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WATER

ZEOLITE PROCESS

THEORY

ZEOLITE or PERMUTIT PROCESS


Zeolite means boiling stone. It is also used as softening
of water. For water treatment we can use sodium zeolite ie.
Na2Ze.
Na2O. Al2O3. xSiO2. yH2O -- Hydrated sodium alumino silicate.
I
I
I
Ze
Types of zeolite (Two types)

i) Natural zeolite
Synthetic zeolite

ii)

They are non porous.


They are porous in nature
It is more durable.
It is less durable.
But have lower exchange capacity. But have higher
exchange capacity.
Green sand

+
------- Natural Ze
Synthetic Ze

Na2SiO3
+ NaALO2

----------

NaOH + Al2 (SO4)3

Reactions
CaCl2 + Na2Ze ----- CaZe + 2NaCl
CaSO4 + Na2Ze ---- CaZe + Na2SO4
Ca(HCO3)2 + Na2Ze ---- CaZe + 2 NaHCO3

WATER

ZEOLITE PROCESS

THEORY

Regeneration
When zeolite bed is saturated with Ca & Mg ions, then they
can be regenerated & reused. For regeneration we used chemical
like Brine (conc. NaCl), Sodium nitrate (NaNO3), Sodium
sulphate (Na2SO4).
NaCl is widely used because it has low mole wt. & obtained
product are highly soluble. They can be readily soluble. Also they
can be readily rinsed out from zeolite bed.
high pressure
Exhausted Ze + Brine ----------------- Regenerated Ze +
Washing
CaZe + 2NaCl ---- Na2Ze + CaCl2
MgZe + 2NaCl---- Na2Ze + MgCl2

WATER

ZEOLITE PROCESS

THEORY

Advantages: i) Very low hardness of less than 15 ppm.


ii) Equipment is compact & occupying at less space.
iii) Different hardness is automatically adjusted.
iv) It is worked under pressure.
v) Ions simply exchange with Na ion.
vi) No impurities precipitated.
vii) It is very clean.
viii) It requires less time for softening.
ix) Less skill and maintenance.

Disadvantages: i) As compared to the lime soda process the dissolved solid is


more in zeolite process since calcium & magnesium salts
are replaced by sodium salts.
ii) The presence of bicarbonate & carbonate generate NaHCO 3
& Na2CO3 in softened water. This alkalinity in water is not
desirable since in boiler it leads to caustic embrittlement
due to formation caustic soda.