Assignment # 2
Q1) Design various core making processes? Q2) Compare Molasses sand with silicate/CO2 sand process?
Assignment # 3
Q3) Discuss various sand molding processes? Q4) Explain Compactibility, mould hardness, green compression strength and AFS no. of green molding sand.
Core Making Processes:
The core should be between 25ºC to 30ºC (75ºF to 85ºF). and the type of metal being used. It should also be noted that the gel tends to hydrate. They are most commonly used in sand casting. Above 30ºC. Below 15ºC (60ºF) the reaction proceeds very slowly. Some core making processes are defined as under: y y y y y Sodium Silicate/ CO2 Process Molasses Process Shell process Green sand Cold-box
1. production rate. The core is normally a disposable item that is destroyed to get it out of the piece. After mixing coating of sodium silicate takes place on silica sand. In this process.
H2CO3 + Na2O + SiO2
+ Na2 CO3
The silica gel that is formed binds individual sand grains together. sodium silicate (4 -6%) is mixed with silica sand by either Batch type mixer or Continuous type screw mixer. CO dissolves in the water
of sodium silicate and forms carbonic acid.A core is a device used in casting and molding processes to produce internal cavities and reentrant angles. resulting in a very weak and brittle bond. The sand is rammed into a core-box and cured by passing CO through the core. which
. Sodium Silicate/CO Core-making Process
It is one of the easiest modern core-making processes. excessive amounts of moisture evaporate during the curing process. Sand temperature is critical in this process. required surface finish.
SiO2 + Na2O + H2O
H2CO3 + Na2O + SiO2
Carbonic acid reacts with sodium silicate and forms silica jel. and more CO or
gassing time is required to fully cure the core. The selection of the correct type of core depends on production quantity. There are many types of cores available. required precision.
4. Shell Process
In shell process Silica and is coated with Phenol formaldehyde. These resins display the general formula:
in which the sum of m and n is at least two. There are two processes of coating of Phenol formaldehyde. Molasses Process
7-10 % molasses is mixed with silica sand and filled in mould or core boxes then put them in ovens to dry at about 200oC. Isocynate (0.causes a reduction in binder strength. This sand is Thermoplastic.5%. and the ratio m:n is at least 1:1
. Then it is filled in core box and heat at 200 oC. It takes time and is not suitable for mass production. Polyol Phenolic Resins (1%) 2. Cold box Process
Cold box process consists of two parts: 1. which allows the chemical components in the sand to bond together and form the shape within the core box. This limits core shelf life to about one month.4%) The "polyol" representing one of the components is a phenolformaldehyde resin exhibiting benzyl ether character.5% 2) Hot at 120-130oC: Phenol formaldehyde is added in form of solid flakes about 3-3.
2. The color would become light brown.
3. 1) Warm at 80-100 oC: Phenol formaldehyde is added in liquid form about 3-3.
4'. This "compatibility" is nonetheless necessary to achieve complete reaction and curing of the binder.
Comparison between Molasses Sand & Sodium Silicate Sand Process
. Polar solvents are. very appropriate for phenolic resins.The polyisocyanate is an oligomeric product of 2. The fact must also be considered that the required binder level is directly related to the particle size. The situation is exactly the reverse when nonpolar solvents are used.and 4.4' -diphenylmethanediisocyanate. but less so for polyisocyanates. for example. Silica sand represents the bulk of the sand grades used for the cold box process and also the particle size of the sand has a major effect on the bending and tensile strength of the core produced using the cold box method. the difference in polarity of the polyisocyanate and phenolic resin limits the choice of appropriate solvents that are compatible with both components. The preferred nonpolar solvents are high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons (generally in the form of mixtures). and exhibits the following structure:
One of the easiest modern core making processes for instructional and small foundries to use is the sodium silicate/ CO process. Due to the high hygroscopicity of the mix prepared with molasses.Sodium Silicate/CO
Conventional and small foundries are using Molasses Sand for making cores and moulds. The environmental friendliness. These are all manual processes or for Non-Ferrous industry (Brass and Bronze) y y Mix the Molasses with Sand and bake up to 2000C. The sand is rammed into a core box and cured by passing CO
through the core. Cores made from this process produce less gas than other processes. ease of cleanup. 7 to 10% Molasses added in sand and fill in mould then put in ovens up to temperature 2000C. and simplicity makes the process very simple to conduct in the teaching foundry. its use is not much favoured for good-quality castings.
