Project in Internet and Web

page Development
Prepared By:

Banao, Leo D. Caquilala, Leizel C. BOA IV-1

Course Code

EN 214

Course Description: BUSINESS . COMMUNICATION AND REPORT WRITING

Course Outline Chapter 1: Communication in Business Chapter 2: Appearance and Form of the Business Letters Chapter 3: Qualities of Effective Business Letters .

Acknowledgement.Chapter 4: Request. Order. Reply. and Remittance Chapter 5: Sales Letters Chapter 6: Employment Letters Chapter 7: Claim and Adjustment Letters .

Chapter 8: Credit and Collection Letters Chapter 9: Invitation, Announcement, Appreciation and Sympathy Letters Chapter 10: Introduction, Reference, and Recommendation Letters Chapter 11: Business Reports

CHAPTER 1

COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS

There is one thing that distinguishes man from lower animals, and that is man¶s ability to use language or to communicate his ideas (or thoughts, feelings, attitudes, etc.) through some oral or written system.

The language used in the communication process may be called medium. therefore.Communication ideas. In simple terms communication may be defined as the act or process of transmitting or sending a message. or eyes in meaningful motion). head. But what ever form of language is used. the message (or code or idea). involves language which may be oral. or even gestural (hands. . the means to transmit the message or idea. and the receiver (or listener or recipient). written (or graphic or printed). three basic elements always make up the communication process: the communicator (or source or speaker or transmitter).

magazines. It may also refer to a medium used in mass communication ± broadcast (television. books. diaphragm. Simply defined.mouth.or to the kind of language used. etc. movies) or print (newspapers. tongue.oral. Two other words related to communication are encoding and decoding. radio. Aside from being known as communicator. . the word channel may refer to a person¶s speech mechanism. a person who transmit a message is also called encoder. teeth. or transmitter. or gestural. encoding is the act of transmitting a message while decoding is receiving and understanding a message.In communication. speaker. source. etc. .). written.

This means that although a source initiates or starts a communication situation. . The receiver¶s response or answer to some information or message from the source is known as feedback.Feedback Since communication is a two way channel. the source and the receiver alternately transmit and receive messages. the message he transmits is not only received by the receiver but is also reacted to by the receiver.

Feedback may be positive or negative. or reassessing the communicator¶s message or behavior . the implications being that he is doing fine and should continue what he was been doing. Negative feedback signifies a need for changing. adjusting. Positive feedback reinforces or encourages the source.

is an unstructured communication channel.often referred to us grapevine.Organizational Communication Two structures actually make up the communication channels of any organization: formal and informal. down. and horizontal. Chismis is the popular local word for informal communication. to give and receive directions and 2. Clearly communication in organizations has two basic functions: 1. Formal communication usually follows the same line and patterns of an organizational chart while informal communication. a form of communication whose lines and routes change as fast as personal relationships among organization members change. downward. There are three formal communication channels: upward. to give and to receive information. Informal communication also runs up. and across the organization. .

staff. of course.An organization needs a considerable number or communication channels. supervisors. and the more communication there is. needs channels connecting with lower management. and people outside the organization. Higher authority. The theory is that the more channels people have access to. . workers. the more they likely to communicate. the better it is likely to be.

decision making and controlling. communicating to management is an opportunity to offer valuable ideas and management.Upward communications Upward communications give management feedback or information needed for planning. On the part of the employees. or a form of release form emotional tensions and pressures. a means in showing that directives or policies are understood or accepted by them. The common formal procedures associated with the upward channels or organizational communication as follows: .

This procedure involves talking with one or few employees.1. Informal discussions are supposed to make the participants more at ease. the exchange more spontaneous. . the purpose being to make the employee or employees speak out his or their minds or feelings as openly as possible. and the atmosphere more conducive to mutual trust and respect. Informal discussion.

an employee¶s time record.2. Reports. or simply a listing of the ten newly hired employees in section. reports are among the most important tools of carrying information upward because they provide invaluable data which help management arrive at certain decisions. a report may be simple as a supervisor¶s statement. If written. minutes of an annual meeting. Whether oral and written. it may contain only raw data like monthly financial statement. If made orally. . Reports.

. surveys not only generate a lot of information quickly but also provide statistically valid answers to wide range of questions. This form of upward communication provides unions and management with formal machinery to air grievances on all points of view. survey. Attitude survey. Grievance procedure. . often in areas overlooked or considered insignificant by supervisors. This technique gives employees a chance to express themselves anonymously. 4. and hence. honestly.3. When conducted by experts. procedure. It gives employees a sense of involvement and importance.

interview. Exit interview. Resigning or ³terminated´ employees can offer valuable information because they usually do not hesitate to make known their gripes or ideas.5. 6. . Counseling. The result is a quicker resolution of a grievance or problem. provide a means for releasing the workers¶ pressure and tensions. employees are given a forum for candor without fear of reprisals. Counseling. Counselors may serve as ³listening post´ to many workers¶ problems and therefore. Through exit interviews.

This is probably the most common communication technique used by business organizations. Formal meeting usually provide a way for a person of stature to have an impact on a group. Union. Are supposed to represent workers¶ interest and welfare.7. meeting. 8. and are not hesitant about speaking their minds. therefore union representatives are in direct contact with workers. Union. know what is going on. Formal meeting. .

Suggestion work best when employees know that each suggestion gets the attention of top management 10. When featuring a gripe box and/or question and answer column. system. 10. an employee publication can be perfect for employees who wish to remain anonymous or avoid a face to face encounter with anyone in the company . This organizational communication procedure promises to be an effective source of ³intelligence´ for executives if manage properly.9. Suggestion system. Employee publication.

This procedure does away with the ³through channels´ manner of communications. . Grapevine. 11. Grapevine. If all channels of communication are open. but it should not ignored for it can provide good first indicators of morale and trends. Open door policy. it allow employees to have management contract freely and encourages more personal than formal meetings. the grapevine will not be very active. 12. therefore.11. policy. 12.

Downward communications Aside from the directives and orders which employees receive from management or their supervisors. The following is a list of the top-to. influence their opinions. there are other means to increase employee awareness.bottom means of communication . and stimulate their sense of belonging.

1. The newsletter being the most common form. employee understanding and commitment can be insured with a question and answer session and a period of free discussion. 2. Company publication. This has been found to be the most effective means of two way communication. . publication. a company publication can carry a broad range of information while conveying the official company position on important issues. Small group meeting. meeting. Once the information has been conveyed.

a gathering of employees is very effective when the top company management wants to make very important announcements. this is used to let the workers hear about company plans. 4. Letters to employees¶ homes.3. A letter mailed to an employee¶s home can generate can generate more feedback than any other technique. policies. . Mass meeting. meeting. homes. and the like from the member of the management with whom they work directly. Supervisory meeting. meeting. 5.

6. envelopes. announcement. These provide a simple means for supplying firsthand information quickly. Notes or notices inserted in pay envelopes are certain to be seen and likely to be read. To be effective they must be attractive and constantly changing. Insert in pay envelopes. This procedure requires almost no preparation and can reach all employees at once. Bulletin boards. Public address announcement. . 7. 8.

tours. Posters.9. Posters give information a graphic impact while providing a continuing reminder to all those concerned. Open house and plant tours. 10. Posters. . These are effective for mass exposure to create interest and credibility. 10.

division or departments of the same level. The most popular tools used in horizontal communication are the following. .Horizontal Communications Horizontal or lateral communication is a type of intracompany communication that takes place between sections. The objective is to keep people aware of activities in a related department.

create greater savings or make optimum use of the human resources in the company . 2. to train the participants or let the participants brainstorm. Meeting and conferences. increase production. These are held to upgrade the knowledge and skills of the personnel so that they will do their job better. to solve certain problems. A meeting may be held to disseminate information.1. workshop. Meetings and conferences emphasizes the philosophy of participative management. conferences. Seminars and workshop.

