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# lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) This print-out should have 34 questions.

ns. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page nd all choices before answering. 001 10.0 points An electron and a neutral carbon atom of polarizability are at a distance r apart (r is much greater than the diameter d of the atom). Due to polarization of the atom by the electron, there is a force F between the electron and the carbon atom. If we change r F to 2.2r , what will be the ratio of where F F is the new force between the two? Hint: To nd the r -dependence of the force, rst nd the induced polarization (dipole moment) of the atom as a function of r . Then nd the force exerted by this induced dipole on the electron. Correct answer: 0.019404. Explanation: The force will be proportional to r 5 and F hence the correct answer will be = F 0.019404 . The calculation is as follows. The magnitude of electric eld due to the electron at the location of the carbon atom will be given by 1 e Ee = 40 r 2 From this, the magnitude of the induced dipole moment of the carbon atom can be written down as p = Ee . This dipole moment will be pointing towards the electron, and hence the electron will lie on the axis of this dipole. The magnitude of the electric eld due to this dipole at the location of the electron will be given by Ep = 1 2p 40 r 3 Charge get 1 2Ee e F = Ep e = = 40 r 3 1 40
2

2e2 r5

This implies that when r to 2.2r , the electric eld eld, and consequently the force, is decreased by a factor of (2.2)5 = 0.019404, and hence the answer is F = (2.2)5 = 0.019404 F 002 (part 1 of 4) 10.0 points A charged particle with charge q1 is a distance r from a neutral atom, as shown in the following gure. q1

Neutral atom

If q1 is negative, which diagram (A-J) in the following gure best shows the charge distribution in the neutral atom in this situation? A
+

B G
+ +
+

C H

D
+

E J Other

I
+ +

Correct answer: B. Explanation: If q1 is negative, then the eld at the location of the neutral atom will point toward the left. In that case, the positively charged nucleus, like always, follows the eld and moves toward the left, while the negatively charged electron cloud will move opposite to the eld and shift toward the right. 003 (part 2 of 4) 10.0 points Which of the arrows in the following diagram best indicates the direction of the electric eld

Here, we have used the fact that r >> d. The magnitude of force on the electron due to the dipole (and vice versa) can be obtained as F = Ep e. Combining all the equations, we

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) at the location of the charged particle, made by the polarized neutral atom? A

force on the side of the dipole that is nearest the charged particle. 006 10.0 points A large positive charge pulls on a distant electron. How does the net force on the electron change if a slab of neutral glass is inserted midway between the large positive charge and the electron? Enter the letter corresponding to the correct choice. A. The net force is unchanged because the positive charge has no eect on the neutral glass and the E-eld of the positive charge is unaected by the glass. B. The net force increases because the glass is polarized by the positive charge and generates a small additional E-eld in the same direction as the eld of the positive charge. C. The net force decreases because the glass reduces the strength of the electric eld that passes through it. D. The net force decreases because the glass is polarized by the positive charge and generates a small additional E-eld in the opposite direction as the eld of the positive charge. Correct answer: B. Explanation: The rst statement is false. The molecules in the glass are polarized by the eld of the positive charge. The second statement is true. The glass is polarized, and the molecules in the glass acquire a dipole moment aligned with the Eeld of the positive charge. As a consequence, the glass generates a (small) E-eld at the location of the electron in the same direction as the eld of the inducing positive charge. Statement C is false. The electric eld of the positive charge is unaected by the glass (superposition principle). Statement D is false. The glass is polarized, but in the opposite direction. 007 10.0 points Polarizability is dened by the relation p =

H G F

B C D

Correct answer: G. Explanation: The dipole moment of the neutral atom points to the left, and the electric eld due to the induced dipole at points along the axis of the dipole is in the same direction as the dipole moment. 004 (part 3 of 4) 10.0 points Which of the arrows in the diagram from part 2 best indicates the direction of the force on the negatively charged particle, due to the polarized neutral atom? Correct answer: C. Explanation: The force on a negatively charged particle is opposite the electric eld at its location. Also, remember that induced dipoles never repel their inducing charge. 005 (part 4 of 4) 10.0 points Which of the arrows in the diagram from part 2 best indicates the direction of the force on the polarized neutral atom, due to the charged particle? Correct answer: G. Explanation: There are multiple explanations including: (1) Newtons second law says that interacting objects will exert equal magnitude forces on each other, in opposite directions; (2) superposition of forces on the side of the dipole results in a net force in the direction of the

