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) (World Atlas of Desertification
.)2991( UNEP


English section

101-1
101

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79

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79
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Dudly Stamp, A Glossary of Geographical Terms, London, 1992 .


John Small & M.Witherick, A Modern Dectionary of Geography
London, 1995 .

Monkhouse , A Dectionary of Geography London, 1972 .

Moore, W.G., A Dectionary of Geography London, 1997 .


Strahler, A.N., Physical Geography N.Y. 1997 .
Trewarta, & Robinson & Hammond, Elements of Geography
N.Y. 1990 .

.

.

... .

..


()


=
-
-

AA=Aphrolith
Marae monuments
brick
Avars
Fata morgana
Sextant = Quadrant
Abkasian
needle - ice
obsidian
Appalachia
cognate
streamline
pressure tendency
atriplex
Etruscans
equilibrium
stable equilibrium
NAFTA) North American Free
Trade Agreement
trace fossil
Ethnography
Ethnology
agave
deforestation
brushwood
holt
jungle
)coppice or copse, taillis(Fr.
stand
stress
-3-


()

( )

oligopoly
attrition
terai
vital statistics
Ahqaf
bustee
blood brother
canon
graben
arroyo
rift valley or ramp valley
resource management

backing
solution
partial fallow
tierra fria
tierra tempelada
Roaring Forties
backwash
altitude
relative relief
argon
archipelago
ardoise or slate
hemipelagic deposits
speleothem

( )

hydrometeorology
Earth
interment = intermontane
interfluve
malpais

-4-

backland
heath = heath land
Bad lands
Sahul land
black earth = chernozem (Rus.)
arable land
stone - polygon
mammilated surface
barrens
prisere
mire
fallow
common
open country
fore-land
lande
patterned ground
striped ground
Arnt
desegregation, ecological or
racial
acetate
steppes
abstraction, river
stratigraphical Geology =
Stratigraphy
Australoids
remote sensing
climatotherapy
absolute stability
matrifocal family
-5-

=

) (











-

-


) (

river capture or river piracy


Astrolabe
pressure ridge
planeze
projection
population projection
perspective projection
skauk
Eskimo
Proto-goths
quantification
hardwood
glacier bands
radiation
terrestrial radiation
solar-constant (perpetual)
Ashkenazim
moss
asar
indigenous
atmospheric disturbance
perturbation
latent instability
radioactive decay
Atlas
alleviation
reforestation
high seas
equinox
autumnal equinox
spring equinox or vernal equinox
-6-

) (

cafuso
cyclone
tropical cyclone or tropical
revolving storm
Uvala
ravine
soil horizon
rational = true horizon
Apparent horizon
horizon, sensible (visible)
Ballot
conjunction
syzygy
atomistic economy
plucking
Pygmies or Neglitos
seignurie (Fr.)
trust territory
complementary region
merokarst
natural region

) (






) (




) (

specific region
climatic region
morphological region
generic region
functional region
puys
Asiatic Syrian arcs
occlusion
acrilan (acrylic)
oxygen
-7-



-

) (

oxidation
cannibalism
corona
hillock
mulga
alpinization
Alpine
Dinarides,Dinaric folds
Alpide
contortion of beds
downfold
Hercynian fold

) (


) (

plate tectonics
abaca
telescopic alidade
open-sight alidade
adsorption
absorption
concession
blood rain
amphibole
Possibilism
phreatic eruption
solution pipe
dairying
transhumance
heliotropism
diffusion
transportation
migration of divide
anthracite
-8-

anthropology
Pidgin English
backslope
pressure gradient
hydraulic gradient
bearing
declination
temperature anomaly
declination, magnetic =
variation, magnetic
negative movement of sea level
magmatic emanation
polar outbreak
andesite
aneroidograph
landslides
landslide = landslip
soil fluction
side slip
rock-slide
rotational slip
slip
Peking man
Pithecanthropus
Sinanthropus
Cro-Magnon man
Neanderthal man
drift

) (

) (

) (

ice streaming
geostrofi flow
helicoidal flow



)
(

-9-



) (


Anschiuss
cleavage
compression
inversion (of temp.)
calving
neese (nose, ness, nab, naze)
strain
Gutenberg discontinuity
Mohorevicic discontinuity
solstice
reversed fault
ancylus
channel patterns
apposed glaciers
betrunked rivers
solution collapse
rock fall
mass movement , mass wasting
species, clouds
anemograph
anemometer
opstal
oblast
apogee
phases of the moon
Augite
orthodrome
oro
ozone
oceanography
Oldowan= Oldvai
- 10 -


) (
)(

) (

( )

( )
-

( )

Ulotrichi
Oligocene
Olivine
dependency
Aeta
Aerography
grove
acre
ecology
Ainu
ionosphere

( )

patana
padang
paddies
artesian well
)seismic origin (focus

( )
( )

mud pot
)Moulin (Fr.
alluvial well
semi-artesian well
dust well
abandoned well
gate
bar
barothermograph
barograph
barogram
Baroque
- 11 -

( )

barometer
aneroid barometer
Pareoean
bazar
basalt
bastide
)Basques (the
doline = dolina
sink hole
Palaeogene, Paleogene
Palaeozoic era

( )

()
-
()
()

( )

()

( )





Pamir
pantanal
pantograph
Banket
panorama
pitchblende
spring-sapping
bajada
pegmatite
sand sea
sea
Tethys sea
Geosyncline
inland sea
Champlain sea
Littorin sea
epicontinental sea
marginal sea
lake
finger lake
- 12 -


) (

landslide lake
maar (Ger.)
glacial lake
preglacial lake
lagoon
crater-lake
karst lake
bitter lake
paternoster lake
closed lake
salt lake
extinct lake

ox-bow lake
lacustrine
nomadism
pediment
col
Berber
hot tower
karst tower
Barhan = Barchan
hail
graupel
overland
isthmus
neck (of land)
lightning
sheet lightning
volcano
active volcano
shield volcano
- 13 -

( )

plug - volcano
pond
oil pool
plunge - pool
Vulcanicity=volcanism
Paramos
peridotite
)breccia (ltal.
Brythonic
Bysmalith
laterite
)pan (hardpan

)
(
( )
( )

)(

mud, flat
broad
)rond (broad
horizontal equivalent
sunspots
plane table
aeroplankton
Planimeter
planina
Playa
Plaiuri
township
Bolson
Pampas
model building
Pingo
structure
gravity collapse structure
imbricate structure
- 14 -

) (

) (

inverted structure
Bahada
Bohorok
Pueblo
Butte
podzol or podsol
Bora
Buran
Puszta
Bushmen
gyro - compass
compass, magnetic


) (





(

)




) (
) (
) (

prismatic compass
Bogaz
bauxite or beauxite
Pula
Polder
Polyp
puna
Bonanza
Ponente
environment
abyssal environment
oligotrophic environment
aquatic environment
built environment
tidal data
termite mound
Pedology
Pyrheliometer
pyroxene (minerals)
- 15 -

pyrometer
pyrite
Bise (Fr.)


41


) (


) (

swing of the pressure belts


radiocarbon dating
carbon 14 dating
Tephrochronology
sequence dating
natural history
age dating
morphogenesis (genetic)
advection
acclimatization
taconite
nationalization
Taiga
evaporation
adiabatic cooling
supercooling
precession of the equinoxes
succession
sequence
acculturization
rejuvenation, river
river rejuvenation
anagyph
glacition
icing

- 16 -

pergelation (permafrost)
rock - drumlin
angular aggregates
folk-wandering
weathering
differential weathering
nivation
physical weathering
organic weathering
chemical weathering
spheroidal weathering
honeycomb weathering
mechanical (or physical) weathering

erosion
rill erosion
Tjaele (Swed.)
petrifaction or petrification
compaction anticline
dipmeter survey
pressure release
climatic amelioration
urbanization
decomposition
hydrolysis
paleoecological analysis
ecological analysis
sediment analysis
pollen analysis
multivariate analysis
till fabric analysis
system analysis
- 17 -



-





) (
-








) (

Horton analysis
thermal metamorphism
regional metamorphism
metasomatism
annual storage
degradation
percolation
frontier
marches or marks
saltation
geothermal gradient
heat gradient


) (


uniform flow
climatic deterioration
deflation
ablation
Gotiglacial
scarp retreat
retrogradation
parallel retreat of slope
slope retreat
travertine or tufa
accretion = accumulation
progradation
soil
solum
interzonal soil
subsoil
eluvium
pedocal
lithosol
- 18 -

red earth
Terra Rosa
acid soil
grey earth
Rendsina = Rendzina
glei soil
prairie soil
permafrost
adobe
)hydromorphic, (glei
planosol
regosol


()

-







()




()

topsoil
)immature soil (Azonal
palaeosol
chestnut soil
Black Cotton-Earth
alkaline soil
latosol
azonal soil
anaerobic soil
colluvial soil
sedentary soil
oxisols
meadow soil
pedalfer
polygon, soil
)halomorphic (soil
)solonetz (Rus.
( solonchak (Rus.
expansive soil
- 19 -

mature soil
edaphic
quadrature
sedimentation
deposition
illuviation
alleviation
internal sedimentation
silting
canal
thining of bed
pinch - out
hatch (hatching) = hachure (Fr.)

) (

) (


) (


-


)(

Wet-bulb thermometer
minimum therrmometer
maximum thermometer
Tropopause
global warming
Continental drift theory
precipitation
orographic precipitation
antecedent precipitation
sublimation


)
(

adiabatic heating
seepage
tasmanite
tsunami (tidal wave) (Jap.)
aggradation
gradation (denudation)
planation
saturation
- 20 -

waterlogging
perhumid
supersaturation
afforestation
glacial divergence
thermal fracture
insolation
lithification
discordant drainage
pinnate drainage
convection
induration











) (


land classification
kppen climatic classification
aerial photography
configuration = relief
relict landform
juvenile topography
lineament
micro - relief
alveolate relief
vales and cuestas
inverted relief
steatopygia
maximum relief
initial landform
sequential landform
Acculturation
magmatic evolution
photo - relief
co-existence
- 21 -

ecogenesis
census
Block caving
denudation
Sub-aqueous (submarine),
erosion
subaerial erosion
micro - erosion
suspension
alimentation, glacial
pool and riffle
stoping magmatic
natural population change
positive or negative movement
of sea - level
sere
cloudiness
delta switching
nano - relief
disintegration
granular disintegration
haloclasty
gully erosion
glacial outbust
population explosion
carbonisation
bifurcation
glacial branching (diffluence)
tephigram




)
(





anaglacial
spealling (exfoliation)
onion weathering
- 22 -

exfoliation = onion weathering


sheeting
calendar
agglomeration
tectonics
tektite
condensation
capital intensive
singularity
basic cost
hindcast
lithogenesis
niveo-fluvial (fluvio glacial)
peneplanation, pediplanation,
panplanation
allocthon-ous
Lias
adaptation
hill
barrow = tumulus
sea mount

)(




) (



) (

mound
tepee butte
hummock
adjustment to structure
flocculation
overcast
seeding of cloude
pollution
water contamination=water
pollution
air pollution


- 23 -

Telemeter
accordance of summit levels =
accordance of hill tops
cementation
assimilation
megashear
slump, (slumping)
shearing
hydration
forecast (weather)
numerical weather forecasting
earthquake prediction
long range forecast
betel or pepper
Tundra (Rus.)
family planning
cataclasis
altiplanation
heat balance
thalassostatic
grade (of river)
collueion
conformity
lag of seasons
orientation
steering, atmospheric
population distribution
time - trangressive
Greenwish mean time (G.M.T.)
tombolo
current
- 24 -

telluric currents
density currents
ocean current
convection current
race
hydraulic tidal current
tidal current
jet stream
airstream
meridional flow
zonal flow
Terramara

) (

Typhoon
Theodolite
Tierra caliente

solar constant
second
tabular iceberg true thickness
of bed
vertical thickness of bed
Mantle rock = egolith
port or seaport
water gap
snow
powder snow
ogive
bigamy
cold loop
- 25 -


