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College & Undergraduate Libraries, 17:106–113, 2010 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1069-1316 print / 1545

-2530 online DOI: 10.1080/10691310903584627

LIBRARY SERVICES IN THE AGE OF GOOGLE Introducing Information Literacy 2.0
CAROLYN CARPAN
Hamilton College Library, Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, USA

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In the age of Google, academic library services are changing out of necessity. Students and faculty have many more sources of information beyond the library’s offerings and reference desk statistics are plummeting. To remain relevant, academic library services must adapt and librarians must apply their skills in new ways. In this column, the author will explore current issues in academic library services. KEYWORDS Collaboration, information literacy, learning, teaching, technology, Web 2.0 Although academic librarians have become experts in using Web 2.0 tools and techniques to promote library services, we are just beginning to think about how academic librarians can collaborate with faculty and information technologists to incorporate these tools and technologies into our teaching to support learning goals and outcomes. Web 2.0, sometimes called the social Web, is characterized by communication, information sharing, collaboration, interoperability, and user-centered design. Web 2.0 tools like social networking, blogging, and instant messaging are now standard tools used in the delivery and promotion of library services, and the library profession has dubbed these tools “Library 2.0.” Current library literature is full of articles and books about how libraries are using Library 2.0 tools on the Web to provide services. Libraries are using free instant messaging applications like
The author wishes to thank the following people for their assistance in the writing of this column: Randy Ericson and Glynis Asu, Hamilton College Library; Joe Murphy, Science Librarian, Yale University; David Smallen, Nikki Reynolds, Ted Fondak, and Janet Simons, Information Technology Services, Hamilton College. Thanks also to Dr. Cecilia McInnis-Bowers, International Business Department, and Jonathan Miller, Olin Library, Rollins College, for helping me to think about how librarians can do their jobs differently and for giving me the opportunity to be creative in my work. Address correspondence and column proposals to Carolyn Carpan, MLIS, MA, Director of Public Services, Hamilton College Library, Hamilton College, 198 College Hill Rd., Clinton, NY 13323. E-mail: ccarpan@hamilton.edu 106

Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy
Thomas P. Mackey and Trudi E. Jacobson
Social media environments and online communities are innovative collaborative technologies that challenge traditional definitions of information literacy. Metaliteracy is an overarching and self-referential framework that integrates emerging technologies and unifies multiple literacy types. This redefinition of information literacy expands the scope of generally understood information competencies and places a particular emphasis on producing and sharing information in participatory digital environments.

he emergence of social media and collaborative online communities requires a reframing of information literacy as a metaliteracy that supports multiple literacy types. Social media environments are transient, collaborative, and free-flowing, requiring a comprehensive understanding of information to critically evaluate, share, and produce content in multiple forms. Within this context, information is not a static object that is simply accessed and retrieved. It is a dynamic entity that is produced and shared collaboratively with such innovative Web 2.0 technologies as Facebook, Twitter, Delicious, Second Life, and YouTube. Several competing concepts of literacy have emerged including digital literacy, media literacy, visual literacy, and information technology fluency, but there is a need for a comprehensive framework based on essential information proficiencies and knowledge. New media literacy and transliteracy have also responded to the rapid and ongoing changes in

technology. As part of a metaliteracy reframing, we argue that producing and sharing information are critical activities in participatory Web 2.0 environments. Information literacy is central to this redefinition because information takes many forms online and is produced and communicated through multiple modalities. Information literacy is more significant now than it ever was, but it must be connected to related literacy types that address ongoing shifts in technology. Through this overarching approach to information literacy, we examine the term within a new media environment. Metaliteracy promotes critical thinking and collaboration in a digital age, providing a comprehensive framework to effectively participate in social media and online communities. It is a unified construct that supports the acquisition, production, and sharing of knowledge in collaborative online communities. Metaliteracy challenges traditional skills-based approaches to information literacy by recognizing related

Thomas P. Mackey is Interim Dean in the Center for Distance Learning at SUNY Empire State College; e-mail: Tom.Mackey@esc.edu. Trudi E. Jacobson is Head of User Education Programs in the University Libraries of University at Albany, SUNY; e-mail: tjacobson@uamail.albany.edu. © Thomas P. Mackey and Trudi E. Jacobson

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Future Voices in Public Services

Web 2.0 and Critical Information Literacy
MICHELLE DUNAWAY
School of Information Sciences (the iSchool), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

INTRODUCTION
The impact of Web 2.0 upon culture, education, and knowledge is obfuscated by the pervasiveness of Web 2.0 applications and technologies. Web 2.0 is commonly conceptualized in terms of the tools that it makes possible, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Wikipedia. In the context of information literacy instruction, Web 2.0 is frequently conceptualized in terms of the ways that Web 2.0 tools can be used to deliver instructional content, demonstrate information literacy concepts, and support constructivist pedagogy. This essay suggests that viewing Web 2.0 solely in terms of the functional value of Web 2.0 applications constrains critical inquiry into the ways that Web 2.0 can inform definitions of information literacy. The author reviews existing literature describing uses of Web 2.0 in information literacy instruction and suggests that Web 2.0 presents opportunities to engage students in critical thinking about the social and political aspects of information production and to encourage students to view themselves as active agents in the creation of information and knowledge. In this way, Web 2.0 can contribute to evolving conceptions of information literacy and can inform critical approaches to library instruction.

