ÔN TẬP TIẾNG ANH THI CAO HỌC ĐHSP HUẾ ĐẦY ĐỦ NỘI DUNG PHẦN VIẾT CÂU

VÀ ĐỌC HIỂU Exercise 1 1. It / long / time / that / l / not / see / her. 2. It / so / late / that / nothing / be done. 3. We / help / laugh / him. 4. I / will / drop / you / team / if / not / train / harder. 5. Like / women / she / love / tea-party / gossip. 6. I / see / plane / crash / hill / burst / flames. 7. high time / someone / tell / him / stop / behave / child. 8. Turn / oven / so that / meat / not burn. 9. If / house / be burned / we / claim / compensation. 10. I / will never / tell / secret / woman. Exercise 2 1. I / take / shoes / avoid / make / noise. 2. Thank / invitation / your wedding / beginning / December. 3. I / love with / girl / name / Alice. 4. I / delighted / news / your marriage. 5. I / return / visit / Japan. It / wonderful trip. 6. We / support / him / until / find / work. 7. They / so surprised / not try / stop / him. 8. He / say / he / happy / where / be. 9. She / feel / as if / she / a fever. 10. He / only person / who / be able / help. Exercise 3 1 . Health Robinson / died / 1944 / be / graphic artist / cartoonist. 2. According / Cook / whose book / published / Thursday / most disasters / avoidable. 3. What / you / do / choose / five companies / invest. 4. I / not happy / neither / they. 5. She / so busy / not come / party. 6. He / had / car / five years. 7. I wish I not have / much work / do. 8. She / threatened / call / police / if / he / not leave / immediately 9. He / a lot / mistakes / composition 10. He / apologize / me / not reply / letter. Exercise 4 1. You / not be / afraid / snakes / you ? 2. You / not want / sell / house / you? 3 His mother / proud / him / she? 4. I/ not go out / now / as / it / rain / and l / not have / umbrella. 5. I / wear / sunglasses / today / because / sun / very strong.
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6. I / usually go / bus/ but to day / I go / Tom’s car. 7. Mary / usually learn / languages very quickly / but she / not seem / able / learn / modern Greek. 8. When I / arrive / lecture / already start / and / professor / write / overhead projector. 9. He / not allow / us / go out / boat / yester day / as / strong wind / blow. 10. When / he / return / I / give / him / key. Exercise 5 I. If I / see/ him / l / him / lift. 2. What / happen / if / my parachute / not open? 3. Unless / I / have / quiet room / I / not be able / do / work. 4. What / you / do / if / found / burglar / house? 5. You / see / garden / its best / if you / be here / last week. 6. He / be made / sign / paper / admit /guilt. 7. I / advise / him / ask / bus conductor / tell / him / where / get off. 8. You / too young / have / front-door key. 9. floor / not strong / us / dance. 10. It / cold / us / have breakfast / garden. Exercise 6 1. I / astonished / hear / he / leave / country. 2. It / brave / him / rush / burning house. 3. lt / no use / cry / spilt milk. 4. It / difficult / get used / eat / chopsticks. 5. By / work / day and night / he / succeed / finish / job / time. 6. He / warn / her / not touch / wire. 7. I / regret / inform / you / your application / be refused. 8. Before / give / evidence / you / must swear / speak / truth. 9. I / not used / drive / left. 10. For / long time / earth / believed / flat Exercise 7 1. bed / I / sleep / have / no mattress. 2. man / I / waiting / not turn up. 3. Tom / who / driving / all day / tired / and want / stop. 4. How long / it / take her / cook / meal / yesterday ? 5. He / help / his friend / get good marks / telling him / more careful. 6. Those buses / not going / airport / neither / taxis. 7. You / free / do what / like. 8. lt / exciting / hear / she / won / first prize. 9. It / not easy / patient / recover / his illness. 10. lt / not possible / us / smoke / class. Exercise 8 1. nurse / kind enough / help him / walk.
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2. His dream / become / doctor / may / true. 3. We / told / whom / meet / station. 4. They warn / us / not sleep / mosquito nets. 5. We / suggest / travel / train / see more / country. 6. He / rather spend / holidays / a farm / seaside. 7. student / only play / piano / also play / football. 8. He / not talk / loudly / I. 9. My brother / not drive / carefully / I. 10. He / understand / lesson / more quickly / the rest / his class. Exercise 9 l. He / better / not go / school / because he / not feeling well. 2. His summer holidays / country / make / happier / healthier. 3. I / see / him / walk alone / park / night. 4. doctor's duty / to take care / people's health. 5. How / beautiful / garden ! 6. What / nice picture ! 7. Bicycles / must / leave / hall. 8. Nothing / can / do / unless / more information / given / us. 9. He / told / he / going away / next day. 10. Sleep / next room / people / wikened / sound / breaking glass. Exercise 10 l. My brother / prefer / play tennis / watch it. 2. I / rather / you / phone / him today. 3. He / admit / steal / documents. 4. I / object / her / write / own letters / office hours. 5. It / difficult / prevent / people / park here. 6. Ann / suggest / go / his flat / but I / not think / it / necessary. 7 . He / not interested / make / a lot of money 8. Bill / insist / me / paint / ceiling / black. 9. In spite / quite rich / he / spend / very little. 10. There / people / can’t help / laugh / when / see someone/ slip / banana skin. Exercise 11 1. How long / they / live / there? 2. You / break / light ? 3. He / cheerful / outgoing / personality? 4. You / another / cup / coffee? 5. This / one / my favorite / song. 6. He / think / unusual / eat / dogs / snakes. 7. Temperature / rarely / fall / below / zero / winter. 8. She / suffer / poverty / hardships / all life. 9. Ho Chi Minh / regard as / father / Vietnam. 10. The thief / send / prison / 10 years.
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Exercise 12 1. He / stop / smoke / save money. 2. America / one / three / marriages end / divorce. 3. The telephone / be / broken / one week. 4. You mind / take / rubbish / outside ? 5. The book / write / by / famous / Vietnamese author. 6. He / telephone / mother / so that / she / not worry. 7. Afraid / I / not agree / your opinion. 8. Ten per cent / population / be left-handed. 9. Tell me / way / post office ? 10. Her cat / wake / her up / every morning / by / jump / her face. Exercise 13 1. He / take / his dog / walk / every evening. 2. You / prefer / this color / that color ? 3. He / be / try / telephone / her / day. 4. Man / find / guilty / send / prison / l0 years. 5. He / use / cry / lot / when / he / be / child. 6. Oldest woman / the world / be / 110 / old. 7. I / pay / the hotel / if you / pay / food. 8. I / be / afraid / not finish / yet. 9. What / he say / interesting. 10. Unless / ground / warm / seed / can't / planted. Exercise 14 l . I / might / go / beach / weekend. 2. It / take / me / long time / read / book / in English. 3. Please / not move / while / I / take / photograph. 4. That / be / man / steal / my bag. 5. I / wonder / you / help / lift / chest. 6. This / be / the school / I / go to / as / child. 7. It / be / no use / say / you / be / sorry. 8. Wife / not let / me / smoke / house. 9. Remember / turn off / gas / when / you / finish / cooking. 10. Building / which / be / very expensive / be / build / last year. Exercise 15 l. You / show me / how / operate / computer ? 2. If she / want / meet me / she / have / ask me herself. 3. Viet Nam / change / quickly / moment. 4. You / send / fax / him / soon / possible? 5. He / think / computers / be / more common / typewriters / future. 6. Know / how / use / computer / be / very important nowadays. 7. When / I / be/ married / l want / have / lots / children.
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8. I / be / try / contact you / three days. 9. My brother / not feel / well / so / he / go / bed. 10. I / not come / tomorrow / but / I / able / come / next week instead. Exercise 16 1. It / be / wonderful / go / swimming / when / weather / get / warmer. 2. He / grow / so fat / he / not be able / wear / favourite trousers. 3. They / miss / start / the show / so / decide / have / dinner / restautant / instead. 4. When we / travel / Japan / ưe / have to / pay / lot / money / hotel room. 5. Without proof / it / be / impossible / police / know / who / take / money. 6. We / be / still not sure / origin / langgages. 7. After / visit / dentist / Phuong's teeth hurt / more / they / have / before. 8. Pacific Ocean / be / generally / think / be / biggest / world. 9. She / not see / performance very well / to she / move / different seat. I0. He / suggest / they / have / good meal / go / bed / earrly. Exercise 17 1. She / have / hairdresser / cut / her hair / different way. 2. He / not enjoy / job / so / find / different one. 3. I / want / buy / jacket / not have / enough money. 4. He / have / his secretary / type / letter. 5. Have / run / as fast / could / he / be able / arrive / on time. 6. If you / not go / the party / I / not go / either. 7. I / get / friend / fix / my computer. 8. We / see / either / this film / or lother one. 9. You / be / unlucky / not win / first prize. 10. He / know / he / be / wrong / but / he / not / admit it. Exercise 18 1. I / be / afraid / you / have to / wait / half / hour / before / doctor / see you. 2. I / not / solve / problem / it / be / too difficult. 3. He / just / buy / new computer. 4. How long / she / work / here ? 5. William Shakespeare / consider / be / England's / great / playwright. 6. I / be / so sorry / hear / your accident. 7. You / always / be / careful / when / you / cross / road. 8. If / you / be / so tired / why / not / you / go / bed ? 9. I / be / sorry / but I / not remember / your name. l 0. lt / be / beautiful / day / not be / it ? Exercise 19 1. l / prefer / live / countryside / because I / dislike / noise / traffic / city. 2. We / not believe / whatever / he / say / because / he / liar. 3. Despite / age / he / join / social activities / neigbourhood. 4. surprising / he / pass / examination.
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5. man / injured / accident / take / hospital. 6. Now that / highway / build / take / two hours / there. 7. only guest / late / pary / our manager. 8. It / stupid / him / give up / job / need / money. 9. wish / go / beach / you / last Sunday. 10. Neither he / nor I / be going / attend / meeting. Exercise 20 1. I / have / use / public telephone / because / out of order. 2. She / by / church / way / work / day. 3. factory / close / workers / go / strike / last week. 4. director / ill / so / deputy / speech / instead of. 5. happen / picture / used to / hang / wall ? 6. I / complain / manager / restaurant / food. 7. We / not see / picture / our city / as / look / 100 years. 8. advantage / have / car / that / rely / public transport. 9. It / age / 14 / Jack London / leave school / sailor. l0. Neither / boy's teacher / parents / satisfied / progress. Exercise 21 1. There / be/ increase / road / abcident / in / few years. 2. Mr. Green / take / charge / office / while / director / away / vacation. 3. He / furious / me / not invite / party / Sunday. 4. rain / everyday / so / have / spend / most / time / indoors. 5. He / show / photograph / hotel / stay / during / holiday. 6. my opinion / violent films / should not / show / televtsion. 7. you / know / Linda / engage / friend / mine? 8. If / smoke / there / greater chance / you / die / lung cancer. 9. accident / fault / so / I / pay / damage. 10. You / borrow / book / if / promise / keep / clean. Exercise 22 1. going / visit / friends / make with / hostel. 2. begin / rain / manager / get / office / morning. 3. When / boy / twelve / father / die / dangerous disease. 4.I / tell / her / meeting / if / see / tomorrow. 5. lt / important / brother / stop / smoke / once. 6. I / think over / offer / give / my answer / soon / possible. 7. After / dinner / set out / saying / where / going. 8. We / invite / party / occasion / birthday. 9. She / leave / wait / rain / minutes / night. 10. sister / willing / help / mother / homework / when / hotiday. Exercise 23 1. police / say / no connection / two murders.
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2. you / know / interested / buy / hand / car ? 3. Stand / plane / doctor / goodbye / everybody / airport. 4. John / show / hotel / stay / vacation. 5. mother / still / hospital / out / danger. 6. While / Ann / hospital / she / a visit / teacher. 7. I / hardly / start work / feel / pain / back. 8. Now that / I / finish / course / have / look / job. 9. Paul / suit / job interview / good impression. 10. Why not / day off / so / recover properly ? Exercise 24 1. The Queen / moved / tears / hear / news. 2. She / insist / talk / manager / person. 3. It / essential / that / child / same / educatioqal opportunities. 4. He / little / money / save / it / not / long. 5. I / never / really / consider / get / married. 6. I / grateful / kindness / me / visit / your factory / earfier this month. 7 . We / survive / unless / start / work / cleaner / safer / sources / energy. 8. She / hurt / leam / boyfriend / forget / birttrday. 9. At / bank / Bill / second / command. 10. She / look / as / she / see / ghost. Exercise 25 1. hate / people / laugh / own jokes. 2. we / looking / pub / serve food. 3. It / Jones / injured / Brown. 4. I / introduce / man / share a flat. 5. tell / truth / l / not think / you / much chance of success. 6. They / make / him go / sleep / giving / a special drink. 7. Mr Brown / not a scientist / neither / his wife. 8. You / free / do what / like. 9. It / exciting / hear / he / won / gold medal. 10. It / sad / find / more / more couples / getting divorced. Exercise 26 1. The weather / so bad / we have / say / home. 2. There / so much noise / I / not sleep. 3. He had so / books / not know / where / put them. 4. He / make / strange decision / that / everyone / surprised. 5. This / such / easy exercise / I / do it / two minutes. 6. We / surprised / the news / they / manage / finish such / diffrcult task ahead / schedule. 7. Some seeds can / planted / whether / ground / cold / not. 8. He wondered / teaching methods / vary considerably / not. 9. What he / trying / do / get / early / moming.
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I 0. fact / her son / out / danger / bring her / some relief. Exercise 27 l. It / wonderful / see / old friends again. 2. If I / you / not do / that. 3. She / pleased / receive / such / gift. 4. last two lessons / hard / me / understand 5. Your parents / not like / plan / live abroad. 6. His refusal / help / disappointment. 7. You / not keep / promise / write / me / more frequently. 8. principal / school / arurounce / intention / retire. 9. His decision / resign / welcomed / people. 10. I / feel doubtful / his ability / do / work. Exercise 28 I . He / first man / arrive. 2. This / best book / subject / appeat / tris year. 3. There / several letters / director / sign. 4. This / first attempt / English composition. 5. news / her son / killed / greatshock / het. 6. think / there / little probability / he / succeed / examination. 7 . care / when / cross / busy streets. 8. question / gol Da Lat / or Vung Tau / holidays / still / discussed. 9. Everybody / annious / know / what / happeltd. 10. Your father / pleased / see / long absence. Exercise 29 1. She / fortunate / have / such / kind husband. 2. boys / clever / see / solution / problem / so quickly. 3. You / careless / leave / umbrella / bus. 4. How brave / you / go / into / buming building / save / baby ! 5. Everyone / anxious / you / accept / position. 6. Ann / eager / parents / meet / young man / asked her / marry him. 7 . baby brother / too / young / walk. 8. box / too heavy / you / lift. 9. I / quite ignorant / what / intend / do. 10. He / angry / her / broken / promise. Exercise 30 1. I / not dare / stay / home / myself / night. 2. be sure / good seat / your tickets / should / bought / advance. 3. Sitting / window / l / watch / people / pass. 4. Jerry / a feeling / he / followed / but / friends / just laugh / idea. 5. Why / left / mystery / me. 6. How / prisoner / escape / compete mystery.
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7. They / very thankful / whatever / you / give. 8. student / always / attention / whatever / teacher / saying. 9. London / town / many millions of people. I0. time / visit me / inconvenient. Exercise 31 l. However hard / try / never / seem able / work. 2. way /my office / never stop / no mather / call me. 3. She / always late / class / no matter / get up. 4. teacher / love / every student / no matter / from. 5. I / not stand / listen / his complaints / longer. 6. Her ambition / famous pianist / obvious. 7. She / decision / goodbye / him. 8. There / no news / how / prisoner / escape. 9. How ungrateful / you / not greet / former teacher / meet / him. 10. It / very thoughtless / laugh merrily / when / person / speiking / sorrowful. Exercise 32 l. I / sorry / I / fail / arrive / Athens / last Friday. 2. I / very impressed / all work / you / done / on / your house. 3. We / polluted / air / be / smoke / factories / fumes / motor-vehicles. 4. Provided / legible / examiner / accept / handwriting / answer. 5. I / congratulate / you / excellent cooking. 6. If / earth / sudden / stop / spin / we / fly / it. 7. My / father / tired / live / city / want / quiet village. 8. Never / put / tomorrow / you / can / today. 9. She / dentist / got / toothache . 10. Gagarin / first man / travel / space. A. USING THE SUGGESTED PHRASE GIVEN AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SENTENCE Exercise 1 1. "Why don't you complain to the compily, Peter ? " said William. William suggested ……………………….. ....... 2. He started to play the guitar five years ago. He has ..................................... 3. I am fond of my nephew although he behaves terribly. I am fond of my nephew in ……………………..... 4. I won't swim in the sea because it is too cold. The sea is not .................................................. 5. "I was not there at the time," he said. He denied............................................ ....... 6. "'Who does that suitcase belong to?" The policeman asked us. The policeman asked us whose ……………………………………….. 7. She hasn't ridden a horse before. It's . ...................................................