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) qs = Eext , where is polarizability and Eext is the external electric eld that induces the polarization. We can obtain an estimate of for a typical neutral atom by making a few simple assumptions: 1: Eext is evaluated at the center of the dipole, i.e., the original location of the unpolarized atom. 2: The separation distance s is on the order of atomic dimensions use s = 2R, where R 1 1010 m is on the order of an atomic radius. This is a reasonable maximum estimate, as polarization beyond an atomic diameter typically results in ionization of the atom. 3: Eext + Edip = 0 at the center of the induced dipole. Based on these assumptions, calculate an order-of-magnitude estimate for . Since we are only interested in order of magnitude, you will obtain an answer of the form 1 10A . What is the value of A? Correct answer: 40. Explanation: The basic relation we must use to solve this problem is qs = q 2R = Eext . We do not know Eext , but we are given a relation that tells us Eext = Edip at the center of the induced dipole, so |Eext | = 2 k q R2 ,

Which of the diagrams (A-F) in the gure correctly displays the polarization of a metal sphere by an electric eld that points to the left? 1. C 2. E 3. F 4. D 5. B 6. A correct Explanation: For the case of the metal sphere, the electron sea shifts opposite the electric eld. Hence, the correct answer is: A 009 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points Which of the diagrams (A-F) in the gure correctly displays the polarization of a plastic sphere by an electric eld that points to the left? 1. C 2. B correct 3. F 4. E 5. A

where we are only concerned with magnitude since Eext and s point in the same direction. Substituting this into the polarizability equation, we obtain q q 2R = 2 k 2 R R3 1 1040 . = k So A = 40 is the correct answer. 008 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) 6. D VIII Explanation: For the case of the plastic sphere, the electric eld induces dipoles in the neutral atoms in the plastic. Hence, the correct answer is: B 010 (part 1 of 8) 10.0 points A dipole consisting of two oppositely charged balls connected by a wooden stick is located as shown in the following gure. A block of plastic is located nearby, as shown. Assume each of the molecules throughout the block has the same polarizability. Locations B , C , and D all lie on a line perpendicular to the axis of the dipole, passing through the midpoint of the dipole. Plastic block VII VI V I II III IV

Which of the arrows (I-VIII) best indicates the direction of the electric eld at location D due only to the dipole? 1. IV 2. VII 3. III correct 4. VI 5. II

D C + B

6. V 7. I 8. VIII Explanation: The electric eld along the perpendicular bisector of the dipole is opposite its dipole moment. Also, if you drew your own picture complete with eld lines, which begin on positive charges and end on negative charges, you should have found that in the vicinity of point D, the eld lines would point to the right. The eld lines would look like those of a bar magnet. 011 (part 2 of 8) 10.0 points Which of the diagrams (A-J) best indicates the polarization of a molecule of plastic at location D? 1. Diagram H 2. Diagram G

Before selecting answers to the following questions, you might want to draw your own diagram of this situation, showing all the elds and charge distributions requested. Answer the following questions by selecting either a direction (I-VIII) or an orientation of a polarized molecule (A-J) from the following two diagrams. A
+

B G
+ +
+

C H

D
+

E J Other

I
+ +

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) 3. Diagram D 4. Diagram A correct 5. Diagram B 1. IV 6. Diagram I 2. V 7. Diagram E 3. I 8. Diagram F 4. VI 9. Diagram C 5. III correct 10. Diagram J Explanation: As in the rst part of this problem, if you drew your own picture, you should have found that in the vicinity of point D, the eld lines would point to the right. A molecule of plastic at location D will align itself with these eld lines when it polarizes, with positive charges moving in the direction of the eld lines, and negative charges moving opposite. Therefore diagram A is the correct choice. 012 (part 3 of 8) 10.0 points Which of the following statements is correct? Enter all the apply, separated by commas. A. A molecule located at C would not be polarized at all. B. The polarization of a molecule located at D would be the same as the polarization of a molecule located at C . C. A molecule located at D would be polarized more than a molecule located at C D. A molecule located at D would be polarized less than a molecule located at C Correct answer: D. Explanation: Polarization is directly proportional to the strength of the dipole eld. Since at D the eld strength is weaker, so the polarization is less. So statement D is the correct answer. 6. VIII 7. II 8. VII

013 (part 4 of 8) 10.0 points Which of the arrows (I-VIII) best indicates the direction of the electric eld at location B due only to the dipole?