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WHAT IS WEB 2.0?
Web 2.0 is an umbrella term that encompasses various web technologies as well as cumulative changes in the ways that end users use the web. A concise definition of this term is difficult to articulate; however, Web 2.0 refers broadly to tools that allow users to participate in a ‘‘cloud of ubiquitous digital information where knowledge is made, not found, and authority is continuously negotiated through discussion and participation’’ (Wesch, 2008). Whereas earlier iterations of the web presented information statically in a read=only format, a defining characteristic of Web 2.0 is collaborative information creation (Luo, 2010, p. 32), providing end users with opportunities to create information and consequently knowledge (Hicks & Graber, 2010, p. 623). Web 2.0 is commonly associated with a specific group of applications, including blogs, media sharing applications, wikis, social bookmarking, and social networking (Bobish, 2011, p. 56), suggesting that

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0090-7324.htm

RSR 40,2

Information literacy on Facebook: an analysis
Donna Witek
Weinberg Memorial Library, The University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA, and

242
Received 14 February 2012 Accepted 15 February 2012

Teresa Grettano
Department of English and Theatre, The University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA
Abstract
Purpose – This analysis, being part one of a two-part study, aims to illustrate the attitudes and patterns users are being habituated to through the functionality of Facebook, relate them to information literate practices and behaviors, and speculate their application to information literacy instruction within an academic context. It also aims to lay the groundwork for part two, which is to be reported on in a later issue of this journal. Design/methodology/approach – For this first part of the study, the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education have been aligned with common behaviors on Facebook, examining each standard, performance indicator, and outcome for possible parallels in common Facebook tools and behaviors. These behaviors have then been connected to the process of conducting research in an academic context. Findings – Three Facebook functions – Feeds, Share, and Comment – emerged as the primary means by which information literate practices and behaviors are developed and exhibited on Facebook. In addition, information literacy in the age of social media requires a “meta-literacy”: a critical awareness of why we do what we do with information. Research limitations/implications – This analysis (part one) presents the conceptual framework on which the data collection portion of the study (part two) is based. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for a reexamination of what it means to be information literate in light of social media practices and behaviors. Originality/value – This paper is valuable to information literacy instructors and researchers because it offers the first extended analysis that deliberately reads Facebook through the lens of the ACRL Standards. Keywords Information literacy, Facebook, Social media, Social networking, Web 2.0, Instruction Paper type Conceptual paper

Reference Services Review Vol. 40 No. 2, 2012 pp. 242-257 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0090-7324 DOI 10.1108/00907321211228309

Introduction Students today interact with information differently than students did ten years ago. In 2000, the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) developed a comprehensive definition of what it means to be information literate based on a working definition that dates back to 1989: “To be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information” (ALA Presidential Committee on
Aspects of this research were funded by the Weinberg Memorial Library’s Information Literacy Stipend program at The University of Scranton.

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0090-7324.htm

Shifting paradigms: teaching, learning and Web 2.0
Alison Hicks and Alison Graber
University Libraries, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Abstract
Purpose – This paper seeks to re-conceptualize Web 2.0 tools within the intellectual and theoretical frameworks currently driving changes in academic learning communities and to explore the effect of this paradigm shift on academic libraries. Design/methodology/approach – The paper explores an intellectually rather than technologically driven definition of Web 2.0 and its potential effect on teaching and learning in libraries. Reflections are based on paradigm shifts in learning theories implicit in the adoption and implementation of Web 2.0 technologies. The paper also discusses applications of Web 2.0 designed to improve student and faculty engagement in the research process. Findings – The paper encourages librarians to think beyond the technology and to consider how Web 2.0 can support intellectual teaching and learning objectives in an academic library. Practical implications – The paper discusses applications of Web 2.0 designed to improve student and faculty engagement in the research process. Originality/value – The paper offers insights into rethinking current conceptions of Web 2.0 based on participation in and collaboration with faculty during a summer institute session. It provides a common conceptual framework of teaching and learning theory for librarians to use when implementing Web 2.0 tools and applications. Keywords Information literacy, Learning, Academic libraries, Teaching Paper type Conceptual paper