Intercoms. to a large degree. Socials. the physical distance between speakers and provide immediate feedback without the need of face to face communication. Socials. . Telephones and intercoms reduce.3. a party to welcome a new employee or head. These may take the form of testimonial. a luncheon meeting. 4. Telephones and Intercoms. In many companies socials have proven to be more than fun occasions for management and employees because they can turn out to be excellent opportunity for solving interdepartmental or individual human relations problem or a ³status-leveler´ among the personnel.

Writing in business Type of business letter Business letters fall into the following different categories: .

Sales letter. . Request letter. Letters to or from potential customer and suppliers: 1.letters designed to persuade people either to buy the product of a business or to utilize its service. 2.letters addressed to a supplier of products or services to request information about a particular product or service.A.

Sales inquiry. and acknowledgement letters. order.letters conveying such expressions as congratulations. 2.letters planned to communicate business information between business institutions.letters written to correct any misunderstanding that occurs between parties in business transaction. and thank you. Letters to or from established customers and suppliers: 1. Claims and adjustment letters. Credit and collection letters. .B. 4.letters that involve payments for items brought or orders or loans made. my sympathies. 3. Goodwill letters. their purpose is to strengthen customer relations.

Letters from prospective employees and employers: A. B.letter written by individual to obtain employment inquires and follow up letters.letters written by the firm to individuals confirming or rejecting employment.C. . Application letters. Application approval or rejections.

CHAPTER 2 APPEARANCE AND FORM OF THE BUSINESS LETTER .

So does the appearance of a letter. . Besides. Our letters represent us and our business that is why appearance should concern us.Our appearance communicates. it is difficult to avoid making an evaluation of the writer of his firm based on a first impression of his letter. An attractive letter also enables the reader to focus immediately on the message.

Good taste call for white or nearly white unruled paper with a surface not glossy but smooth to prevent ink from running or blurring. margins paragraph balance.The Attractive Letter Appearance The elements which contribute to an attractive letter appearance are: 1. which is the distance between lines. The paper. . The picture-frame layout. and white spaces must be considered. 2. For a business letter to have a picture-frame layout. Spacing. The quality and the size of the paper upon which business letters are written vary. The picture frame layout and the paragraph balance principles both lead to the effective use of white space. must be appropriate to contribute to contrast in a letter layout.

The style 4. The typing quality 1 Picture-frame 1 1 Lay-out 1½ .3.

The following outline includes the six commonly used styles of arrangement and the three punctuations patters: . conventional or outdated corporate image through its choice of a letter style.Business Letter Styles A firm may reflect a progressive. there is no standard by which appropriateness or inappropriateness of a particular style can be firmly established. However.

3 Full-block (also called ³Block´ or Extreme Block´) 3. Extreme format 1.1 Modified-block style 2.Letter Styles 1.2 Semi block style (also called ³Modified block with indented paragraphs´) 2. Standard formats 2.1 Indented style 2.1 NOMA (National Office Management Association simplified style) 3.2 Hanging style . Special formats 3.

Its major disadvantage other than its rugged appearance is the time-consuming use of many tabulation stops on the typewriter because of the many paragraphs and other indentions required. Close The indented style though it is the oldest letter style.block in the placement of the date. . Open 2.Punctuation Styles 1. The modified block with mixed punctuation. Standard (also called ³mixed´) 3. the most frequently used letter format. complimentary close and the signature block. The modified block differs in full. It is simple to prepare and gives the letter balance. It was the style frequently used when all letters where handwritten.

EXAMPLE OF AN INDENTED LETTER STYLE  The ultraconservative and close punctuation  With 5 space indentations .

Rovier Padilla. and Europe. 1345 Scout Rallos Street. In each of these groups. as you see by a glance at the inside address and the closing lines. too.indented in steps of five spaces.September 15. Ecr. the lines are tab. Quezon City. but they are both very popular (especially when use together) in Mexico. Enclosure (3). Metro Manila 3002 Dear Mr. This letter also illustrates the ³closed´ form of punctuation. Robertini A. Canada. Yours very sincerely. Padilla: This letter illustrates the indented form. Neither the indented arrangement nor ³closed´ punctuation pattern is commonly used in the United States. Each of the displayed opening and closing lines is ³closed´ by a punctuation mark. Training Director. Llanes. .20_____ Mr. One care to be exercised when you use the indented letter form is to make sure that none of the final lines projects into the right margin: you must start the complimentary closing far enough to the left to assure there is room for all the closing lines.

In the full-block letter style each line of the entire letter begins on the left margin. 3. 2. and the listings in the message are indented five spaces. the use of a subject line in a capital letters as substitute for the salutation. except when these are numbered or lettered. the absence of a salutation or complimentary close. . It saves typing time since the tabulator is not used in setting up the letter. The simplified letter style is essentially the same as the full-block style. save time and encourages directness. The differences are: 1. The simplified letter style is simple to prepare.

EXAMPLE OF SEMI-BLOCKED LETTER STYLE Conservative  Executive With attention line and cc notation   .

It is accompanied. the use of the attention line here is standard. and (3) the use of ³cc´ notations at the bottom to indicate to whom carbon copies of the letter are being sent. 20__ Delphi Development Center 1121 C. Recto. Yours very truly. In two regards. This letter also shows you an alternative arrangement for the attention line: centered. Worth nothing also in this letter are the following: (1) positioning the date at the margin as an alternative to starting it at the center. however. ECR cc Mrs. (2) the use of ³standard´ punctuation. as it should be. in all capitals (instead of being blocked at the left margin and underscored). Metro Manila ATTENTION TRAINING DIRECTOR Gentlemen: For a letter design that is both standard and distinctive. which calls for a colon after the salutation and a comma after the complimentary closing. FilenR cc Dr.March 4.M. by the salutation ³Gentlemen.´ and it is typed above the salutation. try this style: semi blocked (one of the two most popular styles: with the paragraphs indented ten spaces (instead the usual five). Isidro Josefa Aborro. Directo .

EXAMPLE OF FULL-BLOCKED LETER STYLE vigorous  aggressive with subject line and open punctuation   .

to use ³open´ punctuation with the style of letter. Recto. Yours very sincerely Mercedes Pascua Documentation Department ecr . Like an attention line. for it is considered a part of the body.M. It is natural. it may be blocked or centered. although not necessary. Because this style is the fastest to type. a subject line may be typed with underscored of capitals. 19________ Mrs. It always appears after the salutation and before the body. it must be blocked in other letter styles. A few companies modify it by moving the date to the right. This letter also illustrates one arrangement of the subject line. In a full-blocked letter. Metro Manila Dear Mrs. Legal firms and the legal departments of companies sometimes prefer to use the Latin terms Re or In Re instead of the English word Subject. which may be used with any style of letter. Alcoriza Subject: Form of a Full-Blocked Letter This letter is set up in the full-blocked style in which every line begins at the left margin. but most firms use it as shown here. Shirley Alcoriza Delphi Development Center C. it is considered very modern.May 13.

EXAMPLE OF SIMPLIFIE LETTER STYLE the efficiency expert¶s with open and full-block design   .

but its efficiency suggests that this style is worth a trial.March 15. Robert Mendoza Delphi Publishing Company Quezon Avenue. this form does not really look like a business letter. 4. the Administrative Management Society (formerly NOMA) designed a new letter form that they called the ³Simplified Letter. 2. as some say. Mendoza. Metro Manila THE SIMPLIFIED LETTER Several years ago. Mr.) 3. It uses the full-blocked form and ³open´ punctuation. It contains no salutation or closing. Mr. (AMS believes such expressions to be meaningless. Mendoza. Note that the word ³Subject´ is omitted. It displays a subject line in all capitals. 1. Perhaps. both preceded and followed by two blank lines. ALBERT ANGELES. partly by using the addressee¶s name at least in the first sentence. especially where output must be increased.´ This is a sample. It identifies the signer by an all-capitals line that is one-if further notations is used. 19________ Mr. TRAINING CONSULTANT ecr .It seeks to maintain a brisk but friendly tone.

while the second and all other paragraph lines are indented five of ten spaces . The style is similar to the modified block except that the first line of each paragraph is not indented. the hanging style attracts the reader¶s attention to the beginning of each paragraph.For advertising and sales letters.

