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A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MBA DEGREE OF BANGALORE UNIVERSITY.
SUBMITTED BY Md Masood Khan Reg. No – 04XQCM6052
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Dr. N.S. Malavalli
M. P. BIRLA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT (ASSOCIATE BHARATIYA VIDYA BHAVAN) BANGALORE – 560001
This is to certify that the project titled “Current scenario of Derivatives market in India” submitted by me in partial fulfillment of the requirement of Master of Business Management course, is based on research work done by me under the guidance of Dr. N.S. Malavalli , Principal, M. P. Birla Institute of Management. This project has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree or diploma.
Place: Bangalore Date:
Md Masood khan
I hereby certify that the research work embodied in the dissertation entitled “Current scenario of Derivatives market in India” has been undertaken and completed by Md Masood Khan under my guidance and supervision.
I also certify that he has fulfilled all the requirements under the covenant governing the submission of dissertation to the Bangalore University for the award of MBA degree.
Place: Bangalore Date:
(Dr. N.S. Malavalli)
I hereby certify that this dissertation is an offshoot of the research work undertaken and completed by Md Masood Khan under the guidance of, Dr. N.S. Malavalli Principal of M.P.B.I.M. Bangalore.
. Place: Bangalore Date: (Dr. N. S. Malavalli) Principal, MPBIM
I am happy to express my gratitude to Dr. N. S. Malavalli, (Principal, M. P. Birla Institute of Management), for his encouragement, guidance and many valuable ideas imparted to me for my project.
I extend my sincere thanks to Dr. N. S. Malavalli principal MPBIM, Bangalore for providing me all the information required and the guidance throughout the project without which this project would not have been possible.
I would also like to sincerely thank all my lecturers and my friends for their help in completing my project successfully.
Declaration Acknowledgements Certificates Research Abstract Introduction Review of Literature Methodology Presentation & Analysis Findings & Conclusion Terminologies 70 66 40 39 06 03 01
A derivative instrument, broadly is a financial contract whose payoff structure is determined by the value of underlying commodity, security, interest rate, share price index, exchange rate, oil price, or the like. So a derivative is an instrument which derives its values from some underlying variable /asset. A derivative instrument by itself does not constitute ownership. It is, instead, a promise to convey ownership.
All derivatives are based on some ‘cash’ products. The underlying asset of a derivative instrument may be any product of the following types: -
1. Commodities (grain, coffee, beans, orange juice etc.) 2. Precious metals (Gold, Silver, Copper) 3. Foreign exchange rate 4. Bonds of different types including medium to long-term negotiation debt securities. 5. Short term debt securities like T- bills 6. Over the counter (OTC) money market products such as loans or deposits.
Financial derivatives came into the spotlight along with the rise in uncertainty of post 1970, when the US announced an end to the Breton Woods System of fixed exchange rates leading to introduction of currency derivatives followed by other innovations, including stock index futures.
Indian-capital markets have gone through a remarkable transformation in last ten years. In these years, Indian capital markets have been witness to more than 100% increase in the companies listed on stock exchanges emergence of Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) as a truly national level of securities regulator, free pricing of public issues, screen based trading systems, more than six times increase in the turnover the stock exchanges, emergence of self regulatory organization in the fields of
merchant banking, mutual funds, emergence of investors associations, implementation of trade guarantees besides others.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The evolution occurred in stages. The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), which opened in 1848, is, to this day, the largest futures market in the world. The general rules framed by CBOT in 1865 became a pacesetter for many other markets. In 1870, the New York cotton exchange was founded.
The London metal exchange was established in 1877 and is now the leading market in metal trading (both spot and forward). Thereafter many new futures market were started. The first financial futures market was the international monetary, founded in 1972 by the Chicago mercantile exchange. The London international financial futures exchange followed this in 1982.
As already mentioned, some form of forward trading probably existed in India also. The first organized forward markets came into existence in India in the late 19th and early 20th century in Calcutta (for jute and jute goods) and Mumbai (for cotton).
Chronologically, India’s experience in organized forward trading is almost as long as that of the United Kingdom, and certainly longer than many developed nations. However, the tidal wave of price control, nationalization and state intervention in markets, which swept through all economic policy making after independence, led to a rapid decline in
number of futures markets. Frequently markets were closed due to the feeling that they
were responsible for sudden movements of price in the commodities.
Statement of the problem
The problem is to analyze Derivative ways of minimizing the Risk in Indian Capital market and to analyze the current scenario of Derivative markets in India.
Need and Importance of the Study
World financial market has witnessed a spectacular change in the field of derivative markets in the past one decade, especially in the field of option, futures and swaps. India also could not become aloof from the world trend and mainly after the liberalization has set in motion. India introduced the different types in phased manner. A derative market has gained momentum since its introduction in India and has played a major role in Indian financial markets. Today the derivative volume in India is Rs. 25000 crores. In this context the study of Current scenario of Indian derivative market is very contextual and important as well. That is why this subject is the topic of this dissertation.
Similarly, on the equity market, many retail investors who are uncomfortable about the equity market would enter if they were given the alternative of buying insurance, which controls their downside risk. This would enhance the action of the savings of the country, which are routed through the equity market. More importantly, derivative is one of the important tools of hedging risk. Therefore, the study of current scenario of derivative market in India is very importance.
Objectives of the Research
The main objectives of the project are as follows: -
To study the current scenario of derivatives market in India.
To analyze whether the purpose for which derivatives are used has achieved.
To study the concept of derivatives and the purpose for which financial institutions adopt derivatives.
Limitations of the study
The study is conducted in Bangalore only.
Since the study covers the overview of derivatives market, it cannot be generalized.
Data collected is only from secondary sources.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Literature review is one of the prime parts of dissertation. The very basic purpose of the literature review is to gain insight on the theoretical background of the research problem. It helps the researcher to gain strong theoretical basis of the problem under study and also helps to explore whether any one has done research on the related issue. That’s why literature review helps one to find out the path of problem solving.
In this regard, the very basic purpose of literature review in this dissertation is same as mentioned above.
METHODOLOGY For simplicity, the literature review has been divided into the following parts.
Definition of derivatives Perquisites for derivatives market Types of Derivatives Derivatives market in India
Type of Options
DEFINITION OF DERIVATIVES
Derivatives are the financial instruments, which derive their value from some other financial instruments, called the underlying. The foundation of all derivatives market is the underlying market, which could be spot market for gold, or it could be a pure number such as the level of the wholesale price index of a market price.
“A derivative is a financial instrument whose value depends on the value of other basic underlying variables”
John c hull
According to the Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956, derivatives include:
A security derived from a debt instrument, share, and loan whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for differences or any other form of security. A contract, which derives its value from the prices or index of prices of underlying securities.
Therefore, derivatives are specialized contracts to facilitate temporarily for hedging which is protection against losses resulting from unforeseen price or volatility changes. Thus, derivatives are a very important tool of risk management.
Derivatives perform a number of economic functions like price discovery, risk transfer and market completion.
The simplest kind of derivative market is the forward market. Here a buyer and seller write a contract for delivery at a specific future date and a specified future price. In India, a forward market exists in the form of the dollar-rupee market. But forward market suffers from two serious problems; counter party risk resulting in comparatively high rate of contract noncompliance and poor liquidity.
Futures markets were invented to cope with these two difficulties of forward markets. Futures are standardized forward contracts traded on an organized stock exchange. In essence, a future contract is a derivative instrument whose value is derived from the expected price of the underlying security or asset or index at a pre-determined future date.
