THE

CALCULATION'

o F

Solar Eclipfes

WITHOUT

~ PAR ALL A X E S~

.... . .

. .

..

t

I.

"' " .'

",". .~. .. -.

THE

C A L.C U L A T ION'

.

OF

\

Solar EclipfeJ

WITHOUT

PARALLAXES.

WIT H

ASp Eel MEN of the fame in the Total Ec1ipfe of the Sun, May II. 1724~

Now ftrfl made Pub lick.

To which is addeli,

APR 0 P 0 SAL how, with the Latitude given, the Geographical Longlrude of all the Parts of the Earth may be fetded by the bare Knowledge of the Duration of Solar Eclipfes, and efpeciaIly of Total Darknefs.

WI TH

A1.l Ace 0 tT N T of fume late Obfervations made with Dipping Needles. in order to difcover the LONGITUDE

and-LATITUDE at Sea. J<..

By WI L L •. W HIS TON, M. A.

Soltime Profe(for of tlm Mathematicks in the iverfity of Ca1(Jbridge.

L 0' N DON:

Printed for J. SEN E X in Fleetjlreet; and W. TA Y LOR ill Pater-Nojler-Ro'IP. 1724.

H\. \- <\. <C~.:...

... ..::-.:- v e,

\\-\~. 'U i..\.~.l.i..:,:-r; ...

L E 1}1 ill A T /4 -:': ~'

o R,

Preparator'y Propolirions.

\;

.....

:l:

J.

;:. an=rf: moff ufeful and moil remarkable

;_ Cycle or Period for the Revolution of

I Eclipfes, both Solar and Lunar, men-

~ tioDed b1-PliR)" ( Nat.-Hip. II. ) and

. by him only of all the Ancients, is

the Interval of 22 f Synod ical Months == 6)' 8) Days: or == 181illian' Years: with 10 Days, wb~ the Cycle or Period contain" 5 LeapYears: and wich 11 Days, when with 7 Hours 43'~. In which Time the direct mean Motion of the !Hbon and her .Apogee in the Eclipdck,

is nearly fo much 11I0re; and the Retrograde 1I1ean Motion of the N"r/es nearly fo mucillefl than entire Revolutions, as the mean Motion of thc.)JfQon [ri1lJ tb« S!JlI, upon wbich all mean .

'" ' B. ' ~~ ....

[- 2 1 ",

CcnjQnffions, Oppofitions, and Ecllpfes properly. dt:pend , exceeds the like entire Revolutions, Which Coincidences do theref~ nearly reftore the mean State of the Moon it feU: its Apogee, Nodes, and Lunations : And produce. an eminent ,'Revolution of correfpondent New Moops, FuU

Moons, and Eclipf~, after that· Interval perpetually. . ... . . . .J

This appears by the foll()wing Calculation of all thefe mean Motions from the Aftronomical Tablts.

"7 "'" •

Mean Motioll of tbe StIll or Eartb.

s ., "
Years 18 "II 29 28 32
Dus II 0 10 SO 32
HOUfS 7 0 0 17 IS .
43 0 0 I 46
" IS 0 0 0 I
--
Sum I 0 10 48 , ..

... ·~M;~~:~liotioll of the Mloll in the Ecliptic!.

Melin Motion of tbe Apogee.

..

I 0 "

Years ]8 0 ]2 2~ H
Days 11 a ] I~ 32
Hours 7 0 0 J 'S7
, 43a 0 0 0 ]2
Sum 0 13 39 ~4 Mean,' Motion of tbe Node !Jaeku",,4.
s 0 II
. Years ]8 II 18 7 39
Days II 0 0 3+' ')7
HoQrs 7 0 0 0 S6
, 43 ~ 0 0 Q '6
Sum II 18 43. 3'
.-

M.ean Motion of the MooN from tbe Sull.
" , ', ..
0 I "
Years 18 I 1 II S8 50
Days II ]4 S 53
HQurs 7 0 3 33 20
, 4~ I 0 0 21 50
" I~ 0 0 0 7.
Sum 0 '0 0 0
~ t,,~
IS~ [~ ]

° , " From the mean Morion of rbe Apogee-l 3 39 34 SubftraUthatofcheMoonintheEclipt.- 10 48 6 Remains - (2QL9) ---- 2 )1 28

--------.---.~--.--~--------

To the mean Motion of the Moon-- 0 J 0 48 6

· Add that of the Node-- ,....._....-II 18 43 38 Sutn.-------~I I 29 31 44 · Difference from 12 SigI.lS(OoL47)-= 0 0 28 16

,

· Whence it appears that the Difference of the

mean Motions of the Apogee and of the Nodes from thar of the Moon her [elf in the Ecliprick, in fuch a Period, is but fmall . Not more in the former Cafe than 2(\ )1' 28"'=:: 2'\9, nor in the latter than 28' 16" = oOL47. Whencealfo itappeatS that: th~nnarApogee does in every fuchCycle differ but";' .. of the enure O;~rence 2L9) 180(62. That the Lunar Node only differs in that Cycle T17 of the entire DifferetiJce 0'\.47) 180 (383. And that the Anomaly of the Sun it Ielf differs only frt.1' of the entire Anomaly: lo,.8)r80(I6L6. Which Quantities being generally fmall ,cannot occafion any great Inequality in the Times and

. Circcmftancesof New and Full Moons , or of Eclipfes ; nor \1y comequence greatly difturb the regular Succeffion of the fame in any fingle Period ; nor indeed very greatly in feveral fucceffive

Periods, For fince the mean Merion of the .Moon frollllhe SUR is within a very fmall Matter ever certain and invariable, tbat Revolution is always juft ; and always determines the mean Time ot all Conjun8:ions, Oppotitions, and Ecliptes rightly; and fince the other Anomalies are but fmall, and always come right again in Length of Time, tbey caliDOt.cver . ..produce any

. :[ very

-.

['; ]

very great Anomalies in our Calculations from them. As will farther appear under the follow-

ing Scbon6. .

No 8. This Period for Eclipfes, has of late been caned, both by Mr. Flamfleed, and Dr. Hal.ley, the Saros, or the O,aldeall Saros t As if it were known and us'd by tge old Cbaldealls, ancl dJence called by that Name. For whic:h I know no fuflident F ouedarion, There is iadeed a grofs Miltake of Pil'/s Number in Suidas,(who rhus applies this term) 222 fur 223 MODths, as . almoft all 'the Edi[ion~ of Pliny ftill have it ~ ancl He calls that· Period by this O,altl'.11 Name Saro«. Yet the Cbt,ldeolls never , tbat we find, apply'd it to any other Period tban that of 3600 Teer« or DaY'; by which Period alone all the Antediluvian Reigns are determined both In .Abydell/lS and Berofus themfelves, from the andenteft Records of that Kingdom. See my Nefti Theory, the later. Editions , l:lypotb. X. U1II. to tbe third A:rgument ; and .Appendix to the Ej[1IJ towards reftoring rhe true Text of the Old Tella-

menr, p. 203, -- 213. .

S C H 0 .'L I A.

(I.) We may here Obferve, that fince the limit fur Eclipfes of the Moon is about 11° 40' = 700' on each Side of the Node; as is the Limit for Eclipfes of the Sun, about 160 40' = 1000'. If we divide 70o,. the Limit of the Moon's Eclipfes , by 28' 16" =: 28'1..~' which is the Dif fC:rence between the Revolution of the Moon to the Sun and of the Node above given, we fhall have Dearly Twenty Five for' the Number of Cydes" after a Ccottal Lunar Eclipfe in one

()f.

[ .6 ]

of the Nodes, before' the Moon goes off the' Shadow·Df. the Earth entirely at the time Node, and 4SO Years (2))( 18 == 4S0,) or double that Number 900 Years for the Time that the Moon begins to' 'enter the Ecliprick Limit on .one Side, till it goes out of it on the other •

. During which long Interval there will ftill be Eclipfes of the MO\>D' each Period. And if we divide 100.' the Limit of the Sun's Eclipfes, by .the fame Number 28'L3, we fhall have nearly ·~s for. the Number of Periods after a Solar :Centtal Eclipfe at the Middle of the Earth, in one of the Nodes, befq,te the Penumbra goes ~~. the North or Soutb Parts of tbe Difk of the .Earth entirely at the. fame Time; i. e. 630 Years. ·0, x J8 == 630,} or double that Number 12~O Years, from the Time that the Moon in any fuch 'eiiOO begins to enter the Eclipriek Limit on .eee Side, till it goes out of on the other : Du~ which longer Interval there will ftill be

· f().mewhere Eclipfes of the Sun 'each Period. Af-ter which refpeEtive long Intervals of Time there ·will be no web. Eclipfes for much longer Inter-

vals.

(2.) Since the utmoft Latitude of the Moon that can permit any Lunar Eclipfe, is about 62', and the tame utmoft Latitude that can permit a ·Solar Eclipfe is about 92': If we divide the firfi: Number by 2), or the laft by 3), the'

· Numbers of Revolutions for the Ecliptick .Limirs , we fhall have. about ~'L6 ==2': 36" fbr the mean Alteration of the Moon's Latitude in each fingle Period all along; and this both

· for.Sohr and Lunar Ec1ipfes. WhichLatitude will be SoutlJ during the one half of the long Period

· of the Ecliptick Limits before-mentioned; and North during the other half ~ Gradually increafing, . an~

['7]

anA as gradually decreafin& perpetually-: 'A~ in the following Table. . \ ;" '.: 1

A Table of the mean Latitudes of the; ~~ each finglc Cycle, either Nortb or; South., . beginning at an Eclipte. in one of. ~A Nodes,

without any Latitude at all. ' '.!

utittdes /fJT 2S Cycles in LullU', and3S ill

&lar EdipJei. '. ..

Cycles I n.. ' r

. ~ 2. 2.6 "

s 4 p. .1

3 7" I, 4 . 9 46 S I2.. 14

, 14 43 7 17 IS

8 19 .p' . ,. 2.7. U.

" ~ 10 ~4 4;,'·, ,lI '2.7 14 . u. 2.9 40

.. .IJ. ;2. 19. 14 ;4. 51&

.15 31 a' 16; 40 1

1:7 42. 3' J8 '4S IS 19 47 4S ao ,0 as.

At 53 J u SS 41 aJ S9 s. a4 60 S' as 6; 39 :&6 66 ~ :&7 68 41 as 11 :&3 ~9 14 6 30 76 4' JI 79 H J:& b 17 33 8S s ..

34 87 48 3S ,0 34

.'

• 1

.,

'.

[ s ]

(~.) Since the principal Aher~tiO'l\· in the QutJrr tity and Duration of total Eelipfes of the Soo, *fifes fi()m -the Dilferen~ there is at any Time lJetween the ,real Diftlnce!,' and appHe~t Diameters of the SUR 2l1d Moon, at the Time of fuch Eclipfes, that Cl!tantity a'nd Dllratfml muft depend aJ the Dilierence m dlelr.mcan ARomaties, which gives us thar Diflerenn .of Diftances and Diameters ; and maft thetcfore anfwer in each 'Cycle one with anoaher7 to the Differences of thofe mean Anomalies iaridg tllar Interval; which in

100':8 I

the Sun comes to- -8 OJ -6 6 of its entire Ano-

I" I.

maly. And in too Moon to -f~* or -& of its entire Anomaly. And fiINe me whole mean Excentricity of the Moon is f:>mewhat above three 'times as great as thClt of the Sun, or as TH. to -cl-?... The Difiereeces of the Sun's Diftances and Diameters win be but a little greater in each Period one with another, than thofe of the

Moon. -

(4.) When therefore tile Anomalies of the Sun and Moon are of the iame Species ; I mean both afcending, ar bGM :dt:fcending ; their Diftances and Diameeers wil~ . one with another, increafe or, decreafe 'nearly in the fame Proportion; and the Qpanrity and Duration of total Darknefs will alter but little in fiich a Period. Bur whes thofe Anomalies ate of thseonrrary Species; that

. is, the one afcending.whde the other defcends , they will alter cohfiderablj. So that if the Sun be defcending, and its apparent Diameter Increafing ; while the MoOD: is afcending, and its apparent Diameter Dectreafing, the Eclipfe of the Sun will, each futteedlng: Cycle, afford. a fmaller total Shadow 2 till at laft. it aftord no total Sha-

dow

[ 9 ] .-

dow at aU s liot the Edipfes become :(1nlltd",;, And if the Sun be Afcending wh.ile"the Moon .Is Defcendirig, .the, conttary will happen; and the: total Shadow grow greater perpetually. From V\'hicb Circumftances of the Sun and Moon in each Revoluti<m of the Cycle duly confidered t we ma,' nearly determine. whether any fucceeding tof.· fpondent Eclipfe will afford us a greaterorlcft total Shadow, or whether the Eclipfes will ba one' ly Annular, ":

(s·) Frqm the like Circumftances we mayaUOr nearly determine whether fueb Eclipfe$ will come Iomewharfooner or later, than that oftbe.meao Revolution of rhe Period .before us. For if the Earth be much nearer its Aphelion, than' tic, Moon ics Apsgeon, at the end of any Cyde·. and by confequence if the Earth then revolve compararively flower, and the Moon fwiner than oi';;' dinary ; the meeting of the Luminaries wiH' be accelerated. And if 'the Earth he much remoter" . from irs Aphelion than the Moon from its A~' g~on, the contrary will happen; and the Moon will be later than ordinary e'er it .overtake the' Sun." So that in the former Cafe the Eclipfe will (lome a little before, and in the latter a little after: the proper Conclufion of that Period.

(6.~Since the Motion of the Node backward in one of thefe Periods does not quire reach to the ConjunCtion or Oppofirion, that Node mutt every Cycle go forward,wich refpect ro the Lr .... nations and E:lipfes ; and at tbe'afcending Node the Moon will paiS more Southward, and at tht; defce~ding Node more Northward fucceffivelY. Thus 'at the Solar Eclipfe May I. 1706. the Moon, near its afcending Node,' had greater Northern Latitude than it will have at (he next' correfponding Solar E~li~'; ~)' le.'· l:n+ :A9d thu$,~t

~ < 0.. t,,+_-.

( 10 ]

tbl. tot2ltSolar· BcUpfe, ~pril2'l. JP.S: the Moon near its defamding,NOde, had lef~ Nortbern Lamde tban it will liaye at its eorrefponding great

Rhli~fe; MdJ 2. 17B· . .

- (~.) Since the Motion of the Moon's Apogee f~rword is greater in one. of tht1ePeriods than !Me .tithe Lunadons, that Apogee muft alfo go f>mard: every Cycle: And if. at anyone Solar Etlipie that Apogee be in quadrature with the Sun, after it had been in Conjundion , the MOOD .wm the next Period deftend by going backward iu'its Eclipfes, towards the Perigee. And if at any

eDe.f~cb .Apogee it be in the quadrature, mer it bad been in Oppofition, it will the next.Cycle afami r. The Revetfe of 111 which Is true in Lunar Eclipfes .

. r(8'.) The PIa~ and Motion of the Sun in its

Ellip6s is fu mfily known, and, .that fQr many . Agas ;. by bate Memory and. RefIe8:ion, that a fi:W. W,ords wjll fuffice. The SQn i$ now farthei Ham the Earth Eight Days afier the longeft flay ; and bearen: to it Eight Days after the 1borteft: And· its Motion about I Degree in 72 Years. Whence it is evident, that it has, for all tbc! paft Ages ef Aftrenomy, been about the, . Summer Solfiice in our Apogee, an~ about t~

Winter Solftice in our Perigee; if I may ufe the Terms of the Ptolemaic~ Syftem. Nor is it therefore .,~. Wonder that the greatei total Ecli pres of ~e Sun have happened ftill in the Summer ,and tl\e. ~teaieft Annular ones in the .Winter half Year:

Since the firther the SUD is .off. in the Winta:, me· leis mull. be its apparent Diameter, and by confe,_quence the greater thej&ceij of tbe Moon's Diameter above it. On wlrich Exa:fs alone the

. Greatnefs of fucb Eclipfes cl~PeI¥ls. And the Re\'ede is. equally evidt:nt·.ia .th~:Cate of Annu-

.• 1at

, : . d. 'i I' ";, ::.:,;; t.': :C.2'

:['ll-]

.' (1.1.) If JMrefore We join three of there Cr: ~~,togetb~ r , wofe odd Hours and Minutes will ampunt' nearly to a whole. D~y ; and will there~t~ 'Deady.bring the middle Poi~t of the ~9n~ IPQndent EC,lip.r~ t~, the ~CI Time, in the ,tam. P.lace, and, -in p~u, with tbe fame CirtumftalJ" ees as before.: <Which a fingle Cycle cannot poi: ·fibly do. Only ·w~rh ,.th~, AntigP.ation of SG~,~ Time. Which three fingle Cycles therefore o.f !"1~,7s6.Days, or' of S4 Years; with ~2 or ~~ .nays ; I call the (ir .. ,zd f:)(t~. 4\nd this will ~, rl::think, of the greateft ~n~ readieft ufe in re.1d<J:te Edipfes of any other Period whatfoet .. . ' ~ T'hns,: for Example, there w~ a total Eclipfe of -the SQI1 OQ) lJ/!Ick Montlizv ; as ic bas thence been ·called ever finc~; .M4rcb 29.· 1~)2. about Ten a .Cloek in th~i·MQrning. ,Tota!~ 1 13y it was in ,the North of te!aRd" and, jhe lVOf'tbriJejl r:K &0'.l4tId, tho' Dotjfq ~t ,Londqfl, .ot ~eremoter,~atis 'of..E1rg(allil. ~nd $~~/and., a'o tJps if we add one -Cy~le,<:~be t'ime: 0& the .. ~, CQrrefpo.nden~,.EJdipfe )'Vm_~.".~ ,c9Nq1.: .

" . . ,." r ... ·, 'f cl h·';" "

·To.:~(ii.16)2. ~~Kf?Q. 28 2~ 00·;09

.,. . Ad". ' '. ~.Ii IQ . 74~ 'IS

'. SP.Pl 167Q. 4Pril 00 S., , 43 IS _

. \

:&;'ibat ~~nerpo~ent .'t?tal Eclipte';~bt ~~ 'ilave ,been..8.. D. :1670 • .Aprll,the 8th 431 i paO: S .J-:Oock in the Ev~g. 'And, beeaufe tbeEarth :·was then a fmall Ma~ter D~/;.ts Aphelion~ than .the Moo~ k.6:t.\~on, ~h~,1;i~~,!V0uld be.;~ 1~[~ de a~ticlpa~ Ql}tha~ 1\cC()unt. But ~ b~tiufe this Eelipfe was towards :Eve$J , ji; ~u1~ be much more retarded on that Account, than anticipated on the o1(he{j; and the main Part of

, the

.. ~".

z. '

( t3 "]

the Ee1.)pte would happen' after .Sun-tet, aqd '*

here invifible. " ',' , ' , ,

To this Time if ~ add another' Cycle,. tile next correfpondent Eclipfe will in: like Manner

be difcovered: " '

'. • . . y cl h , ,~

To.A. D. 1670. April- 00 08 J 43 is Add-~- 18, ,I. 7 43'IS SlID.! ),688. AprIl ~o_ 19 I3 26:;3'>

• I ~..