) (





-
-

warm loop
periclinez
ingrown meander
eruption, volcanic
paroxysmal eruption
plinian eruption
Strombolian eruption
demographic revolution
Musk-ox
Thermograph
Thermogram
Thermometer

theocracy

Gabbro
garigue = garrigue
colony
limb of fold
downthrown side
progressive profile
folded or fold mountains
block mountains
mountains of circumdenudation
= circumerosion

young mountains
mountain
horst
accumulation, mountain of
Iceberg
- 26 -

monadnock
relict mountain
front
cold front
ice - front
warm front
polar front
anafront
katafront
occlusion
headwall
foot wall



()

foot wall of a fault


sill, sheet
brook
life table
rivulet
superglacial stream
bourne
ropy-corded lava
perigeah tide
root
Granite
microgranite
scour
rain wash
laminar flow
interflow
run-off
throughflow
turbulent flow
- 27 -


()
( )


-

grit
Gregale
grus
ebb- tide
festoon islands
island=islet
heat - island
cay
holm, holme
coral island
ait =eyot
tombolo

()
()

Geography
Chorography
Hydrography
Anthropogeography
Historical Geography
commercial geography
Biogeography
Mathematical Geoqrophy
Behavioural geography
Physical geography
Phytogeography
Perception geography
geographical pathology
Zoogeography
Geopacifics
Paleogography
drought
desiccation
aridity
- 28 -

soli moisture deficit


partial drought
absolutc drought
Xerohytes
dust-bowl
glen
tillite
ploughing block
ice
aggradational ice
anchor-ice
drift ice




()


-





( )

glacial
tidal glacier stream
Nupa
sleet
cataract
Gondwana
deep south
Cardinal points
)radiosonde (Fr.
Loran
scud
slickensides
enclave
Ghetto
Geopolitics
Geology
Subsurface geology
solid geology
lunar geology
- 29 -

coastal geomorphology
climatic geomorphology
Geomorphology

Mole
jetty
barrier, ice
ice barrier
bay barrier
point bar deposits
riffle





()

(
)




()



barrier beach
sand bar
dyke-dike
colour bar
(reef (coral
barrier reef
breakwater
megalopolis
escarpment = scarp
mid - ocean ridge
cliff
submarine ridge
nip
glacis
scar
fault scarp
obsequent fault line scarp
)ridge (of high pressure
- 30 -

Stevenson screen
isostasy
nuptiality
mature

soil erosion
corrasion
determinism
Limestone
Oolite (Oolite limestone )
pisolith, pisolite (limestone )
sugar limestone
magnesian limestone
Millstone grit
sandestone
old red sandstone
psammite
Nubian sandstone
mudstone
oversale
flood volume
boundary
modernism
timber line
head of navigation
swell
anticline
shoal

geanticlines
anticlinorium
accident
- 31 -

latent heat
accumulated temperature
specific heat
scrub
block lava or Harra
epeirogenesi
crustal movements
Appalachian storm
Armorican storm
tectonic movement
gyre
Caledonian storm
Laramide Movement (revolution)

Eustatic movement
occupational mobility
till
desert belt
striae
lodgement till
sop
pebble
dreikanter
ventifact
shingle
plateau - gravel
gravel
volcanic cinders = lapilli
deep leads
sand sheet
sediment yield
civilization
- 32 -




) (


) (





()


( )
( )

( )
(
)

Chellean civilization
Folsom culture
Madelenian age = Magdalenian age

Mousterian culture
perigee
detritus
protalus rampart
detritus = debris
pot holes
blowout
fossil
index fossil
ceremony
iceway
Archaean Era = Pre-Cambrian Era

Tertiary
Secondary Era
= Cainozoic = Kainozoic
Cenozoic era
Mesozic era
Quarternary era










( )

snowfield
ice-field
Firn
condominium
kakistocracy
oligarchy
dry point settlements
wet point settlements
nivation cirque
cirque or corrie
- 33 -


()

niche glacier
reef - knoll
abandoned settlement
oozes
Radiolarian ooze
Hammada = Hamada
hot spring =
thermal spring
humic acid
suspended load
bed load
capacity of stream
dissolved load
load, river
buckwheat
jetties
umland
basin
catchment
drainage basin
retarding basin







) (

-

inland basin
sump
oceanic basin
underground water basin
river basin
agricultural holding
ridge
aworeness space
Fauna
coral polyp
- 34 -

map
morphographic map
ore
canyon
gorge
submarine canyon
peat
subsurface maps
sieve-maps
chart
structural map
isognic map
orographic map
relief map
paleogeographic map
paleogologic map
geomorphological map
absolute flatland map
planisphere
topographic map
synoptic chart or weather chart
base map

structural contour map


)illuminated relief (map
palinspastic map
international million map
)fall (autumn
Khazrs
- 35 -


()


-

-

tank
polje
slump
lunar eclipse
snout
)Nv (Fr.) or Firn (Ger.
loxodrome
strike
plottable error
contour
base line
Equator
thermal equator
Celestial equator
sandy-hook
interface, biosphere
slope-profile line
betrothal
base line erosion
Chequer-board plan
neat line
isogonic line
isoneph
isotherm
isohel
isobar
isobath
isohyet=isohyetal
line=isopluvial line
isohaline
isokeph



()









- 36 -

isonomalous line
isollobar
snowline
Greenwich meridian
actual isotherm
Yellow peril
Rhumb line
isochron
Meridian
Coastline = shore-line
fall line
principal meridian

antimeridian
Line squall
agonic line
cotidal line
geodesic line (orthodrome)
thalweg (Ger.) or valley line
International Date Line
spring-line
Latitude = parallel of latitude
standard parallel
glacier snout
isopleth
equipluves
longitudes
Mulatto
aggregate
ruderal vegetation
bay = bight
gulf
- 37 -

) (

ria
Khamsin
deep sea trenches
fosse
dry wash
Huerta (SP.)
spinney or spinny

Ecliptic = Zodiac
small circle
illumination (circle of)
Antarctic circle
Arctic circle
Great circle
pot (En.) cirque (Fr.)
cwn
humus
mull
reef
aractic sea smoke
Dravidians
Dryopithecus
glacial stairway

riegel
paired terrace
degree
gradient, slope
wet bulb temperature
sky cover
- 38 -


) (


) (

temperature
shade temperature
sensible temperature
river (or alluvial) terrace
moulin (Fr.) = glacier mill
coign or shield
shield inselberg
Arabian shield
shield (continental)
thrust
thicket
sagebrush

slushflow
minute
knoll
pack - ice
Decuman
delta
iudelta
bird foot delta
digitate delta
conglomerates
amalgamation
blizzard
compaction
Donga
Parallels
Mountain sickness
Wind vane
glacier mill
polar vortex
- 39 -



) (






whirlpool
whirlwind
rotor streaming
polycyclic (multicyclic)
rotation of earth
Illinoian (glacial)
lowan (glacial)
monogladiation
Kansan (glacial)
pluvial (phase)
Mindel
Nebraskan

Brckner cycle
cycle of erosion
southern circuit
geomorphic cycle
cycle of denudation
agricultural rotaion
rotaion of crops
Northern circuit
rock cycle
cycle of poverty
material cycle
anamolistic cycle
apogean tide
nitrogen cycle
hydrological cycle
Hadley cell
periodicity
benelux
police state
- 40 -

( )
()

buffer state
debtor nation
isolated state
Dolmen
dolomite
dominion
donum
Diabase
Dale
geodynamics
diorite

maize
high water
Peri-helion
dbcle
ice thaw



()
-

Radio-sonde
cape = head = headland = naze
= ness = point
thunderhead
sediment
)Rasputitsa (Rus.
affluent
agglomerate
interlocking spurs
- 41 -

(

)


Raycan
hogback
spring
rank
stream order
order of streams (stream
order)
residual debris (deposit)
mizzle (drizzle)
abyssal deposits
pelagic deposits
aeolian deposits
colluvium
block draughter
periodgram
stage diagram
scatter- diagram
reconnaissance mapping
infiltration
rainfall infiltration
pavement

platform
abrasion platform
desert pavement
rock pavement
continental platform
humidity
relative humidity
specific humidity (absolute)
absolute humidity
arte (Fr.) = comb ridge
- 42 -

animal husbandary
pastoral farming
shelf
shelf, ice
ledge
Continental shelf
elevation
rhythmite
pancake lce
varve clays
radex
ice rind

cumulus
push - moraine
ground moraine
ablation till
recessional moraine
snowdrift
lateral moraine
moraine
ablation moraine
englacial drift
ice cored moraine
Stratocumulus
shear moraine
scree or talus
altocumulus
kettle moraine

altocumulus castellatus
calms of Capricorn
calms of Cancer
- 43 -

Volcanic ash
quicksand
sand
green sand
oil sand
shoestring sand
shell-sand
millet seed sand
tar sands
arenaceous
loam
map symbols

downthrow of a fault
throw of a fault
calina
haze = stratus
altostratus
nimbostratus
doldrums
slack
terrigenous deposits
peripediment
pelagic deposits
littoral doposit
superficial deposits
hydrogenic deposits
floodplain deposits
fluvioglacial deposits
overbank deposits
mounds, spring
Rumansh = Romanche
- 44 -

irrigation
overirrigation
lift irrigation
flood irrigation
Pampero
Papagayo
Purga (Rus.)
trade winds
anabatic wind = mountain wind

lanetary winds
prevailing winds
dominant wind






) (













Santa Ana (wind)(Sp.)


surazo (wind)
Solano (sp.)
Sumatra (wind)
etesian winds or metelmi
Fhn (Foehn) wind
polar winds
mistral
gradient wind = pressure
gradient wind
katabatic wind
Harmattan
Helm wind
veering winds
wind
Shamal
norther (norte)
kartburan
Seistan



) (

- 45 -

stowed wind
avalanche wind
rhyolite

)
(

grivation
angle of rest (repose)
hade
surf
hite horses or white caps
pumice
shift
heave of fault
soil creep
rock creep
talus creep
agriculture
dry farming
truck farming
Intensive cultivation
viticulture
organic farming
mixed farming
terrace cultivation

) (

guano
earthquake
deep focus earthquake
kataseism
major earthquake
cobble
- 46 -

solifluction
geological time
Primary
)Pleistocene (Quaternary era
Azoic
monogamy
kataglacial
squall
dust devil
natural increase
population increase

()

pelagic
slushzone

coast
)sastruga (Rus.
savanna = tropical grassland
)limpo (Portu.
park savanna
Saale
syenite
sabkha
saline = salt-marsh
alkali flat
sounding
saprolite
spinifex
Stratosphere
Strath

()

- 47 -




) (

log
Hygrogram
cloud
pelean cloud
lenticular cloud
nacreous cloud
accessory clouds
abrasion
dam
Sudd
earthy dam
ice - dam

) (




ring dyke
Nebula
mirage (Fr.)
serpentine
saddle-reef
ponor
settling velocity
mean velocity
serir
old land
terrain
primarrumpf (Ger.)
endrumpf
striped surface, structural
surface
gipfelflur (Ger.)
acidented relief
bedding plane
reef - flat

- 48 -




-


-


ridge-and rvine topography


salt-flat
infiltration capacity
piedmont
pediment, deposinol
pediment , erosional
Schattenseite (Ger.)
continental rise
standard hillslope
sand blast
aeolian ablation
population

-











) (

aboriginal population
scoria
Alpines
lberian race
Mediterranean race
geographical race
Nordic race
Yellow race
Mongolian race
catenary = catenary complex
chain or range
Cordillera
range of mountains
Sierra (Sp.)
series
capital goods
Selvas (Sp.)
silcrete
silicon
- 49 -

mackerel sky
porphyry
azimuth or zenith
Simoom
batholith or bathylith or stock
sinter
solar year
light year
lunar year
leap year
water year
sidereal year
core,mountain
Sanskrit
Cinchona
childbearing years
plain
pediplain
piedmont alluvial plain
peneplain = peneplan
gibber plain
Reg
outwash plain or sandr
coastal plain
alluvial plain
flood plain
clinoplain
Prairies
panplain= panplane
accessibility
nektons





) (

-

) (

=







). (

- 50 -

cuspate coasts
Swahili
white Australian policy
pronatalist policy
population policy
Sial
Saeters
Obsidian
flood-tide
thaw
siderite
Sirocco = Scirocco

