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# W. Cris Lewis MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS (Economics 4010) Business 302A T-TH 12:00-1:15 pm (Business 209) clewis@econ.usu.

edu (CRN #10732) Office Hours: T-Th 10:00 a.m.–11:30 a.m. and by appointment

Spring 2007

Text: H. Craig Petersen and W. Cris Lewis, Managerial Economics, 4th edition (New York: MacMillan) 1999 (Required) Workbook: H. Craig Petersen and W. Cris Lewis, Managerial Economics: Study Guide w/Software (New York: MacMillan) 1999 (Not required but useful and on reserve in the library). Course Overview: Chapters:

Homework Assignments—Problems:

1—Introduction to Managerial Economics (and Appendix) Chapter 1: 1–4; Appendix: 1–6, 14 2—Basic Training Chapter 2: 1–10; Appendix: 1–7 3—Demand Theory & Analysis (and Appendix) Chapter 3: 1–6, 8, 13, 15, 18 4—Regression Techniques and Demand Estimation Chapter 4: 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15 5—Business and Economic Forecasting (skip pp. 165-170) Chapter 5: 2–7 6—Production Theory Chapter 6: 1–4, 6–9, 17, 22 7—Cost Theory Chapter 7: 1–4, 6–8, 21 8—Linear Programming Chapter 8: 1–6, 10, 11, 13, 16 9—Perfect Competition and Monopoly Chapter 9: 1–4, 6-9 10—Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly (skip pp. 357-58) Chapter 10: 1–3, 5, 6, 12 12—Pricing of Goods and Services Chapter 12: 1–6, 9 14—Risk and Decision-Making Chapter 14: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 13, 15, 18 15—Capital Budgeting (pp. 497-516 only) Chapter 15: 1–4, 6–8, 13 NOTE: If a student has a disability that will likely require some accommodation by the instructor, the student must contact the instructor and document the disability through the Disability Resource Center, preferably during the first week of the course. Any requests for special considerations relating to attendance, pedagogy, taking of examinations, etc., must be discussed with and approved by the instructor. In cooperation with the Disability Resource Center, course materials can be provided in alternative formats, large print, audio, diskette, or Braille. TOOLS Software Program and Excel: We will be making use of the TOOLS software package that is available in computer laboratories 113-115 and 118120 in the basement of the business building and is included with the workbook. The program can be copied at no charge in the lab for use on your personal computer. Instructions for downloading the program in the laboratory are included with this syllabus. Instructions for use of the program are included in the software and in the workbook. It also can be downloaded from the Internet (at www.prenhall.com/petersen ). You should familiarize yourself with this program as soon as possible. (See pp. 5-6 of this syllabus for additional information.) We also will use Excel spreadsheets; it is assumed that you are familiar with and able to use this package. Wireless Classroom: All classrooms in the Business Building are now wireless. Students can buy a wireless card for their laptop computer from Computer Solutions. While this is a wonderful asset, there are a few students who play solitaire and browse the Internet during class; I will become very unpleasant if that occurs. On those occasions when we need the Internet, we will use the classroom computer, so leave your laptops at home. Homework, Examinations, and Grading Policy: Points will be assigned for homework assignments, and examinations as follows: Homework: Each homework assignment is worth 3 points. Assignments are due at the beginning of class on the date they are due; late assignments are not accepted. Possible total points = 13 assignments x 3 points = 39. This is equivalent to the points on almost one-half of an examination. Note: There are questions and problems at the end of each chapter in the text. The assignments refer to the problems. You are expected to provide clear, complete, legible solutions to the problems. Do not submit homework papers that simply have the final answers (most of which have already been provided to you). The difference between the solution and the “final answer” is discussed below:

it is assumed that your algebra skills are sharp. Between your study. February 13. you may need to retake one or more of these classes. Possible Homework Points = 39 Possible Exam Points = 350 The final grade for the course will be assigned as follows: Possible Total Points = 389 % of Total Points Course Grade 90-100% A 87-89% B+ 82-86% B 80-81% B75-79% C+ 65-74% C 60-64% D Less than 60% F Economics. NOTE: There are no make-up. and special arrangements will be made. (Final Examination) The nature of the test (i.m.. multiple-choice questions. to slow up the process to accommodate them is not fair to the majority who are working diligently. in fact. Mathematics. 2007 Thursday. please contact me immediately. you should be able to do the problems on your own. Tuesday. and Statistics Background: Students enrolled in this class should have completed Economics 2010. at the time the material is being discussed in class). March 27.–1:20 p.) Arrange your schedule to be in class on the dates indicated for the examinations. Please do not ask for exceptions to this rule! Extra Credit: Periodically a student will ask (usually after the last week of class) if there is some way to do extra work to improve his/her grade. If you cannot be in class on the examination dates. Arrangements will be made for any student who has a conflict due to a University-sponsored activity. It will be assumed that you know what is taught in these courses. this is inefficient as well as not being equitable for those who are doing the work on their own. It is my experience that classtime often is wasted and progress slowed by a few who are not keeping up with their studying (or not studying at all). 2007—11:30 a. Mathematics 1050 and 1100.It is essential that you be studying and working the homework problems in a timely manner (i. Final grades will be posted on the Banner System.e. and this direction. If a serious personal health problem or similar emergency arises in your immediate family. in order to get through the assigned material. 2007 Tuesday. by studying an extra hour or two during each week you will undoubtedly get “extra” credit in the sense that your examination scores will be higher. The answer is no at that point. therefore we will not be doing that. Withdrawals and Incomplete Grades: .m. that you know the rudiments of calculus.e.. there have been a few who would come to my office weekly or more often the get help on their homework.sponsored. it will be essential that you keep up. problems. Grades: Your grade for the course will be based on the percentage of total points earned. and that you know the principles of statistics that are covered in Statistics 2300. early or late. Due dates for the homework problem sets will be established as we go. and Statistics 2300 or their equivalent. In the past. examinations. etc) will be announced. Examinations: There will be two 100-point (one-hour) examinations and a 150-point (two-hour) final examination during the semester on the dates shown below. May 3. At the beginning of the term the answer is yes. Specifically. given some direction on individual problem is a good use of class time. (Note: A class field trip is not University. If this is not the case. Finally. take some other course. we can spend some time in class on guidance on the homework prior to the due date. the lectures.

2007. is the last day to withdraw from the class without a notation on your transcript.” Office Hours: T–Th 10:00-11:30 a.000 ∑ ⎜ t 15 ⎜ + (10.000 at the end of each of the next 10 years and a lump-sum payment of $10. . In every case you will be expected to provide a clear. neither shall 'I' grades be given to avoid the consequences of inadequate performance. but not due to poor performance. everyone is expected to be punctual and neatly dressed and groomed.10.10.10) ⎝⎠ _ PVAF PVIF 0. each of which is designed to elucidate a principle of managerial economics. you will be expected to take it off during class. I will be calling on students on a regular basis. In particular. What is the present value of these payments? The solution is as follows: 10 1. concise. Attendance and Preparation: You are expected to be in attendance every day and to arrive on time. Standards for Homework and Examinations Much of the work in this class includes solving problems.000 at the end of the 15th year.000 PV =+ ∑ t 15 + (10.15 0. The discount rate is 10% per year. we will distinguish between the solution and the final answer.10) + t =1 (10. carefully written solution. it is essential that reading assignments be completed prior to the day they will be discussed.m. this class is not for you. a student may be unable to complete all of the work in a course due to extenuating circumstances. and that all written assignments be turned in at the beginning of class on the due date (except for the final paper . complete. 2.00010. All students are expected to be actively participating in class discussions. 2007 is the last day to withdraw with a notation on your transcript. Part of the preparation for a career in business is the development of a professional approach to work.10) + t = 1 (10. Consider the following problem: A contract calls for the payment of $1. Note: 1.” “Under no circumstances is withdrawal after the twenty-fifth day permitted for the purpose of avoiding an unsatisfactory grade. March 9. Classroom Dress and Decorum Utah State is a major state research university with first class students and faculty.that is due on Friday afternoon of the last class day). I will be happy to see you at any time as long as I know that you are coming. make sure you have studied the assigned material thoroughly prior to class. The grade “incomplete” will be given only when “.00010. Specifically. If you wear a hat. that attendance will be monitored. (other times by appointment). If you cannot meet these expectations. For our purposes.January 29. This class is for students who are intellectually curious and willing to work hard. Your course grade will be reduced by one letter grade for each three days of missed class.10 _ .10) 10 ⎛⎞ PV =+ 1. .

