Forcontrolling the sparkadvance.922 Dilutionoftheairandfuelchargetothecylindersbymeansofexhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective method of reducing oxides of nitrogen emissions (NOx). The pressure differential across the orifice is related The rotational motion of the engine crankshaft is given in terms of the enginepolarmomentofienia. Crankshaft acceleration is given by Newton's second law: 1 . A Brown Boveri (Type ABB D U G 50) actuator was used which could give the required change in throttle to yield 20 to 30 Nm changes in torque in typically less than 10111s.angularacceleration. Although the statistical measures of a regression are very important it is equally important to consider the trends p r d c t e d by the equation are sensible. A five variableregression ofdynamometerdatawas employedtoapproximate engine torque over the o p t i n g range of interest.05d m. the dynamics of the system can have a significant effect on engine response and.ters in the model and then follow this with a series of simple step response tests to validate the identified model.airfuelratioandsparkadvance. In particular the experimental work consisted of the steady state identification of parameters in the equations described above and validation of the dynamic torque response of the engine to simple steps applied to each input in turn whilst holding all other inputs constant. vehicle drivability.55am. The charge. and finally.91%-0. The toque generated by an engine depends on the ignition of a cylinder charge of air.Torquy. An equation involving 12 terms gave an adequate fit with in excess of 99%of the variation torque explained by the terms chosen and a random error of approximately 2 Nm. elimination of the products of combustion from the cylinder through the open exhaust port as the piston r e m s toTDCduring theexhaust stroke. spark advance and engine speed.

and Powers. B. J. IN. To keep speed absolutely constant wouldbe unrealistic. These tests confirmed the assumption that torque changes on the next firing stroke after a spark advance change. 6 Moskwa. P.K.E. This paper has shown that a relatively low order engine model can capture the main transient effects for use in traction control system design. a rapid fall off oftorque withleanair-fuelratiosand peaktorquerichof stoichiometry (Figure 3). EGR and Aff constant Theengine dynamic torque characteristic isvery important for control system development as well as for ensuring good drivability. J. S.) throttle keeping spark advance.F.D. Minneapolis. In contrast at high speed high load conditions the manifold fills much more quickly as can be seen in Figure 6.R.of the American Control Conference. note the high frequency fluctuation on the real toque signal.Hambwg. Technical discussion and personal correspondence.” Society of Automotive Engineers Paper 885106 TRACTION CONTROL APPLICAT ION The intention of a traction control system is to rapidly reduce the torque to the drive wheels on the onset of wheel spin.K. however it has a limited range of authority and leads to a deterioration in exhaust gas emissions. Hence in principle what is required is a fast inner spark conml feedback loop with a slower throttle loop. 1975.3.M.” Proc.“AVaporizedFuelMetering System for Internal Combustion Engines.. Stratified Charge Engines. This is due to the reciprxating discrete nature of the engine which is only pmly reflected in the simulated torque response as aiiscrete uniform pulse. iii.“Simulation OftheBreathingProcesses and AirFuel Ratio Distribution Characteristics of Three-Valve. International Society of Automotive Technology and Automation.” Society of Automotive Engineers Paper 760288 4.J. In these parlicular simulations the engine model described above has been connected to a torsional model of the remainder of the powertrainincluding a tyrehad interfacerepresenting an icy surface as in Crossley (8).. B. with consequent earlier reduction in torque.) Toque versus air-fuel ratio is the correct shape i. andHyland.)TheadditionofEGR(keepingmassairchargeconstant) increases the torque output of the engine through a reduction in pumping losses (Figure 4).R. . West Lafayette. “Dynamic Control of Engine NOx Emissions: Characterization and Improvement of the Transient Response of an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System.” Proc. 1976.) spark advance keeping A/F. Sweden. R. D. J. Thus it can be seen that thereasonforthediscrete toque simulation isonly necessary to capture the induction to combustion stroke delay rather than model the actual firing pulse. 1988. T h m p . Boston.) MBT (mean best torque) spark advance increases with speed (Figure 2)..Novak. M. and Hamburg.. 2.Powell. These simulations show that the addition of spark control. Spark control is a fast way of achieving this.. It is very important to keep engine speed constant during the dynamic test workinorderthatthe testonlyrevealsthedynamicsoftheengine.D. MN 7 . W. PurdueUniversity. Powell.”Society of Automotive Engineers Paper 770881 3.) Aff keeping throttle. Figure 5 shows the response of manifold pressure to a throttle step at lo00 rpm and 25% of full load (torque). 1987. 1987. spark advance and EGR constant. “Anti-spin Conuol. REFERENCES iv.Crossley.923 exhibit good agreement with expected wends such as: i. AJF and spark advance constant. 1977. Thesis.Powell.K. ii.e. reduces the peak overshoot of the system. Throttle control suffers neitherof these disadvantages but is relatively slow acting.J. throttle and EGR constant. A series of spark steps were performed with the indiskop acquiring data on a crank angle basis. IN. 1985. B.R. iii.. In the responses illustrated in Figures 6 and 7.“Automotive Engine Modeling forRealTimeContro1 Application. ii. The manifold fills relatively slowly under these conditions.K.Prabhakar. Inorder to illustrate the utilityof the model. CONCLUSION DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS The test work here involves the application of small steps to: i. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to acknowledge the valuable technical consultation of B. of the American Conuol Conference.”Proc. “Linear Quadratic Control Design for Nonlinear IC Engine Systems. I. These trends together with the good statistical parameters associated with the regression indicate a high degree of confidence with the steady state torque model. Stockholm. The existence of the engine model described above is arequisite todevelopment of control algorithms. The throttle controller is the same for each of these simulations with the only difference being the addition of spark control. MA. thus a lOrpm deviationduring a25Nm step change was considered acceptable. and Hedrick. With the dynamometer in constant speed mode if the speed is allowed to deviate too much during the transient then the rotational dynamics of the engine and more importantly thedynamics of the dynamometer and its controller complicate the response. West Lafayette. This spark delay is neglected in this model. 1981. two simulations have been performed with (a) throttle and spark control and (b) throttle control only (see Figure 7).” Ph.. The target wheel slip is 0. l.) EGR duty cycle keeping throttle.“Optimal andSutmptimaJControl of Automotive EngineEfficiency andEmissions. Hence it can be seen that spark is a very fast means of controlling torque with a maximum delay of 180 crank angle degrees.

Experimental Set Up Air Fuel Ratio Figure 3 The effect of AFR on torque 45 42 h E V 30 25 V 39 z E 0 3 + e .924 49 48 fast throttle actuator NTK UEGO sensor torque transducer 47 46 motoring Inertia . 36 e 20 33 15 30 10 27 5 Spark Advance (deq BTDC) Figure 2 The effect of engine speed I .(7kgmP) z v se 0 E 45 44 43 42 41 spark ldvance high bandwidlt pressure transducs I-0 e 39 1 1 ' ' ' 13 ' ' ' ' 12 14 '''''''' 15 ' ' Figure 1.

.6 ... .. ..2 .4 ..2 1.2 .3 .2 ...1 . . . ..925 150 100 50 ...7 Time (s) Figure 5 Step i n t h r o t t l e a t 25% of full load 0 I - 24 71 - .6 0 . ... .3 ...7 Time (5) Figure 6 Step in t h r o t t l e a t 75% of full load .6 ...6 1 0 25 20 15 10 30 20 10 . . . .3 . ...4 .. . .. ..5 ..5 Time ( s ) Figure 7 Traction c o n t r o l simulation 0 .1 0 ..5 .6 .9 1..4 . ....

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