Seismogram
littoral
siphon
psephite
Sima
Cimmerian
cenote

Chaparral
beach
back shore

concordant coast
storm - beach
weather shore
lee shore
raised beach
neutral coast
- 51 -

submerged coast
levee
peninsula
national grid
grid
drainage net
graticule
irrigation system
reference net
quasi - equilibrium
periglacial
penumbra
subarctic
thermokarst
mist
African diospora
Cacao
able-bodied person
tension
earthquake magnitude
anomaly
positive anomaly, of
temperature
cusp
St. Elmo's fire
berm= berme
creek
sunrise
schist
bank
sand bank


( )

-

- 52 -

) (


Shotts
Beaker folk
Atoll
Pre-Dravidian people
coral reef
after glow
Twilight
chine
joint
splaying crevasse
contraction cracks
negative landform



) (

landform
cascade
rapid
northing
magnetic north
Sun
mock sun = parhelion
midnight sun
Chinook
meteor or shooting star
month
shores of emergence
shores of submergence
mangrove coast
neutral shorelines
scallop shores

- 53 -

- ) (


) (


exports
invisible exports
cactus
patina
banner-cloud
desert
spinifex desert
rock
parent rock (material)
geyserite
bedrock
stac
tilt block
perched block
stack
asbestos
dolomitic sand rock
muschelkalk (Ger. (
resistant rock
sarsen
outlier
precipitate

hypabyssal rocks
plutonic or abyssal rocks
Roches moutonnes (Fr.)
acidic rocks
sedimentary rocks
impermeable rocks =
impervious rocks
- 54 -

extrusive rocks
Keewatin
abyssal rocks
rudaceous rocks
basement rocks
alkaline rocks
intrusive rocks
metamorphic rocks
permeable rocks
derivative rocks
nappes (Fr.)
pervious rocks

mollasse rocks
igneous rocks
foreshore
fault
sphenochasm
tear - fault
crevasse
strike - fault
thrust fault
step - fault
tension, fault
fold-fault
normal fault
vertical normal fault
oblique fault
transverse fault, heave fault,
tear fault, transcurrent fault
slip fault
dipfault



- 55 -

active fault
bluff
graben faults
antithetic faults
southerly burster
parallel drainage
discharge
cryptoreic
Sub-surface wasb
interior drainage or internal
drainage
trellised drainage
dendritic drainage
backland drainage
resequent drainage
accordant drainage
reversed drainage
annular drainage
angulate pattern
inconsequent drainage
superimposed drainage

-

-

Thermogram
Anemogram
Seismogram
frost
hoar frost
glazed frost
clay
red clay
solfatara
southern cross
- 56 -

heavy industry
parasitic lndustry
magma
stalagmites
greenhouse (greenhouse effect)
aerial photograph
oblique aerial photograph

) (




) (

faubourg (Fr.)
fog
ground fog
radiation fog
ice - fog
smog
advection fog
birth control
neritic
anti-trades or counter-trades
anti dip
anticyclone
rime
pore water pressure
atmospheric pressure
technical atmosphere
standard atmosphere
normal (standard) atmospheric
pressure
upland
rise
- 57 -

sunshine

caste or caste system


potential evapotranspiration
potential energy
potential instability (of an air
mass)
water power

tidal energy
talik
chalk
stratification
subsurface beds
competent beds
topset beds
stratum
class
aquafer or aquifer
exosphere
aquitard
aquiclude
inlier
molisol layer (active)
incompetent bed
topography
depositioal topography
adolescent topography
mature topography
rock flour
- 58 -

=
-
-




) (



) (

fold limb
tarn
tornado or African tornado
waterspout
resection
Great circle route
ringstrasse
Globigerina ooze
Diatom ooze
freshet
boulder clay or till
tuff
baby boom
shale
oil shale
weather
desert varnish
Protozoic
talc
Sabilian silt
ice foot
Dolichocephalic = Dokephs
storm -surge
floe = ice-floe
slope length
folding=plication
folds, orogenic
bending folds
congruous folds
fold
monoclinal fold (or monocline)
fold, epiorogenic
major fold
- 59 -

()
=

overthrust
advance fold = advance wave
longitudinal fold
asymmetric fold
overfold
recumbent fold
( nappe (Fr.
syncline
synclinorium
isoclinal folding
mud
green mud





()

pitch
limon
sapropel
silt
slurry
mud , oceanic


( )


hydrometeor
umbra
rain shadow
ruware
hinter-land

rain storm
storm
- 60 -

thunderstorm
sand storm
dust storm
tropical revolving storm or
tropical cyclone
magnetic storm
aeroplankton
carcinogen
Animisticism
Ancestor worship
Opisometer
dust counter
perched water table
indeterminacy
atmospheric instability
absolute instability
disconformity
angular unconformity
nonconformity = unconformity
Brakephs = Brachycephalic
erg
lode
Horse latitudes
mid - latitudes
segregation, ecological or racial
ice segregation
permanent hardness of water
clan
Woomero = woomerang
Ordovician period
Palaeocene
- 61 -

) (
-


) (














) (









()

()

Permian period
Bronze age
Pleistocene period
Pliocene period
glacial period
)Ice age (little ice
Jurassic period
)Recent (age
Holocene
Stone Age
Mesolithic age
Neolithic age

Palaeolithic age
Mesolithic period
Iron Age
Age of Reptiles
Silurian period
Carboniferous period
orocratic period
Mississippian
Pluvial period
Miocene Age
Neogene

( )


()


( )

gust
Acacia
alidade
organic
knot
death penalty
ripple marks
time signals
- 62 -




()



()
()

()


( )
( -)
-

-




( )
-
()

Bench mark
Orthography
Potamology
Limnology
paleoecology
Geochronology
Morphochronology
Taxonomy
Areography
Mammology
cryology
Glaciology
Geodesy
Palaeontology = Palaebiology
Palaeobotany
Cartography
Lithology
Palethnology
Orography
Demography
Seismology
= Petrology = Geognosy
Geognosis
Geophysics
Micrometeorology
Radar meteorology
Palynology
Meteorology
Aerology
)Inselberg (Ger.
Morphometry
- 63 -

Bathymetry
Speleology, Spelaeology
Mineralogy
Climatology
Bioclimatology
dynamic climatology
Palaeoclimatology
Phytoclimate
Physiognomy of plants
ice-cap
absolute age
nuclear settlement

relative age of rocks


median age
tectogenesis
orogeny
Earth pillar
regelation
geologic column
neutral stability
atmospheric elements
process elements
response elements
neck (of volcano)
volcanic neck
Planktons
limnoplankton
potamoplankton
epignic forces
resurgence
random sample
- 64 -

forest
equatorial forest = tropical
rainforest
megatherm
deciduous forest
thorn forest
coniferous forest

) (




) (









) (


swamp - forest
rain forest
Submerged forest
monsoon forest
marsh gas
dust
volcanic dust
westerlies
brave west winds
sunset
alluvium
civil twilight
sheet erosion = sheet wash
surface detention
spine, volcanic
ice - jam
ice-sheet
okta (Ger.)
regolith
semi-natural vegetation
natural vegetation
- 65 -



) (





) (
=

Atmosphere
aerosphere (atmosphere)
heterosphere
Troposphere
Stratosphere
Biosphere
Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
pelagic
Gneiss
abime
foredeep

) (

marginal deep
abyss
deep
muskeg
leaching


()

overland flow
precipitation efficiency
(effectiveness)
temperature effeciency
absolute pouverty
phacolith or phacolite (saddle reef)

spatter cone
reef talus
response time
relaxation time
Gunz glacial = Gunz ice period
- 66 -



) (







( )

Donau glacial
Riss glacial
Sangamon interglacial
Sub - Atlantic phase
sub - Boreal
interglacial
Great interglacial
interpluvial
Wrm glacial = Wrm ice age
Gindel glacial
Holestein
granule


-
-

dawn
Eolithic
recession
hiatus
karst window
air gap or wind gap
bituminous coal
glade
sorting
distributary channel
distributary
anabranch
Physiography
season
re-entrant
)Veld (Ger.
base metal
Felspar = Feldspar
Orbit
- 67 -

Flysch
mouth of river
wend
graphicacy
Geyser
Alfold
macrofauna
crater
fiard
Firth
over-production
over-population









()

stream - flood
spate
flash flood
sand flood
sludging
catastrophic flood
sheet flood = sheet flow
Phenology
fiord

()

monolith

habitability
arid
continent
continentality
valley divide
sole
- 68 -



) (

skew-base
river bed
Nullah
Fathom
Playfair's law
Buys Ballots law
superposition, law of
Ferrels law
sixth power law
dome
tholoid
eroded dome

) (

salt dome (salt plug)


Gibli
kettle hole or kettle
ecologic potential
hydro-electric power
volcanic bomb
map reading
hadal
Australopithecus
Horn (Germ.)
Horn,African
secular
formless village
daughter settlement
Cirrus = Mares tails
Cirrocumulus
Cirrostratus
earth crust
hardpan = ironpan
- 69 -

desert crust
continental crust
Kasba
pipe
valley train
gradient profile
soil profile
profile of equilibrium (for river
or shore)
warm sector
river profile
Catalan
geomagnetic poles
Poles
Cold pole
South pole
north magnetic pole (of the
earth)
South magnetic pole (of the
Earth)
magnetic pole of the Earth
antarctic
cut-offs
diastrophism
jokul
crest
pike
peak
aiguille
apex of fold
pyramid (pyramidal) peak
moon

- 70 -





) (



) (
) (

) (


mock moon or paraselene


sugar loaf

Gutenberg channel
ship canal

marginal channel

snow bridge
natural bridge

capillary channels

omnivorous

Horton's laws

Land power
sea power
hydraulic force
arc
sea arch
ark, Syrian
fog bow
Rainbow
Caucasian
lichenometry
pathymetry
plant productivity, index of
metrication
sediment discharge rating

indian summer
peak land-value Intersection
(PLVI)

- 71 -

()

( )

benthos
aerobic
Caatinga
karakol
cartogram
cataclysm
catastrophe
catastrophic
Cardo
karst
polygonal karst
karroo
Caribou
Cascadia
Mallee
kame
canton
Kaoliang
kaolin
Kayak
shoulder, promontory
alp

barysphere or Bathysphee or
centro-sphere
Pangaea = Pangeea
socle
Laurasia
stock
median mass

- 72 -

polar air - mass


erratic blocks = erratic
air masses
massive
drainage density
population density
texture ratio
coastal dunes
fixed dunes
dune or sand dune
lateral dune
drumlin


) (

) (

esker
tail - dune
seif dune
longitudinal dune
head dune
advanced dune
star-dune
parabolic dune
Kraal
globe
celestial sphere
corroboree
chronograph
chronometer
creole
tension, fracture
eclipse,Solar
annular eclipse
Hygroscope
- 73 -

pancake karst
hamlet
kavir

caldera

calcite

hook
cluse

) (

Climograph=hythergraph

clinometer

campos

Rainfall

carring contour

cave

Quartz

quartzite
Kopje

copra

alcove

) (

Kurgan

elbow of capture
Coca

planet

Round Barrows

cuesta

asteroid or planetoid

kubbutz

kilometre

- 74 -

) (

)
(

-

) (

lava
Pahoehoe lava
acid lava
pitchstone
trap lava
pillow lava
Latifundia
Ladin
laccolith or laccolite
dead ground
landsat
Areic
core
nife
Chicle
laterization
caucus
brown coal
Lignite
bill
lobe
spit

sand spit
nehrung (Ger.)
Hamitic languages
Indo-European languages
Hittite language
(Gaulish = Gaelic) language
lingua franca
- 75 -

Linch
loch
Loess (Ger.)
litas

-




) (

meteoric water
vadose water
capillary water
juvenile water
ground water
sub-artesian
potable water
hard water
mineral water
guyot
glaciel table
post - glacia
Mat
Magnetite
raw material
sublittoral
Marl
marjelen lake
Massim
Palmer Drought Severity lndex
(PDSI)
temperature - humidity index
material lndex
magnesite
- 76 -








