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Q1) Design various core making processes? Q2) Compare Molasses sand with silicate/CO2 sand process?
Assignment # 3
Q3) Discuss various sand molding processes? Q4) Explain Compactibility, mould hardness, green compression strength and AFS no. of green molding sand.
Core Making Processes:
excessive amounts of moisture evaporate during the curing process. and more CO or 2 gassing time is required to fully cure the core. required precision. and the type of metal being used. CO dissolves in the water 2 2 of sodium silicate and forms carbonic acid. which . The core should be between 25ºC to 30ºC (75ºF to 85ºF). Above 30ºC. sodium silicate (4 -6%) is mixed with silica sand by either Batch type mixer or Continuous type screw mixer. Sand temperature is critical in this process. It should also be noted that the gel tends to hydrate. The selection of the correct type of core depends on production quantity. resulting in a very weak and brittle bond. The sand is rammed into a core-box and cured by passing CO through the core. Sodium Silicate/CO Core-making Process 2 It is one of the easiest modern core-making processes. They are most commonly used in sand casting. production rate. H2CO3 + Na2O + SiO2 SiO2 (gel) + Na2 CO3 H 2O (glass) The silica gel that is formed binds individual sand grains together. Some core making processes are defined as under: y y y y y Sodium Silicate/ CO2 Process Molasses Process Shell process Green sand Cold-box 1. After mixing coating of sodium silicate takes place on silica sand. Below 15ºC (60ºF) the reaction proceeds very slowly. SiO2 + Na2O + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) H2CO3 + Na2O + SiO2 Carbonic acid reacts with sodium silicate and forms silica jel. The core is normally a disposable item that is destroyed to get it out of the piece. In this process.A core is a device used in casting and molding processes to produce internal cavities and reentrant angles. There are many types of cores available. required surface finish.
5% 2) Hot at 120-130oC: Phenol formaldehyde is added in form of solid flakes about 3-3. This sand is Thermoplastic.5%. Cold box Process Cold box process consists of two parts: 1. Then it is filled in core box and heat at 200 oC.4%) The "polyol" representing one of the components is a phenolformaldehyde resin exhibiting benzyl ether character. 2. It takes time and is not suitable for mass production. Molasses Process 7-10 % molasses is mixed with silica sand and filled in mould or core boxes then put them in ovens to dry at about 200oC. There are two processes of coating of Phenol formaldehyde. These resins display the general formula: in which the sum of m and n is at least two. and the ratio m:n is at least 1:1 .causes a reduction in binder strength. Shell Process In shell process Silica and is coated with Phenol formaldehyde. Polyol Phenolic Resins (1%) 2. which allows the chemical components in the sand to bond together and form the shape within the core box. 3. 1) Warm at 80-100 oC: Phenol formaldehyde is added in liquid form about 3-3. Isocynate (0. This limits core shelf life to about one month. The color would become light brown. 4.
for example. very appropriate for phenolic resins. and exhibits the following structure: However. Comparison between Molasses Sand & Sodium Silicate Sand Process . The preferred nonpolar solvents are high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons (generally in the form of mixtures). the difference in polarity of the polyisocyanate and phenolic resin limits the choice of appropriate solvents that are compatible with both components. This "compatibility" is nonetheless necessary to achieve complete reaction and curing of the binder. The situation is exactly the reverse when nonpolar solvents are used. Polar solvents are. Silica sand represents the bulk of the sand grades used for the cold box process and also the particle size of the sand has a major effect on the bending and tensile strength of the core produced using the cold box method. The fact must also be considered that the required binder level is directly related to the particle size.4' -diphenylmethanediisocyanate.4'.and 4.The polyisocyanate is an oligomeric product of 2. but less so for polyisocyanates.
