E YE WITNESS COMPANIONS

Art
robert cumming
Text previously published in ART: A Field Guide

PA I N T I NG • SCULPTU R E • ART I S TS • ST YLES • SCHO OL S

E YE WITNESS COMPANIONS

Art
ROBERT CUMMING
Text previously published in Art: A Field Guide

LONDON, NEW YORK, MUNICH, MELBOURNE, AND DELHI
Senior Art Editor Senior Editor Design assistance Editorial assistance Additional text contribution Picture Research DTP Production Managing Editor Managing Art Editor Executive Managing Editor Editorial Director Art Director Publisher Juliette Norsworthy Ferdie McDonald Peter Laws David John, Rob Houston Thomas Cussans Sarah Smithies, Celia Dearing, Carlo Ortu John Goldsmid Rita Sinha Debra Wolter Phil Ormerod Liz Wheeler Andrew Heritage Bryn Walls Jonathan Metcalf

at Studio Cactus

Design Editorial

Laura Watson, Dawn Terrey, Sharon Rudd, Peter Radcliffe Aaron Brown, Jennifer Close, Lorna Hankin, Clare Wallis

First published in 2005 by Dorling Kindersley Limited 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL Penguin Group First American Edition, 2005 Published in the United States by DK Publishing, Inc. 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 04 05 06 08 09 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Text © Robert Cumming 2005 All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Convention. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. ISBN 0 7566 1358 2 A CIP catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Color reproduction GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by L Rex

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION

10

THE HISTORY OF ART
44
EARLY ART

MODERNISM

c.1900–1970
340
CONTEMPORARY ART

3000 BCE –1300 CE
46
GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE

1970–
448
GLOSSARY

c.1300–1500
72
HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM

478
INDEX

501

INTRODUCING ART
14
WHAT IS ART?

c.1500–1700
128
THE BAROQUE ERA

16
MEDIA AND MATERIALS

c.1600–1700
162
FROM ROCOCO TO NEOCLASSICISM

28

c.1700–1800
218
ROMANTIC AND ACADEMIC ART

c.1800–1900
258

000? $1 million? $10 million? 4 Is it any good? And. as a new member of a small team whose task was to stand in front of the works on display and explain them to the public. THE EYE IS THE SOVEREIGN OF THE SENSES. a Rembrandt. in front of a pile of bricks or an unmade bed. I soon learned that four questions were asked over and over again: 1 What should I look for? What are the key features in a Picasso. a Raphael.10 I NTRODUCT I O N THIS BOOK HAS EVOLVED OVER MANY YEARS OF LOOKING AT WORKS OF ART. BUT PREFERABLY IN THE COMPANY OF OTHERS. OFTEN ON MY OWN. AND TO SHARE LOOKING IS ONE OF LIFE’S GREAT PLEASURES—IT INCREASES WITH AGE AND IS NOT CONFINED TO WORKS OF ART. My first job in the art world was at the Tate Gallery in London. am I being taken for a ride? . a Turner? 2 What is going on? What is the story? Who is Hercules? What is the Nativity? Who is that girl with a broken wheel? Who is the man abducting the woman who looks like a tree? Does that big red square mean anything? 3 What is its value? Am I looking at $10? $10.

” looking In the main section of the book. St. taken in 1994. we often voice different—and Hidden treasures.I N T RO DUCT I O N 11 I also found that most of my audience The present-day art world is a huge seemed to enjoy getting involved in an industry of museums. . Petersburg This photograph. all with reputations work of art. In this book. the Hermitage. thought.” but are held in museum archives around the world. Also. gives some idea of the sometimes much more interesting— vast quantities of works of art that are not on display. but in the face above. opinions than we do when “on duty. official messages. uninhibited History of Art (pages 44–477). They are often provocative or controversial desperate to convince us ones) and about what they of the validity of their saw. I have been of all that vested selfPOSTER FOR MIRÓ EXHIBITION part of the art world long interest there is a need for enough to know that when those of us a no-nonsense alternative voice. teaching informed discussion or exchange of institutions. I have tried I understand the to capture that kind of pressures that impel involvement and to all these official art address the four basic institutions to maintain a questions I have listed party line. you will by the need to maintain professional credibility. commercial operations. and felt. or about and postures to specific issues (especially maintain. The at art purely for pleasure. who work in it are “off duty. opinions about a particular and official bodies.

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If it fulfills its goals. from the early Renaissance onward.I N TRO DUCT I O N 13 find painters and sculptors. UK Viewing the Mona Lisa in her new setting To allow more people to see the world’s most famous painting. better to say too little rather than too much. 54 Station Road. I hope. It should also encourage you to believe what you see. I think. Where the sale was made in another currency. I would like to thank Duncan Hislop of Art Sales Index Ltd. 1962. the time. at least in note form. which opened in April 2005. I have included record prices paid for works by each artist because what people pay for works of art is fascinating. May 2005 . think.. so as to allow those who are with me to make their own discoveries and connections.art-sales-index. Works by many of the old masters rarely come onto the market because most now are in public collections. In fact. Surrey. (www. Egham. with no allowance for inflation. TW20 9LF. and some wonderful works of art are almost given away because they are out of fashion or overlooked. while looking at the works of art. cause you to stop. silk screen. for his generous help in providing the information on prices. The actual price paid by the successful bidder will be increased by the addition of a premium charged by the auction house (the amount varies between auction houses). Since the 1960s. Private Collection. prices for works of art have escalated and are now greater than at any other time in history. some are ridiculously overpriced. and. that is the value called out at auction when the item is “knocked down” to the bidder. it will provoke you. I hope this book will prove to be a friendly companion. You will see that a record price is not given for all artists. Prices are given in US dollars. and have pleasure in searching for. the Louvre created a special gallery costing over $6 million. Some works are worth every penny of the vast sums of money paid for them. My first wish is to increase the pleasure you get when looking at a work of art. the price paid has been converted at the exchange rate at Twenty Marilyns Andy Warhol. In such a situation it is. both in absolute terms and comparatively. Most of the entries were written. make you question your own opinions. ROBERT CUMMING London. an entertaining and practical aid for looking at art. but I have tried to pick out qualities that anyone with a pair of eyes can see. arranged as separate entries. All prices are “hammer” prices. smile too. In these I have indicated characteristics to serve as a guideline when looking at their works.com). My observations are entirely personal. rather than what you are told and make you go back to a painting or sculpture and see aspects of it you had not perceived before. nearly everything I have written in this book is what I would say if we were standing in front of a work of art.

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INTRODUCING ART .

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W H AT I S A RT ? 17 WHAT IS ART ? Very few artists fit the stereotype of suffering for their art. mixed media. The artist whose talent goes unrecognized in his or her lifetime is rare. often running busy. It is possible to pinpoint three turning points when the role of the artist and his and her Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View Cornelia Parker. Their activities were supported and regulated by a professional body or guild. or a corporate organization. It allowed artists to play the fullest possible role in society. In the art history of the future. becoming the confidants of kings and popes. a footnote in art history rather than a chapter. and the majestic flowering of their art proves how successful they were in establishing this role. starving in an unheated garret. Much more common is the artist who attracts lavish praise and recognition in his or her lifetime only to sink into irrecoverable obscurity. 1991. London: Tate Modern. hard-working. and sometimes even acting as diplomats and courtiers. artists were essentially skilled craftsmen working for an employer such as a monarch. M ost artists are skilled in their trade. The reality is much more prosaic. neglected genius is attractive but misleading. will she merit a chapter or just a footnote? relationship with the rest of society altered significantly. the Church. Cornelia Parker is one of the current stars specializing in installations for museum settings. producing one unrecognized masterpiece after another. The image of the artist as a lonely. and Medieval times. In Ancient. not unlike a modern architectural practice. well-organized studios with assistants. and aware of their business potential. THE ARTIST THROUGH HISTORY This is not to say that the role of the artist does not change. The great artists of the High Renaissance shared this aspiration. It suited both artist and patron and endured right up to the end of the 19th century. . professional. At the beginning of the 16th century. Classical. and finally achieving recognition on their deathbed. Leonardo da Vinci argued that the artist should be treated as the social and intellectual equal of aristocrats and scholars.

the equal of kings. oil on canvas. The Classical tradition. by Freudian analysis. In the 1970s his art increasingly featured images of himself and his followers. The idea was potent. and to create art about personal experiences. a painter firmly in the Classical tradition of the Renaissance. Paris: Musée du Petit-Palais. and to a new role for the artist. particularly to the disaffected young. many of whom wished to establish a new art that would address issues at the heart of industrial society and the new awareness of human relationships and emotions that were revealed. art attracted new personalities who previously would have ignored an artistic life. The privileged world of monarchy and aristocracy began to wane. This spirit of independence led to a turning point in the second half of the 19th century. . Ingres. presents the image of the artist as intellectual giant. for example. and led to a rare chapter in the history of art in which the prime motivation Andy Warhol and friends In the 1960s Warhol commented on his era through images of products such as CocaCola and iconic figures such as Marilyn Monroe. The change was most forcibly expounded by the radical French painter. who argued that the true artist should be an outsider to the rest of society. but it was in decline. 1818. free of all normal social conventions and at liberty to set his or her own rules. with its admiration for antiquity and disciplined professional training. Gustave Courbet. The Romantic spirit exploited this freedom to express individual emotions. continued to flourish alongside Romanticism.RADICAL CHANGE Francis I Receives the Last Breaths of Leonardo da Vinci Ingres. With a new sense of individual liberty in the air. It was a necessary condition for the development of Modern Art. The French Revolution of 1789 ushered in profound political and social changes.