Reaching, learning and Web 2.0 621
Received 14 July 2010 Revised 10 August 2010 Accepted 11 August 2010

Introduction In this conceptual paper, we suggest that the rapidly changing structure and creation of information necessitates a dynamic technological and philosophical change of direction in how libraries implement new technologies. We propose that libraries expand their concept of Web 2.0 to encompass the greater sociological and pedagogical changes that can be leveraged by Web 2.0 applications (McLoughlin and Lee, 2008). First, the authors explore various definitions of Web 2.0 as well as the evolving perspectives on student learning impacting instruction in higher education. We discuss how the integration of appropriate pedagogies and Web 2.0 tools can help create and support collaborative student and faculty communities. Finally, using concrete examples of projects implemented at the University of Colorado at Boulder, we discuss and reflect on the impact of this new paradigm of knowledge creation and learning. We conclude that it is only by rejecting the simplistic idea that Web 2.0 is solely a technological phenomenon without pedagogical implications that libraries will be able to embrace, implement, and support the changing paradigms of information, knowledge and pedagogy in the multiple contexts of academic libraries. The term Web 2.0 is generally associated with a specific subset of applications. Facebook, Twitter, and Wikipedia are all commonly identified as representative of the new wave of technology while the Encyclopaedia Britannica and Microsoft Outlook are

Reference Services Review Vol. 38 No. 4, 2010 pp. 621-633 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0090-7324 DOI 10.1108/00907321011090764

COMMUNICATIONS

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Connecting Social Technologies with Information Literacy
Kara Jones

ABSTRACT. Social technologies such as Weblogs, wikis, and social bookmarking are emerging both as information resources and as tools for research. This paper reflects on these technologies and suggests they may be well placed to build fluency in the higher-order thinking skills outlined in various information literacy frameworks, particularly in an educational context. A high proportion of today’s learners are very comfortable with technology and Web 2.0 resources. The characteristics of the information they are accessing are also changing, bringing a stronger need for sophisticated evaluation and analysis skills. Where do social technologies fit within information literacy frameworks, and where can they be used in the day-to-day instruction of information skills? This paper suggests social technologies perform a dual role: they are not only useful sources of information but also resources to be used to develop ideas and research, using collaboration and community platforms that learners today are familiar with. Librarians who provide information lit-

Kara Jones is Subject Librarian for Biology and Biochemistry, Mathematics, and Computer Science, University of Bath, UK (E-mail: K.L.Jones@ bath.ac.uk). Kara has worked in libraries in Australia and the Middle East. She has a MSc in Library and Information Management and is working towards a Master’s degree in Educational Technology. Journal of Web Librarianship, Vol. 1(4) 2007 Available online at http://jwl.haworthpress.com © 2007 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved. doi:10.1080/19322900802111429

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Web 2.0 Integration in Information Literacy Instruction: An Overview
by Lili Luo
Available online 9 December 2009

Survey and semi-structured interviews were conducted in this study to examine the adoption of the Web 2.0 technology in information literacy instruction. Findings suggest that librarians use Web 2.0 tools in three different levels, and overall it has a positive impact on teaching and learning.

INTRODUCTION

AND

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Lili Luo, School of Library and Information Science, San Jose State University <lililuo@slis.sjsu.edu>.

Defined as “a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information”,1 information literacy (IL) is a crucial component in library user education. The library literature abounds with studies on information literacy instruction (ILI), especially on the topic of instructional pedagogy. The success of ILI hinges upon the delivery of content and as the delivery vehicle, pedagogical approaches are constantly evolving in response to the rapidly changing information landscape and user needs. One of the enablers for pedagogy evolution is new technologies. Numerous studies have attested to augmented teaching effectiveness resulting from the integration of computer and Internet facilities in ILI. Recently the increasingly popular Web 2.0 technology has gained more and more attention from the library world and ILI librarians have been exploring the potential of adopting Web 2.0 tools in their classrooms. To achieve a better understanding of Web 2.0-enabled teaching enhancement, the study presented in this paper seeks to examine the current practice of Web 2.0 involvement in the practice of ILI and to contribute to the knowledge of ILI pedagogy. A term coined by Tim O'Reilly of O'Reilly Media,2 Web 2.0 describes “the changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and Web design that aim to enhance creativity, communications, secure information sharing, collaboration and functionality of the Web”.3 The essence of Web 2.0, or the read/write Web, is participation in creating information dynamically, whereas the earlier phase of the Web, or the read/only Web, primarily focused on presenting information stactically.4 Two prominent characteristics of Web 2.0 technologies are multi-way communication and collaborative information creation/ retrieval. Examples of such technologies include social networking sites (e.g. Facebook), video sharing sites (e.g. YouTube), wikis, blogs, and social bookmarking sites (e.g. del.icio.us). Reinforcing engagement and interactivity between individuals, Web 2.0 has brought new opportunities to education. Students today approach the world with an “information-age mindset” and consider technology a fact of life,5 and Prensky6 labeled them as “digital natives”. A recent Pew Internet survey7 found that 75% of people at the age of 18 to 24 use social networking technologies, and this figure was in tandem with a number of studies conducted in college campuses, whereas all of them reported more than 80% of students spending at least some time on social networking sites each week.8–10 Given students' heavy use of Web 2.0 technologies, educators have started exploring their applications in teaching and learning. They concluded that the accessibility and functionality Web 2.0 tools have made them appealing as instructional vehicles11 and they can support constructivism-oriented pedagogical approaches such as active learning and