EXAMPLE OF HANGING-INDENTED LETER STYLE  for super-display salesmanship with paragraph assigners name displayed  .

It is a good device to use when a singer has a signature he likes but which is illegible. this is a hanging-indented letter. as below.July 13. Vice-President. Since the whole point of the display is to feature those paragraph starters. Yours very truly. You set a tab stop some appropriate number of spaces in from the margin and indent all line except the first one in each paragraph. Sales LS Llanes/ecr . INC. with a key word ³hanging´ in the margin at the start of Each Paragraph and with other lines indented. this letter style takes attentive production. instead of below the space where he signs the letter is a procedure that may be used with any form of letter. Yes. 2009_____ To all the Secretaries Who Need a Way to Display A Special Sales Letter so It Looks Special Dear Ready-for-Rescue: Yes. Yes. LETTER STYLES. the letter has to be prepared especially to fit this arrangement. the hanging indented style is designed solely for sales promotion ± this form is too cumber-some for ordinary correspondence. Yes. indicating the signer¶s name in the reference position.

and close styles. only the salutation and complimentary close are followed by a mark of punctuation ± the colon and the comma. respectively. The close punctuation requires that a punctuation mark appear at the end of every line of every part ± except the message of the letter used of the three punctuation styles. in this style. 1. the most commonly used style. 3. standard. 2.The three commonly used punctuation style for business letters are the open. . Open punctuation. Standard punctuation. requires no punctuation after any part of the letter except the message. often used with the full-blocked letter style.

namely. but the typist may use a tinted colored ribbon for tinted stationery. manual or electronic. If these are noticeable. Good erasing tools must be a part of every typist¶s kit.not a sprinkling of light and dark letters across the page. the evenness of touch of the keys. the letter must be retyped. Of course. An even touch produces typescript of even density. . Type keys must be cleaned regularly to prevent dust ± and ± ink clogged letters from marrying the appearance of the typescript. the typewriter ribbon and the neatness of erasures. erasures and strikeover must be avoided.Typewriting Quality Typewriting quality depends upon three factors. A good quality ribbon must be used ± one that suits the type of typewriter ± standard or portable. Black is the color frequently used.

Postscript . contribute to the letters attractiveness. The following business letter parts. Subject line 7. Complimentary close 9. Date or dateline 3. Attention line 5. are in common use today: 1. the individual parts of a letter. proper. upto-date placement and usage. Signature block 10. Inside address 4. Reference initials 11. Heading or letterhead 2. though not found in every letter. Salutation 6. through effective. cc notation 13. Body or message 8. Enclosure notation 12.The Placement of Letter Parts In addition to the over-all letter appearance and layout.

Attention line 5.1. Dideles P. Cordially. Mary Freshen A.S. Signature block 10. Reference initials 11.A. it should also be written on the envelope. never as an afterthought. Inc. Dateline 3. The subject line follows the salutation. Complimentary close 9. Enclosure 12. Because it is really a part of the address. Metro Manila 007 July 13. Salutation 6. Metro Manila 045 ATTENTION: PLANNING COMMITTEE Gentlemen: Subject: The Business Letter Parts You are reading a letter containing all the parts of a business letter. Subject line 7. The postscript must be used for emphasis. cc notation 13. 4. CONSULTANTS. INC. Heading 2. The attention line follows the inside address. Llanes President PAL/mgr Enclosure cc R. We suggest that each business firm standardize as much as possible the layout used for its letters by following the principles of acceptable letter layout. 8 Scout Rallos Street Quezon City. Quirino Street Sampaloc. Inside Address 1045 E. 20____ Migs and Lang. It is considered part of the body of the letter. Body 8. Postcript .

2. The date maybe type left. Date or Dateline. street address. Heading or Letterhead.1. the company name. When letterhead paper is not used. On letterhead paper. . or centered depending on the letter style used. the heading is the letterhead printed on the stationery. The heading parts thus contain the information that the reader needs to answer the letter and to file the letter for office reference. right. The dateline styles accepted in business not abbreviate or use a number to indicate the month. however. The inside address consist of the name and the title of the addressee. the street address. 3. In most businesses. only the date is entered at least two spaces below the last line of the printed heading. city and country and zip code are typed on the top lines immediately above the date. Inside address. and the city and country.

Makati 713 Prof.Any of the following forms of inside address are appropriate: Dr. Laguna Katha Publishing Co.. Quezon City 2725   . Street. 388 Quezon Blvd. 927 M. Sonia Aborro Los Baños. Inc. De Lara President. IDEAS. Inc. Rodolfo T.

´ is opened before distribution. Llanes Llanes Realty Company Guiguinto. R. On the envelope.A. R. It is part of the address and should be typed two spaces below the inside address.A.4. Bulacan Philippines 2725 Attention of Mr. Attention line. the attention line should be typed in the lower left corner. Any of the following styles is acceptable: Llanes Realty Company Guiguinto. The use of the attention line is diminishing as all mail except that marked ³personal. It directs the message to a specific person in the company. Llanes . Bulacan Philippines 2725 Attention: Mr.

or the attention line may be used. tells the reader what the letter is all about. . The body is the message. The degree of formality used in salutation depends on how well the writer knows the reader. The salutation.spaced with double spacing between paragraphs except in very short letters when the body is double spaced. 6. The subject line.5. Salutation. is typed double space below the inside address. It is part of the body of the letter. The body of the letter is single. Body. though not appropriate in all letters. 7. It may type in full capitals or underlined for emphasis. Attention line. It is type double space below the salutation. a form of common courtesy extended in business.

Reference initials. It follows the complimentary close. The writer¶s initials may be omitted in the reference initials if his name is already included in the writer¶s identification. The reference initials serve an administrative purpose only. Complimentary close. Signature Block.8. 9.´ It is typed two or three spaces below the last line of the body of the letter and about midway between the left and the right hand margins. Only the first word of the complimentary close is capitalized. his business title and his company. . The signature block consists of the writer¶s name. but companies using open punctuation sometimes prefer to omit the comma. 10. The complimentary close says ³good-bye. It is usually followed by a comma.

but the preferred method is to use the complete word.. Some accepted enclosure notation styles are: Enclosure Enclosure: Contact Enclosures: Book Check Enclosures: 1. Enclosure notations. The enclosure notation indicates that something accompanies the letter in the same envelope or container. Memo 2.11. Contract . The information confirms to the writer and his secretary the presence of enclosures when the letter is received. Some writers abbreviate the word ³enclosure´ to encl or enc. Check 3.

Norma Santos cc: Ms. on the original and all duplicate copies of the letter. This shows that copies of the letter are being sent to one or more persons other than the addressee. The following cc notation forms may be used: Copy to Ms. A cc notation is placed directly below the typist¶s initials or the enclosure notice. Karen Chin . Norma Santos cc: Ms. Norma Santos Ms. Carbon Copy (CC) Notation.12.

13. Blind Carbon Copy (bcc) Notation. A bcc notation appears only on the original copy of the letter, not on carbon copies as the writer wishes to send a copy to a person other than the addressee, but does not want the addressee to know that he is doing so. The writer should retain the copy with a cc or bcc notation for his files. 14. Confidential and Mailing Notation. The fact that the letter is confidential or similar nature must be indicated on all copies of the letter. Such notations may be type below the date or below the reference initials. A note indicating the special postal service such as registered or certified mail should be indicated on all copies of the letter.

15. P.S. (Postscript). PS notation in business communication must be used to re-emphasize an important point, not to call attention to something you forgot to say in the message. When PS is used for afterthoughts, it indicates careless letter planning and can do more harm than good to your reputation. Thus, PS should function be treated like other paragraphs except it is preceded by the letters PS.

TwoTwo-Page letters Special attention must be given to the heading of the second and succeeding pages, which must be typed about one inch from the top of each page. It identifies the letter for filing purposes of both the writer and the reader. A twopage letter must include the firms name in capital letters in the signature block, even though letter head paper is used to the first page. The heading of the second pages contains the following information. 1. addressee¶s name, 2. page number and 3. date.