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8. We couldn't answer those two difficult questions. Those two ……………………………. 9. Haven't you got any cheaper televisions ? Are these …………………………………………………. 10. I would prefer you not to smoke in here. I'd rather . ………………………………………... Exercise 2 1. "Please don't make such a mess in your room," his mother said. His mother asked ………………………………………… 2. The Americans have just recalled their ambassador. The Americans …………………………….. 3. It is not necessary for you to do the test. You …………………………………… 4. The day was so cold that we stayed in doors It was …. 5. She prefers reading to watching TV She would …. 6. Eventually he succeeded in making her answer the question. Eventually he managed .... 7. Although he is intelligent, he doesn't do well at school. In ... 8. I regret not going to the airport to say goodbye to him. I wish ..:....:.. 9. They arrived very late because they had a flat tyre. If .. . . 10. She couldn't get to work because of the heavy snow. The heavy snow …. Exercise 3 l. I had expected the weather to be worse. The weather was not . …. 2. The train couldn't run because of the storm. The storm …. 3. I didn't arrive in time to see her. I wasn't early …. 4. I'm sorry I was rude to you yesterday. I apologise …. 5. He didn't hurry, so he missed the train. If .. . . .. 6. Mary is the most talented student in my school. No student …. 7. I haven't seen that man here before. It's …..
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8. The furniture was so expensive that I didn't buy it. The furniture was too ….. 9. The robbers made the bank manager hand over the money. The bank manager ……………………………………….. 10. He learned to drive when he was eighteen. He has ………………………………….. Exercise 4 1. She had never been so happy before. She was unhappier ………………………………. 2. It was so late that nothing could be done. If was too …………………………………………….. 3. I asked the hotel receptionist to wake me at 8 o'clock the following morning. "Please ………………………………… 4. They'll have to change the date of the meeting again. The date ……………………………………. 5. The garage is going to repair the car for us next week. We are going ………………………………. 6. The bus takes longer than the train . The train …………………………………… 7. John has not had his hair cut for over six months. It is ……………………………………………. 8. Maria says she'd like to have been put in a higher class. Maria wishes …………………………………....... 9. Would you like me to finish the work tonight ? I'll …………………………………….... 10. You may get hungry on the train, so take some sandwiches. In ………………………………………………….. Exercise 5 1. My husband didn't leave the car keys, so I couldn't pick him up at the station. If my husband ……………………………………… 2. "I don't think John will come," said Bill. Bill doubted ………………………………………. 3. The postman was bitten by our dog. Our dog ...... .. . .. . . 4. We couldn't drive because of the fog. The fog prevented .... .. 5 Although his leg was broken he managed to get out of the car. In spite ... ... 6. The cake was so hard that I could not eat it. It was ….. 7. We didn't go because it rained. If it hadn't ….. 8. I can't cook as well as my mother does.
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My mother … 9. I don't suppose you have change for a pound, do you ? Do you happen . ........ ? 10. He failed to win the race. He didn't ........... . Exercise 6 l. Mary rang hours and hours ago. It's hours ….. 2. I'm sorry that I didn't finish my homework last night. I wish …. 3. She asked John how he liked her new dress. "How …….. 4. A train leaves at eight o'clock every morning. There is …… 5. Nobody can deny that she has a beautiful voice. It ....... ............. 6. I would like you to help me to put the chairs away. Do you mind ....... ? 7. The child will die if nobody sends for a doctor. Unless ....... 8. He would prefer you to pay him immediately. He’d rather ………………………………… 9. The water was so cold that the children could not swim in it. The water was not …………………………… 10. Somebody repaired her car yesterday. She …………………………… Exercise 7 1. You must see the manager tomorrow morning. You've …………………………. 2. There was never any answer when we rang. Every …………………………….. 3. That's an insulting name to use for him. Don't call ………………………………… 4. John asked if it was the blue one or the green she wanted. "Which ………………………………………. 5. She liked Paris very little, and Rome less. She thought Rome ...................................... 6. I can meet you if you arrive before eleven. So …………………………………….. 7 . They will catch all the prisoners again tonight. All the prisoners …………………………………….. 8. I've warned you not to go near that dog. I've warned you about ………………………..
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9. No, please don't tell him. I'd rather ………………………… 10. Why don't you ask her yourself ? I suggest ………………………....... Exercise 8 1. An up-to-date visa is necessary for Andorra. You'll ……………………………….. 2. "Why don't you put a better lock on the door, Barry?" said John. John suggested ….. 3. Although both his legs were broken in the crash, he managed to get out of the car before it exploded. Despite his ….. 4. I haven't eaten this kind of food before. This is the first …… 5. After fighting the fire for twelve hours the firemen succeeded in putting it out The firemen managed ……. 6. The architect has drawn plans for an extension to the house. Plans ……. 7. In Stratford-on-Avon we saw Shakespeare's birthplace. We saw the house ….. 8. It isn't necessary for you to finish by Saturday. You …… 9. "How many survivors are there?" asked the journalist. The journalist wanted to know ... ... 10. It was such rotten meat that it had to be thrown away. The meat was ........ Exercise 9 1. It is essential that Professor John Brown is met at the aiqport. Professor John Brown …… 2. You can't visit the United States unless you get a visa. If you …………. 3. "Can I borrow your typewriter, Janet ?" asked Peter. Peter asked if .. ... .. 4. She started working as a secretary five years ago. She has ...... 5. She knows a lot more about it than I do. I don't know................... 6. My French friend finds driving on the left diffrcul. My French friend isn't ………………………… 7. They think the owner of the house is abroad. The owner ………………………. 8. We didn’t go on holiday because we didn't have enough money.
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lf we ………………………….. 9. The children couldn't go swimming because the sea was very rough. The sea was too ………………………. I0. What a pity you failed your driving test ! I wish ……………………………. Exercise 10 1. I'm always nervous when I travel by air. Travelling ………………………… 2. He could not afford to buy the car. The car …………………………… 3. "Why don't you put your luggage under the seat ?" he asked. He suggested …………………………….. 4. Although he had a good salary, he was unhappy in his job. In spite …………………………………….. 5. He was annoyed because his secretary came late to work. He objected ............................................. 6. I'm sorry I missed your birthday party. I wish ……………………………….. 7. They haven't cleaned the streets this week. The streets ………………………………. 8. Apples are usually cheaper than oranges. Apples are not ………………………….. 9. I advise you to put your money in the bank. You'd …………………………….. 10. That restaurant is so dirty that no one wants to eat there. It is such …………………………. Exercise 11 1. John only understood very little of what the teacher said. John could hardly ........................... 2. Unless someone has a key, we can't get into the house. We can only .................... 3. I'm sure you didn't lock the front door. Here's the key. You can't …… 4. He prefers golf to tennis. He'd rather ……. 5. He is sorry now that he didn't invite Molly to his party. He wishes ................... 6. “Bring your swimming things in case it’s sunny” He told ....................... 7. There's no need for you to talk so loudly. You don't ................... 8. I haven't been to Bristol for three years. The last time .............................................. 9. No one has signed this cheque'.
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This cheque ………………….. 10. Tim will be eighteen next week. It's Tim's ………………………….. Exercise 12 1. Unless he phones immediately he won’t get any information If …………. 2. How long is it since they bought the house ? When ……. 3. He couldn’t repair the broken vase. The vase ……… 4. The garden still needs digging. The garden hasn’t ………….. 5. Have you got a cheaper carpet than this ? Is this ..................................................? 6. I can't get my feet into these shoes. These shoes …………………………........ 7. I am very pleased that we shall meet again soon. I am looking …………………………….. 8. “Keep away from this area," said the security guard, when we approached the fence. The security guard told …………………………. 9. I've never met such a famous person before. It's ………………………………….. 10. This pudding can be cooked in its tin. You don't ……………………………….... Exercise 13 1. “Why didn't I get a computer before ?" thought the office manager. The office manager wondered ............................................ 2. “You'd better not lend him any more money, Mary," Said Tom. Tom advised Mary …………………………………. 3. I started work for the company a year ago. I've been .. ................................... 4. Susan felt sick, because she ate four crealn cakes. If Susan ……………………………. 5. My suit needs to be cleaned before the interview. I must ……………………………… 6. "You stole my best cassette, Amanda!" said William. William accused ........................................ 7. Because of the rough sea, the ferry couldn't sail. The rough sea …………………………… 8. Please check for damage before signing the delivery note. Don't ………………………………..
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9. Roses can't possibly grow in such poor ground. It is impossible ………………. 10. Your car might break down on the rough mountain road, so take plenty of spare parts. In case ........... Exercise 14 l. "You damaged my bicycle, John !" said Margaret. Margaret accused ............................. 2. It is only one hundred years since the birth of D.H. Lawrence, the famous novelist. D.H. Lawrence . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. John Speke failed to find the source of the River Nile. John Speke didn't succeed ………………….. 4. Maria didn't apply for the job in the library and regrets it now. Maria wishes ........... ........................ 5. Helen wanted to know the name of Shirley's hairdresser's. Helen said, "Shirley, where ........... ........................?" 6. This furniture is so old that it's not worth keeping. This is ........... 7. Handicapped people find shopping in supermarkets diflicult. It's ................. 8. Why don't you meet to discuss the pay offer? I suggest ................................ 9. Without this treatment, the patient would have died. If he ............... .................... 10. Although he didn't speak Dutch, Bob decided to settle in Amsterdam. In sllite ............... Exercise 15 1. He is said to have been in the French Foreign Legion. People ...... 2. "How old is your little boy ? " said the nurse to the lady. The nurse asked the lady …………………………….. 3. I'm sure it wasn't Mrs Elton you saw because she's in Bristol. It can't ....................................... 4. How long have Catherine and Henry been engaged ? When ……………………………… 5. In spite of his age, Mr Benson runs seven miles before breakfast. Although …………………………. 6. It's a pity I didn't take my doctor's advice. I wish .................................... 7 . The bread is so stale we can't eat it. The bread isn't ……………………..
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8. Who does this bag belong to ? Whose ............. …………………….? 9. "Never borrow money from friends," my father said. My father told me ……………………........ l0. The accident happened because the train driver ignored a warning light. If the train driver ………………………………. Exercise 16 1. The keepers feed the lions at 3 pm every day. The lions ........................................ 2. We got lost because we didn't have a map. If we ............................................ 3. "Where is the station car-park ?" Mrs Smith asked. Mrs Smith asked ............................. 4. I would prefer you to deliver the sofa on Friday. I would rather ……………………………………… 5. He was sorry he hadn't said goodbye to her at the airport. He regretted ……………………………….. 6. It is pointless to have that old typewriter repaired. That old typewriter is not .................................... 7. The bridge was so low the bus couldn’t go under it. It was ……….. 8. I last saw him when I was a student. I haven’t …… 9. That was a silly thing to say ! What …… 10. We’ve run out of tea. There ….. Exercise 17 1. Philippa asked Olive if she could remember where she had put the camera. Philippa said, "Olive, ……………….?" 2. It is a six-hour drive from London to Edinburgh. It takes .............. 3. Tum off all switches before leaving the workshop. All the switches ……… 4. It is ages since Alan visited his parents. Alan ……………………… 5. Mrs Taylor does not like living in such a small house. Mrs Taylor wishes ........... 6. Mr Mills lost his job because he was late every day. If Mr Mills ……………….. 7. James spoke to his lawyer before signing the contract. James didn't ………………… 8. They travelled across India, and then flew on to Japan.
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After ……………… 9. “You’d better go to the doctor if you've got a pain in your back, Anna,'' Henry said. Henry suggested ……………… 10. The police made the youth empty his pocket. The youth ……………………….. Exercise 18 1. Joan eats very little so as not to put on weight. Joan eats very little because …………………………… 2. On arrival at the shop, the goods are inspected carefully When the goods ………………………………... 3. Laurence hasn't seen his sister since she left for Japan. Laurence last ………………………………… 4. Peter said he wasn't feeling well. Peter said, "I ……………………………………………..” 5. John is fat because he eats so many chips. If …………………………………………… 6. “ You should take more exercise, Mr Robert," the doctor said, "if you want to Iose weight." The doctor advised …………………………………….. 7. Collecting dolls from foreign countries is one of Jane's interests. Jane is ……………………………….. 8. George is not nearly as energetic as he used to be. George used ………………………………… 9. If Joe doesn't change his way, he will end up in prison. Unless ................................................... 10. The boy's very pleased to be going away on holiday soon. The boy's looking ……………………………….. Exercise 19 1. “Will I ever find a job? " Tim said to himself. Tom wondered ……………………………………… 2. You should take a map because you might get lost in those mountains. In case .......................................... 3. Temperature is measured by a thermometer. A thermometer is …………………………… 4. You remembered to post the letter, didn't you ? You didn't …………………………………. 5. Mr Dryden mended the washing machine for me. I had …………………….. 6. Pat is the tallest girl in her class. No one ............... 7. To get the 40% discount, you must buy all twelve books at the same time. You can only …………....
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8. "I'm sorry I gave you the wrong number," said Paul to Susan. Paul apologized …………………….. 9. Samuel started keeping a diary five years ago. Samuel has ………………. 10. Please don’t smoke in the kitchen. I'd rather …………………………. Exercise 20 1. Sally's parents gave her a computer for her birthday. Sally ……………………………… 2. It was such bad news that Helen burst into tears. The news ………………………. 3. How long is it since you saw Mary? When ………………………. 4. If he doesn't work harder, he'll lose his job. Unless ………………………………….. 5. I'd like to visit India more than any other country in the world. India is ……………………………….. 6. Alan regretted asking Arthur to lend him $20. Alan wished ....... 7. "When is the first day of your holiday, Peter?" Martha asked. Martha asked Peter when ...... 8. The flight to Moscow lasted three and a half hours. It took …………………………. 9. I work in a factory which has more than athousand employees. There ………….. 10. Belinda felt very depressed but she still went to the party. Belinda went to the party …………………….. Exercise 21 1. Mr Hill teaches his students to understand different English accents. Mr Hill's students ………………….. 2. It was such a boring film that we left before the end. The film ................................... 3. Robert and Catherine have been married for four years. It's four years .............................. 4. Elizabeth got a bad cough because she started smoking cigarettes. If Elizabeth .................................. 5. "Can I have a new bicycle ?" said Anna to her mother. Anna asked ......................................... 6. Don't blame me if the tin-opener's broken. It's not …………………….. 7. Although he had a bad cold, William still went'to work. In spite ………………………… 8. Barbara plays squash better than Mike.
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Mike doesn't ……………………… 9. Whose suitcase is this ? Who does ...............................? I0. The train journey from London to Bristol takes two hours. It is a ………………………… Exercise 22 1. Did they build the garage at the same time as the house ? Was ............................................ 2. The people who were at the meeting will say nothing to the press. Nobody who ……………………….. 3. The heary rain made it impossible for us to have our picnic. We were ………………………. 4. Joan will stay on at school unless she finds a good job before September If ……………………….. 5. I don't really want to go out tonight. I'd rather ………………………. 6. Shirley didn't begin to read until she was eight. It wasn't ............ 7. Lucy hasn't worn that dress since Barbara's wedding. The last ………………………. 8. Let's go abroad for our holiday this year. Why ......? 9. He is such a slow speaker that his students get very bored. He speaks …………….. l0. Mackenzie wrote four best-sellers before he was twenty. By the age of twenty ……………………………. Exercise 23 1. "You stole the jewels!" the inspector said to him. The inspector accused …………………. 2. If it doesn't rain soon, millions of pounds' worth of crops will be lost. Unless ………………………………. 3. "Don't move or I’ll shoot!" the bank robber said to the clerk. The bank robber threatened ……………………….. 4. The drama critic of the “Daily News'' regards the new play as a major breakthrough. According to .. .... . 5. Although the team played well, they lost. Despite . . ..... 6. Galileo is considered to be the father of modern astronomy. Galileo is regarded ……………… 7. The only way you can become a good athlete is by training hard every day. Only by …………………………………