by and large. often in was Andy Warhol. who collaboration with other found the image of Caricature of Gustave Courbet 1868. The French art creatives. riches. He wanted and aesthetic doctrines. A recent refinement is the artist’s assumption THE ARTIST TODAY of a managerial role— The most recent turning where the artist does not point occurred in the create a work of art in 1960s and the most the traditional manner. see that they have. the physical manufacture artists to share in the or assembly of components to material benefits of the postwar era select subcontractors. embraced Warhol’s ideas with . articulate advocate for but promotes an idea another role for the artist or concept. but a desire to reform society and human relationships and literally to change the way we see the world. If you look at the A patron is someone who provides the lifestyle and careers of most young necessary financial assistance for an artists born since the 1960s. enthusiasm. The artist today is often a successful businessman or woman (in itself not that new a concept) selling to institutions or private clients such as large corporations or internet millionaires.W H AT I S A RT ? 19 of the artist was not widespread recognition. or social success. professional advancement. and then the artist as penniless establishment hated Courbet manages it as a project reformer outdated and because of his radical political or installation. delegating unattractive. and argued that they should have a role in society akin to that of Madison Avenue advertising executives or PATRONS AND PATRONAGE businessmen. you can artist to create a work from scratch.

dealers. context. Many of today’s COLLECTORS AND DEALERS famous firms were founded then. Europe’s rulers emulate the ambitions consciously used works of Classical Greece and of art to increase their Rome. A reflection Christian message and Private collectors. but the golden age for the . Seeking to century. dealer was the 19th century and the early 20th century. credibility. and have eventually come If one had to . Cosimo was also this tradition continued influenced by his love even into the 20th of antiquity. Florence: of art at auction. he discovered how prestige. sold by dealers to private clients. Church was the essential framework Cosimo used art to consolidate within which an artist was commercial and political power. Without such patronage. marble relief. Any selfof individual personality respecting monarch was which lies at the heart now expected to be a of much Western art and patron of the arts. Collecting is thus and imaginative patron an aspect of that concept was immense. Much of the framework Michelangelo and Rubens. and Collecting works of art without many great works of art. flourished in the new the great artists of the Renaissance mercantile Dutch Republic in the and the 17th century. and but he also collected for the influence of a creative pleasure. the patronage nominate a godfather figure it could of one of the noble courts or the be Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519–74). intended for patronage is a different matter. and thought. obliged to operate. a particular setting in a church or It presupposes collecting the art of palace. and the Romans had been political power. of Cosimo’s self-image as a noble to promote its influence. and auctioneers Roman in the mold of Caesar. such as 17th century. Museo del Bargello.20 W H AT I S A RT ? In the early Renaissance. were torn from their original the past as well as that of living artists. The passionate collectors and Church employed art in a Cosimo I de’ Medici Baccio bought and sold works similar way to spread the Bandinelli. could of today’s art market was established never have created their masterpieces then.

The art market used to be rather secretive. This is partly because of their increasing scarcity in the market place. and would have lacked a valuable source of intellectual and moral encouragement. Garçon à la pipe $93m. to grace the National Galleries of the world. rather than one shared by. organizing the first one-man shows by Cézanne. has fueled popular interest in recordbreaking prices. a patron.” Such patronage created an industry to supply art for his palaces. Matisse. Indeed. Ambroise Vollard.4m. 1999 Paul Cézanne Portrait of Cosimo I de’ Medici $32m. However. cruchon et compotier $55m. as the artist found greater freedom to express a private vision. 2002 Pierre-Auguste Renoir Massacre of the Innocents $68m. and Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. This is not a criticism. In relative and absolute terms. FILLING SPACE Very few works of art change the world or the way we see it. without the courage of a few adventurous dealers. the rise of the international auction house since the 1960s and the buying and selling of works of art in full public view. it is most improbable that they will come back on the market.W H AT I S A RT ? 21 DEALERS In the late 19th century. 1990 Vincent Van Gogh Au Moulin de la Galette $71m. 1670. 1999 Raphael Interchange $18. the Impressionists and great masters of Modernism would have found it impossible to survive economically. Gachet $75m. for RECORD PRICES FOR ARTISTS’ WORK The figures given here are the prices paid at the time (in US dollars) with no account taken of subsequent inflation. Parisian art dealer Ambroise Vollard Vollard (1866–1939) championed the great painters of the Post-Impressionist era. 2004 Pablo Picasso Portrait of Dr. Louis XIV commissioned statuary glorifying himself as the “Sun King. or demanded by. 1989 Jacopo Pontormo Madonna of the Pinks $39. 1989 Willem de Kooning Record auction price for a living artist’s work Fountain of Apollo Jean-Baptiste Tuby. such as Paul Durand-Ruel. Other dealers effectively acted as patrons for young artists. Versailles. major works of art now command more money than ever before. 2002 Sir Peter Paul Rubens Rideau. And it is also because rich people are prepared to go to almost any lengths to obtain the rarest of the rare. gilded lead. The reality is that most art does little more than fill a space.8m. and Picasso. modern art dealers became a necessary intermediary between the artist and collector. for once they enter a public collection. .

But a visitor to Italy. Paris: Musée du Louvre. In addition to filling them with old art brought home from the Grand Tour. it is possible to fill a space very well. portraits. The monarchs of the 17th century quite literally created industries to produce works of art to fill their vast palaces. and quantities of altarpieces were required to fill them. tempera and gold on panel. Robert was curator of the collection. They required large sizes and complex mythological iconographies to proclaim their message of absolute temporal authority. size. meticulously crafted landscapes. Moreover. the newly established Grand Gallery of the Louvre Hubert Robert. the country house. will soon suspect that such lifechanging icons are rare and that most Italian religious art does little more than fill spaces.Santa Trinità Altarpiece Fra Angelico. 69 1/4 x 72 3/4 in (176 x 185 cm). which opened to the public in 1793. paradoxically. c. Eighteenth-century Britain created yet another new space. Florence: Museo di San Marco. and still lives. appearance—are influenced by the spaces they are expected to fill. the works of art of a period—their subject. 44 1/4 x 56 1/4 in (112. The characteristic public spaces of the Renaissance were churches. style. revered as icons of art history. GALLERIES AND ACADEMIES The idea of a National Gallery—a public space containing works of art that somehow . 1796. namely landscapes and portraits. oil on canvas. Altarpieces of this high quality were rarities even in Renaissance Florence. making a tour of churches. domestic genre scenes. enhancing life with beauty and style. in the secular public spaces of galleries. The finest of these now reside. Dutch Republic had different spaces to fill.5 x 143 cm). 1434. By contrast. Wealthy merchants wanted to fill their townhouses with images of their newfound political freedom and prosperity— small-scale. owners filled them with the art of their own day which seemed to them most relevant and desirable.

Petersburg. but vacuous works of art created to fill their spaces. The idea of a public place dedicated to a permanent display of work by living artists and of “Modern Art” in particular was pioneered by MOMA in New York in 1929. and with no museum willing to house them. One of the unique characteristics of the art of the early Modern Movement is that it was not created to fill public spaces. It was a rare and unusual interlude. never left the privacy of their studios. Today. such as Picasso. Washington. Galleria degli Uffizi Florence. many of the avant-garde works of art produced by young artists. In the 19th century the major spaces for the display of contemporary art were controlled by the Academies. Maria Isabel de Braganza National Gallery London. began in 1764 as the private collection of Empress Catherine II National Gallery of Art. viewable on request from 1591. Madrid. Not much imitated at first. 1941 Specially built gallery designed by John Russell Pope Museo del Prado. Detested by the Academies. DC. Museums dedicated to the display of Modern and contemporary GREAT ART GALLERIES Listed below are some of the world’s largest and most famous public collections of art. But these spaces held only historic art. ignored by private collectors. France 1793 Originally the gallery of the royal palace. encouraged by his wife. in the last 50 years the idea has spread like wildfire. Although their intentions were worthy. Spain 1819 The creation of King Ferdinand VII. opened to the public by the revolutionary government Museo del Prado. England 1824 Moved in 1838 from its initial home in banker John Julius Angerstein’s house to a specially built gallery Gemäldegalerie Berlin. finally reunited. Russia 1917 Declared a state museum in 1917.W H AT I S A RT ? 23 define a nation’s cultural identity— was a legacy of the Napoleonic era. St. after several name and location changes. filling spaces has returned as a dominant influence in contemporary art. in 1997 Hermitage Museum. These powerful institutions trained young artists and put on regular displays prepared by their members. bequeathed to the city of Florence in 1737 Musée du Louvre Paris. Madrid Spain’s national gallery of fine art opened to the public in 1819. . the Academies became obsessed with rules and internal politics and this is reflected in the increasingly ostentatious. Their principal purpose was to change the way we see the world or to express a deep private personal sensibility. Italy 1591 The Medici art collection. when Ferdinand VII transferred the royal collection to a fine Neo-Classical building in the center of Madrid. never the work of living artists. Germany 1830 Originally the royal collection.

