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World Events: WWII

Influx of Occupational Therapists


Created a new demand for more OTs
War Department initially required graduates of an accredited school
War Emergency Courses were implemented
1945: 2177 members of AOTA
Successful completion of exam became a requirement
Shift of Focus
Shift from arts and crafts to scientific rehab
ADLs and Vocational Rehab
Development of prosthetics and orthotics

Sociocultural & Economic Factors


Shortage of workers in every industry
Influx of women into the workforce
Hospitals understaffed
Advances in technology
Use of radio & TV for news and entertainment
Microwave oven & refrigerator
Rationing
Victory Gardens
War Effort, GI Bill of Rights economic prosperity
Baby Boom
A shift to the suburbs

Medical Advances
1940: discovery of Penicillin
1942: development of a bivalent vaccine
for Influenza
1942- development of chemical
derivatives of mustard gas to treat different
forms of cancers
1943: discovery of the antibiotic
streptomycin by Selman Waksman
(treatment for TB)
1949: Establishment of Nuremburg code

Progress & Events in OT


-Increased growth and change
- Shift towards scientific techniques over arts and crafts

- Emphasized ADLs, ergonomics, and rehabilitation


- Bigger focus towards reintegration into society

-Prosthetic training due to development of prostheses and


orthotics
- OT specific programs in Great Britain were established
- First OT book by Willard and Spackman published

Grace Herman
Saw a vision of the future of Occupational Therapy
Wider in scope and more intensive
Therapist must change with the times
The rating of Occupational Therapy as a profession should be of
concern
Written record of analysis is important
The future depends upon
needs of the social group
contributions from allied fields
the amount of drive within therapists

Captain Mary K. Berteling, OTR


Womens Medical Specialist Corps
Trained army personnel in treatment of amputees
Chief OT at Brook Army Medical Center and
Welch Convalescent Hospital
Emphasis on
ADLs
Reassessment
Rapport with patients
Community Reintegration
Continuing Education
Military Hospitals

Berta Bobath
- Physiotherapist with Karl Bobath
- Developed neurodevelopmental
treatment
- Their treatment protocols still in
use today
- Controversy over lack of
evidence of effectiveness

- Worked with clients with cerebral palsy and other


neurological deficits

Sidney Licht
- Trained as a physician in NYC and as a psychiatrist under William
Bierman
- Psychiatrist- practiced at Veterans Administration Hospitals
- 1957- ended his practice to write and teach
- Teacher at Rehabilitation Medicine Service at the Miami VA Hospital
- Editor of Physical Medicine Library
- Author of Occupational Therapy: Principles and Practice (1950,1957)
- co-author William Rush Dunton (psychiatrist)
- Editor of first OT Journal (Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation
American Journal of Physical Medicine)
- Organizer of The International Rehabilitation Medicine Association
(IRMA)

References
Milton Y, Logothetis A (2013). An occupational therapy practice initiative using the Bobath Concept: a collaborative partnership with higher
education. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(10), 452455. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2079/10.4276/030802213X13807217284224
Snow, J. & Harris, N. (1949). Occupational Therapy And Physiotherapy. The British Medical Journal, 1(4603), 548. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:
2095/pmc/articles/PMC2052154/?page=1
Steglich, R. (1948). Principles of Occupational Therapy. The American Journal of Nursing, 48(3), 210. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3457707
Willard, H. (2014). A Contextual History of Occupational Therapy. In Willard & Spackman's occupational therapy (12th ed., pp. 19-20).
Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Hannoun, C. (2012). The evolving history of influenza viruses and influenza vaccines. Expert Review of Vaccines, 1085-1094.
Radomski, M. (2008). Occupational therapy for physical dysfunction (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Flax, H. (1979). Sidney Licht, M.D., a man of many seasons. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 58(6), 273-7.
http://www2.uah.es/farmamol/The%20Pharmaceutical%20Century/Ch3.html
Medical Advances Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0932661.html

References
Bobath, B. (1948). The importance of the reduction of muscle tone and the control of mass reflex action in the treatment of
spasticity. Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation. 27(5), 371-383.
https://twu.illiad.oclc.org/illiad/illiad.dll?Action=10&Form=75&Value=135356
Dudrick, R. (2013). American culture in the 1940s. Retrieved from
http://www.lifepaths360.com/index.php/american-culture-in-the-1940s-460/
Herman, G. (n.d.). The Future of Occupational Therapy. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 19(2), 129-132.
Hussey, S., & Chafee, B. (2007). Looking Back: A History of Occupational Therapy. In Introduction to occupational therapy (4th
ed., p. 19). St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier Mosby.
Major West, W L, AMSC, USAR. (2009). Professional services of occupational therapists: World war II. Retrieved from
http://history.amedd.army.mil/corps/medical_spec/chapterix.html