PREREQUISITES FOR DERIVATIVES MARKET There are five essential prerequisites for derivatives market to flourish in a country.
a) Large market capitalization
At a market capitalization of near $1.5 trillion, India is well ahead of many other countries where derivatives markets have succeeded.
b) Liquidity in the underlying
A few years ago, the total trading volume in India used to be around Rs-300 crores a day. Today, daily trading volume in India is around Rs-15000 crores a day. This implies a degree of liquidity, which is around six times superior to the earlier conditions. There is empirical evidence to suggest that there are many financial instruments in the country today, which have adequate to support derivative market.
c) Clearing house that guarantees trades
Counter party risk is one of the major factor recognized as essential for starting a strong and healthy derivatives market. Trade guarantee therefore becomes imperative before a derivatives market could start. The first clearinghouse corporation guarantees trades have become fully functional from July 1996 in the form of National Securities Clearing Corporation (NSCC). NSCC is responsible for guaranteeing all open positions on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) for which it does the clearing. Other exchanges are also moving towards setting up separate and well-funded clearing corporations for providing trade guarantees.
d) Physical infrastructure
India’s equity markets are all moving towards satellite connectivity, which allows investors and traders anywhere in the country to buy liquidity services from anywhere else. This telecommunications infrastructure, India’s capabilities in computer hardware and software, will enable the establishment of computer system for creation of derivatives markets. Setting up of automated trading system as an experience with various prospective exchanges will also be beneficial while setting up the derivative market.
e) Risk-taking capability and Analytical skills
India’s investors are very strong in their risk-bearing capacity and can cope with the risk that derivatives pose. Evidence of the volumes traded on the capital markets, which are akin to a futures market, is indicative of this capacity. In contrast, in some other countries, investors simply lack the risk-bearing capacity to sustain the growth of even the equity market. It is expected that such a barrier will not appear in India.
On the subject of analytical skills, derivatives require a high degree of analytical capability for many subtle trading strategies to pricing. India has an enormous pool of mathematically literate finance professionals, who would excel in this field.
Lastly, an obvious advantage for the Indian market is that we have enormous experience with futures markets through the settlement cycle oriented equity which is not truly a spot market but a futures market (including concepts like market-to-market margin, low delivery ratios, and last-day-of settlement abnormalities in prices). We also have active futures markets on six commodities. With this state of development of the
capital markets it is felt that there is no major hurdle left for the creation of development of the capital markets. Hence on July 2, 1996 the SEBI board gave an in principal approval for the launch of derivatives markets in India.
Types of Derivatives
One form of classification of derivatives is between commodity derivatives and financial derivatives. Thus futures, option or swaps on gold, sugar, jute, pepper etc are commodity derivatives. While futures, options or swaps on currencies, gilt-edged securities, stock and share stock market indices etc are financial derivatives.
Types of Derivatives
The concept of options is not new one. In Fact, options have been in use for centuries. The idea of an option existed in ancient Greece and Rome. The Romans wrote options on the cargo that were transported by their ship. In the 17th century, there was an active option markets in Holland. In fact, options were used in a large measure in the ‘tulip bulb mania ‘ of that century. However, in the absence of mechanism to guarantee the performance of the contract, the refusal of many put option writers to take delivery of the tulip bulb and pay the high prices of the bulb they had originally agreed to, led to bursting of the bulb bubble during the winter of 1637.A number of speculators were wiped out in the process. In India, options on stocks of companies were illegal until 25th January 1995 according to sec. 20 of Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956. When Securities Laws (Amendment) Act, 1956 deleted sec. 20, thus making the introduction of options as legal act.
An options contract is an agreement between a buyer and a seller. Such a contract confers on the buyer a right but not an obligation to buy or sell a specified quantity of the underlying asset at a fixed price on or up to a fixed day in the future on a payment of a premium to the seller. The premium paid by the buyer to the seller is the price of an option contract
Options on a futures contract have added a new dimension to future trading like futures options provide price protection against adverse price move. Present day options trading on the floor of an exchange began in April 1973. When the Chicago Board of trade created the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) for the sole purpose of trading Options on a limited number of NEW YORK STOCK EXCHAGE listed equities
A forward is an agreement between two parties to exchange an agreed quantity of asset at a specified future date at a predetermined price specified in the agreements. The parties concerned agree the settlement date and price in advance. The promised asset may be currency, commodity, instrument etc. It is the oldest type of all the derivatives. The party who promises to buy but he specified asset at an agreed price at a fixed future date is said to be in the ‘Long position ‘ and the party who promises to sell at an agreed price at a future date is said to be in ‘ short position’.
It is similar to the forward contract in all the respect. In fact, a future is a standardized form of forward contract. A future is a contract or an agreement between two parties to exchange assets / currency or commodity at a certain future date at an agreed price. The trader who promises to buy is said to be in ‘ long position ‘ and the party who promises to sell said be in ‘short position’. Futures contracts are contracts specifying a standard volume of a particular currency to be exchanged on a specific settlement date. A future contract is an agreement between a buyer and a seller. Such a contract confers on the buyer an obligation to buy from the seller, and the seller an obligation to sell to the buyer a specified quantity of an underlying asset at a fixed price on or before a fixed day in future. Such a contract can be for delivery of an underlying asset.
To eliminate counter party risk and guarantee traders, futures markets use a clearing house which employs initial margin, daily market to market margin, exposures limits etc. to ensure contract compliance and guarantee settlement standardized futures contracts generate liquidity. In addition, due to these instruments being traded on recognized exchange’s results in grater transparency, fairness and efficiency. Due to
these inherent advantages, futures markets have been enormously successful in comparison with forward markets all over the world
The difference between forward contract and future is that future is a standardized contract in terms of quantity, date and delivery. It is traded on organized exchanges. So it has secondary markets. Future contract is always settled daily, irrespective of the maturity date, which is called marking to the market.
Swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange one set of financial obligations with other. It is widely used throughout the world but is recent in India. Swap may be interest swap or currency swaps. Swaps give companies extra flexibility to exploit their comparative advantage in their respective borrowing markets. Swaps allow companies to focus on their comparative advantage in borrowing in a single currency in the short end of the maturity spectrum vs. the long-end of the maturity spectrum. Swaps allow companies to exploit advantages across a matrix of currencies and maturities.
DERIVATIVES MARKET IN INDIA
Prior to liberalization, in India financial markets, there were only a few financial products and the stringent regulatory products and the stringent regulation environment also eluded any possibility of development of a derivatives market in country. All Indian corporate were mainly relying on term lending institution for meeting their project financing or any other financing requirements and on commercial banks for meeting working capital finance requirement. Commercial banks are on their assets and liabilities. The only derivative product they were aware of is the foreign exchange forward contract. But this scenario changed in the post liberalization period. Conservative Indian business practitioners began to take a different view of various aspects of their operations to remain competitive. Financial risks were given adequate attention and “treasury function” has assumed a significance role in all major corporate since then.
Initially, banks were allowed to pass on gains arising out of cancellation of forward’s contracts to the customers and customers were permitted to cancel and re-book the forward contracts. This remarkable change was followed by the introduction of cross currency forward contacts. But the major milestone in developing forex derivatives market in India was the introduction of cross currency options. The RBI’s objective of
introducing cross currency options was to provide a complicated hedging strategy for the corporate in their risk management activities.
The concept of “derivatives” is of course not new to the Indian market. Though derivatives in the financial markets have nothing to talk about home, in the commodity markets they have a long history of over hundred years. In 1875, the first commodity futures exchange was set up in Mumbai under the guidance of Bombay Cotton Traders Association. A clearinghouse for clearing and settlement of these traders was set up in 1918. Over a period of twenty years during 1900-1920, other futures markets were set up in various places. Futures market in raw jute in Kolkata (1912), wheat futures market in Hapur (1913), and bullion futures market in Mumbai (1920).