Explanation: Notice the dipole eld pattern is symmetric with respect to a reection about the line which passes through the axis of the dipole. By inspection one sees that the dipole eld direction at B is the same as that at D. From part 1 we know that the eld direction at D is to the right. The same direction (towards right) also applies to C by the same argument. 014 (part 5 of 8) 10.0 points Which of the arrows (I-VIII) best indicates the direction of the electric eld at location B due only to the plastic block? The magnitude o the electric eld at B due to the plastic is less than the magnitude of the electric eld at B due to the dipole. 1. I 2. IV 3. II 4. VIII 5. VII correct

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) 6. V 7. VI 8. III Explanation: Remember than the molecules in the plastic block, and therefore in a sense the block itself, are polarized oppositely to the dipole. This means that the eld lines due to the plastic block will point in the opposite direction from those due to the dipole, and at location B , the electric eld due only to the plastic block will point to the left. 015 (part 6 of 8) 10.0 points Which of the arrows (I-VIII) best indicates the direction of the net electric eld at location B ? 1. VIII 2. IV 3. III correct 4. I 5. V 6. II 7. VII 8. VI Explanation: The net electric eld is slightly less than the electric eld due to the dipole. 016 (part 7 of 8) 10.0 points Which of the following statements is correct? Enter all that apply, separated by commas. A. The net electric eld at B would be larger if the plastic block were not there. B. The net electric eld at B would be the same if the plastic block were not there. C. The net electric eld at B would be smaller if the plastic block were not

there. D. The net electric eld at B would be zero if the plastic block were not there. Correct answer: A. Explanation: Since the plastic block is polarized in such a way that its eld lines at B point to the left, it diminishes the electric eld there, since these lines point in the opposite direction from those due to the dipole at B . So without the plastic block, the net electric eld at B would be stronger. Statement A is correct. 017 (part 8 of 8) 10.0 points Using the diagrammatic conventions discussed in the text, a student drew the diagram in the following gure to help answer the questions asked above. Which of the following statements about the students diagram are true? Enter all that apply, separated by commas. Plastic block D C + + + + + + + + + + + +

A. The direction of polarization of the plastic block is wrong. B. The diagram is correct; this is just a dierent way of drawing the polarization. C. The diagram shows mobile charges; this is wrong because an insulator does not have mobile charged particles. Correct answer: C. Explanation: Conductors have mobile charges, insulators do not. Plastic is an insulator and therefore does not have mobile charges. This is what is wrong with the diagram, since it shows

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) charges accumulated on the left and right surfaces of the block. 018 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points A positively charged sphere is placed near a neutral block of nickel, as shown in the following gure. + + + + + +

At equilibrium, which of the following statements must be true? A. It is not possible to determine the electric eld at location P due only to charges surface of the nickel block. B. The electric eld at location P due only to charges on the surface of the nickel block is E = 0, 0, 0 N /C C. Because the net electric eld at location P is E = 0, 0, 0 N/C, the eld at P due only to charges on the surface of the polarized nickel block must be E = 625, 0, 0 N/C.

## Neutral nickel block

+ + Charged sphere

Which of the diagrams below best represents the equilibrium distribution of charge on the neutral nickel block? A C + + + + + + + + + + + + D B

Correct answer: C. Explanation: The rst statement is incorrect since once the charges are given, the eld contributed by that charge can always be uniquely determined. The second statement is incorrect also. We know that Eblock + Esphere = 0.

Correct answer: B. Explanation: The mobile electrons are attracted by the positively charged sphere at the right. Here Eblock due to the charges on the block is to the right, which is to be canceled by the eld of the positive sphere, Esphere , pointing to the left. Among the four blocks illustrated, B has the best chance for the cancellation of net eld inside of the block, leading to Eblock + Esphere = 0, i.e., in equilibrium condition. 019 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points At location P inside the nickel block the electric eld due to the charged sphere is E = 625, 0, 0 N/C. However, here, Eblock is not zero. By inspection it should be pointing to the right. The third statement is the correct one. From above it is given that Esphere = 625, 0, 0 N/C. With Eblock + Esphere = 0, we have Eblock = 625, 0, 0 N/C. 020 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points Consider the following diagram, which displays various ways in which a sphere of unspecied neutral material might polarize in

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) the presence of an external electric eld. The charges on the surface of the spheres indicate that electrons have been displaced within the sphere, accumulating on one side and leaving a net positive charge on the other. The dipoles inside the spheres indicate that atoms within the material have become polarized. A + + + D + + + B + + +
+

tral paint is sprayed around the chassis. When the car is given a sudden electric charge, the mist is attracted to it, and the car is quickly and uniformly painted. What does the phenomenon of polarization have to do with this? 1. The car is polarized and easily attracts paint particles.

