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In-Station Testing

Nortel TN-4XE In-Station Testing.
The In-Station Testing procedure contained within the Nortel Commissioning Procedure
document details path continuity,path protection & equipment protection tests to be carried out
between two interconnected Nortel TN-4XE switches (dependant on actual cards equipped).
The testing procedures are well detailed but this part of the commissioning is the first time that a
real understanding of KLM notation is required to enable the tests carried out to be meaningful.
Note the pathways to be tested are set up during the Preliminary Procedures 3.25

SDH Data Rates
Before KLM numbering is explained it is important to understand the basic frame rates used in
SDH as well as the actual make up of a STM-N frame.
The basic SDH signal is called the Synchronous Transport Module (STM). The primary data rate
produced on a SDH network is STM-1. This runs at a rate of 155.52Mbit/s. Interleaving the
lower rate STM signals allows higher level STM-4, STM-16 and STM-64 data rates to be
achieved at 4,16 & 64 times the STM-1 rate.Byte-interleaving the payloads from a number N of
STM–1, forms higher levels of the synchronous hierarchy. The process of creating higher layer
data rates from lower ones also require that a transport overhead of size N times that of an STM–
1 is added containing new management data and pointer values as appropriate. STMs created in
this way range upwards from STM–1 at 155.52 Mbps by integer multiples of four with no
theoretical limit.
The SDH data rates applicable to the appropriate STMs, as obtained by reference 1, 2 & 3, are
approx. These are shown in the table below:
STM Standard Bit Rate
STM-1 155 Mbits/s
STM-4 622 Mbits/s
STM-16 2.5 GMbits/s
STM-64 10 Gbits/s
To understand the amount of traffic each STM layer can handle, an example is detailed below
using 2.048Mbit channels carrying PCM- 30 voice channels as the input traffic.
 Each STM-1 can handle 63 * 2.048Mbit/s data signals (1,890 voice channels)
 Each STM-4 can handle 252 * 2.048Mbit/s data signals (7,560 voice channels)
 Each STM-16 can handle 1008 * 2.048Mbit/s data signals (30,240 voice channels)
 Each STM-64 can handle 4032 * 2.048Mbit/s data signals (120,960 voice channels)
Low order user inputs are mapped into low order STM-1 containers that can be in turn byte
interleaved into higher order STM containers to obtain the desired transmission capacity and data
rates.
SDH is designed to transport isochronous traffic channels and is based on a hierarchy of
continuously repeating fixed length frames. It has been designed to preserve smooth
interworking with existing PDH networks and has adopted a synchronous frame structure that
preserves the byte boundaries within the various traffic bit streams. How it achieves this is
through the use of Virtual Containers (VCs), Tributary Units (TUs), Tributary Unit Groups
(TUGs) & Authentication Unit Groups (AUGs).
To understand how this is achieved it is important to understand the basic frame structure of an
SDH frame. The Basic SDH Frame Structure Diagram below details this.

It should be noted that in reality the 81 bytes comprising the Section Overhead (SOH) are not
one continuous block but are spread out throughout the Information Payload (IP). Also each
byte within the payload represents one 64kbit/s channel.
The SDH frame structure is tailor maid to transport 64kbits/s data channels, the backbone of
PDH networks. Other higher data rate channels, which are a multiple of 64kbits/s, can also be
easily accommodated such as data rates of 2.048Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s and 140Mbit/s as used within
UK PDH networks. It can also support their North American counterparts 1.5 Mbit/s, 6 Mbit/s
and 45 Mbit/s. Table 1.1 indicates the worldwide PDH data rates that SDH must be able to
support.

The way various PDH data circuits are transported over SDH is to enable each type of circuit to
be mapped into a synchronous container. In reality there are only a few types of container
presently required. These container types are classed as follows:
i. C-4 used to map 140 Mbit/s data circuits.
ii. C-3 used to map 45 & 34 Mbit/s data circuits.
iii. C-2 used to map 2 Mbit/s data circuits.
iv. C11 used to map 1.5 2 Mbit/s data circuits.
Each of these containers goes through several stages of multiplexing to enable them to become
part of one overall type of frame structure. This overall frame structure is known as an STM
frame. The basic STM frame on which all other STM frame structures are based within SDH is
the STM-1.
Below is a diagrammatic representation of the various levels of multiplexing that a “container”
must go through to be mapped within an STM-N frame. This diagram is a standard diagram
often used to represent SDH container levels.

In the multiplexing process, payloads are layered into lower-order and higher-order virtual
containers, each including a range of overhead functions for management and error monitoring.
Transmission is then supported by the attachment of further layers of overheads. This layering of
functions in SDH, both for traffic and management, suits the layered concept of a service-based
network better than the transmission-oriented PDH standards.
To illustrate how this multiplexing structure works let us examine how a 2.048Mbit/s circuit is
mapped into a STM-1 frame. The basic flow process for this is as follows:
2.048Mbit/s I nto C-12 I nto VC-12 I nto TU-12 I nto TUG-2 I nto TUG-3 I nto VC-4
I nto AU-4 Into AUG I nto STM-1 Frame.
2.048Mbit/s I nto C-12
The first stage of the multiplexing process is to split the incoming data into separate blocks
known containers as shown below. In the case of a 2.048Mbit/s circuit this process outputs C-12
containers.

C-12 I nto VC-12
The next stage of the multiplexing process is to convert the container C-12 into a Virtual
Container (VC). Adding Path Overhead (POH) information to the front of the container does
this. This part of the process is known as mapping the container into a VC.