·50 that tbe nextcorrefpondent total Ec1ipfe ought to have been April- zoth, 26'.i after one in the Morning ,; and 'was therefore, to he fare, utterly ,lilvifible to)JS ba.e. To this Time if we add anotIiet Cycle, we MVO the next correfpondene total .~t~pte thus: ,

, , ~J; , , Y d h , " ::;:: '~: ' To ..4.b~:1688 ApriJoo 19 I~ '26 ~o

.." .: , ,- :'. Add ,18 Jo07' 4~ IS

, . S~"1796 May 00,00 2.1 09,4J

.so -,that - the 'nett 'correfpondent total EciiPri: w;JS:,to .. ba\1e' ~ (..d~ D. IioPl 9' ~ paft'NiJic: ;i-Clock' bi the l4..Q1'niDg ; whicli~ 15. not much: before' the Time when' it was o1»erv'd .he',e ; and was no other than that famous' EcliPfe which was ,total at ,Cadiz, Barcekma , Morfeip,(f," Ge/l#'{Ja , . Bern, and ~lIricb,; and became very remat~-

ble for the railing of the 'Siege of Barceton« ,during that total Darknefs . Though 1 b'ave been 'inform'd by feveral there prefent, that it came to 'both Armies wholly unexpeaed', till the great ,DarknelS of' the' Sky forced them to attend to .it. Now this aiOrds us alfo a re~kable Inftance o~ the near Approximation "of our Gran~ t~

i t.

[ 14 ]

'botb as to Time and Place : For it ~ft~d cE tracing this correfpondent Eclipfe through the ~iftina Cycles we had 'at once taken our Grand ~de of S' 4' Years, and 33 Dars; we had come ltnm~iately to this Eclipfe: And by alloWing the Anticipation of'So' had been within about. 20' of

tlleCalcu1arion at London. . .

i I To this Time if. we add another tingle Cycle, _ !hall" have the next ~ coriefpondent Eclipfe thus :

'J' cJ h ., " To A. D. ~706. MaJ~oo 00 21 tJ9 4.$ . Add ~ '.' is 10 07 43 IS SU~1724·.M'!Y;: 00 Ii 04 :i3 00

..

So that we ought hence to expea the total E.elipfe next May. II, S3' paR 4- in the Afternoon. And becaufe botb. the PofitioA Q,f the Sun and MOOJl in their Etlipfes; and" tbe lri6re eoniiderable ~lteration from tlj.e..nm~~':t~ Day, which is fiere much fanhet in the' benIng than the laft-

,was in t~e ~orniDg ;. oblig: us n~~fi ,fc; abo';1t t~ i 'Reta~at1on, ~e hencc.]uttrr.. tlJat .~h.lS l=~lpfew~ll be. r~ '~·Tq . .::'tf~~~\. wdorz a&>ut AO,·P.:dtSl~ in"ttie- ~venlngJ ~~ qat¥t~~-

tulatlons do .de=nlOe.. '. . .. ....

c »0;.' 1 ! • . . ~.. • .. ~

[l; ]

,

, ,

,"I ,., II ,',' s:lt ToJi.D. "168; February-co II 10 S9 00 Add ~---1'tl- Jt~ 07 4J I~ SUm 1~ Feb«; OQ 22 18 41 IS

,

So that this firft eorrefpondent total Ediple of the Moon ought to have been Feb, 23. I;;' 421 i paft Six a-Clock in the Morning; or ill the day-time, and fo muft Deeds have heea ill great ParE to us invifible.

J d It ',.l~ , To.A.D. 1.,F~ . -co 22 18 .... '11' Add ' " • I~ 10 e7 41 IS Sum 17* M4rcb - 00 OS 02 25JiI

So that the' Dext cOll'efpoudeatt total EclipfC of, the Moon ought to bave been 1'r'l41'cb ~, I "]Hf 2 S ' T after Two a-Clock io the Afternoon ; Wliidl was in the day-time alfo '; and fo lIluit eqoaU; with the former have been here invifible. ," ':;

:, .. ,:t y d, h , ,H\

To.ai. D. 17*, Mttrcb-oo o~ 02 '213m Add - IS 10 01 4~ !1 Sum 1736 Mtlrcb - 00 IS 10 08 4~

, :.' So that the next total correfpondent Edipfe of

the Moon is hence to be expeaed·~. D. I 7 ~6. 1nJ,rcb IS.81a i paD: 10 a-Clocli at Nigbt : which is about an Hour and half fooner than the 0.1':" cWariOD. Which difference we Ihall prefentl, find to be near the greateft DUference that cd l1appcn. " "

This

( 16 J

This may alro be equally obtain'd by one eetire Gralit/C!jcle of S4 Years, and 3~ Days; with the fore-mendened Anticipation of so' which nom Feb;, II. 1'68~ lob S9', brings us direCtly to jHarrb IS, '1736, 9' paft 10 a-Clock at Night; or to fomewhat above an Hour and balfbefore the Calculation. .

" N. B. As to the proper Quantity of the 1everaI Alterations arifing: in each Period, which ought to be allowed for, they are nearly there :

The Moon and Sun being about ~ I' j in Diameter, and the DIg!ts of their Obfervation being u. while the Diffurence of the Moon's Latitude, aswe bM feen, is about 2' 36" or the Twelfth Part,of tbore Diameters, it is plain that the mean natural Alteration of every Period in the 1iI1ne 'Circumftanees is about one Digit; though lefs in the: leffer, and' greater in greater Latimdes. which in the Moon, whore Eclipfe is to all Speaato~s the fame, holds cenftantly : And though the diurnal Motion of the Earth removes all particular Places, fo much each Period as to render !this Rule lefs obfervable in Solar Eclipfes, yet .after each grand Period, which nearly reftores their former Pofirion, it will hold in a good Degree there alfo, I mean fo as to alter about 3 Digits therein: But befides that of the Digits edipfe~, we ought alfo to fee what Alteration in Time may happerr to each Period. Now as to the Inequality of the Sun's Motion, it is as we have feen IOoL 8, and its greateft Velocity is at the 'Earth's Perihelion, and its leaft at its Aphelion:

ItS greateft Alteration therefore muft be in .Apbc:' lio and Perihelio, and is the Difference of the Equation belonging every where to the Addition of ·j9"L8, and is here 48", which Space the Earth .

. , .' , goes

: ~ ';_, -:

[ .17 J

goes in about 20' of Tiine. So that the Difference of Timeon this' Account, lIluft each Period be Iome QJJantity lefsrban 20' •. An<! as '0 r:bI:

Ine'tl2ality of the Moon'sM()tiQn,it is alfo gr.eateft: arrhe Perigecand Apogee, 30ditsgreateft Alteration at the extreme Eccenrricidf;S, of its Orbit is the Diiference of the Equations at 2,"0 51' ~ in Peri-

- gee and Apogee, acmrding to tbof~ extreme ~centricities: =; 9' whi.ch tile Moon ufually g~ in fomewbat leii than 20'. So t.~t the Dii14- renee of Time, on this ACCPUllf, m!lft each Cycle be fome Quantity lefs than 20 Minutes alfo. ,

And now we come to tbe principal Airet3tion ill Time tb. an, happen in Ec;lipfi:s ;tbouglt it ldongs onlY. ~ mc;fe: of the SUB : And that is 'the Time· Of die Day wlien they happen in any particular Place~' Now bcca~ the CeriteJ.' of tbe 'Moon urually goes· Gyet an mtire Diameter of the . Dilk of the Earth, in about tbt¢e Hours and an half, Part of which is almoft always ~fore, and Part :Ute! Noon: while the odd Hours of a fmall Cycle 7b 4~ '!, may r~cli equally fiom a F ore!lOOn to an Afmnoon's fucarilive Eclipfe ; 'tis pofiible, fucb an Edlpfe may appear an Hour and three Q.narters later-diaD the Period it felf would deter-. mine it. Tho' ufually this Alteration will net be near fo ~eat; efpecially when the Latitude of die Moon 18 V~1 cOnftderable. Ba..t then it is fo eafy'fO allow vety nearly fOr this Inequality, upon a little Confideratipn, that it o~ht not to be objefied againft the Accuracy of this Period, If for Six Hours from Noon we allow about an Hour and ~f; and for two Hcurs, three Quarters of an Hour ; "0 fuall not err very much from the ·cmeTime.

D

[ .8 ]

. CoroUary. If we would know what is the greateft Inequality in Digits and Time in a grand Pe-riod, made up of Three common ones, or of

. S 4 Y ears, 32 or 33 Days, betides the conftant Anticipation of so', we muft fay it may poffibJy, though it will verJ rarely, be almoH thrice the

. Qpanthies aJready Hated for a fingle Cycle: excepting the laft and principal Dift&ence, peculiar to Solar Eclipfes : which is never much greater than that already mentioned. . -.

- N. B. If any are not contented to know there Matters by fuch -Approximations, but defire the . utmofl ACCClracy ; they muft either make me of Dr. HalJq's Equations, fitted to this Cycle, when

, pubUfhed J or rather make ufe of Mr. FlllllljJeetls 'or Dr. Halley's moft accurate Afironomical Tables, when pubUChed; with that Trigonometrical Calculation afterward ~ which I publifh and exemplify in this Paper. In the form~ Part of

, which Work, this Cycle, with its proper.~Da. dons, will, at leaft, fave us the one half of our Calculation, if it will not bring us it felf to that lItmoft Accuracy: which indeed is hardly to be

. expeaed from it. - ~

So tbat, upon the whole, If we duly cenfider the particular Circumil:ances of the Sun and _ Moon, with thofe of the Aphelion, Apogee and Node, and with the Times of the Day or Night . when the Cycle ends, an~ rightly apply them to this fingle Cycle and to this grand Cycle, we (hall be able nearly to determine the correfpondent E .. ,clipfes with very final~ Trouble or Calclllati·

on.

The

[ '9 ] It.

The Plane in which the Center of the Moon moves in Ecliples, . is not that of the Ecliptick. but of the Orbit of the Moon, ~onfider d with the Annual Motion : Oe it is a Plane indined to tbe Plane of the ~cliptick. in an Angle of about ,0 ~6'. Which in the ~ulation of Eclipfes is ufually Hiled, The 4J!glp of ,be M?on's viJib1t

· W4y.This principal Plane I call, The LillItlr

Plane. .

...

III. .

This Lzti'ltJr Plane cuts the Spbere of the Earth, confidered without its diurnal Motlon; in aCitcle whofe Pole or Vertex is diftant from the Pole of the Ecliptick in the fame Angle. Tb.is Circle I caU

· The Lullar Circl,. . .

IV.

· In Eclipfes which bappen at the SoUlices, and in the Nodes of the Moon's Orbit, the Dlftance of thefe Poles is exaaly Etlfiward or Wefirx)(mi. In thofe which happen at the Equinoxes and Nodes, the Diftance is ~aly North and SOJtb. But in all other Cafes it is Oblique.

v.

, .

The Angle of that Obliquity is always ~om· pos'd of the Diftance of the Sun and Moon from the Solftitial Colore; with tbeDiftance of the Iarne . fiom the Nodes: And is .fomerimes the SlIitI, and fometimes the· Dij'erlTl,e 9f thofe . Quart~ . tities •

. ;

D~

VI. Tb;

[ ~(!)] VI.

The Diftance between this Vertex and the Pole of the Earth, when Ecliptes happen at the -501- ftices, is the S/l1II or Difference of the two forel11tntloned Angles of Inclination; the one, of the .

. - 'ole of the Eqnator apd of the Pole of the:B~tiptick = 23° 29'; the other of the Pole of tbe 'Ecliptick, and of theyertex of the Lunar Circle ~ $0 ~6' .nearly_ Bpr 10 all otlier'Cafes a SpherIcal Triangle mnft be folv'd, in order to finel chat Diftance : Of which hereafter.

VII .

. Since the Solftitial Colure is a great Circle,· that is :tlfo a Meridian, or pa(feS through the Poles of the Earth and. Ecliptick : And fwe befides the Diftance between the Vertex of. ehe Uinar Circle and the Pole of the Earth, we {ball 'Want the An&1e included between the Colure.and that Line; rhis alfo muft be obtained by the like Solution of a Spherical Triangle: Of which hete-

alrer. .

VIII.

Since the great Circle that pafi'es thro' the Po_ of the Earth, and of the Lunar Circle, and that alone cuts both thofe Circles, and their Parallels at Right Angles, That. Meridian, and that alone wherein that Diftance lies, is perpendicular to the Patb of tbe Mooll's Center along the other ; and will determine the Point in that Path wherein the Center of the Shadow cuts that Meridian

-at Right-Angles and approaches neareft of all to the Pole ot [he Earth: And indeed lays [he Foundation of our future Calculations. .This Meridian I call The Primary Mtridion.

IX. The

"

The angular Diitande about the pcJleof Qe Earth, of the NeekHan t'at is dire&d to tbe Sun: at ~he middle Point of tie whole Eclipfe from the. prima'; Meridiatl, is compofed of the Sum or piffercnc.e .of the Angle made by the SoJftitial CQILl~ and the priJnary 'Meridian; ,and of the Complement af the: Sun's Right AfCenfion at the mid~e bf the geneial Solar 'Eclipfe. Which Angle is of the greateft Confequen~ ,in pur future Calcilations, This Angle I call 'be Pri..,

.Mgle. I

~~

~. ,

Since the Modon ct the Center of the Shadow of the Moon" in Solar. Etlipies, is neadJ even, and nearly 'reEH·linear ; fince .it is alfo in the Plane of the Lunar Circle; and is all one as if it were along a Line that roached that Circle at ~ Middle. of the general EcUpfe, the Point of Contaft , We muO:, divide each Olladram of 90 Degrees into" 90 or 180 unequal Parts: but' fo that the DiffercIICI -of the Stnes of thofe unequal Angles may be equal, aad ~ or Tiro of the entire Radius: Tbat forbe 6rft.Sine ;,~ may be~~!;~._; the fecond 1~ ~ the thut! I~' t:5 c . and this from the Table of natt' 1 Sines, with their correfponding Arts or A leis at the Vertex, as fol-

lows:, .. ;' "

, '! ~,

ArcS. D:I'.Si_
, ~
!>iff. •
I,Ll I
o II y
,
19L1 o 38 J
I,Ll •
o 57 "I" 19L1 I) S
1 1
"_' r II I •
T
'J9I.1 . ;
r 541
I'~l S I; •
..
',co "II I 4
191.~ a 5' •
T
1,_" 3 n 1 J
19L' 3 ;0 •
y
"c" I 4' 1 6
J9L2. S ~
'i'
4
"co "81 7
19L3 : 47 I
'i'
19\.3 6 S'
S 19\.; I
5 's T
19L; 544 9
19\.3 , 3. •
T
'M '"31 10
ISIL4 •
6 42.,; 'i' [ ~'l ]

A:teI._

Dil'. • , 19L4 _ 1 7 I,L4 se

7 •

"L5 7 40

19L5 7 59 191.5 S 18

II

191.5 8 s 7 •
T
.,;, 8 57 1 14
I
19~6 9 16 T
191.6 , 36 15
19L6 9 SS /.!.
'.
19L7 I'
10 14
19L7 I
10 33 'i'
I'Ll 3 17
10 S
19L7 no •
'i'
11 .
19L711 32. IS
19L\1 SI .J 191.7 no II 19
19L8 •
u 30 T
. 191.8 u SO 2.
9 S • ,
I L Ie '5'
I; •
19L813 30.1 ~I
Area. 14 48 ~J

IS 8 f IS 2S 24

Arcs.

Dit£. 0 , 19.8

13 4' 19L9

14 9

~o

14 ~S

20

20

20

11 48 t

~O.I

16 7 /'5

~Ot.1

16 ., . +

:'0.1

16 47 ~6

~OL2.

J1 1 +

1012

17 27 A7

~o.a

I; 47 i-

SOL2 •

II 8 a8

20.;

18 as l ·20.3

IS 412.9 2.01.;

19' t 2.01.3

.19 2.8 So

2.0.4

I, 48 -l:

::,oL4

.2.0, ,I

20L\0 2, II t

• J

Arcs. 'I DitF.siaes Dit: . 0' !!'i~l,

2.01.S

~OSO 32

. :.o(S

U 19 ~OLS

2.1 30 ~01.6

2.J SO 201.6.

2.2. II SOL7

.u 3& 2.0L7 .

un 2.oL8

£3 13 2.0.9· ,

S3 34

[ . .2 3 ]

.8

AILI

S4 38 ar, ..

14 S$J 21L2-

"5 2.0 ~IL2

25 41

2.IL2.

2.6 2 2..IL;

26 2.3

2.IL;

26 44

2.1.4

27 6 2IL4

27 27

21.6

a7 49.1. 42

~~

21

.i

f

41

DitF.sines

Dil: ., BI[U.il.

SIL7 &811 SILS

loS 3' lUL9

=-8 Sf

SSLO

-9 If :lS!.1

S9 38.

as!.,

SO 0

S~L3 SO Z'l SSa.4

50 44 '46

s2.L6

~I ~ S2.L8

,1 ,I

:&3 .. 1

.J! 2.9

:&31.2.

A3L4~'J. 141 ~ 36" :&;LS

~'J. S9

'31.6

\31 2,11.

:&31.6

33 4S 2.3 .. 7

34 9 :r.3L~

;4 31.

~;l9

il4 S4 2,3 .. 9.

04.~:: :: I ';

.•.. I

": ... ,II.

·10

If '11- ]

f

43.

f.