C
+ +

2. The paint particles in the mist are polarized and as such are attracted to the charged chassis. correct 3. The air is polarized and makes the paint ow uniformly. 4. The car is magnetic; with some polarization of the paint, it will be easier for the paint to be attracted to the car. Explanation: The paint particles are initially neutral. When the car is charged, it causes the paint particles to polarize. The polarized paint particles are then attracted to the car. For the other options: polarization of the air molecules has no eect upon the deposition of paint on the car; we are told the car is charged, not that it is polarized; we know nothing about the magnetic state of the car. 023 10.0 points You observe that a negatively charged plastic pen repels a charged piece of magic tape. You then observe that the same piece of tape is repelled when brought near a small metal sphere. You are wearing rubber soled shoes, and you touch the metal sphere with your hand. After you touch the metal sphere, you observe that the tape is attracted to the metal sphere. Which of the following statements could be true. List all that apply, separated by commas. If none apply, type none. A. Electrons from the sphere traveled through your body into the earth. B. Electrons from the sphere moved into the salt water on your skin, where they reacted with sodium (Na+ ) ions.

Which of the diagrams (A-F) in the gure correctly displays the polarization of a neutral metal sphere by an electric eld that points to the left? Correct answer: A. Explanation: The electron sea shifts opposite to the electric eld. A metal object has a sea of mobile electrons, which can move through the metal. Excess charge builds up at the surface of the object. 021 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points Which of the diagrams (A-F) in the gure correctly displays the polarization of a neutral plastic sphere by an electric eld that points to the left? Correct answer: B. Explanation: The electric eld induces dipoles in the neutral atoms in the plastic. Plastic is an insulator, and does not have mobile charges. Under the applied eld, they shift slightly, but remain bound to the molecule. 022 10.0 points When the chassis of a car is moved into a painting chamber, a mist of electrically neu-

E
+ +

F
+ +

+ + +

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) C. After you touch it, the metal sphere becomes very nearly neutral. D. Chloride ions (Cl ) from the salt water on your hand moved onto the sphere. E. The excess negative charge from the sphere spreads out all over your body. F. Electrons from your hand moved onto the sphere. G. Sodium ions from the salt water on your hand moved onto the sphere. Correct answer: B, C, E, G. Explanation: Choice A is false because rubber shoes prevent the electrons from traveling into the earth. Choice B is true, because electrons from the sphere are attracted by the positively charged sodium ions. Choice C is true. You are told that after touching the sphere, the tape is attracted to it since the tape is negatively charged, this is only possible if the tape is capable of inducing sucient polarization in the sphere to produce an attractive force. The sphere must be very nearly neutral for this to happen. Choice D is false; the sphere is negatively charged to begin with, so it will repel negatively charged chloride ions. Choice E is true. In detail, the electrons from the sphere enter the blood stream to neutralize Na+ this process leaves excess negative charges of Cl . Blood circulation spreads out the negative excess charges throughout the body. Choice F is false, since negative charge will not neutralize the negative sphere. Choice G is true. Na+ from the wet hand can move to the sphere to neutralize negative charge. 024 (part 1 of 4) 10.0 points The diagrams in the following gure show a sequence of events involving a small lightweight aluminum ball that is suspended from a cotton thread. 1 2

6
Cha rged Ro d

The sequence of events is as follows: 1: You touch the ball briey, then release it so it hangs motionless. 2: A charged metal block is brought close to the ball. 3: The ball swings toward the charged block. 4: The ball briey touches the block. 5: The ball swings away from the block, eventually coming to rest at the angle shown. 6: The block is removed, and a negatively charged rod is brought close to the ball and the ball is repelled by it.