2 y The sodium silicate/CO process hardens through the following reactions: SiO2 + Na2O + H2O H2CO3 + (l) + CO2 (g) Na2O+ SiO2 H2CO3 + Na2O + SiO2 + Na2CO3 H 2O (glass) SiO2 (gel) Molding Processes . The environmental friendliness. Cores made from this process produce less gas than other processes. and simplicity makes the process very simple to conduct in the teaching foundry. Cleanup is also easy since water can dissolve the sodium silicate. 2 y y Liquid sodium silicate is mixed with the silica sand. Process One of the easiest modern core making processes for instructional and small foundries to use is the sodium silicate/ CO process.Sodium Silicate/CO 2 Molasses Process Conventional and small foundries are using Molasses Sand for making cores and moulds. The sand is rammed into a core box and cured by passing CO 2 y through the core. Due to the high hygroscopicity of the mix prepared with molasses. ease of cleanup. 7 to 10% Molasses added in sand and fill in mould then put in ovens up to temperature 2000C. These are all manual processes or for Non-Ferrous industry (Brass and Bronze) y y Mix the Molasses with Sand and bake up to 2000C. its use is not much favoured for good-quality castings.
The cores are strategically placed to form the necessary passageways in the casting. This prepared sand mixture is then compressed around the pattern at specific pressures and temperatures. which results in a compound which is suitable for the sand molding process. The finishing process can then be completed by grinding. y Environmentally friendly. plating and painting. y Ensures strong and rigid moulds. considering features of the castings and actual technical condition. we adopt different processes to produce the castings. Green Sand Molding This process derives its name from the presence of moisture in molding sand. Sometimes the design of the casting entails internal passageways being formed into the mold. 1. Advantages y These molds are relatively inexpensive to produce. Resin sand molding. The blended sand and binders are compacted around the pattern. taking on the shape of the desired casting. cellulose. to ensure it will maintain its shape throughout the remainder of the casting process. . After solidification has taken place.According to different standard and requirement. The sand undergoes a "mulling" process in which various clay and chemical additives that act as binders such as pitch. machining. Lost foam and coating sand molding. since the basic material is readily available. Features y Low material costs y Reclaimable mould material. the sand is vibrated until it is released from the casting. For example: Green Sand molding. The two halves of the mold are subsequently closed and metal is poured into the cavity and left to solidify. and silica flour are blended with the sand. This is done by using sand cores which are made of a similar sand mixture.
After a shakeout process. at affordable costs. the binder begins the hardening process. After the compaction process. The sand is then transported to the mold fill station in preparation for filling of the mold. Advantages y It is adaptable to any quantity y It creates high strength moulds & improves dimensional repeatability y Requires low skill and labor requirements y Provides better dimensional control. Easily adapts to automated production methods. The chemical nature of the binders makes this a highly specialized process that has to been handled with considerable expertise and knowledge. Applications y Ideal for high value and critical parts y Desired for Complicated Profiles . a rollover process is used to remove the mold from the pattern box. When the sand exits the mixer. the molded sand is taken away from the casting.y y Complex patterns can be accommodated in the in the mold design. Features y Chemical binders are used to create high strength moulds. The mould is then readied for handling the molten metal. 2. Then various procedures follow including the finishing and the sand can be reclaimed by thermal means. No Bake Molding No Bake is a casting process that uses chemical binders to bond the molding sand. A mixer is then used to blend sand with the chemical binder and the catalyst. the molds turn rigid. y When the temperature is brought to normal levels.
the sand can often be recycled. CO2 Molding Carbon dioxide molding is a sand casting process that employs a molding mixture of sand and liquid silicate binder. . steel. aluminum. the CO2 process can be automated for long durations & speedy production runs. resin-coated sand is packed tightly around a pattern. y When used for making cores. Resin Sand Casting Sand molds often use resin based chemical binders that possess high dimensional accuracy and high hardness.3. Such resin-bonded sand molds take somewhat longer to manufacture than green sand molds because a curing reaction must take place for the binder to become effective and allow formation of the mold. The pattern is removed. Applications y Ideal for casting applications flexibility is paramount. This process also offers a great deal of accuracy in production. In Resin Sand Casting. incorporating the gas Advantages y Provides good dimensional tolerances through strong core and mold y Provides excellent casting surface finishes y Generally used for high-production runs y Accommodates a wide range of core and mold sizes. where speed and 4. Various high quality castings are made of gray iron. although with some treatment to remove the resin. It reduces production time as well as fuel costs and reduces the number of mould boxes required for making moulds. brass etc. and the molten metal is poured into the corresponding cavity. This method offers a great deal of advantages over other forms of sand molding. Features y High accuracy molding systems carbon dioxide as a catalyst. As in clay-bonded molds. The molding mixture is then hardened by blowing carbon dioxide gas through it. The sand casting process is one of the most affordable methods of creating a metal casting. ductile iron.