When it comes to financial markets, derivatives in equities claim a long existence. The official history of Bombay Stock Exchange (then known as Native Share and Stock Brokers Association) reveals that the concept of options existed since 1898 as is reflected from a quote given by one of the MPs-“India being the original home of options, a native broker would give a few points to the brokers of the other nations in the manipulation of puts and calls”. However, such an early expertise gained by Indian traders in derivatives trading has come to an end with the Government of India’s ban on forward contract during the 1960’s on the ground of their intrinsic undesirability. But ironically, the same were reintroduced by the government in the 1980’s as essential instruments for eliminating wide fluctuations in prices and more so because of the World Bank – UNCTAD report, which strongly urged the Indian government to start futures trading in major cash crops, especially in view of India’s entry to WTO.
With the world embracing the derivative trading on large scale, the Indian market obviously cannot remain aloof, especially after liberalization has been set in motion. Now we are in the threshold of introducing trading in derivatives, beginning with the stock index futures to be well set for the introduction of derivative trading. With L.C. Gupta
committee having recently submitted its report on the subject, SEBI is engaged in the process of assessing the feasibility and desirability of introducing such trading.
The NSE and BSE are two exchanges on which financial derivatives are traded. The combined notional value of the daily volumes on both the bourses stand at around RS. 150000 cr. In developed markets trading in the derivatives segment are thrice as large as in the cash markets. In India, the figure is hardly 20% of cash markets. Quite clearly our derivative markets have a long way to go.
According to the Executive Director of Association of NSE Member of India (Amni), Vinod Jain, “ Volumes in derivatives segment are stagnating due to klack of growth in the number of markets participants. Besides these products are still to catch up with the masses who are keeping away from this segment due to lack of understanding of the products and high contract price”
a) COMMODITIES DERIVATIVES MARKETS
In order to give more thrust on agricultural sector, the National Agricultural Policy, 2000 has envisaged and domestic market reforms and dismantling of all controls and regulations in agricultural commodity markets. It has also proposed to extend the coverage of futures markets to minimize the wide fluctuations in commodity market prices and for hedging the risk from price fluctuations.
As a result of these recommendations, there are presently, 15 exchanges carrying out futures trading in as many as 30 commodity items. Out to these, two exchanges viz. IPSTA, Cochin and the Bombay Commodity Exchange (BCE) Ltd.; have been upgraded to international exchanged to deal international contracts in peeper and castor oil respectively. Moreover, permission has been given to two more exchange viz. the First Commodities Exchange of India Ltd., Kochi (for copra/coconut, its oil and oilcake), and
Keshave Commodity Exchange Ltd., Delhi (for potato), where futures trading started very recently.
The government has also permitted four exchange viz., EICA, Mumbai. The Central Gujarat Cotton Dealers Association, Vadodara; The South India cotton Association Coimbattore; and the Ahmedabad Cotton Merchants Association, Ahmedabad, for conducting forward (non-transferable specific delivery) contracts in cotton. Lately as part of further liberalization of trade in agriculture and dismantling of ECA, 1955 futures trade in sugar has been permitted and three new exchanges viz., ECommodities Limited, Mumbai; NCS InfoTech Ltd., Hyderabad; and E-Sugar India.com, Mumbai have been given approval for conducting sugar futures (Ministry of Food and Consumer Affairs, 1999).
In the recent past, the GOI has set up a committee to explore and appraise matters important to the establishment and financing of the proposed national commodity exchange for the nationwide trading of commodity futures contracts. The usage of warehouse receipts as a means for delivery of commodities under the contracts is also being explored. The warehouse receipts system has been operationalized in COFEI (coffee futures exchange of India) with effect from 1998. The Government of India is on the move to establish a system of warehouse receipts in other commodity stock exchanges at various places of the country.
Besides these domestic developments, during 1998, Reserve Bank of India permitted the Indian Corporate Sector to access the exchanges subject to certain conditions with a view to enable domestic metal manufacturers to compete with global players. The de-regulation of oil-imports being on the cards, government should create the right atmosphere for oil sector to participate in the international oil-derivatives Markets.
Despite these developments, there are still many impediments that hold back the farming community from entering the futures market and reap full benefits.
A brief description of commodity exchanges are those which trade in particular commodities, neglecting the trade of securities, stock index futures and options etc.
In the middle of 19th century in the United States, businessmen began organizing market forums to make the buying and selling of commodities easier. These central marketplaces provided a place for buyers and sellers to meet, set quality and quantity standards, and establish rules of business.
Agricultural commodities were mostly traded but as long as there are buyers and sellers, any commodity can be traded. In 1872, a group of Manhattan dairy merchants got together to bring chaotic condition in New York market to a system in terms of storage, pricing, and transfer of agricultural products.
In 1933, during the Great Depression, the Commodity Exchange, Inc. was established in New York through the merger of four small exchanges – the National Metal Exchange, the Rubber Exchange of New York, the National Raw Silk Exchange, and the New York Hide Exchange.
The major commodity markets are in the United Kingdom and in the USA. In India there are 25 recognized future exchanges, of which there are three national level multicommodity exchanges. After a gap of almost three decades, Government of India has allowed forward transactions in commodities through Online Commodity Exchanges, a modification of traditional business known as Adhat and Vayda Vyapar to facilitate better risk coverage and delivery of commodities. The three exchanges are: National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX)
Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX)
National Multi-Commodity Exchange of India Limited (NMCEIL)
All the exchanges have been set up under overall control of Forward Market Commission (FMC) of Government of India.
National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX) located in Mumbai is a public limited company incorporated on April 23, 2003 under the Companies Act, 1956 and had commenced its operations on December 15, 2003.This is the only commodity exchange in the country promoted by national level institutions. It is promoted by ICICI Bank Limited, Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE). It is a professionally managed online multi commodity exchange. NCDEX is regulated by Forward Market Commission and is subjected to various laws of the land like the Companies Act, Stamp Act, Contracts Act, Forward Commission (Regulation) Act and various other legislations.
Multi Commodity Exchange
Headquartered in Mumbai Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX), is an independent and de-mutulised exchange with a permanent recognition from Government of India. Key shareholders of MCX are Financial Technologies (India) Ltd., State Bank of India, Union Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Bank of India and Canara Bank. MCX facilitates online trading, clearing and settlement operations for commodity futures markets across the country.
MCX started offering trade in November 2003 and has built strategic alliances with Bombay Bullion Association, Bombay Metal Exchange, Solvent Extractors’ Association of India, Pulses Importers Association and Shetkari Sanghatana.
National Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (NMCEIL) is the first demutualized, Electronic Multi-Commodity Exchange in India. On 25th July, 2001, it was granted approval by the Government to organise trading in the edible oil complex. It has operationalised from November 26, 2002. Central Warehousing Corporation Ltd., Gujarat State Agricultural Marketing Board and Neptune Overseas Limited are supporting it. It got its recognition in October 2002.
Commodity exchange in India plays an important role where the prices of any commodity are not fixed, in an organised way. Earlier only the buyer of produce and its seller in the market judged upon the prices. Others never had a say. Today, commodity exchanges are purely speculative in nature. Before discovering the price, they reach to the producers, end-users, and even the retail investors, at a grassroots level. It brings a price transparency and risk management in the vital market.
A big difference between a typical auction, where a single auctioneer announces the bids and the Exchange is that people are not only competing to buy but also to sell. By Exchange rules and by law, no one can bid under a higher bid, and no one can offer to sell higher than someone else’s lower offer. That keeps the market as efficient as possible, and keeps the traders on their toes to make sure no one gets the purchase or sale before they do. A brief description of commodity exchanges are those which trade in particular commodities, neglecting the trade of securities, stock index futures and options etc.
In the middle of 19th century in the United States, businessmen began organizing market forums to make the buying and selling of commodities easier. These central marketplaces provided a place for buyers and sellers to meet, set quality and quantity standards, and establish rules of business.
