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nUREA U OF INDIAN STANDARDS
NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA
PART 4 FIRE AND LIDE SAFETY
This Part covers the requirements for fire prevention, life safety in relation to fire and fire protection of buildings. The Code specifies construction. occupancy and protection feutures Ihal ore necessary 10 minimize danger to life and property from fire.
2.0 For the purpose of this Part. the following definitions shall apply.
2.1 Automatic Fire Detection and Alarm System - Fire alarm system comprising components for automatically detecting u fire. initiating an alarm of fire and initiating other actions as uppropriate.
NOTE - The system !nil)' DIsCI include manual fire ulurm call polms.
2.2 Automatic SprInkler System - A system of water pipes titled with sprinkler heads at suitable intervals and "eights and designed to actuate automatically. control and extinguish a fire by the discharge of water.
2.J Building - Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every port thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation. plinth. Wails. floors. roofs. chimneys. plumbing and building services. fixed platforms, VERANDAH. balcony. cornice or projection. pan of a building or anything affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land Or space and signs and outdoor display structures. Tents, SHAM1ANAHS. tarpaulin shelters. etc. erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permlssicn of the Authority shall not be considered us building.
2.4 lIullding, Height of - The vertical distunce measured in the case of flat roofs. from the average level of the ground around and contiguous to the building or as decided by the Authority to the terrace of the last livable floor of the building adjacent to the external wall: and in the case of pitched roofs. up to the point where the external surface of the outer wall intersects the finished surface of the sloping roof: and in the case of gables facing the ruad, the mid- point between the eaves level and the ridge. Architectural features serving no other function except that of dccorauon, shall be excluded for the purpose of measuring heights.
2.5 Combustible Material - The material which either bums itself or adds heat to a fire. when tested for non-combusribitiry in accordance with accepted standard r 4( I ) I.
2.6 Covered Arc~ - Ground area covered by the
PART 4 FtU~ ANI) LIFE SAFETY
building immediately above the plinth level. Theurea covered by the following in th'e open spaces is excluded from covered area (see Table 19):
a) garden. rockery, well and well structures. plant nursery. waterpool, swimming pool (if uncovered). platform round a tree. tank, fountain, bench. CH1BUTARA with open top, and unenclosed on sides by walls and the like;
b) drainage culvert, conduit. catch-pit. gully pit, chamber. gutter and the like;
c) compound wall. gate. unstoreyed porch and portico, slide, swing, uncovered staircases, ramp areas covered by CHHAJJA and the like; and
d) watchman's booth. pumphouse, garbage shaft, electric cabin or sub-stations, and such other utility structures meant for the services of the building under consideration.
NOTE - For the purpose of Ihie Pan. covered area equals rhe plot 1I0;!1l minus the area due ror open apacee in Ihe plot.
2.7 Down-comer - An arrangement of fire fighting within the building by mea~. of down- comer pipe connected to terrace tank thr ugh terrace pump. gate valve and non-return valve an having mains not less than 100 rum internal diameter with landing valves on each f1oorllanding. It is also fitted with inlet connections at ground level for charging with water by pumping rrom_fire- ~erVice applianceS and air releas~, valve al roof level ro release.trapped air inside.
2.H ~ - An arrangement of fire fighting within Ihe building by means of vertical rising mains not less (han 100 mm internal diameter with landing valves on each floor/landing which is normally dry but is capable of being charged with water usually by pumping from fire service appliances.
2.9 Emergency Llghling- Lighting provided for use when the supply to the normal lighting fails.
2.10 Emergency Llghllnll System - A complete bUI discrete emergency lighting installation from the standby power source to the emergency lighting lalllp(s). fur example. self-contained emergency luminuire or a circuit from central banery generator connected through wiring to several escape luminaries.
2.11 Escape Lighting - That pan of emergency lighting which is provided to ensure that the escape route is illuminated at all material times. for example. at all times when persons are on the premises. or at times the main lighting is not available. either for th~, whole building or for the escape routes.