) (

) (


) (

Maquis
Macchia (Ita.) Maquis (Fr.)
mangrove
Manioc
Malthusian principle
monogenic
metre
liana or liane
polygenetic
antipodes
Meteorograph
Gore
spherical triangle
active glacier
Lebensraum (Ger.)
feteh
magnetic field
external magnetic field
Magnetosphere
geomagnetic field
action space
stable population
community
subclimax=subsere (vegetation)
stream
perennial stream
palaeorill
Channel
temporary stream
braided stream
affluent stream
- 77 -

superimposed stream
older drift
plastic relief
block diagram
geoid
relief model (terrain model)
fossil assemblage
Solar system
set (of items or things of
collection)
cash crops
simulation
quarry
coaling station
protectorate
national park, nature reserve
Axis,Earth's
thalweg
ocean
Panthalassa
wetted perimeter

) (

ford
narrows
output
outlet glacier
mud volcano
composite volcanic cone
adventive cone
cinder cone
demand cone
alluvial cone= alluvial fan
- 78 -









) (

avalanche cone
fertilizers
ray diagram
neap tide
spring tide
life span
tidal range
diurnal range
Seiche
tides
semi-diurnal tide
orbit, Earths

-




) (

Tropics
Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Cancer
earthquake period
cartographic approach
holistic approach (in
geography)
mofette
moder

-
) (


" "

alluvial terrace
histogram
lynchet
shore-face terrace
river terrace
Berkeley school
gully
roof pendant
Neotechnic cities
Mature towns
- 79 -


()

Primate city
burg
million city
lnfantile town
Comet
mercantilism
solvent
murram
parity
fell
High
Hawaiian high


()


stage
reach
seismograph=detector
anchorage
roadstead
ranch
harbour
basement complex
Centrum
Seismic focus
)Epicenter ( Epicentrum
sand fan
panfan
Merino = marino
bilingual
cumulonimbus

)Coastal zone colour scanner (CZCS

cadastral survey
drainage area
- 80 -

contour interval
absolute distance
storm tracks
sheep-tracks or terracettes
porosity
Sonograph
rawinsonde
rocketsonde
quadrangle
marsh = swamp
swamp
back swamp

-
()

muskeg
mangrove swamp
entrepot
)A - horizon (soil
level of saturation
replacement level fertility
plane of the ecliptic
sea level
joint plane
fault plane
datum level
piezometric surface
deep-sea plain
base level
temporary base - level
summit plane
water table = level of
saturation
fold plane


- 81 -


-
-

axial plane
Hygrograph
Hyetograph
survey
aerial photogrammetry
Geological surveying
aerial survey
gouge
inlet
sand stream
sunshine recorder
tidal flat




= -





scalded flat
Cylindrical projection
Albers projection
Orthographic projection
Aitoff's projection
Bonnes Projection
Peter's projection
icefall
Goodes interrupted
homolosine projection
Galls projection
Mercators projection
Map projection
Sanson-Flamsteed Sinusoidal
projection
zenithal projection

Azimuthal projection
=zenithal projection
polar projection


- 82 -



) (








globular projection
Lamberts azimuthal
waterfall
outfall
ismetric projection
Polyhedric projection
polyconic projection
interrupted map projection
Stereographic projection
Conical projection
secant conic projection
Gnomonic projection
Equal-area projection =
homolographic projection


) (

sinusoidal projection
Mollweides projection
headcut
knick point
Hammer projection
lake dwelling

mesquite
seracs (Fr.)
rock-glacier
overflow channel
wood
provenance
estuary
groyne or groin
climatic terrace
terrace polygenique
- 83 -

Nephanalysis
anti pollution
pitch
strait
rubber, natural
rain
cyclonic rain
Plum rains or Bai-u
convectional rain
orographic rain
millet rains
maize rains


) (











) (

relief rainfall
right ascension
composite landscape
hydrostatic equation
negative landforms
positive landforms
albedo
moisture index
sphericity coefficient
gustiness factor
pluviometric coefficient
rain factor
precipitation efficiency index
thermal (or temperature)
effeciency index
portage
rate
abortion rate
fertility rate



- 84 -

incidence rate
prevalence rate
net reproduction rate
survival rate
lead - ratio
infiltration rate
lapse rate
general fertility rate
total fertility rate
mixing ratio
marriage rate
divorce rate

normal
( )
immigration rate

dynamic lapse- rate

birth rate

crude birth rate

illegitimacy rate

growth rate

emigration rate

crude death rate

cause specific death rate

solar day, Mean

)intensity of rainfall (daily

sinuosity ratio, river

static lapserate

crude rate

net migration rate

)intensity of rainfall (hourly
()
infant mortality rate
)

(
- 85 -

) (

maternal moratity rate


case fatality rate
neo natal mortality rate
mineral
ecumene
grotto
allogenic (vegetation,
sediments, stream)
geomagnetism
terrestrial magnetism
palaeomagnetism =
fossilmagnetism
bog
quaking bog
Dip-joints
pyroclast
hinge (of fold)
oblate
Gestalt concept
string bog
scale
competence of stream
tephra
confluence
accordant junction



) (

divide = Waterparting = watershed

watershed
section
geological section




) (

) (











) (


)
(
) (

) (

" "

long profile (river)


projected profile
Rossi- Forel scale
- 86 -


()





()
( )





()
( )

Altimeter
solarimeter
lysimeter
Snow gauge
vibration gravimeter
Thermometer
Hygrometer
Nephoscope
Fathometer
Tellurometer
pluviometer
rain gauge
dip meter
Beaufort scale
roundness
map scale
Psychrometer
Richter scale
current meter
Magnitude of an earthquake
fahrenheit Scale
centigrade Scale
niche
aquifer = ground water
reservoir
placer
)salar, salina, Sali pan (SP.
intertropical convergence zone
lutile
rock -salt
absentee landlordism
- 87 -

) (

salinity
Millibar
pass
Ghat
grasslands
headwater
climate
macroclimate
optimum climate
Mediterranean climate
maritime climate
Frigid climate
soil climate
mountain climate
insular climate
subhumid
semi-desert, semi- arid climate
continental climate
microclimate
zones
homoclimes
tierra helada
everglades
source
longshore drift
slope
ice contact slope
gravity slope
continental slope
slip face
dipslope
- 88 -

hydrograph
altimetric frequency graph
(curve)
Lorenz curve
entrenched or incised meander
analemma
rating curve
stage-discharge curve
time - distance curve of an
earthquake
hypsographic curve
depression
lowland
Aleutian low
Icelandic low
secondary depression
Low
thermal depression
swale (low)
low beach
runnel, swale
lee depression
marginal depression
rapid (river)
surge, glacier
slide
structural contour
Mean Sea Level (MSL)
bankful=bankful stage

) (
) (











) (


).. (



leeward
offshore
ballon sonde or sounding
- 89 -

balloon
pilot balloon
thermomeion
Zone time
Torrid zone

urban area
Sub-polar region
sub-tropical region
thermopleion
pleion
Low Pressure areas
census tract = enumeration
district
frigid zone
)Landes (Fr.
conurbation
temperate zone
Sphere of influence
stereoscope
cultural landscape
natural landscape
landscape
geo-graphics
meander
abolitionism
morass
quagmire
slash
raised bog
outcrop
migrant
passive migrant

((




()

( )


- 90 -









" "



gangue
habitat
opposition
natural resources
renewable resourses
bioclimatic resources
mass balance
Rossby wave
send of waves
primary wave
cold wave
undertow

" "


kinematic wave
warm wave
heat wave
ground swell
shake-wave
roller
rip
)bore= mascaret (Fr.
antipodal bulge
refraction wave
swash
lee - wave
braker
moor or moorland
growing season
Monsoons
site
situation, geographical
absolute location
- 91 -



) (

molasse
Mestizo
Montana (sp.) Montane
monte
artesian water
territorial waters
Hydrology
Mir
groove
abney level
level
Leveling = Levelling

Mesosphere
mica
microtherm
micron
dip
orocline
statute mile
nautical mile or sea mile
geographical mile
back slope
Maelstrom
dip of fault (strike dip)
apparent environment
magnetic dip
treaty port
airport
free port, (Entrepot-Fr.)
river port
minette
- 92 -

mogote (Sp. (

nab
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO)
emigrant
sound
fumarole

) (











) (




flora
topophytes
saxatile flora
epiphytes
hydrophytes
halophytes
mesotherm
mesophytes
segetal plant (vegetation)
secondary growth
saprophyte
sclerophyll
scarp-foot spring
intermittent spring
mineral spring
nebka
Nitrogen
mamelon
steptoe
spur
Nunatak

- 93 -





) (

piton
promontory
Massif (Fr.)
plateau
Pole star
suffusion
headward erosion
lateral erosion
vertical erosion
accelerated erosion
sapping
rattan

) (


) (





) (
) (




notch
meander - scar
dew
guttation dew
Norte
percoline seepage
brain drain
ratio
abortion ratio
child woman ratio
agedependency ratio
concentration ratio
bifurcation ratio
relief ratio
expusure ratio
masculinity rate
cephalic index or head index
illegitimacy ratio
sex ratio
- 94 -

scoria
texture of soil
breeze
sea breeze
land breeze
berg wind
mountain wind or mountain
breeze
glacie breeze
valley wind
talwind
Nesiot
pedogenesis
pumice
orogenesis
Megaliths
hydraulic radius
hemisphere
land hemisphere
Water Hemisphere
nadir
time zones
green belt
temperate belt
subduction zone
asthenosphere = substratum =
tectosphere
Zone of flowage
recharge area








) (

metamorphic aureole
meander belt
trough,pressure
- 95 -

shatter belt
agricultural belt
Corn belt
intermittent saturation (zone of)

clay belt
Grape belt
sweep - zone
Wheat belt
earthquake zone
mottled zone
climatic zone
photic zone









).. (







omega system
data collection system
mesosystem
system, geologic
amphidromic system
basin irrigation system
pressure system
fold system
georef system
open system
Sl (systme international d'unites)

Tetrahedral theory
glacial control theory
displacement theory
distance decay theory
accelerator theory
Isostatic theory
Nebular hypothesis
Planetesimal hypothesis
- 96 -

oscillatory wave theory of tides


Zones and strata theory
permeability
litter (vegetation)
plume
nue ardente (Fr.)
lava tunnel
saturation deficit
soil moisture deficit
spot-height
rejuvenation head (knick
point (
nick-point (En.) = Knickpunkt
(Ger. (
pressure melting point
Aphelion
dew point
transport
funnel cloud
drainage pattern
radial drainage
Pacific type of coast
rectangular drainage
mosaic
allometric growth
model
core periphery model
analogue or simulation model
vonthunen model

) (




) (





solar-control model
iconic model
absolute, minimum
- 97 -


) (

absolute, maximum
river
stone-river
consequent river
secondary consequent stream
subsequent river
glacier
glacier, alpine or mountain
tidal glacier
passive glacier
piedmont glacier
hanging glacier

misfit river (stream)


longitudinal river
anaelinal river = obsequent
river
antecedent river
old river
rejuvenated river
nailbourne
intermittent stream
loaded stream
anastomosing stream = braided
stream
engrafted river
lavant
braided river
superimposed river
influent stream

obsequent river
effluent stream
young river
- 98 -

) - (


mature river
senile river
adolescent river
glacieret
gypsey (river)
gale
meander core
rain spell or wet spell
dry spell
Nabians
airglow
Nor-Wester

nunakol
meteorite
nickel
Nilotes
Nevados

) (

hachure
Halo
Haufendorf
Hypsometer
Haboob
subsidence
sub-glacial chute
migration
net migration
transverse migration
population pyramid
- 99 -




) (


aftershock
tableland
volcanic plateau
interment plateau
tectonic plateau
mesa
residual plateau
dissected Plateau
Altiplano
hectare (Fr.)
Fertile crescent
Wheat crescent
Helium
Amerinds
aeolian
stalactites
gloup= gloap (blow hole)
bergschrund
fen
Hornblende
hurricane
paysage
avalanche
hydrogeology
hydrocarbon
Helictite