32 The Journal of Academic Librarianship Volume 36, Number 1, pages 32–40

Participation and Pedagogy: Connecting the Social Web to ACRL Learning Outcomes
by Greg Bobish
Available online 30 October 2010

This article examines the connection between ACRL information literacy standards and constructivist pedagogy. This connection is used to support use of Web 2.0 tools for information literacy instruction. Sample exercises using these tools are provided for each ACRL learning outcome, and the tools' suitability for the constructivist approach is reasserted.

INTRODUCTION
Librarians have been increasingly adopting Web 2.0 tools for information literacy instruction, and reports and case studies are appearing in the literature. In a recent survey, 84% of teaching librarians used Web 2.0 tools to facilitate delivery of content, but only 38% of these same librarians were using the tools to actively illustrate information literacy concepts to their students.1 While there are likely varied reasons for this, the lack of a clear connection to pedagogical goals is one factor that often makes instructors wary of incorporating new technologies more deeply into their lesson plans. Many individual reports of uses of online tools in information literacy instruction mention the necessity of grounding the use to a specific goal or objective, in order to avoid the temptation of using a tool just because it is new or interesting, whether or not it actually improves learning. The necessity of connecting the use of new tools to an underlying pedagogical theory is often emphasized as a way to ensure that there is sound reasoning behind their adoption. In an early discussion of the ways that web-based tools might be used in distance education, Nancy Dewald states that “Perhaps the most important of the four aspects of instructional delivery is pedagogical objectives.” She also examines the technologies available at that time in terms of their interactivity and discusses some of the ways they might support active learning in a distance-education setting.2 A successful Flickr-based assignment at the American University of Cairo is designed with constructivist and discovery learning ideas in mind and proves successful both at engaging students and at involving them in the examination of their own information use processes.3 In a library instruction session connected to a business course, wiki technology was used to facilitate discovery learning, question formulation, and assessment of a final group product (in this case a business plan).4 While the examples cited above as well as numerous other examples both in the library literature and in other fields can be helpful in developing specific new exercises, a broader look at how information literacy standards and related pedagogies can be supported by the use of Web 2.0 technologies will provide library instructors with a sound base from which a variety of more specific exercises and assignments can be drawn.

THE ACRL STANDARDS
ACRL's Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education are intended to provide “a framework for assessing the information literate individual.”5 The Standards, Indicators, and Outcomes contained in this document are a common starting point for librarians in higher education settings who are designing information literacy instruction. Faculty outside of the library profession, while they differ in some specifics and in their assessment of the language of the standards, generally agree that the outcomes are valid and necessary

Greg Bobish, University at Albany, Albany, NY <gbobish@uamail.albany.edu>.

54 The Journal of Academic Librarianship, Volume 37, Number 1, pages 54–63

The Journal of Academic Librarianship 39 (2013) 244–251

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

The Journal of Academic Librarianship

Web 2.0 and Information Literacy Instruction: Aligning Technology with ACRL Standards
Marta L. Magnuson ⁎
Hedberg Library, Carthage College, 2001 Alford Park Drive, Kenosha, WI 53140, USA

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
The purpose of this article is to report on how Web 2.0 tools in an online information literacy instruction course aligned with ACRL's Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. A qualitative case study was undertaken on an online graduate course related to information literacy instruction. Data collected included: course activities, assignments, emails, online discussions, and surveys. The educational theory of constructivism and its adherence to reflection, active learning, and social interaction was used to find patterns in the data. Activity theory provided a framework for data analysis and interpretation related to the patterns of activities that took place while students used each Web 2.0 tool. Web 2.0 was found to enhance all five information literacy standards. These standards related to collaboration, information organization, creativity, discussion, and technology education. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 19 December 2012 Accepted 29 January 2013 Available online 4 February 2013 Keywords: Web 2.0 Information literacy ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education Information literacy Online education Constructivism