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8. He speaks more persuasively than his brother. He is a ………………………. 9. It started to pour with rain moments after we had started our walk. Hardly .............................. 10. Could you tell me the time of the last train to London ? Could you tell me ...................................... .......? Exercise 24 1. If you want my advice, I would forget about buying a new house. If I …………………………. 2. "I must see the manager !” he cried. He insisted ............................. 3. Arthur said he was sorry he had hurt her feelings. Arthur apologized …………………… 4. I had better get back to work. It's.......................... 5. The last time it rained was a frtninght ago. It ……………………. 6. The noise next door did not stop until after midninght. It was not ………………….. 7 . The car was so rusty that it couldn’t be repaired. The car was too …………………. 8. He never has enough money. He's always …………………………….. 9. Yogurt is supposed to be good for you. Yogurt is supposed to do ……………………... 10. I do not intend to discuss this matter any further. I have ……………………… Exercise 25 1. Although the play received good notices, not many people went to see it. Despite …………………….. 2. My father speaks very little English. My father speaks hardly ……………….. 3. He said he was not guilty of stealing the car. He denied ……………………………. 4. I'm sorry now that I asked her to stay. Now I wish …………………….. 5. They couldn't trace who had suppried the information in the first place. The source ..... ....... 6. There is always trouble when he comes to visit us. Whenever ....................... 7. Is this the only way to reach the city centre? Isn't there ......................................... 8. He never suspected that the money had been stolen.
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At no time ........................ 9. I have never seen such a mess in my life ! Never in .......................! l0. Is it essential to meet your aunt at the station? Does your aunt................ .....................? Exercise 26 1. Their dog was so fierce that nobody would visit them. They had ……………. 2. That dress has only the slightest mark on it. I can barely ........................ 3. He insisted on a full apology. Nothing but .................. 4. He remembered, and so did she. He didn't ………………… 5. My decision to get up and dance coincided with the band's decision to stop playing. The moment …………………………………… 6. The doctor advised me to rest. The doctor suggested ................................... 7 . They had to wait for twelve hours before their flight left. Only after a .......................... 8. Their teacher is making them study hard. They are ………………………… 9. They were just as good as we had expected. They certainly lived …………………… 10. Even though I admire his courage, I think he is foolish. Much ……………....... Exercise 27 1. Next Saturday is our tenth wedding anniversary. We will ...................................... 2. No matter how hard I tried I couldn't start the engine. Try ........................................ 3. The critics were very impressed by her performance. Her performance made ……………………. 4. When are the council going to do something about the city's traffic problems ? It's high time somethlng …………………………… 5. I didn't realized who he was until later. Only later …………………. 6. The value of sterling has fallen considerably in the past week. There has ………………… 7. It won't make any difference if it rains because we'll still go. We'll still go ..............................
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8. We left quietly, so that we wouldn't disturb the children. So as .................................. 9. I would do anything for you There's ……………………….. I0. Given fair warning, I could have avoided that date. If you had told me …………………….. Exercise 28 1. His second attempt on the world record was successful. He broke .... 2. I'm sure he didn't know that his brother was seriously ill. He couldn't possibly …………….. 3. What particularly impressed me was her excellent command of English I ........................ 4. She didn't say a word when she left the room. She left the room ……………… 5. The result of the match was never in doubt. At no time …………………………………. 6. This will be the orchestra’a first performance outside London. This will be the first time ………………. 7. I applied for the job but was tumed down. My …………………………….. 8. The Prime Minister was determined to remain in office. The Prime Minister had no.. ..... ....... 9. The refugees continued to feel unsafe until they had crossed the border. Not until ……………………………………… 10. I don't know anything about aeronautics. I am ………………………………. Exercise 29 l. The students’ riotous behaviour should have been severely punished. The students deserved ............. 2. There are more people out of work in this country than ever before. Never ....... ............................. 3. The chances are that the whole thing will have been forgotten by next term. In all .. ……… ...... 4. "Please don't drive too fast !" Ann begged her boyfriend. Ann pleaded ………………… 5. Despite his ungainly air he is remarkably agile. Although ………………….. 6. She is proud of being such a good cook. She prides ……………. 7. My protests were ignored. Nobody ................... 8. I'm sure he took your briefcase by mistake.
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I'm sure he didn't ………………… 9. We only dispatch goods after receiving the money. Only after the money …………………… 10. You pay $20 a month for a period of one year. You pay in ...................................... Exercise 30 1. He'll settle down. Then his performance will improve. Once …………………………. 2. It is said that he escaped to a neutral country. He …………………………… 3. The truth only came out on the publication of the general's personal diaries. Only when ………………… 4. Oil was slowly coating the edge of the shore. The edge of the shore ……………………… 5. In spite of the forecast it stayed fine. Although rain ……………………. 6. You really should be able to dress yourself by now ! It's high......................................... 7. Provided your handwriting is legible the examiner will accept your answer. So long as the examiner ……………………. 8. Without his help we would all have died. If it ……………………………. 9. He forgot all about the gun until he got home. Not until ………………………. 10. May I borrow your pen ? Would you mind .................................. ...? Exercise 31 1. My boyfriend is very short-tempered. My boyfriend loses ............... 2. You can use it as long as you like, and it won’t wear out. No matter ......................... 3. If the work is finished by lunch time you can go home. Get ………………………….. 4. It's such a pity your sister can’t come as well. If only ………………………. 5. The house seemed to have been unnoccupied for several months. It looked ................................ 6. These new machines have put an end to queuing. Before these ……………………… 7. Everyone heard about the accident before I did. I was the …………………….. 8. "If you must go out tonight, at least finish your homework first !” said Sarah’s father. Sarah's father said if …………………………..
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9. The instructions say you just add boiling water to the soup powder. The soup powder …………………………. 10. He was so tired he felt asleep before the end of the film. He was too ………………. Exercise 32 I . Many people were severely critical of the proposals for the new motorway. There was ……………………….. 2. For a teacher of her experience and ability, discipline was not a problem. For such ........................ . 3. There was no precedent for the King's resignation. Never ……………….. 4. The police were informed of the identity of the murdered man. The identity ............. 5. The fate of the two climbers is unknown. It is a mystery .. ..... 6. He was suspended for two matches for swearing at the referee. Swearing at the referee earned ………………… 7. People who haven't been abroad shouldn't criticize foreign customs. Nobody who……………………. 8. It is thought that the Prime Minister is considering raising taxes. The Prirne Minister .... …………….. 9. He did not pass the driving test until he was nearly thirty. It ……………………….. 10. It was the weakness of the foundations that led to the collapse of the building. If ……………………….. Exercise 33 1. The only way to eliminate world terrorism is by united opposition. Only by …………………….. 2. If she hadn't insisted on kissing everyone goodbye she would have caught the train. If it hadn't …………………………. 3. The fisherman's life was one of great poverty. Throughout ……………………….. 4. Someone has suggested abolishing income tax. It ………………………………. 5. I do not enjoy cooking for five hungry children. Cooking …………………………… 6. My parents find fault with everything I do. No matter ………………………….. 7. I certainly don't intend to reply to that rude letter from Edward.
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I have …………….. 8. Simon had not expected that he would feel so weak after the operation. The operation left .. ………….... 9. I am absolutely sure he took the money on purpose. He couldn't possibly ……………………….. 10. Winning the crossword competition made him extremely happy. He was absolutely …………………………….. Exercise 34 1. Thanks to his aunt's legacy of $10,000 he was able to buy the house he wanted. Had his .. ………………… . 2. I didn't realize he was your brother until I saw the photograph. It was only ……………………………………… 3. The President is the statesman I admire most of all. There is …………………………. 4. Don't you wish you could get out more in the evening? Don't you get fed ……………………. ? 5. It's nobody's fault that the meeting wits cancelled. Nobody ……………………………… 6. If you missed the programme you can't really judge. Unless you ………………….. 7. She never seems to succeed, even though she works hard. However ………………………………… 8. It was more of an argument than a discussion It was not so …………………………….. 9. I write to him almost every day. Hardly ………………………………… 10. Mary told the police about the burglary. Mary reported ……………………….. A. QUESTION-ANSWER TEST 1 MAHATMA GANDHI Mohandas Gandhi was first called Mahatma or Great Soul, by the poet Tagore. The name was taken up by his admirers but Gandhi himself did not like it. He had no wish for honours or titles. It is difficult, though, to describe this man-one of the very great men of our times - in any other terms. No man played a larger part in lndia's struggle for political independence. Yet the word “politician” did not suit him. He looked for neither power nor high Place. He cared nothing for wealth, fame or comfort, but for his people's happiness above all. People or different faiths came to sit at his feet and learned from him. And his teachings have touched the hearts of people in many nations. Gandhi was a dreamer who spent all his life trying to apply his dreams to the world around him. He dreamed of a world where there would be no rich or poor, master or slave, where no man shourd be ashamed of his birth or position in society. 1. Why did Mohandas Gandhi not like the name "Mahatma" or "Great Soul" ?
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2. What did he do for India ? 3. What did he care for above all ? 4. How influential was he ? 5. What did Mahatma Gandhi dream of ? TEST 2 ERNEST HEMINGWAY There are peopre whose immortality begins from the moment of their death. Hemingway is one of them. He was a great man. The whole of his creative work was a long struggle, for Hemingway, the man and the writer, had many enemies. Perhaps his great enemy was war. He hated it with all his heart, with his whole body, in which 28 bullets had left their traces. Hemingway hated those who made a business of war. In an introduction to his novel “A farewell to Arms”, Hemingway said that wars were started by people who profited from them, and he ,suggested that those warlike people should be shot on the very first day of war, by sentence of the people. Hemingway hated fascism. He never surrendered. He fought against it with the pen and the sword. 1. Who was Hemingway ? 2. Why was the whole of his creative work a long struggle ? 3. How did Hemingway hate war ? 4. Who else did he hate ? Why ? 5. What was Hemingway's attitude to fascism ? TEST 3 This report looks at the careers of students who have left Barnaby school, and is based on questionnaires received from over 300 former students. Over the past-few-years, the majoriry of students (63%) have continued with their education after they left school. Most of these have gone to university and the others have done vocational courses at Colleges of Further Education. About a quarter of the students have found jobs after leaving school. Some of these jobs are with employers in the local area, but others are in London or even abroad. About half of the students said that they were unemployed for several months before finding work. A small minoriry of students (1.5%) went straight into their family business. About 12% of the students were unabre to find work and have been unemployed for over a year. Most of these were students who failed their examination, although a few had passed with reasonable grades. In general, more and more leavers are going to university or further education, and this trend will probably continue as long as unemployment is high. 1. What is the meaning of 'went straight into' in paragraph 3 ? 2. What is the report based on ? 3. According to the report, is it easy or difficult for school leavers'to find jobs ? 4. Which of the-students had the most difficulty in finding work ?
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5. Why are more and more reavers going on to university or further education ? TEST 4 The generar opinion abroad is that London has fog or rain or both, every day of the year, but on the day that I arrived it was fine and warm, there was bright sun and a cloudless sky. The next day it was Just as beautiful; there was a slight wind that gently moved the leaves on the trees, and you could smell the spring in the air. 'Life is grand!' I thought as I walked in Kensington Gardens. It was a straighr road and I found the way quite easily. When I got my first sight of the gardens, the beauty of it nearly took my breath away. The trees were just bursting into leaf, fresh and green and lovely, and there were beds of spring flowers, red and yellow, and blue, in the beautiful, smooth grass under the trees. People in the light spring clothes were walking about, and, to my surprise, they walked not only along the paths but also across the grass, and no one said a word to them about it. I had never seen such a thing before. 1. What is the weather like in London according to the general opinion ? 2. What was the weather like on the day the writer arrived in London ? 3. What season was it when the writer visited London ? 4. What did he see in the Kensington Gardens ? 5. What was the strange thing in the Kensington Gardens that he saw ? TEST 5 A PLAN FOR LONDON TRAFFIC London, like so many big cities, has traffic problems that seem to get worse Every year. Tom Jenkins, a London bus-driver, was asked what he would do to impioue the situation if he was put in charge of London transport. This is what he said, “If you put me in charge of London transport, I'd make a number of changes. I’d ban private cars lrom central London between 7.30 am and 6.30 pm unless the owner actually lived in the area. I'd build a lot of new, cheap car parks near the railway stations on the outskirts of London, so that people could leave their cars there and travel to and from work by train. I'd fix a standard fare for all bus or tube journeys in the centre, and I'd make it possible for people to buy ten or dozen tickets at one time. Then the buses and taxis would be able to move much more quickly, and easily, and life would become more comfortable for everyone". 1. What would Tom do about private cars ? 2. Why would he build new car parks near the railway stations on the outskirts of London ? 3. What would he do about fare ? 4. What other changes would he like to make regarding tickets ? 5. What effect would these changes have ? TEST 6 TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS IN GREAT BRITAIN Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. ln Britain traditions play a more irnportant part in the life of the people than in other
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countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It has been the law for about 300 , years that all theatres. are closed on Sundays. No letters are derivered, only a few sunday papers are published. To this day an English family prefers a house with a garden to a flat in a modern house with central heating. English people like gardens. Sonretimes the garden in front of the house is a littte square covered with cement painted garden in imitation of grass and a box of flowers. Holidays are especialty rich in old traditions and are different in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and England. Christmas is a great English national holiday, and in Scotland it is not kept, except by clerks in banks, all shops and factortes are working. 1. How important are traditions in Britain ? 2. What do Englishmen do to their traditions ? 3. Which does an English family prefer, a house with a garden or a flat ? 4. Find a sentence in the text which shows that the English peopte like gardens very much. 5. How is Christmas kept in Scotland ? TEST 7 MINES TINDER THE SEA Man is only just beginning to realtze how much he must look to the sea. It can be an important source of food for millions of people in the world. When we know how much and in what way the oceans influence the weather, we can plan the growing of crops and even work out the best time to take our holidays. But when we get to the bottom of the sea, we find things that no one dreamed existed until recently. Lands which were covered with water when the ice melted at the end of the ice age are rich in minerals. Off the south African coasts, for example, is a place where there are five times the number of diamonds as in the mines on the land. Oil is brought from the bottom of the Caspian Sea. Sand with gold in it has been found off Thailand and Indonesia. But if man wants to continue gathering riches from the sea, he is going to have to look after it 1. What is man only just beginning to realize ? 2. When can we plan the growing of crops ? 3. What do we find when we get to the bottom of the sea ? 4. What has been found off the south African coast ? 5. What is man going to do if he wants to continue gathering riches from the sea ? TEST 8 One of the smallest countries in the world is San Marino, a republic, high in the mountains of Italy. It is also the oldest, because it was founded some 1,500 years ago. San Marino covers 61 square kilometres and has over 17 thousand people. San Marino coins and stamps are eagerly bought by collectors.
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One of the popular small countries in the stamp album is Andorra, the mountain state of 11 thousand people which is high in the Pyrenees, between France and Spain. Anyone who collects the stamps of Andorra soon notices a strange thing about them. Some stamps are printed in Spain and have their values and inscriptions in Spanish. Other stamps are like French stamps. They have values in Franc or centimes and their inscription is in French. The reason for this lies in Andorra's history. For nearly 700 years the little state has been under the joint protection of France and Spain, and these two countries have separate postal services in Andorra. In the chief village of Andorra the Spanish and the French post offices stand near each other but sell different stamps. 1 . Where is San Marino situated ? 2. Where is Andorra situated ? 3. What is the strange thing about stamps in Andorra ? 4. Why are there postal services of both Spain and France in Andorra ? 5. What are some of the things that are similar in San Marino and in Andorra ? TEST 9 Half the brain a child wiil have as an adult has already developed by the time he is four years old. It is now recognized that children who have been encouraged and stimulated into mental activiry during the early years will become more and more intelligent adults. Language, the way we express ourselves, is a vital part of learning. A baby learns his native tongue naturaily by hearing speech around him. If the speech he hears is rapid, not clear and never directed at him then he learns slowly and speaks badly. A child of two or three years old who can't make his desires known or put his thoughts into words will usually become angry. His relationships with others will get worse. If the speech a baby hears around him is clear, and his family talk to him, he will gain a satisfactory command of language directly, by his mother, his language ability will be greater. By the time he is two, it is quite possibre for him to have a vocabulary of two thousand words and by the time he is three, he will be able to read. Once ahead he will stay ahead. 1.How is language defined by the writer ? 2. How does the baby learn his mother tongue? 3. How does a child usually react when he can’t express himself ? 4. What is the role of the mother in the education of her child ? 5. What are the ideas expressed by the writer on how a child should be taught his native language ? TEST 10 It wasn’t supposed to be a big wedding. The Browns didn't like the newspapers and TV to give news of their wedding. They wanted a small, quiet wedding – that’s why they went to Hawaire Island off the Pacific coast. The boat
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didn’t carry cars, so they packed their bikes for the trip. The couple found a lonely hill overlooking the ocean. The weather was supposed to be fair, so they asked the father at the church there to marry them the next morning. “When we got there, we found a crowd of bikers watching the view,” laughed Givon Brown. When Jeane kissed his bride, the bikers clapped their hands and rang the bicycle bells loudly. “We didn’t expect to have fifty wedding guests, but we love biking and we're not sorry,” Givon said. 1. Where was Hawaire Istand ? 2. How did they go to the place where they had their wedding ? 3. Where in the island did they get married ? 4. Who were the couple ? 5. Which of them was the husband and which was the wife? TEST 11 Walt Whitman, born in New York in 1918, was one of America's unusual literary figures. As an individualist, he rambled through the country seeing people and places, and making.them his own. His experiences in earning a living were varied, at times he was a printer, a teacher, a carpenter, a nurse and a newspaper editor. He was a big-hearted man, open and accepting. He gave freely his time to care for the wounded during the Civil War. Though he lived in the city, he often spent his time in the countryside, developing his strong sense of nature, which was carried through to his poems. In 1835 he collected verses he had written, and published them in one volume, "Leaves of Grass", a book which he revised and rewrote all the rest of his life. The book was ridiculed by some poets and generally ignored by others, probably because his verse forms were not traditional. He had felt that it was necessary to achieve a new poetic form in order to communicate his views. His reputation didn't grow until after his death, and it reached a high point in the 1920s. Since then, Whitman style has greatly influenced modern poets. l. What did Walt Whitman do to earn his living ? 2. Why was Whitman considered as a big-hearted man ? 3. Why were Whitman's verse forrns ignored by other poets ? 4. What might be the best title for the passage ? 5. What does the word "ramble" in line 2 mean ? TEST I2 The smoke that comes from a lit cigarette contains many different poisonous chemicals. In the past, scientists didn't think that these chemicals could harm a non-srnoker's health. Recently, though scientists changed their opinion after they' studied a large group of non-smokers, they discovered that even non-smokers had unhealthy amount of these toxic chemicals in their bodies. As a matter of fact, almost all of us breathe tobacco smoke at times, whether we realized it or not. For example, we cannot avoid smoke in restaurants, hotels and other public places. Even though many public places have "non-smoking is permitted", it is even harder for children to avoid second-hand smoke. In the United States, nine million children under the age of five live in homes with at least one smoker. The research shows
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that these children are sick more often than those who live in homes where nonsmokers live. The damaging effects of second-hand smoke on children also continue as they grow up. The children of smokers are more than twice as likely to develop lung cancer when they are adults as children of non-smokers. The rate is even higher among children who live in homes where both parents smoke. 1. What is second-hand smoke ? Why might it harm non-smokers ? 2. What was the scientists' opinion ? 3. why have the scientists changecl their opinion nowadays? 4. why is it harder for the children to avoid second-hand smoke than it is for adults ? 5. What are some effects of second-hand smoke on the children ? TEST 13 A gesture is an action that sends a message from one person to another without using words. We use gestures to communicate with others. There are some gestures that have completely different meaning depending on when and where they are used. When an American wants to show that something is OK or good, he raises his hand and makes a circle with his thumb and forefinger. The circle sign has only one meaning for him. He might be surprised to learn that in other countries it can mean something very different. ln Japan, for instance, it is the gesture for money. In France it means "zero" or "worthless". Such differences can lead to all kinds of misunderstandrng when foreigners meet. But why is it that the same gesture has so many different meanings ? When some people want to show something is exact or precise, they make a sign to show that they are holding something between the tips of their thumb and forefinger. In this way they make a circle with their fingers. Many people from all over the world do this when they want to make a specific point as they are speaking. People later started using this signal to mean "exactly right" or "perfect" This was how the famous OK sign was born. In Japan, money means coins, and coins are round. Thereflore, making a round hand sign came to represent money. It is as simple as that. The French sign for “nothing” or “worthless” also has a simple origin. This time the circle doesn't represent a coin, but a nought. Nought ecluals zero, zero equals nothing, nothing equals worthless. 1. What does an American do when he or she wants to show that something is OK or good ? 2. What do you understand by the word "gesture" ? 3. What does the circle sign mean in Japan ?. 4. Does the circle sign have the same meaning in Japan and France ? 5. Why can gestures be misunderstood ? 6. What sign can be used when some people want to make an exact point ? 7. What does the circle sign represent in France ? TEST 14