The POH in this case is one byte and is known as a V5 byte.
The POH bytes added to the container stay with it and remain completely unchanged until it
arrives at its final destination i.e. exits the SDH network. The addition of the VC POH allows a
network provider to monitor several parameters. Most importantly it can monitor the
transmission error rate of the VC across the SDH network. The points where a data circuit
enters/exits the SDH network are known as path termination points (PTP) and the route it takes
between these points is known as the path. This level of POH can only indicate the amount of
errors caused by transmission across the path and not the source of the errors.
It should be noted that VCs are created at several levels within the SDH multiplexing hierarchy.
This VC hierarchy ends when a VC is loaded into the payload area of a STM frame. A VC is
never presented directly to the outside world but only exists within an SDH piece of equipment or
STM signals i.e. there are no VC interfaces within a SDH network.
VC-12 I nto TU-12
A SDH network may have many input circuits running at various data rates. These inputs are
required to be multiplexed together to form a STM frame. However, none of these circuits are
synchronised together and therefore cannot be held in rigid sychronisation within the STM
frame. The problem faced when designing a SDH network was how to synchronously multiplex
and demultiplex many individual VCs, which because they have been created in disparate parts
of the same, or even different SDH networks, may have slightly different short term bit rates.
The solution used by SDH is to assign pointers to each individual VC. When a VC is multiplexed
into a larger VC it’s phase offset in bytes can be identified relative to a reference point in the
larger VC. The addition of this pointer to a VC at this stage creates a Tributary Unit (TU). In this
case it would form a TU-12.
The addition of the pointer at this stage is known as aligning.
The incoming data circuit has now been processed to a stage that can now be multiplexed within
the SDH network.
TU-12 Into TUG-2
A TU-12 can now be multiplexed into a Tributary Unit Group (TUG) with other TUs. The SDH
Multiplex Structure Diagram shows that up to three TU-12s or four TU-11s can be multiplexed
into a TU-12. In actuality a mixture of TU-11 & 12s can be multiplexed together to maximise the
TUG-2 capacity. It should be noted that a combination of TU types (i.e. TU-11 & 12) may be
multiplexed together to form the TUG-2.
TUG-2 Into TUG-3
For the purposes of this example we are assuming that the TU-2 is further multiplexed to form a
TUG-3. This is only one way that the TUG-2 could have been forwarded on to form part of the
STM frame. It could have had more POH bytes added to it to form a VC-3.
A process of Byte Interleaving achieves multiplexing of TUs into TUGs, or TUGs into larger
TUGs. Byte interleaving is illustrated below.

TUG-3 Into VC-4
In our example the TUG-3 would then have another lot of POH data added to it to form a VC-4
container.
VC-4 I nto AU-4
Another pointer is added to the VC-4 to form an Administrative Unit (AU). Again this allows the
VC-4 to vary in respect to the STM by tracking this pointer.
AU-4 Into AUG
Further overheads are added to the AU-4 to form an Administrative Unit Group (AUG). Also up
to three AU-3s can be multiplexed together to form an AUG. The AUG has a fixed position
within the STM-1 frame.
AUG I nto STM-1 FRAME
Finally further overhead bytes are added to the AUG to form a Synchronous Transport Module
or STM-1. This is the fundamental transmission block within a SDH network.
The data rate of an STM-1 frame is 155.52Mbit/s. 140Mbit/s of this is the original circuit
information with the other 11% of transmitted data comprising the overheads added.
The STM also has to be able to deal with slight asynchonism caused when a network element
loads a VC that it did not create into a STM. Pointers are again used as is detailed by the TUG-3
® VC-4 example. One important difference to note is that where a VC-4 frame slips in time
relative to the STM SOH, correction is achieved by 3 bytes at a time rather than the single byte
change.

Question?
During commissioning one of the pathways to be tested was set up with a connection command
“c s14-8 s6-1-j4-k271 & s8-1-j4--k271”.
What does it mean?
If you can’t answer now don’t worry. Hopefully you will be able to figure it out after KLM
notation is explained.
The answer to the question is given at the end of the explanation.

KLM Numbering
Within a SDH network it is important to be able to assign channels to different pathways to
allow correct routing of information.
This means that an engineer must be able to identify specific channels at any network node.
For example a 2.048Mbit/s tributary may be required to be outputted on a SDH aggregate from a
Nortel TN- 4XE switch.
The way a channel is identified at a node is by the use of KLM notation system.
This system allows for the identification of the associated interface card slot within the
equipment, the STM and the applicable TUGs/TUs within that STM.
The notation details the following information:
· Associated card slot within equipment.
· Associated port on card.
· Associated STM frame.
· Associated TUG3 within STM frame.
· AssociatedTUG2 within TUG3.
· Associated TU within TUG2.
click on to view full size image(34K).
KLM Notation Example Diagram.
The KLM Notation Example Diagram, has been provided to help explain how KLM notation,
along with KLM Numbering Chart helps explain the KLM numbering associated with TU-12s,
TUG-2s & TUG-3s contained within an STM-1 frame.