) (

cloud burst(cloudburst)
scarp-slope,scarp-face
- 100 -

) (
) (

inface
sonnenseite (Ger.)
precipice
oasis
blind valley
dead valley
dry valley
dingle
gravel train
longitudinal valley
karst valley
double valley

aggraded valley
transverse valley
hanging valley
drowned valley = submerged
valley
senile valley
valley
Wadi
strike - valley

bottle neck valley


imports
immigrant
screen, meteorological
Wallon
plug
ice wedge
slope unit
cartographic unit
quadrat
- 101 -

blue mud
monocline
wind rose
Wurly
specific gravity
mantle (of the earth)
generic description
stillstand (sea level)
aspect, climatic
paintpot
tipping - bucket rain - gauge
bed roughness
roughness
mortality
gouffre (Fr.)
aven (Fr.) = sink hole or sotch
= swallow hole
time
apparent solar time
mean solar time
Local time (L.T.)
standard time
interstadial
natality
Willy-Willy
Aurora australis
Aurora borealis = northern
lights
nightglow
iceblink
Wiro
Vendavales (Sp.)
- 102 -


) (

)


(







) (

). (

) (

yard
Llanos (Sp.)
Yiddish
jade
day
meridian day
solar day
precipitation day
lunar day
rain - day
sidereal day

- 103 -

English section

A
) (


AA=Aphrolith
abaca
abandoned settlement
abandoned well
abime
Abkasian
ablation
ablation moraine
ablation till
able-bodied person
abney level
abolitionism
aboriginal population
abortion rate
abortion ratio
abrasion

abrasion platform
absentee landlordism
absolute age
absolute distance
absolutc drought
absolute flatland map
absolute humidity
absolute instability
absolute location
absolute pouverty
absolute stability
absolute, maximum
absolute, minimum
566







) (



) (

absorption
abstraction, river
abyss
abyssal deposits
abyssal environment
abyssal rocks
Acacia
accelerated erosion
accelerator theory
accessibility
accessory clouds
accident

acclimatization
accordance of summit levels =
accordance of hill tops
accordant drainage
accordant junction
accretion = accumulation
Acculturation
acculturization
accumulated temperature





) (
) (

accumulation, mountain of
acetate
acid lava
acid soil
acidented relief
acidic rocks
acre
acrilan (acrylic)
action space
active fault
567



) (
) (




active glacier
active volcano
actual isotherm
adaptation
adiabatic cooling
adiabatic heating
adjustment to structure
adobe
adolescent river
adolescent topography
adsorption
advance fold = advance wave







-
) (
) (

advanced dune
advection
advection fog
adventive cone
aeolian
aeolian ablation
aeolian deposits
aerial photogrammetry
aerial photograph
aerial photography
aerial survey
aerobic
Aerography
Aerology
aeroplankton
aerosphere (atmosphere)
Aeta
affluent
affluent stream
568

afforestation
African diospora
after glow
aftershock
agave
age dating
agedependency ratio
Age of Reptiles
agglomerate
agglomeration
aggradation
aggradational ice

aggraded valley
aggregate
agonic line
agricultural belt
agricultural holding
agricultural rotaion
agriculture
Ahqaf
aiguille
Ainu
air gap or wind gap
airglow
air masses
air pollution
airport
airstream
ait =eyot
Aitoff's projection
albedo
569






) (


) (

Albers projection
alcove
Aleutian low
Alfold
alidade
alimentation, glacial
alkali flat
alkaline rocks
alkaline soil
alleviation
allocthon-ous
allogenic (vegetation,
sediments, stream)
allometric growth
alluvial cone= alluvial fan
alluvial plain
alluvial terrace
alluvial well
alluvium
alp
Alpide

Alpine
Alpines
alpinization
Altimeter
altimetric frequency graph
(curve)
altiplanation
Altiplano

altitude
altocumulus
altocumulus castellatus
56:

altostratus
alveolate relief
amalgamation
Amerinds
amphibole
amphidromic system
anabatic wind = mountain
wind
anabranch
anaelinal river = obsequent
river
anaerobic soil
anafront
anaglacial
anagyph
analemma
analogue or simulation model
anamolistic cycle
anastomosing stream = braided
stream
Ancestor worship
anchorage
anchor-ice
ancylus
andesite
Anemogram
anemograph
anemometer
aneroid barometer
aneroidograph
angle of rest (repose)
angular aggregates
angular unconformity
574


) (
-

) (

) (

angulate pattern
animal husbandary
Animisticism
annual storage
annular drainage
annular eclipse
anomaly
Anschiuss
antarctic
Antarctic circle
antecedent precipitation
antecedent river

) (
) (

anthracite
anthroplogy
Anthropogeography
anticline
anticlinorium
anticyclone
anti dip
antimeridian
antipodal bulge
anti pollution
antipodes
antithetic faults
anti-trades = counter-trades
apex of fold
Aphelion
apogean tide
apogee
Appalachia
Appalachian storm
574

apparent environment
Apparent horizon
apparent solar time
apposed glaciers
aquafer or aquifer
aquatic environment
aquiclude
aquifer = ground water
reservoir
aquitard
Arabian shield
arable land
aractic sea smoke
arc
Archaean Era = Pre-Cambrian
Era
archipelago
Arctic circle
ardoise or slate
Areic
arenaceous
Areography
arte (Fr.) = comb ridge
argon
arid
aridity
ark, Syrian
Armorican storm
Arnt


) (
) (








) (

arroyo
artesian water
artesian well
574


- ) (

asar
asbestos
Ashkenazim
Asiatic Syrian arcs
aspect, climatic
assimilation
asteroid or planetoid
Asthenosphere or Substratum
or Tectosphere
Astrolabe
asymmetric fold
Atlas
Atmosphere
atmospheric disturbance
atmospheric elements
atmospheric instability
atmospheric pressure
Atoll
atomistic economy
atriplex
attrition



) (



) (

Augite
Aurora australis
Aurora borealis = northern
lights
Australoids
Australopithecus
autumnal equinox
avalanche

avalanche cone
avalanche wind
Avars
574

aven (Fr.) = sink hole or sotch


(E.) = swallow hole
aworeness space
axial plane
Axis, Earth's
azimuth or zenith
Azimuthal projection = zenithal projection
Azoic
azonal soil




) (

baby boom
backing
backland
backland drainage
back shore
back slope
back swamp
backwash
Bad lands
Bahada
bajada
ballon sonde or sounding
balloon
Ballot
bank
Banket
bankful=bankful stage
banner-cloud
bar
Barhan = barchan

-

575

) (
) (
)(

-
-

barogram
barograph
barometer
Baroque
barothermograph
barrens
barrier beach
barrier, ice
barrier reef
barrow = tumulus
barysphere or Bathysphee or
centro-sphere
basalt
base level
base line
base line erosion
base map
basement complex
basement rocks
base metal
basic cost


) (
) (


) (

basin
basin irrigation system
Basques (the)
bastide
batholith or bathylith or stock
Bathymetry
bauxite or beauxite
bay = bight
bay barrier
bazar
576

beach
Beaker folk
bearing
Beaufort scale
bedding plane
bed load
bedrock
bed roughness
Behavioural geography
Bench mark
bending folds
benelux


" "


-
) (

benthos
Berber
bergschrund
berg wind
Berkeley school
berm= berme
betel or pepper
betrothal
betrunked rivers
bifurcation
bifurcation ratio
bigamy
bilingual
bill
bioclimatic resources
Bioclimatology
Biogeography
Biosphere
bird foot delta






577

birth control
birth rate
Bise (Fr.)
bitter lake
bituminous coal
Black Cotton-Earth
black earth = chernozem (Rus.)
blind valley
blizzard
Block caving
block diagram
block draughter

-

=



block lava or Harra


block mountains
blood brother
blood rain
blowout
blue mud
bluff
bog
Bogaz
Bohorok
Bolson
Bonanza
Bonnes Projection
Bora
bore= mascaret (Fr.)
bottle neck valley
boulder clay or till
boundary
bourne
578



) (



braided river
braided stream
brain drain
Brakephs = Brachycephalic
braker
brave west winds
breakwater
breccia (ltal.)
breeze
brick
broad
Bronze age

) (
-

) (

brook
brown coal
Brckner cycle
brushwood
Brythonic
buckwheat
buffer state
built environment
Buran
burg
Bushmen
bustee
Butte
Buys Ballots law
Bysmalith

Caatinga
579

Cacao
cactus
cadastral survey
cafuso
Cainozoic = Kainozoic =
Cenozoic era
calcite
caldera
Caledonian storm
calendar
calina
calms of Cancer
calms of Capricorn
calving
campos
canal
cannibalism
canton
canyon
canon
capacity of stream

-

) (

cape = head = headland = naze


= ness = point
capillary channels
capillary water
capital goods
capital intensive
carbon 14 dating
Carboniferous period





41

carbonisation
carcinogen
Cardinal points
57:

Cardo
Caribou
carring contour
cartogram
cartographic approach
cartographic unit
Cartography
cascade
Cascadia
case fatality rate
cash crops
caste or caste system
cataclasis
cataclysm
Catalan
cataract
catastrophe
catastrophic
catastrophic flood
catchment
catenary = catenary complex
Caucasian
caucus
cause specific death rate
cave
cay
Celestial equator
celestial sphere
cementation
cenote
census

()

584

census tract = enumeration


district
centigrade Scale
Centrum
cephalic index or head index
ceremony
chain or range
chalk
Champlain sea
Channel
channel patterns
Chaparral
chart
Chellean civilization
chemical weathering
Chequer-board plan
chestnut soil
Chicle
child woman ratio
childbearing years
chine

Chinook
Chorography
chronograph
chronometer
Cimmerian
Cinchona
cinder cone
cirque = corrie
Cirrocumulus
Cirrostratus


) (

584

Cirrus = Mares tails


civil twilight
civilization
clan
class
clay
Clay belt
cleavage
cliff
climate
climatic amelioration
climatic deterioration







) (


climatic geomorphology
climatic region
climatic terrace
climatic zone
Climatology
climatotherapy
Climograph=hythergraph
clinometer
clinoplain
closed lake
cloud
cloud burst(cloudburst)
cloudiness
cluse
cotidal line
coaling station
coast
coastal dunes
coastal geomorphology
584

coastal plain
Coastal zone colour scanner
(CZCS)
Coastline = shore-line
cobble
Coca
co-existence
cognate
coign or shield
col
cold front
cold loop
Cold pole
cold wave
collueion
colluvial soil
colluvium
colony
colour bar
Comet
commercial geography


) (

common
community
compaction
compaction anticline
compass, magnetic
competence of stream
competent beds
complementary region
composite landscape
composite volcanic cone
584

) (

compression
concentration ratio
concession
concordant coast
condensation
condominium
configuration = relief
confluence
conformity
conglomerates
congruous folds
Conical projection






)
(



-


coniferous forest
conjunction
consequent river
continent
continental climate
continental crust
Continental drift theory
continental platform
continental rise
Continental shelf
continental slope
continentality
contortion of beds
contour
contour interval
contraction cracks
conurbation
convection
convection current
585

convectional rain
)coppice or copse, taillis(Fr.
copra
coral island
coral polyp
coral reef
Cordillera
core
core,mountain
core periphery model
Corn belt
corona

()

corrasion
corroboree
crater
crater-lake
creek
creole
crest
crevasse
Cro-Magnon man
crude birth rate
crude death rate
crude rate
crustal movements
cryology
cryptoreic
cuesta
cultural landscape
cumulonimbus
cumulus
586

current
current meter
cusp
cuspate coasts
cut-offs
cwn
cycle of denudation
cycle of erosion
cycle of poverty
cyclone
cyclonic rain
Cylindrical projection

D

) (

dairying
Dale
dam
data collection system
datum level
daughter settlement
dawn
day
dead ground
dead valley
death penalty




) (

dbcle
debtor nation
deciduous forest
declination
declination, magnetic =
587

variation, magnetic
decomposition
Decuman
deep
deep focus earthquake




) (


) (

deep sea trenches


deep leads
deep south
deep-sea plain
deflation
deforestation
degradation
degree
delta
delta switching
demand cone
demographic revolution
Demography
dendritic drainage
density currents
denudation
dependency
depositioal topography
deposition
depression
derivative rocks
desegregation, ecological or
racial
desert
desert belt
desert crust
desert pavement




588


) (

desert varnish
desiccation
determinism
detritus = debris
dew
dew point
Diabase
diastrophism
Diatom ooze
differential weathering
diffusion
digitate delta