539.000(6.000(0.PV =+ 1.239) fromcalculator orTable And the final answer is: PV = $8. .145)10.

In fact. . . The grading standard is different for the homework and the examinations. Because of a limited budget. On the examination. even though there may be errors on some problems.394 PV = PV1 + PV2 = 6. Statements such as: “.000 I = 10 PV1 = 6. not all the problems will be graded. followed by the final answer.144. This is nothing more than a restatement of the parameters of the problem (which is a waste of time). that goes down” are totally meaningless but occurs with some. the homework is graded as follows: if you have made a good faith effort to work all of the problems. you will receive all the points. there would be nine points for the solution and one point for the final answer (assuming there was a solution that resulted in the final answer).145 + 2.000 I = 10 PV2 = 2. all problems will be carefully graded and points will be subtracted for any errors.539. n = 15 n = 10 . The final answer alone is worth nothing. Such a response will receive no points as no solution was provided. A few students might respond as follows: PMT = 1. Also. make sure that your language is precise in answering both the homework and examination problems. when this goes up.6 and FV = 10.394 = 8.If this was a ten-point problem.

economagic.com http://www.pathfinder. stock quotes) (economic data. SOLUTION TO A SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS. 2.ecomicsearch. by Petersen and Lewis. MEAN. 8.com http://quote.msn. stock quotes) (internet site designed specifically for economics students.wsm. the student can concentrate on selecting the proper method for analysis and interpreting results generated by TOOLS. PRESENT OR FUTURE VALUE FOR TIME VALUE OF MONEY PROBLEMS. AND THE R2 FOR MULTIPLE REGRESSION PROBLEMS. the TOOLS program will calculate the following: 1. Specifically.com/money http://www.com http://www. charts) (financial news. includes economic data. BENEFIT/COST RATIO.com/ What’s There: (financial news. EXPECTED VALUE. STANDARD DEVIATION.html http://www. AND INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN FOR CAPITAL BUDGETING PROBLEMS.com/index. SOLUTION AND SHADOW PRICES FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS.bloomberg. NET PRESENT VALUE. Thus. AND THE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION FOR PROBLEMS THAT INVOLVE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS. stock quotes) (financial news. 9. MEDIAN. AND THE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF A DATA SET. 6. ROOTS OF A QUADRATIC EQUATION. STANDARD DEVIATION. stock quotes) (financial news. job information.USING THE “TOOLS” SOFTWARE PROGRAM TOOLS can be used to solve many of the problems discussed in Managerial Economics. tutorial system) . 10. ELEMENTS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT REQUIREMENTS MATRIX AND EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN FINAL DEMAND FOR INPUT/OUTPUT PROBLEMS. 3. THE OPTIMAL SMOOTHING CONSTANT FOR EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING. Useful Web Sites: Address http://investor. ALSO. COEFFICIENTS. 7. 4. CONSTANT RATE OF CHANGE AND CONSTANT PERCENTAGE RATE OF CHANGE FOR TREND PROJECTION. 5. t-STATISTICS. TOOLS frees the user from the need to make the tedious calculations necessary to solve some managerial economics problems.