Agricultural commodities were mostly traded but as long as there are buyers and sellers, any commodity can be traded. In 1872, a group of Manhattan dairy merchants got together to bring chaotic condition in New York market to a system in terms of storage, pricing, and transfer of agricultural products.
b) CURRENCY DERIVATIVES
Foreign exchange derivatives market is one of the oldest derivatives markets in India. Presently, India has got a well-established dollar-rupee forward market with contrast traded for one month, two months and three months expiration. Currency derivatives markets have begun to evolve with the allowing of banks to pass on the gains upon cancellation of a forward to the customer and permitting customer to cancel and rebook forward contracts.
Introduction of cross currency options can be considered as another major step towards developing forex derivatives markets in India.
Today, Indian corporate are permitted to purchase cross currency options to hedge exposures arising out of trade. Authorized dealers who offer these products have to necessarily cover their exposure in international markets i.e., they shall not carry the risk in their own books. Cross currency options are essentially meant for buying or selling any foreign currency in terms of US dollar. They are therefore, useful only to those traders who invoice their exports and imports in currencies other than US dollar or for corporate who borrow in currencies other than US dollar. As against this, majority of Indian trade is invoiced in the US dollars. Thus, they have almost no relevance in the Indian context.
Indian banks are allowed to use the foreign currency interest rate swaps, forward rate agreements/interest rate options/swaps, and forward rate agreements/interest rate
option/swaption/caps/floors to hedge interest rate and currency mismatch in their balance sheets. Resident and the non-resident clients are also permitted to use the above products as hedges for liabilities on their balance sheets.
Here it is worth remembering that globally, foreign exchange traders are becoming as common as stock traders. But in India, forex dealers still play second fiddle to stock traders and merely meet the needs of the exporters deposits. This may be due to their risk averting behavior and perhaps lack of proper research. Such being the position of the forex market, it is too premature to expect that once, foreign currency-Indian rupee options are introduced, the market will pick up momentum.
This is all the more essential in a market where exchange rates though stated to be market determined, are often found influenced by RBI’s intervention in the exchange market. As a result, exchange rate movements hardly obey the principle of interest rate differentials. The incongruence in the domestic money rates as derived from the USD/INR forwards yield curve supports this assertion. For example, the one-year domestic term money is around 6-6.25% whereas that of the one-year implied forward rate is around 5.40%. In such a scenario, it is difficult for a currency trader to take a firm view on the exchange rate movement.
c) STOCK MARKET DERIVATIVES Today trading on the “spot market” for equity in India has always been a futures market with weekly/fortnightly settlements. These markets features the risks and
difficulties of futures market, But without the gains in price discovery and hedging services that come with separation the spot market from the futures market. India’s primary market is acquainted with two types of derivatives… Convertible bonds Warrants As these warrants are listed and traded, it could be said that options market of a limited sort already exist in our market.
Besides, a wide range of interesting derivatives markets exists in the informal sector. Contracts such as “bhav-bhav” “teji-mandi” etc. are traded in these markets. These informal markets enjoy a very limited participation and have their presence outside the conventional institutions of India’s financial system.
The first step towards introduction of derivatives trading in India in its current format was the promulgation of the securities laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 1995 that withdrew the prohibition on options in securities. The real push to derivatives market in India was however given by the SEBI. The security market watchdog, in November 1996 by setting up a committee under the chairmanship of Dr L C Gupta to develop “appropriate regulatory framework for derivatives trading in India.” In 2000, SEBI permitted NSE and BSE to commence trading in index futures contracts based on S&P CNX Nifty and BSE 30(sensex) index. This was followed by approval for trading in options based on these two indexes and options on individual securities. Futures contracts on Individual stocks were launched on November 9,2001. Trading and settlement is done in accordance with the rules of the respective exchanges. But the trading volumes were initially quite modest.
This could be due to -----
Initially, few members have been permitted by SEBI to trade on derivatives;
FII’S, MFS have been allowed to have a very limited participation;
Mandatory requirements for brokerage firms to have “SEBI approved-certificationtest-passed” brokers for undertaking derivatives trading’ and
Lack of clarity on taxation and accounting aspects under derivatives trading.
The current trading behavior in the derivatives segments reveals that single stock futures continues to account for sizeable proportion. A recent press report indicates that futures in Indian exchanges have reached global volumes. One possible reason for such skewed behavior of the traders could be that futures closely resemble the erstwhile badla system. Such distortions are not however in the interest of the market.
SEBI has permitted trading in options and futures on individual stocks, but not on all the listed stocks. It was very selective, stocks that are said to be highly volatile with a low market capitalization are not allowed for option trading. This act of SEBI is strongly resented by a section of the market. Their argument is that equity options are indispensable to investors who need to protect their investment from volatility. The higher the volatility of a stock the more necessary it is to list options on that stock. They are highly vocal in arguing that SEBI should design an effective monitoring, surveillance and risk management system at the level of the exchanges and clearing house to avert and manage the default risks that are likely to arise owing to high volatility in low market capital stocks instead of simply banning trading in options on them. SEBI needs to examine these arguments. It may have to take a stand to nip in the bud all kinds of manipulations by handling out severe punishments to all such erring companies.
Today, mutual funds are permitted to use equity derivatives products for “hedging and portfolio rebalancing”. However, such usage is not favored by fund managers as they strongly apprehend that the dividing line between hedging and speculation being thin, they may always get exposed to the questioning by the regulatory authorities.
d) CREDIT DERIVATIVES AND OTHERS
A credit derivative is a financial transaction whose pay-off depends on whether or not a credit event occurs. A credit event can be:
Bankruptcy Default Upgrade Downgrade Interest rate movement Mortgage defaults
A credit derivative, like any other derivative, derives it’s value from an case is the credit. In the event of the underlying asset failing to perform as expected, credit derivatives, ensures that someone other than the principal lender absorbs the resulting financial loss.
Credit derivatives market in India though could be said as non-existent holds huge potential. Some of the important factors/situation such as opening up of the insurance sector to foreign private players, relief to investors, tax benefits to corporate, proxy hedgers etc., could provide the momentum to the credit derivatives market in India, boosting yields and bringing down risk for both the corporates and banks. Secondly, Indian banking system is saddled with huge NPA’s, which it is of
course, eagerly trying to get rid off. The mounting pressure on profitability is making
banks more credit-averse. In such a situation, if markets can offer “credit-insurance” in the form of derivatives, everyone would jump for it.
TYPES OF OPTIONS
Inboard sense, an option is a claim without any liability. More specifically, an option is a contract that gives the holder aright, without any obligation, to buy or sell an asset at an agreed price on or before a specified period of time.
The option to buy an asset is known as a call option and the option to sell an asset is called a put option. The price at which option is exercised is called an exercise price or
a strike price. The asset on which the call or put option is created is referred to as the underlying asset. Depending on when an option can be exercised, it is classified as follows:
European Option: When an option is allowed to exercise only on the maturity date, it is called a European Option.
American Option: When an option can be exercised any time before its maturity is called an American Option.
Capped Option: When an option is allowed to exercise only during a specified period of time prior to its expiration unless the option reaches the cap value prior to expiration in which the option is automatically exercised.
The holder of an option has to pay a price for obtaining a call or put option. The price will have to be paid whether the holder exercises his option and it is called option premium.
There are several important terms used in option they are: -
Call option: - Gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation to buy a specific futures contract at a predetermined price within a limited period of time.
A call option is a contract, which gives the owner the right to buy an asset for a certain price on or before a specified date. For example, if you buy a call option on a
certain share of XYZ Company, you have the right to purchase 100 shares (assuming of course, that the option involves 100 shares).
Suppose current share price (S) of Reliance Industries is Rs. 291. You expect that price in a three months period will go up Rs. 300. But you also fear that the price may also fall below Rs. 291. To reduce the chance of risk and at the same time to have the opportunity of making profit, instead of buying the share, you can buy a 3-month call option on Reliance Industries at an agreed exercise price (E) of, say, RS.280. Ignoring the option premium, taxes, transaction costs and the time value of money, the decision to exercise your option depends upon the share price after three months. You will exercise option when the share price after three months is above Rs. 280 and you will not exercise when the share price after three month is below Rs. 240.
