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asserted that, ‘The seed quality is the basic and crucial input for attaining sustained growth in agricultural production’. Seed is the very fundamental input for introducing the new technology to crop production , propgagation and multiplication.Thereby, the production of quality seeds and the distribution of new and improved seed varieties comprise a very important component of Government’s agricultural policy. In the Indian conditions it has been seen that approximately 45.0% increase in the crop production is associated to the increase in yield which is in turn is a direct function of the application of HYV seeds. The HYV seed is related with the existenet soil-moisture condtions and the biochemical technology suited to it .The major benefit of HYV seeds is that they can absorb much greater nuritents from the soil and contribute to give a higher yield per unit of land in comparison to the traditional pattern of utilization of nutrients.Of course, the results of the HYV seeds is to be seen a sum total of the application of irrigation and fertilizer.All these combinatively lead to the realization of the objective of ourput mazimization. On making a comparative analysis , with the other districts one thing is conspicuously clear that Patna district lags far behind in the application of HYV technology if compared with the states of Punjab. This has been examined under the following headings: APATTERN OF HYV UTILIZATION IN PATNA DISTRICT As per the datas obtained form the Directorate of Economics and Statiscs, Government of Bihar,for the period 1979-80 to 1990-91 and for the recent years , has facilitated the increased consumption of fertilizers . The general pattern of the utilization of HYV seeds shows a clear pattern of the utilization for crops namely paddy, wheat and maize while for the other crops the pattern has been relatively insignificant.A general pattern is the increasing coverage of area under paddy by HYV seeds . The Bihar level figures shows that the area under the HYV paddy area was 20.3% fo the paddy area in 1979-80 which increased to 33.86% IN 1990-91, therby recording an increase with compound annual rate of growth 4.05%.The actual area showed an increase from 10.6 lakh hectares ti 16.67 lakh hectares in 1990-1991. Comparing the figures with the other districts and the state averages the figures are appreciably low, as it was 94.17% in Punjab, 87.04% in u.p. 90% in Andhrea Paradesh while it was 64.31% at all-India level . On an average , Patna and the adjoining district shows that the coverage of HYV area in respect of paddy was on the whole 65.89% for the district of the wouth-west alluvial plains.Patna and the adjoining districts showed that the increase in the percent coverage of area was quite recongnizable. private seed agencies play the paramount role in the distribution of of quality seeds in the district.Thesehave their seed production farms mostly outside Bihar. Though there is a a general problem of selection of suitable varieties from the
multiplication of promising varieties of the state for different crops. . Under the circumstances seed production by the farmers on co-operative basis in small units called seed villages in the district will ensure production of required quality seeds of recommended varieties of crops for different agro-ecological situation. Table3.2.15 shows the block wise Seed Multiplication and Production Farms (SMP) available in the district but presently non-functional. These farms may be leased out to the agencies, which have the required capability and willingness to produce recommended variety seeds for the benefit of the local farmers.
Specifically with reference to Patna district the following steps were taken to facilitate and streamline the distribution of fertilizer supplies enumerated as follows:  Better transportation facilities  Regulated supplies to specially identified areas and crops as specified by the State Governments  Effective coordination with railways to ensure adequate supplies of wagons for fertilizer carriage and distribution. Provision of short term credit to farmers for the purchase and distribution of fertilisers Propagating and disseminating the knowledge about proper and balanced use of fertilizers. But in spite of all these efforts , a lot is to be done for enhancing the usage of fertilizers in Patna district. Proceeding from the macro level to the micro level, the fertilizer consumption in Bihar was a mere 9.06kg/ha in1970-71 which increased to 21.01kg/ha . in 1982-1983. Further it increased to a high of 57.20kg/ha in 1992.93.Boradly, the fertilizer consumption recorded a compound annual growth rate of 8.73% during 1971-93But in spite of all this the state as a whole was lagging behind in the level of fertilizer consumption in states like Punjab with 162.2 kg/ha, Haryana (107.8kg/ha), Uttar Pradesh (86.00kg/ha), Tamil Nadu(117.1kg/ha) with the all-India average(67.1kg/ha) in 1992.93. COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZER CONSUMPTION: The fertilizer composition is quite significant since it is important to use fertilizers in required doses as well as in optimum composition and if it is used disproportionately it can adversely affect the soil fertility. In patna district, fertilizer was used largely for paddy and wheat.However, one thing is crystal clear that the use fo fertilizer nutrients as not balanced in the district.Urea has almost predominated the fertilizer consumption in Patna district with nearly 70% with the total input being 101 thousand
metric tonnes .The average consumption pattern shows the ssp has gained the maximum usability and its consumption has risen by nearly 50% in the last 4 year since 1998-99 . But the percentage share of NPK,POTASH,SUPHLAandAMMONIUM SULPHATE is far below the desire level and needs to be taken care of in the district they comprise 4% ,3%,2%,6%on an average respectively. Since fertiliser is the basic resource for the development of agriculture in the district ,hence there is immense scope for increasing the fertilizer consumption in Patna district .Going by the present level of consumption of fertilizer there is much need to guarantee the balanced use of fertilizers. REGIONAL LEVELCOMPARISON OF PATNA DISTRICT : Patna the representative district of south-west plains ,with reference to the consumption of nitrogen , it was as high as 75.53% . in 1990-91 which showed a pattern of over-consumption. In comparison Rohtas district in the same region showed a consumption of 60% while in all the other district the share was more than 65.00%. The consumption of potash showed a pattern of under consumption being as low as 7.26% in Patna district in 1990-91.But in the