a.500 Opportunity cost: Β = -5. $50. Q = 5 2-10.46 4-11. 25 5-16. 6. 2.500 3.35 b.539 1A-7. Q = 10P-1. a.8x2 + 16) c. QΝ = 0. 119. AC = 1000/Q + 10 + 0. z = 2 2A-6.700. t = 15 4-2. $89.12)/(x4 .3 .900. -0.18.0.000. 6.1.000. P = 25. x = 2.818 d. a. -0.04 million 5-4. b. (-3x2 . b. -0.88 4-6.073.714.0 3-9. = -1. a. 343. 2.14. 0 < Q < 20 b. 122. P < 20.205. 21.55 5-12.42 4-15.667 2A-7. GPA = 2. Q = 20 127. $189. Chapter 1 1-1. Q = 50.6 d. a. a. -0.463 b.6 c.058)t 5-5.000 1-3. -1.8 c.520 1A-6. -0. 20X1 + 2X2. b. = 0. -0.600 b. 100. 1 3-14.955 Chapter 2 2-1. TR = 10Q . 201. S = 15.5 e. a. $6.245 (don’t implement plan) 1A-1. -1 Chapter 4 b. $263. = 158.1Q . TR = 250.0.2739.5I3 4-4. 5K-0. 2. Q = 290–6.95.189. Q = 3-4. b.359. 6X + 2Z. Q = 5.000 b. t = -11 4-8. 100 P1 -1.2.0. 6. 2. -4.00024Q2 Chapter 3 3-1. -0. QD = 50. R2 = 0. Q = 5. 71. 5. Profit = -9. Q = 250.60.300. Es = 0. YΝ = 0. $4mm c.356 c.8Q + 0. a. 4.2P 3-3.45 c.37 1A-2. Q = 20 .244.07 . 2X + 2Z b.600. = 1. 94.000 c.55 2-13.055 Chapter 5 5-2.5. 37.3Q . = 0. If IQ = 120. -0. 3.875 5-14. Weekly income Maintenance crew: $420 Pizza Shop: $250 1A-3. a.67 3-8. Q = 5.945. 7.8 c. AR = 100 . $7.000.000 b.5.508. Q2 = 12. a.50 b.67 2-14. a.14.211 Age + 2. b.818 b. Profit = 42. 9. 0. 2X1 + 6X2 2A-3. P2 = 47. 1976: 5. b.250. Q = 5 b. 4x3 + 6x2 + 2x . -0. 0. -0. = 0.500 c.674 2-12. I = -7. Historic cost: Β = 7.500.5P. a. b.369.0. a. 3x2 + 4X + 25 2A-2.8 2-15. 36 . P = 10 . $6. Q = 105 2-6. 57% increase 3-20.250. Q1 = 25. Q = 1.000. 0.02k d.5 d. P = 5. b. No.000 5-7.32.282 c. a. 7. a.000. b. 44.3467 .000 Econ. a.618.501. a. Yes.64 + 7. QD = 75. constant rate of change.7 b.3.5 3-5. 22 3-19.01Q.820 II. 1. P = 28. P = 19.16x .058 d. 17 c. NPV = -167.5L0. )TR = -1.571. -0. 37. Y = 10. 0.400 c.54 5-13. 85 b. 6. = 1. Q = 24. 14mm 5-15: a.2 P21.12(1.282 d. 2.000.800.997.50 b.332 b.05. $106. Q = 50 2A-1. -144. A = 5 2A-5. P = 9.03 million 5-3.33% b. a. TC = 10.142 meters or 3.000. a. Q = 25 2-7.44.17.82.024 Exp b.42 1992: 6. 620. 2. b.080 3. 2.245 ED + 1. Q = 1.095 4-12.4Q2 + 0. P = 20 3-21.000 5-6.27. 2.07 3-10. Q < 5 c.20 3-12. γ = 0 3-13. 0.25. -4 b. a.9419 4-7. 24. -0. 97. AΒ = 50 . $6. 6. 85.20 c.0 b. YΟ = 0 b.0. 1. $102. a.4P 2A-4. Acct.0.Selected check figures for Petersen & Lewis.37 2-5. QS = 35 d. b. MC = 10. QS = 60 c.51 # # 77.6P 3-6. b.93. b.500 1-2.000 c. 20. 25. a.43. 49. 0. a. 4th ed.5Q2 3-2. a.190 1A-4. a. 65.5Q b. a. a. -0. 0. 0.5 4-14. b. a.1000/Q 2-9.250 b. a. Q = 55 1A-5. R2 = 0. 0. I: 4.600 3-11.15. b. No 2-8.329 3-7.000 b. ˆ a b s ˆ i ˆ ˆ a b Q 4-1. -1.00012Q3.3% 5-10. a. 28.Q.