American Berenson (1865–1959) authenticated paintings for collectors and museums. the studio and art school. Bilbao Since it opened in 1997. they ART HISTORIANS. The connoisseur combines the best of the art historian and art critic with something extra—a discrimination and an instinctive eye for real quality plus a knowledge that comes from years of looking at works of art first hand. the dealer’s gallery. Which came first? The altarpiece or the church? The museum of contemporary art or the installation? ART HISTORY There are many ways of looking at and talking about art. As the spaces become larger and more architecturally spectacular. CRITICS. .” which is often interpreted as shocking and provocative. Critic and connoisseur Bernard Berenson An expert on Italian Renaissance art. They have large spaces to fill.” so these spaces require works that are “modern” and “contemporary. the spectacular museum of Modern and contemporary art designed by Frank Gehry has been the city of Bilbao’s main tourist attraction. the museum and the lecture hall. in order not to be overwhelmed. When Queen Victoria and Prince Albert wanted to develop their appreciation of art. AND CONNOISSEURS The natural habitat of the art historian is the library and archive. All of which begs the questions: Guggenheim Museum. or in some long neglected attic. do the works of art. whose opinions are often still valid. that of the art critic is the media. The connoisseur is likely to be found in the auction room. Just as churches required works that were identifiably “religious” and “Christian. so. and the dinner table.24 W H AT I S A RT ? art are now to be found in every city in the world. and an enormous industry has grown to supply them.

art history can reduce even the greatest works of art to a tedious list of facts. fake and forgery. But art history also has a downside. rigor. . Works of art are not just historical documents. 63 x 56 in (160 x 142 cm). The Dutch forger Han van Meegeren painted “Vermeers” that were authenticated by leading figures in the art world. fueled by the supremacy of art history. c. Equally. There is a danger that one can become so obsessed by “history” that everything “old” comes to be blindly revered like the bones of long dead saints. Art history as an academic subject effectively began in Germany at the end of the 19th century. in any field of human endeavor. intentions. At its worst. followed the fashion of their day and took drawing and painting lessons. such as an exhibition. He produced The Disciples at Emmaus (left) c. A fake is a work of art made or altered so as to appear better. Many reputations and much money ride on the current boom in contemporary art and there is a dangerous temptation. 1654–56. in a historic display of art. the critic should examine the validity of the curator’s interpretation. for example. older. asking whether the final outcome delivers what the artist has set out to do. It has brought discipline. oil on canvas. to treat every new manifestation and star name instantly as historically significant. ART CRITICISM Good art criticism respects facts and history but is principally concerned with value judgments. which is often heaped on it by curators and dealers. It questions and probes an artist’s purpose. to determine the true merit of what is being promoted. 1936–38. Such works are not fakes but forgeries. which they have created with great skill in their studios. Today they would sign up for an art history course. or other than what it is. It has rescued many reputations and even proved the existence of forgotten artists. whether what happens today will have any significance in the longer term depends almost entirely on what happens tomorrow. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland (above). A forgery is something made in fraudulent imitation of another thing.W H AT I S A RT ? 25 FAKES AND FORGERIES There is a distinction between the two words. and that is completely unpredictable and unknowable. This is disingenuous since. For contemporary art the critic ought to cut through the lavish rhetoric. Christ in the House of Martha and Mary Jan Vermeer. Art has the ability to engage with individuals and create experiences that can range from tears to ecstasy. and technical ability. Throughout history people have produced what they claim to be lost paintings by Leonardo or Vermeer. and objectivity to a notoriously fuzzy topic.

but very masterpiece? Perhaps there few have the power are two things to look to continue to for.26 W H AT I S A RT ? manage to produce just one or two outstanding works worthy of the Is the idea of a “masterpiece” valid description “masterpiece. Only those between. Equally. Without such obsolete and the role of a belief. are surprisingly few and far courage and individuality. a complete unity speak meaningfully between subject.” When the an idea greater than guild system became art itself. First. works in which an artist is marble. the a commitment word lost this meaning to communicate and became attached that idea to others. and ability to inspire emotion his name lapsed into obscurity until and communicate his works were rediscovered at the meaning long after their end of the 19th century. such and work in a world peopled by as van Gogh. and fellow artists. and who use THE MASTERPIECE . Florence: Galleria accomplished technically. ideas. and the artist changed. Artists live mention. David Michelangelo Buonarroti. and Botticelli’s Birth of Venus is one of the innovation to their limits. of the Madonna and Child The origin of the are a good example. Raphael’s paintings generations. is confined to decoration range of his or her powers. collectors. It was he seeks to portray in his the piece the artist divine subject. but only an with the names of artists who have idea connects at a deeper level with been hailed as the “Michelangelo of the needs of others and can change our times. however 1501–04. and the desirability of the pushing of Few would deny that for us. Many works of art speak powerfully to the generation for HARMONY AND IDEAS which they were So what makes a created. height 161 in (410 cm).” but now barely merit a the way we see things. Yet the and illustration. the geniuses. to those outstanding all art. judged to display the full dell’Accademia. To masterpieces to be found after their stand out from the crowd requires deaths. is the belief the coveted rank of that art should express “master. Technical skill can word is overused. individual technical skill. dealers. presented to the guild to and equally familiar to prove his ability and gain Raphael. art in their lifetimes only for their institutions. creation. style. Second. Raphael’s term “masterpiece” harmonious. and to subsequent technique. And there are those endowed with a depth of vision interesting second-rate artists who beyond the ordinary. Boticelli’s style those few works that have the was condemned as old-fashioned. History is littered fill and decorate spaces. who were neglected patrons. Yet it suggests the identification of in his own lifetime. graceful style and dates back to when flawless technique perfectly artists were considered complement the qualities to be craftsmen. Ultimately early Renaissance masterpieces.” today? The term implies excellence Taste and perception also change.

11 1/4 x 9 in (30 x 23 cm). For Raphael. An example of Raphael’s skill and engagement with beauty and faith. but as a means of trying to tell a greater human or spiritual The Madonna of the Pinks Raphael. his naked maleness contrasts with her modesty and sweet femininity .W H AT I S A RT ? 27 art. It suggests stability. and seriousness This tiny painting was to be an object of intense and private contemplation for a young widow who was entering a nunnery to take up a life of Christian devotion Raphael’s complete mastery of the technique of oil painting with rich colors. beauty was an essential element in the search for ultimate truth— an inspired vision was more important than doctrine The two figures together form a triangle filling most of the picture space. honors the spiritual profundity of his subject The playful activity and darting eyes of the Christ-child contrast with the stillness and lowered eyes of the Virgin. dignity. not as an end in itself or as a means of personal and commercial gratification. London: National Gallery. 1507–08. permanence. oil on canvas. but recently sold for $39 million. and fine detail such as fingernails. truth. are those who will succeed in creating masterpieces that can survive the judgment of the sternest critic of all—time. subtle gradations. this painting was unrecognized from 1855–1991.

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The other major means of reproduction is photography. durable. engraved copper plates. to paint in the form of pigments and binders. explored the environment for suitable pigments: chalk. Most recently the advent of computer technology has allowed artists an unprecedented level of image manipulation and editing. and stone. Artists have often combined media. REPRODUCING ART Printing allows multiple images to be generated. and by plates etched with acids. the dye of berries. in the 20th-century practice of collage. artists progressed from carving bone. as a means of challenging our conceptions of both the world around us and the aesthetics of art. for example. easily manipulated. Oils and watercolors dominated until the advent of acrylic in the 1940s. wood. Contemporary artists often juxtapose incongruous images and materials in installations and land art. dominant medium in the Middle Ages until the 15th century. crustaceans. charcoal. meanwhile. As tools and technologies developed. and combining new media in pursuit of visual expression. wood. A tempera paint made from egg was the Oil paint was. widely used for many reasons: flexible. still used to bind watercolors today—and wax. and stone to manipulating and firing clay. . For these materials (pigments) to be formed into paint. and continues to be. when oil painting came to the fore. through to the contemporary technology of digital editing. by using woodcuts. gums— such as gum arabic. and minerals extracted from the ground. chalk. Effective media were resins. from the rudimentary materials of charcoal. devising. they needed to be mixed with a medium to bind them as a liquid. Painters. basic materials to achieve a likeness or design. Sculptors later appropriated the technology of the forge and foundry to make bronzes. it offers rich colors and can carry the personal style of the individual artist’s hand. T he first artists collected and manipulated simple.M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S 29 MEDIA AND MATERIALS Artists have always enjoyed appropriating. for example.