KLM Numbering Chart (TU-12, TUG-2 & TUG-3s.
click on to view full size image(70K).
In the example being used a STM-1 tributary is being connected to port 1 of a 2 port STM-1 tributary card (KLM
Notation Example Diagram).
The actual channel that we are concerned with within the STM-1 frame is channel 49.
The first part of the notation to be used must indicate the slot number of the tributary card.
KLM Notation Example Diagram illustrates that the STM-1 tributary is being connected to a card in slot 1 of the
shelf.
It can also be seen that it is connected to port 1.
The notation used to indicate this would be “S1-1”.
Note: if port 2 was being used it would be “S1-2”.
The next part of the notation indicates the STM frame associated J1 byte.
As this is a single STM-1 frame there is only a single J1 byte.
Therefore the notation used would be “J1”.
Note: If this was a STM-4 frame and we where interested in the second STM-1 frame held within it the notation
would be “J2” etc.
The final part of the notation is to indicate the TU-12, TUG-2 and TUG-3 associated with channel 49.
From the KLM Numbering Chart it can be seen that TUG-3 #3 is the one that is associated with Channel 48.
Also it can be seen that the TUG-2 associated with TUG-3 #3 that will carry this channels will be TUG-2 #2. Finally
it can be seen that the TU-12 container that would be used to contain this channel within the TUG-2 #2 frame would
be TU-12 #3. Therefore, as the notation lists the TUG-3 followed by the TUG-2 and finally by the TU-12 the
notation in this case would be “323”.
This means that the full notation string to indicate channel 48 of the STM-1 frame connected to port 1 of a card in
shelf 1 of a 4XE would be “S1-1-J1-323”
Although this notation looks relatively complex once the fundamental rules are grasped it becomes reasonably easy
to implement.
REMEMBER THE NOTATION LISTS THE TUG-3
FOLLOWED BY TUG-2 AND FINNALLY THE TU-12.


Question Revisited.
You should now be able to understand that the connection command “c
s14-8 s6-1-j4-k271 & s8-1-j4--k271” provided the following:
. “s14-15 s6-1” - Connected traffic on port 15 of the card in slot 14
(2Mbit Trib Card)
to port 1 of the card in slot 6 (4XE Aggregate A)
. “j4” – This assigned the traffic from Port 15 of the 2 Mbit Trib Card
to the fourth STM-1 frame within the outgoing STM-4 frame.
. “k271” – This assigned the traffic to TUG-12 #1 within TUG-2 #7,
in turn within TUG-3 #2 of this STM-1 frame.
This corresponds to Channel 40 of the 63 Channels within this frame.
. “s8-1-j4--k271” – this provided path protection on the Aggregate B card
using the 4th STM frame , Channel 40.
Point to Point System Testing

Path Protection within a Point To Point System.
This section will discuss why Path Protecting is required and also how it is achieved within a
Point-to-Point system. SNC-P path protection implies that each VC-4 (STM-1) is broadcast over
two separate routes.
In the event of a cable cut or equipment failure, the end-node selects the best signal from the
working and protected signals arriving via different routes. Hence, the switching time is very fast
(below 50ms), as no particular protocol is needed between nodes to allow for restoration.

Types of protection.
UPS
SDH equipment can be connected to Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS) and/or be provided by
power from standby generators, to protect against mains failures.
Equipment Redundancy
To ensure that if an item or card within an SDH network fails, that may cause a serious network
outage, duplicate standby equipment may be installed. This equipment is automatically switched
in if a failure occurs i.e. there may be a dedicated standby tributary card that traffic will
automatically route through if a failure occurs. Another advantage of standby equipment is that it
can be brought on line to allow essential maintenance to take place.
Restoration
This is used when end-to-end path of service failure occurs. This is achieved by allocating spare
network capacity which traffic can be rerouted into if a loss of signal occurs. Rerouting
algorithms within network element software controls this process. Restoration may also be
achieved by being assigned capacity that was being used by lower priority traffic.
Restoration offers good flexibility but can be extremely slow (seconds or minutes to hours) that
has a major effect on real time data. This slowness is due to the complex rerouting algorithms
that are required as well as restoration being initiated only when the failure is detected.
Dedicated Path/VC Trail Protection
Duplicating traffic in the form of Virtual Containers, and transmitting it simultaneously in two
separate directions, is known as “dedicated path” or “VC trail” protection. The receiving network
node compares the two received signals and then selects the better quality signal. If a failure
occurs on one of the paths the receiving node automatically selects the other VC path.
An example of this type of protection is a path protected ring in which traffic is transmitted in
both directions around the ring from the originating station.
Subnetwork Connection Protection
Unlike dedicated path protection that involves switching at the end of an “end of path”,
subnetwork connection protection (SNCP) involves switching by intermediate nodes to restore
service. See the diagram below for an example of SNCP.

(A) illustrates the normal working/path protection links of or network example.(B) illustrates
that dedicated path protection switches in if a failure occurs on the working path. However, if
another failure occurs on the remaining working link there is now no remaining dedicated path
protection to switch too. (C) illustrates how this is overcome by the use of SNCP by enabling
subnetworks to switch to a protection path rather than the entire link.
SNCP can be seen to offer greater network resilience than simple dedicated path protection.
Multiplex Section Linear Protection
This type of protection operates on traffic links between two connected multiplexing nodes. Two
physical fibres are used to connect the nodes and if one fibre fails, traffic will be automatically
switched on to the other fibre to ensure connection is maintained. These fibres can be routed over
divers paths so that if a cable is physically cut then the other cable will be unaffected.
Self Healing Rings
Self-healing rings provide diverse route protection and comprise two types; those that protect
section layers and those that provide path layer protection. These can further be further
subdivided into bi-directional or unidirectional rings.
The Dedicated Path Protection diagram below illustrates a dedicated protection ring. Traffic is
duplicated and sent on both routes on the ring.