44

t

4S

.-1-

f

••

, - ,
; i ~gl.;
.---
0 19t.1
S 19LI
to ISL8
:U t8L4
20. 171..9
:~ ~S j7L~
,30 l6LS
-. ,"___' t.,
,
" , )

, '-

,

J. Nt

N. B. Where the. fpa11el is different from that at the very MU.ne o( the Ec:lipfe; as it ufually is; you muft increaQ: or decreafe the ' ·(f_~til, wtJ.tt_:.fYf~jlJ. 'r~pqttion '.:the~4. __ itqsk:-tla"t:

•• ~ ~-' ,'-;.,,: • 'I ! f' ~, j

E. G. If the Co-latitude at the Middle of the Eclipfe be 6.0°, and come to be 400 ; 13y, As 867 to 643, So is J9LI to 1412 ,. which is there to be taken in Us Read.

,

. N. B. The Hint that I had feveral Years ago, that in the Determination of Solar Eclipfes the Eq/lality -.of the Difference of Sines was made IIr • -, ~. by Dr. HalJey, was the Occafion of the Ilij! coveries in tbeic Papers.

, ..

. ,

..,' :, : .. ~l:, "',XLi ': '

.'. . I .

.• -, I' '.lJ.

: ". . The perpendiCular Diftance of every ,poiafor the Penumbra; and the: like Diftance ,of:eyery Point of the total Shadow from the Path of tll~ , . Moon's Center', may be .difcovered by Tables

, made from the natural Sines; 'where thofe Sines themfelves, as before, d~er equally, or in arithmetical Progreffion, aCc;ordi~_g to the Duration of the whole Ecllpfe , or oCtdtal DarknefS: and their Co-fines c~rrerpond ~ the Diftances from that Path. Botl) which T3¥es here follow :

• .. __ :..,.l~,

, - ,

" ,

" I

• t .'.r

',':,. .:,) ... '!.:' .}

"

\

~,

.

of

, .

. ' ,

..;. .. - .

.-

... -

,

"

:[ '3° ]
'-""'l·~ S'.
in MiJUlt. ..in Mlles. ~
-} 166& JH4
61 l6U r35° 4-
t J~ t·· I '.JfMf
r6:. 1_:- S. . .,~S
t ~s. oj ·1""
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a DU T ' J ~o,.
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, aPf} 1 , uSp
T
"5 .~ '4 n6p
, ~jj,6 .J. IHS
1" a
66' 1589 '5 . , 1246,
..!. ~1B~ f UJ~

067 ~tl1 86 , ' uz.,.
.. r .8 .!. IIlp -
T a
68 ,.1 8, .,~ I
t ~4 ; u88 5
69 ,1:'5*1-6 J -uS"
'i" ,;
, .11=3$ ,8 IJ~ _
T
70 :1~t i- II
, l~ ~9 114,7
2
71 :.J.~I of- 1I~
, ~ .$~4 ,0 ' I~
. ' 1513 ~ , 110(1
T
,Z. .. ~, ,r 109&
.t ~S .J. !~
J •
73 ;,J'49C1 8:' ° ~
~ : :1i)8:1 · ' 10f,O
• . Y' .
74- :lJ474 ~3 103ft'-
t :1'45' 10" 6
15 :1-448 t I,O~7
T . ,t43~ ~4- JOQO
7' ; .1'430 • 983
T
"i" ,1'424- ;95 ) 9;1
17 14U. " .19'.'
" J
" ,Il4,oS -;.96 , 917
,78 !~.9" , l 91;9
:1'
.J. , ·~S .. tfJ7 r~
J
:", 1374 r ! 8~
..
, 'r;.6~ $98 . ~ . S~
i"
~ -
" ~&-
° , Duration J)i inMinut. i

100'

[ 31 ) .

·ftaoe ... 'ifJb
11 :MIles.' ~ thiMinur.
..
Q44 ~~, t r
1 f:
s . J
4
1'05
184 : ...I.
..
17; . I
l'
162. '~ 'f
l51 . I- .06
39 +: t
'2.8
716 f
704
,ere 8 t07
1s91 .. ..!.
..
619 . ..!.
&66 ;a
1.
~S3 108
639
62.5 .I.
6n 4
'97 -I
',82. ~
,66. .• D1tI.ace o·
...
in Miles. ~
.
-
.5S0
SU 9
H4
.. ,17
!
. . ~ :.
+f.~
'~I
3f9
376 J7S
10
3~2.
·3~
11.88
2.,S
.2.2.6 :ioU r 11
ISO
119 ~I"
000 [ 3~ ]

...

Dura.·

( 33 ]
Duration ru ..... j Doration D~nc.
in Sec~. in~iles. in SeeN. in ilcS:
-- --
II . l'
1$ 4flo III 1JL4
74 4+-8 1l,S 37~
'is 44~6" 113 3'L
?~ I 44LS 1I4 I 36LS
17 44.3 11; 3'L2.
18 44_1 116 3SL9
?9 4tLO 117 HL6
60 I 431.8 JIS I 3SL3 .
81 43L7 119 HLa
82. 43L' uo 341.7
83 43L~ 111 3M
84 I 431.:' . J2,:&. 341.1
8S 43LO 12.3 HI.I
86 4~L9 U.4 331.4
.. 87 1 ~1.7 U, 33L-
88 4:&1.' 1:&6" ~I.1
19, 4:&L3 1:&7:. 3'1.4
90 ~I.l u8 . 3~Lt
91 411.9 I U9 31L7
9:& 4IL7 130 31.3
93 4ILS 131 301.9
94 41L3 1;:& 30LS
'S 4ILI I IH 30LI
96" 40L9 13. 19L7
97 40'-7 IH :&9L3
98 ~LS I 136 :&SL9
'9 40LJ 137 dLS
100 4OLO 138 :.8Lo
101 39LS i39 ~7LS
10:' I 391.6 I 140 :&71.1
103 39L4 141 :.6L6
104- 391.1 143- :.6L'
.105 3S~8 143 'SL6
106 38L6 I 144 2.SLI
107 I ;~L4 14, 2.41.6
JO~ 3~LI 146 "4LQ
le9 371.9 I I 147 l. 2.;LS
110 37L6 148 :'31.0
E 1)9.
, [·34 ]

, Duration I DHIan" \ Duration I Diibo.ce
jn Sec\II. ,~~ in Sec.... inMila.
--
" . If. :
149 I ul4 • 59 ·1 ""9
l,e :u .. 8 J60 14<.0
151 ~~LI I J61 ~:1l9
J,~ ., :;'01.5 . .., I .. ·,1
15' 190.8 I I. I1~3 10L4
,lS4 190.1 164, 819
·JH I J8L.~ I "5 ".
lSi 17L6 I . 166 i 4<.4
)'1 16L7 166 j' 01.0
ISS lSL9
Semidiamcter of the Umbra or Total Dark ..
nefs == 50 Miles. . }cII..

. The Angles at the Vertex of the Lunar Cire&: on each Side of the Point of Co~taa, by Reafon of the perpendicular Situation of that Axis to its own Circle; are always right Angles: Only di-

r minifh'd in the Proportion of the Minutesdefcrib'd by the Annual Motion during the Continuance of the Eclipfe. Thus in our prefent Ec1ipfe, which retains the Center of the Shadow near three Hours upon the Earth's Dlfk, in whicb :rime the. annual Motion amounts to about 8' ; each of thofe right Angles in Stri8:nefs are to be efleem'd only 89() 56', and both'rogether 17~

. 52'. . Only becanfe the Refraaion of the Rays of the SUIl through our Atmofpbere, requires a fomewhat greater~Il1creafe of this Angle, than the annual Motion requires its Diminution, I fhall wholly;oltlit it, 'in all my Calculations -hereaftet.

XlII.

.

I 35.]

.. ,

,

, .. " -.: ,.' "XIU~, :.. .. ;:i ; '/

. the A~gt~s mage at tbe...~o~ of tb~ p~rttit which {hew the DifFerence ~or,the, two eKtlemC

~erjdiaIjs~ an~ .lj~it the E~t~t :Of'f~ entif~ C~j\P ttal Eclipfe,.· by r~ronor the Ob~iq~ity . of tbtl ~ttHts Axi~(~' ;v.ia~. Lunar Cir<;l~ ,: are . ufuaUy unequal to .. 0J,l~ .a~ot!":[.;. and mese or ~~. th~a t~.ice 90~ ~ 1~~.~11pl~ happens at_ dllfer~ Latitudes or rne:MQOn,and Ti~~ of the Year., : ~

.. : ·XIV·:;····· : "

. . ....

·.The MerJ'aiiNhar'pa*~ t~rPuib theMidd~ o~'C~ntral fCllgt qrgeoe~afSpJat Eclipfes, is tbt; ~me with ;tll'~t' :\IV~lcb pa[f~.s :t~i'ough .rhe ~ of the SI:1~::~t t~$:ft1me Time,' when t~ MOQIl h~ no.Udt!!~.-ard ,tbe .. 'J;t1ip~s are 0:, ritia,l i,1l the Pla~e"t!(*' td!P.tcl(;.:a~; ~o whe~·[hel happen 10 erthet~otllice~. Otherwde the Moon s Latitude being taken 'perp€ndicular to the Plane of. the Eclip~i.c~; 3:nd the neardl· Dlttante of the .Moon's MotiQl.rbeing ~n, perpendlcularre theLunar Circl~"wJ1ae the. M~i~ians always para througl; the P.oles.·pf tbe Earth-, .. there.Two Meridianswill, gener~]y fpeaking, be different, and. rhein incl!lded Angle no. otherwi~e to be known than by rrigo~etry; as ~iU appearhereai=-

ter. .'

XV .. ,

. 'The Dlmenfions of the Pernithbra, or entire

" Eclipfe, and the Extent' of the total Shadow on the Earth, are continually diiferent,accordigg to the differei'Jt Flevations of the Sun and Moon above ~ny particular Horizon, F<>I as the Moon is about the fame Diftancefiom every Place, when it is in its Horizon, as it is from the Earth's Cen-

F 2 '\.~"

[ 36 ]

ter it felf; with regard to which Center alone our fult Calculations are always made: So wben it is in the Zenith of any Place, it if one Semidiametef of the Eanh nearer it; . which Semi(\iameter being ufual!J ~ and at our next EclipfC n-LT of its entire Diftance, as will ~appear .bereafret, will deferve an Atlowance. Nor wUl. an_y tefft:[ Elevation of the Moon be whotly: inconfiderable in Eclipfes, but in all accurate Determinations thereof mult be particnlar!y computed in order to the diftin8:Knowledgeofthe Extent or fhch Eclipfes , efpecially of the Breadth of the Total. Shadow therein. Accordingly we are to obferve that this Breadth of the Total Shadow wUJ certainly be at. this Eclipfe confiderably gteatel' over North .A.merictJ; where the Luminaries ~. greater -elevated above the Horizon; tball over f,Mrope, where they are much nearer it ; as this Qt.:. colation requires: Of which hereafter.

XVI.

The Figure of the' entire PClIum!JrtJ, or~· ral Ecllpfe , arid of the U.bra, or Total Darknefs; as they appear upon every Country, is different, on account of the different Obliqui!r' of every Horizon; and will make Ovals or Ell1pfes of different Species perpetually. This in the "aft PClI111IIhrtJ is heft underftood by fuch an Inftrument as my Cuper_'II; or by the Perufal of a very fcarce Book written by P. COllrjier, (PbiloJ. TrallftEl. No. 343. p. 2S9.) and cited by Dr. Hal, ley : Which diftinfily treats of the Interfeaioa

of a Conical and Spherical Surface. But in the fmaller Umbra, or Total Darknefs, which is confined to a much narrower Compafs, it very nearly 'approaches to the InterfeB:ion of a conick Sui£ice with a Plane, whicb is a true Ellipfis.

l,CVII.

[ 37 ] , XVII,

'.

. the $pecjel of that, Ellip6s depends on the

Sun's Altitude above the Horizon at the Time: of Total DarkneiS; as does the' PojitiM of irs Jon.;. ger, Axis on tbe Azimuth of tbe SUjI, at the W1ic Time., Nor is it at all nece~ tbit the Direai,. on of this or any other Ellipfis hld he along either of tbe Axes; . ~t may as welll»e along 3Df

other Diameter w~oever. "r.,' , ',:._ j

, , '

. " XVIJI.

The Dire8ion of the Center of the Shadow js according to rbe Dktaiori of t\'e Neon's 140- tion, along, the Plane, 9f the Lunat, -Circle ;~ as compounded with the digmal, MotiOn " 'or,wiIl tbe Djre(tion and: v.~ of thole Pans of tile .Earrhcver whi~b iJ-. ' ; and. w.ill.be herea& ter broeght to Calc tion. AJJd: indeed :tbis Angle may be had, either by finding the feveral Points of the Path of tbe"Moon's Way upon the Ear.th", in as many ,~~ridians·as we plea1e, and. drawing;l curve Lt~e .. through thote ,Points;- or by folving ,3 SpbeiicaJ,',TIiangle, whore SidC;S a~ the ~()rnplements of tbe~titu~e$ ~ ~o .nejg~ hourmg Places equally dtftant, &'./1' and' Wejl, ,from the Place YOD work for; and wl10fe included Angle is, tbe Angle at the Pole fUired to the Difference of their Meridians; ana taking balf the the two Angles at the, Bafe', the one internal and the' other external, for "the, Angle d~'d: Of

, which hereafter.

XIx..

Every El1ipfis, made by tbe obli~ Seaion cL a Cone, has the InrerfeEbon of the (Fig. I.) Axis ef the Cone Cat rome Diftance iom the CeDrer. ~

, tlu:

[ 38.]

the Ellipfis D. And the Proportion of tbore unequal Di vifions B C and C A are the fame with tliat of the" Sides of the Cone Y B and Y .d': As appears by the (E1e •• III. 6:) Elements of &clitl. Whence it Is evident, that the proper Center of the total Sbal0w in Eclipfes'of the Sun, or that m;lde by the, Axis of tbe Cone, is not the' ame "ith the Center of the E11iptick Shadow; and ~t the PlIOpOrtion of it~ Diftanc:e from . that Cenrer may be eanly determin'd by the Propof!tion here refer'd to: Of which more hereafter.

. '

.'; :.J ,. '" . .

: ,&bO!U,III." This Ellipfis, when the Sun'is of .11. cpnfule1'3ble 'Altitude, is almoft an exaft one, . hit ,when the Son Is near t~ Horizon, it ~m be very long, and fo·lefs eXaa~;- becaufe the:Spheri:-Cal Surface·of the Earth is' at'that Diftance more

DtDote from :i Plane. ' .. ~ tr·" .: • ':, : " '

" ..

xx " .. ,".,

.. . ~ . .,. .. .

• • • I

. ,. ".he per~ai~ular ''S;iaJih ',of t he S~~dbW· is neither t,h1t,~r:the longer" nor-that of the Ihofter 1\xis·: But tMt of the two tongeft Perpendiculars (.ftt.' 2.),.8. B and~:,CD drawn ·from the Tangents 1l3r'aUel to ;~~ Diameter DB, along which the Dtteaioh of theMotion \s: The lengrh of. which. .~~rpendieular,s will he hereafter determined.

XXI,.

, The VelrJdity of the Motion of the Center of the Shadow is unequal; not only on account of the I;>.i~nce of the Moon's own Motion, at rhe ~ning and ending of the entire Ec1ipfe; . which indeed Is very in~rifiderable; hut chii:fty ~'·ttafen of·Ute -Difference of the Obliquity Of .' . • the

1"39 ]

the Horizon an ~e.'Way pf its .. p"mge •. Ho,w .. ~ ever, fince the feveral Points may, hi all :M~1~ dians be diftinaly found by Trlgonometry," as we Ihall thew prefe'ntly, this Inequality need create us no new Difliculty in t~e D~elmi~don

of Eclipies. - .. ',. . . .. : . A?

XXII' . I ..... ..'.

• . •. ' t: • .., I

The Number ofDigi!$ etlips;d ;.;w~ic~ m.t twelfth Parts of the .. Suns Dj,~m7~o/' .wIth f.~ gafimal Parts of' the tame Digtts;' are alW3yS td be eftimated- as djft~na, fro", t~ wtal ShadqW"~ and may be difcovered. by the help of t he fo~6~~ ing Table, p. 29,30,31. Where the Digits are aIrea.:.' dy noted at every proper Diftance from the Padt of the Moons Center ; and where the intermedi~te Fraction lAiU5 is, more exaa tun r;-; but, I w~ich! by dividing that NuII!bet",-it,;L ~ .bJ ;"7') WIll give thofe S~genma1s, wlthQUt'any tart~. Trouble. The Application of.t~at·T~b~ will be; taught hereafter. . . " . . -:I

XXln·' .,.

! ,. . I'

. .

The DifliJlIce 'of ~he: Vertex of die 'conical Sba~' dow of the Moon, which fotnetimes jolt rt.t~i the Surface of.rn: Earrh, as-_I1i 1o~al. Edi~r.~. jine flJorJ, Sometimes -d()~ not- reaCh It; as in~

Annul~r ~cljpfes; add' ~ometim~ ~ oyer~f reach It ', If ,tt ~e .. ~ot 'Jntercept~ ;: as m .t~~a11 Eclipfes, t1l11l flMl1; may be ealily·dlfcovered :a~ any time by the a1Jal~y following:. As P C ~ (Fig. 3.) Semidillmeitt:of the MOb!1 ~'94t-g~ graphical Miles is to CV the Diijanc;e of the ~9(>n nom that Verrex. d::' ~~1ooo-~:' ~ i~·~"l ~ 4~ the. f~lleft Semidiame~er of, t'be~ ~l' S~~Q. ' whicb ,5 me &me ~~;~,the-~ar;~~4~ t

felf, -«. the~ ,~~ '.~,:~f. !~}r~'

[ -1-0 ]

fiom = 10316, wbichis thus: 941 :21$000:: 41 :10316.

XXIV.

. The Determination of the Circumftanccs of Solar Eclipfes, for any given Dlllance from the Path eX the Moon's Center, either way, has DO J)CW DifficultY' in it; but is' to be. made juit as is that for the Center of the Penumbra. Only the Quantity of the Dlftance of the Vertex of the !,una. Plane from that Circle, will be different ~ .'the Path of the Moon's Center it !elf might be at another Eclip1e, of otherwife the fame ~- .. cwnftances.

xxv.