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FEED IN ENGLISH, PRINT OUT FRENCH Once upon a time, according to a much-told story, a cornputer was set the task of translating “traffic jam" into French and back into English. The machine buzzed, clicked, blinked its lights and eventually came up with "car-flavoured marmalade”. Machine translation has come a long way since then. Computer translation systems are now in operation in many parts of the world. Not surprisingly, the EEC is very involved. With so many official languages, translating and interpreting take up more than fifty per cent of the Community’s administrative budget. But although the efficiency of machine translation is improving rapidly, there is no question of human translators being made redundant. On the contrary, people and machines work together, in harmony. Today's computers are of little value in translating literary works, where subtlety is vital, of the spoken word, which tends to be ungrammatical, or important texts, where absolute accuracy is essential. But for routine technicar reports, working papers and the like, which take up so much of the translation worktoad of international organizations, computers are likely to play an increasing part. The method of operatiol will probably be for the machine to make a rough version, which the translator will then edit, correcting obvious errors, and where necessary referring back to the original. If machines can translate languages, could-they ever teach languages ? Yes, say enthusiasts, although they doubt, that the teacher could ever be totally replaced by a machine in the classroom. Good old teachers know best. 1. What is the role of computers in translating literary works ? Why ? 2. What do good old teachers of language know ? 3. Why is the EEC involved in language translation and interpretation ? 4. What is typical of spoken language ? 5. How can a computer herp in the translation work of international organizations ? TEST 15 Vet Peter Pocock has been left a fortune by a spinster whose horses and dogs he looked after. The 90-year-old spinster, Miss Marguerite de Beaumont, was helped in other ways by Mr Pocock. He cleaned and tidied her 11-room Elizabethan mansion when she became too old and ill to care for it. When she died she left him everything in her will. her money, the house and gardens, her stables - all of which is worth 3 million pounds. Miss de Beaumont,s famiry are furious. Her niece, Mrs. chairman Pickford said, “We are very upset. We are going to fight the will. My aunt didn't know what she was doing - she was senile in her last years”. Mr Pocock, 42, lives in the next village with his wife and baby daughter They were shocked by Miss de Beaumont's generosity. “We can't believe it,” said Mrs. Pocock, "so much money is wonderful, but will it make us happier ? Money can bring problems. Our hope is that the mansion wilt be made beautiful again. Perhaps we can do that now with the money". Miss de Beaumont bought the mansion in 1934 and started a horse farm. It has not been looked after well for many years, but the beauty of the buildings and the garden can still be seen.
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1. What did Miss de Beaumont do to leave Mr. Pocock her fortune? 2. What reason did Mrs Pickford give to explain her upset ? 3. Why did Miss de Beaumont buy the mansion ? 4. What was the Pococks' reaction to the news ? 5. Where are horses kept ? TEST 16 Mr. William Murphy, from Montreal in Canada, now knows that honesty pays. Last Sunday he returned a lost lottery ticket to its owner and he was given $1.2 million as a reward! Last Thursday, Mr. Murphy, aged 28 and unemployed found a wallet on a Montrear street. It contained $85, some credit cards and some lottery tickets Mr Murphy checked the address in the wallet and immediately posted it back to its owner, Mr Jean-Paul Dupont, but he didn't send the lottery tickets back. "I kept the tickets. I wanted to checkthem. I thought maybe I'd win $10 or something". On sunday, Mr. Murphy bought l newspaper and started checking the numbers on the tickets. He couldn't believe it - he had the winning ticket! It was worth $7 million !. He thought about keeping the tickets and getting the money for himself. He sat and thought about it for two hours, but he knew what he had to do He took the bus to Mr. Dupont,s address and knocked at the door. The door was opened not by Mr. Dupont, but his son, Yves, who doesn’t speak English very vell. “Good evening!,” said Mr. Murphy. "Are you Mr Dupont ?" . "Oui," said Yves. “Well, congratulations ! You're a millionaire !” "Uh ?" said Yves. Then his father came to the door. He understands English, but he didn't believe his ears until he was shown the lottery ticket and the newspaper. “What an honest man !” he said. “You deserve a reward - at least I million, I think”. 1. What did Mr. Murphy do with the wallet ? 2. What did Mr. Murphy do immediatery after he found that he had the winning ticket ? 3. What does Mr' Murphy do ? 4. How did Mr.Murphy find he had the winning ticket ? 5. How did Mr.Murphy go to Mr.Dupont's house ? TEST 17 Doctors estimate that about 40% of women over thirry in Britain are overweight. This figure may be misleading as certainly a large number of overweight people never seek medical advice. Many women are very worried about being overweight. They feel that it shows a lack of will-power or self-control on their part. ln addition, fat women do not, conform to the modern idear of beauty exemplified by fashions models and
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young film stars who are all incredibly thin. Apart from aesthetic reasons, there are strong medical grounds for not overeating. Overweight people are particularly prone to heart disease and are easily tired by physical activity. Losing weight would certainly make them feel healthier and increase their life expectancy. Some women feel guilty about being fat and their guilt is repressed by eating more. On the other hand, there are women who unnecessarily lose weight in order to conform to a model of sociar acceptability. Some of them end up by starving themselves to death! So perhaps it might be better to try to remove fat people's unhappiness than to try to remove the fat. 1. Why do many doctors underestimate the percentage of overweight women ? 2. Why are many women worried about being overweight ? 3. What are the advantages of losing weight fbr fat people? 4. Find the words in the passage that mean: a) look for b) be likely to get c) to die of hunger d) sense of doing something wrong 5. What may happen to people who try to lose weight ? TEST 18 How can we keep our teeth healthy? First, we ought to visit our dentist twice a year. He can fill the small holes in our teeth. He can examine our teeth before they destroy the teeth. He can examine our teeth to check that they are growing in the right way. Unfortunately, many people wait until they have toothache before they see a dentist. Secondly, we should brush our teeth with a tooth brush and fluoride tooth paste at least twice a day, once after breakfast and once before we go to bed. we can also use wooden toothpicks to clean between our teeth after a meal. Thirdly we should eat food that is good for our teeth and our body: milk, cheese, fish, brown bread, potatoes, red rice, raw vegetables and fresh fruit. chocolate, sweets, biscuits and cakes are bad, especially when we eat them between meals. They are harmful because they stick to our teeth and cause decay. 1. Only when do a lot of people visit a dentist ? 2. How often should we try to clean our teeth ? 3. What shouldn't we eat a lot ? 4. Why are sweets harmful ? 5. what happens when food and germs collect in a small crack ? TEST 19 For many years people believe that the cleverest animals after man were chimpanzees. Now, however, there is proof that dolphins may be even cleverer than these big apes. Although a dolphin lives in the sea, it is not a fish. It is a mammal. It is in many ways, therefore, like a human being. Dolphins have simple language. They are able to talk to one another. It may be possible for man to learn how to talk to dolphins. But this will not be easy becalle dolphins cannot hear the kind of sounds man can make. If the man wants to tatk to dolphins, therefore, he will have to make a third language which both he and the dolphin can understand. Dolphins are also very friendly towards man. They often follow ships. There are many stories
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of dolphins guiding strips through difficult and dangerous water. 1. Which animals do people think may be the cleverest ? 2. What other beings are dolphins like in many ways ? 3. What have scientists discovered about dolphins ? 4. Why is a third language necessary if man wants to talk to dolphins ? 5. ln what way are dolphins friendly to man ? TEST 20 Fire was very important to man. He needed fire to keep himself warm at night. He used fire to cook his food. He used fire to frighten away enemies and wild animals. In some parts of the world he used fire to signal messages. Red Indians, for example, used fire to make smoke signals. File was also used to give light. Before the invention of the oil lamp, man used burning sticks as torches. And before man discovered gas and electricity, he hung small fires in wire baskets from posts to light, the streets. One man even used fire to tell the time. He invented a candle clock. He made a candle that took exactly twelve hours to burn. Then he marked this candle in twelve equal parts. He lit the candle and could tell the time by counting the number of parts left of the burning candle. But the candle clock did not always work well. If there was a wind blowing on the candle, the flame burned too quickly. 1. What did man probably first use fire for ? 2. For what purpose was fire used by Red Indians ? 3. What were the first street lights ? 4. How long did the candle clock take to burn ? 5. What would happen if a wind blew on a candle clock ? TEST 21 Uri Geller was born in I946. When he was only three, he was aware that he had an amazing ability. In 1969 he gave his first performance in a school. He gently rubbed a spoon with his fingers, and it began to bend. Three years later he drove a car blindfolded through the crowded streets of Munich. Later Uri Geller appeared on television in Britain in front of a small studio audience of scientists. He bent spoons and broke metal objects simply by touching them gently with his fingers. He also drew pictures of hidden objects. After the programme, however, there were hundreds of telephone calls. People reported that spoons in their homes bent during the programme. Metal objects broke, and watches which had stopped many years ago suddenly started to go again. 1. When did Uri Geller discover that he had strange powers ? 2. What did Geller do on television in Britain ? 3. What could he do during his first performance ? 4. What happened after the performance ? 5. What did a lot of people report in their homes ? TEST 22
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Sir Winston Churchilt (1874-1965) was the greatest British statesman of modern times. During his long, colourful public career, he was a Member of Parliament for 63 years. He also held almost every government post. And most important of all, he led the country to victory in world war II. He also wrote many important books and was a talented painter. In May 1940, he became Prime Minister. Throughout the war, Churchill showed great strength and energy. He worked for long periods with little sleep and travelled many thousands of miles. By courage and determination expressed in his speeches, he inspired the people of Britain to keep on fighting. In the general election at the end of the war, the Conservative Party, of which he wil.s the leader, was defeated. But he became Prime Minister again in 1951. He resigned as Prime Minister in 1955. 1. When did Churchill first become Prime Minister ? 2. By what did he inspire the people of Britain to continue with the fight ? 3. How long was he a Member of Parliament ? 4. When was his Conservative Party defeated ? 5. When did he resign as Prime Minister ? TEST 23 Foreign trade, the exchange of goods between nations, takes place for many reasons. The first is that no nation has all of the commodities that it needs. Raw materials are scattered around the world. Large deposits of copper are mined in Peru and Zaire, diamonds are mined in South Africa, and petroleum is discovered in the Middle East. Countries that do not have these resources within their own boundaries must buy from countries that export them. Foreign trade also occurs because a country often does not have enough of a particular item to meet its needs. Although the United States is a major producer of sugar, it consumes more than it can prolduce internally and thus must import sugar. 1. Why must the united' states import sugar although it is a major sugar producer ? 2. Where can copper mostly be found ? 3. What is foreign trade ? 4. What is the first reason for foreign trade ? 5. What is the second reason for foreign trade ? TEST 24 There is little doubt that one of the chief roles of the horse in art, just as in life, is that of our servant and companion. We can have very little idea of how a horse feels in its natural state. Left to itself, it is unlikely that it would pull a plough. take a soldier through a dangerous situation in battle, or do most of the other things that have attracted painters and writers to the animal ever since the dawn of history. The horse is controlled by the wishes of its owner. When we describe it, we say it has the virtues and qualities that it has so often been praised by painters and poets. Then we must consider the horse's own beauty, speed and strength. 1. What best title can be given to the passage ?
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2. What is one of the chief roles of the horse in art ? 3. Name TWO things a horse would do. 4. What do we admire most in the horse as in ourselves ? 5. What must we consider the horse in art ? TEST 25 The anser that descends, on people when they get behind the steering wheel of a car used to be treated as a joke. But the laughter is getting noticeably quietef now that the problem has become increasingly widespread. Stuck in a traffic jam, with family cars inching their way past, the driver of a fast sports car begins to lose his temper. Despite the capabilities of his car, there is nothing he can do. The outcome is anger. Many people live in fear of losing control. This is true of many situations but driving is a good example. People think that the car might not start, it might break down, or someone might run into it. Before anything even happens peopre have worked themselves up into a state of anxiety. And when something does happen, they’re ready to explode. In fact, it's their very anxiety about losing control that makes them lose control. 1. What can be the best title of the passage ? 2. Why does the laughter become quieter now ? 3. What causes the driver of a fast spofls car to lose temper ? 4. What kind of fear do many people live in ? 5. Why do many people lose their control ? TEST 26 The search for alternative sources of energy has led in various drrections. Many communities are burning garbage and other biological waste products to produce electricity. Converting waste products to gases or oil is also an efficient way to dispdle of waste. Experimental work is being done to derive synthetic fuels from coal, oil shale and coal tars. But to date, that process has proven expensive. Other experiments are under way to harmless power with giant windmills. Gebthermal power, heat from the earth, is also being tested. Some experts expect utility companies to revive hydroelectric derived from streams and rivers. Fifty years ago hydroelectric power provided one third of the electricity used in the United States, but today it suplilies only four per cent. The oceans are another potential source of energy. Scientists are studying ways to convert the energy of ocean currents, tides, and waves to electricity. Experiments are also under way to make use of temperature differences in ocean water to produce energy. 1 . What is the best title of the passage ? 2. What provided one third of the electricity in the United State fifty years ago ? 3. What could best replace the phrase geothermal power' in the passage ? 4. Name three alternative sources of energy mentioned in the passage. 5. According to the author, what is the impracticability of using coal oil shale and coal tars as sources of energy due to ?
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TEST 27 The world's oceans are so vast that they can cope with the present levels of pollution. However, little is known about the long-term effects of such slow poisoning. The most serious problem of modern time is that man is destroving the earth’s natural resources and transforming huge areas into wasteland. As a result, it is becoming extremely difficult to grow enough to feed the world's rapidly increasing population. A way of protecting all the wildlife on the earth must also be found as many species are in danger of disappearing completely from the face of the earth. The dangers, however, are not confined solely to the land and the sea. The smoke in the atmosphere, for example, is increasing so much that the amount of sunright has been reduced in many cities. Man's whole environment is being changed in a serious way. 1. What is the process of making something dirty or impure ? 2. Find a word or phrase frorn the passage with the same meaning as the air, water and land in which we live ? 3. What is the air surrounding the earth called ? 4. What word can be used to replace “wealth, goods or products” ? 5. What is a difficulty which needs attention and thought ?. TEST 28 Few men have influenced the development of American English to the extent that Noah webster did. He was born in west Hartford, Connecticut. In 1758, his name has become synonymous with American dictionaries. Graduated from Yale in 1778, he was admitted to the bar in 1781 and thereafter began to practise law in Hartford. Later, when he turned to teaching he discovered how inadequate the available schoolbooks were for the children of a new and independent nation. In 1807 Noal webster began his greatest work, An American Dictionary of the English language. In preparing the manuscript, he devoted ten years to the study of English and its relationship to other languages, and seven more years to the writing itself. Published in two volumes in 1828, An American Dicrionary of the English Ianguage has become the recognized authority for usage in the United States. Webster’s pulpose in writing it was to demonstrate that the American language was deveroping distinct meanings, pronunciations, and speilings from those of British English. He is responsible for advancing simplified spelling forms: develop instead of the British form develope, theater and center instead of theatre and centre, color and honor instead of colour and honour. 1. what would be the best title for the passage ? 2. In how many volumes was An Anterican Dictionau of the English language published ? 3. When was An American Dictionary of the English Language published ? 4. According to the author, what was Webster's purpose in writing An American Dictionary of the English Language published ? 5. According to the passage, which spellings would Webster have approved in his dictionary ?
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TEST 29 The first stamp in the world was an English stamp. It was made in 1840 Before that, people paid money to the postman for every letter that they received and the postman did not give the letters to anybody who did not pay him. An English teacher, whose name was Rowland Hill, thought much about this. One day, he said that the people who wrote the letter should pay for them, and not the people who got the letters. He then spoke about it to the people in the government. Soon the post offices began to sell little pieces of paper with a stamp on them. l. Which country made the first stamp ? 2. When did the first stamp appear ? 3. Before that, what did people have to do when they got a letter ? 4. Did people get the letter if they refused to pay ? 5. Who invented the stamp ? TEST 30 A tiny school is soon to celebrate its 100 birthday - against all expectations Five years ago it seemed certain to close but parents and other villagers fought the local education authority and raised fund to keep it open. It is now ending its first term as a school run by the village community and the villagers are justly proud of their achievement. They were furious when education chiefs tried to make them send the village children to other schools further away because the number of pupils at the village school is small. The villagers started a huge campaign to raise money. They collected enough to hire a teacher and begin to help with school cleaning, lunch supervision and lessons. Now the school is doing well and it seems as if it will continue to run in the future. 1 . What effects would the closure of the school have had on the village children ? 2. When did the parents get the money they needed to keep the school open ? 3. What was the villagers' reaction to the decision of closing the school ? 4. What phrase is used in the passage to show that it was surprising that the school reached its 100th birthday ? 5. Why does the writer think the school will not be closed ? TEST 31 Toronto, Ontario. Roop Sandhu made the catch of the year on the weekend. Sandhu saw a young child hanging from a sixth apartmet balcony, ran one hundred metres, jumped over a 1.2 – metre fence, and held out his arms to catch the falling child. Eric Minhas, only three years old, knocked sandhu down when he fell. The boy is in the hospital but doctors say he'll be OK. The Minhas family live in a high-rise apartment building just outside Toronto. On the day of the accident, Mis.Minhas was at work and Eric was at home with his father. They both fell asleep while they were watching TV. Eric
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woke up a little late when he heard children playing outside. He pushed a chair onto the balcony, and climbed up to see them. When he looked down, he accidentally slipped and fell over the edge. He hung on for a couple of minutes and screamed for his father, but his father didn't hear him. Sandhu, a mechanic, was fixing his car when he heard the scream. He looked up and saw Eric hanging from the balcony. He quickly threw aside his tools, and started running, arms out. “He saved my son’s life,” said the boy's mother. "I don't know how to thank him. ” “ I didn’t want the boy to be hurt,” said Sandhu, who emigrated from India two and a half years ago. 1. What floor does the Minhas family live on ? 2. How far did Roop run ? 3. How high was the fence ? 4. How old is Eric ? 5. How long did Eric hang on to the balcony ? 6. When did Sanlhu come to Canada ? TEST 32 It's official: too much work is bad for you. That's the finding of a new study examining the stresses of contemporary urban life experienced by working couples with children. “ We found the families that play together stay together," said a University of New England sociologist, Ms Gurjeet Gill, who looted at 35 two-income families. The study found that even in two-income families, although men helped with some household chores, women still did most of the domestic work. "Most of the families still had traditional roles, with the women having most of the responsibility for domestic chores and child care," Ms Gill said. Many of the families who took part in the survey were in "near crisis" situation because of the strain of trying to cope with household tasks, outside employment and children. Often, parents depended on children to do 25% of the housework. Children as young as two were given routine household tasks. "Children are having to learn about a work ethic from a very early age," said Ms Gill, who visited 35 families from Armidale for six months to look at how they did their housework. "But a tidy household is not necessarily a happy household. The families who are more relaxed and flexible about their housework routine are the happiest ". 1. Who carried out this study ? 2. How many families did she study ? 3. How long did the study take ? 4. How did most of the families have the traditional roles ? 5. What were the children expected to do ? TEST 33
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EDUCATION IN ENGLAND Every chird in Great Britain between the age of five and fifteen must attend school. There are three main types of educational institutions: primary (elementary) schools, secondary schools, and universities. State schools are free, and attendance is compursory. Morning school begins at nine o’clock and last, until half past four. School is open five days a week. On Saturdays and Sundays there are no lessons. There are holidays at Christmas, Easter and in summer. In London as in all cities there are two grades of state schools for those who will go to work at fifteen: primary schools for boys and girls between the ages of five and eleven, and secondary schools for children from eleven to fifteen years. The ressons are: reading, writing, the English language, English literature, English history, geography, science, Nature study, drawing, painting, singing, woodwork and drill (physical training). I . What are the three main types of educational institutions ? 2. What are the two grades of state schools for those who will go to work at fifteen ? 3. What subjects do chitdren study at school ? 4. Are state schools free ? 5. When do pupils have holidays ? TEST 34 One surnmer afternoon Jean and Michelle Duboit, an elderly coupte, visited their daughter at her home in Lille, France. A few minutes before six o'clock, the Duboits Jecided to leave. They said goodbye to the daughter, walked to their car, and got in. They expected a quiet, safe ride hornt. The ride, however, was anything but quiet and safe. Mr. Duboit was about to start the car when a gunman jumped up from the back seat. He held the gun to Mr. Duboit's heid. "Drive me to Paris !" he demanded. “All right,” said Mr. Duboit. "I'll drive you anywhere you want to go. But first let my wife out of the car. She can't stand long journeys, you know. " 1. What was the ride home like ? 2. What do you think a gunman is ? 3. What did the gunman want Mr Duboit to do ? 4. What did Mr. Duboit do at the gunman's command ? 5. What did Mr. Duboit request the gunman ? TEST 35 After many days alone at sea, Joshua Slocum saw a sailor steering his ship. It was the captain of the Pinta, one of Columbus's ships. In writing of his round-theworld journey in the 1980s Slocum told of how real the captain seemed. Sir Ernest Shackleton told a similar story. He and two friends were tramping thirty-six miles across South Georgia, Antarctica, in 1914. They became aware of a fourth member of the group. It guided them across the snow, rock, and ice of the island. No one knows yet why people, alone or with others, imagine such companions. When we find the reason, it will be important, especially to astronauts and deep-sea explorers, who must work in lonely places. It may also explain why
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children often tell of unreal playmates. 1. Who did Joshua Slocum think he saw ? 2. What did he write about this companion in his book ? 3. Who else described another imaginary companion ? 4. What did the companion do ? 5. In what situation did the three men feel a fourth presence ? A. GAP-FILLING TEST 1 give surrounds necessary living shape food centre structures slore addition