It can be seen that although this offers protection it is a waste of network capacity.Multiplex
section shared protection rings (MS-SPRing) as illustrated below overcome this wasted capacity.

MS-SPRings do not use a dedicated path for the protection of every link. They provide
protection by reserving capacity for the protection of several working paths. In the event of a
failure all traffic on a section is switched. It appears at first that MS-SPRing does not offer any
further advantage over dedicated path rings. However the MSPRING Example diagram below
illustrates the advantage to network capacity much clearer.

The Example illustrates that between (A) and (B) eight STM-1 channels are required to route
traffic across route (w1) and eight STM-1 channels are required to route this traffic in the other
direction, route (p1). This restricts the network to 8 working STM-1 channels on each section of
the ring so if traffic is routed between (D) & (E) then all the capacity will be used will a total of
16 user channels only.
If however, MS-SPRing is used, traffic between A&B still uses eight STM-1 channels but the
other nodes on the ring can share the eight channels used for protection. As can be seen by the
MSPRING Example diagram, this means that it is possible to have six 8 channel links between
the nodes (A-B, B-C, C-D, D-E, E-F & A-F), allowing a maximum of 48 user channels on this
network.
It should be noted that the various protection schemes discussed can be mixed and matched
during network design to give an overall protection scheme that suits the requirements of the
network operator. SPRings are often used in ring topology networks but restoration is often
chosen in highly complex meshed architectures.

What is APS (Automatic Protection Switching)?
The APS(Automatic Protection Switching) specified in ITU-T G.783,
is applied for line switching procedure using SDH K1/K 2 byte and its restoration time is within
50 msec. In the 1+1 configuration, the same signal is transmitted over the working and standby
lines. In the 1:1 configuration, the idle signal or extra traffic signal are transmitted on the standby
line.
Both 1+1 and 1:1 protections performs 100% restoration, while the 1:N protection perform
partial restoration.

Summary
MS-SPRing: performs ring switching or span switching between nodes. Each working traffic
and protection traffic is transmitted bidirectionally over spans. The protection traffic can be
flexibly used for extra traffic, not protection.
2F MS-SPRing:Each fibre handles both working traffic and protection traffic, and half of the
bandwidth can be used for working and remaining for protection which protects the working
traffic transmitting in the opposite direction around the ring. Traffic is terminated at each node
around the ring, so 2F MS-SPRing can reuse the bandwidth and provide effective networking
solution.
4F MS-SPRing: Each fibre handles working traffic or protection traffic which are transmitted
over one fibre pair respectively. There are two protection switching modes, Ring protection
switching and Span protection switching. Moreover 4F MS-SPRing has twice capacity of 2F
MS-SPRing, so 4F MS-SPRing can be suited for requiring bountiful capacity and/or highly
reliable protection such as backbone network.

ADM System Testing
Introduction
During this part of the commissioning process an understanding of what Add Drop Multiplexers
(ADM) actually achive was required. It was therefore decided to include a basic overview of
ADMs in this section of the site. It was also felt appropriate to include information on various
other types of equipment such as cross connect switches and to show how they would intergrate
together to form an SDH network.

Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM) Theory.
The main function of the Add Drop Multiplexer is to add (insert) and drop lower order electrical
signals usually HDB3 into the higher order STM-1 signal.
The ADM can also cross connect lower order paths internally.
The symbol used to represent an ADM is shown in the diagram below:

The real benefit of SDH over PDH is the ability to drop or insert channels to customers.
The Add drop multiplexer is an integral part of this ability.
The ADM is produced at various rates or operation as detailed in the table below:
STM Standard Bit Rate
STM-1 155.520Mbits/s
STM-4 622.080Mbits/s
STM-16 2448.320Mbits/s
An initial example of ADM operation is given by the diagram below:

As mentioned the main problem with the demultiplexing of a PDH signal is that the whole circuit
must be demultiplexed to provide for example a 2Mbps link.
This is more easily appreciated if a typical example is considered. Assume three switching
centers / exchanges located in different towns/cities are interconnected by 140Mbps (PDH) trunk
circuits.
A business customer, with sites located somewhere between them, makes a request to link the
sites with a 2Mbps leased circuit to create a private network.
Because it is not possible to identify a lower bit rate channel from the higher order bit stream, the
operator must fully demultiplex the 140Mbps stream down to the 2Mbps level before this can be
allocated to the customer. This stream must then be remultiplexed back into the 140Mbps stream
for onward transmission.
Although the customer request was fairly simple the actual process that must be followed is
extensive and the equipment is very expensive.
This type of demultiplexing operation would be performed by an ADM without the need for
extensive demultiplexing.
SDH ADM’s can be configured and reconfigured remotely to provide any desired bandwidth
mix without the need for demultiplexing. The general principle is shown in the diagram below.
Redundant links are used between each pair of SDH multiplexers and these can be brought into
service using commands received from a remote network management station.


ADM Rings.
One main advantage of the ADM is its ability to be employed within a Ring type network
Topography. The following diagram shows an example of this:

In the example shown above the ADM’s are 16 by 2 Mbit/s types.
This gives this ring the ability to add a 2Mbit/s signal at any of the ADM’s and drop that signal
at any ADM within the network which, again is a great advantage over PDH systems.
One other function of the ADM is to provide cross connection facilities for low order paths. In
the above diagram a 2Mbit/s circuit can be added at SMX 2 and sent out East to SMX 3.
SMX 3 can cross connect it (West to East) and send it (East to West) to SMX4. All of this is
achieved by software control.
Another major advantage of Add/Drop Mux equipment showing the flexibility of routing
controlled by software. No longer is manual jumpering required to reroute a circuit as needed by
a Mux Mountain.
This means large savings in manpower, travelling time and equipment expenses as routing can
be controlled from a central point controlled by software.