The envelope address should be exactly the same as the letters. though. It takes the same form-blocked or indented as the inside address.The envelope. . The inside address. is always single spaced but on the envelope. a four line address is single spaced and a three line address is double spaced. The address should be well centered.

CHAPTER 3 QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE BUSINESS LETTERS .

sincerity. sound mind which enables a person to think clearly and logically: 2. Good writing is the product of: 1. A writer¶s style or the way he expresses his ideas depends upon his total personality. and his social. . humility. and intellectual maturity. knowledge of human behavior. consisting of his verbal intelligence. his relationship with people. . emotional.Qualities of Effective Business Letter A business letter which effectively communicates is not only physically attractive but also well written. 3. and an altruistic attitude.

. 2. conciseness. clearness. coherence. 4. completeness.Business writing style possesses the following qualities: 1. courtesy. correctness. and 6. 5. 3.

.Completeness Two requirements must be met before a letter. offer. of course. The important facts or ideas of the letter are those which are intended to inform the reader and those which are presented to influence or motivate the reader to act favorably on the writer¶s request. the meaning intended may be obscured. Clearness Clear writing is no doubt the result of clear thinking. A clear letter or report is. What you read is clear if there is no doubt in your mind about what the writer means. may be consider complete: first. and second. particularly a business letter. When words are erroneously arranged or when pronouns are incorrectly used. or the reader may be misled. it should give all the important facts or ideas. Three factors actually contribute to the clearness of the writing: sentence structure. it should have only one objective or purpose. one which the readers understand quickly. or proposal. punctuation and word choice.

It is being brief but understandable and forceful. Many people use words extravagantly.Conciseness Concise writing involves the expression of an idea in the fewest possible word without sacrificing completeness or clearness of the meaning. a number of professional writers and speakers still need to convince that one carefully chosen word is usually more effective than four or five words taken at random. not knowing that their verbal extravagance often makes their expression less forceful and meaningful. or by condensing unimportant ideas to their essentials. or by eliminating unnecessary words. In fact. . It knows when to stop writing when the job is done. A conciseness achieved by omitting unnecessary details.

be free from all errors in grammar. punctuation. be free from errors in facts and figures. Remember that errors in letters can be costly because the image of the company will be greatly affected. correct usage. sentence and paragraph structure. have a correct physical make-up.Correctness This is a very important quality which means that business letter should be perfect. The writer should therefore write carefully and have sufficient knowledge of the rules of grammar. . and 3. To be perfect a business letter should: 1. 2. capitalization.

is one of three levels coherence within paragraphs. 3. the writer of a well planned business letter uses the three paragraph approach which includes the following: 1. and coherence within the word in a sentence. Coherence within paragraphs in the letter is achieved by means of planning and outlining. Planning involves listing down the things you want say and making sure they are in the right order. a middle paragraph which contains the body of the letter. .Coherence Coherence. a final paragraph which sums up and explains what course of action to take. 2. coherence with sentence in a paragraph. an introductory paragraph explaining the topic of the letter and possibly referring to a previous correspondence. which means the process of sticking together. Generally.

A dangling modifier refers to the wrong word or to no word in a sentence. you should consider the following suggestions: 1. Avoid dangling modifiers. Make a certain that a modifier refers clearly to the word or words modified. 2. Place words like only and phrases like at least where they convey exactly what you mean.To avoid this kind of error. 3. .

friendliness. The ingredients of courtesy are the following: 1. and willingness to serve others. a positive attitude. . It further means consideration. 3. It means recognizing and having respect for the value and worth of other people. 4. 2. a willingness to serve.Courtesy Courtesy is a mental attitude. an other centered attitude. a sincere and personal relationship with people. a way of life among people living in a polite society.

Using the correspondents name in natural. . ³You´ Attitude. True friendship is one which is based on understanding.1. and closeness to others. 2. conversational way helps to produce a personal and pleasant atmosphere. caring for others. 3. A Willingness to Serve Others. Sincere and Personal Relationship with People. Empathy leads to a consideration for the reader¶s feelings and point of view resulting in a friendly and kind attitude toward others. This attitude comes from empathy which means placing oneself in somebody else¶s shoes. Other-centered. Makes other people feel important because he thinks highly of them.

middle. The topic sentence of a paragraph expresses the topic or central idea of the paragraph. all of which help support the development of one central thought. or end of the paragraph. .Methods of Paragraph Development A paragraph is a series of closely related sentences. It may be placed at the beginning.

4. The writer can arouse the reader¶s interest by asking a series of questions. and then explains the circumstances which brought it about. The paragraph begins by stating the problem. 2. 3.Among the various methods of paragraph development are the following: following: 1. The subject of the paragraph is defined and particulars are given. . The writer gives a strong suggestion and gives details to arouse the reader¶s interest and desire. One way of giving the reader a clearer understanding of the subject is by showing the origin of the subject of the letter and then by tracing its development. Origin. Definitions. Statement. Series of question. Cause-effect. 5.

Objective. circumstances or effects . Narration. The writer must see to it that the facts are accurate. This paragraph begins with a general statement. The incident which led to the situation or problems is narrated. Deductive. factual reporting is necessary. Analogy. The likeness of two things is shown in terms of their attitudes.6. 8. then proceeds to giving supportive details 7.

ORDER.CHAPTER 4 REQUEST. REPLY. AND REMITTANCE LETTERS . ACKNOWLEDGMENT.

Inasmuch as they deal with particular situations and specific purposes. Each of these types of letters. they will have individuality and warmth which would make them effective instruments for building goodwill. inquiry. personal language. vivid. Reply. . reply. and Remittance Letters The letters in this unit occur so frequently in everyday correspondence.Request. Inquiry. both business and non business that they deserve special attention.request. Order. order acknowledgement and remittance make it possible for writers to ³keep in touch´ with their friends and business associates. They should be written in fresh. Acknowledgement. Properly composed.

a firm¶s policies such as those relating sales. They should be reflecting the writer¶s confident and positive attitude. prices or quotations. services rendered.Request letters Letters seeking help or assistance should be direct. therefore. credit and collection. It should brief and direct to the point. all relevant explanatory matters should be avoided. They should be brief and straightforward. Inquiry letters An inquiry letter seek information about people. A good inquiry letter must state exactly and completely the required information. concise. . catalogue. products manufactured. and courteous. personnel and the like.

state your request and the purpose of the information Second paragraph . why you have to addressed your inquiry to the reader .explain the details of the specific information needed and its possible uses. Also. without resorting flattery. you may explain.you may explain the advantage of the request to the reader if granted.An inquiry letter may contain the following: following: First paragraph . This is optional.

Close felicitously.state the specific course of an action you may expect from the reader. . and courteous inquiry uses please and thank you. positive response. Suggest that you are willing to return the favor if an opportunity arises.Third paragraph . an inquiry letter must be straightforward. For quick. compact. Facilitate action by enclosing a stamped. self addressed enveloped or by giving your telephone number.

. cheerfully. and competently. A reply to an inquiry may contain the following information: First paragraph . Replies should be handled promptly. its products.Reply letters Any reputable organization should adopt the policy of sending replies to inquiries to maintain its public¶s goodwill.express appreciation for the writer¶s interest in your company. or its services.

state the information requested cheerfully and if possible. graciously indicate willingness to be further assistance.Second paragraph . booklets or catalogs which might be of value to the reader. You may enclose folders. and relevant details. Third paragraph .

A complete description of the merchandise ordered: a. price . quantity f. quality d. catalogue number c. color b. among which are the following. You must include necessary information about the merchandise. style or style number h. 1.Order letters An order letter must be specifies and complete. trade name e. size g.