subsequent years it has shown an increasing trend.Also the consumption of phosphorus over the years, the share has shown an increasing trend in all the districts..it was less than 10% in 1976-1977 which increased to around 20.00% in 1990-1991 showing an annual compound growth rate in the range of 9.32% and 4.95% . A comparative analysis of Patna district with the other representative districts shows the following pattern; Some districts were showing a balanced consumption of nitrogeneous fertilizers like Saran, East and West Champaran .The high rate of consumption of nitrogeneous fertilizers as present in Patna was existing in these districts also :for instance it was quite high in 1970s and 1990s ranging between 65-80%.But subsequently these districts have also shown a declining trend.The analysis of phosphorus and potash consumption in these districts shows a rather deficient trend like Darbhanga , Vaishali and Gopalganj phosporus consumption was 25% .So the comparative picture shows that Patna district shows a common feature of resemblance in the fertilizer consumption pattern. A further comparison can be attempted with the districts in the eastern part like Munger and Bhagalpur where though the share of nitrogen was high but the trend shows a declining feature and the consumption of potash was showing an increasing feature. And last not the least , comparing the consumption pattern of fertilizer in Patna district with the State level average outrightly exemplifies thatcomparing in general the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer with the actual consumption the use of fertilizer nutrients was not balanced. As pointed out earlier,Patna the representative district of south-west plains ,with reference to the consumption of nitrogen , it was as high as 75.53% . in 1990-91 which showed a pattern of over-consumption. In the same way in Bihar as a whole, against the recommended share of 56% for nitrogen it was 74% in 1970-1971.The trend has been decreasing form 1975-76 to 1992-1993, the figures being 80% and 67.5% respectively. Further the figures for potash and phosphorus have revealed the same trend.As pointed out earlier the potash consumption was 7.26% in 1990-1991 in which the figures for Bihar showed a deficienty trend though on the higher side i.e. 10% .Still the recommended figures are
14%.In the similar manner phosphorous was also deficient in comparison to the recommended dosage of 14%. To summarize, the Patna district exhibiting a common feature with Bihar in the pattern of fertilizer consumption shows:  Consumption of nitrogeneous fertilizers have been more than the recommended dose. Potash and phosphorus are still been on the deficient side though the trend is ever increasing.  The impact of unbalanced use of fertilizers on the yield of foodgrain production shows an adverse impact circumscribing the various agro-climatic zones in general and the Patna district in particular. A coorealtionship of the fertilizer consumption with the irrigation facilities ,irrigational infrastructure , the rainfall pattern and the foodgrain production clearly shows the positive trend which is well manifested in Patna district. INPUT SUPPLYING AGENCIES: Patna district is rich regarding having a good network of input suppliers of fertilizers. Focussing upon the blocks they have been present in noticeable numbers with the highest in Patna Sadar, danapur, Masaurhi in the wholesale outlets while Fatwah , patna sadar , Phulwarisharif in the retail outlets. A major advantage of these is their magnificent role in disseminating information about the use and utilization of agro-chemicals to the farmers.As detailed earlier using facts and figures the commercial interests of farmers as some times different with the scientific recommendations which in turn results in improper use of the agrochemicals.This pattern is seen in almost all the blocks of the district. This can be very well examined with the tabulated presentation of facts and figures: CONCLUSION: On the basis of the aforesaid facts, the following conclusions are apparent by the study: Utilization of HYV seeds in the various blocks of Patna district, shows that the increase in the HYV areas under paddy, wheat and maize has been considerable while for the other crops it has not been so much noticeable.  Patna district comprising a part of south-west alluvial plains has shown the much higher application of seeds for paddy but comparing it with the districts of Punjan where the figures are as high as 94% in Punjab and 95% in Tamil Nadu, the figues are ranging with 65% which is quite low in comparison to these.  Patna district with the average consumption of 135.86 k/ha the level of fertilizer consumption is one of the highest in comparison to the agriculturally most prosperous states.  Regarding the compostion of fertilizer consumption, this trend is explicitly clear that the composition patter is not in recommended fashion .The pattern clearly shows that the alignment in case of excess in case of nitrogen and deficient in phosphorous
and potash.A recent trend has emerged that the over-consumption of nitrogen is on decline and the proportionate share of phosphorous and potash is increasing .  fertilizer consumption and irrigation has shown a positive coorelation since the blocks and regions in Patna district with better irrigation facilities have shown an inclined trend of fertilizer consumption.  As a result of all these the food production has also shown a considerably positive trend with the increased use of fertilizers. On an average, as per the studies(Source:) For every increase of .57 kg of fertilizer, increase in yield was observed to be 2.40kg of foodgrains. Deviation from the recommended pattern of fertilizer consumption has led to an adverse effect on the soil conditions and in turn on the pattern of foodgrain production.  Lack of proper funds and impoverishment of the farmers has compelled them to refrain from the usage of modern fertilizer inputs and in turn has made them dependent on the traditional manures and composts. An estimate shows that about one-third of cow dung is still used a fuel by the villagers and the cattle urine which has valuable manorial properties is completely wasted.The provision of alternative fuels to the rural population will help to increase the availability of farmyard manure.Also, the increasing use of gobar gas plants will help in making organic7 manures available to the cultivator. There is a great scope for the manufacture of compost from urban waste, from forest litter and other waste materials and also for the use of green manures.this will help in reducing our dependence on chemical fertilisers.
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