controls carry

CELLS Cells are the smallest part (or unit) of life. All (1) …………………… things are made of cells, and all cells have the same parts: nucleus, cytoplasm, and membrane. The nucreus is the (2) ………………….. of the cell. It contains the chromosomes and the genes. The genes (3) ……………. the information that tells the cell what to do. Chromosomes and genes help to make the cells. The cytoplasm (4) …………………….. the nucleus in the cell. It contains several different things. Different kinds of cell have different things in their cytoplasm. The cell membrane is around the cell. The membrane (5) ………………..the flow of liquids in and out of the cell. Planr cells are different from animal cells. ln (6) ……………………. to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and membrane, they contain a cell wall, vacuoles, and chloroplasts. The cell wall is around the membrane. It is made of cellulose, and it is not living. It gives plant cells a (7) ……………….., like a box. Vacuoles are round (8) ……………….in the cytoplasm. A membrane surrounds them, and they contain water and other things. The cell uses the vacuoles to (9) ……………….things. They sometimes contain pigments. These pigments (10) …………………. flower cells their colors. Chloroplasts are also in the cytoplasm. They contain a green pigment, chlorophyl, and they make (11) ………………………for the plant. Chloroplasts are (12) ………………..for photosynthesis. TEST 2 decay necessary found use number means discover Iived ancient calculate

CARBON-14 DATING There are many uses for radioactive carbon (C - 14). One important (1) ………………. is in archaeology. Archaeologists use radioactive carbon to (2) ………………..the age of ancient plants. C - 14 comes from the sun and is (3) ………………. in all living things. Archaeologists can (4) …………. the age of plants that (5) …………… in the past because radioisotopes (6) ………….. at the same rate. The rate of decay is called the half-life. The half-life is the time (7) ………………for half of the atoms to decay. Radioactive carbon (C -14) has a half-life of 5,730 years. That (8)…………………… that after 5,730 years, half of the
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radiocarbon atoms remain; one half of the radioactive atoms are still in the sample After 11,460 years, one-fourth of the atoms are still in the sample, and after 17,220 years one-eighth of the atoms remain. Archaeologists can measure the (9) …………. of radioactive atoms and discover the age of (10) ………………. Plant material. TEST 3 bills buys employees employer carry deposit customer system pay receives hank withdraw

ELECTROMC FUNDS TRANSFER In the future, machines will take the place of many bank tellers. A new (1)……….…….., electronic funds transfer (EFT) aIIows the bank or the to move money from one account to another. For example, a worker (3)……………… her monthly paycheck, her salary, Her (4) ……………, the company that she works for, can (5)……………………her salary into her checking account directly. She does not have to go to the (6)……………. . Her bank can also pay her monthly (7) ……………………..: the telephone, the water, the gas, and the electricity. It will also be possible for her to pay for food at the supermarket by EFT. The supermarket will automatically (8)………………..money from her account at the bank to pay for the food that she (9) ………………….. Some employers already deposit their ( l0) ………….. ' checks in the bank directly. Maybe, in the future, people will not (11) ………………….. money, and machines will ( 12)……………….for everything. TEST 4 lose earn guess supply invest materials buy examples Iow increases INVESTMENT IN COMMODITIES A rather risky way of investment is in comrnodities. They are the (1) ………………… that companies and businesses use. Some (2) ………………. of commodities are wheat, corn, coffee, chickens, and copper. Investors buy large (3)……………. of a commodity and hope that the price (4) ………………. They often buy directly from the (5) ……………………or a farmer before the commodity is produced. There are many things that can affect the (6) ……………… of a commodity, and, therefore, the price. If the weather is good next year, there will be a lot of corn, and the price will be (7) …………………The investor will (8)……………….. money. If the weather is bad, the corn will be more expensive, and the investor will (9) …………………… more money. People who (10) ……………… in commodities are called speculators. To speculate means to (11) ………………about the future and to take risks. Speculators take many risks When they (12) …………………..commodities. TEST 5 manages individual succeed begins comparison directly operale process earn idea company different
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amounts producer

SMALL BUSINESSES When consumers want to buy something - food, crothes, furniture, or books - they most often go to a retail store. Retail stores sell (1) ……………………… to the consumer. Many retail stores are small businesses. In the United States, ninety-seven percent of the businesses are small businesses. They are an important part of the marketing (2) ……………… . small businesses are businesses that are small in (3) ……………….. to large companies. These small businesses (4) ……………….. less than $2 million a year. They are usually owned by an (5) ………………………… or a partnership (two or more people who own the business together). The owner very often (6) …………………. the business, and there are not many employees. In the 1960s, a new (7) …………………… for retail ownership became very popular in the United States. This was the franchise store. The franchise store allows an individual to own and (8) ………………… a small business with better chance of success. If someone (9) …………… …. a small business such as a restaurant or a dress shop, it is sometime difficult to (10) …………….alone. With a franchise, the new owner has the name and the help of a well-known business and is more likely, to succeed. Many retaurants are franchise businesses. Some of them are Mac Donalds, Burger King, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Przza Hut. Each restaurant has a (11) ……………….. owner. The owner owns the business, but the (12) ………………. gives the owner the name and the menu and a lot of help with the Business. Franchises give owners of small businesses a better chance of success. TEST 6 knows collect calculate age charge protection chance profit insures company

INSURANCE PREMIUMS AND PROBABILITY lnsurarrce is based on probability or odds. The (1) ………………………of something happening is its probability. For example, insurance companles (2) ……… ………… statistics which show how many people die at what (3) …..………. each year or how many fires theie are each year. The insurance company uses these statistics to (4) ………………..insurance premiums. Premiums are the amount of money that an individual or business pays for insurance (5) …………………… Here is an example of how the (6) …………….calculates the premiums. It (7) ……………….. that 2 percent of the people who are 50 years old will die next year. If the company (8) ……………… 1,000 people who are 50 years old, they know that 20 people will die. If the twenty people are insured for $ 100,000 each, then the company must pay $ 2,000,000. Therefore, they will (9) ………………. the 1,000 insured people $ 2,000,000 plus the costs and (10) …………………. for the contpany. This is a very simple example, but all insurance premiums are based on the probability or odds of something happening. TEST 7 colony mine praclice leatler respects organize
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returned

freedom fought means racism MAHATMA GANDHI Mahatma Gandhi was one of the great leaders of the world. He wanted (1) …………………and peace for all people. He helped to free India from British control. His name was Mohandas Karamchand, but people called him Mahatma. This name (2) ……………………."great soul." Mohandas Karamchand was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, India. He studied law in London, and in 1893 he began to (3)…………… law in South Africa. ln South Africa. Indians did not have the same rights as others Gandhi did not like this (4) …………………. He believed that everyone should have the same rights. He worked for the Indian people in South Africa for twenty-one years. At one time, he (5) ………………………………. a strike of Indian miners. The Indian (6) ……………………workers did not go to work. Gandhi did not use violence. He fought with nonviolence, resistance, and strikes. The Indian word for nonviolent resistance is "satyagraha. " ln 1915 Gandhi (7) …………………..to India. He became the (8) ……………… of the Indian Nationalist Movement, and he worked for the independence of India. He wanted India to be free from Great Britain. Gandhi (9) …………………….. for freedom. He did not want tndia to be a British (10) ……………………. He continued to use satyagraha nonviolent means such as strikes and fasting. Gandhi's' nonviolent fight for independence (11) …………………….. when Britain gave India her independence in 1947. On January 30, 1948, Gandhi was assassinated in New Delhi - he was shot when he was on the way to a prayer meeting. Grandhi died for peace, and the whole world (12) …………… him for his peaceful-way of getting independence for his country. TEST 8 great win themes influenced avoided movement happy wealthy civil dressed works helped

ended

EO TOLSTOY Leo Tolstoy was a famous Russian writer of the nineteenth century. He lived between 1828 and 1910. He wrote many novels. Two of his most famous (1) ……………are War and Peace and Anna Karenina. Tolstoy was born into a (2) …………… family. However, he was not (3) ………….. that others were poor. He did not like living the rich life when others did not have food or money. In fact, Tolstoy often (4) ………………… like a peasant. He wanted the simple life. In his novels, Tolstoy wrote about many things, but one of his most important (5) …………………. was nonviolence. His ideas about nonviolence (6) …………………two other famous leaders: Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King. In fact, Tolstoy and Gandhi wrote letters to each other when Gandhi was in South Africa. Tolstoy's ideas (7) ………………… Gandhi to use nonviolence. Martin Luther King, the American (8) …………………… rights leader, also
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believed in nonviolence. In his demonstrations during I 960s, he always (9) …………………….violence. He helped to (10) ………………more rights for Blacks. Thus, Tolstoy the (11) …………………….. Russian writer of the nineteenth century greatly influenced two other great leaders of peace (12) …………………. TEST 9 great say still within variation part words spoken write slightly use communicate

DIALECTS Languages have dialects. A dialect is a (1) …………………of a language. This means that there are differences (2) ………………. a language. For example, French is spoken in Paris. There is a (3) ……………….. different French in Canada. The French spoken in Africa is different (4) …………………. However, speakers of these three dialects can understand each other. Usually, a dialect is a variety of a language that other speakers of the language can understand; dialects are usually mutually intelligible. Not all dialects of Chrnese are mutually intelligible Chinese lurs many dialects that speakers of Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese Chinese cannot (5) ………………with each other in the (6) ………………..language. To communicate, they must write to each other or (7) …………………. a second language. Still, these two Chinese languages are dialects because China is one country and one culture with one language. The differences between American English and British English are not as (8) …………………….. as the differences in Chinese dialects. Two of the differences between American English and British English are vocabulary and spelling. In American English we (9) …………………. elcvator, truck, and apartment. The British say lift, lorry, and flat. Another difference is spelling. In American English we ( l0) ……………………………… honor, meter, and realize. In British English, these (l l) …………………are honour, metre, and realise. Dialects are in interesting (12) ………………..of language study. All languages have dialects. Usually speakers of one dialect can understand speakers of another dialect. TEST 10 dispense fundamental retrieve proliferate apparatus deviates depsited anxiety thwart retail THE PLASTIC REVOLUTION Some people call it the plastic revolution. Others refer to it as the cashless Society. No matter what it is called, the use of bank cards has caused some (1) …………………….changes in how people handle money. How did the revolution come about ? For years, most workers (2) …………………..their paychecks into checking accounts. Then they wrote checks to (3) ………………. cash or to pay for purchases. In recent years, many employers decided it would be more expedient to put the money directly into each worker's checking account. This practice. called
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depletes transaction

direct deposit, has reduced the (4) ……………….many workers have about losing a check or getting to the bank too late. Instead of a paycheck, the employee gets a notice saying that the (5) …………………. has occurred. Computers take care of the rest. Another important factor in the revolution is a(n) (6) ……….……..called the autontatic teller machine, or ATM. This machine can (7) ………………… cash from an account twenty-four hours a day. A bank card allows depositors to get this cash from their accounts. Users must enter a secret password to (8) ……………… anyone who tries to use a lost or stolen card. If the password (9) ……………….. by a single letter, the ATM seizes the card. Bank cards have ctrargea tlre way people lpend money. These cards can now be used to pay for purchases in (10) ……………. stores and service stations. Unlike a credit card, a bank card is not a tool for borrowing money. lnstead, a bank card moves money from a peiron's account into the account of the store. Each use (11) ……………….the amount of money in a person's account. People do not yet live in a cashless society. However, as the uses for bank cards (12) ………………., society moves closer to plastic and farther away from cash. TEST 11 operations handle counterparts components glamorous variety space unlike microcomputer factory

INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS One step beyond automated machines is the industrial robot, the heart and brain of which is the (1) ……………….. (2) …………………. most automated machines, industrial robots can be programmed to do a (3) ……………………of tasks that are usually accomplished by human (4) ………….……………… workers. Like their human (5) ………………, industrial robots can be switched from one job to another and can be programmed to (6) ………………..new tasks. Thus far, robots have found their greatest use in assembling (7)……………………. . However, they are swiftly branching from basic assembly (8) …………………… to construction and mining, and their most (9) ………………. use of all, the exploration of oceans and outer (10) ………………. TEST 12 transtmission basic growth possible developed improved energy practical popular regular