D. express. if open account is requested. airmail. date of shipment c. check or draft b. mode of shipment (parcel post. Necessary information regarding the shipment of the merchandise a.O. C. complete name and address of buyer or consignee (if any) b. money order d. on account 4. freight.2. and so on) 3. Method of payment a. charge c. . e. Credit reference.

an important gesture in developing a good corporate image. 3. Expression of appreciation for the order received 2. method of delivery and any special instructions 4. An acknowledgement order may contain the following: 1. Restatement of the order. Giving such necessary details as to the time. Brief sales talk designed to make the customer and in being of further service .Acknowledging Orders Letters acknowledging order may serve as confirmation of the order and an expression of appreciation for the writer¶s interest in the company and its products.

Brief sales talk designed to make the customer and in being of further service 5. .4. Expression of pleasure and interest in serving the customer and in being of further service.

send remittance letters 1) to acknowledge a partial of full payment.Remittance letters A remittance letter states the amount sent or received. 2) to take note of errors in billing and in payment. brief. 3) to take note of discounts which have been taken at an incorrect rate or after the discount period has elapsed. Purchases send remittance letters a) to make a partial or full payment for merchandise purchased. Sellers. and accurate. . It should be straightforward. b) to deposit to their account money against which they will later draw charge merchandise. on the other hand.

CHAPTER 5 Sales Letters .

. you are actually trying to sell goodwill. ideas. you are attempting to sell your skills and services. When you invite your neighbors to a birthday party in your place. services. When you write a letter of application.Almost all letters are actually sales letters. policies. or goodwill.they sell merchandise or commodities.

Sales Strategy Although selling may be done either orally or in writing ± in person or by mail ± the procedures or techniques to follow are generally the same. and 4) directing favorable action. 2) building interest and desire. Strictly speaking. These are the ABCD¶s of selling or sales-letter writing. . What happens is that the seller presents the advantages of his offer of goods or services in a manner that will motivate the prospective buyer to accept the offer. 3) convincing. selling is a mental process involving four steps: 1) attracting attention.

and 3) the opening sentence or sentences. 2) the headline and subheadings. 1) the mechanical details of the letter. A very effective sales letter is one that can attract the reader¶s attention even before it is taken out of the envelope. The factors that attract attention are. of course.Attracting attention. .

it can continue to attract attention through one or more of the following devices: a. using well-designed stationery or an unusual letterhead design. Instead of using the traditional white envelope. . typing in a color other than black or using an unusual style or type. Mechanical details. e.1. the sales letter writer may choose one with color and with a picture or a phrase. underlining certain words or using dashes or exclamation points to emphasize a point. c. b. When the letter has been taken out of the envelope. d. choosing unusual letter style like the hanging-indented style. typing the entire letter in capital letters or typing certain words or sentences in full capitals.

they are usually prepared without a personal inside address and salutation. When letters are intended for mass circulation. Note the following examples: Who Says that You Can¶t Be a Millionaire? There Is Money In Earthworms Read On. . To attract attention.2. Headlines and subheadings. a provocative headline is placed in the same position as the inside address or run across the page.

. Striking headlines or subheadings are certainly not enough to hold the reader¶s attention. Opening sentences.3. A good opening is necessary to carry the reader¶s attention into the main substance of the letter.

CHAPTER 6 EMPLOYMENT LETTERS .

thousands look for jobs they hope they can hold for sometime. While graduation ceremonies may take place in a school only once or twice a year applications for jobs occur every day of year. In fact. .Every year. you must be able to write an application letter. Whether it is your first time to seek employment or not. thousands graduate from colleges and universities. the application letter may be the most important letter you will have to write in your lifetime. On it may depend much of your success in getting a highly-rewarding job or being misemployed or unemployed. and every year too.

An application letter is not an autobiography. It is not expected to include information that has no relevance to the position you are applying for. Purpose: To present as attractively as possible your peculiar fitness for a particular job and the benefit of benefits the prospective employer will get if he employs someone who possess special qualities. . and a capacity to grow.The Application Letter as a Sales Letter There is actually not much difference between an application letter and a sales letter because both are selling propositions: the application letter attempts to ³sell¶ you to a prospective employer. your qualifications being attractively presented. If your letter is convincing. a positive personality. you may be granted an interview after which you may go through a series pf recruitment procedures and eventually fill the hob you have applied for.

Prompt the prospective employer to act by offering references and by asking for an interview. 3. . Catch the employer¶s attention or interest by giving the purpose of the letter ± make known the job you want to fill. indicated how you came to know about the job opening.Selling Principles for an Effective Application Letter 1. and give the requirements of the position. 2. Convince the prospective employer by showing you meet the requirements of the position ± present your desirable qualifications and d express your desire to contribute something for the food of the company.

The following want-ad may have attracted a number of replies after it came out in the papers. The replies to this advertisement are. therefore. of course. make sure that the letter you write appears better than the other letters if you wish it to read closely or considered favorably. You should.Kinds of Application Letters 1. . Solicited ± is written to answer an advertisement about a job opening (a Want-ad). When writing a solicited letter. you should keep in mind that there are probably many other letters written to answer the same advertisement. properly celled solicited application letters.

35-65-51 to 54 Or 673-6336 to 39 .WANTED ACCOUNTANT SECRETARY COLLECTOR Business Management Major 2 yrs. Marketing Major Mechanical Engineer Electrician Building Administrator with exp.nos. CONTACT Tel. Exp.

The advantages are.2. Its chief advantage is the likelihood that there are fewer applicants or no other applicant with whom one competes. that there is no assurance of an opening and that the written must determine for him the qualification is which the employer will be very interested. When the applicant hears of an opening indirectly. it is advisable to refer to this person or agency in the introductory paragraph. or when some friend or agency tells him of a vacancy. The unsolicited letter is sometimes called a prospecting or cold application. is written to a prospective employer who has not placed a want-ad in any publication. of course. Unsolicited ± . An applicant sends an unsolicited because he believes some opening exists or is expected to exist or because someone has told him am opening does exist.

tells me that your company needs a clerk typist. Miss Helen Cuason. Director of the Placement Office at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. .Examples: Prof. Esperanza Ortiz of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines has suggested that I apply to you for the position of telephone operator-receptionist which you will need starting July 16.

Blind Advertisement One kind of advertisement that does not reveal the identity of the employer or the specific requirements of the job is called blind advertisement. the first one giving very little information while the second one giving more explicit information: . In replying to a blind advertisement. the salutation ³Gentlemen´ is used unless the writer knows the name of the person he is applying to. Want-ads like the following are called blind advertisements.

a. Cubao. EXPORT MANAGER Experienced in export pf Bangus prawns and other aqua marine products Send Resume stating salary desired to Box No. . 64 c\oBulletin Today.

WANTED IMMEDIATELY ECONOMIST Must have at least 5 years experience as a professional economist in a job requiring skill. judgment and technical competence in the use of economic principles and professional methods of analysis and economic projections of development and macroeconomic problems.b. Excellent knowledge of macro and micro economic principles. including the use of statistical. . Ability to prepare thorough and comprehensive analytical studies and reports. accounting and econometric methods and mathematics. standard analytical and economic model building techniques.

Manila 2801 .ANNUAL SALARY ± P46.675 to P52. employee will be entitled To leave privileges. cost-of-living allowance Of P270 per month.83 Per annum In addition to annual salary. Box 423 Ermita.O. mid-year bonus of Of P200 and year-end bonus (equivalent to 1\4 month¶s salary) SEND LETTER OF APPLICATION WITH COMPLETE BIO-DATA AND INEXPENSIVE PHOTO TO: Personnel Officer P.

letter 2.Writing the Application Letter Most application letters consist of two parts 1. data sheet .

Outline of an Application Letter First paragraph or Introduction indicate the specific job applied for give the source of the job information (newspaper advertisement or friend) Present briefly qualifications for the job or stress special training or abilities .

if you wish.Middle paragraph(s) or body mention that data sheet is enclosed in the letter mention. your reason for changing jobs or indicate that references are given on the data sheet say when you can be hired ask for an interview at reader¶s convenient time .

you create the impression of sloppiness or carelessness.Final paragraph or conclusion indicate how you can be reached (give postal address or telephone number) Remember: Both the appearance and content of the letter will give away your personality and work attitudes. or if it is poorly arranged. It is important. If your application letter has many erasures or smudges. therefore. that your letter appear as impressive as possible. .