INTRODUCTION The use of Web 2.0 tools for information literacy instruction is still a relatively new area of study. Although technologies like Facebook, YouTube, and Wikipedia are pervasive, Web 2.0 as a term was coined less than 10 years ago (O'Reilly, 2005). The newness of Web 2.0, combined with its ease of use and ubiquity in the lives of college students, has allowed for great enthusiasm into its use as an education tool. This case study sought to understand the potential of Web 2.0 as an effective tool for teaching information literacy skills. The Association of College & Research Libraries' (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (2000) is widely employed by academic librarians when assessing the information literacy of college students. The standards were used in this study as a framework for assessing the potential of Web 2.0 technologies as useful instructional tools for information literacy education. WEB 2.0 The term “Web 2.0” was coined by Tim O'Reilly at a 2004 conference brainstorming session on the commonalities between websites that survived or came to fruition after the burst of the dot-com bubble in 2001 (O'Reilly, 2005; Scholz, 2008.) While Web 2.0 technologies do not have clear boundaries, they do follow a set of principles and practices that O'Reilly describes as competencies. These competencies relate to issues of power decentralization, dynamic content, rich user
⁎ Tel.: +1 262 551 5950; fax: +1 262 551 5109. E-mail address: mmagnuson@carthage.edu. 0099-1333/$ – see front matter © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2013.01.008

experiences, and collaboration. For the boundaries of this study, three of the six competencies will be discussed in detail. The first competency that has the potential to impact learning is the architecture of participation. Because of the participatory nature of Web 2.0, users are not only consumers, they are also producers who have the ability to greatly influence the look, content, and creative energy of the Web 2.0 tool they chose to use. This, in turn creates a participatory culture (Jenkins, 2006) in which user and producer interact with and influence one another. The second relevant Web 2.0 competency is harnessing the collective intelligence. According to Lévy (1997), collective intelligence is “a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills” (p. 13). It is based on the premise of the “wisdom of the crowds”, in that many people are more knowledgeable than a select few. In relation to Web 2.0, Kroski (2008) describes collective intelligence as “the theory that when a Web site or network accumulates a large number of people participating within it, the collective, or group, becomes the filter for what is valuable” (p. 3). The final Web 2.0 competency related to this study is remixable data source and data transformations. Web 2.0 is an environment of cooperation rather than control and therefore fosters the reuse of content and technology from others. O'Reilly (2005) describes the philosophy of remixability and transferability best, writing the most successful web services are those that have been easiest to take in new directions unimagined by their creators. The phrase “some rights reserved,” which was popularized by the Creative Commons to contrast with the more typical “all rights reserved,” is a useful guidepost (p. 4).

The International Information & Library Review (2010) 42, 137e142 available at www.sciencedirect.com

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/iilr

Social networking and Web 2.0 in information literacy
Amanda Click a,*, Joan Petit b
Instruction and Reference Librarian, The American University in Cairo, AUC Library, Post Office Box 74, New Cairo 11835, Egypt b Humanities and Social Sciences Librarian, Portland State University, PSU Library e LIBW, Post Office Box 1151, Portland, OR 97207-1151, USA
a

Abstract This paper discusses free online and Internet tools that can be adapted by librarians for use with library instruction and information literacy training, with a focus on social media and Web 2.0 technologies, including social networking websites Facebook and Twitter, blogs, RSS, wikis, and video sharing. Many students already use these technologies and are readily engaged with the library when the technologies are incorporated into library websites and classes. There are challenges in using these technologies, especially in countries with oppressive governments. This paper is based, in part, on a presentation the authors gave at the UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Alexandria, Egypt in November 2008. ª 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Introduction
The Internet offers a range of free and sophisticated tools that can be adapted by libraries for use in multiple ways, including user services, library promotion, and information literacy training. These tools, including social networking and other Web 2.0 technologies, provide effective ways for libraries and librarians to engage students and communicate with them via the preferred methods of the Millennial generation. This paper, based on a presentation the authors gave at the UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Alexandria, Egypt in November 2008, covers free social

* Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: aclick@aucegypt.edu (A. Click), jpetit@pdx. edu (J. Petit).

networking websites like Facebook and Twitter, and other Web 2.0 websites and tools like blogs, wikis, video sharing, and social bookmarking. First, we will define social networking and Web 2.0. Next, we will discuss the ways in which librarians can use Web 2.0 to connect patrons to libraries, to market services, to make more information widely available, and to teach information literacy skills. Finally, we will briefly discuss the reasons that these tools and technologies are particularly appropriate for libraries and librarians in developing countries, relevant to the relatively new use of social media in social and political protests, including the protests in Iran in the summer of 2009. Many different social networking and Web 2.0 tools and technologies will be covered here. Not all of these technologies are appropriate for all libraries or all librarians. Each library should work to determine which technologies are most popular with their users and adapt these technologies accordinglydto meet