ADM Types
STM-1, ADM's
These form the first level of a SDH network. In addition to STM-1 ADMs there are also STM-4
and STM-16 ADMs.
STM-4, ADM,s
These are used at the 2nd level of a SDH network where a line rate 4 (622Mbit/s) is utilised. An
STM-4 ADM has the capacity to add/drop at the same rates as an STM-1 ADM but can also
add/drop & cross-connect VC-4.
STM, ADM-16's
An STM-16 ADM is used at the 3rd level of a SDH network where a line rate 16 (2.4Gbit/s) is in
operation. It has an internal 24 x 24 switch for VC4/3/2/12 switching and cross-connection. It can also
combine VC-4s into a STM-16 signal.

SDH Line Systems
SDH line systems are used to multiplex and transport STM-1 or 140Mbit/s PDH signals between
terminal repeater stations. It should be noted that the optical signal may need regenerating by
using Intermediate Regeneration (IR) equipment to transmit over long distances. Common line
systems used in SDH networks are STM-4 and STM-16.
STM-4 Line System
The STM-4 line system multiplexes 4 tributary signals together to form a 622.08Mbit/s
aggregate signal. The tributary ports can be configured to accept either STM-1 SDH or
140Mbit/s PDH signals. The POH of the STM-1 inputs are removed and the AU-4s created are
then byte interleaved. A new section overhead is then added and the new signal is converted to
optical format for transmission down an optical fibre.

PDH signals are converted to AU-4s for transmission over the system.
For distances in excess of 30km an Intermediate Regenerator (IR) may be required. This consists
of an optical receive line card followed by an optical transmission line card. In-between the
receive and transmit cards the signal is converted back to electrical format so that it can be
regenerated.
Timing for the line system can be clocked from an external timing source by the use of a built in
timing input port. The timing signal can be extracted at the output port for further use in another
section of the network.
STM-16 Line System
There are two major differences between an STM-16 line system and a STM-4 one. The first
difference is that it can accept 16 tributary signals, either STM-1 or 140Mbit/s PDH.

The second and major difference between them is that the STM-16 line system can incorporate
an optional multiplex section path to provide a back up path in case the primary fibre optic path
fails. Network operators do not always use the optional multiplex section path as this is
dependent upon the cost required to provide the path balanced against the traffic importance
allocated to the link.

SDH Digital Cross Connect Equipment.
The basic function of SDH cross connect equipment is to switch network signals, usually in the
form of STM-N, in the same way that a telephone exchange switches calls.
Cross-connects are known as DXCs within Europe and DCSs in the United States. For the
purposes of this assignment we shall use the DXC classification. Normally the type of DXC is
indicated in the format DXC p/q, where p is the hierarchical order of the port bit rate and q is the
hierarchical order of the traffic component that is switched within that port bit rate.
DXCs divert signals between traffic streams and can be fully controlled by software. Also a
DXC integrates the functions of line termination/multiplexing and the automatic reconfiguration
of signals into one unit. This ensures that traffic routes can be easily changed to allow for
congestion, link failures and to minimise costs.
Some cross-connect designs allow all traffic interfaces to be in PDH form for compatibility with
existing equipment. In particular, these designs might allow the p hierarchical level in a DXC p/q
cross-connect to be at either 34 or 140 Mbit/s in PDH format, as an alternative to STM-1. This is
so that network flexibility becomes available where a SDH infrastructure does not yet exist. In
these cross-connects, a port at 34 or 140 Mbit/s can include embedded PDH multiplex equipment
for internal conversion to and from 2 Mbit/s thus providing a multiplexer function between PDH
and SDH areas of the network.
DXCs occur in two main types, high order and low order.
High Order DXCs.
Higher order cross-connects can be used to switch up to 64 x STM-1signals. They are designated
as DXC 4/4.

A DXC 4/4 can switch the following signals:
i. STM-1 to STM-1.
ii. STM-1 to 140Mbit/s PDH.
iii. 140Mbit/s PDH to STM-1.
iv. 140Mbit/s PDH to140Mbit/s PDH.
The switch deals with the various inputs to be switched by processing them all into AU-4s before
actually switching them.
Low Order DXCs.
Lower order cross-connects (DXC 4/1 or 1/1, the "1" denoting primary rate at 1.5 or 2 Mbit/s)
are used for time switching leased lines, consolidation, and service restoration. They switch
traffic components down to primary rate, usually having options to switch alternatively at the
intermediate rate of 34 or 45 Mbit/s.

The DXC 4/1 is both a switch and a multiplexer. It can switch low order paths into 140Mbit/s, or
STM-1, signals. Also it has the ability to cross connect any VC type (VC-12, VC-2, VC-3 & VC-
4). It can be configured for use with a wide range of Plesiochronous & Synchronous interfaces.
Combined DXCs
In actuality DXCs are usually combined to provide maximum switching flexibility.

This of combination of switches is extremely versatile e.g. a VC-12 can be switched into an STM-
1 signal purely by software control.
Consolidation & Grooming.
One of the major uses of DXCs is that of consolidation and grooming. Consolidation is a process
of taking several partly used incoming stream, from various users, and combining them into one
outgoing stream. Grooming is the process of combining several streams owned by a customer
into one steam i.e. several different locations can present their traffic to the SDH network where
it can be combined into one stream for delivery to a final destination location. Also grooming
can be used to combine the same types of traffic on one stream e.g. voice, data etc. The Diagram
below gives schematic examples of this.