, If Two Bodles .A and B fet out together, th~ onefiom.d, the other from B: and meve evenly forward in a 'known Proportion as to Velocity ; the -Point C will be determined where the fwifter, ml1 overtake the flower, and. they will be, coincident. Thus if the Velocity of.d, (Fig.4.) be to that of B, as S to I, the Proportion of the Lines .A B tQ BCwill be as 4 to I, and if we add I, to 4 .:,.._ S we have the- place C wber~ the fwifter will overtake the flower. Thus if their Velocities, be to each other as SL48 to I, the Lines of their Motion' .d Band B c, will be as 4 ..... 48 to I. So that if we take in the former Caie ~ of J B and. in the Otber ~Tr of .d B , and add it to A B, we

, pin d~ the pifrance of the Point C from A '

',Groll_ary. If therefore .d reprefent the 0:0. • 9f tbe Shadow of a Solar Eclipfe, as it is J)lac'd at the, Middle of the general Ec1ipfe; and B ,Gree1lU1icb at the fame Moment of abfolute time; ; and'it a known OOance fIoM the middle

, . Point ~

"

" ( 4( ]

Point; and if the Velocity of the center of the Shadow along the Circle be to the Velocity of Greenwich in its diurnal Motion as >L 48 to I, if we ad 4t_ 48 of' trheir Diftance at their fetting out to that known Diftance, we ohrain the Point or Place where the Center of the Eclipfe will

~ overtake Greenwich, or the Time when the Eclipfe will be at the Meridian of GrH1lA1icb.." AIId. this whether the Center and Greenwicb move along the fame Line as AB C, or twO different Lines, as A Be and abc.

XXVI.

The Duration of Solar Eclipfes is different, according as their Middle happe rs about Six in the Morning or Evening; or aoout Noon; or about any intermediate Time. If that happens about Six a-Clock, Morning or Evening; the diurnal

, Merion then neither much confpires with, nor oppefes the proper Motion of the Center of the Shadow; and the Duration is almoft the fame as it would be if the Earth had no diurnal Morlon at :111. If that happens about Noon, the diurnal Motion moft of all confpires with that proper Motion of the Cenrer , and makes the Duration ~f the Ecllpfe the longeil poflible. If ii, happens in the intermediate Times, the diurnal Motion, in a lets Degree, confpires with the other Morion, and makes the Duration of a mean Qpantity, between that of the other Cafes .. But if it happens confiderably before Six a-Cock in the Morning, or after Six a-Cock in the Evening, the diurnal Motion is backward, and fhorrens that ~uration proportionably. Of the Quantity of which" Durarion we fhall enquire more hereaf-

ter, ..

G

P RQ-

[ 4~ ].

fR.O B L E 1\'1 S.

I.

To find the neareD: Diftance of the Path of the Moon's Center, to the Center of the Difk ~f t. Earth, as feen at the Diftance of the Mo-n in the total Eclipfe of the Sun .d. D. 172+ May 11°.

P. ill.

This. is equal to the Moon's nue latitude at the Time of the Conjuntlion in her own Orbit; and is fet down in the Calculation ~2' J9"·

It ~

To find the Sun's Declination at the Middle "of

the Ec1i pfe. " "

As the Radius of the Circle: is to the Sine of rbeSun's Longitude-at thatTime==61' ~9"::

So is the Sine of the Sun's greateD: Declination. == 2~0 29' : to the Sine of the Sun's

" Declination then. '.

Rad, J O. 000000

S. 61" ~9' 9· 944> 14

S. 230 29' 9. 600409 ,. II

S. . ,8. 544923 == 20 ~

= Declination <:>.

III .

. To find the Sun's Ritbt .Afce.nJion for the fi.m~

TIme. .

As the Radius : to the Coline of the Sun's greateft Declination ::. So. is the Tangeritof tbe Sun's Latitude: to the Tangent of tile Sun's ri,ht ~on. Rad~

[43 ]

Rad. JO.

Sin. 66 3 I . 9· 962453

Tang.e r 39 10. 2679,)2 0 I

rang. Right Afcen. 10. 2,040,) :::; 59 31 Compl. 30 29 IV.

To find the Di]lauc between the Vertex of the Lunar Circle and the Pole of the Earth.

Let (Flg.S.) E P reprefent the Diftance between the two Poles of the Earth, and of the Ecliptick: = 23° ~9'. EV the Diftance between the Pole of tbe Ecliprick, and the Vertex of. the

. Lunar Circle: ==5° 36'. P EV the,Angle made by rheSolflltial Colure P E: (in which the t~o Poles of the Earth, and of the Ec1iptick 'always are) and that Arc E V. And becaufe t he Sun is here 280 21' diftant from that Colure, which is the Complement of its Longitude from .Arill ~ aad the Afcending Node, or Argument of Latitude is then So 49' diftant from the Sun backward; The Sum of thefe Numbers gives 34°

, . JO', whofe Complement is the' Angle V E R ~. 55° 50'. In. order then to gain Y P proceed tbus :

R. 10..

,CS YER. SS So. 9· 7494~9

," T. YEo S 36 8. 991451 • I

T. RE ,1S. 74°880::;;: '3. 10.

'+ 23. 2~. _ 26. ;~ ..

Thenr~y, 0

cs, RE 3 9 9· 99234~

CS. V E 5 36 9. 997922

CS .. P R 26 39 9. 951222

. 19. 949144 0 I

cs: p V;; 9· 94iijQI = 21 .•

- G2

011

[ 44 ] V.

"In the fame Triangle V P E, to find the Angle VP E, included between dw Colure E P, and the Prime Meridian P V.

o ,

S. P V 27 o. 9. 6)7047 S. VER ss So. 9. 917719 S. IrE 5 36. 8. 989374-

e ., . 18. ~07098

S VP E = 9. 249961 = 10 IS

CoroTlgy, The Primary Angle, compofed. of 'the Complement of tbe Right Afcenfion, and of

this Angle VP E, is = 40044'. '

Compl. Rad. 300 29' + 10 U =40 44

VI.

To find the Dijlallte of the Pole or Vertex of the Lunar Circle from the Circle it fel£

•. As the Semidiameter of the Eartb'sDi1k = 61' ~S": To the Latitude of the Moon, or neareft DiRance to the Path of the Moon's Center from the Center of the Difk;32° 19' :: So i$ the Radius': to the Sine of the Complement of that Dlflance, In Decimals, thus: 6J'L63 : 32'L3z:: 10000:

S244 == S. ;ro 38', whore Complement is SSo 22' : equal to the Diflance of the Lunar Circle from its Vertex.

VII.

To find the ,.A~le included between the Meridi-an thilt: pafles through the Center of the general Eclipfe, and that JXlffing through the Center of the Sun at the 1imc Time.

, . III

..

[ 4; ]

In the Triangle (Fig. 6.) .M S P where the Side S P is already given,:::: Complement of the Sun'5 Declination; find the Angle M S P th1,1S :

R. 10.

S.of the Sun's Diftance "nom the Solftitial Co-

lure: == 280 21' 9.6y6s6!

S. of the Sun's great eft

Dcclination= 230 29' 9. 600409 0 ,

i. of an Angle '9- 276971:; 10. 5' ....

"To which add the Angle of the

. Moon's Way: + S' 30

. The Sum is the Angle M S P == 16. ~o

Then, in the fame Triangle P .itf S, we have two Sides: M S equal to the Latitude of the Moon. or the length of the Perpendicular to the Moon's way = ; 10 38'. and P S == 690 28'. and the included Angle M S P == 160 30'. to find iH P S \bus:

a I~ .

o ,

CS. M-SP. 16.30• 9. 9~I774 T. S.N. 3 I. 38. 9. 789>8)

T. R M. == '9. 7713>9 = 30 ~4 MR . + ~l ~8 MS

t:::i. '62 12 R S

9· 97149~

'.946138

9. 47160)

'9. 418343 0

T. MPS ;:::' 9. 4468)0:::: IS 38

+ 4044

:::: 56 22=An~

81e w.itb the Primary Meridian.

Then fay,

S. SP. 69.28. S. SR. 62. 12.

T. MSP. 16. 30.

VIII.

[46 :] VIiI.

1'0 find the Longitude and Latitude of the Center of the Shadow at the Middle of the general Eclipfe; or to folve the primary Triangle.

Under Problem IV. we have found the Diflaece of the Vertex of the Lunar Circle from the Pole of the Earth = 270.0'., Under Problem VI. wehave foond the Diftance of that Vertex from its Circle = S8o• 22'; and under the taft Problem we have found the Angle at the Pole of the Earth, between the Primary Meridian, and that Meridian which paifes through the Center of the Edipte, = 160 22'. From which datil the Primary Triangle (Fig. 7.J is thus to be folv'd :

R.

to.

o

cs. CP ~ 56. 22. 9. 743412 T. VP. 27. o. 9.707166-

T. P R. = I). 46 .. : 9. 45057~

Then tay,. _

CS. yp 27. - o. ' 9: 949880 .. Cs. P'R;. IS· 46. 9· 98334> CS. ye. 58. 22. 9.719730

19. 70_307> 0

CS. PC. 9. 7>319,=)S. 30

Deduct PR== 1,_ 46

Rem'. ~. Pc. == 3.9. 44 . - Ergo Lat. = 50. 16

To find ~ Angle' at. tltc; Vertex CVP, pro-teed in this Manner :

5. CY,

..

[ -t1 ]

o , .

s. cv. ·58. 22. 9. '3014>

S. c P.!t. 56. 22. 9. 920436 S. PC. 39. 44. 9· 805647.

19. 726083 0 ,

~. CVP. = 9. 795938.= 38 41

The fQl10wing Analogy will give vep the Complement ot the Angle which the Dire8:iQIJ ' of the Center of the f4jpfe mattes with the Meridian, that Dire!UoD beingperpenditqlar tc? V C

o

S. ev. 58. 22. 9. 93014> a CP ~ 56. 22. 9· 920436 -s, V P. 27. o. 9· 6)7047

19. 577483 0

S. yep. = 9. 647338 =26. 21 Compl, = .63. 3'

Corollary. Hence we alfo learn the moO: No,-.' sbern Latitude, where the Center of the Shadow will crofs the Meridian at Noon, and at right Angles: And this without any particular diftiri8:' Cafculation. For V.t_ = 580 22' - VP 27ft 0' = P~=·31· 22'. whofe Complement = SSo 38'. is that very Nortbern Lztilude. _

IX.

To find tbe Longitt~de and Latitlll, of tho Center ·of tbe Shadow,' when it croffes the Meridiall' tli~t pa'{fes through the Center of the Sun at the Middle of the Eclipfe; or to folve tp~.' . tccoad pri'nCipai Triangle;

, .

If

[ 48 ]

If in the foregoing Triangle we fuppofe the Angle at the Pore to be equal to the Primary Angle, or 400 44'. we may thus folv~ this Trian-

. ~le: .

R. 10.

o ,

cs. CPt: 40. 44- 9· 879;29

T. Y P. 27. o. 9. 707166 Q ,

T. P R.. == 1,9· s,8669S. == 21 7.

Thea ray, . •

, <:s. VP. 27. o. 9. 949880 CS. P R. 21. 7. 9. 9c98n ~. ve. S8. 22. 9· 719730

. 19. 6(39;41 0'

es. C.R.== 9. 73,661 == S6 42

.. DeduEl: 21 7-

Remt. C P. 3S 35 . ~go,Lat.· 5,4 25

. To _Ad the Angle at the Center of the 'Eclipfe

YCP,proceed thus:'· . . ,

• 0 ,

S. Vc. S8. 22. 9. 93014S

S. C P -!, 40. 44. 9. 814607 S. YP. 27. o. 9· 6n047

'. 19. 471654 0 "

S. CV~. = 2. >'41}?9~ 2? 22

X.

To ~n4 the Ln1lgitude and LrtituJ~ of the Center of tbe Shadow at its Entrance on the Dilk of the Earth: Or to folve the third Princi~' Triangle. . ,

Add the vertical Angle already: found = 380 . . p' to a right Angle at the Vertex; = 90 + 380" 41';; 128°.41' this is equal to the Angle at the " 4' . . , Vel-

[ 49 ]

ta: CV P. Subftt:a8: this Angle from two dgbt Angles. 1800 - 128'. r 41' =:;:; > 10• I", in or .. der to gain the Supplement, .whole Sines, fffc. arc the fame with the others. ( Fig. 8.) Then tay,

R.

10.

o ,

cs. C.YP. J'I. 19· 9· 79i891

. T. YP. 27. 0. 9. 707166 • I

. . T. YR. = '9. )030)7 == 17 4o::::VR + )8 22 VC = 76 02:::;CR

Then fay,

\

o

I,

Q. V R. 17. 40• 9· 97901, CS. V P. 27. 00. 9. 949880 CS. CR. 76. 02. 9. 382661

19. 332)41 0 ,

cs. CPo =::; 9. 3>3S,22 =76: >7 Ergo, Lat. 13. Cl3

In order to find the Angle at the Pole V P c, whore Supplement is the Longitude 0(. tllat Pobu where the Center of the Shadow enters the DHk of the Earth from the Primary Meridian, preceed thus: .

• 0 ,

S. C·P. 76; n. 9 .. 9886~6 S. CVP. )1. 19. 9· 89243> S. Cv. f8. 22. 9· 93014)

.. ,. . . ] 9. 8~2)8QUb 0

........ S. VPC':::: 9. 8339.#+='43- 01

. " . .. SlJppl.J a6 : S.9

To fiOd tl1e Angre vep, proceedthus :

...

II S.CP.

[ ;0 ]

.5. C P. 76. 57. 9. 988636

-So evp. ;1. 19· 9· 89243S •

, S. V P. 27. 00. 9· 6no47

. . 19· 549482 e ,

s. vep. = 9. 560846 = 21. 20

XI.'

To find the Longitude and Latitude ~ of' ~he Center of the Shadow at its Exit from the DHk of the Earth; or to folve the fourth Principal Triangle.

Subfira8:, the Angle already found3So 41' from a right Angle 900 - 38e 41' , )I 0 1.9 = Angle at the Vertex PVC ( Ftg. 9,') Then

fay, ,

R. 10.

o ,

es. PVc. S J. 19. 9. 79,891

T. PY. 27. 00. 9. 707166 0 ,

T. V R. i9. 5030>7:::!:: J7 40 from,8 22

Remrr 40 42 =~c.

!,hen iy,

·e ,

CS. YR. 17. 40. 9 .. 979019 cs. P V. 27· 00. 9. 949880 CS. R C 40• 42. 9. 879746

19. 829626 0 '. I

CS. P c= 9. 8)0607 = 44-' ,i ..

Ergo, Lat. 45. ' ~~. :

.. .

In order to find the Angle ~PC, or the Longitude of that -Point where the Center of the Shadow departs out of the Difk of the Earth, from the Pr~mary Meridian, proceed thus; . , .

: . . '.. ~. f: J '.,'

~ CP ..

[ ;1 ]

o ,

s: C e. 44. 5 I. 9· 848345 S. PVc. 5 J. 19· 9· 89243> .' ·S. ve. 58. 22. '9· 930145

19· 822580 • I

S •. ~p c::= 9. 974235 == 70• 27' + q6 59' == 207 26

And for the Angle V C P thus;

'r, ..» 0 I

:. "$· .. ·CP.· 44. 5i. 9· 848345 · S. PVc. 51. 19. 9· 892435 · ,So ·VP. 27· 00. 9· 6)7047

· . t 9. 549482' . G I

S. vep. = 9. 701137'= 30. 10 .

' .

.

',"

. D?ro.l1o')'. . Hence the Angular Motion of -the ~entet of the Eclipfe about the Pole of the Earth, ~.t~ere were no diurnal Motlon , is 2Q7°.·2.6' •

. I ". • . .. . .' ••

:...:_. .:) .', .'

r .

XII ...

t To 'find tbe Time in which the Center of th~, ~~ow ~i11 go over .the Diameter of the L':lnat.i Cl1t1e.. .. ._.. . .

. ~1, firft, .35'L.3 : 60' :: I23~26 : 209L6 ; i(~~' Af, t~e . Num~ of Minutes 01 a Degree pafs'<il over in an Hour: to an Hour:: So is the entire Diameter of the Difk from the Calculation: to tho

Number of Minutes for that Pairage. •

. T.lt~n.fay,~oooo : 8) '4:.:: :2C:.,9'L6: I7S'l4 i. e.

As. the Radius : to the Sine of 5 So : 22' :::: the Diftance of the Lunar Circle from its' Pole or V,ettex :: So are the Minutes of the Pailage over theei1tireDiamerer: to the Minutes ofthf: paffage

Qverltbis'Chord:; 17i' 24~'· .

. : H 2 XIIr;

t:·· ':

[ ,2 ] XIII.

To find the Proportion of the Velocities of the Center of the Shadow and of the diurnal Modon of the correfponding Point of the Earth at the Time of the Eclipfe :

Say tbus , As q8'L4. to .82"L6 := 2070 26'" or as I -to 4t_ 6~, fo is the Time of the Center of the Eclipfe's. Motion over the Diameter of th~ Lunar Circle: to the Timeof' the diurnal Morion'! going from the entranceto the Exit of. the Cen~~.

Corollary. Hence: the. reai ·Aqgular M9tJOll of the Center of the ·Eclipfe about the, Pole of the Earth, is no more than 16~· 40'; For 4l64: 3L64 :: 207°' 26' : 162° 4.0'.

XIV .

. To, . find the Latitude of any Place '; ov.cr ~ ~. which the ~eptc;~, of any:Sha,dQw, P~J. any known LongztuM or Time given. And;··w&e uerja , To find the ~it;ule or Time of the neareft Approach to any ruch Place to any known Latittld~. Thi~ .is-no more. tb~ l>_[oc~<lb;t~in th~' Calculatt'Q.ns, as ~itAett~ ;,. by:' t4ing '~ known Meridian or Time; or 'elfe any KnQW~

L~t!tude for, our. Exampl~. '\" ' ... ' .. .'.

': I.fhan.~~~for~ give·t~ee rev~r~.'E~.~ ~D. both ~Ies ;. ~qfe ' of' the '~rea~. Dignity a¢.. I1fetulnefs of the Problem» Vl~ •. For Gree.nmidJ: the Meridian of, the, Tables; for Dubl~ rilOJQ Weflw.ard; and for Paris more Ellftward.

,J~ow I here. fp,pofe, from the Calcu~tiort,an4 f:onftru8:io.Q of' Ecllpfes, that the Middle ofthi$ general Eclip~ ~i1l J;IappenMay II.. 17.24- .17' ~ ~ a-Clock in. the Afternoon ; and thai its C:iJ=,

, *m crofs the Meridian of Gree!l.[fJi~b 41' pd\-4 ..