1057-2317/$ - see front matter ª 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.iilr.2010.04.007

Let’s Talk 2.0
Whether it’s Web 2.0 or literacy 2.0, it’s a whole new way of thinking.
Michele Knobel and Dana Wilber
o understand what the term literacy 2.0 means, it’s necessary to think of it as a new mind-set—or a new ethos— as well as a new practice. To begin, however, it’s useful to look at the concept of Web 2.0 as opposed to Web 1.0. Web 2.0 describes a business model whereby Internet companies actually provide a service rather than sell prod-

T

ucts or promote ready-made, static artifacts. For example, Ofoto—Web 1.0—was designed to sell digital-to-paper photo processing to users. This venture did not have staying power. In contrast, Web 2.0’s Flickr is a user-generated content management system designed simply as a host for photo sharing. It accrues its revenue through site-based advertising. Web 2.0 businesses use

20

E D U C AT I O N A L L E A D E R S H I P / M A R C H 2 0 0 9

FEATURE

r

\^

TRANSFORM'
INFORMATION f OR NOWGEN

Buffy J. Hamilton
buffy.hamilton@gmail.com

I

remember my grandmother telling me stories about the first radio her family owned, one of the first in her rural north Georgia community during; the economically depressed 1930s. "Nanny" fondly recollected how their friends and relatives would travel across the miles once a week to listen to the radio together. Many times they listened lo news programs or comedy shows, as well as to President Roosevelt's "Fireside Chats." The technology of radio created a learning community by giving my grandmother, her family, and her friends access to information and entertainment.

Nearly eighty years later, technology continues to shape our culture in profound ways, just as the radio did at its inception. Initially the Web changed and expanded our means for actessing information. Now emergiiit; technologies and applications are a medium for building learning communities in ways we could not envision even five years ago. In 1989 the American Library Association defined information literacy as "a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate,

and use effectively the needed information" {ACRL 2000). While these fundamental skills are still at the heart of information literacy instruction, the nature of that information and the strategies for evaluating it are rapidly changing; the Read/Write Web and Web 2.0 technologies are disrupting many traditional, long-held concepts of authority. We are now in what Michael Jensen calls the "era of information abundance." As a result of this abundance, Jensen asserts, "...we are witnessing a radical shift in how we establish authority, significance, and even scholarly validity" (Jensen 2OO7. B6).

48

Knov/ledge Quest | Sprint lo Charlotte: Rev up learning @ your library

CURRENTS  IN TEACHING AND LEARNING  VOL. 3 NO. 2, SPRING 2011

ESSAYS

Metacognition: Information Literacy and Web 2.0 as an Instructional Tool Reabeka King
Abstract
Web 2.0’s consistently evolving capabilities and features present a daunting task for educators as an instructional tool because of the educators’ limited technological abilities or time constraints. Although Web 2.0 assists educators with guiding learners to complete tasks and supports the scaffolding of lessons to meet course objectives, there are more advanced pedagogical implications when using Web 2.0 as an instructional tool, such as fostering information literacy and metacognition. This article reviews information literacy standards and the use of Web 2.0 as an effective instructional tool to develop the metacognitive skills required to empower learners to use Web 2.0 responsibly, both in the classroom and on their own. Adaptations of Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy and Salmon’s chart of online competency are included in this article to serve as guides for supporting the metacognitive framework of information literacy and Web 2.0 in the educational setting.
Reabeka King is Coordinator of Information Literacy and Library Instructional Services/ Assistant Professor at Kingsborough Community College, with an MA in English specializing in Language and Literacy, specifically adult literacy. She has been a computer instructor at Queens Public Library and a PreGED instructor at Brooklyn Public Library.

Keywords
Web 2.0, metacognition, information literacy

Introduction Web 2.0 is an example of an online communication technology that has created new forms of literacy with its consistently evolving features and capabilities to produce and manipulate information (Baron, 1999). Web 2.0 is a term used to describe cultural trends like social networking, blogging, podcasting, and streaming media; it describes a landscape in which users control their online experience and influence the experiences of others (Funk, 2009). In response to the widespread adoption of online interactive environments and social networking opportunities, pedagogies have evolved that take advantage of Web 2.0’s emphasis on creation and connectivity (McLoughlin & Lee, 2008). Today, teaching has transitioned from Web 1.0 (which centered primarily on the simple retrieval of information) to the dynamic user-centered Web 2.0 (Pegrum, 2009). This transition has important cognitive and epistemological implications. Web 2.0 has influenced a generation of students that prefers speed and interactivity; it is a generation that not only wants to access infor22 King – Metacognition
WORCESTER.EDU/CURRENTS CURRENTS@WORCESTER.EDU

Can You Digg It?: Using Web Applications in Teaching the Research Process
Rochelle (Shelley) Rodrigo, Old Dominion University

Abstract
Instructors teaching research methods, especially undergraduate writing courses that focus on researched arguments, should use various web-based interactive applications, usually referred to as Web 2.0 technologies, throughout the research process. Using these technologies helps students learn various 21st Century technology and media literacies as well as promote diverse student learning methods and active learning pedagogies. The article provides examples of different type of web-based applications that might be used throughout the research process and then ends with a discussion of logistical concerns like student access and privacy rights.