Thus option should be exercised when: Share price at expiration > Exercise price = St>E Do not exercise option when: Share price at expiration <= Exercise price =St<E
The value of call option at expiration is: Value of call option at expiration= Maximum [(share price –exercise price), 0] Ct = Max [(St – E), 0] The expression above indicates that the value of call option at expiration is the maximum of the share price minus the exercise price and zero. The call option holder’s opportunity to make profit is unlimited. It depends on the actual market price of the underlying share when the option is exercised. Greater the market value of the underlying asset, the larger is the value of the option. The following figure shows the value of call option.
For the call option writer, he will gain when share price is below the strike price and will lose when stock price is above the strike price. The call buyer’s gain is call seller’s loss. The figure 1.2 shows the pay-off of a call option writer.
Put option: - Gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to sell a specific futures contract at a predetermined price within a limited period of time.
Put option is a contract that gives the holder a right to sell specified shares at an agreed price on or before a given maturity. Thus, if you buy a put option on shares of XYZ Company, you have the right to sell 100 shares of this company at the specified price at any time between today and the specified date.
Suppose the current price (S) of Reliance Industries is Rs. 291 and you expect that the price will fall within a three months. Therefore, you can buy a 3-month put option on Reliance Industries at an agreed exercise price (E), say, Rs. 295. If the price actually falls to (St) Rs. 280 after three months, you will exercise your option. You will buy the share for Rs. 280 from the market and deliver it to the put-option writer to receive Rs. 295. Your gain is Rs.15 ignoring the put option premium, transaction cost and taxes. You will not exercise if the share price rises above exercise price; the put option is worthless and its value is zero.
Thus, exercise the put option when Exercise price >Share price at expiration = E > St Do not exercise put option when Exercise price <=Share price at expiration = E<St The value of put option at expiration will be Value of put option at expiration= Maximum [(Exercise price –Share price), 0] Pt = Max [(E-St), 0]
The put option buyer’s gain is the seller’s loss. The potential loss of the put option is limited to the exercise price. Since the buyer has to pay a premium to the seller for purchasing a put option, the potential profit of the buyer and the potential loss of the seller will reduce by the amount of premium.
Puts and calls represent basic options. They serve as a building for developing more complex options. The algebra corresponding to combination of buying option and equity stock is as follows: Pay -offs just before expiration date If St< E 1) Put option 2) Equity stock
If St > E 0 S1 S1
E – S1 S1 E
Thus if you buy a stock with a put option on that stock (exercisable at price E), your payoff will be E if the price of the stock is less that E, otherwise your payoff will be S1. Consider a more complex combination that consists of 1. Buying stock 2. Buying a put option on that stock and 3. Borrowing an amount equal to the exercise price. The payoff from this combination is identical to the payoff from buying a call option. The algebra of this equivalence is shown as follows: Pay –off just before expiration date If S1< E equity stock 2) Buy a put option 3) Borrow an amount equal To exercise price S1 E-S1 -E 0 S1 0 -E S1-E If S1 >E 1) Buy the
(1) + (2) + (3) = Buy a call option
If C1 is the terminal value of the call option (remember that C1 = Max (S1-E, 0), P1 the terminal value of the put option (remember that P1= Max (E-S1, 0), S1 the price of the stock, and E the amount borrowed, then we have C1= S1+P1-E This is referred to as the put –call parity.
3) Holder: - The buyer of the option. 4) Premium: -The amount paid by the buyer of the option to the seller.
5) Writer: - The option seller.
6) Strike price: -The predetermined price at which a given futures contract bought or sold. Also called the “exercise price” these levels are set at regular intervals. 7) At-the money: - An option is at-the money when the underlying futures price equals or nearly equals, the strike price. For e.g.: - A T-bond Put or Call option is at-the-money if the option strike
price is at 78 and the price of the T-Bond futures contract is at or neat 78.00
8) In-the money: - A call option is in-the money when the underlying futures price is greater than the strike price. For e.g.: - If T-Bond futures are at 80.00 and the T-Bond call option strike price is 78.00, the call is in-the money Where as the put option is in-the money when the strike price of the option is greater than the price of the underlying futures contract. For e.g.: - If the strike price of the put option is 80.00 and trading at 77.00 the put option is in- the money T-Bond futures are
9) Out-of-the money: - A call option is out-of-the money if the Strike price is greater than the underlying futures price. For e.g.: - if T-Bond futures are at 80.00 and the
T-Bond call option strike price is 82.00 the option is out-of-the money.
The put option is out-of-the money if the underlying futures price is greater than the strike price
For e.g.: - if T-Bond futures are at 77.00 and the T- Bond price is 76.00 the put option is out-of-the money.
put option strike
Futures > strike
Futures < strike
Futures = strike
Futures = strike
Futures < strike
Futures > strike
Factors Determining the Option Value:
The precise location of the option value depends on five key factors: Exercise price Expiration date Stock price Stock price variability Interest rate
Exercise Price: Other things being constant, higher the exercise price, the lower the value of call option. It should be remembered that the value of call option could never be negative; regardless of how high the exercise price is set.
Other things being constant, the longer the time to expiration date, the more valuable the call option. Consider two American calls with maturities of one year and two years. The two-year call obviously is more valuable than one-year call because it gives its holder one more year within which it can be exercised.
Stock Price: The value of a call option, other things being constant, increases with the stock price.
Stock Price Variability: A call option has value when there is possibility that the stock price exceeds the exercise price before the expiration date. Other things being equal, the higher the variability of the stock price, the greater the likelihood that stock price will exceed the exercise.
REASONS FOR USING OPTIONS
The reasons for using options on futures are reflected in the structure of an option contract.
1) An option, when purchased gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a specific amount of a specific commodity at a specific price within a specific period of time.
2) The decision to exercise the option is entirely that of the buyer.
3) The purchaser of the options can lose no more than the initial amount of money invested (premium).
4) An option buyer is never subject to margin calls. This enables the purchaser to maintain a market position, despite any adverse moves without putting up additional funds.
MOTIVES for BUYING and SELLING OPTIONS
One may be buyer or seller of call or put option for a variety of reasons. A call option buyer for e.g. is bullish that he is or she believes the price of the underlying futures contract will rise. If price do rise, the call option buyer has three course of action available.
First is to exercise the option and acquires the underlying futures contract at the strike price
Second is to offset the long call position with a sale and realize a profit.
Third is to let the option expires worthless and forfeit the unrealized profit.
The seller of the call option expects futures prices to remain relatively stable or to decline modestly. If prices remain stable, the receipt of the option premium enhances the rate of return on a covered position. If prices decline, selling the call against a long futures position enables the writer to use the premium as a cushion to provide protection to the extent of the premium received. For instance, if T-bond futures were purchased at 80.00 and call option with an 80.00 strike price were sold for 2.00, T-bond futures could decline to the 78.00 levels before there would be a net loss in the position.
However, T-bond futures rise to 82.00 the call option seller forfeits the opportunity for profit because the buyer would likely exercise the call against him and acquire a future position at 80.00(strike price).
The perspective of the put buyer and put seller are completely different. The buyer of the put option believes for the underlying futures will decline for e.g.: - if a TBond put option with a strike price of 82.00 is purchased for 2.00 while T-Bond futures also are at 82.00, the put option will be profitable for the purchaser to exercise if T-Bond futures decline below 80.00
TYPE OF RESEARCH
The type of research is selected on the basis of problems identified. Here the research type used is descriptive research. Descriptive research includes fact-findings and enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is a description of the state of affairs, as it exists in the present system. In this dissertation an attempt has been made to discover various issues related to derivatives in the Indian market and how they help the hedge the risk.
