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Published by: vk100 on Jan 28, 2014
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01/28/2014

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Artificial intelligence meets the real World

There is no end to the applications of robotics, evoking a lot of interest across different sectors of the economy. At the same time, there are fears of robots taking over humanity. It’s time you get more familiar with this science in its early stages, today and in future Subhranshu Sekhar Samal, atirek Wribhu and r S. Sathyamurthy

!aser welding by a robot The word "robot’ originates from the #$ech word for forced labour or serf. It was introduced by playwright %arel #apek, whose ficional robotic inventions were much like r &rankenstein’s monsters'creatures created by chemical and biological methods rather than mechanical. (ut the current mechanical robots of popular culture are not much different from these fictionalbiological creations. The International Standards )rgani$ation *IS)+ definesa robot as an automatically,controlled, re, programmable, multi,purpose and manipulative machine, with or without locomotion, for use in industrial automation applications. -obotics is a fieldof multi,discipline engineering that deals with design, development and application of robots and the use of computer for their manipulation and processing. .volution of robotics The history of robotics can be traced back to ancient /reece. According to /reek mythology, the /reek god of fire and forge'0ephaestus'was served by mechanical robots. Another historical record suggests an ancient .gypt origin for robotics, where priests used steam,activated mechanisms to open the doors of their temple. (efore the first electrician was born, the earliest reference to a robot was in ancient #hina, in the form of an organic robot given by an artificer called 1an Shi to %ing 2u of 3hou around 4555 (#. The robot was made of leather and glue with actual human organs, and it ceased functioning when the organs were removed. It was around 675 (# when veteran /reek mathematician Archytas constructed a mechanical bird named "pigeon’'a robot powered by steam, which could fl. It was the firs recorded model airplane and a milestone in the history of robotics. (etween 4755 and 4855, odd mechanical marvels were springing up all over .urope. !eonardo a 9inci was the ne:t known robot designer after the ancient period. 0e invented a mechanical man in knight’s armour. ;ohn ee of .ngland invented a flying wooden beetle during the .li$abethan era. Another machine was 9aucanson’s "digesting duck’ in 4<6=, which was able to annoy real ducks, >uack, eat grain and produce fake faeces. The duck was even referred to by 9oltaire, albeit rather cryptically? @Without the duck of 9aucanson you have nothing to remind you of the glory of &rance.A Isaac asimov’s laws of robotics !aw $ero. A robot may not inBure humanity or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. &irst law. A robot may not inBure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. Second law. A robot must obey orders given by human beings, e:cept where such orders would

-obots operate with a range of programs and manipulate and transport materials in a variety of ways. A robot must protect its own e:istence as long as such protec. Crogrammability.tion and navigation systems .apan for paint spraying 4=G8 S-I built Shakey'first mobile robot operated using AI techni>ues 4=<5 &irst robot arm developed at Stanford 4=<6 TJ'first minicomputer.controlled te:tile machine called . -obotics.manipulative capabilities that a designer can combine as desired. -obots act according to the environment rather than merely functioning as a data processing or computational device. Sensors. .edu Scope of robotics -obotics re>uires the application of mechanical engineering. computer. electricalKelectronic engineering.aided manufacturing F. communica.ckert H 2auchly devised .card. which can be programmed to accomplish a large variety of tasks. &le:ibility. -obot motion and path plan. It possesses some form of mobility.binghamton.conflct with the first law. 9aucanson’s digesting duck developed in 4<6= A good depth in following maBor subBects is re>uired to deal with robotics technology? 4. Third law.A *.purpose magnetic playback device for controlling machines 4=FG .IIA# electronic computer 4=F8 2IT Crof.controlled industrial robot *used e:tensively in the industry+ 4=<G -obot arms used on 9iking 4 and D space probes 4=<< AS.urope+ built first microcomputer.controlled robot 4=85 s and on -apid growth in the robot industry *. biological mechanics and software engineering.ac>uard loom 48=5 &irst autonomous vehicles *Tesla+ 4=DD &irst reference to "robot’ in #apek’s play -ossum’s Eniversal -obots 4=68 Collard and -oselund devised programmable paint sprayer 4=FG e9ol'a general. . it operates automatically. #omputational geometry and simulation 7. It implies computational or symbol. #omputer. Sensors sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device. So the robot is basically a computer.tion does not conflictwith the firstor second law.apan becomes the biggest player+ Source? http?KKwww. (asic re>uirements of a robotic system Some basic features of a robot include? 2obility.ningKdetection G. Artificial intelligenc D.based integrated manufacturing. 2echanical capability.ngineering physics *mechanics+ 6.cs. Wiener published #ybernetics 4=7D &irst numerical control machine built at 2IT 4=7F uvoll designed first programmable robot *Enimation'first robot company+ 4=7= Clanet #orporation marketed the first commercially available robot 4=GD /2 installed first industrial robot on an assembly line 4=GF Artificial Intelligence labs opened at 2IT and S-I 4=G< 2ark II robot imported to .lectronic control.aided design and computer. After being programmed. then and now 4854 A punch.