1.11 Fire Door - A fire-resistive door approved for openings in fire separation.
2.13 Fire Exit - A way out leadlug 10 an escape route having panic bar hardware provided on the door.
2.14 Fire Lift - The lift installed 10 enable fire services personnel 10 reach different floors with minimum delay, having such features as required in accordance with Ihis Pari.
2.15 Fire Load - Calorific energy. of the whole contents contained In a space. including the facings of the walls, partitions, floors and ceilings.
2.16 Fire Load Density - Fire load divided by fioor area.
2.17 Fire Resistance Rating - The lime uuu a material or construction will withstand the standard fire exposure as determined by fire test done in accordance with Ihe standard methods of lire rests of materials/structures.
2.18 Fire Resistance - Fire resistance is a property of an element of building coustruction and is Ihe measure of its ability 10 satisfy for a stated period some or all of the following criteria:
a) resistance to collapse,
b) resistance to penetration of flame and hot gases, and
c) resistance to temperature rise on the unexposed face up to a maximum of 180'C and/or average temperature of 150·C.
2.19 Fire Separation - The distance in metres measured from Ihe external wall of the building concerned 10 the external wall of any other building on the site, or from other site, or from the opposite side of street or other public space for Ihe purpose of
preventing the spread of fire. .
2.20 Fire Separating Wall - The wall provides complete separation of one building from another or part of a building from another or part of a building from another part of the same building 10 prevent any communication of fire or heat transmission to wall itself which may cause or assist in the combustion of materials on the side opposite to that portion which may be on fire.
1.11 Fire Stop - A fire resistant material. or construction, having a fire resistance rating of not lesss than the fire separating elements, installed in concealed spaces or between structural elements of a building 10 prevent the spread/propagation of lire and smoke through walls, ceilings and like as per the laid down criteria,
2.22 Fire Tower - An enclosed staircase which can only be approached from the various floors through landings or lobbies separated from both the fioor areas
and the staircase by fire-resisting doors. and open to the outer IlIT.
2.23 Fire Resisting Wall - A lire resistance rated wall, having protected openings. which restricts the spread of [ire and extends continuously from the foundation 10 at least I m above the roof.
2.24 Floor Area Ratio (FAR) - The quotient obtained by dividing the 10101 covered area (pliuth area) on ull floors by Ihe area of the plot:
FAR ~ Totul covered area of uil floors Plul area
2.25 UI&!!.!lliLDullt!!!JJ:.=- For the purpose of this Part, all bUildin&SJI.m or .. bove in height shall be considered as high rise buildings.
2.26 Horizontal Exit - An arrangement which allows alternative egress from n floor urea to another Iloor at or near Ihe san te level in an adjoining building or an adjoining part of the same building with adequate nrc separation.
2.27 Means of Egress - A continuous and unobstructed wuy of travel from any point in a buijding or structure 10 a place of comparutive safety.
2.28 Occupancy or Use Group - The pri.al occupancy for which u building or a part of a b_\
is used or intended 10 be used; for the purpose of classification of a building according 10 the occupancy, an occupancy shall be deemed 10 include subsidiary occupancies which are contingent upon it.
2.29 Plinth Area -11le built-up covered area measured 01 the fioor level of ule basement or of any storey,
2.30 Pressurization - The esrablisluneut of a pressure difference across a burrier to protect a stairway, lobby, escape route or room of a building from smoke penetration.
2.31 Pressurlzatlon Level- The pressure difference between the pressurized space and the area served by the pressurized escape route, expressed in pascals (Pa).
2.32 Roof Exits - A means of escape on 10 the roof of a building, where the roof has access 10 il from the ground. The exit shall have adequate CUI-off within the building from staircase below.
2.33 Site Plot - A parcel (piece) of land enclosed by definite boundaries.
2.34 Slack Pressure - Pressure difference caused by a temperature dlffcrcnce creating an air movement within a duct, chimney or enclosure.