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) I + II + ++ + VII + IV + VIII + V + + + + + ++ + + + III + + + VI IX 4. IV 5. II 6. V 7. VII correct 8. I 9. IX Which of the diagrams in the above gure best shows the distribution of charge in and/or on the ball after step 1? 1. IX correct 2. VII 3. III 4. V 5. I 6. VIII 7. IV 8. VI 9. II Explanation: IX is the correct choice because any excess charge spreads over your body and the net charge on the sphere is nearly zero. 025 (part 2 of 4) 10.0 points Which of the choices best shows the distribution of charge in and/or on the ball during step 3? + 1. III 2. VI 3. VIII

10

+ +

+ + ++ + +

Explanation: In step 6, the sphere must be negatively charged because the sphere and rod repel where the rod is negatively charged (see part 4). In 5, the block must be negatively charged because the sphere and block repel. In 4 the sphere becomes negatively charged because it touches the block and acquires part of its negative charge. Based on the fact that we know the block is negatively charged in diagram 3, it is convenient for now to do further reasoning in going from 1 to 3. In 2 the neutral metal sphere is polarized by the negatively charged block. So the charge distribution on the ball is VII. The positive charge is closer to the block, resulting in attraction. 026 (part 3 of 4) 10.0 points Which of the choices best shows the distribution of charge in and/or on the ball at the end of step 5? 1. I 2. VII 3. V 4. II 5. III

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) that 6. IV 7. IX 8. VIII 9. VI correct Explanation: VI is the correct choice; the sphere is negatively charged. Since the charge is mobile, there is a greater density of negative charge away from the negatively charged block. 027 (part 4 of 4) 10.0 points Which of the choices best shows the distribution of charge in and/or on the ball during step 6? 1. III 2. I 3. IV 4. V 5. IX 6. VIII 7. VI correct 8. VII 9. II Explanation: VI is the correct choice; see the explanation for part 3. 028 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points An electron and a neutral carbon atom are initially 4.8 106 m apart, and there are no other particles in the vicinity. The mass of the electron is m = 9.11 1031 kg. The polarizability of a carbon atom has been measured to be = 1.96 1040 C m/(N/C). Assume |a| = = k= 1 = 9 109 N m2 /C2 . 40

11

Calculate the initial magnitude of the acceleration of the electron. Correct answer: 0.350176 m/s2 . Explanation: Recall that force by the polarized carbon atom on the electron has a magnitude F = 1 40
2

2 e2 , r5 1 e 40 r 2

## and is obtained by using the relation |p| = |Eext | =

to re-express the electric eld of the induced dipole, 1 2|p| |Edip | = , 40 r 3 in terms of the electric eld of the electron. According to the momentum principle, Fnet = m a. Assuming that the only force on the electron is that of the carbon atom, we have F = m |a| F m 1 40
2

2 e2 . m r5

where e = 1.6 1019 C is the fundamental unit of charge and m = 9.11 1031 kg is the mass of the electron. Now we just substitute in our values to nd that a = 0.350176 m/s2 . 029 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points If the electron and the carbon atom were initially twice as far apart, what would the initial acceleration be? Correct answer: 0.010943 m/s2 .

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) Explanation: We can use the same formula we just derived. We just double the distance between them (double r ), ll in the other constants again, and we have the answer: a(2r ) = 0.010943 m/s2 . 030 10.0 points In this problem you will estimate the polarizability of a carbon atom. Imagine you rub a plastic pen through your hair, depositing 1.9 108 C on the tip of the pen. You move the tip of the pen toward a small scrap of paper, and the paper just begins to lift when the tip is 0.01 m away. Assume that the outermost electron cloud of carbon (containing 4 electrons) shifts a distance s when polarized by the pen. First nd this charge separation s, then use it to solve for the polarizability of carbon. The mass of one carbon atom is 2 1026 kg. [The measured value of C is 1.961040 . Expect to calculate an answer within about a factor of 10 of this value.] Assume the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . Correct answer: 3.351 1040 . Explanation: = Let : Q = 1.9 108 C , k = 9 109 N.m2 /C2 , g = 9.8 m/s2 , m = 2 1026 kg , and h = 0.01 m . Ecarbon = k F1 = k 8seQ h3

12

For the paper to be lifted upwards with a constant velocity, the upward force on the carbon atom by the pen must be balanced by the gravitational force on the carbon atom. This follows from Newtons second law, i.e the momentum principle. We solve for s. F1 = Fgrav k 8seQ h3 s = We know that qs = Epen (4e)s = k = Q h2 = mg

mgh3 8kQe

4esh2 kQ

## On substituting the value of s we obtain mgh5 2k 2 Q 2

(2 1026 kg)(9.8 m/s2 )(0.01 m)5 2(9 109 N.m2 /C2 ) (1.9 108 C) = 3.351 1040
2 2

We know that 2s(4e) h3 here s is the charge separation at the instant when the paper is picked up and k is given by 1 k = 40 Approximating the pen as a point charge, the force exerted by the carbon atom on the pen is denoted by F1 . F1 = |Qpen|Ecarbon Comment : If one bypasses solving for s, we show here the derivation may be shortened considerably. Begin with F1 = k 2qs Q = mg (1) h3