Before the Renaissance it was rarely valued as an art form in itself. Kitaj. Charcoal drawings can be edited very easily by means of a brush. putty eraser. Odilon Redon. became popular with portrait artists in the 18th century. Hard pastels. Chalks are now produced in a full range of colors. and red and black chalks. pen and wash. Degas’ practice was to develop the drawing in charcoal and then to apply layers of soft pastel to create a vibrant optical mixture of color. Pastels. vibrant color. the pigment is imparted to the paper by the slightest touch and can be blended in the manner of painting to create gradations of subtle. Cennini (c. CHARCOAL Charcoal is one of the oldest drawing media and remains popular with artists to this day. SOFT PASTELS MODERN CHALKS . B. Study of a Man Shouting Michelangelo. pastel on paper. 1899. 1370–1440) gave it a certain status. bound in a higher concentration of gum. and R. c. Blue Dancers Edgar Degas.30 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Drawing Drawing is the most immediate form of artistic expression. Picasso. made of powdered pigments lightly bound in gum tragacanth. 16th century. are more suitable for drawing. ranging from the very thick scene-painters’ charcoal to medium and thin sticks used for more detailed drawings. 25 1/2 x 25 1/2 in (65 x 65 cm). charcoal. calling it “the triumphal arch” to painting. but was seen as the preparatory design for a work in another medium. Other well-known exponents of pastels include Mary Cassat. It is made from twigs of willow and created by a slow burning process that reduces the wood to carbon. It is commonly used for drawing under painting since it is easily overpainted without discoloring the overlaid paint. With soft pastels. but the first artists who really exploited drawing as an independent expressive medium were Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. It is available in varying thicknesses. charcoal on paper. or even soft doughy bread. Michelangelo drew in many differnt media: pen and ink. ARTIST’S CHARCOAL CHALKS AND PASTELS White chalk was originally used to add highlights to other drawing media and was particularly effective on toned papers. Moscow: Pushkin Museum. Florence: Gallerie degli Uffizi. Pigments such as iron oxide were added to chalk to make the red chalk characteristic of the drawings of Renaissance artists.

that can be encased in wood like a pencil. and technical drawing pen. ranging from sooty carbon-based materials (bister) to dyes derived from berries. oak galls. cuttlefish. In the late 18th century the French devised a method of combining crumbly. including compressed charcoal. Paris: Musée du Louvre. and crustaceans. MECHANICAL GRAPHITE CLUTCH PENCIL STICKS PENCIL . Many artists today prefer to work with either a solid graphite stick or leads of variable width and density of tone. Turner. encased in wood. This mixture. Industrial buildings in a northern English town by an unknown artist. Inks have been made from a diversity of sources. Private collection. Water-soluble inks are more prone to fading than the more permanent waterproof inks such as Indian ink prepared with gum or shellac. ink on paper. held in pencil holders. The use of graphite pencils thus became widespread in the age of Ingres. MONET’S QUILL PEN MODERN COLORED INKS PENCIL The “lead” in pencils is actually graphite (a form of carbon). pencil on paper. chalks. REED PEN 31 FOUNTAIN PEN DIP PEN WITH ASSORTED NIBS Lion Resting Rembrandt. The term “pencil” is used for many graphic media. The advantage of inks over dry drawing media was the precision and permanence of the line. Some use watersoluble pigments that can be reworked with a wet brush. insects. and Constable. and wax.M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S PEN AND INK The pen evolved as an alternative to the brush as a means of controlled line drawing. In the 16th and 17th centuries the only source of solid graphite was Borrowdale in the English Lake District. amorphous graphite with clay. Pen and ink as a drawing medium requires a supremely confident approach since the permanence of the ink precludes casual editing. The dip pen was the mainstay of graphic art for generations and evolved into the fountain pen. is the pencil we are familiar with today. felt-tip pen.

causing the wax and pigment to be absorbed permanently into the lime surface of the wall. Although tempera is quick-drying. on the other hand. Early forms of paint consisted of pigment bound by a water-based glue called size. This ancient medium was surprisingly revived in the latter half of the 20th century by Jasper Johns (pages 442–43). vellum. Painters on panel. a mixture of size and chalk to form a smooth surface. 18 x 13 in (45 x 32 cm). 15th century. This was the principal painting medium before the advent of oil paint. Tempera was used for most medieval Byzantine and Russian icons. who used encaustic paint for a series of images of BEESWAX the American flag. Gradations of color had to be built up slowly. tempera on panel. by means a series of carefully juxtaposed applications of paint. Encaustic portrait from Egyptian tomb Some of the best ancient encaustic paintings to have survived are mummy-case portraits from the 2nd century CE. The paint was applied over a prepared drawing. ENCAUSTIC Encaustic (wax) painting is a very durable medium that was one of the principal techniques of the ancient world. and Romans to paint images on panels and walls.32 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Painting All paints require a binding medium that can hold pigments in suspension and permits successful application to prepared supports—walls. used egg yolk mixed with pigment and a little water—egg tempera. used by the Egyptians. the white and yolk of eggs. Panels were prepared with layers of gesso. building up the colors of a painting was a slow process. The word “encaustic” comes from the Greek and means “burned in. Entombment of Christ Russian icon.” Artists would apply the paint using brushes and spatulas to create the image. wood panels. Wax can also be added to oil paint to aid the separation of clear areas of color. paper. Alternatives were gums and resins extracted from trees. and on completion they would run lit torches across the surface of the mural to reheat the wax. a process used most notably by van Gogh. or stretched fabric (canvas). EGG TEMPERA Medieval painters of illuminated manuscripts used beaten egg white in a form of paint called clarum or glair. EGG AND WATER EMULSION EGG YOLK TEMPERA PIGMENTS . made from animal skins. From the 15th to the 20th century the dominant medium was vegetable—usually linseed—oil. and beeswax. Greeks.

but was more popular in northern Europe than in Italy. or built up in layers according to the artist’s favored technique. Van Eyck’s mastery of oils produced remarkably fine detail and subtle gradations of color in the dress and draperies where the sunlight from the window strikes them. It was the skill of Flemish painters such as Jan Van Eyck (page 110) at the beginning of the 15th century that convinced the Venetians and subsequently other Italians and the rest Europe that oils were the best medium for easel painting. from Titian (pages 143–145) to Velasquez (pages 187–190). diluted with turpentine. and the Romans long before its use by Michelangelo (page 136) and other painters during the Renaissance. MODERN OIL PAINTS FLAT SYNTHETIC ROUND SYNTHETIC Oil painters employ a wide range of techniques. Rome: Sistine Chapel. The liquid paint is absorbed into the plaster and as the plaster dries the pigments are bound within the fabric of the wall surface.” FILBERT HOG SHORT FLAT HOG ROUND HOG The Arnolfini Portrait with detail. and linseed—had been used as a medium for painting for some time before the Renaissance. The advantages of oil paint are its strength and flexibility. OILS Vegetable oil—principally walnut. especially portraits. mixed solely with water.33 FRESCO Fresco (the Italian word for “fresh”) denotes the method of painting in which pigments. poppy. Fresco was practiced by the Minoans. Vatican Museums. the ancient Greeks. finer ones from squirrel or sable hair. . Here an artist exploits the texture of the canvas in a technique known as “scumbling. fresco (prerestoration). The paint can be applied in many ways from thin glazes. Paint brushes are traditionally made from animal hair. VERMILION PIGMENT The Creation of Adam (detail) Michelangelo Buonarroti. to thick impasto. allowing the artist to create subtle blending effects. Jan van Eyck (see page 109). are painted directly onto a freshly laid lime-plaster ground. It can be worked when wet for much longer than any other form of paint. Both kinds are now produced using synthetic fibers. stiff brushes from hog’s bristles. 1508–12. exploited the new medium to create astonishing new effects of color and light. The masters of the 16th and 17th centuries.

Turner (pages 281–83 ). makes it ideal for overpainting and its capacity for continuous tone makes it suitable for bold design and flat color work.34 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S WATERCOLOR AND GOUACHE Both watercolor and gouache paints are bound in gum arabic. as here. Light passes through overlaid transparent washes and is reflected back from the support—for example. who exploited the medium’s luminosity and ethereal properties. The opacity of gouache. SYNTHETIC FAN BLENDER FINE ROUND SABLE BRUSH FLAT SYNTHETIC BRUSH MASKING FLUID PAN COLORS Watercolor can be applied in a series of overlaid washes or. through the addition of white chalk. 1868. while gouache. white paper. is opaque. Turner.and 19th-century Britain. London: Tate Collection. also known as body color. Turner mixed gouache with a little yellow watercolor to highlight the clouds above the scene created by washes of color laid over the toned ground of the paper. ROUND SABLE BRUSH watercolor and gouache on paper. most notably in the works of J. Watercolor as a specialized medium was raised to new heights in 18th. More recent exponents of watercolor include Emil Nolde (page 362) and Paul Klee (page 387). M. WATER AND SPONGE Sunset over a Ruined Castle J. W. the difference being that watercolor is transparent. W. using a wet-into-wet technique in which the colors bleed and merge. Watercolor uses the brightness of the paper or other support to generate a distinctive luminescence. TUBE COLOR GUM ARABIC . M.