2.35 Travel Distance -11le distance to be Ira veiled trom any point in n building 10 u protected escape route, external escupe route or Iinnl exit.
NATIONAl. DUILilING com; OF INDIA
2.36 Venttlntlon - Supply of outside air into, or the removal of inside air from an enclosed space.
2.37 Venllng Fire - The process of inducmg heal and smoke 10 leave a building as quickly as possible by such paths Ihal leteral spread of tire and heal is checked, firc fighting operations are facilitnred and minimum lire damage is caused.
2.38 Volume to Plot Area Ratio (VPR) - The ratio of volume of building measured in cubic metres 10 the urea of the plot measured in square mel res and expressed in metres.
2.39 Wet Riser - An arrangemenl for fire fighting within the building by means of vertical rising mains nOI less than 100 mm nominal diameter wilh landing valves on each floor/landing for fire fighting purposes and permanently charged with water from a pressurized supply.
NOTE - For tll!Onilions of ether terms. reference shull be made 10 800d practice (4(2>1.
3 FIRE PREVENTION
3.1 Classincalion of Building Based on Occupancy 3.1.1 General Classification
All buildings, whether existing or hereafter erected shall be classified according (0 the lise or the character of occupuncy in one of the following groups:
Group A Resideruial
Group B Educational
Group C Insrinnional
Group 0 Assembly
Group E Group F Group G Group II GroopJ
Business Mercantile Industrial Storage Hazardous
126.96.36.199 Minor occupancy lncldenrat 10 operations in another type of occupancy shall be considered as part of the main occupancy and shall be classified under the relevant group For Ihe main occupancy.
Examples of buildings in each group are given in 3.1.2 103.1.10.
3.1.2 Group A Residential Buildings
These shall include uny building in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residcmiul purposes with or without cooking or dining or both fucilities, except any building classified under Group C.
Buildings and structures under Group A shall be funher sub-divided as follows:
Sub-division A-I Lodging or rooming houses
'I'AIIT 4 Fltm "NO 1.11''' SAFI,I'Y
Sub-division A-2 One or two-family private dwellings
Sub-dlvlsion A-3 Dormuories
Sub-division A·4 Apartment houses (flats) ,,/"
Sub-divislon A-S Hotels Sub-division A-6 Hotels (Starred)
a) Sub-division A·I 'l.ddgillg or rooming houses - These shall idclude any building or group of buildings under Ihe same management, in which separate s coping accommodation for a total of nOI mole than 40 persons (beds), on Iransienl or perrdaneru basis, with or without dining facilities Dut without cooking facilities for individuals is provided. This includes inns, clubs, mote Is and guest houses.
A lodging or rooming house shall be classified us a dwelling in sub-division A-2 if no room in any of its private dwelling units is rented 10 more than three persons.
b) Sub-division A·2 One or two-family private dwellings - These shall include any private dwelling which is occupied by members of one or two families and has a total sleeping accommodation for nOI more than 20 persons. If rooms in ~ private dwelling are rented-to outsiders, these shall be for accommodating not more than three persons per room.
If sleeping accommodation for more Ihan 20 persons is provided in a.ny One residential building, it shall be classified as a building in sub-dlvision A-I. A-3 or A-4 as the case may be.
c) Sub-division A-3 Dormitories - These shall include any building in which group steepiug accommodation is provided, with or without dining facilities for persons who are not members of the same family, in one room or a series of closely associated rooms under joint occupancy and single management, for example, school and college dormitories, students, and other hostels and military barracks.
d) Sub-division A-4 Apartmetu houses (flats)These shall include any building or structure in which living quarters are provided for three or more families, living independenlly ofeach other and with independent cooking facilitjss, for example, apartment houses, mansions and chuwls.