Β = 4. 0. 0.83 . Β = 4. B = 5. a. 1.667 c. a.642. MPL = 16. No 9-4. K = 80 .3 6-19. Min. Cost = $72.3. Econ: 13. AC = . Q = 32.50 9-14. P = 3 b.8. w = 80 c. 2 6-13. Q = 666. P = 3.211 8-16. P = 980 Chapter 10 9-21. L = 3 is better 6-2. 1. DWL = 312.25.421. b. P = 600.333. a. L = 5 d.5 9-7. Q = 10.500 6-12. a. 2. No b. AC = 0. b. P = 12. R1 = 26. 1. 4. a = 0. L = 3. 180. 625 9-9. a. P = 12. K = 4.8 7-17. a. 2. K = 200 .94 b.333. P = $143 10-6. a. 25. Β = 990. Q = 66.000 b. QA = 20. c. A = 10 10-11. K = 200 . Β = 0 10-3.800 8-7. c. a.18. 100 b. P = 200 10-12. q1 = q2 = 400.000. 50 10-10. b.462 b.57. English: 13.500. Add Flight 7-18. 32.000 b. b.1 6-21.0. P = 400 b.000. P = 333. 220.207 6-10. a: K = 4L. 0.633.786 7-6. L = 400 6-6. b. a. H = 1. Profit max for Q is 30. L = 5. a. C = 0. CA = 0.33. QB = 40. Q = 18.996 b. V = $9. q = 10.4L.3 c. Q = 12. P = 20 9-11. 127. Q = 75. Q = 5 not 25. P = 500 c. 0.470 9-18.424 Chapter 7 7-3. 2. 2. 10 7-12. C3 = 116.190 c. Q = 64 9-16. 50.667. 186. CB = 1. a. a. a.5. $1. a. Q = 20 7-4. Q = 15 c. Q = 16. K = 3. a.50 7-10. 2. R2 = 0. Q = 62. Q = 63.11 7-21. MPK = 4. 20 9-13. a. )Β = 10.21 10-5. a. a. L = 4. No 6-4. Reduce output 9-5. b.0. Β = 6. Q = 38. 912. Β = 0 10-4. K = 0. a.405 7-8. substitute BKs for CPAs 6-7.44 c. F = 0.7. a. 4.600 b. P = 0. AC = 320. a. Q = 20.50 b.000 9-2. Q = 40/3 b. 40. -22. AC = 5 9-15.1L b. Q = 1. b.333 8-12. R3 = 0 Z = $9. 50 9-8. cost = $870 c. 0.50. Q = 30 10-8. Qb = 2.152.562. 62.000 8-11. 1.581 7-7. Β = 0 9-17. Q = 20.31 b.6mm b. K = 200. a. Q = 10 b. A = 23 . E(Β) = 0 10-7. Cost = $1.015Q + 0.7. b. Q = 20.4. 6-17. 200 6-18. a. a.3 10-9.650. P = 400.000 7-19.01. 0.7. 2. Qa = 2.15. PE: 5. K = 133.2 6-11. 16. c.7. 0.000 9-3. Β = 80 8-13.515. P = 320 10-1. Q = 6 9-12. a. 10-2.7 b.33 b. 15 d.75 b.000039Q2 Chapter 8 7-16. Physics: 11. 66. Increasing RTS b.50 9-6. a. a. Q = 50 b. V = 250. c. a. a. 500. b. a. Q = 10 b. K = 3 6-3. 666.800. AVC = 119 b. b. b.538.7. 1. P = 14.67. Β = -31. K = 2. E(Β) = 116. P = 10.513. P = 71. Q = 857. 1. P = 340 c.67 7-14. b: K = L 6-16. b. a.67 B B 8-4. P = 1. K = 14.208 8-14. K = 80 6-9.000. L = 11. 0.000 8-17. Q = 1. 1. b. C1 = C2 = 0.4L.667 b. b. P = 133. M = 10. K = 8. Yes b. a.67. a.52% Chapter 9 9-1. a. 50 7-9.Chapter 6 6-1. Z = 200.75 b.97.09 b. a.00017Q 8-3. b. P = 15.000 7-11.66 L0.557 . P = 60 b. P = 178.67.01 8-15.25 7-20. a. a.8L b. Β = 4.50 8-6. AC = 9 c. no limit on output b. AC 1. Β = 200 b.333 c.600 or 11.7. a. a. 416. 1.500 6-22.4K0.