They can be used in transparent applications like watercolors or in thick. 1933. foil. 84 x 60 in (213. acrylic on paper. New York: Museum of Rauschenberg. Pioneers included Mexican muralists Orozco (page 402) and Siqueros (page 402). PALETTE WITH ACRYLICS PAINTING KNIFE PALETTE KNIFE Tree Harvey Daniels (contemporary artist). The German Artist Kurt Schwitters (page 368) did most to develop the use of collage. Minotaur Pablo Picasso. pieces of fabric. . even solid objects— stuck onto a support to form a composition. What was at first something of a novelty was soon accepted as a respectable form of artistic expression. collage. ACRYLIC BRUSH STROKE COLLAGE Collage is an assembly of assorted materials— printed matter. The inert properties of acrylics mean they are not susceptible to cracking or darkening in the manner of oil paints.4 cm). who in their Cubist works (page 350) frequently combined pieces of newspaper and other objects with paint. and Rainer Robert leaves. impasto applications like oil paints. Private Collection. incorporating bus tickets and all manner of litter from the streets in his poetic compositions. who extended the idea of collage to three dimensional box constructions. Other notable exponents were the German artist Max Ernst (page 369) and the American Joseph Cornell (page 406).3 x 152. One of Picasso’s own drawings of the minotaur is incorporated into a collage of assorted debris. 1965. The advantage of acrylics is that they are water-soluble when wet. but dry quickly to a durable surface. Early exponents were Picasso (pages 396–97) and Braque (page 351). Sleep for Yvonne collage with paper.M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S ACRYLICS Acrylics were developed in the 1940s and adopted by many modern artists for their fast drying and permanence. Modern Art. Private Collection. 36 1/4 x 19 1/4 in (92 x 49 cm).

the ink is held in lines inscribed or bitten into a plate. 16th century. Areas of tone can be created using a process called aquatint. The wax is inscribed using a ENGRAVED COPPER PLATE point to draw the image and where the wax is displaced the acid bites a line. burnished aquatint. the raised positive areas of the block are then inked over. a sheet of paper is laid onto the inked block. 19TH-CENTURY ENGRAVING TOOLS Of What Ill Will He Die? plate 40 of “Los Caprichos. The Japanese artists of the 18th and 19th centuries perfected the art of multicolored prints. When the plate is etched.” in which the image is created by means of raised areas that receive the ink. Private Collection. The greatest master of the art was Albrecht Dürer (pages 126–127). the acid bites around each grain of resin and when inked produces a subtle uniform tone. such as engraving and etching. etching. to resist the action of the acid. a V-shaped chisel is used to remove the negative areas of the design. Etching differs from engraving in that acid is used to “bite” a line. In the process of engraving a diamond-shaped tool called a burin is used to inscribe a precise line in either a tightgrained wood such as boxwood or a soft metal such as copper plate. when printing spread across the continent from Germany. Goya combined a number of engraving techniques to produce his striking satirical prints. To make a woodcut. engraving. In intaglio techniques. .36 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Printmaking The oldest form of printmaking is “relief printing. The Engraver published by Hartman Schopper.” Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes. More sophisticated halftones are generated by engraving finer lines in the manner of hatching. Other printing processes used by artists include the planographic (flat-surface) techniques of lithography and silkscreen. and burin. drypoint. WOODCUTS In Europe the great age of woodcuts was the late 15th century. Woodblock of a hussar on horseback c. and pressure applied by using either a screw. Private Collection.or lever-operated press. This involves dusting resin powder onto the plate and heating it to make the resin adhere. ENGRAVING Engraving and etching are related intaglio techniques that produce a finer line than is possible in woodcuts. called an etching ground. 1799. overprinting several woodblocks in succession with the final block applying a black line drawing. 1850 This simple design for the amusement of children shows the raised positive areas that receive the ink to make a print. The copper plate is first coated in a thin layer of wax. as in a woodcut.

pen.5 cm). A lithographic print is lifted from a litho stone. SCREEN PRINTS Silkscreen printing or serigraphy was developed out of stencil printing. As in all printing processes where the image is lifted directly from the stone. a sheet of paper is placed over the plate and run through a litho press. Oil-based ink is then squeegeed through the mesh of the silk screen onto paper. The masked areas form a stencil preventing ink from passing though the screen. block. silkscreen. The plate is kept damp with a dilution of gum arabic and a mild etch to assist both the resistance to the ink in the undrawn areas and the takeup of the oil-based ink to the drawn areas of the lithograph. To produce a lithograph. or screen the print is a mirror image of the original. Silkscreen works tend to feature clear shape and areas of flat color. In the 1930s. 686 Good Morning City Friedensreich Hundertwasser. As in the process of lithography. 1969–70. 33 1/2 x 21 3/4 in (85 x 55. or crayon to apply a greasy ink. particularly in the United States. .37 LITHOGRAPHY Lithography is a planographic (flat-surface) method of printing. A Stag at Sharkey’s lithograph by George Miller (1917) from a painting by George Wesley Bellows.Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. Lithography also facilitates the building of an image in multiples of overlaid colored printing. Andy Warhol (page 444) popularized the technique using a combination of photo-silkscreen and painting in his multiple portraits of 1960s celebrities. Miller was the US’s leading fine art lithographer. plate. The unique attribute of lithography is the directness with which either drawing or painterly technique can be applied using either a brush. a design can be drawn or painted directly onto the screen in an oil-based medium and then the undrawn areas sealed using a glue or varnish. it became popular as a means of creating commercial prints in vivid opaque color. which works on the principle of the mutual repulsion of oil and water. Silkscreen printing on material Ink is forced through the fine mesh of the silk screen with a squeegee. This press is an antique dating back to the 1870s that is being used to make top-quality prints of classic movie posters. The process was invented in 1798 by Aloys Senefelder. a Bavarian playwright. primarily used for commercial textile printing. Alternative methods of transferring an image to silkscreen are the use of photo stencils. Stencils can be used to mask areas of the print. A drawing design is applied to a prepared limestone or ground litho plate.

. Rodin in his studio Rodin (pages 318–319) had several hundred copies cast of his great works such as The Kiss and The Thinker. While we are familiar with the bleached remnants of Greek and Roman sculpture. In the lost-wax process two molds are usually made. and stone to manipulating and firing clay. in fact. Bronze casting involves the modeling of a form in clay. the plaster hardens and the wax melts and runs out through the ducts. The wax form of a solid statuette with two runners is created in a mold in the first stage of the lost-wax process. Classical statues were. First a mold is made of the original sculpture—nowadays using latex and plaster. wood. The wax form is covered in heat-resistant plaster. To this is attached a funnel shape and gates or ducts. or wax. The earliest bronzes were solid and small. Ancient Egypt.38 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Sculpture The first and most ubiquitous form of artistic expression. then to casting in bronze. As tools and technologies developed. When creating a large statue the mold of the original model has to be cut into two or more pieces to make a wax shell. BRONZE Sculpting in bronze is a complex process that was developed independently by many cultures—in South America. Pouring molten bronze The funnels are created by the lostwax process along with the mold. rarely left uncolored. from which a hollow bronze can be cast. This is used to make the wax form. plaster. created by means of a sand casting. and in West Africa. The mold is subsequently chiseled away and then the gates chiseled and chased from the surface of the bronze cast. and the whole is placed in an oven. The earliest sculptures appear to have been created by modifying found objects that suggested either animal or human forms. artists progressed from carving bone. The plaster mold is now inverted and packed in sand and molten bronze is poured into the funnel. also made of wax. During heating. as artists applied pigments and precious stones to decorate or enhance the realism of their work. China.

is much softer. The great innovator of the High Renaissance period was Michelangelo (pages 136–137). this process was in use in the 4th century BCE. suitable for work on any scale. drilling. early 16th century. The carving of wood requires an awareness of the flow of the grain. It flourished in medieval Europe. and sandstone are also popular media. SCULPTING IN STONE Prehistoric man first produced small-scale portable figures such as the Willendorf Venus (page 48) before progressing to freestanding figures. freestanding sculptures of idealized human forms. The most prestigious stone for sculpture since Greek times has been marble. The woodcarvings of Brancusi (page 356) are outstanding for their simplicity and elegance. pinning. the Italian Renaissance revived the practice of creating large. Alabaster. They subsequently developed the art of stone-carving to achieve astonishing degrees of naturalism. and the carvings of the Romanesque period are particularly expressive. In imitation of the Greeks and Romans. SCULPTOR’S CHISELS HAMMER . BLOCK OF GRANITE Sculptor in his studio There are two methods of stone-carving: directly carving into the stone or using mechanical means such as calipers to scale up from a smaller model made of clay or plaster. German school. granite. This respect for the natural form of the wood was a notable feature of the work of the British sculptors Henry Moore (page 399) and Barbara Hepworth (page 400). According to Pliny. which is very hard and difficult to carve. In medieval and Baroque workshops the wood was frequently coated in plaster stucco and painted. which can give a similar effect. a practice that goes back to Ancient Egypt. This was achieved through techniques of carving. Limestone. Venzone Cathedral. and polishing. Lamentation over the Dead Christ (detail). The work shows traces of the paint and gilding with which it was originally decorated. Italy.M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S WOODCARVING Carving in wood is common to all cultures worldwide. The Greeks adapted the stance of the striding figure from the Egyptians to create the stylized but expressive kouros (page 53). woodcarving. DOGLEG CHISEL MALLET 39 GOUGE Woodcarving tools Today there are of hundreds of differently shaped carving tools available.