0) Sub-tlivistou A·5 Hotels - These shall include any building or group of buildings under single management, in which sleeping accommodauon is provided, wlth or without dining fucitities for hoie Is classified up 10 4 Star Category.
f) Sub-division A·6 Hotels [starred} - These shall include the hotels duly approved by the concerned authorities as Five Star und above Hotels.
3.1.3 Group B,Educa(ional Buildings _
These shall Include any building used for school. college, other training institutions for day-care purposes involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation for not less than 20 students.
Buildings and structures under Group 8 shall he further sub-divided as follows:
Sub-divlsion S-I Schools up to senior secoudnry level
Sub-division 8-2 All others/training institutions
a) Sub-division 8-1 Schools tip 10 senior secondary level - This sub-division shall include any building or a group of buildings under single management which is used for students not less than 20 in number.
b) Sub-division B-2 All others/traintng j"slfIUliolls- 111is sub-division shall include any building or • group of buildings under single management which is used for students not less than 100 in number.
In the case of temporary buildings/structures which are utilized for educational purposes, the provisions of 188.8.131.52 shall apply.
If residential accommodation is provided in the schools/institutions, that portion of occupancy shall be classified as a building in sub-division A~3.
3.1.4 Group C Institutional Buildings
These shall include any building or part thereof, which is used for purposes, such as medicnl or other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, disease or infirmity; care or infants. convalescents or aged persons and for penal or correctional detention in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted. Insthutionul buildings ordinarily provide sleeping accommodation for the occupants.
Buildings and stroctures under Group C shall be further sub-divided as follows:
Sub-division Col Hospitals and sanatoria Sub-division C-2 Custodial institutions Sub-division C-3 Penni and mentol institutions
a) Sub-division C·I Hospitals and sonatoria :-: 11u, sub-division shall include any building or a group of buildings under single management. which is used for housing persons suffering from physical limitations because of heahh or age, for example. hospitals, lnflrmuries, sanatoria and nursing homes.
b) Sllb·tlivi.~hJII C·2 Custodia! ;IISI;IIIIioIiS - This sub-division shall include any building or a group of buildings under single management, which is used for the custody and cure of persons, such as children, convalescents and the aged, for example, homes for Ihe aged and infirm. convalescent homes and orphanages ..
c) Sub-division C·) Penal am/ menta! illstl,",r;;;,s - This sub-division shall include any building or u group of buildings under single munagcment, which is used for housing persons under restraint. or who are detained for penni or corrective purposes, in which the liberty of rhe-Inmutes is restricted, for example, jails, prisons, mental hospitals. mental sanatoria and reformutories.
3_1.5 GrollI' D Asselllbly Bllildillgs
These shall include any building or part of a building, where number or persons not less than 50 congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes, for example, theatres, motion picture houses, assembly halls. auditoria, exhibition halls, museums, skating rinks, gymnasiums, restaurants, places of worship, dance halls, club rooms. passenger stations uud terminnls of air, surface and marine public unusponauon services, recreat ion piers and stadia, etc.
Buildings under Group 0 shall be further sub-divided
us follows: ~
Sub-division D·I Iluildings having a theatrical or motion picture or any other singe and fixed seats for over I 000 persons
Sub-division D~2 Buildings having a theatrical or motion picture or any other stage and fixed seats upto I 000 persons .
Sub-division 0-3 Buildings without a pennanent stage having ncconunodation for 300 or more per~ons but no permanent seating arrangement. Sub-division D-4 Buildings without. permanent stage having accommodation for Jess than 300 persons with no pennnnent seating arrangement. Sub-division 0-5 All other structures including temporary structures designed for assembly of people not covered by sub-divisions D-I to D·4, ut ground level.
SUb-division D·6 Buildings having mixed occupancies providing facilities such as shopping, cinema theatres, alld restaurams.
Sub-division 0-7 All other structures, elevated or underground, for assembly of people not covered by sub-divisions 0-1 to D-6.
u) SlIb·t/il'isitJIt V-/ - This sub-division shull
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