Admit it, when you first search for something you use Google or check Wikipedia:
   

Of course! What? Are you crazy! I can’t trust those sites. I shout out to Facebook or Twitter. Plead the fifth.

I don’t ask this question of my students; instead, I ask this question of my colleagues when I do workshops about teaching with technology (especially when teaching big endof-semester term or research papers). Can you guess the results? If we admit that we are
Journal of Interactive Technology and Pedagogy Issue 4 (Fall 2013)

Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, vol. 2, no. 1 (2007)

Becoming Teacher-Librarian 2.0
Anita Brooks Kirkland Library Consultant, Information Technology Services Waterloo Region District School Board If you’ve visited a school library recently, you’ll know that it’s a very social place. The only straight rows you will see in this classroom are in the stacks. Collaboration is the focus of teaching and learning strategies in the school library program. Teacherlibrarians collaborate with classroom teachers to plan, teach and assess research units. The instructional approach in the library is constructivist, with students creating their own understanding, most often through collaborative activities, and the conversation continues with the school library providing fundamental support for independent reading and engagement in reading. There is no program in the school that is better suited to exploiting the possibilities of social software.

School Library 2.0
Indeed there are many teachers and teacher-librarians using social software to enhance student learning. In my school district a secondary library runs a blog, engaging students in conversation about the books they are reading. Students are now podcasting their own book reviews. At another school, a teacher uses a blog for literature circles. The wiki provides an ideal format for collaborative writing, and is being used very effectively to develop higher order thinking skills through conversation and collaboration. Students are using podcasting as a presentation format for everything from book reviews to interviews and research reports. A local high school podcasts its daily radio program so that members of the school community can listen in when, where and how they want. Classes are using social bookmarking to collaborate on collecting resources for research. Teachers and teacher-librarians are discovering ways to enhance student learning through authentic and interactive online experiences.

Fad, Fantasy, or Fundamental?
Is the use of Web 2.0 technology just a fad, or is it becoming a meaningful part of the instructional landscape? Is School Library 2.0 a fantasy, or is it becoming a reality? The fact is that while there are many examples of Web 2.0 technologies being used in schools, adoption is sporadic. The meaningful integration of information and communication technologies into the curriculum has always been inhibited by a number of factors. Using interactive web-based technology introduces additional concerns about the school’s role in protecting student privacy. Typically there is significant bureaucratic lag in developing policies and technical infrastructures that keep pace with innovations in teaching with technology, a situation that is accentuated by the widespread accessibility of web-enabled tools outside the technical infrastructure of school districts.

1

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0022-0418.htm

JDOC 66,1

SPECULATIONS IN DOCUMENTATION

Information Literacy 2.0: hype or discourse refinement?
ˇ piranec and Mihaela Banek Zorica Sonja S
Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Abstract
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the term Information Literacy 2.0 as a subset of information literacy, to describe its development and significance and give an outline of its underlying theoretical assumptions. Design/methodology/approach – The paper first examines the grounds for the possible re-conceptualizations in the field of information literacy and identifies the current developments in the information universe as the principal drive for perception shifts. Based on a literature review and a descriptive analysis of contrasting features of library user education, information literacy and Information literacy 2.0, the paper highlights the main foci of paradigm shifts. Findings – The paper found that the new meaning and understanding of the central conceptions in information literacy are shifting the focus of classical information literacy towards Information literacy 2.0. Many of the aspects of current information literacy practices originate from a print-based culture, which is incongruent with the transient and hybrid nature of digital environments. These radically changing environments are causing the appearance of anomalies in the information literacy paradigm, which could effectively be resolved through the introduction of a sub-concept of information literacy. Practical implications – The article specifies the possibilities for putting theoretical conceptualizations of Information literacy 2.0 into practice by determining the range of shifts in information literacy activities and identifying how new practices differ from the earlier approaches. Originality/value – The study attempts to advance the research field of information literacy by proposing a new outlook on information literacy through the integration of its underlying theoretical conceptions and practical applications. Keywords Information, Literacy, Learning, Information facilities Paper type Conceptual paper

140
Received 12 August 2008 Revised 5 June 2009 Accepted 19 June 2009

Journal of Documentation Vol. 66 No. 1, 2010 pp. 140-153 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0022-0418 DOI 10.1108/00220411011016407