4. This skin is removed from the pattern to form the "shell mold". y Shell molding process offers better dimensional tolerances y Shell Molding Process offers higher throughput due to reduced cycle times. and aluminum and copper alloys. The materials that can be used with this process are cast irons. The basic process for these molds is 1. Advantages y Shell molding process offers better surface finish. y Graphite molds can be used for materials that would normally react with other materials used for the molds. The two halves of the shell mold are secured together and the metal is poured in the shell to form the part. 2. y Special care must be taken to assure venting for gasses. Typical parts made with this process are connecting rods. such as a resin) until desired thickness and other properties are obtained. The final part is removed. lever arms etc. This causes a skin of sand mixture to adhere to the pattern. gear housings. Create two mating patterns of desired shape. 5. Compactibility . This technique can be very economical. Mold Shell Casting A heated metal pattern is covered with a mixture of sand and thermoset plastic.5. The mold halves are mated and held firm while metal is poured. Cure the molds and remove the patterns. the shell is broken. Once the metal solidifies. Coat the molds with a shell (sand and binders. y This method can easily use cores and chills to make complex molds. as the mold media is less porous. 3.
Procedure The test is run by filling a standard specimen tube with riddled sand through a screen mounted at a constant height above the tube. .Compactibility is directly related to the performance of the sand in the molding operation and reflects the degree of temper of the sand mix. in conjunction with green compression. This test. and the sand is rammed three times. The excess sand is struck off the top of the tube. the water-clay coating thickness decreases. and more sand can be riddled into the specimen tube. Compactibility duplicates how a fixed volume of sand will react to a fixed input of energy and is useful in controlling the clay-to-water ratio. The distance from the top of the tube to the surface of the sand is read as percent compactibility. Significance Because the test is independent of the specific gravity of the sand. it is superior to the bulk density test for measuring the water requirement of the sand mix. As the moisture decreases. The presence of water in extra amount of what is required to establish the minimum density point of the molding sand results in free water within the sand mass. can be used to determine the working bond or effective clay present in a sand mix.
Green Compression . Procedure Mold hardness is measured by the resistance offered by the mold surface to a spring-loaded plunger. blows. pinholes and penetration.Effect of Compactability Mold Hardness The mold hardness test indicates the resistance of the moldto-metal damage as the metal contacts the mold surface. scabs. Significance Proper mold hardness will give castings a better finish. When the tester is placed base down on the molds surface. more accurate dimensions and reduced penetration. meanwhile. Excessive hardness. the plunger gets pressed and forced into the sand and gives reading. but the "C" scale tester is more accurate at the high end of the hardness scale. Both "B" and "C" scale hardness testers are available. drops and swells. can cause cracks.
The instrument used for breaking the specimen must continuously register the increasing load until the specimen fractures. cellulose. The compression reading should be read at comparable compactibility ranges. Significance AFS Number of green sand may contain active clay. clay content. seacoal. Procedure A known amount of dried molding sand mixed with a pyrophosphate solution is stirred with a high-speed mixer for 5 min. The sand then is dried. before the top of the water is siphoned off. Procedure The green compressive strength of green sand is the maximum compressive stress that a mixture is capable of sustaining when prepared. ash. The procedure is repeated until the water above the sample is clear. and the mixture is allowed to settle for 5 min. Water is added to the top level line. The rammed cylindrical specimen is formed by placing a weighed amount of sand in a tube and ramming the sand three times. and the weight loss is recorded as AFS Number. fines and all . Green compression in conjunction with moisture can be used to determine the available bond. sand-to-metal ratio. compactibility range and type of additives have a significant effect on green compression. rammed and broken under standard conditions. AFS Number AFS Number of green molding sand indicates the amount of fines and water-absorbing material in the sample. Molding sand at higher or lower compactibility will produce varying green strengths. cereal. silt.Green compression has been the most widely used control tool to measure the rate of clay addition to a sand molding system. Significance The degree of mulling. dead clay.
Only the active clay gives active bonding capacity to the system.materials that float in water. .
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