SDH Network Layouts.
We have now examined all the major components of an SDH network and it is time to show how
the various network topologies, levels and hardware fit together.
Traditional networks make use of mesh and hub (i.e., star) arrangements, but with the help of
DXCs and hub multiplexers SDH allows for far greater flexibility. SDH also enables the
combining of standard network topologies with rings and chains of ADMs to improve flexibility
and reliability across the core and access areas of a network.
We have already seen how ADMs can be used to provide a ring network but in reality a SDH
network is liable to be much more complicated. The diagram below gives an example of how
SDH ADMs and DXCs can be combined together to provide a realistic network.

Another example is also provided below to give a schematic representation of how a SDH
network may be tiered.

In the diagram a client is accessing the SDH network at the STM-4 ring via a dual parented
SDH-1 multiplexor. Also a DLE is accessing the network along with other network elements
such as 64kbit/s and ATM traffic links. This shows the ability of a SDH system to convey mixed
traffic types over the same network.
In the Inner core layer at the lower levels ADMs are generally used. As we move up into the
higher levels these are replaced by DXC equipment. In practice the higher level of the inner core
could be connected to a large gateway link (i.e. International Gateways) to allow large volumes
of STM-N traffic to be routed to other large SDH networks.
Most SDH networks are based on the principles illustrated above i.e. STM-1 & 4 rings in the
outer core and a mixture of STM-16 and DXC’s in the inner core.
Ring System Testing
Synchronisation.
Synchronisation is concerned with the timing of traffic between network elements within an
SDH network.
The TN-4XE can synchronise to any external signal that is traceable to a primary reference clock
or to its own internal oscillator.
Synchronisation source selection can be carried out automatically under software control or an
operator can choose a source.
At initial start up (or after a cold restart) the multiplexer is set to automatically use its internal
oscillator as the synchronisation source.
The synchronous equipment timing source (SETS) function exists on each aggregate card.
This means in the event of the master aggregate card failing the SETS control is automatically
passed to the backup aggregate.
The TN-4XE provides two 2MHz external synchronisation outputs, which are locked to the
selected input timing source.
The source of the synchronisation signal may be selected from:
· Either of the two external synchronisation input ports.
· An STM-4 port on an aggregate card.
· An STM-1e or STM- 1o port on a tributary card.

Control Circuits
The tn-4XE has two control circuits for choosing a synchronisation source (see diagram below).
These are:
· Synchronisation equipment timing generator (SETG) used for internal timing.
· External synchronisation output (ESO)
The selection mechanism of the SETG and the ESO are identical, however each can select a
different synchronisation source and the ESO can take it’s timing from the SETG.


Synchronisation source hierarchy lists.
The SETG and ESO synchronisation source hierarchy lists, contain up to four synchronisation
sources listed in order of selection preference.
The internal reference oscillator is also available to the SETG if none of the list entries are
usable. These lists are configured by the operator from the CAT. The SETG can be an entry in
the ESO hierarchy list.

This block diagram,shows the decision process used for selection of a source,using its position in
the hierarchy list as the selection criteria.

Forced Selection Of A Synchronisation Source.
The operator can override the automatic selection process and force the network element to use a
specific source; this source is then used irrespective of its condition. The forced command
overrides the current source selection.
The forced switch command can use any source that is available to the multiplexer; this includes
sources that are not in the hierarchy table. Where the force command is used and the destination
source is faulty, the SETG will go into holdover mode.

Holdover Mode
If there are no sources in the hierarchy list available, or the operator applies a forced switch to
faulty source, then the multiplexer enters holdover mode. This mode maintains synchronisation
timing for the multiplexer for 48 hours.
There are two ways to exit holdover mode:
· If a synchronisation source from the list becomes available.
· If the forced switch is removed.

External Synchronisation Output (ESO)
The ESO synchronisation selection is similar to the SETG. Again the operation is automatic,
controlled by the source hierarchy table. The source selection is similar to the SETG with the
following exceptions:
· The SETG can be selected as a synchronisation source.
· The ESO signal is squelched if no synchronisation source is selected from the hierarchy.

Setting Synchronisation Parameters.
The section below shows the commands that were used to set the synchronisation for our TN-
4XE’s.
Configuring SETG Synchronization.
TN-4XE/Config/Sync_source/
>>h s6-1 s8-1
Warning: (3550) Traffic may be hit,
Are you sure? [Yes,No]:y
1, OK;
This is to set taking sync off Port 1 of the STM-4 agg card in slot 6, with a standby source of the
STM-4 agg card in slot 8, with a final hold over option if both these sources fail.

TN-4XE/Config/Sync_source/
>> h none
Warning: (3550) Traffic may be hit,
Are you sure? [Yes,No]:y
1, OK;
This is is to set the 4XE in holdover mode i.e. using its own internal clock to sync off.

Syncronisation required for 4 x TN-4XE's.
The diagram below shows the synchronisation setup that we have used when commissioning our
4 TN-4XE’s.

From the diagram it can be seen that KIB-1 is set to synchronise from its own internal time
source, and KIB’s-2 / 4 take there timing from KIB-1.