many modern sculptors simply make a design which is then realized Contemporary sculptors and by a team of assistants. Modern their assistants routinely make use sculpture also delights in of modern industrial manufacturing re-creating everyday objects on processes such as arc welding.8 cm). While many sculptors still find their inspiration in human and natural forms. Studio of Alexander Calder The monumental steel structures and playful mobiles of Alexander Calder (page 438) were produced by all manner of industrial processes. They were also starting to realize the expressive power of abstraction. an unexpected scale or using unexpected materials. Artists such as Eva Hesse (page 460) and Claes Oldenburg (page 439) produced sculpture using soft materials. MODERN SCULPTURAL MEDIA Modern sculpture has exploited almost every conceivable material. 1960. have moved toward pure abstract geometry. such as foam rubber and latex. In the course of the 20th century more and more materials were appropriated by sculptors. and method of assembling objects. Private Collection. from the Russian Constructivists onward. when European artists fell under the influence of “primitive” African art. stainless steel.40 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Modern sculpture The roots of modern sculpture lie in the early years of the 20th century. construction process. as in Oldenburg’s Giant Hamburger. Prefabricated steel parts were assembled and painted in his busy studio. Four Units Unequal David Smith. others. height 77 1/2 in (196. Two pioneers of new sculptural forms were Picasso (pages 396–97) and the Paris-based Romanian Brancusi (page 356). One of the most influential figures in this field was American sculptor David Smith (page 410). while “ready-made” and “found” objects were incorporated in sculpture or exhibited as works of art themselves. . Whereas Smith welded and polished his stainlesssteel structures himself.

London. Eastbourne. Some/One Do-Ho Suh. Two of Duchamp’s most famous ready-mades. whose Dadaist. CONCEPTUAL ART The credit—or the blame—for modern conceptual art is often laid at the door of Marcel Duchamp (page 367). solemn. 1917. metal and ceramic. giving them absurd and provocative titles. or alarming. Installations can be playful. installations frequently envelop the viewer in the space of the work. Private Collection. The Korean artist installs his piece. Eliasson’s gallery installations usually evoke the natural world with lighting effects contributing sunlight. anti-aesthetic view of art led him to exhibit “ready-made” or “found” objects. Significant recent practitioners have included German artists Joseph Beuys (page 453) and Rebecca Horn (page 466) and French artist Christian Boltanski (page 466). Installation-based art is related to conceptual art in that it frequently challenges the viewer’s habitual spatial and cultural expectations. Some artists have now taken conceptual art to the extreme of presenting text alone so that any visual component of the art is generated solely in the mind of the viewer. titled Fountain and signed R. well as light or projected imagery and sound. made of thousands of nickel military dogtags at the Serpentine Gallery. fog. The viewer enters a controlled environment which may utilize constructed. 1998. . Whereas sculpture is designed to be viewed from the outside as a self-contained arrangement of forms.INSTALLATION ART Installation art effectively inverts the principles of sculpture. or rainbows. 2002. Hat Rack and Urinal Marcel Duchamp. Mutt. the hat rack and urinal were recreated more than once by the artist. Duchamp’s mischief sanctioned a new role for the artist as a purveyor of concepts independent of any craft. ranging from meticulously detailed reconstructions of everyday reality to memorials to the dead. They played an important role in the Italian Arte Povera movement of the 1960s and 1970s (page 425). The urinal gained huge notoriety when the first version was exhibited in New York in 1913. found. and ready-made forms as The Forked Forest Path Olafur Eliasson. UK: Towner Art Gallery.

used photographic processes more experimentally. A notable practitioner of video art in recent years has been the American Bill Viola (page 469). . The Crossing Bill Viola. In 1839 the development of light-sensitive emulsions enabled the “camera” to be used for black-and-white photography. a device for projecting an image through a small hole. including photography. and electronic music performances. In the pursuit of originality. who produces video installations—some of them total environments that envelop the viewer in images and sound—as well as videotapes. Two screens are mounted back to back. Video is also used to document much performance-based work. meanwhile. film. photograph. Los Angeles in 1997. Artists such as Man Ray (page 394). Artists can subvert the viewer’s reading of time by cutting. PHOTOGRAPHY Photography evolved from the camera obscura. The invention of video opened up new possibilities with instant playback and in-camera editing. sound environments. which allowed artists to make an accurate tracing of a scene. negative Rayographs by placing a selection of objects on. who uses large format Image manipulation film. often in a spirit of parody or pastiche. Computer technology has freed the photographer from the dark and produces huge prints. Man Ray created his witty. By contrast. video/sound installation. American Nan Goldin (page 470) room and opened up new possibilities of creative image uses the camera in the spirit of manipulation and editing. notably by Andy Warhol’s Factory studio in the 1960s. VIDEO ART Video art developed from the art films made using 16-mm and 8-mm formats. and video. Simultaneously the other screen shows the man being consumed by flames that rise from his feet. light-sensitive photographic paper and then exposing the composition to light. 1923. as installed at the Grand Central Market. The 1970s saw a vogue for live performance and in many cases the artist’s life or activities may be presented as a work of art. 19 1/4 x 15 1/2 in (49 x 39. or suspending them just above.42 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Modern media Much of today’s art aims to subvert the audience’s expectations about art and life. On the one seen here a deluge of water falls from above on the figure of a man until he is obliterated. In the 20th century it achieved higher status through photojournalism and the landscape photography of the likes of Edward Weston and Ansel Adams.5 cm). flashing neon signs. and reversing sequences of images. contemporary artists have turned to almost every conceivable means of communicating with an audience. While painters explored the new medium— often without acknowledging their debt to it—photography itself was accepted as a minor art form. Video also allows artists to explore and manipulate the element of time in new ways. 1996. intimate photojournalism. Successful contemporary artist include the German Andreas Gursky (page 473). Private Collection. edits the photographs digitally. slowing. Rayograph Man Ray. montaging. Other artists choose to rearrange the landscape to draw attention to our relationship with the environment.

for example the German artist Joseph Beuys (page 453). Performance art differs from theater in that it does not depend on narrative.850 sq m) of pink woven polypropylene fabric. Miami. the elegant geometry of the formal garden. wanted to heighten awareness of our relationship with the natural world by intervening in the landscape by means of thought-provoking constructions. such as the 13 huge snowballs he placed in London in 2000. such as the lines created by Richard Long (page 468) in remote. during the 1960s a number of American artists. Nudity is a common feature of provocative performance art and happenings. Surrounded Islands Christo and Jeanne-Claude. sometimes last for just a few days. spent some days in a cage with a coyote. However. politics. LAND ART Man from the earliest times has interacted with the landscape to create forms that do not exist in nature. but rather seeks to encourage the audience to question their assumptions about life. Florida: Biscayne Bay. 2003 Grand Central Terminus. Eleven islands were surrounded with 6 1⁄2m sq ft (603. 43 Nude Installation Spencer Tunick. His ephemeral creations.M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S PERFORMANCE ART The roots of modern performance art lie in the theatrical events staged by the Dadaists and Surrealists in the 1920s. inaccessible landscapes.” Performance art takes many forms. . In 1961 French artist Yves Klein (pages 420–21) presented three nude models covered in his trademark blue paint. In the 1960s and 1970s it was often associated with political protest in the form of “happenings. 1980–83. such as Robert Smithson (page 462). Other artists present their own actions or lives as art. and social and psychological relationships. New York. Photography plays a crucial role in the success of land art since photographs will often be the only lasting visual record of an artist’s work. The most dramatic interventions have been the massive enterprises of Christo and Jeanne-Claude (page 460)—curtains reaching across vast stretches of landscape as impressively as the Great Wall of China and his urban projects of wrapping buildings. Andy Goldsworthy at work British artist Andy Goldsworthy (page 474) subtly rearranges natural materials. who on a trip to New York in 1974. who then arranged themselves into sculptural poses and formations. for example. The artist directs his 450 models. who moved their bodies around to leave prints on white paper.

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THE HISTORY OF ART .