Dinarides,Dinaric folds
dingle
diorite
dip
dipfault
Dip-joints
dip meter
dipmeter survey
dip of fault (strike dip)
dipslope
discharge
disconformity
discordant drainage
disintegration
Displacement theory
dissected Plateau
dissolved load
distance decay theory
Distribute`ry
589

distributary channel
diurnal range
divide = Waterparting = watershed

divorce rate
doldrums
Dolichocephalic Dokephs
doline = dolina
Dolmen
dolomite
dolomitic sand rock
dome
dominant wind

dominion
Donau glacial
Donga
donum
double valley
downfold
downthrow of a fault
downthrown side
drainage area
drainage basin
drainage density
drainage net
drainage pattern
Dravidians
dreikanter
drift
drift ice
drizzle
drought
58:

drowned valley = submerged


valley
drumlin
dry farming
Dryopithecus
dry point settlements
dry spell
dry valley
dry wash
dune or sand dune
dust
dust-bowl
dust counter
dust devil
dust storm
dust well
dyke-dike
dynamic climatology
dynamic lapse- rate




) (



Earth
earth crust
Earth pillar
earthquake
earthquake magnitude
earthquake period
earthquake prediction
earthquake zone
earthy dam
594

ebb- tide
eclipse,Solar
Ecliptic = Zodiac
ecogenesis
ecologic potential
ecological analysis
ecology
ecumene
edaphic
effluent stream
elbow of capture
elevation
eluvium
emigrant
emigration rate
enclave
endrumpf
englacial drift
engrafted river
entrenched or incised meander
entrepot
environment
Eolithic
epeirogenesi
Epicenter = epicentrum
epicontinental sea
epignic forces
epiphytes
Equal-area projection = homolographic
projection
Equator
594

equatorial forest = tropical


rainforest
equilibrium
equinox
equipluves
erg
eroded dome
erosion
erratic blocks = erratic
eruption, volcanic
escarpment = scarp
esker
Eskimo
estuary
etesian winds or metelmi
Ethnography
Ethnology
Etruscans
Eustatic movement
evaporation
everglades
exfoliation = onion weathering
exosphere
expansive soil
exports
expusure ratio
external magnetic field
extinct lake
extrusive rocks

594



-
-
-




-

-

fahrenheit Scale
fall (autumn)
fall line
fallow
family planning
Fata morgana
Fathom
Fathometer
faubourg (Fr.)
fault
fault plane
fault scarp
Fauna
fell
Felspar = Feldspar
fen
Ferrels law
Fertile crescent
fertility rate
fertilizers
festoon islands
feteh
fiard
finger lake

fiord
Firn
Firth
fixed dunes
flash flood
594

flocculation
floe = ice-floe
flood irrigation
flood plain
floodplain deposits
flood-tide
flood volume
Flora
fluvioglacial deposits
Flysch
fog
fog bow

=


-



Fhn (Foehn) wind


fold
fold-fault
fold, epiorogenic
folded or fold mountains
folding=plication
fold limb
fold plane
fold system
folds, orogenic
folk - wandering
Folsom culture
foot wall
foot wall of a fault
ford
forecast (weather)
foredeep
fore-land
foreshore
595

) (




forest
formless village
fosse
fossil
fossil assemblage
free port, (Entrepot-Fr.)
freshet
Frigid climate
frigid zone
front
frontier
frost
fumarole
functional region
funnel cloud





) (

Gabbro
gale
Galls projection
gangue
garigue or garrigue
gate
Gaulish (Gaelic) language
geanticlines
general fertility rate
generic description
generic region
Geochronology
geodesic line (orthodrome)
596


()



Geodesy
geodynamics
geographical mile
geographical pathology
geographical race
geo-graphics
Geography
geoid
geologic column
geological section
Geological surveying
geological time

Geology
geomagnetic field
geomagnetic poles
geomagnetism
geomorphic cycle
geomorphological map
Geomorphology
Geopacifics
Geophysics
Geopolitics
georef system




( )


()
( )

geostrofi flow
Geosyncline
geothermal gradient
Gestalt concept
Geyser
geyserite
Ghat
Ghetto
597

gibber plain
Gibli
Gindel glacial
gipfelflur (Ger.)
glacial
glacial branching (diffluence)
Glacial control theory
glacial divergence
glacial lake
glacial outbust
glacial period
glacial stairway




) (





) (

glacie breeze
glaciel table
glacier
glacier, alpine or mountain
glacier bands
glacier mill
glacier snout
glacieret
Glaciology
glacis
glacition
glade
glazed frost
glei soil
glen
global warming
globe
Globigerina ooze
globular projection


) (
) (

598

gloup= gloap (blowhole)


Gnomonic projection
Gondwana
Goodes interrupted
homolosine projection
Gore
gorge
Gotiglacial
gouffre (Fr.)
gouge
graben
graben faults
gradation (denudation)
grade (of river)
gradient profile
gradient, slope
gradient wind = pressure
gradient wind
Granite
granular disintegration
granule
Grape belt
graphicacy
grasslands
graticule
graupel
gravel
gravel train
gravity collapse structure


) (

gravity slope
Great circle
Great circle route
599

Great interglacial
green belt
greenhouse (greenhouse effect)
green mud
green sand
Greenwich meridian
Greenwish mean time (G.M.T.)
Gregale
grey earth
grid
grit
grivation



) (







) (
-

groove
grotto
ground fog
ground moraine
ground swell
ground water
grove
growing season
growth rate
groyne or groin
grus
guano
gulf
gully
gully erosion
Gunz glacial Gunz ice period
gust
gustiness factor
Gutenberg channel
59:






) (

Gutenberg discontinuity
guttation dew
guyot
gypsey (river)
gyre
gyro - compass

habitability
habitat
Haboob
hachure
hadal
hade
Hadley cell
hail
Halo
haloclasty
halomorphic (soil)
halophytes
Hamitic languages
hamlet
Hammada = Hamada
Hammer projection
hanging glacier
hanging valley
harbour
hardpan = ironpan
hard water
hardwood




5:4

Harmattan
)hatch (hatching) = hachure (Fr.
Haufendorf
Hawaiian high
haze = stratus
headcut
head dune
head of navigation
headwall
headward erosion
headwater
heat - island


( )



)
(

( )





()


heat balance
heat gradient
heat wave
heath = heath land
heave of fault
heavy industry
)hectare (Fr.
helicoidal flow
Helictite
heliotropism
Helium
Helm wind
hemipelagic deposits
Hemisphere
Hercynian fold
heterosphere
hiatus
High
high seas
5:4


) (

) (

high water
hill
hillock
hindcast
hinge (of fold)
hinter-land
histogram
Historical Geography
hite horses or white caps
Hittite language
hoar frost
hogback


) (

Holestein
holistic approach (in
geography)
holm, holme
Holocene
holt
homoclimes
honeycomb weathering
hook
A - horizon (soil)

) (
) (

horizon, sensible = (visible)


horizontal equivalent
Horn (Germ.)
Horn, African
Hornblende
Horse latitudes
horst
Horton analysis
Horton's laws
5:4

hot spring = thermal spring


hot tower
)Huerta (SP.
humic acid
humidity
hummock
humus
hurricane
hydration
hydraulic force
hydraulic gradient
hydraulic radius



( )

-

()

hydraulic tidal current


hydrocarbon
hydro-electric power
hydrogenic deposits
hydrogeology
hydrograph
Hydrography
hydrological cycle
Hydrology
hydrolysis
hydrometeor
hydrometeorology
)hydromorphic, (glei
hydrophytes
Hydrosphere
hydrostatic equation
Hyetograph
Hygrogram
Hygrograph

( )





-
-
-

5:4

Hygrometer
Hygroscope
hypabyssal rocks
hypsographic curve
Hypsometer

lberian race
ice
Ice Age
ice barrier
Iceberg
iceblink
ice-cap
ice contact slope
Ice-cored moraine
ice-dam
icefall
ice-field
ice-fog
Ice-foot
ice-front
ice-jam
Icelandic low
ice rind

ice segregation
ice-sheet
ice streaming
ice thaw
iceway
5:5



) (

ice wedge
icing
iconic model
igneous rocks
illegitimacy rate
illegitimacy ratio
Illinoian (glacial)
illuminated relief (map)
illumination (circle of)
illuviation
imbricate structure
immature soil (Azonal)

immigrant
immigration rate
impermeable rocks =
impervious rocks
imports
incidence rate
incompetent bed
inconsequent drainage
indeterminacy
index fossil
indian summer
indigenous
Indo-European languages
induration
inface
infant mortality rate
infiltration
infiltration capacity
infiltration rate





(
)

) (
)

(

) (

5:6


-



) (

influent stream
ingrown meander
initial landform
inland basin
inland sea
inlet
inlier
Inselberg (Ger.)
insolation
insular climate
intensity of rainfall (daily)
intensity of rainfall (hourly)

Intensive cultivation
interface, biosphere
interflow
interfluve
interglacial
interior or internal or inland
drainage
interlocking spurs
interment = intermontane

interment plateau
intermittent saturation (zone of)

intermittent spring
intermittent stream
internal sedimentation
International Date Line
international million map
interpluvial
interrupted map projection
interstadial
5:7

()

-




( )

intertropical convergence zone


interzonal soil
intrusive rocks
)inversion (of temp.
inverted relief
inverted structure
invisible exports
ionosphere
Iron Age
irrigation
irrigation system
island = islet

ismetric projection

isobar

isobath

isochron

isoclinal folding

isognic map

isogonic line

isohaline

isohel

isohyets = isohyetal line = isopluvial line

isokeph

isolated state

isollobar

isoneph

isonomalous line

isopleth

isostasy

Isostatic Theory

isotherm

5:8

isthmus
iudelta

J
) (


jade
jet stream
jetties
jetty
joint
joint plane
jokul
jungle
Jurassic period
juvenile topography
juvenile water

kakistocracy
kame
Kansan (glacial)
Kaoliang
kaolin
karakol
karroo
karst
karst lake
karst tower
karst valley
karst window
5:9

) (





) (

kartburan
Kasba
katabatic wind
katafront
kataglacial
kataseism
kavir
Kayak
Keewatin
kettle hole or kettle
kettle moraine
Khamsin

) (

Khazrs
kilometre
kinematic wave
knick point
knoll
knot
Kopje
kppen climatic classification
Kraal
kubbutz
Kurgan

laccolith or laccolite
lacustrine
Ladin
lag of seasons
lagoon
5::

lake
lake dwelling

Lamberts azimuthal =
[Equal-area (Equivalent Azimuthal) Projection]
laminar flow

land breeze

land classification

lande

Landes (Fr.)

landform

Land hemisphere

Land power

landsat

landscape
) (
landslide lake

landslide = landslip




landslides
lanetary winds
lapse rate
Laramide Movement
(revolution)
latent heat
latent instability
lateral dune
lateral erosion


) (
)
(

lateral moraine
laterite
laterization
Latifundia
Latitude = parallel of latitude
latosol
Laurasia
644




()







lava
lavant
lava tunnel
leaching
lead - ratio
leap year
)Lebensraum (Ger.
ledge
lee - wave
lee depression
lee shore
leeward











()

lenticular cloud
levee
level
level of saturation
Leveling = Levelling
liana or liane
Lias
lichenometry
life span
life table
lift irrigation
light year
lightning
Lignite
limb of fold
Limestone
Limnology
limnoplankton
limon
644

) (

limpo (Portu.)
Linch
lineament
Line squall
lingua franca
litas
lithification
lithogenesis
Lithology
lithosol
Lithosphere
litter (vegetation)


) (


) (

littoral
littoral doposit
Littorin sea
Llanos (Sp.)
lnfantile town
load, river
loaded stream
loam
lobe
Local time (L.T.)
loch
lode
lodgement till
Loess (Ger.)
log
long profile (river)
long range forecast
longitudes
longitudinal dune

). (




) (


644

longitudinal fold
longitudinal river
longitudinal valley
longshore drift
Loran
Lorenz curve
Low
lowan (glacial)
low beach
lowland
Low Pressure areas
loxodrome



) (

lunar day
lunar eclipse
lunar geology
lunar year
lutile
lynchet
lysimeter

maar (Ger. (
Macchia (Ita.) Maquis (Fr.)
mackerel sky
macroclimate
macrofauna
Madelenian Age = Magdalenian Age
Maelstrom
magma
magmatic emanation
644



( )




magmatic evolution
magnesian limestone
magnesite
magnetic dip
magnetic field
magnetic north
magnetic pole of the Earth
magnetic storm
Magnetite
Magnetosphere
Magnitude an earthquake
maize







()
()
()

( )
-
-


maize rains
major earthquake
major fold
Mallee
malpais
Malthusian principle
mamelon
mammilated surface
Mammology
mangrove
mangrove coast
mangrove swamp
Manioc
)mantle (of the earth
Mantle rock = egolith
map
Map projection
map reading
map scale
645

) (

map symbols
Maquis
Marae monuments
marches or marks
marginal channel
marginal deep
marginal depression
marginal sea
maritime climate
marjelen lake
Marl
marriage rate
marsh = swamp
marsh gas
masculinity rate
mass balance
Massif (Fr.)
Massim
massive
mass movement , mass wasting
Mat
material cycle
material lndex
maternal moratity rate
Mathematical Geoqrophy
matrifocal family
mature
mature river
mature soil
mature topography
Mature towns
646







) - (





(..)