Jesper
Jesper G.
Service Engineer at Magventure A/S
Been looking for that without any real luck.
It represents the layers in the Multiplexing of 63 VC12´s into a VC4.
K: is TUG3 (1,2 or 3) L: is the TU2 (1,2,-7) and M: the TU12 (1,2 or 3).
see the graphical representation in SDH lectures.
What I have found is that it has started with A,B;C - - (alphabetic) in the multiplexing
structure, and with VC12 it has reached K,L and M?
Pls. correct if anybody knows the correct explanation

Sushil
Sushil B.
Manager/ Technical Specialist/ Wireless Instructor, Wireless Transport Engineering at
NEC Corporation
TU-12 slot number =K+ (L-1)x3 + (M-1)x21;
where, K=TUG-3 location number; 1≤ K ≤3;
L=TUG-2 location number; 1≤ L ≤7;
M= TU-12 location number; 1≤ M ≤3;
Example: STM-1 =63 x VC-12 or 63 E1 channels. What is the channel number for the
specific channel which is under "3rd TU-12" of "4th TUG2" of "2nd TUG3"?

Solution: in above problem, K=2 [since 2nd TUG3]
L=4 [since 4th TUG12]
M=3 [since 3rd TU-12]
hence, channel number/TU-12 slot number = 2+(4-1)x3+(3-1)x21 =53.
it means, Ch number-53 or 53rd number VC-12 belongs to 2-4-3 [K-L-M].
For more details, please visit http://www.net-gyver.com/?p=809

Asad Naveed
Asad Naveed M.
General Manager (System Engg) at PTCL
Good explanation Sushil

Syed
Syed N.
Transmission Engineer at Ericsson India Pvt Ltd
Shushil explained in clarity......gr888 job
Thanks for sharing the link...Sushil

Imran
Imran H.
at DU,EITC.
and if I ask about TU and TUG? Can any body explain please ,what does that actually
mean? or how an STM frame is structured?

Asad Naveed
Asad Naveed M.
General Manager (System Engg) at PTCL
TU is Tributary Unit while TUG is Tributary Unit Group.
3 x TU-12 = TUG-2
7 x TUG-2 = TUG-3
Just look for SDH Structure in any good reference and it will give all the details.

Rahul
Rahul S.
JTO Transmission Projectat BSNL
i think the formula should be (K-1)x21+(L-1)x3+M
where K goes from 1 to 3
M between 1 to 7 and M from 1 to 3

Gerard
Gerard D.
Technical Operations Digital Realty Trust.
I like the explanation from Sushil Bhattacharjee

Suneeth
Suneeth P.
Good Job Sushil. Rahul i appreciate your effort. as far as i know sushil is correct. yu may
also note KLM value starts with 1-1-1 thats first TU12 in STM-1 and ends on 3-7-3 (Last
TU12 in an STM-1)

further 3 x 7 x 3 = 63 (total number of TU12 (E1 not T1 [TU11]) in an STM-1

Its actually JKLM where "J" stands for STM-1 No. J2-1-1-1 means first TU12 of second
STM

Jesper
Jesper G.
Service Engineer at Magventure A/S
The more acurate term for J might me AU-4, not STM-1.
Re KLM, it could also be seen grahical, for some it might be easier than all the
mathematics, consider it as transport boxes (pigeon holes)
each VC-4, splits into 3 TUG-3's
each TUG-3, splits into 7 TUG-2's (though normally not in use, capacity 6M)
and each TUG-2, splits into 3 TU-12's
Like seen on this page: http://sdh.iwarp.com/page%204.html

David
David R.
Provisioning Engineer - Virgin Media
Its basically payload mapping, when your path provisioning its good for channelising
your payload,
when your testing kit you can set your testers up to flow through indicates channels, or
bulk as most prefer.
In NOC environment, alarms usually come up as "unequipped vc4....." or unequipped
alarms..... meaning that channel in your payload is dropped.... still cant remember if there
is a meaning for KLM .....

Williams Obote
Williams Obote U.
CTO at Wavetekk
Gents, the payload mapping varies dependding on whether you re referring to E1/T1 as
the case maybe. It is basically used to determine the total number of 2.048Mbps and how
it is grouped into Tributary Unit Groups (TUG). KLM starts from 1.1.1 to 3.7.3 which
gives a total of 63E1s. It is applied when making cross connects in an ADMs so as to
avoid mismatch of E1 ports.so far, this is an interesting topic and every member of this
group has contributed immensely. Thump up! Guys

Dominic
Dominic M.
CCNA, MNSE, COREN
To add to Williams,
K describes TUG-3 group (1-3)
L describes a TUG-2 group inside a TUG-3 (1-7)
M describes a TU-12/VC12/E1 inside a TUG-2 (1-3)

Arghya
Arghya L.
Freelance at different telco and Internet companies
every TUG-3 possesses 21 channel. So 1-7-3, the last channel of first TUG-3 ends at
channel 21. 2-7-3, last channel of 2nd TUG-3 ends at channel 42. So 2-4-3 must be
between these two. It can not be more than 42 or less than 22.

amirul
amirul A.
Implementor for Broadcast circuit at Telekom Malaysia
it is really good information!!!!