ACTUAL COLLECTION OF DATA
Data Collection from secondary Sources Secondary data were gathered from numerous sources. While preparation of this project report, the secondary data have been collected through:
Data was generated from general library research sources, textbooks, trade journals, articles from newspaper, treasury management, brochures,
interviews with different brokers of Bangalore stock Exchange and Internet web site
www.nseindia.com www.sherkhan.com www.icfai.org www.google.com www.commodityindia.com
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Derivatives in India: A chronology
14 December 1995 NSE asked SEBI for permission to trade index futures. 18 November 1996 setup L.C. Gupta Committee to draft a policy framework for index futures. 1 May 1998 a Committee submitted report. 7 July 1999 RBI gave permission for OTC forward rate agreement (FRAs) and interest rate swaps. 24 May 2000 SIMEX chose Nifty for trading futures and options on an Indian index. 25 May 2000 SEBI gave permission to NSE and BSE to do index futures trading. 9 June 2000 Trading of BSE Sensex futures commenced at BSE. 12 June 2000 Trading of Nifty Index Futures commenced at NSE. 25 September 2000 Nifty Futures trading commenced at SGX. In July 2001 Trading of Nifty index Options and Stock Options commenced at NSE. In Nov 2001 trading of stock Futures commenced at NSE.
Trading Mechanics in Indian Derivatives Market
a) Spot market
In a spot market transactions are settled “on the spot”. Once a trade is agreed upon, the settlement- i.e. the actual exchange of money for goods takes place with minimum possible delay.
There are two real-world implementations of a spot market. Rolling settlement and real time gross settlement (RTGS). With rolling settlement trades are netted through one day, and settled x working days later; this is called T+X rolling settlement. For example: with T+5 rolling settlement, traders are netted through Monday, and the net open position as of Monday evening is settled on the coming Monday. Similarly, traders are netted through Tuesday, and settled on the coming Tuesday.
With RTGS, all trades settle in a few seconds with no netting. Rolling settlement is a close approximation and RTGS is a true spot market.
b) Forward transaction
In a forward contract, two parties irrevocably agree to settle a trade at a future date, for a stated price and quantity. No money changes hands at the time the trade is agreed upon.
Suppose a buyer L and seller S agrees to do a trade in 100 grams of gold on 31 Dec 2002 at Rs. 10,000/tola. Here, Rs. 10,000/tola is the “forward price of 31 Dec 2005 Gold”. The buyer L is said to be long and the seller S is said to be short. Once the contract has been entered into, L is obligated to pay S Rs. 10, 00,000 on Dec 31, 2005, and take delivery of 100 tolas of gold. Similarly S is obligated to be ready to accept Rs.10, 00,000 on 31 Dec, and give 100 tolas of gold in exchange.
c) Exchange traded versus OTC derivatives
Derivatives, which trade on an exchange, are called “exchange-traded”. Trades on the exchange generally take place with anonymity. Traders at an exchange generally go through the clearing corporation.
A derivative contract that is privately negotiated is called OTC derivatives. OTC trades have no anonymity, and they generally do not go through a clearing corporation. Every derivative product can either trade OTC (i.e. through private negotiation) or on an exchange. In one specific case the jargon demarcates this clearly: OTC futures contracts are called “forwards” (or, exchange-traded forwards are called “futures”). In other cases, there is no such distinguishing notation. There are “exchange-traded options” as opposed to “OTC options”; but both are called options.
d) Carry forward
Badla is a mechanism to avoid the discipline of a spot market; to do trades on the spot market but not actually do settlement. The “carry forward” activities are mixed together with the spot market. A well functioning spot market has no possibility of carryforward. Derivatives trades take place distinctively from the spot market. The spot price is separately observed from the derivative price. A modern financial system consists of a
spot market, which is a genuine spot market, and a derivatives market is separate from the spot market.
e) Intermediation in Indian derivatives market
There are two kinds of brokerage firms on the index futures market: trading members (TMs) and clearing members (CMs). NSCC only deals with clearing members: NSCC bears the full of default by a clearing member. Trading members obtain the right to trade through a clearing member; the CM adopts the full credit risk of the TM. If a TM fails, NSCC holds the relevant CM responsible.
f) Margin Money
The aim of margin money is to minimize the risk of default by either counter-party. The payment of margin ensures that the risk is limited to the previous day’s price movement on each outstanding position. However, even this exposure is offset by the initial margin holdings. Margin money is like a security deposits or insurance against a possible future loss of value. There are different types of margin like: Initial margin The basic aim of initial margin is to cover the largest potential loss in one day. Both buyer and seller have to deposit margins. The initial margin is deposited before the opening of the position in the futures transaction.
Mark to Market Margin Mark to market margin is collected in cash for all futures contracts and adjusted against the available liquid net worth for option position. In the case of futures contracts mark to margin may be considered as mark to market Settlement. All daily losses must be met by depositing of further collateral known as variation margin, which is required by
the close of business, the following day. Any profits on the contract are credited to the client’s variation margin account.
Maintenance margin Some exchanges work on the system of maintenance margin, which is slightly less than initial margin. The margin is required to be replenished to the level of initial margin, only if the margin level drops below the maintenance margin limit.
NSE introduced for the first time in India, fully automated screen based trading. It uses a modern, fully computerised trading system designed to offer investors across the length and breadth of the country a safe and easy way to invest.
The NSE trading system called 'National Exchange for Automated Trading' (NEAT) is a fully automated screen based trading system, which adopts the principle of an order driven market.
The Futures and Options Trading System provides a fully automated trading environment for screen-based, floor-less trading on a nationwide basis and an online monitoring and surveillance mechanism. The system supports an order driven market and provides complete transparency of trading operations.
Orders, as and when they are received, are first time stamped and then immediately processed for potential match. If a match is not found, then the orders are stored in different 'books'. Orders are stored in price-time priority in various books in the following sequence:
Within Price, by time priority.
Trading on the derivatives segment takes place on all days of the week (except Saturdays and Sundays and holidays declared by the Exchange in advance). Trading Locations Till the advent of NSE, an investor wanting to transact in a security not traded on the nearest exchange had to route orders through a series of correspondent brokers to the appropriate exchange. This resulted in a great deal of uncertainty and high transaction costs. One of the objectives of NSE was to provide a nationwide trading facility and to enable investors’ spread all over the country to have an equal access to NSE.
NSE has made it possible for an investor to access the same market and order book, irrespective of location, at the same price and at the same cost. NSE uses sophisticated telecommunication technology through which members can trade remotely from their offices located in any part of the country. NSE trading terminals (F&O segment) are present in various cities and towns all over India. Types of traders in a derivatives market Hedgers, speculators and arbitrators are the types of traders in derivatives market. Hedgers: Hedgers are those who protect themselves from the risk associated with the price of an asset by using derivatives. A person keeps a close watch upon the prices discovered in trading and when the comfortable price is reflected according to his wants, he sells futures contracts. In this way he gets an assured fixed price of his produce.
In general, hedgers use futures for protection against adverse future price movements in the underlying cash commodity. Hedgers are often businesses, or individuals, who at one point or another deal in the underlying cash commodity.
Take an example: A Hedger pays more to the farmer or dealer of a produce if its prices go up. For protection against higher prices of the produce, he hedges the risk exposure by buying enough future contracts of the produce to cover the amount of produce he expects to buy. Since cash and futures prices do tend to move in tandem, the futures position will profit if the price of the produce rise enough to offset cash loss on the produce.
Speculators: Speculators are somewhat like a middleman. They are never interested in actual owing the commodity. They will just buy from one end and sell it to the other in anticipation of future price movements. They actually bet on the future movement in the price of an asset.
They are the second major group of futures players. These participants include independent floor traders and investors. They handle trades for their personal clients or brokerage firms.
Buying a futures contract in anticipation of price increases is known as ‘going long’. Selling a futures contract in anticipation of a price decrease is known as ‘going short’. Speculative participation in futures trading has increased with the availability of alternative methods of participation.