1. Introduction Information literacy (IL) has entered the discourse of different disciplines and their respective systems of terminologies, while its practical applications feature as an important segment of numerous initiatives, projects and strategies worldwide. Previous to attaining this current significant position IL went through a long-lasting process of growth in theoretical and applied understanding characterized by numerous terminological and conceptual contradictions (Shapiro and Hughes, 1996; Snavely and Cooper, 1997, Pawley, 2003). The analysis of the development of information literacy and the phenomena that have influenced it shows a multifaceted and multidimensional nature of its concept. IL developed in response to the issues that were necessitated by the developments within the information society. Transformations in the field of information sciences known as user orientation and the emergence of new educational

Volume 4, Issue 1, 2010

[ARTICLE]

INSTRUCTION 2.0
What are we actually doing?

Greg Bobish University at Albany

ABSTRACT
This survey looks at Association of Research Libraries’ (ARL) instruction websites to identify publicly available Library 2.0 tools focused on user education. The reasons for each tool’s presence or absence are discussed and an overall assessment of the current state of the use of these tools in the field is offered.

93

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0737-8831.htm

LHT 30,1

Participatory technologies, pedagogy 2.0 and information literacy
Meredith Farkas
Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, USA
Abstract
Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the impact participatory technologies have had on education and the information environment in which students operate. It seeks to define a pedagogical approach that will capitalize on the benefits of participatory technologies in the classroom and applies this “pedagogy 2.0” to information literacy instruction. Design/methodology/approach – A thorough literature review was conducted on the use of participatory technologies in education as well as theories related to collaborative learning. This review formed the basis of the proposed pedagogy 2.0 model. Findings – Web 2.0 and the growth in use of participatory technologies has had a tremendous impact on the information environment. Instructors seeking to take advantage of participatory technologies in the classroom should also consider altering the classroom learning environment to one that embraces social constructivist and connectivist pedagogies. Changes in the information environment also require a corresponding shift in the way information literacy is conceptualized and taught. Practical implications – This paper suggests an approach to teaching that instructors can adopt to capitalize on participatory technologies in the classroom and improve student learning. Originality/value – This article seeks to bridge the gap between educational research on 2.0 pedagogies and the use of participatory technologies, and the library literature about the impact of Web 2.0 on information literacy. It suggests ways to make the conceptualization and teaching of information literacy more relevant to the current information environment. Keywords Pedagogy, Information literacy, Web 2.0, Communication technologies, Teaching methods Paper type Conceptual paper

82
Received September 2011 Revised October 2011 Accepted October 2011

Library Hi Tech Vol. 30 No. 1, 2012 pp. 82-94 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0737-8831 DOI 10.1108/07378831211213229

1. Introduction The past decade has seen exciting and disruptive changes in the way people use the worldwide web. The growth of participatory technologies and Web 2.0 has undoubtedly altered the environment in which individuals access information and create knowledge. Participatory technologies have made it possible for all people to be both consumers and producers of information and have altered the way that authority is conferred in many areas. Participatory technologies are also impacting teaching and learning. Instructors now have access to tools that can enhance reflective and dialogical learning, increase student autonomy and help create learning communities in the classroom. However, unlocking the benefits of participatory technologies in education requires a shift in teaching approach, embracing pedagogy based more on social constructivism and connectivism than the dominant behavioral paradigm. With the benefits of participatory technologies also come increased challenges with regard to information abundance and evaluation. This has significant implications for information literacy instruction, both making it more central to the educational

Between information seeking and sharing – use of social media in a young learner context

Jette Hyldegård, Ph.D. Royal School of Library and Information Science Copenhagen University ECIL 2013, 22-25 October 2013 Harbiye, Istanbul

Georgia Southern University

Digital Commons@Georgia Southern
Georgia International Conference on Information Literacy 8-1-2013 Library Conferences

From the Dinosaur Age to the Digital Age: Information Literacy in a Wacky Web 2.0 World
Phyllis R. Snipes
University of West Georgia

Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/cil-2012-2 Part of the Higher Education Commons, and the Information Literacy Commons Recommended Citation
Snipes, Phyllis R., "From the Dinosaur Age to the Digital Age: Information Literacy in a Wacky Web 2.0 World" (2013). Georgia International Conference on Information Literacy. Paper 26. http://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/cil-2012-2/26

This Presentation is brought to you for free and open access by the Library Conferences at Digital Commons@Georgia Southern. It has been accepted for inclusion in Georgia International Conference on Information Literacy by an authorized administrator of Digital Commons@Georgia Southern. For more information, please contact dskinner@georgiasouthern.edu.

Information Literacy and Social Media: Selected Practices and Discourses
Librarians’ Forum – November 27, 2008

Cameron Hoffman – Concordia University Libraries