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used the most precious materials to produce highly stylized depictions of rulers and their families. was almost certainly a fertility offering. STONE-AGE SCULPTURE Mask from mummy-case of Tutankhamun. 3000 BCE –1300 CE Artists. height 21 1⁄4in (54 cm). inherently durable. It is no accident that carvings. The taut curls that hug her head are not just closely observed but precisely rendered. They are inevitably few in number. . At first sight.000 years ago. So how do we identify that moment when what we choose to call “art” first appears as a significant activity? T he oldest known works of art to have been discovered in Europe are stone carvings.000 and 27. Cairo: Egyptian Museum. color. Closer inspection reveals a remarkably rhythmic treatment allied to considerable technical sophistication on the part of her unknown creator. It was found in Austria and dates from between 32. she appears to be just a crude caricature of the female form. dating from perhaps 32. they almost uniformly seem to have had a mystical. The best-known of these chance survivals is a tiny limestone figure of a woman. enamel and semiprecious stones. The artists of early civilizations. They satisfy the innate human need for aesthetic appeal. The clues they offer as to the nature of the hunter-gatherer societies that produced them are tantalizing at best. as this oddly misshapen figure is known. But their claims to be considered art are undoubted. The Venus of Willendorf. Found across Europe and Russia. They make clear the enduring human need to understand—perhaps to appease—an uncertain and frequently hostile world by means of deliberately contrived objects. whether by means of craftsmanship. like children. c. probably religious purpose. gold. such as Ancient Egypt. should be the oldest surviving examples of human art. 1340 BCE. or form. are great borrowers and imitators and take delight in what they see in the world around them. However. they are rare survivals. their survival almost entirely a matter of chance. As important.E A R LY A RT 47 EARLY ART C.000 years ago. curiosity and a desire to create do not in themselves produce works of art.

Like the other Stone Age cave paintings in Europe.000 Homo sapiens sapiens in Europe. 9000 Earliest evidence of wheat cultivation (Syria) 5. Neanderthals extinct . were used. c. chiefly red ocher and charcoal. 30. limestone. 5000 Cereal farming villages in western Europe.CAVE PAINTING More spectacular by far are the cave paintings of southwest France and northern Spain. Between about 25. first cave paintings (France and Spain) The Great Hall. c.000 BCE. it was widely assumed to be a fake. or moss. during the peak of the last Ice Age.000 years ago.000 BCE. c. those at Lascaux survived because. sometimes by hand.000 c. Virtuosity on such an epic scale was hard to reconcile with current beliefs about Stone Age man. These were applied by sticks.5 cm (4 1⁄2 in). metallurgy discovered (SE Europe) c. in 1879.000 Retreat of glaciers. Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum. and brilliantly depicted animals—mammoths. hyenas.000 Stylized female figurines made throughout Europe. Lascaux. bison. farming spreads to SE Europe c. 5500 Bandkeramik pottery produced (C Europe). 25. 20. height 11.000 c. 15. 35. larger mammals extinct c. 7000 Pigs domesticated (Anatolia). copper first used (Mesopotamia) 35. an astonishingly vigorous tradition of cave painting developed in which acutely observed T I M E L I N E : E A R LY A R T c. and horses—were painted onto cave walls. A variety of materials. 4500 Megalithic tombs built in western Europe c. In almost every Venus of Willendorf.000 and 12.000 BCE 25. 10. once abandoned. The carving’s swelling limbs and breasts invest it with a strong sexual quality. It is no surprise that when the first was discovered.000 c.000 Peak of last Ice Age 10. they were then completely forgotten until rediscovered by chance. feathers.

As settled agriculture began. reinforced by the domestication of goats and sheep. 2650 First Egyptian pyramid. often priestly. 3100 Namer. 2100–2000 Stonehenge built 3. CITIES AND CIVILIZATION images that would underline their status and their right to rule. 3500 Emergence of Uruk. 3400 First evidence hieroglyphic writing systems (Sumer) c. These were organized societies. Impelled by a need to justify themselves to their gods or to assert their dominance over their subjects. What has survived—fragments of pottery. That they constitute everything that we understand today as art is no more in question. a handful of battered marble figures—shows this to have been a society with a well-developed sense of the power of visual images. first citystate (Mesopotamia). cities began to appear. in modern-day Iraq. there are almost no representations of humans: those that do appear. part celebratory—can scarcely be doubted. This head. the world’s first civilizations were forming in the Middle East. first pharaoh. bronze. 3200 Wheeled transportation (Sumer). the step pyramid of Zoser. the Akkadians. 2300 BCE. stone circles (NW Europe) c. 2540 Great Pyramid of Khufu c. c. tentatively identified as Sargon I. about 2300 BCE united much of Mesopotamia in a single empire. so surplus food production permitted the development of divisions of labor and the emergence of ruling classes. Curiously. The earliest of these civilizations was Sumer. in contrast to the immediately recognizable animals. built at Saqqara c.300 and 2. and literate. cast between 2. is not just a technical triumph but also a defining image of a hierarchical ruler: remote and magnificent. c. 2300 Expansion of Akkadian Empire under Sargon 2. 2900 Early Dynastic period (Egypt) c. Baghdad: Iraq Museum. who from Perhaps 5. At the same time. 3300 First walled towns in Egypt c.200 BCE. are schematic and crude. would originally have had jewels placed in its eye-sockets. unifies Egypt c.000 . technically sophisticated. development cuneiform script (Mesopotamia) c. more like a child’s attempt to draw a person. that recognized how artistic images could be pressed into service on their behalf.000 years ago. The bronze head of an Akkadian ruler.500 c. That their purpose was religious—part fearful. a series of rulers commissioned Akkadian Ruler. Yet more remarkable is a product of Sumer’s successors. self-aware.E A R LY A RT 49 case the most spectacular images were created deep inside the caves. height 14 in (36 cm).

Head. already contains many of the essential elements of this fixed tradition. schist carved in low relief. with legs characteristically splayed. last great pharaoh Third Intermediate Period (to 664 BCE) Late Period (to 30 BCE) Egypt conquered by Alexander the Great 1552 BCE 1166 BCE 1069 BCE 664 BCE 332 BCE unified Egypt around 3100 BCE. 3000—300 BCE Ancient Egyptian art precisely reflected the rigidly hierarchical society from which it developed. Cairo: Egyptian National Museum. 3000 BCE. who KEY EVENTS c. Writing in the 4th century BCE. an Asiatic people New Kingdom (to 1069 BCE): Egyptian power at its height: new capital founded at Thebes Death of Ramses III. and glass paste). and legs are in profile. Yet in an obvious anatomical distortion. The deceased is ushered into the hall of judgment . Plato claimed there had been no change in Egyptian art for 10. Exactly the same pose can be found in works produced 2. Perhaps the most striking is the pose in which Narmer is depicted. above all. hieroglyphic writing developed 2686 BCE Old Kingdom (to 2181 BCE) Palette of Narmer.500 years later. Although individual details are rendered with great precision.50 E A R LY A RT ANCIENT EGYPT c. it echoed Ancient Egypt’s obsession with death and the afterlife. c. Once established. The Palette of Narmer. It placed a premium on lavish materials and epic scale and. he nonetheless touched on a central truth: that the art of Ancient Egypt has a near-unique continuity. the greater its importance (nakedness also indicated inferiority). 2540 BCE Construction of the Great Pyramid of Khufu 2180 BCE 2040 BCE 1730 BCE First Intermediate Period (to 2040 BCE): centralized rule dissolves Middle Kingdom (to 1730 BCE) Second Intermediate Period (to 1552 BCE): much of Egypt ruled by Hyksos. its forms hardly changed for almost 3. The sizes of the figures denote status: the larger the figure. 3100 BCE Early Dynastic period (to 2686 BCE): Egypt unified under Narmer. which celebrates the first pharaoh. Bird-scarab pectoral from Tutankhamun’s tomb. the overall effect is anything but naturalistic. gold. c. c. Memphis made capital. intended to convey precise meanings.000 years.000 years. arms. Though the figures stand on a common ground. his chest faces directly outward. Cairo: Egyptian National Museum. in this case the triumph of Narmer over his enemies. Narmer. If his chronology was faulty. there is no attempt to represent the space they occupy naturalistically. Such tenacious conservatism is matched only by the similarly inward-looking civilization of China. Egyptian art was almost entirely symbolic. semiprecious stones. 1352 BCE.

the jackalheaded god supervises the weighing of the heart The “Eater of the Dead”. above all during the HIERARCHY AND SYMBOLISM Weighing of the Heart against the Feather of Truth. London: British Museum. a monster that swallows the heart of the deceased if it proves too heavy . 1350 BCE. placed in a tomb and intended underlines the premium placed on to guide the dead through the afterworld. for a brief period in New precise and detailed instructions. c. art are the many to his temple at Abu limestone. In the tomb as much splendor as possible. four giant seated More typical of the statues of Ramses II Egyptian attitude to guarding the entrance Relief from tomb of Ramose. when painted. Hence the deliberate grandeur of the pyramids and. 1250 BCE. dancing girls. Complex and his wife carved and absolute rules not just with governed how the extraordinary pharaohs should be delicacy and skill but represented in art. but the hieroglyphs inserted above and between them. The less humans—depicted following exact important the subject—slaves. its surviving examples of Simbel express this impact would have been still more remarkable. This was a book just as the gold head of Tutenkhamun of spells. is a relief of the later. or musicians. painted papyrus. This scene is found in every Book of the Dead. all gods other than Aten (the “disk of the their “eternal well-being” was dependent Sun”). also with a hint. precious metals and craftsmanship. contain equally Further. Not only are the figures—gods and There were exceptions.C . for example—the more conventions. a slight relaxation of this otherwise on preserving their mortal remains with absolute formality is evident. 3000 B C E —1300 C E 51 reign of the Akenaten (1379–1362 BCE). essentially pictorial. who shocked the priesthood by banishing Because its rulers were considered gods. themselves naturalistically they could be depicted. c. Pantheon of Egyptian gods headed by Horus The god Thoth records the result of the weighing of the heart The heart is weighed against a feather in the other scale Anubis. Thebes. the parchment known formal monumentality as the Book of the Dead. of Akenaten’s chief minister. Originally. if The imperturbably nothing more. the vast tombs brother of Ramose at Thebes. Kingdom Egypt. of blank features of the genuine humanity. Ramose.