In addition to this. 2aterial science and technology 8. #hallenges Standardisation is a maBor hurdle. -obotics education is taking shape and many universities are introducing courses in robotics and automation at the postgraduate level as main or elective subBects. however. workshops and conferences are also conducted by universities and institutes at regular intervals to proBect the recent developments in robotics technologies at national and international levels.graduate students to pursue higher studies in the field of robotics and autmation in India and abroad. )ther issues such as concurrency. meets and e:pos at international level has also increased marginally in recent years from India. cost. -obotics can be broadly divided into mechanical design and control algorithms. the basic knowledge of aerodynamics and aircraft mechanics is essential. compliance control. robot locomotion *particularly for legged. -esearch on robotics and related technologies is being carried out at various centres to e:plore the possible applications of robotics in various fields *refer Table II+ In India. The ST. servicing of electric signals transmission.arth Sciences *formerly epartment of )cean evelopment+. These activities have inspired a notable number of under. especially at the undergraduate level. It is. )pportunities in india Innovation coupled with consolidated research and development in robot technology has catapulted India’s scientificposition to a level that e>uals other advanced countries in recent years. studies related to robot technology and its implications are supported by the epartment of Science and Technology * ST+ and epartment of Scientificand Industrial -esearch. most are used in engineering institutes and research organisations *see Tables I and II+. Seminars. computer vision and artificialintelligence. there e:ists diversity in the possible configurationsin which a robot can be built and also in the hardware used. )ut of G55 to <55 robots widely used in India. amphibious and flying robots+.<. Crivate institutes play a big role in robotics training for participation in these events. 0ence there are not too many options for taking up robotics as a degree itself. a known fact that robots are not widely used by Indian companies. control and algorithms is the primary re>uirement for doing any work in robotics.e:ploration. epartment of Information Technology and 2inistry of . sea. A good background in mechanics. etc. As no standard operating systems and software are currently in use. if one would like to get involved in aerial robotics such as unmanned aircrafts. There is lot of research happening to improve the motion of robots through a good structural design and enhance their efficiencyand adaptability through better control design. A high level of specialisation is re>uired to work on any particular aspect of robotics. Students’ participation in various robotics contests. . )ptical engineering -obots are being used in industries. It is often necessary to write programming codes from scratch when dealing with new robots. humancomputer interactions and cognitive computer vision are also facing a great deal of scrutiny with considerable research going on in each area. -obotics still remains a popular course as an elective subBect for engineering students.medical e>uipment. nuclear science. facilitates -H in various areas of national interest. The interdisciplinary field of roboics also findsapplications to pursue research in various sectors. designing of bio.

(ut robotics research is still in infancy and many targets need to be met before all this becomes a reality. 0umanoid robots will impact various aspects of our lives from our workplace to healthcare. So we can follow the saying? @The -oad to success is always under construction. we may even order a robot. Incorporating more knowledge at the university level. &or serving the society in the form of a teaching tool. and medical to communication.A .like robots that are able to have their own thoughts and take independent actions. robots with artificial cognition may develop a will of their own and potentially turn against people spontaneously. technology has to incorporate into the machines a stable and conscientious mindset. reacts. who would possibly complete a teaching module from a remote place via the Internet. In the near future. responds and behaves Bust like us. space to classroom. one may consider a robo.professor.replica that speaks. In the future. there might be a robo.teacher. preserving our essence in artificial form for eternity. These range from household to deep sea.&uture of robotics There is no limit to the applications of robotics technology. To produce intelligent human.

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