The sodium silicate/CO process hardens through the following reactions:
SiO2 + Na2O + H2O H2CO3 +
Na2O+ SiO2 H2CO3 + Na2O + SiO2 + Na2CO3 H 2O
. Cleanup is also easy since water can dissolve the sodium silicate.
Liquid sodium silicate is mixed with the silica sand.
Green Sand Molding
This process derives its name from the presence of moisture in molding sand. Resin sand molding. This prepared sand mixture is then compressed around the pattern at specific pressures and temperatures. The finishing process can then be completed by grinding. the sand is vibrated until it is released from the casting. For example: Green Sand molding. Sometimes the design of the casting entails internal passageways being formed into the mold. machining. plating and painting.
1. considering features of the castings and actual technical condition. y Ensures strong and rigid moulds. This is done by using sand cores which are made of a similar sand mixture. y Environmentally friendly. since the basic material is readily available. taking on the shape of the desired casting. The cores are strategically placed to form the necessary passageways in the casting. The two halves of the mold are subsequently closed and metal is poured into the cavity and left to solidify. and silica flour are blended with the sand. Features y Low material costs y Reclaimable mould material. The blended sand and binders are compacted around the pattern.
. to ensure it will maintain its shape throughout the remainder of the casting process. cellulose. we adopt different processes to produce the castings. Advantages y These molds are relatively inexpensive to produce. which results in a compound which is suitable for the sand molding process. After solidification has taken place. The sand undergoes a "mulling" process in which various clay and chemical additives that act as binders such as pitch.According to different standard and requirement. Lost foam and coating sand molding.
a rollover process is used to remove the mold from the pattern box. After a shakeout process. After the compaction process. The sand is then transported to the mold fill station in preparation for filling of the mold. Then various procedures follow including the finishing and the sand can be reclaimed by thermal means. Easily adapts to automated production methods. the binder begins the hardening process. No Bake Molding No Bake is a casting process that uses chemical binders to bond the molding sand. When the sand exits the mixer. the molded sand is taken away from the casting. A mixer is then used to blend sand with the chemical binder and the catalyst.
2. Advantages y It is adaptable to any quantity y It creates high strength moulds & improves dimensional repeatability y Requires low skill and labor requirements y Provides better dimensional control. y When the temperature is brought to normal levels. the molds turn rigid. Applications y Ideal for high value and critical parts y Desired for Complicated Profiles
Complex patterns can be accommodated in the in the mold design. at affordable costs. The chemical nature of the binders makes this a highly specialized process that has to been handled with considerable expertise and knowledge. The mould is then readied for handling the molten metal. Features y Chemical binders are used to create high strength moulds.
brass etc. the CO2 process can be automated for long durations & speedy production runs. steel. As in clay-bonded molds. Such resin-bonded sand molds take somewhat longer to manufacture than green sand molds because a curing reaction must take place for the binder to become effective and allow formation of the mold. resin-coated sand is packed tightly around a pattern. and the molten metal is poured into the corresponding cavity. It reduces production time as well as fuel costs and reduces the number of mould boxes required for making moulds. This process also offers a great deal of accuracy in production. This method offers a great deal of advantages over other forms of sand molding.
Advantages y Provides good dimensional tolerances through strong core and mold y Provides excellent casting surface finishes y Generally used for high-production runs y Accommodates a wide range of core and mold sizes. Various high quality castings are made of gray iron. In Resin Sand Casting. y When used for making cores.
4. Resin Sand Casting
Sand molds often use resin based chemical binders that possess high dimensional accuracy and high hardness. although with some treatment to remove the resin. The pattern is removed. CO2 Molding
Carbon dioxide molding is a sand casting process that employs a molding mixture of sand and liquid silicate binder. The molding mixture is then hardened by blowing carbon dioxide gas through it. aluminum. The sand casting process is one of the most affordable methods of creating a metal casting. Applications y Ideal for casting applications flexibility is paramount.