³Is there a place in your company for a young man who has been thoroughly trained in salesmanship and who has experience in the operation of a bookstore? If so. A challenging introduction may inspire the employer to finish reading your letter and to grant you a personal interview. Examples.´ .´ ³Are you looking for someone who has had successful management experience and who is willing to work hard to serve your company? If your answer is µyes. I believe I can be a valuable asset to your company should I fill the position of branch store manager advertised in yesterday¶s issue of Bulletin Today.The Introductory paragraph ± it should easily attract attention and maintain the reader¶s interest.¶ then I believe I can prove to you that I can fill the position of marketing manager which you advertised in today¶s issue of Daily Express.

´ ³My five years¶ experience as mechanical engineer in a multinational company has prepared me for the position of senior mechanical engineer of your company. Will you please consider me for the position?´ .A summary statement of your special qualifications can be another effective introduction for your application letter: ³A two-year course in advanced computer programming at the Institute of Advanced Computer Technology has prepared me for the position of systems programmer you advertised in today¶s issue of Bulletin Today.

´ ³Replying to your advertisement«««´ ³Answering your advertisement«««. begging. desperation.Never use a stereotyped or unoriginal expression or show any sign of anxiety.´ ³Believing that there is an opening««. therefore. or egotism in your introductory paragraph. do you good if you avoid any of the following expressions: ³This is in reply to your advertisement in yesterday¶s issue of Bulletin Today.´ ³Having read your advertisement«««¶ . It will.

In listing the references. You may also mention your reason for wanting to be employed in the company to which you are applying and give tow or three names as references. . present the most important facts about your education and business experience and should make reference to the enclosed data sheet. The body of your application letter or its middle paragraph must be supported in the next paragraph or paragraphs should. If there is not enough space foe references.The Body . you must also secure their permission before including them on the list. therefore. you may include them in the personal data sheet but you must indicate this in the letter.

or anxious expression in the concluding paragraph.The Conclusion. As in introductory paragraph. the writer should say so at the end of the letter. you must avoid any weak. unoriginal. A good sales letter must end with the statement that tells the reader what the writer wishes him to do. . This is true of the application letter: because its purpose is to ask for an interview.

the first one solicited and the other one unsolicited.Observe how the following application letters. apply the principles of effective letter writing: .

May I apply for the position of junior marketing analyst which you advertised in today¶s issue of Bulletin Today? Just last year. 2009 The Personnel Officer P. Soliven. . I took special courses in computer programming and business communication at the Executive Development Academy. Metro Manila August 29.O. Mesa.3477 Magsaysay Boulevard Sta. Right after graduation. I received the bachelor¶s degree in Marketing from the University of Santo Tomas. Soliven and Company where I received some training in real estate brokerage. While working for V. I was hired as sales counselor by V. Box 381 Manila Dear Sir.V.V.

Press Relations Officer of the junior Public elations Society.m. I am Filipino twenty-two years old.6-9 p. debate.. I am interested in working for your company. May I call on you for a personal interview? You can reach me by telephone. single.In college. and Associate Editor of the Varsitarian. involves data-gathering and processing through computers. you will find references as well as further data about me. I received a plaque foe academic excellence and a medallion for student leadership. every day. I was president of the Marketing Club. 12:30 ± 1:30 p. vice-president of the Student Catholic Action.m. or 642-1386. In my last year of college. Yours very truly. I was also a recipient of three gold medals and two silver medals for winning oratorical. extemporaneous speaking and writing contests. and in excellent health. . In as much as the position you advertise. On the enclosed data sheet. 793-2461.. Monday to Friday.

Last semester. Santos: Will you please consider me for a part-time teaching position in your school? I have been teaching secretarial science subjects ± Stenography. Amparo Santos Director. I completed a special course in advanced computer programming at the Institute of Advanced Computer Technology. I am now enrolled in a doctoral program in business education at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Paul College of Quezon City where I was once a coordinator for the practicum on office Administration. School of Secretarial Education University of the East Sampaloc.Prof. Metro Manila Dear Prof. I have also served as lecturer in Business Education at St. Typewriting. In April of last year. I received a master¶s degree in Education from Cento Escolar University. and Bookkeeping ± at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines for the past five years. .

Since my classes at Polytechnic University of the Philippines end at 5:30 p.m., I shall be very glad to handle night classes in your school. On Monday, Wednesday, and Friday mornings, I am also free to handle part-time classes. You will find the following persons very glad to answer any question about me: Dr. Milagros Morales Dean, College of Business and Secretarial Education Polytechnic University of the Philippines Sta. Mesa, Metro Manila Mrs. Angelita Cruz Area Coordinator, Secretarial Department St. Paul College Aurora Boulevard, Quezon City

Dr. Paz Policarpio-Mendez Dean, Graduate School Centro Escolar University Mendiola Street, Metro Manila I shall be very happy to call at your office for an interview anytime you find most convenient. Of you wish to call me, my telephone number is 678-5349, and you can reach me between 12 noon and 1:30 p.m. ever day. Very truly yours,

The Data Sheet
The application letter is usually supplemented with a qualifications summary which is common known as personal data sheet, bio data sheet, personal profile, curriculum vitae, or resume. Being a part of the application letter, the data sheet should not carry an inside address salutation, and a complimentary close. Its purpose is to outline or summarize the applicant¶s qualifications in relation to the requirements of a particular job. Most data sheets contain four basic parts: personal details or information, education or training, (work) experience, and references. The facts under each of the four parts may include the following:

Personal Details Name your legal name. mot nickname) Address Age Birthplace Sex Civil Status Height Weight Health Religion Nationality Hobbies .

Education Degree(s) earned and school attended Special courses taken Honors and academic awards received Membership in school or professional organizations Work Experience List of jobs held beginning with the present job and moving backward and name(s) of employer(s) Salary or salaries received (optional) References Names of two or three persons who can vouch for your competence and integrity .

Filling out an Application Form Besides writing an application letter and a data sheet. An application form also provides information about you which your application letter and data sheet may mot be able to give ± your penmanship. you may still have to fill out an application form prepared by the company to which you are applying. your accuracy. and carefulness in answering questions. . your neatness. and your ability to follow written instructions.

at least four copies of your ID picture. 3. you must. a pen that writes well or that does not make blots or scratches. therefore. 2. and a copy of your transcript of records and your college diploma. a copy of your personal data sheet. . 4. take the following items with you: you: 1.When called for an interview. in addition to that earlier enclosed in the application letter.

as completely. Your handwriting does not have to be artistic. Refrain from asking many or unnecessary questions.What you should never forget when you apply for a job is that you accomplish or fill out an application form as accurately. 5. write ³not applicable´ pr draw a line through that space. If the interviewer has difficulty reading your writing. You should be familiar with the type of questions usually asked on an application form. Fill each blank as much as possible. Write clearly. Here are some suggestions to follow: 1. 3. Make sure all information you¶ve written down is correct. . 2. If the information asked for does not apply to you. but it must be readable. you only prove you are not worth interviewing at all. Follow instructions correctly. and as legibly as possibly. 4.

A letter you write to the interviewer of employer thanking him for the time given you and pointing out one or two interesting points about the interview will surely put you in a favorable light. . the application letter may need a follow-up to make the reader take action.The Interview Follow-up Letter Follow- Like the sales letter.

The Letter of Acceptance When notified by mail that you have been chosen to fill a certain position or when a job offer is made to you by mail and you accept it. and 4. you are expected top send a letter of acceptance. to inform your prospective employer of your acceptance of the offer. . to acknowledge the offer 2. Purpose: 1. to inform your employer-to-be when you can report for work. to reassure your employer-to-be that he has chosen the right person. 3.