THE DEVELOPMENT OF TELEVISION Television was not really invented. Many scientists invented or (1) …………..parts of the system that have become the television systems we know now. Radio, of course, was necessary before television could be (2) …………….,because television uses the same principles of electromagnetic waves that radio does. As soon as radio became possible, the possibility of television (3) ……………….. was also known, but it took many years for it to become
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(4) …………………… British and American scientists helped to develop the (5) …………………. ideas that made television (6) ………………….. , but it was a Russian who made the first practical television system. By 1923, Vladimir Zworykin, a Russian, had invented a camera tube that could turn pictures into electric (7) ……………………..By 1929, Zworykin had built a television system that worked. By 1935, (8) ……………. television broadcasts were begun in Germanl. The first broadcasts in the United States began in 1939, but television did not really become (9) ……………… until after the Second World War. Between 1945 and 1955 there was rapid (10) ……… in the pracrical use of television. TEST 13 live until space transmitted signals expensive poor landing events one radio use

All early television was broadcast in black and white. Color television was possible, but it was too (1 ) ………………. and of very (2) …………………….quality (3) …………….…..the middle of the 1950s: Color television broadcasts began in the United States in 1954, in Japan in 1960, and in Europe in 1967. The first (4) ……………….on the moon was broadcast (5) ………………… on television in 1969 and; television programs are (6) ……………………… all over the world immediately through the (7) …………………. of sateltites that transmit the (8) ………….. from the earth, through (9) …………………. and back to the earth More people now get their news and information through television than through newspapers and (10) ……………………..The development of television is (11) …………………… of the most rapid and exciting (12) ……….. of our century. TEST 14 continues contain printing expensive value vary sides replaced plastic values precious holes

MONEY When we think of money, we usually think of currency, or metal coins and paper bills. In the modern world, almost every country and every person uses coins and paper money to exchange for other objects of (1) ……………….. The sizes and shapes of coins are different in various countries, and the size and colour of paper money also (2) …………….……. In India, for example, some coins have square (3) ……………….In Japan, some coins have (4)……………..in the centre. In the United states, all paper money is the same size and the same colour; only the (5) ………….on the bills is different. Most other countries have various sizes and colours for different (6) ………………….of paper money. . Until the twentieth century, most coins were made of (7) ………………… metals such as gold and silver, or they (8) ……………… at least some gold or silver By the middle of the twentieth century, all coins that were actually being used had no gold or silver and were made of less (9) ………….. metals, such as copper or
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aluminum. Paper money has (10) ……………… metal money for most purposes, and now paper money is being replaced by paper checks, (11) ……………………credit cards, and even electronic messages. If this (12) ………………., we may soon find that we will not use money at all, but only a series of numbers in computers to buy and sell goods and services. TEST 15 alike As a result dose extent like prescribe beneficial fortunately relief circulate harmful sensation create include

All drugs can affect the body in both helpful and (1)……………….. ways. For example, a particular drug may produce a stronger heartbeat, (2) ………………. from pain, or some other desired effect. But that drug, (3) ………………………any other drug. can also cause undesired effects - especially if the (4) ………………….. is too large. Such effects might (5) ……………………………. fever, high blood pressure, or constipation. Most drugs produce changes throughout the body because the drugs (6) …………….. through the blood stream . (7) …………..most drugs used to affect one part of the body also affect other parts. For example, physicians sometimes (8) ………………. , morphine to relieve pain. Morphine depresses the activities of cells in the brain and thus reduces the (9) ………………… of pain. But morphine also alters the function of cells elscwhere in the body. It may decrease the rate of breathing, produce constipation, and (l0) ………………….. other undesired effects. TEST 16 available explains refers consequently For example scattering disturbing in too eliminating marine with even poisons

Environmental pollution is a term that (1) ………………… to all the ways by which man pollutes his surroundings. Man dirties the air with gases and smoke, (2) ………………the water with chemicals and other substances, and damages the soil with (3) …………… many fertilizeis and pesticides. Man also pollutes his surroundings (4) …………………. various other ways. (5) ………………., people ruin natural beaury by (6) ………….. junk and litter on the land and in the water. They operate machines and motor vehicles that fill the air with (7) ……………..noise. Environmental pollution is one of the, most serious problems facing mankind today. Air, water, and: soil,.are necessary to the survival of all living things. Badly polluted air can cause iltness, and (8) ………………..death. Polluted water kills fish and other (9) life.'l'ollution of soil reduces the amount of land that is ( l0) ………………… for growing food. Errvironmental pollution also brings ugliness to man's natural beautiful world.
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TEST 17 abruptly : exhaust protects

as garbage provides

because gradually purify

benefit individuals require

discharge or too

Everyone wants to reduce pollution. But the pollution problem is (1) …………..….complicated as it is serious. It is complicated (2) …………………. much pollution is caused by things that benefit people. For example, (3) ………… from automobiles causes a large percentage of all air pollution. But the automobiie (4) ………………..transportation for millions of people. Factories (5) …………….. much of the material that pollutes air and water, but factories give employment to a large number of people. Thus, to end (6)………………, greatly reduce pollution immediately, people would have to stop using many things that (7) …………………. them. Most people do not want to do that, of course. But pollution can be (8) ………………….. reduced in several ways. Scientists and engineers can work to find ways to lessen the amount of pollution that such things as automobiles and factories cause. Governments can pass and enforce laws that (9) ……………..businesses and (10) ……………..to stop, or cut down on certain polluting activities. TEST 18 control necessary proposing deficient plays providing devote plentiful scarce generation produce seek Iead to proper solution

Food (1) ……………..an important part in the development of nations. In countries where food is (2) ………………, people have to spend most of their time getting enough to eat. This usually slows down progress, because men have little time to (3) …………… to science, industry, government, and art. In nations where food is (4)………………and easy to get, men have more time to spend in activities that (5) ………………. progress, human betterment, and enjoyment of leisure. The problem of (6) ………………. good food for everybody has not yet been solved. Many wars have been fought for the (7) ………………of rich food-producirrg lands. But it is no longer (8) …………….to go to was for food. Nations are beginning to put scientific knowledge to work for a (9) …………… to their food problems. They work together in the Food and Agricuilture Organiiation of the United Nations (FAO) to help hungry nations (10) …………………more food. TEST 19 barely every preserved constantly factors resulted from creater items result in destroyed natural rise drop pests widespread

Famine is a prolonged food shortage that causes (1) ……………… hunger and death. Throughout history, famine has struck at least one area of the world
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(2) ……………….few years. Most of the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America have (3) ………………. Enough food for their people. Millions in these countries go hungry. When food production or imports (4) ………………….. for any reason, famine may strike and trousands of milrions of people may die. Many famines have more than one cause. For example, the great Bengai famine of 1943 in Eastern India was ,caused by both (5) …………….. and historical events. World War II (6) ………………….. a general food shortage and led to the cutoff of rice imports from Burma, which had been occupied by the Japanese. Then a cycrone (7) …………………much farmland. Famine struck, and more than l,5 million persons died. Nearly all famines (8) …………… crop failures. The chief causes of crop failure incrude (1) drought (prolonged lack of rain ), (2) too much rainfall and flooding, and (3) plant disease and (9) ………………… Many other (10) …………….. may also help create a famine. TEST 20 according to established means bring about events pictures coverage fun purposes designed in addition to through entertainment make throughout

Television is one of man’s most important (1) ……………………. of communication. It brings (2)…………………..and sounds from around the world into millions of homes. A person with a television set can sit in his house and watch the President (3) ……………… a speech or visit a foreign country. He can see a war being fought and rvatch statesmen try to (4) ………………peace (5) ………….. television, home viewers can see and learn about people, places, and things in faraway lands. Television even takes its viewers out of this world. It brings them (6) …………….of American's astronauts as the astronauts explore outer space. (7) ……………….. all these things, television bring its viewers a steady stream of programmes that are (8) …………… to entertain. In fact, television provides many more (9) …………… programmes than any other kind. The progranlmes include action-packed dramas. light comedies, sporting ( l0) ……………….and motion pictures. TEST 2I affiects enables side beside exist raising besides included rush brings about limited scattering disaster nor scene

HOW TRANSPORTATION AFFECTS OUR LIVES Without transportation, our-modern society could not (1) ……………..We would have no metals, no coal, and no oil. (2) ………………….would we have any products made from these materials. (3) ………………., we would have to spend most of our time (4) …………………food - and the food would be (5) …………. to the kinds that could grow in the climate and soil of our own neighbourhoods.
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Transportation also (6) ………………our lives in other ways. Transportation can speed a doctor to the (7) …………… of a sick person, even if the patient lives on an isolated farm. It can take police to the (8) …………….. of a crime with in moments of being noticed. Transportation (9) ……………….teams of athletes to compete in national and international sports contests. In times of ( l0) ……………. transportation can rush aid to persons in areas stricken by floods, famines, and earthquakes. TEST 22 as a result took raise curious like record earliest occupalion remains in addition poltery set up invented purchased term

The first human beings probabty lived about 2.5 millions years ago But man did not begin to (1) ………………. history until he had invented writing only about 5,000 year ago. The period before man began to write is called prehistory. and the (2) ……………… prehistoric man refers to peopf e who lived during that period. Prehistoric man (3) ………………the first steps in building civilization. The (4) ……………......people were all hunters. In time many hunters leamed to plant crops and (5) …………………. animals for food, and they became farmers. Prehistoric man(6) …………… simple tools, and he discovered how to make fire. He painted the first pictures and shaped the first (7) ………………. And he built and governed the first cities. Because early man kept no written records, scientists search for bones, tools, and other prehistoric (8)……………...They study these objects to learn what early man looked (9) ………………. , how he lived, and how he developed into modern man. Most of the tools that have been found and studied are made of stone. (10)……………………, the entire period during which early man lived has been called the Stone Age. TEST 23 behind fill spreads called heaps swarms carry lift when even painful where explained presses which

The mosquito is an insect that (1) …………..some of the worst diseases of man and animals. Certain kinds of mosquitoes (2) ………………..the germs that cause such serious diseases as encephalitis, malaria and yellow fever. When a mosquito “bites”, it may leave germs (3) ………………. Many kinds of mosquitoes do not spread diseases, but they have (4) …………….. "bites''. Mosquitoes are found in all parts of the world, (5) …………….. near the North Pole Most kinds of mosquitoes that cause diseases live in the hot, damp lands near the equator. In some countries mosquitoes often gather in great (6) …………… that look like clouds. They attack men, interfering with such work
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as fishing, lumbering, and mining. Man controls mosquitoes in many ways. Scientists have developed chemicals (7) …………….. insecticides, which kill mosquitoes and other insects. Small amounts of these chemicals kill mosquitoes (8) ………………..sprayed in homes, garages, and other buirdings. Man also controls mosquitoes by destroying the places in (9) ………………they grow. Mosquitoes lay their eggs in marshes, swamps, and other pools of quiet water. Engineers may build canals through marshes to drain off the water, and often(10) ……………… small pools and swamps with soil. TEST 24 After distracted lose at dozes nods convinced during of despite falls perform difficulty from problem

People who are deprived (1) …………….. sleep lose energy and becoming quick-tempered . (2) ………………….…. two days without sleep, a person finds that lengthy concentration becomes difficult. He can force himself to (3) ……………….. tasks well for short periods, but he is easily (4) ………………….. . He makes many mistakes, especially at routine tdsks, and his attention slips (5) ……………….. times Every 'sleeptess' persort experiences periods in which he (6) ……………….off for a few seconds or more. He (7) ………………..completely asleep unless he is kept active continuously. Persons who go without sleep for more than three days have great (8) …………………thinking, seeing, and hearing clearly. They have periods of hallucinations, (9) ……………….which they see things that do not really exist. They also confuse daydreams with real life and ( l0) ……………….track of their thoughts in the middle of a sentence. TEST 25 accurately fortunately owing to approaching departing guide instead of possible protect despite Iikely search far long-range vessels

Radar is an electronic device that can'see'great distances (1) ……………… fog, rain, snow, and darkness. It can find and (2) ………………………locate missiles, aircraft, ships, cities, rainstorms, and mountains. Radar uses radio waves (3) ………………light waves, which the human eye uses in seeing. This makes it (4) ……………… for radar to locate many kinds of objects at (5)……………… greater distances than the eye can see. Radar became an important military device during World War II. Today, networks of radar lookout stations guard the United States and Canada 24 hours a day against (6) …………………….missiles and airplanes. Patrol planes and. ships
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(7) ………………..the oceans with radar for hostile ships and aircraft. Airports use radar to (8) ……………… planes safely to earth in fog or storms. Ships use it to steer clear of other (9) ……………… or icebergs. Radar helps weathermen warn of ( l0) …………………..hurricanes and tornadoes. TEST 26 it called he if recognized to then whether which in than started was these an BIRTH OF THE COMPUTER Most people think of computers as very modern inventions, products of our new technorogical age. But actualty the idea for a computer (1) …………………….. worked out over 2 centuries ago, by a man (2) ……………………, Charles Babbage. Babbage was born (3) ………… 1791 and grew up to be a brilliant marhematician. He drew up plans for several calculating machines (4) ……………. he called "engines". But despite the fact that he (5) …………………. building some of these he never finished any of them. Over the years people have argued (6) ……………..his machines would ever work. Recently, however, the Science Museum in London has finished building (7) ………………….. engine based on one of Babbage’s designs. (8) ………………….has taken six years to complete and more (9) ……………….. four thousand parts have been specially made. Whether it works or not, the machine will be on show at a special exhibition in the Science Museum (10) ………………. remind of Babbage's work. TEST 27 raised but came risen says travelled they without put tells with when thrown than such

HOLIDAYS THAT DON'T COST THE EARTH The tourist indusrry is considered to be the largest industry. Before 1950 one milion peopre (1) …………..…….aboard each year (2) ………………by the 1990s the figure had (3) ………………to 400 million every year. (4) ……………. large numbers of tourists, however, are beginning to cause problems. For example, on the Alps the skiers are destroying the mountains (5) ………………. came to enjoy. Even parts of Mount Everest in the Himalayas are reported to be covered (6)…………………. old tins, tents, and foods that have been (7) ……………. away. But at a time when we have greater freedom to travel (8) ………………ever before, more and more people are asking how they can enjoy their holidays (9) ……………….. causing probiems by spoiling the countryside. Now there ls a new holiday guide called "Holidays That Don't Cost The Earth". It (10) ………………….you how you can help the tourist industry by asking your travel agent the right questions before you go on holiday.
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TEST 28 thoughts distance attainment impediment Ianguages interchange confidence benefits tone freedom opposition humanity proof change tongue

The greatest (1) …………. to free intercourse between nations is neither (2) …………….., nor the difference of mental habits, nor the (3) ……………. of national interests; it is simply the imperfect manner in which languages are usually acquired, and the lazy contentment of, mankind with a low degree of (4) ………………. in a foreign tongue, when a much higher degree of attainment would.be necessary to any efficient (5) …………….. of ideas. It seems probable that much of the future happiness of (6) ………………… will depend upon a determination to learn foreign languages more thoroughly. Foreigners do not open their minds to one who blunders about their meanings, their (7) …………….is only to be won by a demonstration of something like equality in intelligence, and nobody can give (8) ……….. of this unless he has the means of making his (9) ………………itself, a somewhat bold and authoritative (10) ……………………. TEST 29 plenty directly compared without need "barter" wish for smaller whether

Money is something we take for granted in our lives. Some of us (1) ……………………..we had more of it, but we all recognize it when we see it, (2) ………………….in the form of coins, notes, or cheques. It is difficult to imagine how people manage (3) …………….. money. In the earliest periods of human history, people used to exchange goods (4) …………... They would exchange things they had (5) ……………of for things they were in (6) ……………..of. For example, they might offer food (7) …………….. tools. This method of exchange, which is known as (8) ………….. , has many disadvantages. Certain goods may be difficult to carry; they may not last long, or may be impossible to divide into (9) ………………units. It can also be very difficult to know the worth of something (10)……………….with other goods. TEST 30 badly beter books computers happen museums nearby office schools stop. students studying talks teachers worse WILL TECHNOLOGY REPLACE SCHOOLS ? Some people believe that soon schools will no longer be necessary. These people say that because of the Internet and other new technology, there is no longer any need for school buildings, formal classes, or (1) ……………… Perhaps this will
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be true one day, but it is hard for me to imagine a world without (2)…………………. In fact, we need to look at how we can use new technology to make schools (3) …………………, not to eliminate them. We should invent a new kind of school that is linked to libraries, (4) ……………., science centres, laborutories, and even companies. Experts could give (5) ………………… on video or over the Internet. TV networks and local stations courd develop programming about things students are actually (6) ………………… in school. Is this just a dream ? No. Already there are several towns where this is beginning to (7) ……………….. Blacksburg, Virginia is one of them. Here the entire city is linked to the Internet, and learning can take place at home, at school and in the (8) ……………….. Businesses provide programmes for the schools and the community. The schools provide computer labs for people without their own (9). ………………..at home. Because everyone can use the Internet, older people participate as much as younger ones, and everyone can visit distant libraries and museums as easily as (10) …………….. ones. TEST 31 of to out tooth decay increased down teeth destroyed food sugar looked found toothache salt

Many people nowadays have to wear false teeth when they are middle-aged. Since the beginning of this century, (1) …………………….decay has greatly Increased. The amount (2) ……………..sugar in our food has also (3) ………. Doctors and dentists now know that (4) ……………… is the chief cause of tooth decay. Eskimo’s teeth, for example, started to (5) ……………when they began to eat sweeter (6) …………… Long ago doctors did not like (7) ………………..treat people’s teeth. Barbers and blacksmiths (8) ……………. after people's teeth and pulled them (9) ……………….. when they decayed. Some people thought (10) …………….. was a punishment from the gods. TEST 32 objection recommendations suggestion joking surprised doing changes connection apology usually threat laughing We all welcomed the teacher's suggestion that we should do something else after the last exercise.(1) ……………..the teacher gives us very good advice and we have faith in all her (2) ……………… . So we were rather (3) ……………. when she asked us to make small (4) …………….. in the form of words like suggest, advise, and so on. In fact, one of the students seemed to have a very strong (5) …………………. to the idea because there was such a clear (6) .. ………..between these words and the words we had just studied. “I’ll jump out of the window if we go on (7) …………….this,” he said. The teacher smiled because she knew the student was only (8) ……………., and then asked: “Are you making a promise or is
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that a (9) …………….. ?” There was a great deal of laughter as we listened to the student's ( I 0) ……………………….. TEST 33 translated recognised televised believed discovered called spoken estimated increased decided tended speak stored invented attached