## Polarizability is dened as qs = kQ h2 (2)

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) From (2) solving for leads to: qs kQ h2 mgh3 2kQ kQ h2 mgh5 2(kQ)2 032 10.0 points

13

negative charges symmetrically distribution about the 45 line far away. The nearside charges dominate. By inspection f is the correct direction.

## In the second step (1) was used. 031 10.0 points

Two small, negatively charged plastic spheres are placed near a neutral iron block, as shown in the above gure. Which choice (a to j) in the gure best indicates the direction of the net electric eld at location A? 1. f correct 2. d 3. e 4. h 5. i 6. a 7. j 8. g 9. b

A very thin spherical plastic shell of radius R = 18 cm carries a uniformly distributed negative charge of Q = 5 nC on its outer surface. An uncharged solid metal block is placed nearby. The block is w = 11 cm thick and is 11 cm away from the surface of the sphere. Calculate the magnitude of the electric eld at the exact center of the conductor generated only by the polarization of the conductor. In other words, do not include the electric eld generated by the sphere. Correct answer: 378.072 N/C. Explanation: The key to this problem is noting that the net electric eld inside the conductor is 0 the charges in the conductor arrange themselves so that this is the case. Therefore, at the center of the conductor, we must have Esphere + Einduced = 0

10. c Explanation: At A there is no net eld due to the negative charge pair. The elds contributed by the pair are equal and opposite and they cancel each other. There are induced charges at the left and lower surfaces of the iron cube which are symmetrically distributed by the 45 line and they are positive. There are also and the magnitude of Einduced must be equal to the magnitude of Esphere. Noting that the distance from the center of the sphere to the center of the conductor is R +(3/2)w, we have |Eind | = Q 1 40 R + 3 w 2 = 378.072 N/C
2

lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) Using the value of q given above 033 10.0 points = (Q/8)(L/r )2 L kQ r2

14

L3 C2 m = 2.112 1017 8k N

The center of the spherical metal ball of radius R, carrying a negative charge Q, is located a distance r from the center of a short, thin, neutral copper wire of length L. Assume that L r and that the sphere is far enough away that it may be modeled as a point charge. The induced charges at the two ends of the wire is q . Determine the polarizability of the wire segment which has a length L = 0.0115 m. The units of polarizability are C2 m/N. Your answer must be within 2.0% Correct answer: 2.112 1017 . Explanation: First, we must determine the magnitude of the induced charge. Since the wire is a conductor, we must have E = 0 inside; using this fact, we can calculate q: EQ (A) = Edip (A) 1 Q 1 q = 2 40 r 2 40 L 2 Q 8q = 2 2 r L Q q= 8 L r
2

034 10.0 points 1) Two uncharged metal balls, X and Y, each stand on a glass rod and are touching. Y X

2) A third ball carrying a positive charge, is brought near the rst two. + Y X

3) While the positions of these balls are xed, ball X is connected to ground. + Y X

## 4) Then the ground wire is disconnected. + Y X

5) While X and Y remain in touch, the ball carring the positive charge is removed. Y X

## lui (el22284) HW3 li (58545) Y X

15

After these procedures, what are the signs of the charge qX on X and qY on Y? 1. 2. 3. 4. qX is negative and qY is neutral qX is positive and qY is positive qX is negative and qY is positive qX is positive and qY is negative

5. qX is negative and qY is negative correct 6. 7. 8. 9. qX is neutral and qY is positive qX is neutral and qY is neutral qX is positive and qY is neutral qX is neutral and qY is negative

Explanation: When the ball with positive charge is brought nearby, the mobile charges inside the system composed of X and Y polarize. Ball Y acquires a negative charge, while ball X acquires a positive charge. When we ground X, the presence of the positive ball prevents Y from losing its negative charge. Conversely, the positive ball causes X to become neutralized by the ow of electrons through the ground wire. Now we remove the third ball with positive charge. The charge on Y is redistributed in the system X Y; i.e., they share the negative charge (equally if identical). Finally we separate X and Y. The signs of the charge on X and that on Y are both negative.