Speculators have certain advantages over other investments they are as follows:
If the trader’s judgment is good, he can make more money in the futures market faster because prices tend, on average, to change more quickly than real estate or stock prices.
Futures are highly leveraged investments. The trader puts up a small fraction of the value of the underlying contract as margin, yet he can ride on the full value of the contract as it moves up and down. The money he puts up is not a down payment on the underlying
contract, but a performance bond. The actual value of the contract is only exchanged on those rare occasions when delivery takes place.
According to dictionary definition, a person who has been officially chosen to make a decision between two people or groups who do not agree is known as Arbitrator. In commodity market Arbitrators are the person who takes the advantage of a discrepancy between prices in two different markets. If he finds future prices of a commodity edging out with the cash price, he will take offsetting positions in both the markets to lock in a profit. Moreover the commodity futures investor is not charged interest on the difference between margin and the full contract value
TABLE 1: THE GLOBAL DERIVATIVES INDUSTRY: CHRONOLOGY OF INSTRUMENTS
1874 1972 1973 1975 1981 1982
Commodity futures Foreign currency futures Equity options T-bond futures Currency swaps Interest rate swaps; T-note futures; Eurodollar futures; Equity index futures; Options on T-bond futures; Exchange–listed currency options
Options on equity index; Options on T-note futures; Options on currency futures; Options on equity index Futures; Interest rates caps and floors
1985 1987 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994
Eurodollar options; Swaption OTC compound options; OTC average options Futures on interest rate swaps; Quanto options Equity index swaps Differential swaps Captions; Exchange-listed FLEX options Credit default options
Table 2: DERIVATIVES TRADING VOLUME AT “NSE” FROM OCT-05 TO MARCH-06
Particulars Stock futures Index Futures Stock Options Index Options
Graph1 Showing the Derivatives trading volume at NSE from Oct 2005 to Mar 2006
Derivatives trading Volume
500000 450000 400000 350000 Volume (Rs Cr) 300000 250000
214398 216526 183293 170100 166127 135478 156359 192035 288715 265042
200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Oct-05 Nov-05
42987 31073 12777 17244
47097 32331 15268 22466
stock Futures Stock Options
Index Futures Index Options
Table Showing trading Contracts from Oct 2005 to Mar 2006
Particulars Oct-05 Nov-05 Dec-05 Jan-06 Feb-06 Mar-06
stock Futures 6526919 Index Futures 6844732 Stock Options 389254 Index Options 1410519 1200557 1540180 1330466 1066396 1456351 364188 456529 456055 401973 537261 5238175 6613032 5760999 5186835 5952206 6252736 7571377 7134199 7443178 10844400
Graph2 Showing the Derivatives trading Contracts at NSE from Oct 2005 to Mar 2006
Derivatives Contracts 11000000
7571377 7443178 7134199 6613032 6526919 6252736 5952206
7000000 No of Contracts
1540180 1330466 1066396 456529 456055 401973
Oct-05 Nov-05 Dec-05 Jan-06 Feb-06 Mar-06
Index Futures Index Options
Stock Options stock Futures
Graph3 Showing the Derivatives trading volume at NSE of Oct 2005
Derivatives Trading Volume at NSE of Oct 05
Volume (Rs Cr)
0 Stock Futures Index Futures Stock Options Index Options
Graph4 Showing the Derivatives trading volume at NSE of Nov 2005
Derivatives trading volume At NSE of Nov 05
Graph5 Showing the Derivatives trading volume at NSE of Dec 2005
Derivatives Trading Volume at NSE of Dec 05
V lu e(R C o m s r)
100000 42987 17244 0 Stock Futures Index Futures Stock Options Index Options
Graph6 Showing the Derivatives trading volume at NSE of Jan 2006
Derivatives Trading Volume at NSE of Jan 06
Options, Options, 17893 38521
Index Futures, 166127
Stock Futures, 265042
Graph7 Showing the Derivatives trading volume at NSE of Feb 2006
Derivatives Trading Volume At NSE of Feb 06 350000 300000 Volume (Rs Cr) 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Stock Futures Index Futures Stock Options Index Options Derivatives 15268 32331 156359 288715
Graph8 Showing the Derivatives trading volume at NSE of Mar 2006
Derivatives Trading Volume At NSE of Mar 06
500000 450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Stock Futures Index Futures
22466 192035 473251
Voiume (Rs Cr)
Growth of Derivative Market in India Table showing the turn over of various derivatives in Indian market
43952 286533 5669 69643
1305939 1484056 31794 167967 69371 132054
Growth of derivatives market
1750000 1500000 1250000 1000000 750000 500000 250000 0
772147 554446 51516 21482 18780 2466 286533 69643 43952 5669 167967 31794 132054 69371
Year Index Futures Index Options Stock Futures stock Options
ROLE OF DERIVATIVES IN INDIAN ECONOMY
Benefits that acquire to the Indian capital markets and the Indian economy from derivatives are discussed here.
Derivatives will make possible hedging which otherwise is infeasible this is illustrated by the dollar-rupee forward market. Imports and exports used to take place in the country under the presumption that importer and exporters have to bear currency risk. To the extent that importers and exporters are risk averse, the existence of this risk would lead them to do international trade in smaller quantities than they have liked to. Once the dollar-rupee forward market came about, importers and exporters could hedge themselves against currency risk. Today the use of such hedging is extremely common amongst companies that are exposed to currency risk. This hedging facility has definitely helped importers and exporters do international trade in larger quantities than before. The RBI’s permission for the dollar-rupee forward market is therefore part of the explanation for the enormous growth in imports and exports that has taken place in the last five years.
Similarly, on the equity market, many retail investors who are uncomfortable about the equity market would enter if they were given the alternative of buying insurance, which controls their downside risk. This would enhance the action of the savings of the country, which are routed through the equity market. The same would be the case with international investors, who would place limit orders. These improvements in the quality of the underlying market have been observed across a variety of research studies done on foreign markets, which have compared market quality before introduction of derivatives as compared with after.
a) Development of India’s financial industry
Today, derivatives are a major part of the global financial system. If India is able to swiftly develop competence in the derivatives area, then there is an enormous opportunity for India as a center of international finance. One of the largest futures market on Japan’s Nikkei 225 index, today, is in Singapore. In that same sense, it is quite possible for Indian markets to be trading derivatives on underlying price, which are not from India. This would bring revenues into India’s financial industry and help enhance India’s integration into the world economy.
Conversely, if India does not develop such markets locally, the derivatives market in the Indian instruments might develop outside India that will undermine the regulatory framework under which other Indian markets work. In addition, Indian investors who cannot access such off-shore markets will be denied the benefits of advance risk hedging mechanism putting them at disadvantage be able to enhance the
fraction of their portfolio that they allocate to India once hedging instruments become available.
Derivatives will enable a clear separation between speculators who wish to bear risks versus hedgers who wish to buy insurance services. Today speculators act on the cash market, which generates its own difficulties. With derivatives market it will be possible for risk to be transferred to the people who are most apt to bear it, and to do all these activities away from the basic cash market.
Derivatives will lead to an improvement in the quality of the cash market. The liquidity and market efficiency of the underlying cash market will improve once derivatives come about the causality underlying this transformation of the quality of the underlying market is as follows: -
Derivatives markets will move some of the noise traders in the present speculation securities away from the cash market. Due to this shift, it is expected that the volatility of the cash market instrument will reduce. It is generally believed that derivatives will improve the quality of information production and analysis, by giving
higher profit rates to people who successfully understand valuation. Similarly, it is expected that derivatives will lead to multi-crore arbitrage markets with arbitrageurs who constantly close small mis-pricings between the derivatives and the cash market. Due to the very nature of arbitrage business to attain risk free position, such arbitrage will be liquidity demanding. This irreversibility arises because once a market is well established; it is difficult to get it to move. For example, Japanese regulators know more about financial economies today, but the Nikkei 225 market is still in Singapore.