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE English has for more than a century and a half been (1) ……………….. a world language. The number of people who (2) …………………… it as their mother tongue has been (3) …………………. at between three hundred million and four hundred million. It is (4) ……………….. as an official language in countries where l.5 billion people live. In China, the importance(5) …………………….to learning English is such that a (6) …………. teaching course drew audiences of up to 100 million. But this spread of English throughout the world is relatively recent. In the late sixteenth century English was (7) …………….by just under five million people. The arrival of English in North America was the key step in its world-wide expansion. The United States is a huge commercial market and this has (8) …………….. to promote the English language in many other nations. About eighty per cent oc the data (9) ………………….. on the world's computers is (10) …………………to be in English and nowadays insufficient knowledge of English can be a problem in business. TEST 34 agriculture almost consist too mostly irrigation

beneath so Iocked

available next to evaporation

contain cover most

The earth has a tremendous amount of water, but (1) …………….……all of it is in the oceans. The oceans (2) …………………about 70% of the earth's surface. They (3) ……………… about 97% of all the water on earth, and are the source of (4) ……………….. precipitation that falls on earth. Ocean water is (5) ………………… salty to be used for drinking, (6) …………………, or industry. But the salt is left behind duripg (7) …………………., and the precipitation that falls to earth is usually water. Only about 3% of the water on earth is fresh water and most of it is not easily (8)………………. to man. It includes water (9) ……………….. in glaciers and icecaps, more than 2% of the earth's water. About haft of 1% of the earth's water is (10) ……………..the earth’s surface. Rivers and lakes contain only about one-fifth of 1% of the earth's water. TEST 35 affected therefore almost that output any other by obtains which used
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supplies

during

however

in addition

most

Agriculture is the world's most important industry. lt provides us with (1) ……………… all our food. It also (2) …………..….. materials for two other basic Human needs - clothing and shelter. (3) ……………….agriculture provides materials (4) …………….in making many industrial products, such as paints and medicines. About half the world’s workers are employed in agriculture - far more than in (5) ………………. Industry. Agriculture is one of the world's oldest industries. It began about 10,000 years ago in the Middle East, (6) ……………………that time, certain Middle Eastern tribes had discovered how to grow plants from seeds and how to raise anirnals in captivity. Having mastered these skills, they could begin to practise agriculture. Before the development of agriculture, people got all their fodd by gathering wild plants, hunting, and fishing. They had to search for food continually, (7) ……………. left them little time for other activities. But as agriculture developed and farm (8) ……………….. increased, fewer people were needed to produce food. The non-farmers could then develop the arts, crafts, trades, and other activities of civilized life. Agriculture (9) ……………………. not only greatry (10). …………………..the food suppry but also made civilization possible. B. CLOZE TEST I lt has been said that the British and Americans are 'two peoples (l) ……………….by a common language'. However, the (2) …………….between British and American English are comparatively small. Although some British people occasionally complain about the latest American TV series of which they are (3) …………….. to understand a word, it is clear that few people have serious (4) …………… In fact, it is television, films, and pop music that have helped to (5) …………….them closer together, and those minor difficulties (6) ……………. might occur in comprehension are probably much fewer than 40 or 50 years (7)…………... Normally four or five American programmes are found in an evening on British television, and 6 or 7 of the American 20 best records are played (8) ……………… British artists. It is true that most Americans would say: 'Pardon me! Do you have .. ……………….?' while in Britain it would be more (9) ………………….. to say: ‘Excuse me ! Have you got ………………..?’ However, both forms would be (10) ………………………..in both countrtes. TEST 2 During the teenage years, many young people can at ( 1 ) ……….……… be difficult to tall to. They often seem to dislike (2) ……………………..questioned. They may seem unwilling to talk about their work at school. This is a normal development at this (3) ……………… Though it can be very hard for parents to (4) ………………., it is part of becoming independent of teenagers trying to be adult while they are (5)…………… growing up. Young people are usually unwilling to talk if they
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believe that questions are trying to check up on them. Parents should do their (6) ………………… to talk to their son and daughter (7) …………………. school, work and future plans but should not push them to talk if they don’t (8) ………………….to. Parents should also watch for danger signs. Some young peopte in trying to be (9) ………………. may experience with sex, drugs, alcohol or smoking. Parents need to watch for any signs of unusual behaviour which may be connected (10) …………………….these and help if necessary. TEST 3 We send our children (1) …………………….. school to prepare them (2) ……………..…..the time when they wiIl be big and will have to work for (3). ……………….. They learn their own (4) ………………so that they will be able to tell others what they want and what they know and understand what others tell them. They learn foreign languages (5) …………………..order to be able to benefit (6) ………………what people in other countries have written and said, and in order to make people from other countries (7) …………………… what they themselves mean. Nearry everything they study (8) ………………school has some practical use in their Iife. We go to schoot (9) ……………….all to learn how to learn, so that when we have left school, we can (10) ……………….. to learn. TEST 4 My home is (1) …………………… the air - I do an enormous amount of travelling. It is a fast life and full (2) ……………….work, but I like it and that is the only way for me. Everything is tiring – music, travelling - but what can I do ? I am not (3) ………………. to complaining. lt is hard to imagine now that I will ever be very long in one place. My home town is in the Caspian Sea. (4) ………….. is sea, wind, sun and too many tourists and hotels. I (5) …………… my own flat with four or five rooms, but I am seldom there. If I am there for a day (6) ……………. Two, I prefer to (7) ……………………. with my mother and grandmother. They live in a small house, (8) …………………… it is very comfortable and my mother cooks for me. I like good, simple food. I have no wife, o brothers or sisters, and my father died when I was ten. He was an engineer and I don't (9) ………………….. him very well. He liked music very much and wanted (10) …………………… to become a musician. TEST 5 Usually the decision to marry is based on a mutual (1) …………… between the man and the woman. Parents may or may not be asked to (2)……………….their permission. The marriage (3) …………….….. may be a simple visit to city Hall, where marriage vows are exchanged and papers are signed, or it may be an elaborate celebration. There are numerous (4) ………………… to the traditional wedding ceremony. Couples who do not with to get divorced may decide by mutual agreement to be separated, in this case (5) ……………... are still legally married. Couples who have (6) ……………………. for divorced are separated until the (7) …………………….. is finalrzed. Divorces can be obtained easily in most Australian states. Either husbands
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or wives can apply for divorce. Bases for divorcetcan (8)……………… as diverse as mutuat agreement. There is usually a minimal waiting time for remarriage. Child (9) …………… Payments, alimony, and the division of property (10) ………………. usualy arranged by the courts on by mutual agreement between the husband and wife. TEST 6 Helicopters have one distinct difference (l) …………all other vehicles, it is (2) ……….. they can fly vertically. Helicopters can fly (3)…………… jungles and forests, hills and mourrltuins, and they can take off or (4) ………… almost everywhere. Because of this, they have been especially (5) …………. to explorers' In the jungtes of South .Ameriqa, heliqopters have helped explorers in looking (6) …………… new places to drill oil wells. They are used to bring in very heavy drilling equipment and anything that may be (7) ………………. Big helicopters can lift loads up to ten tons. They can go anywhere and hover over a chosen spot. This (8) ……………….helicopters excellent flying cranes Helicopters have rescued (9) ………………from the seas and mountains. As they get more efficient, they will be found to be more and (10) …………….useful. TEST 7 Our century has seen great changes in the life and.(1) ………….conditions of people. Less than a hundred years ago, many of the things we do now seemed (2)…………. No-one could imagine that people (3)………………… fly, or that we could (4)…………….. to music thousands of miles away. Today, radio and television serve many purposes besides preasure. They help us find fish in the sea and land airplanes in bad (5) …………………. or at night. They control the work of large numbers (6) ……………. machines in industry. Never before in history have (7) ………………….been such rapid changes in our way of life as at the present moment. Scientists have been using what is called ‘a scientific method’ to make new discoveries. Among the most important scientific discoveries are new medicines. Many illnesses that people died (8) ………… 50 years ago are no (9) ……………….dangerous. The study of science helps us widen our outlook and opens a whole new world for us. The progress of science is leading to a better and better (10) ………………..for man. TEST 8 Science has told us so much (1) ………………. the moon that it is fairly easy to imagine what it would be like to go (2) ………………… It is certainly not a friendly prace. As there is no air or (3) ………………. , there can be no (4) ……………..of any kind. There is no variety of scenery (5) ………………. For mile after mile there are onry flat plains of dust with mountains around them . Above, the sun and stars (6) ……………..….in a black sky. If you step out of the mountain shadows, it will mean movlng from severe cold into great heat. These extreme (7) ……………………. continually break rocks away from the surface of the mountains. The moon is also a
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very silent world for sound waves can only travel (8) ……………….air. But beyond the broken horizon, you see a friendly sight, our earth is shining more brightly (9) ………………. the stars. From this distance, it looks (10) …………… an immense ball, coloured blue and green and brown. TEST 9 Agricurture is the world’s most important industry. It provides us with (1) ………………all our food. It also suppries materiars for two other basic human Needs-clothing and shelter. In (2) ………………, agriculture provides materials (3) …………… in making many industrial products such as paints and medicines. About half the worldls workers are emptoyea in agriculture - far more than in any (4) ……………industry . Agriculture is one of the world's oldest industries. It began about l0,000 years ago in the Middre East. (5) …………………..that time, certain Middle Eastern tribes had discovered how to grow plants from seeds and how to raise (6) …………………in captivity. Having mastered these skills, they courd begin to practise agriculture. Before the development of agricurture, people got all their food by gathering wild prants, hunting, and fishing. They had to search for food continually, (7) ……………… left them little time for other activities. But as agriculture developed and farrn output increased, fewer people were (8) ………………. to produce food. The non-farmers could then develop the arts, crafts, trades, and other activities of civized life. Agriculture (9) …………….. not only greatly affected food supply but also (10) ………………… civilization possible. TEST 1O The country is more beautiful than a town and pleasant to live in. Many People think so, and go to the country (1) …………..the summer holidays though they cannot live (2) …………. all the year round. Some have a cottage built in a village (3) ……………….. that they can go there whenever they can find the time. English villagers are not all alike, but (4) …………… some ways they are not very different from each other. Almost every village has a church, the round or square tower of (5) ……………… can be seen for many miles around. Surrounding the church is the churchyard, (6) ……………… people are buried. The village green is a wide stretch of grass, and houses or cottages are (7) ………………round it. Country life is now fairly comfortable and many villages (8) ……………….water brought through pipes into each (9) …………… Most villages are so close to some small towns that people can go there to buy (10) ………………….. they can't find in the village shops. TEST 11 Laura Ashrey was a woman (1) ……………… simple tastes and strong moral beliefs. She was born in Wales and one of her largest factories producing clothes (2) ……………… situated in the countryside there. Her employees were encouraged to have healthy lives, enjoy the fresh air and good diet. Many of the Ashley's family
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were involved (3) …………….. the business, but in 1985 (4) …………….was decided that the public (5) …………….. be given the opportunity to invest money in the company. Obviously this was (6) ………………. major development and a clear sign of commerciar success. But the woman (7) ……………….ideas had been the basis of the company’s development did not live to see it. She (8) ………………….down in stairs (9)…………………….. staying at a friend's house and died in hospital a few days (10) …………………. She was only sixty-one. TEST 12 Isambard Kingdom Brunel was a famous nineteenth-century engineer. He (1) …………………. born in 1806 in Portsmouth, a seaport in the South of England. In 1823, after studying (2) …………………..two years in Paris, he started (3) …………… for his father, (4) ………………… was an engineer and inventor. He had been born near Rouen in France but in 1792 had left France for the USA and had later settled in England. Both father and son were responsible for the design (5) ……………………. construction of the first tunnel under the River Thames. The digging of this tunnel was (6) ………………… in 1825 and completed twenty years later. Today, it (7) ………………..part of the London Undergiound system. Isambard Kingdom Brurnel went (8) ………………. . to design the Great Britain (1845), (9) ……………..was the first large ship to be built (10) ……………………. iron instead of wood. TEST 13 My friend Jonathan; who lives (1) ……………….the road, develops and prints films. (2) ………….. to Jonathan, most of us take awful pictures. Usually, we fail to aim (3) ……………..the subject so that the subject is not even in the picture. Sometimes the subject is too far (4) …………., sometimes too near. Some photos are spoilt because the sun is in (5) ……………….of us, when of course, it should arways be (6) …………….. us. Some of us take blank pictures (7) …………. we take the lens cover off (8) ………………….we have taken our shots. We take most of our pictures when we are on holidays and like to catch our friends when they are fooling (9) ………………… It is a pity we don't practise using our cameras (10) ……………….. we go on holiday. TEST 14 In addition to reducing poltution, public transport (1) ……………valuable city space. Buses and trains carry more people in each (2) …………………. and, if they operate on their own rights of way, they can safely rur (3) ……………….. much higher speeds. In other (4) …………….., they not only take (5) ………………. space but also occupy it for a (6) ……………. Time. Public transport also plays an important (7) ……………… in areas of the Third World . In many cities in Asia and Africa, buses make 50 to 80 percent (8) …………….. all motorized trips. Buses are sometimes hopelessly overcrowded. It is not uncommon to see several riders clinging to the outside. Yet most Third World cities have (9) ……………. public transport use per person than (10) ……………… in Western Europe.
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TEST 15 My grandfather was born in China. He came from a very poor (1) …………….. His parents rived (2) …………. a small farm. He didn't have a very good education. At the age of 17 he (3) ……………. Home. First he went to Shanghai and (4) ………………..he went to HongKong. He (5) ………….as a waiter and then as a cook. when he was 21, he (6) ………………my grandmother and had four children. My mother was (7) …………………oldest. My grandmother died recentry, and my grandfather lives alone now. He is almost 80, (8) ………………………he is still very active and interested in everything (9) …………….. is going on. He reads the paiers and watches television even though his ( 10) ……………………… is fairly poor. TEST 16 How are things with you ? Since I saw you last, I've been ill. By the (1) …………. I arrived home after seeing you on Monday, I had an a'nrful headache. I thought that perhaps my eyes were tired (2) …………..I've been working so hard so I took some aspirins and went to bed. However, when I woke up the next morning the headache was (3) ……………………. than ever and my throat was (4) ………………… I tried to get up but my arms and my legs were stiff. I saw the doctor and she (5) ……………me I had a temperature. She said I probably had flu. She advised me to take some medicine and (6) ………………in bed. The medicine tasted horrible and it didn't make me feel any (7)……………. . I felt sick and I didn't want to eat anything at all (8) …………… I was very hungry. I have almost (9) ………………now and I'm going to start work again tomorrow, I still have a sliqht cold and a cough but my chest doesn't hurt when I breathe. Can we meet on Sunday ? I'm looking forward to (10) ……………you. TEST 17 People who are nearsighted can only (1) ………… things that are very close to their eyes. Everything else seems (2) …………...Many people who do a lot of (3) …………. work, such as writing, reading and sewing are nearsighted. Then they have to (4) ……………..glasses in order to see objects clearly. People who are farsighted suffer from just the (5) ………………….. problem. They can see things that are far away, but they have difficulties in (6)……………… a book unless they (7)………………it at arm's length. If they want to do much reading, they must get (8) ……………. too. Other people do not see (9) ……….. because their eyes are not exactly the (10) …………….. size. TEST 18 Computers are helpful in many ways. First, they are fast. They can work with information (1) ………….. more quickly than a person. (2) ………….., computers can work with r lot of information, at (3) ………………… same time. Third, they can keep information (4) ……………a long time. They do not forget things the common people do. Also, computers are (5) ……………………. always correct. They are not perfect, (6) …………………. course, but they usually do not make mistakes.
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These days, it is important to know about computers. There are a number of (7) ……………to leant. Some companies have classes (8) ………….. work. Also, most universities offer day and night courses in computer science. Another way to (9) …………….. is from a book, or from a friend. After a (10) ………….. hours of practice, you can work with computers. You may not be an expert, but you can have fun. TEST 19 Vegetarian food (1) …..………a system of eating is gaining popularity all the time. There is no denying the fact (2) ……………. such food can do only good for all people. Doctors insist (3) …………….aging people eating this food at least several days a week. Some even say “We are what we eat” .And people (4) …………...aim at keeping their hearth up to the mark should pay (5) ………………….to what they eat. In many countries there, are restauranls which invarilbly keep (6) …………… only vegetarian food. The personner of these restaurants persists in providing different kinds of meatless (7) ……………. They succeed in having a lot of elderly (8) ………………… They say that people can eat delicious, nutritious, economical meals. (9) ……………….. using too much (10) …………….the world's resources. TEST 20 Where do you start if you want to write a successful story? Clearly, what you need first of (1) ………………..is an idea which you can develop into a strong plot. But (2) …………………… do ideas like this come from ? The (3) ……… is 'anywhere and every where” . They may come from something that has (4) …………… to you or to (5) …………………. else, frol a newspaper, an inteiesting picture, or even a song. It is a good idea to keep a notebook nearby (6) …………….. that you can write down the details or any odd incidents (7) ………………..catch your imagination. Make a note of ideas (8) ………………..titles too, and any special phrases or descriptions that you think of. A small tape recorder can (9) ………………. useful for this purpose. Some writers even keep (l0)……………………..by their bed in case they wake up wilI the ‘idea of the century'. TEST 21 He was born in a very poor part of London. His father (1) ………………… a comedian and his mother workld (2) ………………a dancer and singer. (3) …………… of them was very successfur, however, and the family had very (4) ……………………. money, at one time they were (5) …………… poor that he and his brothers had only one pair of shoes (6) ………….. them and they had to take turns wearing them. The first time he himself earned any money (7) ………….…..dancing and singing, he was only five years old. He did many kinds of jobs, but what he loved (8) ……………..was working in the theatre. (9) ……………..he was about 15 he joined a travelling theatre company and went on trips to America. on (10) ………..such tour he was offered a part in a film, so he went to Hollywood where he eventually became both an actor and a film director.
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TEST 22 Books are written to provide knowledge and good books enrich the mind. By putting (1) …………… under the influence of superior mind, we (2) ……………. our mental powers . Through good (3) …………..we learn that people everywhere are the (4)……………..,in all ages and in all (5) ………….This knowledge improves our love (6)…………….others and helps us to live in peace with them. We also (7) ……………..that the world was made not only for man (8) ……………… but for Every creature that can feel hunger and thirst, warmth and cold. Though it may be possible for us to travel (9) …………… the world and see the things happening today, it is not possible for us to see the things that happened in the past. But good books (10) ………….us to see not only into the most remote regions of the world today but also the world in which our ancestors lived. TEST 23 It was a cold night. The train (1) ……………….. through some very lonely countryside. There was no sign of human life and the station at Brest seemed like an oasis. The passengers (2) …………….. advised to get (3) …………….. the train because they were going to be there (4) …………….……a long time. The customs officers had to (5)……………their duty, searching the entire train looking mainly for illegal literature. They (6) ………………. quite a lot, including some interesting magazines to take home to their families (7) ………….this was happening, the train moved away from the platform to get its wheels changed. It was lifted up and swung over onto a wider set of wheels, but the passengers in the station did not know (8) ………….. this. To them, it was a long unnecessary wait, made worse by the fact that their, luggage disappeared with the train for at (9) ………… an hour. If they had (10) …………. given a better explanation of what was going on, they would have been in a better mood. TEST 24 One thing about London which every visitor from abroad admires is the large number of parks. These “lungs” of London, as they have been called, are (1)………….. green islands of peace and quiet in the middle of the noisy sea. They (2) ……………an important part in helping to form the city's character. The best-known parks are, of course, the central (3………….where one can get the impression of being deep in the country (4) ……………….. the central parks of London are necessarily the most f opular. Every district of London has (5) ……………… parks, great or small. Here, in fine weather, carl be seen hundreds of lucky people who have escaped for a while (6) ……………… the noise and bustle of the city; some sitting on chairs, some lying full length (7) …………….. the ground, some strolling aimressry around. Almost every kind of tree and plant (8) …………… carefully tended in large green houses or in the open (9) …………………. Even for a Londoner it is diffrcult to know and enjoy all London's parks. The visitor to the (10) …………….. may be confident that wherever he is, he is not far away from a park which waits to offer him the same pleasures and relaxations that it does to Londoners.
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TEST 25 We have seen photographs of the whole earth taken from great distances in outer (1) ……………….This is the first time, the (2) ……………. first time, in man's long (3) ……………… that such pictures have been possible. (4) ……..….. many years most people have believed that the earth is ball-siraped. A few thought it was round and (5) …………………,like a coin. Now we know, beyond (6) …………., that those few were (7) …………….. The photographs show a ball-shaped (8) …………. , bright and beautiful. In colour photographs of the earth, the sky is as black as coal. The sea looks much bluer than it usually does to us. All our grey (9) ……………. are a perfect white in colour because, of course, the sun is forever (10) …………….. on them. we are fortunate to live on the beautiful earth. TEST 26 About two hundred years ago man lived (1) ……………….. greater harmony with his environrnent (2) ……………….industry was not much developed. Today the situation is quite (3) ……………….. People all over the world are worried about (4) …………… is happening to the environment because of modern industry and the need for more and more energy. Newspapers and magazines (5) ………………. about water and pollution. Why is (6) ……………… . so much discussion about pollution ? After (7) …………., peopre have been polluting the world around them for thousand, of years. But in the (8) ………….....there were not (9) …………… people and lots of room in the world, so they could (10) ………………to another place when their settlements became dirty. TEST 27 According to the writer, the modern father looks after his children and helps in the house, even (1) ……………..his wife does not go out to work. The division (2) ……………the roles of the mother and the father is no (3) ……………..very Clear,and dad does (4) …………….share of child care: he can change the baby, dress the children or make the dinner. This new image of the father is, of (5) ………………….completely (6) …………………….from the still traditional dad (7) ……………….represents authority, is the head of the household (8) …………… makes all the “important” decisions. His wife is (9) ……………….. for the domestic side of family life while he (10) ………………..the one who advises or punishes as necessary. TEST 28 Someone once said that (1) …………. your first baby is a bit like buying a wonderful new computer and then finding that there is no instruction rnanual. Certainly (2) …………..up children is not an easy task. A young child can ruin your (3) ………………….life, and can strain your relationship with your (4) ……………….., if you don't (5) ……………. eye to eye about the child's diet, Behaviour or bedtime. Later on, the first child is always (6) …………..of its little
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brother or sister, and their constant fighing can reduce even the most easy-going parent to a nervous wreck. Above all, chitdren are a source of constant worry. Will he (7) ………….. knocked off his bike on his way to school? Will they wreck the house while l’m out ? What if I don't (8) ………….. to her latest boyfriend ? Many parents can’t wait to see the (9) …………… of their children when they leave home - but then find they're dreadfully (10) …………….. without them. TEST 29 People have always dreamed of living forever, and although we all know this will (1) ……………happen, we still want to live as long as possible. Naturally, there are advantages and disadvantages to a long (2) ……………………… In the first place, people (3) ………………live longer can spend more time with their family and friends. Secondly, people who have busy working lives look forward to a long, relaxing (4) …………... when they can do the things they have never had time for. On the other hand, there are some serious disadvantages. Firstly, many people become ill and consequently have to (5) ………………time in hospital or become (6).................. on their children and friends. Many of (7) ……………. find this dependency annoying or embarrassing. In addition to this, the (8) ……………… people get, the fewer friends they seem to have because old friends die or become ill and it's often (9) ………………… to make new friends. To sum up, it seems that living to a very old age is worthwhile for people who stay healthy (10) …………………. To remain independent and enjoy life. TEST 30 John Lennon was born in Liverpool in 1940- He was (1) ………………..on music and played in pop groups (2) …………….school and Art college. John got married (3) ……………….. Cynthia in 1962 and they had a son, (4) …………… name was Julian. At that (5) ………………., John was member of a group (6) ……………… “The Beatles". Many beautiful songs (7) ………………..written by John and wherever the group went, crowds of fans gathered to see them. They (8) ………………… scream and faint when "The Beatles" played, and lots of people (9) …………………… their hair cut in a Beatles styles. Soon everyone lrad heard of "The Beatles" and John was (10) ……………………. richer than he had ever been. TEST 3I INTELLIGENCE Are some people born clever and others born (1) …………………..? Or is intelligence developed by out environment and our experience? Strangely enough, the answer to both these (2) ……………… is "Yes". To some extent, our intelligence is given at birth, and no amount of special education can make a genius out of a (3) ……………………..born with low intelligence. On the other hand, a child (4) …………….. lives in a boring surrounding will develop his intelligence less than the one who lives in rich and varied surrounding. Thus the limits of a person's intelligence are fixed at birth but (5) ………………….. or not he reaches those limits will
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(6) ………………..on his environment. This view, now held by most experts, can be supported in a number of ways. It is easy to show that intelligence is something we are born with (7) …………………we take two unrelated people at random from the population. It is likely that (8) ………………………. degrees of intelligence will be completely different. If, on the other hand, we take children - identical twins, they will very likely be (9) ……………………intelligent as other. This clearly suggests that intelligence depends on (10) ………………………….