Upon which Hypothefis I thus compute: '

. - From

, ,

, ' . . , __ I) :'~ j1 , 0 I

. .From the Aogl~loo'(ltf ~ '6" 41

. Ded;utl: the- Ifru.,ry. Augle '40 44

TherelCmains.tbeAn~fthePole:tPC S9 31

.. "',

I ,:,", ' . :.:- " ' ,

Thill Pfqceed. tlJ.~ ;' , ~'

;... ,'_. i. .. , "

J:\," \,' , , \ ,l_Q.

" ," 'D"

cs, .tPc. S9 31 /' 9· 70~2S4

',:,~ t;~.v. 27 <» 'J'~ )07166,~ ,'.0 ,.. ,I

I; ,"1' •. PR.::; "9o'!j4J.2+20,=~:~"~ .: ... \

, ,t , , ;'. )

1 .. ' . 't6

,;" "10

" n»: . .. .t ..... ".

.. '- . . ,

- '\.;

Then

T ,4 ]

Then fay, 0'

cs. P Y. 27. o, 9 .. 949880 CS. P,R. J J. o. 9. 984944

,,' CSt ye. 58. 22. 9. 7:"130 : ;"

. 1-9· 704-674 '.e' - ,

CS. RC.= 9.7>4794= SS 21 ., Dedoa·R Po I~: 0 Rems, PC. 40 21 Etgo, Lat. = 49 39'

, Diff. 09 2)

"": ~..." ~ 1. ,,'

N. B. My Calculation difFers ~otirfDr;- Hal· ley's ~e·.no letS :than a C": ftHflDegree of a great Circle, in the Meridian ; if our Differenc~ of Time, which is about S', be allowed. _ . lAb!

thou~h w~ take the D08:or'~ 'ow~ T~m~? y~~ do we. dIffer 10 1:amtdt: ts . M~In*9- or,~leS r by which Quantity. tlte"' Do&r s' Sch~me· ~l'l~g~ the Center of the EcUpre~11&rer t~l.ofidQ" aDd. - Gfeenr»icb than this Calculation. f The reafon of which Difference I by no 'meaRs .anc!crftad8. _ :.: time will difcover which: Detetl-Mna!tion 'is moft accurate.

Dublin-i~abOut 6' '-2t"W'cjlward in Longitude: from Grc61If,Bilb. Let-as find the Latitude of the Center of the Shadow, when it crofles the Meri- 4im of D_Im. We\Muft f.p~l~~S: /" _ . :" .

. __ " .As:~L.64;to·'4t64l&fis·6',·2~lItt.?'S'·,7" Dedua then fiam the 'A~ ~ the :-Pole nfeij for Grcc1lD1icb this Difference of thefe Angles S '0 31 t - 8°.7' == po 24'. which is our Angle at the Pole for Dubtin, So that \f we ure the former Figure with tbaE,Ailgle;; we:~>I1\put~ fkbefOtt ;

·'R. . '_1'( I~. v . ': L T

~ , tJ t. ...;.; ,~i L _ ;

CS. ~p C. S I. 24. 9· 79)101

. _. T. pv. 27. O. 9. 707166 0'

" .; T. R P. '9. 502267 = 17. 38

The'

Then·lay, .

o

, ~. pv. 27. o, 9. 949880 . CS. ~ P. 17. ~8. 9. 979099 ... CSt Vc. S8.22. 9· 7197?,0

19. 698829 0'. ,

CS. R C.;::: 'J. 748949::::: S~ SJ " D~ua Rr. 17 ~8 Remnt PC. 38 IJ Ergo, Lat. 51 4S

. FllrH is 2° 19' more Eaflerly than Gree1lf»icb.,~ Say therefore 3L64 : 4L_64 :: 2°. 19' : 2°. S7' Now S,o. 31' + 2°.57' = 62'!. 28'

Then, R. . 10.

o

cs. ~p C. 92. 28. 9. 664891

T. P V. 27. o. 9. 707166 0 ,

T. R p. = '9· 3720n = 13 IS·

Say then,

CS. P V 27. o, 9. 949880 . cs. R P 13· Ii. 9. 988282 CS. V C. ~8. 22. 9. 719730

19. 708012 0

0;. RC 9· 7S8132 = SS. 03

.. Deduct RP= 13. IS Rems, = P C. 41~ 48 . Er~o, Lat. = +8. 12

N. B. By fhch Calculations we may determine the Latitude of the Center of the Sha- 4ow's W ~'f, fromIts entry upon, till its exit o~t of the Difk of the Earth, to every known Mendian. A Specimen of which I intend to give J':fClCildy for the feveial Eajl and Weft Long~tudes.

~'\.~~

- -_.

[,S6 ]

from London in the Eclipfe before us: And 3l'n> tber Specimen in the Ec1ipfe, Sept. 4. 17'1.7.

If the ~/iludtl be .~iv~, as for the Meri4ian of Greenwich 49°~ u?"; 'For DuMn S' 10~ 45'; For Poris 480. 12': The Cafe will be that of a Sphedcal Triangle, when all the Sides are given; and t:he' ungit1l4e or Tillie Is an . Angle fought. Thus "in the ·1Oregoing Figure for GreenR1ieb. VC _( ~8°; '2.21~ is the' Side againft the Angle fought.: YP == 21°.0', and PC =:; 400. 46'.

~erp:. ~~ic~ 0 d.al~~ we th~s. difcover the: ~le

: - ( ·VO == I 5~ - '2. 2 It 10.'-

.... ::.' . . __ .-.....:._ .... _-

VP = 27 co S. 9· 657047 PC == 40 46 S~· 9. 814900

.Sum Of3 , 128 OS-Sl!mi9 .. 471947

• • I •• ' •• .' .'

' .. '

IISutri - .: 6~: '. 4 . S. 9:' 9)"0'138' Diff>of VC 442 S. 8. 913488

--_-

Double Radius . -. . 20;' ....

---_

The Sum

"

---~

The Remmnder

jR~~ndet :

.. ' .....

~---..;-- 0 i

9· 695839==CS.60 14

------

- . double I~O. -28

. . . :.J r .~. 'from 180. 00

. . . " . as bdfOre 'remalns S 9. 3 i .

. . ' . ., Add the Primary .Angle 40~ 4+ ~

.' . ' .. '. .Sum 100. 16

. . . .. Eqcialin'Tim-e (0 .6h~ ':~l"

The Time paft Noon' of- the 'Centets' Ttanfir 6ver~

. the Meridian of Gree1lr»i,b. fo~

( 57 ]
For Duolin thus ~
0 I
VC:_ S8 22 Rv ro.
----
VP'1,7 00 S. 9· 6)7047
PC 38 IS S. 9· 79I7S6 Sumof3·I23 37 Sum 19.44880~ Half Sum 61 48 T 9. 94SIS9 DHf.ofVC 3 26 -} 8. 77838~

Double Radius

20.

The Sum

38.- 723)42

------~--

J9· 274739

The Remainder

o '

Half the Remainder 9. 637369 C S. = 64 la

double I~. ;6 from 180. 00 remains as before SI. 24- To 51. 24.

Add 40.44 Sum 92. 08 ~ 6h 8f·

Which· deduaed from: (, h. 41 ',"leaveS 32 ' f for the Difference of the Angle at the Pole in Time. Say then 46L4: 3L64:: 32'LS : 2S'L4 which is the Dffference in time of the Meridians of Greenwicb

and Dublin. ' .

I

For

[ ;8 ]

For Paris thus:

It ,

VC== 58 22 R. 10.


V P==27 00 S. 9.6)7047
P C==41 48 S. 9. 823821
Sum of 3 127 10 . I 9. ~8086.S
RalfSum 63 35 9· 95'210"5 .. ,
DifEofVC) 13 S. 9)8670 . .
-- ..
Double Radius 20.
--..-----(_~ ---__.:..........._--

Remainder

:0,J", .:. ,

. 9· 7149B~ C s:· 58~ 4-S

- , ~

Half 'Remainder

,. to' ~ .'~ '_""

double il7 30 As before, Remainder 62 30 Add, Primary Angle 40 44

Sum 103 rr ". . . . . In Time 6h S2T

'fromwhicn d~du~ 6~. 41'. the Remainder l'l'f is the Dlffererice of toe"Angle at the Pole in Time. Say tt¥!n; 4t.. 64 : :31:,..64': : ,II i: 9 ', which is the DiJerenee in Time, of the Meridians of Greeiir»ttb

. id P 'ris J .• i:l '. . . '.

~ IJ - '. I' e

. . Corol •. (I.) Thelatter Branch Of the l'rd6tern .~~termines the Hour and Minute when the Qrltte of the Ec1ipfe crofles the Meridian at any affign'd Latitude ; and by a very fmall Allowance when the

,very middle of the Eclipfe, or of Total Darknefs . happens in any Place very near the fame.

Corol.

.. •.... '. i ,,~ xv.: ".,. ' :, ",

. ~ "To find the Dutation of ~ SolaJ.:EclipLe, along . or, near the Path of the ·Moon~s Center, in apy Place. whatfoevcr. . . . .' ..

From the Motion of the Moon trani· the Suil pin the Duration of the entire Eciipte t qr the Time of that Center's .Pafl'agc over the Dia~e; ter'of the Penumbra _, if there were no diurnal Motion during that. Time, thus: ., "', . As the horary Motion of the. Moon from tfte.. Sun, which is in angular Meafure 37.° .. 18.'. ~nd i~ given in the Calculation; to' an. Hpur or ~o' in Time: : So lee the Diameter of the Pt;numbr~ there given, alfo in angular Meaf':tre.;::= 61°~ 10. be to a fourth Number: whichwill be' the Nuni~ her of Minutes requir'd. In Deeimals thus:

;y', 3 : 60' r : 65'1..17 : I JO'l..g = th: so·~.rf. ~

.. I :I "Lit

ff".~O·.J '

~t ..tbI~. ~At', ,1IuIP ". ,1:h~':' .r'" ~. - ,. , ~",.,pn., pr. . tbe,

r..:_ .. t. he ~, , ~ • .' 1:'\'" ,,·tt.! .

..RiII,W m . ~ .".l"l. , p .r" 1,#1 _

... :..:..... f "Mn1P.8~,.· . h~. n .... t ~ .. ~ ~~~' ~.'

~TtW'-10n 0 e., 90.1:1· . ~ ~ ,- . }W;e A4'1>'V~, . _ .

;1"='t totJ. •.. ,E ... ,~,j.I'r'~. ,.101'}_," fL$t;_ t,.l1·' .. u .. r:- '.' .,""

i t-r:';""ftS ~ .' ~~,~Will ,~tro~ ~~ ~t t ¥P

1,et1W/~~ 4;". ~a-<l c1> In the :Eye. ; - , n: 'f"~lifWfU" ..;%~ .·e~";li"re,It!A"

,(tne ,. at,£ ~"', l:'.D mQ - . O'!o ,n:. ~~

~:.-.r'... • .. _;r.·t~:..; f tl:" , IJ' -.'f '~at"l+'\ "i , _ ''J.{,;.. ..

~..,re., OW¥ IM'L P u~f ~ ~[J r _ "1I~. ,~.

~i.It\lj4t:a¢ {¥hW~"~'tr)j ... ' .. ~> g ..... ' I~~

:JWW\ on, au ,we rpJ,l.~l " _ llik .. 0, . 1BJ.l.

. t.liit10ll 56~· :i4>~'" ~1btl9 i 'oi1:fWt r be' tli-: -"';;';'1 ......... • '.'~ , • fffb.1, d '~.]'~.'~"" .~d .. '. : .. l''..''

»,r"g,a.' ly,.w.tlOn o}; , .. 1"eflJ~itc ~?-n.", :: '_ ,m

.. 1.;.... 1.;." !...'1"" ." -'.' 1.1, .' ;~\, ,". . ".r:....

f.U<U,\ tU#ot t~ . . ~ _ ~ ~I P ~ 'e. e~·. '_lii.·

'l.~. '.f"I\.1~. 1 . iP .~ .• J·~~':'~f-"f,h,~-, ... " sw .. <,~.;1

w,J,lUe :lts ·'-".~u :t:t9 w~ .. t?l -fj J.n~. ,o,",:.s

'Cefliel .iri~Wef ; \ their . t~f~·' . tMol;ibua Wm ~dy ~e.ep. ~b~ .;~ro·e.·.'PJ:OP~i~qtfaU ~~lQnli1'Jff\ .. ~.·, ~,~,,~, WH,I3~r ~rolt !h.~,~~ftd~Ilt1Q1ll9~~· Milt. We.~ye alfo ~Js~y. jll1i;Qvd.'ed,· .tblt~ Velocity' of d.liS: CenteJ:~s:Moti~ ",is here,' td'that of the Velocity of" thedlurnal Motion, As ~2'9L6 to qSL 4. or as 4t. 64 to '1. And becaufe the E· clipfe begins about I4rrerore 6,.14' after 6,baIanees the f~e ; ,and, tbeft'18 Minutes are.aliiloft. ~l1;'One, as If tlhere were AO diurd31. Motion at aD. So.Jhat we have on1I. 27'.24" .capable of R_DdSt10ft in the fiIit 'balf: The middle Time of Which. wi~~'"bHboot 30':after 6. We muft therefond:· k ihoo;the' Tlibl~ ,po 22,-26 for·the *~ 97~, M itS Silwlemeiu 82~, con.efpoilditJg to 89~.'of ~he SiR~S. )Vhere the Di~ce of haifa :Qegree .IS inftead Of 19L J,. as about Noon, no lefs tl1:iri 16o, wh~Ch multiplied by + ... 64 comes to '4~4. So that tbe Motion is here retarded a 39th fart. Say then, As ~9 to ~8, fa is 27L4 to 26L7 which 26L7 or 26' 42" is to be added [0 the 28 before excepted, for the Duration of the former Part-of the Eclipfe = ;4' 42". The. Middle of the fecond Pan win be' abOut 73:;: 18°~ back~ . ward

r 6', "]

.,,¥.Ii: ~,yoft(l ~Itp ,at-if, ~v:·;t..9f..~~ 'Au,~ich .cprrf=fponds to 6 S· ~ of the ~1~ w~e .th9. Ptf ,JerC,llce of hillf a Degt;eis 6J~ ~'t Thi6 lJluldlili~ Dv 4L -64 giY~ 22J_ . So.~ t.ae ~~i~ f~ IS ~9.Ll 'R2~), .or I '0, '!4t..9' Say th~n, :~.l4i.~~ I>3A9.,:f~is HL4.w:·P~7,.;:t p' ii;~~ •

• J ~. lS t~ :4U1;ltlO1~ of tye !atF~' ~art pr 51¥: . EChpfe, 'and added to the former Part of .tI~.PAt ration, gives us the whole Duration == JO§! ~M' == Ih46' 24" , without the .ConfideratiOn·(if''tiat Elevation of the Luminaries above the Horiz~2b wh!ch a fman Mart.er enlarges tl¥rt,b~Q11 :,~

WhICh lle!eafter. . ~ , , I.." ...., - r. •

. l!l.1}. If we wOfl!d be nrlt more, pl'ecifelY')Ji~ ~~ay:diftil)aty aHow for ·the Difference of the .tilhJlels j and die different Obliquity of the Dire(\ion;, of whtch p 26, 27. ~fur~: Which ycc

are here omitted" ~s very incol!fiderable.. '. . ,

',. .

,

.' .. ~.XVJ. , .. ..

" .' I •

To find the. f>urilti()n of the Total Darknefs ttengdte Path- of !the Moon '~Ceu" i if the Luminaries were in -the· Horizon. I

Say, As the Moon's Motion from the Sun in all,flo,l,lJ, or 6.Q~.·,; iQ .Jhe C~lg.Ilation::::;: ~S' 1.8" is to thofe 60' : So' is the Difference of the DlaJne~.of fbe .S~P ~4 MOQn in the fame Calculation, == I' 36" toa fourth Number: Which wlll be the entire Duration of the Total Darknefs if the Luminaries were not at all elevated above tbe Horizon. In D~ciPJal~ thus :

. 35"L3: 60' ;:J/L.6~: 2'L73 = 2'46"i.

'XVU.

To find tbe .A1tir~de of the Sun .above the Hex rizon, when the Cenrer of the Shadew crofles tM Meridian at Grecmoicb, It

.r 62 J

.: .tn tlle' Triangle (Fi.r~ IO.)-Z P &, Z P is :;=1)j. ftanCe between the Zenith and Pole of the Eanh-: ~8~ ~o'. :p S is == Diftance between the Pole ot the Earth and Center of the Son ~ = Complement .of the Sun's Declination, or to·69° 28'. And the Angle Z P S = interval of 'Time" from' tbe: Mt.'ridian = 6t. 41':::: 100° I~', ,whofe SupplemClit

·is'79°4S' ... ,. , ~':" ' :,;'

:SaY,then, . ,',; '" •

R. ' , 'l~.

.

, 0 i., ',' , ...

• (, • I • • • • ~.: .; '/ r

'CS Z PS 7'9 4> 9. 2;028("-' , , . ::.

T. ZP 38 30 9. 9c060).,., a . f .' '.

~'. T. P R ':::: 19; Is08~f""" 8 .f~.1' ,

, ,+ 69 28 - P..$

. . ~77 ~1. ·::·:":,RS

And 0'

Cs. P R S· 3 9. 99S699 CS. Z P 38 30 9· 893 >44 CS R S 77 31 9· 334766

, 19. 2'283,10. 0 ',-:"

CS.ZS:;::: 9. 23~61I=SO JQ=~'S

Ergo, Altitude =. 9 sa

. XVIII. '

, To find the AZimuth of the' Sun at the fame

'Ii me and Place, .'

, In the former Triangle the Complement of the Altitud~ being now found. == Z S == 80· 10'. Pro- '

ceed thus: .

o ,

S. P S 80 10 9. 993;1'2 S. ZPS 79 4) 9· 993013 S. PS 69 28 9· 971493

19. 964;06 0 I '"

~,PZS=SuppL= 9. 970934 = 69 16 =1.' Z

. From tho l¥efl 20 44 .

Xm. '

XIX.

. To find the Number of Minutes'that any Solar Ec1ipfe extends tOI in a plain Perpendicular to th~ 'Axis of the Penumbra.' 'L

,When the Parallax of the MooB is n ' 17", ,wb!ch is near its mean Quantity; the Moon's Di- , tbmce is 60 Semidiameters of the 'Earth : And one ' $econd on the Difk of the Earth as viewed at tbe Diftance of the Moon; or on the DHk of t~ Moon viewed at the Diftance Of the Earth, is exaElly One geographical Mile. And 60" or one Mimne, is one Degree upon the Di£k of the Earth Or

.M09n; But when the Moon's Parallax, as in tbe

. Calculation of this Eclipfe, is 6 1'.481' whore Sipe is i"!?~:!. orrrlT of. rhe Radius nearly: One Se.cond _is IdS than a Mile; and that in the Proper'iion of 5')L> to '60.; So that about ej geographical

.. Miles correfpond to 6011, or one Minute: And -accprtiingly, 1781 fuch Miles will correfpond to . . 32'35",. wbk~ in that Calculation, is the semi-

, diameter of the Penumbra, or the utmoft perpen-

: d~l~ Extent-of the Ec1ipfe.· '.