5. a. P = 4. QS = 13. 224. 5. P = 0. 6.000 14-14. Unaffected 16-3. P = 120 B 12-5. -241.562 AC900 = 2.500. 8. 8. a. 158 Chapter 15 15-1. 100. W = 10 c. Β = 37 12-6.000 c. 17.000 b.880 b. No 14-2.50 b.117 -48. NPV = -25.0 m. W = 4.90. 45.235 b. Yes b. L = 2. q1 = q2 = 8a. a. Yes.25 or 25% B 12-13. 88. 195. 22.989 13-6. 248.92% 16-2. a. $398. W = 8. 25%.8 million 15-2. 4.86.000. b.66 16-7.000 14-15. 2.5% Chapter 12 12-1. 784.94.865 13-10. 0.35 14-3. 0.202.5.425 million. Β = 330 12-11.3. 40 c.840 c. 6. QT = 15 b. 0. PN = 20 Chapter 13 13-1. a. -14. Q = 8.83 Chapter 14 14-1.65.5.499. 31. 26.38 14-13. Qy = 2. 30. t = 6 16-11. 28.041 c. L = 9.635 million. $6.28. for U = W2 take game II d. 9. 1. 379.57mm 13-2.08 c. a.086. W = 99. 0.67 b. 10% 15-12. 3. 15% c.896. 3. w = 15 13-8.4% b.13.6% 15-5. a.000 c.830. 6.82 . b. 4. 1. W = 2.85 b. 5.03% Chapter 16 16-1. K = 0. 50 15-3.029. 11. P2 = 6. W = 178 14-12.080.2. QT = 16. a. PV = 1. 21.2% 8. P = 3.578 12.805.500. b. 4.000. 355.900. $90 14-9.6 c. 21. 18%. Q = 233.532 16-8. 1 11-12. 4. AC800 = 2.000. 301. 4. 0. b. Β = 255 without bundling and $270 with bundling. 240. Q2 = 8. 13% 15-7. 992. QS = 11. C 11-7. QD = 7. W = 10 b.2 13-7.8. 102. all except A b. b. a.764. 15. a. QF = 500 12-2. 792. and A c. B.024. Q = 7.661 5. 3.07. New project 15-13.86.69.261. PU = 21. 13%.220.800 b. a.25.60% 15-15.42 b.2% 13-3. 244.27 14-11.25% b.500.66.5L 16-5.1. b. Rent = 600.000 12-9.546. a. 0.33 b. $6. QU = 22.5. PJ = 16. 902.95. a.3.50.4333 12-4. b. D. P = 50 b. a. a. 1. a. QD = 7. 6. PB = 20.000. 718.Chapter 11 11-2.14 12-7.1 b. a. a. 1.9.91. PV = 813.000. PF = 0. $432.75 b. P = 600 c. 9.50 12-10. Difference = 1. a. a. E. Q = 3. K = 0.7 c.15 15-4. W = 199.000.34 14-7.6.5. No 12-3.209. 20. QN = 10. 7.6. a. 42. 1. QB = 2.9.090. b.3 million 15-6.91 b. 0. 6.81. 19. B and E b. For U = ln W take game I. 3. 10. Β = 24. $60 14-18.90 14-6. 41.2. PP = 1. 7. 17. 60 c. 117. L = 15. 0.232. 0.000. 272. Increasing b. P1 = 3. a. 27. 164. 21. a.97 18.000 13-9.4% 16. Q = 46. a.92 3.3 11-13. b.977. Q1 = 5. 12-12. 3.442 11-5.600. 0. 20. 11. QS = 10.914. 7.95. 30. Β = 49 b. 72. Qx = .984 12-14.4 c. a. P = 33a 11-11.27 14-8. b. PF = 0. 6. r = .48. a. Β = 272. 6. a. 1.267 b.5 b. a. Q = 13. 23. a. a.175. No. 7.26. a. 22.5L 15-14. 3. b. 52. a.669. QJ = 20. 30. Β = 24. 40. c. L = 2. 19.51% 14.72 b.46 14-4.0%. 1. 3. 1.77% 15-11. Β = -19.5 11-6. 7.

000 b. P = 17. Q = 20.Chapter 18 18-1. No change b. . Q = 260 18-4. P = 17.5 c. Q = 40. TR = 600. a. q = 37. P = 50 18-9. P = 80 b.754 using double declining balance method.2. P = 80 d. PV is increased by 1. a.90. P = 8.35 18-3. a. Q = 252 18. Q = 50.

115.Economics 4010 Tools Software Information A. and 120 in the Business Building: Start 9 All Programs 9 Dept Apps 9 Economics 9 Tools 9 B. To download from the Internet.com/petersen and follow the instructions. go to: www. To download in laboratory My Computer 9 I: Drive 9 Tools 9 New Tools 9 Student Disks β Disk 1 9 File & Folder Tasks Copy this folder ⎯ Disk 2 9 File & Folder Tasks Copy this Folder C. . To execute from any labs 113. 118.prenhall.