( )



maximum relief
maximum thermometer
meadow soil
)Mean Sea Level (MSL
mean solar time
mean velocity
meander
meander belt
meander - core
meander - scar
)mechanical (or physical
weathering
median age
median mass
Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean race
Megaliths
megalopolis
megashear
megatherm
mercantilism


( )


-

Mercators projection
Meridian
meridian day
meridional flow
Merino = marino
merokarst
mesa
Mesolithic Age
Mesolithic Period
mesophytes


( )
()


647

Mesosphere
mesosystem
mesotherm
Mesozic Era
mesquite
Mestizo
metamorphic aureole
metamorphic rocks
metasomatism
meteor or shooting star
meteoric water
meteorite


(
)

Meteorograph
Meteorology
metre
metrication
mica
micro - erosion
micro - relief
microclimate
microgranite
Micrometeorology
micron
microtherm
mid - latitudes
mid - ocean ridge
midnight sun
migrant
migration
migration of divide
millet rains
648

millet seed sand


Millibar
million city
Millstone grit
Mindel
mineral
mineral spring
mineral water
Mineralogy
minette
minimum therrmometer
minute

Miocene Age
Mir
mirage (Fr.)
Mire
misfit river (stream)
Mississippian
mist
mistral
mixed farming
mixing ratio
Mizzle (drizzle)

) (

mock moon or paraselene


mock sun = parhelion
model
model building
moder
modernism
mofette
mogote (Sp. (
649

Mohorevicic discontinuity
moisture index
molasse
Mole
molisol layer (active)
mollasse rocks
Mollweides projection
monadnock
Mongolian race
monoclinal fold (or monocline)
monocline
monogamy

) (

) (







) (

monogenic
monogladiation
monolith
monsoon forest
Monsoons
Montana (sp.) Montane
monte
month
moon
moor or moorland
moraine
morass
Morphochronology
morphogenesis (genetic)
morphographic map
morphological region
Morphometry
mortality
mosaic
64:

moss
mottled zone
Moulin (Fr.)
moulin (Fr.) = glacier mill
mound
mounds, spring
mountain
mountain climate
Mountain sickness
mountain wind or mountain
breeze
mountains of circumdenudation =
circumerosion
Mousterian culture
mouth of river
mud
mud , oceanic
mud pot
mud volcano or paint pot
mud, flat
mudstone
Mulatto
mulga
mull
multivariate analysis
murram
muschelkalk (Ger. (
muskeg
muskeg

) (

Musk-ox

644


()


nab
Nabians
nacreous cloud
nadir
nailbovrne
NAFTA) North American Free
Trade Agreement
nailbourne













()

nano - relief
( nappe (Fr.
)nappes (Fr.
narrows
natality
national grid
nationalization
national park, nature reserve
natural bridge
natural history
natural increase
natural landscape
natural population change
natural region
natural resources
natural vegetation
nautical mile or sea mile
Neanderthal man
neap tide
neat line
nebka
644



) (


Nebraskan
Nebula
Nebular hypothesis
neck (of land)
neck (of volcano)
needle - ice
neese (nose, ness, nab, naze)
negative landform
negative landforms
negative movement of sea level
nehrung (Ger.)
neiss
nektons
neo natal mortality rate
Neogene
Neolithic age
Neotechnic cities
Nephanalysis
Nephoscope
neritic

Nesiot
net migration
net migration rate
net reproduction rate
neutral coast
neutral shorelines
neutral stability
Nevados
Nv (Fr.) or Firn (Ger.)
niche
644

niche glacier
nickel
nick-point (En.) = Knickpunkt (Ger.(
nife
nightglow
Nilotes
nimbostratus
nip
Nitrogen
nitrogen cycle
nivation
nivation cirque
niveo-fluvial (fluvio glacial)
nomadism
nonconformity = unconformity
Nor-Wester
Nordic race
normal
normal (standard) atmospheric pressure
normal fault
Norte


) (

) (


) (


North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

north magnetic pole (of the


) (
earth)
norther (norte)

Northern circuit

northing

notch
) (
Nubian sandstone

644



) (

nuclear settlement
nue ardente (Fr.)
Nullah
numerical weather forecasting
nunakol
Nunatak
Nupa
nuptiality



) (

oasis
oblast
oblate
oblique aerial photograph
oblique fault
obsequent fault line scarp
obsequent river
obsidian
Obsidian
occlusion
occupational mobility
ocean
ocean current
oceanic basin
oceanography


) (


offshore
ogive
oil pool
oil sand
oil shale
645

()




( )


-






-


)okta (Ger.
old land
old red sandstone
old river
older drift
Oldowan= Oldvai
oligarchy
Oligocene
oligopoly
oligotrophic environment
Olivine
omega system
omnivorous
onion weathering
) Oolite (Oolite limestone
ooze
open country
open-sight alidade
open system
Opisometer
opposition
optimum climate
Orbit
orbit, Earths
)order of streams (stream order
Ordovician period
ore
organic
organic farming
organic weathering
orientation
646

- -
Orthographic projection
oro
orocline
orocratic period
orogenesis
orogeny
orographic map
orographic precipitation
orographic rain
Orography
orthodrome

Orthography
oscillatory wave theory of tides
outcrop
outfall
outlet glacier
outlier
output
outwash plain or sandr
overbank deposits
overcast
overflow channel
overfold
overirrigation
overland
overland flow
over-population
over-production
oversale
overthrust
647

) (

( )

ox-bow lake
oxidation
oxisols
oxygen
ozone

( )



()


( )

Pacific type of coast


pack - ice
padang
paddies
Pahoehoe lava
paintpot
paired terrace
Palaeobotany
Palaeocene
Palaeoclimatology
Palaeogene = Paleogene
Palaeolithic age
= palaeomagnetism
fossilmagnetism
Palaeontology = Palaebiology
palaeorill
palaeosol
Palaeozoic era
paleoecological analysis
paleoecology
paleogeographic map
paleogologic map
Palethnology

()


( )





648




()
)(





()

palinspastic map
Palmer Drought Severity lndex
)(PDSI
Palynology
Pamir
Pampas
Pampero
)pan (hardpan
pancake karst
pancake lce
panfan
Pangaea = Pangeea
panorama
panplain= panplane
pantanal
Panthalassa
pantograph
Papagayo
parabolic dune
parallel drainage
parallel retreat of slope

Parallels
Paramos
parasitic lndustry
)parent rock (material
Pareoean
parity
park savanna
paroxysmal eruption
partial drought
partial fallow
649


) (

pass
passive glacier
passive migrant
pastoral farming
patana
paternoster lake
pathymetry
patina
patterned ground
pavement
paysage
peak

peak land-value Intersection


(PLVI)
peat
pebble
pedalfer
pediment
pediment , erosional
pediment, deposinol
pediplain





) (


) (



=

pedocal
pedogenesis
Pedology
pegmatite
Peking man
pelagic
pelagic deposits
pelagic deposits
pelean cloud
peneplain = peneplan
64:

peneplanation, pediplanation,
panplanation
peninsula
penumbra
Perception geography
perched block
perched water table
percolation
percoline seepage
perennial stream
pergelation (permafrost)
perhumid
periclinez
peridotite
perigeah tide
perigee
periglacial
Peri-helion
periodgram
periodicity
peripediment


) (


permafrost
permanent hardness of water
permeability
permeable rocks
Permian period
perspective projection
perturbation
pervious rocks
Peter's projection
petrifaction or petrification
644

Petrology = Geognosy = Geognosis


phacolith or phacolite (saddle
reef)
phases of the moon
Phenology
photic zone
photo - relief
phreatic eruption
Physical geography
physical weathering
Physiognomy of plants
Physiography
Phytoclimate
Phytogeography
Pidgin English
piedmont
piedmont alluvial plain
piedmont glacier
piezometric surface
pike
pillow lava

pilot balloon
pinch - out
Pingo
pinnate drainage
pipe
pisolith, pisolite (limestone )
pitch
pitch
pitchblende
pitchstone
644



) (



) (

Pithecanthropus
piton
placer
plain
Plaiuri
planation
plane of the ecliptic
plane table
planet
Planetesimal hypothesis
planeze
Planimeter

planina
planisphere
Planktons
planosol
plant productivity, index of
plastic relief
plate tectonics
plateau
plateau - gravel
platform
Playa
Playfair's law
pleion
Pleistocene (Quaternary Era)
Pleistocene Period
plinian eruption
Pliocene period
plottable error
ploughing block
644

plucking
plug
plug - volcano
Plum rains or Bai-u
plume
plunge - pool
plutonic or abyssal rocks
pluvial (phase)
Pluvial period
pluviometer
pluviometric coefficient
podzol or podsol


) (

point bar deposits


polar air - mass
polar outbreak
polar projection
polar vortex
polar winds
Polder
Pole star
Poles
police State
polje
pollen analysis
pollution
polyconic projection
polycyclic (multicyclic)
polygenetic
polygon, soil
polygonal karst
Polyhedric projection
644

Polyp
pond
Ponente
ponor
pool and riffle
population
population density
population distribution
population explosion
population increase
population policy
population projection

population pyramid
pore water pressure
porosity
porphyry
port or seaport
portage
positive anomaly, of
temperature
positive landforms

positive or negative movement


of sea - level
Possibilism
Post-Glacia
postal
pot (En.) cirque (Fr.)
pot holes
potable water

) (



Potamology
potamoplankton
potential energy
645

potential evapotranspiration
potential instability (of an air
mass)
powder snow
prairie soil
Prairies
precession of the equinoxes
precipice
precipitate
precipitation
precipitation-efficiency
(effectiveness)
precipitation day
precipitation efficiency index
Pre-Dravidian people
preglacial lake
pressure gradient
pressure melting point
pressure release
pressure ridge
pressure system
pressure tendency
prevailing winds
prevalence rate
primarrumpf (Ger.)
Primary
primary wave
Primate city
principal meridian





). (


()







-



prisere
prismatic compass
process elements
646

( )



-



()

()

()

( )

profile of equilibrium (for river


)or shore
progradation
progressive profile
projected profile
projection
promontory
pronatalist policy
protalus rampart
protectorate
Proto-goths
Protozoic
provenance
psammite
psephite
Psychrometer
Pueblo
Pula
pumice
puna
)Purga (Rus.