N: 13. w e may always make ufe of tberorego. 'i~~K: Tables, pag. 'l1f, - 34.r,or t~e'P~rpendicril~ -Ditninces from the 'Path of the ,Moon s Centre, at "allDurartcns of the Edipfes, 'and of Total Dark- 1 ndSJ··by·ftill calllng the Radies 'of every Pf1Iufit. ~"t:a .2000 equal Parts or Miles, and the Radius of

~v~ry Umbra or Total Shadow,. ~o fuch Parts or "'MItes,; and ufing them accdrdingly. And thts <without any other Inconvenience than the Suppofition of other than geographical Miles: ·Which In-convenience, by the Reduflion of them to geogra. 'phtcal Miles afterwards, will always, as here, come

to nothing. . . XX.

eo •

I

[ 64 ]

xx.

To find the Alteration there is in the Extent and Duration of hclipfes, and of total Darknefs, on Account of the Elevation of the Luminaries at

that Time above the Horizon. .

This is ever, as the Radius: to the Sine of the Sun's Altitude: As compared with the particular Diftance of the Moen at that Time. Thus at the Middle of this Eclipfe at Greenwich, the AltltllCie of the Sun has been found to be 9°.50', whore Sine is ~~, which divided by 5S'L) is equal to ~ of the whole: And in the Semidiameter of the Pc- 1IIImbra, as well as Umbra, amounts to about 6 MUes every Way. Thus alfo at the Middle of the Eclipfe in North·America, where 'tis CeDtral.~ Noon, the Sun will be about 52~ above the Horizon: whofe Sine is 1 Z ~ ~, which divided by S )I.J is To nearly \ which in the fame Semidiameters; a-

- mounts to about 29 Miles every way. And. for the Duration at Greenwich add to the common Duration-already found or to Ih 46' 24" the J{~ ~t of the fame, or a\:x;ut t of a Minute both way~: which is about i- in the whole ; which will bring the' entire Duration from 1 h 46' 24" to full I h

. 47' ; and for Total Darknefs will - add about $~. of the whole total Darknefs== 20", and increafe the Duration from 2' 461 to 3' 6" t. But, for tbe Alteration in North America, which is about' 7 r. both ways, or 'iT in the whole; this-will there increaie the entire Duration 4' 12", and from Ih 46' 24" bring it to Ih so' 36", and for the total Darknefs will add about if of the whole, or bring the 2' 46'!t to 4' 47".

XXI.

[ 6;. J XXI.

'To find the Species and' Dlmenfions of the Ellip6s made by. the Total Shadow at the fame Places and Altitudes,

The Ihorter Axis of the Ellipfis , (which is the fame with [ire Diameter of the Conick Shadow it felf, in 'a "Iane Perpendicular to the Axis;) is to the Longer, as the Sines before-mentioned. Or at Greellroicb, as. 1708 to 10000 ; and'3t"Norib . J1.crica, as 788 to 1000 ~ And fincerhat fhorrer Axis 'is in the Calculation 9'6 Minute. or Miles1' of 6S to a Degree; they muft be equal to 90 Geographical . Miles; which hy. the laft Problem' mutt be increas'd to 96 and to I 1 9 r~fJ~eaively, The 'golden Rule will therefore foon· (hew' -the Length of the longer Axis of the Shadow' i~ '~oth

Places. ". "

slne rac}.- mi,es lliile.

'. For Gr~enwicb 1708 : J~OOO :: 96 i 162:

For North-America 788: I OO~ :: 1 19.: 1,5 1.

XXII ..

; .

.. To determin~ the central Pdint in the ElUptick Shadow for Greenwich, at the Middle of the tame

Eclipfe. .'. '

BY' Lemma XIX,· and in : its' Figure;' As VB: to V A :: So is the Sine of B A f == 9° 34' = 166: to the Sine of ABV==loo 6'.='7). ana fo is Be: to AC! And compone~do,' A,S~I,66 + . 17>==.341 toI7'):;So is BC+·C.d·. · ... ,62· to CA, which thereiore. is equal co 289: '1\lfo As 166 + ' 17') == 341 [0·t66:: So is BC + C.i.l == )62 to Be; which therefore is equal to 27~

FQr 341: 17> :: ')6.2 ;.289 ..: :: .. , .And 34' : 166 :: 562 : 27~'

. t K . .,' Whenci

• m

. [ 66 ].

Whence tbe Parts of the longer Axis being found, . the larger C A = 289 .Miles: the leffer Be =:== 274 MUes. The half of which, DC is the Di.:

Rance between' the central Point of the &hadow . . V. and the Centef of t,he EllipflS C, :::: 71 Miles.

XXIII.

To determine the Angle of Dire£liOll of the Total Shadow over the Meridian of a"re_b.

-This to be done either by Conftru8iont upon' drawing the Curve Line qf this Motion, through the Ceyeral ~oints where, by Calculation, the Center of the Sbadowcr~s the Meridialls ~f P"if,

. Gr6e1lfJUCb, and Dzq~. i and meafuring the An .. @le it makes with the ·1everal Meridians J or more ~8:ly for GTce.i,b by Calving the Trianglt· (f_;,. J i.) P YO, wl)cie tbe Arc V 0 ts equall, . diltant Weft,· as Paris is Eaft from Grcenwiib, Is tobe found by the Method already made ufe of,

thui; , , .'

"Paris Angle aphe Pole = 620 28'. Angle for' o V at the Pole ts leiS by twice the Differerice of the Ang~at the Pole for Paris and Gt'lemmm - S' H', And'62° 28' - SU S4J :;;;: 560 : ;4'. Firft then find the Arc VO = Compl. Ladtude for Oa as in.P,obl. XlV. by thii Analogy.

, ,

R .

,0 ,

cs. ~p Co S 6. 34- 9. 74112f

. T. P,Y. 27. 00. 9'.7071,66 II ,

T. P R.. i~ 448291 ~'lS 4l .

. '

Thenf3y~ ..

;

, ,

CSt P Y.

[ ~7.]

.0'

. '..

. ,CS. p ~ 27. 00. ,. ~98.80

CS. P R. 15· 41 •• ~. 9a35~3 <:S. Vc. 58. 22 e . ~. 71'9730

.' . 'J~. 7Q32B . 0 1

CS.·.P C 9· 7S'B73 ==45. 29·

.. • DeduE\: 15· 14.

Rem', YO. 39. 48.

VG. 40.46 .

. -: :, Y.P. 41, itS.' • .

, .

, . "":'

. Tben:iD the TrianvJe yo p. w~ofi: included. ~ . . F Is 4~ 38'," and whofi: tWO Sides. arc ~9f1 4,81.

. lind 41° 48' .. Find the Arc·,2.R U 1,1-' thus: .

. ' .

. 'R.

Ie.

: -, '.

·CS. OVR., ,,+' 18. ,. 9~Sf11. ;.

T. YO. ~9. 481 9. 9207H 0 ,

, T. YR. $9. ~n·9310= j9·· 4i fiom4.1 ·42

. lUmnt 20 6'.~PR.

~ I' .'

o ,

S. P R. 02. 06. 8. f6~999 S. V It 31- 42. 9 .. So534~·

T. OYR.o+. 3:8· .. ·8.- 9087.19 . -

. .... .is. '114Q'q2' . '" ,

.•• .! 1':J'PO: '~.'lO~;·i~q06~\'~ .~+. 4·1.~'·

I " ~~.: .:~ ,~ ... ". • ,~.=,,:.

, K;,

... •

Ami

..

['63 ]

And for va R ;' ,

o , ,

s. va. 39. 42. 9· SOB4~ ~ Jf" P a. )4. 42"'9~ 9J'-I76~

s. vP. 41. 48r~ '9. 823ti'21 i '\

'19· 73SS84 . •

s. va p = 9.' 936241 =. ~8. 23

.. '", .', -r : 113 0;

. : ~alf )6 321-

Compl. 33 27f

' ..

• So tbat the. Acute Angle VG 0, which the

, Courfe of (he Center of the Shadow makes with the Meridian of Greenr»ich, is ,6032',:: ; And by corifequence the An~e \t makes with ,tmfPa~nel .of. I;ltit?d~ there i~"';,1° '27':';'.') O( 6 Det. grees meie than In Dr. Halley s Scheme. ".. ' ".'

.'

CoroUary. The longer Axis of the total Shadow at the Meridian of Greenroicb, makes an Angle of 1.2° .43' -; with the DiteElion;: of the Shadow. ' ." ~ ..; ,';'

For if from the 8ngle that'. the Dire8:ion?

of the-Center ofthe Shadow makes(. n 27;

.wittt rhe.Parallel of Greemaicb, ~'

We deductrhe Angle that the longer Axis >. -, makes with the fame Parallel, which ~ 20 44

is the: t\iimuth ~rtnerly difcoveted; < ) ,

There remains chis Angle 12,. 4* '

XXIV. r-

To ~ te~~ine'~h~ perpendicular ~~~,rh ~rt~e ' Total ~badow, when, tliat Shadow IS neareft to . London,;, or when' t11(r~~ntfal Po~t,ii.;3~ut tbe M€tidiad' of P 44j10Vf' iIi CorfltPall. . . .. '.,

'.

This ·

I .

{~9 ~]

. ' This p,.o~le,. is, In ~ .. Ellip6s of 9.6. ;MU~ broad, and: S62 Miles long ; .. whofe longer .Axi~ makes an. Angle .wieh, the DireCtion of tl)e.(S~adow of I,zo' 43.i ; To determine the Length of

· the grearelt Perpendicular that talls on tbafDia· . ;~~er, aJoog.which the Direaio~ of,therMotiQD is, For twice that P.[pc:;ndi~lar is: the~r~adth

· required.. Now I have, a8:uaHy drawn tbis Ellip.tis', or total' Shadow,' .: for my Map Of Jhis" Eclipfe.. A~ I find by that Con1bu8;i(,D; that the Breadth. of the total Shadow over Mg/tlIIJ. is .about I)_)' Mi4,!$ ;. or ~t» Miles broad~r·:dian 'lit ,Dr.1faI(ey·~ Scheme. Time will pro~t)!l.d.UC9- : ver Whl~b IS nearett the ttu.th. .'. ;, .. .•

. N. B. ThiS total Shad~w increafes' fo'~tiy

" in length as it goes EaJ1.flJard, that it will' reach 'from Paris ,to .the utlnolt Boundary Qftbe. Su~-

· . fetting at once. And though the Centet of~tlU:

Shadow, by ow Oilculation ~ will ernt8'~' ~ 'taft of the Meridian of Lopdoll, in the Ladtude of 4~o. 9', or in the .Alp_s,· Dot far from . .Mil~~·and TUFt,,;. Yet by reafon of the E~~nfion a~ Breadth

. of the total 'Shadow, , and the Refrat\jOll ~'f the

· Rays of Light near the Horizon , it~i:R~'PJ?b4- ble to me, that all StUilzer/alld and ·Lo.~~~;'dj, :3S' far as Trent, lVJamua. Cre~iz4, abd far.1ft!l .. i: naJ" perhaps, as far as .Veni&e~. P~'" Bononza,..1:errara ; 1tavenna and. Florence; may at, .. ihe':fame Trine be invelop'd in the Total Shadow; and that the SUD' may fetei:lipfed at al~, or! m9ft of

dtote 'PlaceS at once. , ,.' :.' .

, .: .

xxv.

To determine the Digits'cclipred, and·the Damion of the EcIip(e, or of total DJi'kntu, at' .

' .. : 4 .'. ~y,

..

[ 701

I",: gi\1tll Diftance from the Path' or the Moon is Cen,tet,; and 'CJic~ vtfftl., There Digit~' and On- ' 'rationS; if' we do not confidet tbe diin:nal Motion, are iMmediately 6?und t~ any'~gh;e~. Dfft3~ .i~ the'Tables, P. 29,~~4. Thus, If the DIgits 'be 4, or' Duration So' 24'~, the firft T;tble giveS 1rS the Dlftanee or 13,),C;:Mifes. Arid, vitt 'VerJ~ If the Dift:lnce be .'knOwn to be J ;SO Miles. tbe Bote'Table'gives us 4' Oigits and'So' 24" Dura,lion; , I And the like is trUe of the rotal ShadoW, 'and the Dlflance or Duration in the fecond Ta· ble .. , !-tliils alfo we ~~~ from tbe Map of this i:di'pte, that the neartft Approach of the t(,)t31 Shadow to London will' be almt 40 geognpbital Miles; Which 40 Miles, in this Obliquity of the ,1tt6tldir, is about ~t per~icular Miles. So , that' ,ll'T,:::: ~,~, of a Digit, 15 the Quantity of 'the'RiM of Light tM~ will be feen at UIlMn,

: lvb~ri ,ttit; .. ~dipfc Is gt~ft: And by co~equenc:e' . , the Digits there ecUpfed wHl tie 11#.' Nor does

, it appear to me, tl}3:~ the'total' DarknefSwill come

:fi~ ,e:, t~ ]:.vndon, 'ttian, , 40 M~les_; althoug_b_Dr. ' ,Hrtl~ls;S~~e. ~dl1g~ it Wl~ 7 or 8 Mtles. !a~ fo t'tie Durarton Of the entire Ecl1pfe here,

ri I fij{'~tbdth t~e fatr'!e 3S if it were Central : '1\n~ h\\~~ell al~ead}'d,~retmined to tit 47'. And, for tbe, tqtal DarkneQ"ai()ng the Path of the Cen-

,ter bet~een Exertr,' ami;, PlillloJtt"~)ts Daratlon W'il1:b~; 11s;,before ltat'ed; 3' 6" .} .. "

. I ...... 1 '. •

N!~B:: '}\51:o the AirefatioTls which \\!i11 arifi; in mort: confiderable Diltances from the Path of the ,Moon's Center, proceed thus: Firft- find tbe Minutes of Duratioh correfponding to any given ,l>Il~e jn MileS, I:g. 1~50' thus; ~QOO :l~)o , c: i~t8~ : 22t02., O~, As 2GOQ l\Ul~ the'Ratlill~ : tQ 1.350 the Sine :: So are the Number of

, '" M~

. . " 0[ 71"J .

. .

Minut~ fQl' -the. Semidiameter oftbo ,Pemunbra: to the NQrn~r of Minutes for that SiJif:. :N,QwI 32' 19" the prefent 'Length' of the greaten: Dr-

. Itance -- ~ZI.OI" === IQ' J,8". Then,cQP1~te every Thing_ as: if the Cen~er. of the SbidQw,weJ:e, lOt IS", Larlrude Of newell Difta~;: .n~l:

. as if the Chord of tbat Arc 'Q~er the ~~[~',\Oi.Oc, were the Path of tl1e Moon» C.enter: "na tile Chord of the Diftance' ftomthe Center ''Of the Penumbra were the Diameter of the Penumbra:

Arid all will be difcovered by the Rules before goi!'lC; with9Ut any new Dlreftions wharfoever.

, 'Only if this Diflance be the contrary way to the .: pre~nt Eumple, we mu~ here make ute,~ M'!

. ditton inRead ofSllbftrarnon~ .

N. B. U pon ~onfulting the French Ephemerides .of Des Pl~ci, recommended, in fome Degree, by Cdffini himfelf, I find that he determines the

Eclip1e.ar,P4ristbus. b· , "

. Beginning, 11'10)' 22. (N. S.) .06 03 00 Middle 06 )8 38 End 07 )4 00 Whence the Duration there is 01 ) I 00

'. . Digits eclipfs'd 10 it

I Latitude. of the Moon at the Middle 39' t Dlffefeote from me in Digits 0 [' !. ~.

, In Latitude 07 ,J a

• ' . ~ t·· ~ . I i

If thefe Digits and this Latitude 'b~ .1'iiJltl I?~.

Halley, and I, . and thofe Eng/fib A{tronomers that have c;omput~ andc;onftrutted this ~p'" ~ho . aU. I think. 49 ag,ree; tbat it ~iU ~·.[O~ ~ P.r:· 'ril. and fbaC for. tWE1 or tb~ee Mi"'tf:S .Up • aI, . pro(ligioufly mirtaken.' For if Des Places be ill the right, Copenhagen an~ Stodwoln.z will Rand

IDa,; tairer lOr tnePretenceto ,a. total Eclipte,

'.. than

\

['7'l ]

than' either' DIIJlin, undon. or Par;', 'Time will certain1r-cletermine, who are in the right.

. ".

N. B, If we add the Duration of the Eclipfe, confider'd without Regard to the diurnal Motions'

to the Time of the Center of the Shadows paf- " fing over the entire Difk, we gain the entire DuratlOQ of the Eclipfe in general, thus:

, '" h , "

To I SO ~8 Add 2 S8 24 Sum 4 49.12'

" ,

, .

Therefore • the genera~' Eclipfe by the ,Meridian of

.' Lo1!don ," '

, h , "

Begins II. S2 24 , Middle ·V. 17 00 End VII. 41 '36 Duradon 4h 49 '12

Eclipfe at London, •

Begins V, 4; ,00 Middle VJ. 41 00 End VII. ~2i 00

" ". Duration Ih 47:- bo Digits ec1ipfed IJ ,~! ' Duration of T~l Darkq~(S , betwe~n}·

&ott" and Pli"!Olltb;', " . . ,o~ 6f

N. B. Dr. 1l4lley's Times are ftilI"3}>ouf S' Cooner than mine, and his general Duration abour 7', a~d his Duration, a~ London, 'abqut"l' lo~~

p.' , " ' . ,

. ;', ,.' I ' .

.. ... . \ ....., .'

,_' ':-', , • '. .\ ~ ,J ... , N.' B.

[ 73 }

. . tv. B, I cannot tell· the ReafoiJ why' my Original Odculation C)f this ~g~ral. EcliPfe, which has been carefully. made according to Sir if4ac NeriJtOll's famous Theor, of the ./Hoon, doeshere

I fo much differ from Dr. Jl4l/ey's Determination, as' S' in Tim.e. ; efpecial1y finee 'both thofe Me~

• thods did vf!fY well agree, in the laftce1ebrared total Eclipfe, ~r. 22. 171j. ·'Tis 'Time alone that can determine between' thefe two Methods of Calculation.