That could easily happen to India’s derivatives market also. Market prices for India’s market are available worldwide through information vendor feeds such as Reuters, knight-ridder etc. and there is nothing preventing an exchange in other country from having options and futures on any Indian underlying. If the derivatives markets on Indian underlying move offshore, it would be unfair to Indian citizens who would be unable to access these markets under the present regime of barriers to international flows of funds.
The challenges in today’s context for starting the derivatives market is to foster the development of strong, healthy and vibrant derivatives industry, which compliments the securities, market existing in the country. The pressure for an early development of India’s derivatives is two fold:
To the extent that India’s economy lives for one more year without derivatives, it hinders the economic progress of the country. For example,
if the dollar-rupee forward market had come about sooner, then India’s imports and exports might have seen higher growth much before.
If Indian markets do not develop derivatives quickly, the markets for derivatives of Indian instrument will move offshore. In derivatives, competition amongst markets from all over the world to obtain trading volume from innovations in contract design is fierce.
BENEFITS AND RISK ASSOCIATED WITH DERIVATIVES
Economic function of derivatives
Derivatives play the following important roles in every economy where they are traded.
Price discovery and planning
Prices of an organized derivatives market reflect the combined views and perception of buyers and sellers, not only of the current demand and supply, but also of their expiration. At the time of expiration the prices of derivatives converge with the price of the underlying assets. This process of price discovery is applicable to both futures and options. Information generated by futures trading through price discovery process helps in planning of all users at every stage. To the extent that these markets improve planning and efficiency as well as reduce operating costs, benefits will accrue to consumers in the economy.
The derivative market allows and facilitates risks to be transferred from those who have them but may not want them. The risk in case of derivatives is primarily price risk. This risk represent a cost, which must be borne by someone if the dealer, lender, borrower, merchant or middlemen has to assume risk, then they will pay the opposite party less or charge them more or a combination of the two. If the risk is assumed directly by the dealer or merchant they are compensated for bearing the risk.
Numerous general economic benefits flow from the risk shifting of hedging function. These include reduced finance charges in carrying inventory of all kinds including portfolio of investments. The larger banks that finance producers, distributors and processors give their best terms for the value of the inventory that is fully protected by an adequate hedge.
Enhance liquidity in the underlying markets
Derivatives due to their inherent nature are linked to the underlying cash markets. It has been observed the world over that introduction of derivatives increases the trading volume in the underlying. Markets players reluctant to participate due to the absence of risk shifting mechanism can now participate in the cash market. Interplay between the underlying derivatives market generates additional activity in the underlying market increasing liquidity in the underlying.
Shifts the speculative trading to a more controlled environment
In the absence of an organized derivatives market, speculators operate in the underlying cash markets. This acts as an establishing factor for the underlying marker since the underlying market act also as proxy futures and options market. Margining, monitoring and surveillance of the activities of the various participants is difficult in these kind of mixed markets. Derivatives market provides a mechanism for the speculators to be identified separately and surveillance of these participants and their positions can be done in a better manner. This reduce imbalance in the underlying markets. Thus the derivatives markets will help in controlling the activities of speculators and reduce the risks now prevalent in the underlying securities market in India.
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS
Some of the few suggestions are as follows: -
Regulations should be transparent and subject the same disclosure standards as those applying to other participants in the financial markets. Tough after the commencement of the commodity market in India it has become transparent to some extent, more transparency is required. Increase the limits on trading of derivatives by foreign institutional investors. Increase the number of stocks on which options and futures are traded. Contact size at NSE is 100 decided by SEBI SEBI should promote the use of the derivatives and educate the investors on how derivatives can reduce risk if used widely. Availability of futures on all agricultural commodities would boost private sector participation in sourcing agricultural produce from villages and transport them across the country as also store them to transport across the time or period. This in turn helps mitigate the crisis emanating from the vagaries of monsoon. Indian currency derivatives market is basically an Over The Counter (OTC) market. It suffers from poor participation from corporate, and fewer market makers. It therefore, calls for increased product familiarization, market participation and development of supporting regulation, legal and tax framework. There is a need to establish research wings in all major banks for predicting intraday and short-term movements in the exchange rate so that traders can initiate deals with confidence.
The basic function of a financial system is to "facilitate the allocation and development of economic resources, both intertemporarily and across time, in an uncertain environment". Risk is therefore an inherent feature of every financial decision. In that context, derivative products offer a means to transfer the risk inherent to financial decisions. Derivatives trading also add to the market completeness. Trading in derivatives also facilitates price discovery of the underlying cash securities via information dissemination. Besides these economic benefits, derivatives, like any other financial instruments, contain certain risks such as market risk, credit risk etc. Therefore, the consensus is that if used properly, derivatives can be a valuable risk management tool but strict monitoring is needed to prevent (as far as possible) their perceived `misuse' for speculative purposes. While the very core of derivative products is to manage risk, it is important to appreciate that all derivatives are highly geared, or leveraged, transactions. Traders/investors are able to assume large positions - with similar sized risks - with very little up-front outlay and the risk to the investor is high. A thorough grasp of product technicalities is only one aspect of the knowledge and skills that traders require. Every trader has a view of the market and their end objective is, of course, profit from that view. And the most effective route to achieving this is to form a view that proves to be correct; having positioned one's self to obtain the maximum profit from it. If a trader has a bullish he could go long in the futures market or choose to purchase a call option. Since derivatives also suffer from risk, as do the underlying securities, derivatives need to be handled cautiously on account of sheer size. These characteristics make derivatives double-edged swords. This drives home the importance of adequate regulation that care of the concerns associated with derivatives trading. Increase in companies listed on stock exchanged emergence of securities and exchange board of India (SEBI) as truly national level securities regulator, free pricing of public issues, screen based trading system, more than six times increases in turnover
the stock exchanges, emergence of self regulatory organization in the fields of merchant banking, mutual funds, emergence of investor associations, implementation of trade guarantees besides others.
SEBI’S consistent efforts at improving the market infrastructure, providing level playing field and ensuring transparent, fair and efficient trading at stock exchanges have started to yield beneficial results. Depository legislation has also been approved by the parliament and depository operations have commenced. In the four years. SEBI has consistently tried to bring in international practices approval granted for setting up derivatives market is a big step to bring Indian capital markets. Increased sophistication of capital market participants and the need of market participants for risk hedging instruments are strong factors in favor of derivatives market in India.
To summarize the role of regulation is the cushion and help other market monitoring mechanism such as competition or reputation to maintain a fair and orderly financial markets in which innovation is encouraged. Its objective is thus to support and encourage all the necessary structural changes in the products or institutions architecture that allows market participants to increase the benefits extract from the economic functions of derivatives at controlled risk levels. Thus, one could view the role of regulation as that of a player of last resort that guarantees that the economic benefits associated to the derivative trading activity remains on the efficient “risk/return” frontier.
SEBI CBOT CBOE NSCC TM CM NEAT F& O FUTINX FUTSTK OPTIDX OPTSTK FUTINT NSE
: Over the counter
: Securities Exchange Board of India : Chicago Board of Trade : Chicago Board Option Exchange : National securities clearing Corporation : Trading members : Clearing members : National Exchange for Automated Trading : Futures & Option : Futures Index : Futures Stock : Option Index : Option Stock : Future Interest : National Stock Exchange
BSE NYSE COFEI NCDEX MCX NMCEIL FMC
: Bombay stock Exchange : New York Stock Exchange : Coffee Futures Exchange of India : National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange of India : Multi Commodity Exchange Of India Limited : National Multi Commodity Exchange Of India Limited : Forward market Commission
NABARD : National Bank For Agriculture & Rural Development NPA FRA RTGS : Non-Performing Assets : Forward rate agreements : Real time Gross Settlements
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