I assure you I will do my best to a worthy employee of Riano and Tañada Law Offices. I am accepting the position.Example: Dear Atty. The letter was most welcome. and I can start reporting for work on the day you indicated in the letter. . Sincerely. and I look forward to working for you. Monday. Thank you again. May 8. Riano: Thank you very much for your April 24 letter informing of your decision to choose me as your secretary.

it is usually advisable to write a letter of refusal tactfully stating your reason or reasons for declining the offer. .The Letter of Refusal If you have to turn down a job offer for one reason or another.

I decided to accept the offer. Sincerely yours. Ortañez: Thank you very much for your February 2 letter offering me the position of legal secretary. The position is certainly an excellent opportunity for any new secretarial science graduate to apply the theories of legal secretary ship.Example: Dear Atty. another secretarial job was offered to me a week ago. however. and since the office I would have to report to for work is very near my lace. . Unfortunately.

Accepting a Resignation However a valuable an employee is to an organization. If the resignation cannot be prevented. the superior cannot do anything but to approve it. however. he should be given the freedom to leave when no longer feels happy working for the organization. . important for a superior to find out the reason or reasons wht a subordinate he considers an asset to the organization. It is.

and I would have made the same decision if I were in your place. but at the same time. I am happy for your success. I understand your reason for leaving the firm. I have always considered your services valuable. Juco: Your letter of resignation effective May 1 of this year comes as a surprise to me. I genuinely regret you having to leave us. and it will surely take time before I can completely adjust myself to a new secretary. . Sincerely yours.Example: Dear Ms.

CHAPTER 7 CLAIM AND ADJUSTMENT LETTERS .

A customer who feels aggrieved may. A letter in which a complaint is expressed. The answer to a claim letter is called adjustment letter.that is. The customer may receive a defective item. one in which the customer makes known that has a claim against the company ± is called claim letter. decide to write a letter expressing his grievance. Even with the installation of the most advanced equipments or facilities. mistakes cannot be completely avoided.Despite efforts to make its operation as efficient as possible. an erroneous invoice or statement. . therefore. . a company may still expect to receive complaints about its products(s) or service. or rude treatment from a sales clerk. a slow service.

merchandise whose quality is unsatisfactory. and goods damaged or delayed in shipment. Merchandise Claims ± This type involves orders incorrectly filled. Amounts of Money Claims ± This type involves errors in statements and invoices and misunderstandings with regard to price or terms of payment. Service Claims ± This type concerns delays in filling orders for service. and failure to make a follow-up of an earlier incomplete service. . discourteous treatment by employees.Types of Claims 1. 3. 2.

Explain. catalog numbers. but don¶t be unreasonable in your request. order numbers. what you feel the company should do about your claim. 4. in general terms. 2. Indicate details necessary to identify your claim ±dates.Rules for Writing Claim Letters 1. Never allow yourself to be controlled by anger. etc. Avoid accusing or threatening expressions. . Explain carefully and tactfully what is wrong. 3. color or make of item.

May I. therefore. . but I noticed a sewing defect at the tip of the reverse side of the right front collar. as that the T-shirt be replaced with another? Cordially yours. Roxas: The Lacoste T-shirt I bought at your store last April 24 fits me very well. I may have overlooked this defect when I inspected the T-shirt before I made my payment. some wind may turn the collar up and reveal the defect which is not at all too pleasant to look at.Example of Merchandise Claim Dear Mrs. While this defect may be hidden from view.

this item was on sale for the whole month of April. 03689 of May 8. I received your receipt no. and since I mailed my letter before the end of the sale period. As advertised by Daily Express (April 2). amounting to P300 and representing the purchase of an Everlast collapsible tray cart.Example of Amount of Money Claim Gentlemen: Just this morning. . Very truly yours.

Dear Sir: Example of Service Claim I am not at all familiar how ³Standard´ appliances are serviced by your men. . and nobody has turned up to repair any rice cooler clearly provides for home service with the purchase of the rice cooker clearly provides for home service with a reasonable service fee for purchasers living within the Metro Manila. I have decided to avail myself of this privilege. and the employee who answered me promised to send a serviceman to my place two days after my call. It¶s been almost a week since I called you up. But I called up your service department last week to ask for someone to repair my ³Standard´ rice cooler which broke down exactly two months after bought it at some store n Quiapo. know when your serviceman can come over to my place? Sincerely yours. May I. therefore. being a resident of San Juan.

If the claim is to be granted. that his problem is important enough to call for immediate attention. .Rules for Writing Adjustment letter 1. Reply promptly. A pronto reply to a complaint makes the customer feel that he s treated fairly. A customer who has a claim against a company wants to know what is being done about his claim. 5. 3. this fact should be made known immediately. Regardless of who is at fault. A sympathetic attitude certainly has the effect of pacifying an aggrieved person. Tell the customer exactly what you are gong to do about the problem. and an explanation of how it is to be done should also be made. Show the customer that you understand his problem. 4. 2. the deal adjustment letter should show right at the start that the company has no objections to receiving complaints. Those with any grievance want someone to understand why they feel as they do. Avoid negative words and accusations.

Statement of Action 4.The Organization of Adjustment Letters 1. . Conciliatory Statement 2. or both The following illustration presents the four steps that should go into the writing of an adjustment letter. Expression of goodwill or assurance. Dear Ms. Explanation of Facts 3. Buensuceso: Conciliatory statement We are sorry to learn about the unsatisfactory service in your Foreign Affairs Digest subscription.

. production and transportation problems. which are not ordinarily experienced by the publication¶s Singapore-based publisher. it is published on a carefully schedule which must be followed strictly if copies are to reach you promptly. thus affecting delivery by the Central Post Office.Explanation of facts Although Foreign Affairs Digest comes out only once a month. have caused a few shipments to reach Metro Manila late. and we are exerting top make the dispatch schedule in the coming months followed with greater regularity. however. Statement of Action We have given this matter serious attention. We have also reviewed transportation facilities to make sure that deliveries will always be as prompt as possible. N recent weeks.

Cordially yours. and we assure you that every effort will be made to give you the kind of service you have the right to expect. .Expression of goodwill and assurance We appreciate your writing us.

CHAPTER 8 CREDIT AND COLLECTION LETTERS .

The salesman seeks sales. . the role of the collection man s related to the roles played by the sales and credit man. while the credit man who more often than not is also the collection man aims to increase the volume of business through credit. The three must coordinate with one another of the result s a problem n business operation. mostly on credit.In today¶s business.

Duque: We are pleased to receive your initial order for our new cosmetic lines. Example: .Six types of Credit Letter 1. opportunity of serving you. To help us fill your order on open account as promptly as possible. We look forward to the Very truly yours. Letters Requesting Credit Information The credit man may write either to the customer or to a third party or both to secure the credit information he needs. Thank you for your cooperation in this matter. Dear Ms. please fill and return the enclosed Credit Application blank form together with a recent financial statement and the names and addresses of three firms which now extend credit to you.

. Letters Giving Information The credit man may be asked to furnish information about his own firm or about a company with which his firm does business.2.

Baliwag. Bulacan Rovirey Industries. Guiguinto. Listed below are companies with which we have done business on credit for at least five years: Baliwag Touch. Bilacan Very truly yours. Bulacan Crownwood Furnitures. Inc. . Attached is our most recent profit and loss statement and balance sheet. Inc. Inc.Gentlemen: We are glad to submit the information you requested with the regard to the establishing of an open account with your company. Baliwag.

3. profitable relationship. 4. type of service. the credit grant 2. Letters Granting Credit Contents: 1. . a sales talk on products quality. etc. and anticipation of a pleasant. pleasure in opening an account. an expression of appreciation The letter granting credit offers good opportunities to create favorable impressions about the company. a statement of terms 3.

The 713 Charge Account enclosed. A statement will be sent to you regularly each month. address. Thank you for this opportunity to be of service. We are sure you will find it great convenience.Example of Letter Granting Credit: Dear Ms. and account number should be presented to our Credit Line department whenever you charg3e purchase. Sincerely yours. Rodriguez: We are pleased to tell you that your 713 Charge Account is now open and ready for your use. which bears your name. .