N. B: I have late1 y been .fhewed an . exaa Scheme of this next Ec1ipfe, according to Mr. Fialllpeed's own Tables and ' Dererminatlo», and . ,made in his Life-tifne ; .wherein the DigLt5. ecUp-

, fed are, I lag exaaly according to my De~eriniJl3·.

don in this Paper. . .

,..

• .!.

, ~ ..

'.

L

. J~ ' .. '., .:

:). , .

..... " .. '

.. ....

.. • t

l 74 j

w~'

A: P'RO'POSA"L

. '. .

Joi-,

For ihe:Difcov~ry of the L' 0 N a I: '~, T 11 D ~ of 'the feveral "Places of

, .

the Earth ., by Total· 'Edipfes of the Sun. '

'l'r is Jrombty prepofed, T.bat Obferntfons ~

" tnadc'in an Places wbere Solar Eclipfes are

ten, 'of the entt Duration of. the fame; by either viewing the Beginning and Ending thereof tbrough a Telefcope, with a Glafs fmoaked in the Flame of a Candle, for faving the Eye of the Obferver , or elfe by cafting the Sun's Image through fuch a Telefcope upon white Paper, and • viewing the firft and laft Impreffion of the Moon's

. Shadow upon it. And that the HOUf, Minute, and Second of fome Pendulum Clock becarefully noted at the fame Time: And that when tbefame Obfervarions -are tranfmitted for the Ufes of Geography, the Latitudes of the Places be alfo fet down and tranfmitted at the fame Time : That the like Obfervations be alfo made in all Places . where 'ruch Eclipfes are total and vifible, of the exaB: Beginning and Ending. with the Duration of Total Darknefs; by the like Comparifon of a Pendulum Clock, or other pendulous Body that' vibrates Seconds, or half Seconds; and, with the Latitude be tranfinltred in the fame Manner, and for the fame Ules. How by the Help of there

Ob-

. '.Ie. 7;", J. . ..

Ob1ervations the _; ~o.ngit/lde . maY be difcov~eda 1 )JIve' already Ai'~w~a under Problems ~IV, XV, and nV -. foregoing~ .'

. N. .. B'. rr the latitude be exaa,' and ~ entire.

Dnration of an Eclipfe of the Sun can be dererml-, ned "to one Qllaiter 01 a Minute in Time; and the T~~es of.Beginningand;E~di_~g.be not too remote.' f~m Noon;. ~~e. L9ngltU!J~ .o~ that Place .. ~ay , U.fu~l1y; be then~ ,detetmin~. muc~ nearer than. to on¢ Degree. .An.d, fii~~e 'tis ce~inly very PI:aaiqi. ble. to obferve ,the Duration of Total Darknefs.ro t~ee: or four Secqqas every ~heie;: if [he Latitudes be exafi, .rbe Longitude of thofe Places may-com- ' mpn~y: be determlned muchnearer, than. a Q!laner ot a Degree, Nor will the, grOifer W l1y by the. DUration' .of the entire Ecl&i'fe; .unlefs the Begtil-', nlng or Ending be near the Horizon, be much inferipr,. as to Accutac;y~ to any ~hod ~ow.~fed by'-: ~fb'on.omers for 'that PurP9fe.; while It is withat m~ more e!lfy. and prachcable, even by thofe that wiC!e.rftand 1i~tIe or no Aftronomy, or that haven~. carIOUS Aftronomical Infirumenrs,' than any of them. And as for all fuch Places as . lie in-the ~~ce of the .1'9ta1 S.ba?ow, _ _'t~~, evident, tbat- no ot~er Way now ufed 15 10 th.e,lean comparah~e to tbls hef<?re us ; either in Eate of Obfervatloa, or Aa:uracy of Determination therefrom,

- ,

" .

N. B. Since this next total Eclipfe is fo nearthe .

Evening, and the Motion of no fmall Part of its Shadow's Paifage over· Nortb. Ji11ln'ictl, and the }jiJrtb·Wefi.Pans of Europe pearly parallel to the. f.qu~tor ; the general Eclipfe is much lefs fit fOI ruch Obfervations, as are here neceitary, than moft others of the fame Sort; though where a rotal Shadow pa1fes7 no 'Eel ipfe can.be wholly unlit fbr

, L 2 it.

( 76 ]

it. However, if this be leiS favourable to us in general; the other which I have brought to Calcaladen alro, 1727. is exceeding favoUrable;. as not going very far over the ~Vefl of .Africa, 'till a good while in the Day; as go~ng very oblique to the Parallels almoft all tbe Way; and ~.reaching the Eafl- Indies long before the SUD comes to the Hodvon: On all which Accounts I venture to recom .. mend it for that Purpole., and to 13y, That in cafe the Clouds generally, favour us, and a fufficient' N umber of accurate and proper ObrervatioDs be not' wanting, the Geographical Longitude of Places in

, no fmall Part of the.one half of the known World, may ~Y that Iingle' Eclipfe be very well determined •

. 'N. B. The Calculations here made before-hand, with regard ro both thefe Eclipfes, are not themfelves defign'd for"i:he ~aual Difcoveryof tbat Goo. graphick Longitude of Places immediately; but only as Specimens how fuch Calculations may aDd ougbt . to be more exaaly made afier the Eclipfes . are over, and their true State, and Time and Ch:cumltances wellknown from the heft Obiervatio~ but not otherwlfe. . . .:

N. B: If any curious Perfons have a ; mind to examine very nicely any of the Ecllpfes which will. be vifible at Lopdontill.A.. D. 1740. they 3J:~tbere following; according· to the Calculation of Mr,'

Le4dbet.ter. .

I) 0 L A It E e, L I l' S E J.

(I.) A Total Ec1ip1e~, May r r. J7~~ ;6' pi1l

Six a-Clock at ~i_ght, of I J i Digits. at LPntl4l1... :

(2.) An F..cbpfe,. SePI. 14· 17'2-6, ·3~· patt Fwe

a-Pock in the EveniQg, of (, Digilj. .. ~ .'

-,. . (~., Ait

[ 77 ]

(.;.) An Eclipfe, Sept. 4- 1727. 27' paft Seven

in the Morning, of 2~ Digits. .

(4.) An Eclipre, July 4· 1730• 26' paft Nine in the Morning, of 6 Digits.

(ri.) A great" Eclipfe, May 2. I7 33. 36' pall Six

at Night, of 9t Digits. .

. (6.) A. great Eclipfe, Feb. 18. 1737. 2f paft

. Three in the Afternoon, ,of 9! Digits. ..

· (7.) An Eclipfe, Aug. 4 1738. SS' pall Nine

in the Morning, of 41 Digits. .' ..

(S.) A corifiderable Ec1ipfe, July 24. 1739. 2a~

pdt four in the Afternoon, of 7 T;;' Digits. .

(9.) An Ec1ipfe, Decemb. 19· 1739. 49; pal

Eight in the Morning, ?f 2;' Digits. .;

L UNA II EeL IPS E S.

· (I.) An Eclipfe, 080b. 21. 172+ 9' pa11: Four' in the Morning, of 7 Digits.

(2.) A great and total Eclipfe, 080". 10. 172~. , IS' pal\: Seven at Night, of 2If Digits.

· (~J A.n Eclipfe, Scp. 30. 1726. 4' paft Fiv~ in

the Morning. of S Digits. . ..... ... :

(4) An Eclipfe, FelJ.~· 14. 172S. 14' pan Seveia \ in theMorning, of 9+ Digits. . ... _ (,.J:A great aad total ~lipf~ ~e~. 2. 1729'44~·~

pa{t:E"lght at NIght, of I9i' Digtrs, .... ..

(6.) A great and total Edipfe, July 29~·1729. ~o .

paft one in the Morning, of i8f Digits. ' ..

(,.) An Eclipfe, 1on. 23· 1730• 34' pan Tb= .

. in the Morning, of 2f Digits.· ..

. (s.) An Eclipfe, June 9. I73r. SS' pall One iIJ

the Morning, of I-f- Digits. •

(9.) A great and total Eclipfe, Nove",. 20. 17 3~. ;9' pali Nine at Night, of 20-} Digits.

(10.) An Eclipfe, May 17. 1733. 56' pall SixlJt N~&ht, of e .. f;; Digits.

(I J.) J\n

I. S'·] .

7 . ' .

1,(11.) ,An' Ecnple,' ~epi •• ~'I'",'173S -. ;3' paft o.Dc

in the Morning, of H Dlgits, -.". .

: '(12.) A great and total Eclip1C, lIfnrcb, IS. 1736. ~1' p~ft, E!eye~ at )'light; of: :l:Ji,Diglts. . . ' .

. (13:.)'.A great and total''OOip~, S&pt e . 6. 1736. , 2' paft Three in tbeMornin& of 20} Digits~ \

.' E14·} An Eclipf;z .illlg.. 2'J~ n37. 44' pa~ Three

in the.Morn~g, or 4f. Digits.· , ' : t ~

"(IS.) fth Edipfe, Jan. 13. '17-39. 47' paft'Ten· a~ Night, or.A~, Digits. .. !,;,. _ '",,' " .. , . ,(t6.) A "~t ~t;Id, tota~ ~11p~,. XI/n.;~. 1740.

4S'paft Ten at Nlghr," of ~9' Djglt~ , , ..

"(l7.r·Ari:Fc~iprt; ,Df.ceml, 2i. 1740; 49' Pilft

Ten at Night, of Sf Diglts' . . ..

. .

.. :.... . .. ~.....,.-

. " . '. 'Ad.vel'tiJe"ient~

. •• • ~ ... : "; .. ~ v- ;;". ••••• :.

: Mi: 'Wb!po,,-Propbfes'to make:3n Qre;'i.f.~r. the.

Explication ofthe Mpt}ons ofi.all !he Planets and Comets ; and" a Cop"mcll~ ImpfD'p d, fQf .tll~ tl~ry Qifcovery ,0f,pf.aU Sola(f:clip1es whatfoeve&:, from the Beginning of AftroriqtPy, till.d .D. 2~O. alld , ~~ the qapIr.U ;ind uti~ve~W f:xhibition of !he fame to-the'Eye lna fewMinutes tune, and ~h,lS ~lth :II' Globe .of 30 Inches Diafneter. Price of .both .

20 Gllineas~ . ,~.' ,

.'

! : .... ~ : . .

~ T Mil t{ tbl Latitude" the CI:ttt" if tb, totat!

SMitlflt lit tbe f.dipft,. May 'II. 17240 to '""- 10 Deg,.u, tf tbe' .Aigle _,,' the: P(J/',. IIIirl e'P"J,J_4l84'. Loogifil~frM Londo';. " ""

ADg1esat the PoJ.e.

. , 70 19 ," 2~

, "S9

, 49

3' s,

I,

·09

2~ I

2.3

2.3 "3 2.3 I.J 00 oc

00 31

10 31 I

20 n

;0 37 ,

4(\ 31

,0 31

16 u 60 37' .70 31

80 37

90 37

100 31 110 31 no 31 130 ·31 136 Sf

~!,,,~p~. tca..,' 0

~:1 0 • • I

L:tp-Y. M." D.s II

Hours 0 f

MinuteS 0 ~J

..:r-. d So °J't I ~'JII ~o 6 S' 'fo 0 .. - a

........ ~- .. ~

\0 v_ ~

:d Ctfl",rllli_.f t. TDUI Eelipf.,f tie $IIn, A. Q. .Illt.

. .... . Sept.4- 'Mane.

M's mean Mot. Motion Apo&ee. Mota oCNotio ret-r.

1--------1--------- ---- -----

" ..,,, I. I ~'

11 I to II .. ·i" ... :0

5 J JO IS . 26 SO IS

I .. "44 5'" J~

'7 '+ '3 ~ J I 3'1

J .4 , 39

10 $

• •

''''0

:=:IIIUI"IU'''''''' .

. . . .

. Some ACCeunt of' Obfervatisne )are-' ly m~de wlth j)ipping~Nced~C$_'" in Order to dilcover the LON a 1'* T U DE' and L A TIT U DE' at Sea~'

UPO N--tbe Receiprof the liberaJ·Affiftmce of His molt Excellent M!jefty,. King· GE 0 R G.B" their Royal Higbneifes-' the Prince and Princefs of W ~~, and. many other of the' Nobiliq .and Gentry, my. kind Friends, I rent Iaft Year Four feveral Dipping-Needles to sea I with F~ines hung near .~ Center .of' MotiQll in GimbolS, to avoid tho-Shaking of the 'Ship ; and with proper Inftrua.io.m to the Matters' of the ... VeCJ.eIs : And this, in 9r<l~r to difcover the-State. of Magnetifm in the feveral PartS· of the . Globe ; .. and to find. whether .. ceerate Obfer. vat~ons . could be made at Sea ; and to. deter ... mine whether the fundamental· Tbeory I laid. down from for~ Obfervatioos would hold or·' .not ; vi~. "That' Magnetick Variation and Dip . " arc a11.deriv'd from One Spherical'Magnet in. n the Genter of our. Earth; with an irregular " Alteration of the Variation, according to tbe

,~ different Degrees .of ~eng[h of tbe fevenl

. " Pans of tbe Loadfione, as compounded with a " verY now R~,?olution from &jl tOWefl: And· " with a regular. Alteration of the Dip, nearly .'~ a~?rd~ng to the Line of ~~ . from the Mag" netl~k Pole to the Magnenck fAuft6r; the .~: Ax~ of thai: Equaror being fufficlendy Oblique

. M2 ~w

- -------

------::===~

, [ ~;. ~ .

'C to its Plane : An which is the Cafe· of SpheU rical Loadftones here." Now having already tecei_ four J01;Jrnat~ from FQ~t. ivmr .Ma_em~l~y:d~ 1 take. this Occ3fion .• 'retarning frity Bener~is hearey Thanks for their Affiftai1ce, and of giving them 'and the Publick fome Account Of. the S~~lS of'~hC{e ObrervatiOlS~,3nd what:

Conrequenc::e~ are naQIrally to be drawn nom t,h,m ; willnlte'Djffieulty hitherto. met with. tn' the Pra- . aia: at. Sea, and' tMo.· proper ~einedy· for-: the

fame In future Trials. , , , ' .. _ ' ;

Captain'~._s Joliff~.out.in lUff, 1721.f~r' .4rlblZ'!,gel •. 1Vlth one of. tfiy Dtpptng~N.~l~· on Boant He, for fome time; ; mer witli 'ibth Difficulties in'lhe Praaic~ as.£onnn'd to tbe 'Frame 1 had given him, that h~ \Vas not at firft able to lJl3kea!!f~ good Obtervati6ns at t!l.', BU,t after W~ 'rIme;' he- !ook '~1lt ,Neeclle tnto hIS own Cabin ; and without aftY· A pproach . to the center ()f MOtion, or Clny Con~rivance for' avoiding the .5hakiJ_1g of tbe Ship ·:ae·all; having a clear and . full Gale aU.along, but wltbout any ftormy Wea-

tber , He mad~ me 28 've~y good Horizoneal Ob .. Krvations, fioni the latitude Of 6~ quire to be'" MlgII: I fay, :lI()risfJ1lldi Pfrferoari(}ns only, as ~ defired him'; the Needle; ·by an Aq:i4ent before

, l1e wenr, being rendred incaPable or 'making ~ny other widi fuftic~ent' Acc~raCy. In ·this Spa~e the Needle altered'insVelodfY v.ery grearly,"as I expeited'ic would: Artd'1,Vibradons ~hich at firft were perform'din aboUt 2~0.:";beyond the North- . Ctlpe came. to 2~0"; till towards kdJlll'lge/ .it. gradually returned- tb -abont 177". . . " ': .'. ,

..

.Capraln Orbitiel geat: fet . out about tile tame Time for Bo/loN in Nft!J·Englll1:d, with the fame

. ..2" ' .., ::" .' Inftrll-

J . ' ••

['8; 3·

Inttrument, and ..,acie Four' Obirvations a£ tbl Dip, bod! by the Vertical.and Horizontal Vibra; flails, and .by theDip it felf; Three upon·.lhe 9~ Sea, .. an4 One in the '~ven Qf !oR. s Which in fame fmall MaD~r dut'ered one ftom another, hut In the main ~" and kept. m. ilue Analo8r I. expe8;ed. H41lreatly complained of ~be Sbakmg ofrhe Ship ,. ·till. in BoJlolt Havm he . made a nice Obfervari~ : \loth Ways, which did not gready differ : Tho' .tbe greateft paft of of his Obiervations by the Dip it {elf were fome-· wbat more ~gr~ble to Analogy than the other.

. The RearoD was; I take it, that, as he aifored.· me, he always took great Care to avoid the:Sha· ling of my Frame; which Frame. tho' it very much avoided the nower and greater Ofcillation·

m the Ship , yet made a quicker but larer O~ cillation.it felf: Which Fault I was fufficiently 1enfible of juft before the Ships 'were going away, • but was DOt' able 'then to obviate; as I am .prepared to do hereafter.After Captain Btalhad made .nd fent me tbere Obfervations, he pprfued his ·Voyage to Barbados, and theeee to C1Jllt'lcl TOfDIl

in ~tb Ozr~l;1I4 ; at both which· Places be· made Qbfervations; but the beft at ~tlrb(Jtlol. For ~fore he Came to Caroli1l{l, .he obferved the Axis

~ the N~e to fluke i which made him· takes .tlie Dip tbCJJ' Qtherwife than he ought "to"havo done ~ which is the natural Oc:cafion that tbe Dip' d;.erc; did nOt to' well agree to Analogy as tbe lelt. UQwcvei,. ~pon my Receipt of·his firlt Ioural, w:l~b. the reut firft Ob(ervations1 efpeciaHy. the" ' eJ;itt one at' Bojlon, I formed a more euE.tTbe&t ry 'of th~ Pro~rtioD of t.he Alteration of tl.e Dip .i.'n~the Spheri~~ Mag_net.Qf tbe Earth; andfOulld' it· at this Diftance of th~ Earth's Surface, Dodir. fiQm.that iD. 'my Sph;rica,i, Loadftooe, aube'~

'. . • ftance

.~~-.-- ... - .. ....,.:.- ... --- - _"_-- _:-_::

· t 86 J

ftance of about i~· 'of an ,Inch· fiom its Surface ; viz. Not exaaly as the Line of Sines.

