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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Ala'a Eddin Abdullah Bani kalef on Jul 24, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The term Communicative competence coined by Dell Hymes (1972) who defined the
CC ''as aspect of our competence that enable us to convey and interpret messages and
to negotiate meaning interpersonally within specific context''. (Brown 2007, p219).
Likewise, Savignon (1983) stated, ''communicative competence is relative, not absolute,
and depends on the cooperation of all the participants involved''.


Some researchers also differentiate between linguistic and communicative
competence. LC refers to knowledge about language forms; While CC refers to
knowledge that enables a person to communicate functionally and interactively. Canal
and Swain (Brown 2007, p219) distinguish between four categories of CC as the

1.Grammatical competence: Knowledge of syntax, lexical, semantic, and
2.Discourse competence: ability to connect sentences to form meaningful
3.Sociolinguistic competence: Knowledge of sociocultural rules of language and

4.Strategic competence: The verbal and non-verbal communication strategies.

The fundamental principles (cited in Shim 2001) that have been highlighted in teaching
CLC according to several researchers as the following:
1.Use authentic materials
2.Achieve meaningful communication using the target language.
3.Pay attention to socio-pragmatic functions of the target language
4.Create a secure and non-threatening learner-centered environment.

Anyhow, Balatova (1994, cited in Wood, 1996 quoted in Li Ling, 2009) points out
that visual materials promote language learning process, and students who have access
to audio-visual aids were more successful improving interests and concentration while
listening. The visual aspects of movies may emphasize the comprehension since
watcher can notice the paralinguistic perspective that performed by the actors of the

Furthermore, Movies help learners to visualize words as well as meanings. Films
provide visual catalyst and this can lead to generate prediction, speculation, and an
opportunity to revive students' schemata through watching visual scene. Movies also
may enhance communicative competence through using discussion inside classroom.
Teacher may raise question about the movie, the teacher can involve students in
discussion in which students need to construct link between the story and themselves, or


they may be asked about their opinions in some issues after they watched the movie.
The teacher well as can first engage in a general conversation concerning any of the
themes that the film will be exploring. After that, the teacher moves on to concentrate on
more specific issues concerning the theme of the film, explained by selected key scenes
to provoke stimulating discussion.

Finally, watching movies may enable students to better understand English
intonation, like intonation units, stress, patterns, tones, and pitch range. Therefore,
Movies allow students to see the body rhythm and speech rhythm in second language
through the use of authentic natural language and speed of speech in various situations.
Films present endless opportunities for pedagogically sound activities for developing
fluency. The key to using films effectively mainly lies in the teacher's ability in preparing
students to receive the film's message.

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