()

push - moraine
Puszta
puys
Pygmies = Neglitos
pyramid (pyramidal) peak
Pyrheliometer
pyrite
pyroclast
pyrometer
)pyroxene (minerals
647

Q


()
()

()

quadrangle
quadrat
quadrature
quagmire
quaking bog
quantification
quarry
Quarternary Era
Quartz
quartzite
quasi - equilibrium
quicksand

R
-


race
Radar meteorology
radex
radial drainage
radiation
radiation fog
radioactive decay
radiocarbon dating
Radiolarian ooze
Radio-sonde
rain
Rainbow
rain - day
rain factor
648

Rainfall
rainfall infiltration
rain farest
rain gauge
rain shadow
rain spell or wet spell
rain storm
rain wash
raised beach
raised bog
ranch
random sample

()
-

()



( )
-

range of mountains
rank
rapid
)rapid (river
)Rasputitsa (Rus.
rate
rating curve
ratio
rational or true horizon
rattan
ravine
raw material
rawinsonde
ray diagram
Raycan
reach
)Recent (Age
recession
recessional moraine
649









()
) (

recharge area
reconnaissance mapping
rectangular drainage
recumbent fold
red clay
red earth
reef
reef - flat
reef - knoll
reef (coral(
reef talus
re-entrant

reference net
reforestation
refraction wave
Reg
regelation
regional metamorphism
regolith
regosol
rejuvenated river
rejuvenation head (knick
point (
rejuvenation, river
relative age of rocks
relative humidity
relative relief
relaxation time
relict landform
relict mountain
relief map









64:



) (








) (

relief model (terrain model)


relief rainfall
relief ratio
remote sensing
Rendsina = Rendzina
renewable resourses
replacement level fertility
resection
resequent drainage
residual debris (deposit)
residual plateau
resistant rock



) (




) (


) (
( )
) (




-

resource management
response elements
response time
resurgence
retarding basin
retrogradation
reversed drainage
reversed fault
Rhumb line
rhyolite
rhythmite
ria
Richter scale
ridge
ridge (of high pressure)
ridge-and rvine topography
riegel
riffle
rift valley or ramp valley
644

) (




) (

) (

right ascension
rill erosion
rime
ring dyke
ringstrasse
rip
ripple marks
rise
Riss glacial
river
river (or alluvial) terrace
river basin

river bed
river capture or river piracy
river port
river profile
river rejuvenation
river terrace
rivulet
roadstead
Roaring Forties
Roches moutonnes (Fr.)
rock
rock creep
rock cycle
rock - drumlin
rock-glacier
rock fall
rock flour
rock pavement
rock -salt
644



" "




" "
" "

( )

rock-slide
rocketsonde
roller
)rond (broad
roof pendant
root
ropy-corded lava
Rossby wave
Rossi- Forel scale
rotaion of crops
rotation of earth
rotational slip

rotor streaming
roughness
Round Barrows
roundness
rubber, natural
rudaceous rocks
ruderal vegetation
Rumansh = Romanche
runnel, swale
run-off
ruware

Saale
Sabilian silt
sabkha
saddle-reef
Saeters
644

) (


sagebrush
Sahul land
salar, salina, Sali pan (SP.)
saline or salt-marsh
salinity
salt dome (salt plug)
salt-flat
salt lake
saltation
sand
sand bank
sand bar

sand blast
sand fan
sand flood
sand sea
sand sheet
sand spit
sandestone
sand storm
sand stream
sandy-hook
Sangamon interglacial
Sanskrit
Sanson-Flamsteed Sinusoidal
projection
Santa Ana (wind)(Sp.)
sapping
saprolite
sapropel
saprophyte


) (

644

sarsen
sastruga (Rus.)
saturation
saturation deficit
savanna = tropical grassland
saxatile flora
scalded flat
scale
scallop shores
scar
scarp retreat
scarp-foot spring


) (

scarp-slope,scarp-face
scatter- diagram
Schattenseite (Ger.)
schist
sclerophyll
scoria
scour
scree or talus
screen, meteorological
scrub
scud
sea
sea arch
sea breeze
sea level
sea mount
sea power
season
secant conic projection
645






) (


) (


second
secondary consequent stream
secondary depression
Secondary Era
secondary growth
section
secular
sedentary soil
sediment
sediment analysis
sediment discharge rating
sediment yield
sedimentary rocks
sedimentation
seeding of cloude
seepage
segetal plant (vegetation)
segregation, ecological or racial
Seiche
seif dune
seignurie (Fr.)
Seismic focus
seismic origin (focus)
Seismogram
seismograph=detector
Seismology
Seistan
Selvas (Sp.)
semi-artesian well
semi-desert, semi- arid climate
semi-diurnal tide
646

(

) (



) (
) (
) (-



) (


) (

) (



semi-natural vegetation
send of waves
senile river
senile valley
sensible temperature
sequence
sequence dating
sequential landform
seracs (Fr.)
sere
series
serir

) (



-
) (

-

serpentine
set (of items or things)
settling velocity
sex ratio
Sextant = Quadrant
shade temperature
shake-wave
shale
Shamal
shatter belt
shear moraine
shearing
sheep-tracks or terracettes
sheet erosion = sheet wash
sheet flood = sheet flow
sheeting



) (

sheet lightning
shelf
shelf, ice
647

shell-sand
shield (continental)
shield inselberg
shield volcano
shift
shingle
ship canal
shoal
shoestring sand
shore-face terrace
shores of emergence
shores of submergence

) (

) (

Shotts
shoulder, promontory
Sial
sidereal day
sidereal year
siderite
side slip
Sierra (Sp.)
sieve-maps
silcrete
silicon
sill, sheet
silt
silting
Silurian period
Sima
Simoom
simulation
Sinanthropus
648



( )



(.).

singularity
sink hole
sinter
sinuosity ratio, river
sinusoidal projection
siphon
Sirocco = Scirocco
site
situation, geographical
sixth power law
skauk
skew-base
sky cover
Sl (systme international
)d'unites
slack
slash
sleet
slickensides
slide
slip


()

slip face
slip fault
slope
slope length
slope retreat
slope unit
slope-profile line
sludging
slump
)slump, (slumping
649

()



()

slurry
slushflow
slushzone
small circle
smog
snout
snow
snow bridge
snowdrift
snowfield
Snow gauge
snowline






( )










socle
soil
soil climate
soil creep
soil erosion
soil fluction
soil horizon
soil moisture deficit
soil profile
)Solano (sp.
solar constant
)solar-constant (perpetual
solar-control model
solar day
solar day, Mean
solarimeter
Solar system
solar year
sole
64:






) (

solfatara
soli moisture deficit
solid geology
solifluction
solonchak (Rus. (
solonetz (Rus.)
solstice
solum
solution
solution collapse
solution pipe
solvent

) (

) (

) (

sonnenseite (Ger.)
Sonograph
sop
sorting
sound
sounding
source
South magnetic pole (of the
Earth)
South pole
southerly burster
southern circuit
southern cross
spate
spatter cone
spealling (exfoliation)
species, clouds
specific gravity
specific heat




654

specific humidity (absolute)


specific region
Speleology, Spelaeology
speleothem
sphenochasm
Sphere of influence
spherical triangle
sphericity coefficient
spheroidal weathering
spine, volcanic
spinifex
spinifex desert
spinney or spinny
spit
splaying crevasse
spot-height
spring
spring equinox or vernal
equinox
spring-line
spring-sapping

) (

spring tide
spur
squall
St. Elmo's fire
stable equilibrium
stable population
stac
stack
stage
stage diagram
654

) (

stage-discharge curve
stalactites
stalagmites
stand
standard atmosphere
standard hillslope
standard parallel
standard time
star-dune
static lapserate
statute mile
steatopygia
steering, atmospheric
step - fault
steppes
steptoe
Stereographic projection
stereoscope
Stevenson screen
stillstand (sea level)
stock
Stone Age
stone - polygon
stone-river
stoping magmatic
storm
storm - beach
storm -surge
storm tracks
stowed wind
strain




( (


) (



) (

654

strait
stratigraphical Geology =
Stratigraphy
Strath
stratification
Stratocumulus
Stratosphere
Stratosphere
stratum
stream
stream - flood
streamline
stream order
stress
striae
strike
strike - fault
strike - valley
string bog
striped ground
striped surface, structural
surface
Strombolian eruption
structural contour
structural contour map
structural map
structure
subaerial erosion
Sub-aqueous (submarine),
erosion
subarctic
sub-artesian

(

)



654

Sub-Atlantic Phase
Sub-Boreal
subclimax=subsere (vegetation)
subduction zone
sub-glacial chute
subhumid
sublimation
sublittoral
submarine canyon
submarine ridge
submerged coast
Submerged forest



) (
) (




Sub-polar region
subsequent river
subsidence
subsoil
subsurface beds
Subsurface geology
subsurface maps
Sub-surface wasb
sub-tropical region
succession
Sudd
suffusion
sugar limestone
sugar loaf
Sumatra (wind)
summit plane
sump
Sun
sunrise
655

sunset
sunshine
sunshine recorder
sunspots
supercooling
superficial deposits
superglacial stream
superimposed drainage
superimposed river
superimposed stream
superposition, law of
supersaturation
surazo (wind)
surf
surface detention
surge, glacier
survey
survival rate
suspended load
suspension
Swahili
swale (low)
swamp
swamp - forest
swash
sweep - zone
swell
swing of the pressure belts
syenite
syncline
synclinorium




)

(


) (





656

synoptic chart or weather


chart
system analysis
system, geologic
syzygy

tableland
tabular iceberg true thickness
of bed
taconite
Taiga
tail - dune
talc
talik
talus creep
talwind
tank

) (

tar sands
tarn
tasmanite
Taxonomy
tear - fault
technical atmosphere
tectogenesis
tectonic movement
tectonic plateau
tectonics
tektite
Telemeter
telescopic alidade
657


) (










telluric currents
Tellurometer
temperate belt
temperate zone
temperature
temperature anomaly
temperature effeciency
temperature - humidity index
temporary base - level
temporary stream
tension
tension, fault


(

)




tension, fracture
tepee butte
tephigram
tephra
Tephrochronology
terai
termite mound
terrace cultivation
terrace polygenique
terrain
Terramara
Terra Rosa
terrestrial magnetism
terrestrial radiation
terrigenous deposits
territorial waters
Tertiary
Tethys sea
Tetrahedral theory
658

texture of soil
texture ratio
thalassostatic
thalweg
thalweg (Ger.) or valley line
thaw
theocracy
Theodolite
thermal depression




()





()
()

()

)thermal (or temperature


effeciency index
thermal equator
thermal fracture
thermal metamorphism
Thermogram
Thermograph
thermokarst
thermomeion
Thermometer
thermopleion
thicket
thining of bed
tholoid
thorn forest
throughflow
throw of a fault
thrust
thrust fault
thunderhead
thunderstorm
tidal current
659


.


( )




()

tidal data
tidal energy
tidal flat
tidal glacier
tidal glacier stream
tidal range
tides
Tierra caliente
tierra fria
tierra helada
tierra tempelada
till
till fabric analysis
tillite
tilt block
timber line
time
time - distance curve of an
earthquake
time - trangressive
time signals

time zones
tipping - bucket rain - gauge
)Tjaele (Swed.
tombolo
topographic map
topography
topophytes
topset beds
topsoil
tornado or African tornado


()




-
65:

Torrid zone
total fertility rate
township
trace fossil
trade winds
transhumance
transport
transportation
transverse fault, heave fault,
tear fault, transcurrent fault
transverse migration
transverse valley
trap lava
travertine or tufa
treaty port
trellised drainage
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Capricorn




-




)
(
-
tropical cyclone or tropical revolving storm
Tropics
-
Tropopause
) (
Troposphere

trough,pressure

truck farming

trust territory

tsunami (tidal wave) (Jap.)

tuff

Tundra (Rus.)

turbulent flow

Twilight

Typhoon

664

) (




) (

Ulotrichi
umbra
umland
underground water basin
undertow
uniform flow
upland
urban area
urbanization
Uvala

vadose water
vales and cuestas
valley
valley divide
valley train
valley wind
varve clays
veering winds
Veld (Ger.)
Vendavales (Sp.)
ventifact
vertical erosion
vertical normal fault
vertical thickness of bed
vibration gravimeter

) (
) (



664

) (


vital statistics
viticulture
Volcanic ash
volcanic bomb
volcanic cinders = lapilli
volcanic dust
volcanic neck
volcanic plateau
volcano
vonthunen model
Vulcanicity=volcanism

Wadi
Wallon
warm front
warm loop
warm sector
warm wave
water contamination=water
pollution
waterfall
water gap
Water Hemisphere
waterlogging
water power
watershed
waterspout
water table = level of
saturation
water year

) (




)
(


) (
664

weather
weather shore
weathering
Wend
westerlies
wet bulb temperature
Wet-bulb thermometer
wet point settlements
wetted perimeter
Wheat belt
Wheat crescent
whirlpool
whirlwind
white Australian policy
Willy-Willy
wind
wind rose
Wind vane
wood
Woomero = woomerang
Wurly
Wrm glacial = Wrm ice age

Xerohytes

yard
Yellow peril
664

Yellow Race
Yiddish
young mountains
young river

zenithal projection
zonal flow
Zone of flowage
zones
Zones and strata theory
Zone time
Zoogeography

665

Index of terms