Miroslav
Miroslav K.
Engineer, Core Transmission Planning at Mobiltel
You can find useful info here: http://sdh.iwarp.com/page%204.html

dinesh
dinesh Z.
telecom/transmission engineer at BSNL
Can any1 share STM-16 confi. in TEJAS. I mean how 2 add cross conn/TM in ring

Omar
Omar B.
Telecom Expert at TransurbTechnirail
thanks for the great information
in addition , i want to share with you this information,
when you use an FO connection between an SDH equipment and another equipment (
Switching equipment , compression equipment, ..) ; make sure that you have the same
KLM ,

-
- -.
Good info. by Mr. Sushil...thanks

Nitin
Nitin S.
Network Solutions (DWDM/SDH)
Mr. Sushil r u give rigth ans.

Anwar
Anwar Z.
GE JTO, Transmission, BSNL
I think the formula should be 21*(K-1)+3*(L-1)+M because K is TUG-3 having values
from 1 to 3. And TUG-3 # 2 can not go beyond 42 (TUG-3 # 3 goes upto 63). So as told
by Mr Sushil that K=2 L=4 M=3 represents E1#53 is wrong, it should be E1#33. As we
know that K=1 L=1 M=1 gives E1#1 and K=3 L=7 M=3 gives E1#63 then according to
Mr Sushil K=3 L=7 M=2 will give E1#42, but it should be E1#62.

Ulises
Ulises L.
Telecommunications Engineer / Professional
Formulas aside, the best way to locate your container is to use K-L-M descriptions, as
opposed to container "index" which is not defined in the ITU standard, leaving to the
vendor to decide how to calculate an "index". The two main "index" schemes are the
Huawei and the "Nortel", both go from 0 to 63. The Nortel is widely used by almost
every vendor. Bottom line, transmission planning documents should have klm
designators, and not be indexed by generic container number. That would make the links
vendor transparent.

Xinhe
Xinhe C.
Optical Network Consultant at CommsResources
G.707 has a explanation in detail. Actually, for example, if huawei's optix pdh interface
interconnected with lucent sdh device pdh interface, we have a time-slot number
converter table .

German
German G.
Network Management Analyst at ExxonMobil
Just to make what Mr. Dominic and others have explained very well a little more
graphical, I've made a simple image detailing the K-L-M nomenclature.

http://img16.imageshack.us/img16/5118/sdhklmbygermangonzalez.png

Remember:

* M will tell you which TU-12 you are using (i.e. where your specific data is located)
within a TUG-2. There are three possibilities (3 TU-12 will fit into one TUG-2).

* L will tell you which TUG-2 you are using within a TUG-3. There are seven
possibilities (7 TUG-2 will fit into one TUG-3).

* K will tell you which TUG-3 you are using within a C-4. There are three possibilities (3
TUG-3 will fit into one C-4).

With just these three parameters, you'll be able to choose or determine where exactly
your data is within a VC-4, depending on whether you are setting up a trail, or reviewing
an already established one.

Sankar Raman
Sankar Raman R.
SDH Testing Engineer at Tejas Networks Ltd
Ya, thanks Sushil Bhattacharjee and jesper Groth that is correct and that is all are
mapping structure for sdh. And all alarms depend the klm values.

Can you tel me the meaning of KLM.

Md. Abdul
Md. Abdul M.
Lead Engineer, Radio & Transmission Systems at Grameenphone Ltd
JKLM means SDH structure based on G.707 & G.709 standard in the following way:
J indicate STM number. If you use 2G5 card here you will get 16STM1 stream, so J
indicate which STM1 you are using.
K indicate channel number of VC4
L indicate channel number of TUG3
M indicate channel number of TUG2

Arun
Arun S.
Consultant and RPM for ION project at Pearson Technologies
Great Job guys, I feel the entire question would have got answered. I really feel blessed
that I have so many friends who can answer any query with such details. Hats off to you
guys.

Sankar Raman
Sankar Raman R.
SDH Testing Engineer at Tejas Networks Ltd
KLM,: TU2=TU12 * 3,TUG3=TUG2 * 7,VC4=TUG3 * 3. which one for STM1
mapping.

Sankar Raman
Sankar Raman R.
SDH Testing Engineer at Tejas Networks Ltd
Thanks sunil, Abdul Munaf and All..

Md. Abdul
Md. Abdul M.
Lead Engineer, Radio & Transmission Systems at Grameenphone Ltd
Dear Concern,


The term K.L.M is the SDH structure based on G.707 & G.709 standard.



Actually it will be J.K.L.M. where :



J: Represent the number of STM-1 i.e. if you use IFQ2G5 card you will get 4
STM4 module and each module contain 4 STM-1 port. So J indicate which STM-1
port
will be used.



K: Represent the number of channel of VC3 container. You know VC3 contain
three VC2 container and each container contain 21E1. So, if you use K=1 it
means VC3 channel number: 1



L: Represent the number of channel of VC2 container. You know VC2 contain
Seven VC12 container and each container contain 3E1. So. If you use L=1 it
means VC2 channel number: 1



M: Represent the number of channel of V12 container. You know V12 contain
3E1 channel. So, if you use M=1 it means VC12 channel number:1




Thanks,



Munnaf

Sinuhe
Sinuhe H.
Field Operation Network Engineer IV at Level 3 Communications
You can use this iPhone / iPad app in iTunes Store that calculates a KLM time slot

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/klm-and-time-slot-mapping/id545384420?ls=1&mt=8

Enjoy

Huub 高明
Huub 高明 V.
Senior Networking Consultant at Huawei Technologies
In this thread I see a lot of guesses and wrong interpretations/advise.
Only one person refers to G.707.

Please read G.707 for the proper definition of the KLM notation and calculation
and its use to identify a VC-12/VC-3/VC-4 in and STM-N frame.
G.707 is free to download at http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.707-200701-I