TEST 32 Tonight I’m going to stay in and watch television. There is a film on that I want to see. It is (1) ………………a poriceman trying to find the man who killed his brother. I saw it last year (2) …………………the cinema. It was on late at night and I fell asleep (3) ………….. the end so I can't remember (4) ………………happened. I don't (5) ……………. watch much TV. There are too (6) ………………. stupid quiz shows and boiing programmes about politics. I sometimes watch the news (7) ……………….I don't enjoy it. There is never (8) ……………. good news just wars and disasters. I don't think that there are (9) ……………….. comedy programmes. They should put on more. They cheer me (10) …………….and make me laugh. And, of course, I'd like to see more exciting movies ! TEST 33 The country and the city have (1) …………….and disadvantages. People in the country live in more beautiful (2) ……………..They enjoy peace and quiet, and can do their work at their own pace because no one is in a (3) ………………. They live in larger, more comfortable houses, and their (4) ……………..are more friendly, and ready to help them when they need it. Their life can be (5) …………… and they can be isolated, a long way from the nearest town, which is a serious problem if they are ill or (6) …………….. to take children to school. The city has ail the services the country lacks, but it also tras a lot of (7) ……………. Cities are often ugly and (8) ……………..; they not only have bad air but are also noisy. Everyone is always in a (9) …………….and this means that people have no time to get to know each other and make (10) …………………. TEST 34 Rabindranath Tagore lived in lndia many years (1) ……………. . He was a famous Indian. He wrote many poems, stories and songs. He wrote (2) ……………… in his language, Bangali, and in English. Today we find his language in other languages too. People still like to read his books because his books are good. Tagore was (3) ……………….in 1861 in Calcutta in India. His parents were rich. When he (4) ……………still very young, he was arready interested in reading, writing and in music. He wrote his first book of poems when he was only 17 (5) …………….old. He also liked to watch things around him: the trees, the birds, the flowers, the grass and so on. All these things were beautiful for him. When he
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was old (6) ……………. to go to school, his father sent him to a school in his (7) …………….town. But he did not like his school. He did not like his lessons. He did not like his teachers' way of teaciring. So after some time he (8) ……………. his school. His father found him a teacher. He then learned at home. A few years (9) ……………..., his father sent him to England. He wanted Tagore to study law. But Tagore did not want to. So he (10) ……………….back to lndia before he finished his study. TEST 35 The story of the English language is a story of (1) …………………... The old English languagr, or Old English, is different from (2) ……………….. English. If we do not study Old English, we cannot understand it. Some of the words are the same but many are not (3) …………………..now. The story of the English language begins some time after the year AD. 400. At this time some people came to England from north-west Europe. There were many groups of people. They were called Angles, Saxons and Jutes. Their (4) ………………... Old English, is like some of the modern languages of north-west Europe. In old English the ends of words were very important.These endings had many meanings. They showed (5) ………………….time and present time and many other things. In Modern English most of these endings are gone. This is the biggest (6) ……………………..berween old and modem English. When the Church became important in England, Old English became a (7) ………………..language. Before this writing was not very important. Only a few (8) ………………… wrote English. Latin, the old language of ltaly, was used in the church. (9) ………………… of this many Latin words became a part of the English language. The word school came from the Latin (10) ……………. At that time most schools were a part of the church. In the year 1066, soldiers from France attacked England. French became the language of England. English was not usually used for writing books or songs. TEST 36 Although people's reactions to your dress will vary, (1) ………………. will draw conclusions about you based on the way you dress. You need to determine (2) ………………..you are trying to say and then dress appropriately. There are times (3) …………………… it is in your best interest to meet the expectations of others. Busines, managers are likely to have a clear idea of the images (4) ……………. want their businesses to portray. If you want to prosper with those busines, you will want to (5) …………………….in a way that is in line with those images.Likewise, audiences expect public speakers to dress appropriately for the audience and occasion. Peopfe (6)………………….. the right to their individual differences, and we believe that society is moving in the right (7) ………………. in allowing persons to express themselves (8) ………………. individuals. Nevenheless, your clothes are still perceived (9) ……………… others as clues to your anitudes and behaviours. Clothes do communicate, however accurate or tnaccurate ( l0) ……………………..may believe that communication to be.
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TEST 37. There is nothing new in the use of herbs and spices. They have human life for thousands of years providing both comfort and luxury. They have flavoured our food, cured our ailments and surrounded us (1) …………….sweet scents. They have also played some part in our folklore and magic. It (2) ……………………be a very different world without them. Nobody is really known to the ancient Greeks and spices, or for what Purpose. AII their properties were known to the ancient Greeks and Egyptians and to (3) ……………….living in early Biblical times. The knowledge that they employed, and that we (4) ………………use today, must, have been based on the trial and error of early man, who was originally drawn to the plants (5) …………………..of their aroma. He gradually discovered their individual effects on his food and wellbeing and our use of them comes from those early experiments. For centuries herbs and spices were appreciated to the full but in modern times the arrivai of (6) …………………..convenience foods and new medicines of the twentieth century Almost (7) …………… us forgef them. But anything that has been so much loved and valued (8) ………….. never be completely neglected. The knowledge has been kept alive and (9) ……………….our present-day search (10) …………… ali things natural, herbs and spices have come into their own again. TEST 38 Let us suppose that you are in the position of a parent. Would you allow your children to read any books they wanted to without first checking its contents ? Would you take (1) ………….. to see any film without first reading out whether it is suitable for them ? If the (2) ………… to these questions is 'yes', then you are either extremely permissive, or just irresponsible. If your answer is (3) …………… then you are exercising your right as a parent to protect your children (4)……………..what you consider to be undesirable influences. ln other (5) ……………. by acting as a censor yourself, you are admitting that there is a strong case for censorship. Children need protection and it is the parents' responsibility to provide it. But what about adults ? Aren't they old enough to decide (6) ………….. is good for them ? The answer is that many adults are, but (7) ………..make the mistake of thinking that all adults are like yourself. Censorship is for the good of society as a whole. Highty civilized people might find (8) ………..possible to live together without laws of any kind: they would just reply on good sense to (9) …………….. their problems. But imagine what chaos there would be if we lived in a society (10) ……………….laws! Like the law, censorship contributes to the common good. TEST 39 Money is soryething we take for (1) …………… in our life. Some of us may wish we had more it, (2) …………….. in the forms of coins, notes or cheques. lt is hard to imagine (3) ……………. poeple would manage (4) ……………….money. ln the
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earliest periods of human history, people used to exchange goods (5) ……………….. They would exchange things they had (6) …….….of for things that they were in (7) ……………of.For example, they might offer food (8) …………………….tools.This method of exchange, which is known as (9) ……………….., hes many disadvantages. Certain goods may be difficult, or may be impossible to divide into smaller units. It can also be very dlfficutt to know the work of something (10) ………………… with other goods. TEST 40 In a village on the east coast of Scotland, people were warting anxiously for news. Two of their fishing-boats (1) ………………………….. been caught in the storm (2) ……………………had blown up during the night. In the cottages round the harbour, people stood by their door, (3) …………………. worried to talk. The rest of the fishing fleet had (4) …………………. the harbour before dark, and the men from these ships waited and watched with the wives and families of (5) ……………….. missing men. Some had brought thick blankets and some flasks of hot drinks, knowing that the men (6) ……………….be cold and tired. As dawn began to break over in the east, a small poin of light was spotted in the darkness of the water and a (7) ………………….. minutes later, (8) ………………. was a shout. Before long, the two boats were turning in, past the lighthouse, to the inside of the harbour. The men (9) …………..helped out of their boats, and although they were stiff (10) ………………….. cold and tiredness, they were all safe. TEST 41 OXFORD UNTVERSITY Oxford is a beautiful (1) ………………….on the River Thames about fiffy-five miles (2) …………….London. (3) ………………of the colleges are built (4) …………… grey stone: they have (5) ………..there for many centuries. There has been a university in Oxford (6) ……………. the thirteenth century. It began when some teachers, each with a few (7) ……………, decided to live and work (8) …………. in the same house. Other colleges followed, and little (9) …………… little the great university we know today grew up. The oldest college, Merton, began in 1264; the newest college opened its doors for the first time onty a few years (I0) …………….. So the university is still growing. TEST 42 In the 1960s women tennis players received little or no prize money at all In the 1990s, (1) …………. , the top players can earn twice as much in a fortnight as a successful compmy director does in a whole year. And (2) …………………most young people their age were still studying for exams' players (3) ………………….. Monica Seles and Jennifer Capriati were earning thousands of pounds a week When she was only sixteen, Seles was rich enough to buy any car she (4) …………….. Nowadays, most of a (5) ……………. . tennis player's income comes from sponsorship contracts with fashion or sportswear companies rather than from major
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championships. Players are (6) …………….huge sums of money to wear anything from tennis shoes (7) ………………a wristwatch. Official prize money, in fact, only accounts for a fraction of total earnings. But (8) ……………. so much money in the bank, and the worrd at their feet it will be surprising if these young stars (9) …………………not affected by success Both Seles and Capriati are coached by theii fathers, (10). ……………. do their best to protect their daughters from the pressure fame has brought. Only time will tell whether this is enough. TEST 43 The state of California in the United States is famous for its traffic problems. We’ve all seen terevision picture of Los Angeles during the evening rush hour. Too (1) ……………cars want to use the roads and motorways at the same time. Scientists, who have been trying to solve these problems (2)…………………. several years now, have suggested various solutions, such as two-storey motorways Not surprisingry, peopre rejected this idea (3) …………………of the damage it would cause to the environment. Now the scientists have (4) ……………. of another solution: they want cars on motorways to be controlled by computers instead (5). ………………..human beings.

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