.3. ductile iron. Features y High accuracy molding systems carbon dioxide as a catalyst. the sand can often be recycled.
Mold Shell Casting
A heated metal pattern is covered with a mixture of sand and thermoset plastic.
This technique can be very economical. The two halves of the shell mold are secured together and the metal is poured in the shell to form the part. Create two mating patterns of desired shape. The final part is removed. The mold halves are mated and held firm while metal is poured. such as a resin) until desired thickness and other properties are obtained.5.
. Once the metal solidifies. lever arms etc. This skin is removed from the pattern to form the "shell mold". 5. The materials that can be used with this process are cast irons. and aluminum and copper alloys. This causes a skin of sand mixture to adhere to the pattern. the shell is broken. Advantages y Shell molding process offers better surface finish. 2. gear housings. as the mold media is less porous. Typical parts made with this process are connecting rods. The basic process for these molds is 1. y Graphite molds can be used for materials that would normally react with other materials used for the molds. 3. 4. Coat the molds with a shell (sand and binders. y Special care must be taken to assure venting for gasses. y This method can easily use cores and chills to make complex molds. Cure the molds and remove the patterns. y Shell molding process offers better dimensional tolerances y Shell Molding Process offers higher throughput due to reduced cycle times.
As the moisture decreases. Significance Because the test is independent of the specific gravity of the sand. This test. Procedure The test is run by filling a standard specimen tube with riddled sand through a screen mounted at a constant height above the tube. the water-clay coating thickness decreases. The distance from the top of the tube to the surface of the sand is read as percent compactibility. The presence of water in extra amount of what is required to establish the minimum density point of the molding sand results in free water within the sand mass.Compactibility is directly related to the performance of the sand in the molding operation and reflects the degree of temper of the sand mix. in conjunction with green compression. and more sand can be riddled into the specimen tube. The excess sand is struck off the top of the tube.
. can be used to determine the working bond or effective clay present in a sand mix. and the sand is rammed three times. Compactibility duplicates how a fixed volume of sand will react to a fixed input of energy and is useful in controlling the clay-to-water ratio. it is superior to the bulk density test for measuring the water requirement of the sand mix.
Both "B" and "C" scale hardness testers are available. can cause cracks. Procedure Mold hardness is measured by the resistance offered by the mold surface to a spring-loaded plunger.
. Excessive hardness. scabs. When the tester is placed base down on the molds surface. pinholes and penetration. the plunger gets pressed and forced into the sand and gives reading.Effect of Compactability
The mold hardness test indicates the resistance of the moldto-metal damage as the metal contacts the mold surface. drops and swells. Significance Proper mold hardness will give castings a better finish. meanwhile. but the "C" scale tester is more accurate at the high end of the hardness scale. blows. more accurate dimensions and reduced penetration.
cereal. dead clay. Water is added to the top level line. ash. The sand then is dried. The rammed cylindrical specimen is formed by placing a weighed amount of sand in a tube and ramming the sand three times. and the mixture is allowed to settle for 5 min.
AFS Number of green molding sand indicates the amount of fines and water-absorbing material in the sample. silt. sand-to-metal ratio. The instrument used for breaking the specimen must continuously register the increasing load until the specimen fractures. Significance AFS Number of green sand may contain active clay. Significance The degree of mulling. before the top of the water is siphoned off. Procedure A known amount of dried molding sand mixed with a pyrophosphate solution is stirred with a high-speed mixer for 5 min. cellulose.Green compression has been the most widely used control tool to measure the rate of clay addition to a sand molding system. The compression reading should be read at comparable compactibility ranges. seacoal. Green compression in conjunction with moisture can be used to determine the available bond.
Procedure The green compressive strength of green sand is the maximum compressive stress that a mixture is capable of sustaining when prepared. and the weight loss is recorded as AFS Number. Molding sand at higher or lower compactibility will produce varying green strengths. fines and all
. rammed and broken under standard conditions. compactibility range and type of additives have a significant effect on green compression. clay content. The procedure is repeated until the water above the sample is clear.
.materials that float in water. Only the active clay gives active bonding capacity to the system.