· wbere at the Middle of the Line 'the Angles are ~o and 30; hut rather as 66 to ~4. Which Rule therefore is what I now propofe as' much nearer than the other. By which Proportion I derermi .. ned "long before-band the Dip at Barbados of 410 or 44°, as many of my Friends. can witnefs: And· when Captain Bee! delivered me the Paper of this O~rervation at Barbados, before. I opened it, or in the leaft knew what Dip it. contain'd, I foretold to him nom. that Theory. the very fame Dip, which both himfelf and-his. Paper immediately a(fur'd me to be rrue, and whofe Truth, as he lnform'd me afterwards, was confirtn'd by another Obfervation , made a little

before in the open Sea, of about 45!. .

· Captain TClllpe-fl alfo, about the iime Time, ret out for i1l1tt..{OcI and St. Cbriflqpbcr's, with the iiine Inftrumenf and Frame. In his Letter, dated taft 1anll(Jry, he greatly complains of the Sbaking of my Frame; and prol'Ofes an Hint how:it might be avOided: Which Method of its

· Avoidance I had long before thought of, and provided· for accordingly; and which has 6ecri a full Year' ready for Praaice. thofy Obfervations of his,· that I 'haVe yet received r for I have not heard from him finee Ja: flutl1], but hope foon to here firther; were bu!· Tbree, and all at" open Sea ; and but one of theca made both the W·ays tliat I defired: And, .indeed; ~ the leaft agreeable te Analogy Of any of thl;:: left. Only fince that fingle Qbfervarion~ which' was alfO.m:ade bY. the horizontal VibiatiQt1s and \'erdcal OfCillations; agrees very wen -ro that An~ lOgy. s fince 'heY aU·'· r~;ee areabOm: the·1am~·

: . . .... . <l! 1111-'

"l ~7 J

. ~nt\ty Q.f S or: 9 Degrees exceed chllt Analogy ; and finee very near the f!ime Pl~ce,w~ere the-third' Obfer\'adon waS' made, I have a double Obterva-· tion of Captain Beal's to coIrea the fame ;.1. rather conclude, that Captain TcmpcJl made a Mi- . flake, and placed the wrong Edge of the ·.Needle . upward in all . the Three Obfervations = Which would naturally occafion fueh.a Difference. Wheo;

I receive the reft of his Obfervarions, or his. ~eedle again, I Ihall be able to judge better of

. thai Matter. However, even tbel~ ObterwrioDS.

agree in gro(S wlth all the Ieft,. to the gradual,Dccr~fe of die Dlp.as you go .nearer to the £qua.tor: Tho' as . ~bey .Iland at; er~eo.t, they .. clo DOt.' determine. die' accurate Proportion of tbat :Ala:-" ~tion·(o well as the others. . .

. ..

. Captain Michel alfo, long after the rell, fctoDt for 1!afllbllT/.b with the fame -Inllrument; .though now without tbe Frame, which he was not willing to incumber himfelfwirh. and I rutpeaat that in its prefent Contrivance it did more hurt than help the Nicety of tbe.Esperimencs, ·1 alfo by him, fent a Letter to th~ Reverend Mr .. EDtrhard, who was tbe Occafion of my ftlldyi~ this Matter, and was then Paflor of .dlURiI, c1oiC.·hy. HambItT,gb; d~r~ing that he would there ;~kc the Experiment \7ery exaaly , and give me a .par-. ticular Account of it. But 1 have not yet re-

ceived his ~nfwet. .

. .:

. Now tbe'()bfervations bere ~entioned, as weD. as thofe many others Lhad by me before, do feein. to me in general ~videndy to·a£l:ord us the follow- .

ing Inferenees i . .

. (1.) That there is one Spberi,qlLoadftoot; and' J>~t one in the Center of our· ~ ; and that. dlis

... .. .. " .... .. Load.

---- -.- -:---=

['·88 ] .

Loadftone, like'other Spberl~l' t~daones, Ira! bur.one NOf'tbtrir Pole ~ CODtrary to Dr, H,Ilq's

·Htp6tl'lefis.·· . :

. , (~) That this Nonbern Pole is '~tuared, con-

o Sl,y to the fame H.ypothefis alfb , a' great Way . td~'E8n of our Meridian' :: And indeed, as r befOrc'-·had detertnined ,.about tbe.Middle of the. t>iftarice between- t~e 'Nortb Cape and"Nova ZembLJ:. Captain ·1i1B;'~. numerous ',ObtervatioD5

. prove t·his molt fuUy:: While in Samrig towards . dlat: ·Polnt his hori.2:ontal Vibration~. greatly inc."d·lo Number: ,And' when he tunied aimoR aurlght 'Angles;' as he ,'went down to _jy&bang'tl., they lOon "diminit1=l,rand yerro lt~re"after tome time' that it was evident he then tailed dot tar from· a Parallel to that J\T'ortbern Pole; aud' riot vert many _Desrees ~?m it neither., exaruy aa:ording

to..m'y:Expeaatlao~ . .... .

I ~~.)~'That the 'a&folute Pow~ of the internal twiagnet'is confidera.bly . difFere~~.ln <ltfferCQr PIad:I-~ .~cl. that ·wi~hoUt any certain Rule; as it is" ufIOI1 ·the Surface of our °Terrell# or. Spherical lc.Oldlones here.' This the various NUP1ber of SeClonUtO a vertical Ofc:i1lations, andidtrbe Accounts Hi 'ch'e: otbet Ob(ervations fulIy,,:,ptove; and by c;oiltiquence . t"js muft caute d.iftet~t Varhtions in; daferent Places, as is the. ~~ of our TeT-.

_1/,. . .' .. .

~ .... , .

. '. (+> .That there n6 where appears in open Se3s any ruch Irregularity in the Dip, .as we fometimes meet wi~h near Shores, or at Land; aDd by . ~quen~ t~.t 'I?t: Hatley's ·gra·n~ Obje8:ioD agamlt the Dlfcovery of the Longlmde by the DiPPing-Needle; nken from' an Ollfervation 'of his own, concerpina filch an Irreglilatity pear the ShC?re.tt ~eYem ~'and from his own Hypotbe-: is' O.f .tbe four ~tick Poles is u~tCrly gro~

" r s~.] ,

~"Ndr.indeed.fha11 tbe!atRClt, dll·ilJa\te.f~f a Dipping-Needle [0 lfMffJIJ) Bay, on ~o~ fa jdcrmilia tbis [?ifpllte ;Ui>ur the. four feie:l J ifo~ ,tbatV ~eihga)moil4in:aly;towards bi$~QJ)tK{ Norther~P'ole.anthe w'aJl; ~il1Jd about the'~ Oi~ fiance alhbd~ay' fromi8llna.:~-if.tbis.'Vb~~~ furd mtck t~ fame Il~;·!'.it:1!.ill d'ctirtttdtfclto,

- [hat thsejs 'hut One ·Nmbn-mJ!ble .;: :abd:dDt:it .

Is nearl.y PiheR11·plapdt.:VlJotlif .t·hatiDip peat\ Iy incrca{e, it will demdMttat'C a fi:c<lnd: Pold iOmewrhere imthOfe Parts~i~ri"", '''!ta.re·~1)r~ HfI/ley placeslt. And to .:thtr.~cretPt1t\Eac.'puE menr 40 lappmLfor·a fi!111De!erminaliOl'M'Jf~~is. Q..QCftiOD.,~ H'Jt(t Doao~ feerps' to: ni~ to ;ch~ bG lD:renas' fiolll 'the J(Jri(ll.ion, ,r:wbicb no. War. ' proves 'iny flIdi double BDle~'~ :l&.beatg tnwblS . ien6b1e on eu..r .Tr:Trelle.I~. wltU;ia have !n~:;mor~

.. than tingle anes ; while. ·b'e.:,a,6lds;aH··~l;feCv:ni~ .. on~ from the~D.ip" W~i9'h\a.r~~1\Hl .ag~i'lflJ\~!11 ~ and which: .are alone ta~e.Al,4:ifcove~+!1i .. \he ,~q Place ~f fuch. Pol~s\, .. dt~her Upoll. th.y,$inface of the. Earth,. ~~._.<?f.. rerr.fJ~ H~"'i*er, when oneSet .. <;>f.. Experuvents With a .'D;,p'pmg.

Needle, .~i tp :ll~dfon~s Bay.,: .~iU c~~~4ilY determine this: Maner ; 'ris ta .vain Tning m. . .,&o Oil

· in the Way of COntroveri¥ aboUt, it, " .

· In fhorr;: T~ Obfervatiens hitherto made;

· {hew that the Foundations Lgo'upon in this Dif-

· co very of.rhe Lo.ligilude and rhe J..:,tltit/(de at Sea, are true and right: That the terre1tr~l Magnetifin ;~ very regular and uniferm, 'In the ~en Seas;

. that the Latitude in the Northern Pans:may even, wirheut ~y Avoidance of the Sh11\iqg of the Ship, in ordinary €Jlm Weather; be i~good Degree thereby difcovered already , and: that if I can fufficlenrly .avoid the Snaking of the Ship, Which I am now endeavouring, and have ,g;redt

N HOpei

. r 9°' J '

Hopes of perforining, both lAtitilh and lmigi ... tllil _I by this MethOcl be difcovered· i¥l the greateft·Part of the fililing World. I I fay 'nothing )Jere :~f anotber Method of Trial; which I am' ; lifo Punuing, and. which depems ,.like: this, oft the avoiding the maiD Part Of the·.Ship's Agitati-

. ()n; 'and if effeaed will he more f2ft and univerfil than this. BUt as to' giving any farther At- . count, of that to the.rublick; unle1S .it fucceed, I

have no lRtention, at atl.' ' ; .

· ' No BJ' Tie origiilal [ournalsare all ln the Hands·of my. ~ . Friend and 'Patron Salll1lel ltJDlyllllf6(, Efq; Sectetary to his Royal;.Highnef~ the Prince of Wales, and Fellow ';Of the' Royal

.. Society': ,Which, Journals., when:,·,r balT.tl compleated: tbe reft of. ike Obfervatioos I' hope to procare,,' I intend to publifh entire, iOr the more full :Sarisfaaion of the curioas, ' . .

ArabIc of tbe Angle OJ'1nClinlltion:·be/ou/ tbe BO·

· :t'ji:tJlt~ ihDippIng·N~dies, to. ,everj' 9A ,Part. of ""'~i! re[p~~ivj, :tqila/' Dijfatzccsff.ollZ .tb« Mal'"

I' 1l"~(~ Pole~ tlnd E1..lIat~'r~._. _ '-!".;' .'

· . l)iff. 'from 'J" Dill. fro ..

t""1'0I.. . Di~~\ Ithel!~~ :'~p.

. ';;; .. ~ Hi'!; 'I~ I~~. f: !i

4 6, '59'· 4";' 17 41

'. , 87 ~91 I S J, Sl

6 86. S9' 6"1 ~o

7 86,8.. 7 s3 41

I 85 58 I: 8 'lS 2.4

9, ·8 S 2 7 I 9 I 'J.; A

}O 84 57, ' 10 'J.8 36

n ,84 '1.7. JJ" 30 6

" -~; i ~~. ~: II ~.~: .j·F ~~

, m-

, . , . ~

'[ ~9_t 'J
Dift~&om Di4.fl'om
de Pole-' Dip. : t\le' Pole. Dip. -.
_'
• • • ' ',0 0 •
J4 b sl J4 ~4 I)
, , ,J, 820 A4 ' IS 3S ss
, J6 81 ,4 16 36 ,.
17 81 2.;, 17 3· 4
18 80 S2. 18 n '16
19 s. 2.r ' ' I, 40 ..,
so 79 49 2.0 4i "n
'21 79 IS :&,1 '4: 4S
.U '78 41 20'S 43' 'S4
• 20J 18 16 , 203 44' ,8
;t 17 44 ,il4 46 ~
-J 17 'U- 2.S 47, ,
s6 76 41 206 48 ' ,
20) 16 8 2.7 " 4.9 I~
s.8 7' ;6 as ,0 IS
~9 7S 4 2.9 ,I u. ,
30 74 ;2 • 30 sa Ia
!II 73 59 31 '3 II:
,,, H '2.6 32. S4 I
n 72. '4 33 SS
J4 720 2.0 34 ,6 I
:1 71 47 3S S7 0
71 14 36 57 S'
'7 70 39 37 ,S Sa..
S· 7° ' , S8 " 47
:I' '9 31 39 60 4'
40 68 S7 40 61 Sf
41 68 2.2 41 62. 4'
4S 67 47 420 63 loS
43 . 67 IL 43 1'4 I~
44 66 36 44- 6S
4S " ge 4J " Q, ~ . ... . . .

!f..'"

, '

J" -:~," \1 •• ~ .• ~

. "

..

~ [ ~~l.J . ' ... ' :

. . _ t.. .. ,: ~ ~: ~ I : ; ,~.'.'. ," .. ~

:N>B~ I I ~ take t~; :Norther. Pbl& -of the rerrelhiOil Magnet r.o . abo r !;N,eridiap of Ncbangel,! if\th~ L!l~hllde'o '],~~'._ .Its E'¥!tor ~o be

. nearij: a gr~t Circle, nt rreB:lDg the t Earth s E· quattt a~u,t 2+ Degr~s. RoJlroor.~ of the MeridiIn ofL<!!f:dqn.; i~d iq i's~ 9ppg6,.t~ reint. And th;It ~~ u~qloft ~ntMq 1·· UfWWPfJ. IS lJX the Gulph of 8f.11g.Ji about 12M qrecs- ;. 304 :35 much SOlltb;: iIJ~t~e oppolicq'oint. in the great South Sea -': ; ~~ .hat ~~e SOlft) e~iI ~!e~ is nearly circular ,\ us X\a4.ius 4:0 Detrqe$ of ~ great o(ircle, and its v:nt~~ in a' Meriiia!1 ~6(/flrptVd ~. Oiloll abo!.lt 4~ .. ·~,gre«s; ~ndl ar.oUl: ~ LatiIMe.

. .

. . .

]{.~B: Lt!ndo,! is nearly ftf ~~~ diDance from' the l{orVJ Pole of the Magnet, whence its Dip will ie ~ 7,41, wh1ch:is certainly fo in.fa8:.· . Bo ...

. flon in Ne.w;-EngiP.nd i~ fh- == J;J.J, whu.ce its Dip will'be ~lJt 68.0.22', :w~idl Captain Beal found to b~ fa ~i~ Faa BorlJa4.0$ is. "bout f.t+ f = ~ s difi;wlt f~ the Equator -, ofthe Mag"" whence .irs Dip o~~ht to be alpu~ 4.4~ ~ as Oftain BeD] alfo fuurxl _ to be in }fact Sf .-lle/elltlls about 1: == ~It:l, ~Mnce its Dip Qug_bt to be about 47° 50' as Dr, Halley foupd it JO .be in Faa. _.(qld fo eve- . ry vdler~ i~ the :main,Ot~, ~ tonfi4Frable Di-

ftan~ f~ the. $hore$. ; .~ . .; •. '

. " . l!"" '.;'

N. B~ 1f the Dip of any' Needles beifomewbat . difterent at J-ondon, add or fubftraEt a proportionable Part of the Dip elfewhere.And you will have nearl ythe ttueDi pat an¥ otherPlacewith tb a tNeedle. TUus if yourNeedledifrer from tbe other 2° or 120', anq,ihew the. Dip at. Lq1}l1on 72° 45' inftead of ih(ji 4.5', which Is jts$.'p'Gper Dip io this Table; and you require thetnie Dip by this N~dle for

2 . j)pw

..

. r 9.3 ] .

:B#cII infftlel»!Englt1TJd,~ ~S"ltt~at:J:; ~cb in the .Table is ~SO:22'; proceecl.~~-s .. , Becau~.t¥.eqQil 'l'>ift,apce of ~fl.on from .tJte.Ma~eticK 'E_g~~or is

-4:9' Parts of 60L 4 "the h~ :l:;>iltance of Lotldo(l from that Equator; pEiduQ ~ 130' =-97J" ._:_ ,Ill, 37' out of the Ta.~u1?ip 6'S? 22'. 'Th~,Re-maj.Jl!ler.i$, o61t4\Jt(w; tp.c- true, Dip at Bb./lol! with that Needle.' - Thu~ if you' wailt the' true. Dip, by the fame Needle, at Drontbcm in NorllIay, Nortbmard.l Becaufe the equal Diftance of Drontbcm·from the Magnetick Pole is I)L2 Parts of 2 9L 6 the DiUance of London from that Pole; deducH~L6 12' == 62' ~ 1.° 2' out of the Tabular Dip 82° 30', ana the: lemainder, 810 28' is the true Dip at Drontbcm, with 'that Needle ~

And fo in all other Cafes whatfoever. . , .

N. B. The Table before fet down, fuppofesthat the true pip' diff~ Icc::C>.tAi~ to fuch a Line of Sines, wbbfe middl~ Point gives ~6° on one' Side, and ~~~~tbe o[J\er_~ 3J1d ismade by adding or fuhlt~ing ,8 to the 'Complement of the Dip found b~_ the natuta\ Sines for every .. : .. of equali>iftance§ti;om tbe'E;qqa~or or Pole.

• .,... .".;, ,. _~ _I

No B. If any defire'-f'tdculare by. Trigonome- . . .try the Dlftances of all Places from the magnetick Equator of Poles, and the Dittancesof that E- . quator and thofe Poles in every particular Cafe; . both made ufe of in the foregoing Calculations,

it is rhus to be done: . .

. . In the (Fig .. 1'2.) Triangle B L 11 we have B 1, . the Co-Latitude of Lo"don"; B 11 the Co-Latitude • of the magnetick-Nortb Pole; and the included Angle, ..d B L :::::·the Diftance of. the Meridian of that Pole from the Meridian .of London; to find the Angle -t..d.M and. the Side..d L. Then

" liD,

.1' "OW,. -

. I 94 ].

1n' ·the . Trlapgie t. A M, we' h~ve the . Angles. . ·I_A·llf allcLtM.A:,aI'ld the Side .AM, = the :Diftance of. the ~ek Pole from the Magne'tiCk, .~ator, 'to 'find .A ~ So we have the Pro--

·port.iORbf .A~to~.t..~E.L ~.

Uut fince the D4t~ ate not yet fufliclently exaa forthe Calculation, meafutmg is fufficicnt.

. ',' , ... ': " '

' .. , . ' ..

. .

: ' _, ,:, .

\ ..

F I·N IS.· .

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JI

V v. .: :R

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0.-,'

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'7

. H\.

~~\ '~\

I ,

I I ,

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. C ------,-------b

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~------- p

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