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# Gravimetric analysis & Precipitate equilibria ( Formulae

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(A) Relative supersaturation / von Weimarn ratio
(i) Formulae

Q : concentration of the mixed reagent before precipitation occurs
S : solubility of the precipitate at equilibrium
Q − S : degree of supersaturation

(ii) Conditions
 High relative supersaturation
 Many small crystals
( high surface area )
 Low relative supersaturation
 Fewer , larger crystals
( small surface area )

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Gravimetric analysis & Precipitate equilibria ( Formulae ) (B) Gravimetric calculations (i) Gravimetric factor ( GF ) (ii) Percentage of substance sought % substance sought = weight of substance sought ( g) weight of sample ( g) (iv) Percentage composition of the substance sought All prepared by alextan58@gmail.com (iii) Weight of substance sought × 100 % Weight of substance sought (g) = weight of precipitate (g) × GF ( g sought / g precipitate ) .

[x+] = [y-] = s  + - Ksp = [x ] [y ] = s2 All prepared by alextan58@gmail.com .Gravimetric analysis & Precipitate equilibria ( Formulae ) (C) Solubility products (i) Equilibrium constant (ii) Calculation of the solubility of the ions from Ksp  Write the dissociation / equilibrium equation  Write the equilibrium constant xy (aq) ⇌ x+ (aq) + y.(aq) Ksp = [x+] [y-]   Let s be the molar solubility of xy Thus .

Gravimetric analysis & Precipitate equilibria ( Formulae ) (D) Ksp & activity coefficient ( Diverse ion effect / Salt effect ) [ Eg : ] (i) Thermodynamic solubility product (ii) Concentration solubility product . . C Ksp = [Ag+][Cl-] All prepared by alextan58@gmail. cKsp i. Ksp = CKsp ( fAg+ f Cl.com (iii) Derivation 1.) 3. ii. Ksp = [Ag+] fAg+ [Cl-] f Cl= [Ag+][Cl-] fAg+ f Cl2.