5. The letters may be written to invite new accounts either from customers. The tome of the letter must be sympathetic and tactful. . Letter Refusing Credit The Letter refusing credit must be properly handled so that. credit is still able to retain the customer¶s goodwill.4. or from potential customers. It has been proven that individuals with credit accounts tend to buy more often and to buy more at a time than cash customers. its aim being to turn the customer into a cash customer by presenting the advantages of cash buying or the desirability of merchandise. Inviting new Credit Accounts Letters inviting new credit accounts are generally practiced by retail stores. while it refuses.

have led to our branch since opening. 6. . you will surely agree with me that this should be your store for your apparel needs and that a charge account cam be a real shopping convenience Very truly yours. as they say. Reactivating Old Credit Accounts The credit man must take constructive action when a reliable credit customer stops using his account. Austero: Have you visited our new Cubao branch at Farmers¶ Market? All roads.Example: Dear Ms. If you have visited the sore.

Understanding involves adaptability to the types of debtor involved. Regularity. Collection letters involve the debtor¶s most cherished possession ± his own personality an d reputation. flexibility to meet unforeseen circumstances and human relations skills Increasing forcefulness. Good tone. Debtors are impressed with collection practices that are efficient and systematic. Attempts to collect after an account becomes de must not be procrastinated. Characteristics: Promptness. Understanding.The Collection Letters When credit customers fail to pay their accounts promptly. collection letters become necessary. . The collection process involves a series of letters that progress from reminders to ultimatums.

AND SYMPATHY LETTERS . APPRECIATION. ANNOUNCEMENT.CHAPTER 9 INVITATION.

use terms that harmonize with a warm personal such as Sincerely yours..Pointers: 1. and the like. and the like. Make the letter radiate warmth. Use correct titles such as Dr. friendship.. Call the person by his correct name. Cordially yours. Atty. Eng. In closing the letter. Inocencio instead of the impersonal Dear Sir. and sincerity. 4. . 3.. and the like Make the letter personal in the salutation by using the expression Dear Mr. 2. Dear Madam.

Invitation Letters that invite request the reader¶s presence. Hence. Letter of Thanks/Appreciation One letter that is certain to create a lot of goodwill is the letter of thanks or appreciation. . and why. An invitation letter should give the reader the impression of or sincerity in inviting him. they should answer what. They should contain all the information which the reader should know. without necessarily resorting to flattery. who. where. when.

. a letter of sympathy should come ³from the heart´ ± it should completely sincere.Letter of Sympathy or Condolence One of the most difficult letters to write is the letter of sympathy or condolence. Just like the letter of appreciation.

CHAPTER 10

INTRODUCTION, REFERENCE, AND RECOMMENDATION LETTERS

Introduction In a letter of introduction, the writer gives information about the bearer¶s (the person being introduced) character, reputation and record. The letter is unsealed. It normally accompanies the bearer and acts as an introduction to another person or company. Very often the writer requests his correspondent to assist the bearer n some way. Recommendation It is an endorsement of someone¶s ability or personal qualities. It may be written to recommend someone for another job, for a scholarship, or for membership n an organization. Contents: Purpose of the Letter Qualifications of the work of the person recommendation to the reader References A letter of reference gives information about a person¶s ability and/or personal qualities. It is placed in a sealed envelope because it conrains confidential information.

1. 2. 3.

CHAPTER 11

BUSINESS REPORTS

2.The Importance of Report 1. To provide efficient dissemination of current information To provide a permanent record of information recently obtained. .

1.The Definition of Report A business report is a systematic and objective communication of factual information to achieve a specific purpose or purposes. and functional. 2. Systematic ± A report involves careful planning and preparation Objective ± Objectivity can be achieved when the writer presents and analyzes facts without regard to his personal beliefs and attitudes. 5. The definition discloses the qualities of report writing. . 3. informative. factual. Factual ± The writer presents documented facts and ideas researched from various sources. 4. systematic. to get results and to get things done. objective. This definition of report makes the report writer see the distinction between report writing and their types of writing. Functional ± Reports are intended to provide useful and information to the reader. Informative ± The writer gives all the facts necessary to enable the reader to understand the report.

These are informational and analytical reports. Formal reports are those that are dressed up and are appropriately worded to fit the requirements of a very formal occasion. This type of classification is based on subject fields such as accounting. Time-interval. economics. .Classification of Reports Subject-matter. engineering and the like. Function. Informational reports present facts bearing on the subject. They are routine weekly and monthly reports made by salesman. Formality. periodic report of progress in big corporation¶s annual report of operations.

in which the consequences are predetermined by the designer The memorandum report. The letter report. the use to make of it. 3. Filled-in-blanks. and the formality of the situation. which usually has TO. FROM. while those prepared by the staff of public institutions are considered public reports. which is a letter more formal than the memorandum. It has a business letter format. .Authorship. Format. The physical format of the report varies with the expected outcomes. SUBJECT format. 2. Reports may be private or public. Private report which is prepared or written by those engaged in private business is considered private report. Types of Reports 1.

title pages. formal report which is a report in gala dress. and presented with pages informally stapled together. and length. and sometime covering letters of transmittal. It includes prefatory parts.5. sometimes table of contents. . The long. They contain covers. readers. 6. Booklets. the text. which are report of book lengths. The Short Report. 7. which consists of ten pages or less. depending on their purpose. to suit the requirements of a formal situation. Such report is of temporary or current interest. and the supplemental parts.

Working Plan for Research Steps Deciding on a Subject of Problem Identification of the Problem and objectives of the Study Preliminary Investigation and Conducting a Situation Analysis 3.14 Definition of Terms/Variables 1.1 Conceptual on Theoretical Framework 3.11 Review of Literature and Related Studies 3.12 Conceptual Framework 3.13 Working Hypothesis 3. 3. . 2.

7 Deciding on Data 3.2 Primary Data 4.3 Secondary Data 4.5 Internal Sources 4.4 Deciding what types of study should be conducted Development of a Research Design 4.4 Deciding on Information Sources 4.6 External Sources 4.1 Determining Type of Information Needed 4.2 .

4.33 Observation Method Presentation and Execution of Research Findings Follow-up the Study .31 5.32 Experimentation 4. Survey Method 4. 6.311 Questionnaire 4.

The Research Report A research report presents the findings of the investigation of a problem which arose from a situation of needed or pf unsolved difficulties. It employs any one or more of the methods of research: survey. observation. . interrogation. and bibliographical research.

Statement of the Problem. it may simply be headed as ³Introduction. This is a brief presentation of the Scope and Delimitation of the Study. source of the problem and a description of the events which suggested the research. This may be in Chapter 1. of it is short. Background of the Study. The problem should be stated precisely. and clearly. Limits of the study should be properly defined the scope especially state the number of subjects/respondents (research population). the introduction consists of the following: 1.Five Main Parts: Introduction. . instruments or research design. complicated reports.´ In long. accurately. 2.

4. Hypothesis. 5. These are conjectural statements of relationships between two or more variables. Scope and Delimitation of the Study. Significance of the Study. Limits of the study should be properly defined the scope especially state the number of subjects/respondents (research population). . These statements are based on existing information (common knowledge) and are tested experimentally or empirically.3. instruments or research design. This part explains why the problem investigated is important and what significance the result has.

1. the data processing techniques and statistical treatment(s) applied. 3. the data gathering procedure. instruments used.Research Methods and Procedures This section includes description of the sources of the data. A description of the adoption. Procedure. Data-gathering instruments. devices and procedures should be described in complete data. Research Population. construction and administration of instruments should be included . Techniques. 2. how many they are and how they were selected. The report should include information on who the respondents are.

The results should be presented in a straight forward and unbiased way. Summary. If the statistical technique used is new. A statement of a statistical techniques should be given. Results and Findings This section presents a summary of the collected data and the statistical treatment applied to them. Statistical Techniques.4. . Actually. a formula should e given. . the data presented must be those which directly answer the research questions and hypothesis. Conclusions and Recommendations This last section of the body of the report contains an overview of the research.

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