Both Minoan Crete and Mycenae were stratified. and cavorting dolphins convey an expressive delight in the natural world. That Minoan Crete was a society with a taste for luxury and a highly developed visual sense is clear from the decoration of its palaces and villas. landscapes. was in fact a huge storage area for wine. fully Greek. Athens: National Archeological Museum. c. The best-known are those of youths and girls bull-leaping. gold. perhaps 400 years later. The reasons for their later disappearance remain unclear. culture was emerging. Though this practice may have had a religious significance—bulls are a . 2000—500 BCE Between about 2000 and 1150 BCE. Mycenaean death mask from royal tomb. and oil. animals. They appear to have enjoyed substantial agricultural surpluses and to have had extensive trading links. but by the beginning of the first millennium a new.52 E A R LY A RT THE EARLY AEGEAN WORLD c. What was originally assumed to be the labyrinth at the palace of Knossos. presided over by elites. two distinctive though related early Greek civilizations were established in the eastern Mediterranean: by the Minoans on the island of Crete and. 1550 BCE. literate societies. the principal center of power in Crete (though nothing is known of its rulers). grain. Frescoes of ships. by the more warlike Mycenaeans on the Greek mainland.

1600 BCE Linear B script comes into use on Crete c. for over 400 years Greek culture effectively disappeared. With the collapse of these first Aegean civilizations. 1500 BCE Mycenaeans become dominant power on Greek mainland c. 540 BCE. Around 1450 BCE Minoan Crete fell victim to the Mycenaeans from mainland Greece. probably in the face of invasions from the north. theirs was a world that was not just materially rich but also capable of great technical sophistication. very different Greek world was emerging. To most societies. nakedness was a clear indication of servility. 700 BCE Western eyes at least. Kouros. with hands clenched and one foot in front of the other (evidence of Egyptian influences)—they demonstrate a new interest in naturally rendered anatomical detail. perhaps following natural disasters such as the volcanic eruption that wiped out the Minoan colony on the island of Thera in the mid-17th century BCE. One of the prize discoveries when the palace of Knossos (below) was excavated in the early 1900s. c. they express values no culture outside the West has ever particularly esteemed. Over 100 life-size statues known as kouroi (youths) have survived. Athens: National Archeological Museum. 2000 BCE Minoan civilization established on Crete.C . 1450 BCE Collapse of Minoans. Homer's Iliad first written down Beginning of Archaic period. In the visual arts. there were two key developments: a trend toward an idealized naturalism and the adoption of the male nude as its chief subject. emergence of city-states The heavily fortified remains at Mycenae itself underline just how much this was a society presided over by an aggressive warrior elite. It is a measure of the dominance of Greek cultural values that. Yet. MYCENAEAN CULTURE KEY EVENTS c. Almost nothing is known of this “Dark Age. it came to enjoy an exceptionally strong sense not just of its identity but also of its intellectual superiority. 1000 BCE Greek colonists migrate to Asia Minor and eastern Aegean 776 BCE c. Paris: Musée du Louvre. palace of Knossos built c. Though formalized—all face rigidly forward. these have come to seem obviously desirable goals.” Yet. they would give rise to a naturalism unprecedented in the history of art. 3000 B C E —1300 C E 53 recurring theme in Minoan art— overridingly these images suggest an exuberant pleasure in physicality. The Greek obsession with the male nude began in the 7th century BCE. Though politically fragmented. c. marble. The palaces and villas of Minoan Crete were successively rebuilt. By the 5th century BCE. to Bull-leaping fresco. 1150 BCE Collapse of Mycenaean Greece c. In fact. as the remarkable gold death mask of a Mycenaean ruler demonstrates. Mycenaeans take control of island c. c. . 1500 BCE. 750 BCE First pan-Hellenic athletics festival. for example. height 41 in (105 cm). by about 800 BCE a new. Olympia First evidence of use of Greek alphabet. But this apparently unwarlike world was also threatened from outside.

when it was absorbed by Rome. (c. and politics that would exercise an extraordinary hold on subsequent Western beliefs. London: British Museum. disastrous Peloponnesian War against rivals Sparta between 431 and 404 BCE. Greece evolved ideals in art. ceramic. Despite the debilitating and eventually Red-figure vase. height 18 7/8 in (48 cm). Victory over the Persians in 490 BCE and again in 480 BCE left Athens clearly the strongest of the Greek city-states. philosophy. The vase shows a Hoplite returning from war. The relief (below) was part of the frieze on the south side of the Parthenon (left). marble. culturally at least the city would retain its leading role even after the rise of Macedonia in the following century. . FifthCentaur Triumphing over a Lapith. 447–432 BCE. literature. It was removed by Lord Elgin in the early 1800s. mathematics. 450 BCE). That it did so in the face of external threats and internal turmoil makes this achievement all the more remarkable. Paris: Louvre Museum. 500—300 BCE Between the 5th century and 100 BCE.54 E A R LY A RT CLASSICAL GREECE c.

infusing the naturalistic with the ideal to produce a supremely selfconfident image of a godlike youth. The Parthenon. 525 ft (160 m) long. its crumbling grandeur constitutes an emphatic statement of the lucid priorities that drove the Classical Greek world. Greeks and Amazons. depicting the Great Panathenaia. These are wholly convincing figures. Other examples of Classical Greek sculpture are better preserved. Greek vases reinforce the point. Athens: National Archeological Museum. when rediscovered by Renaissance Europe. foreshortening. below these as well as along both sides were nearly 100 individual reliefs of struggling figures (men and centaurs. its impact would have been more remarkable still. The Parthenon’s sculptures fall into three groups. On the triangular pediments at each end of the building were large-scale free-standing groups containing numerous figures showing the birth of Athena and her struggles with Poseidon for control of Attica.55 century BCE Athens saw an astonishingly fertile burst of artistic creation. c. even stripped of its sculpture. gods and giants). height 76 in (194 cm). later transformed into Athenian Empire Beginning of domination of Athenian political life by Pericles Parthenon begun (completed 432) Peloponnesian Wars between Athens and Sparta (to 404) Athenian philosopher Socrates condemned to death for corrupting youth Plato returns to Athens. many Greek sculptures are known only from Roman copies or written descriptions. Though painted on curved and small-scale surfaces. Perspective. GREEK SCULPTURE Boy from Antikythera. Only a handful of fragments of Greek paintings have survived. 340 BCE. The sculpture manages the rare feat of being both supremely rational and yet at the same time extraordinarily sensual. opens Academy Birth of Aristotle . reached comparable levels of technical achievement. Descriptions of Greek painting suggest it. a religious festival held every four years in honor of Athena. begun in 447 BCE. their decoration contains complex and ambitious groups of figures in settings which have a real sense of space and depth. The slightly more than life-size bronze Boy from Antikythera combines calm elegance with technical sophistication in ways that were genuinely new. Originally. But enough remains to make clear the extraordinary artistic impact of Classical Greece. bronze. The Roman frescoes at Pompeii were almost certainly heavily influenced by Greek originals. establishing an artistic canon that would not only dominate the Roman world but. the Parthenon sculptures reveal the confidence and technical mastery of their creators. dramatically grouped and heroically conceived. behind the outer colonnade and running round the entire building was a relief. and the naturalistic representation of figures all seem to have been mastered in ways that would not reappear until Renaissance Italy. too. brilliantly painted and embellished with statuary. is the supreme example. Even badly damaged. Today. and what architecture still exists is extensively ruined. KEY EVENTS 505 BCE 490 BCE 480 BCE 478 BCE 461 BCE 447 BCE 431 BCE 399 BCE 385 BCE 384 BCE Democracy established in Athens Greeks defeat Persians at Marathon Greeks defeat Persians at Salamis and Plataea Confederation of Delos founded. would also constitute an absolute artistic standard for a further 400 years.

The young Alexander (left) defeats Persian King Darius (center). by learning. The Battle of Issus (detail). . the Middle East. The original was created shortly after the kingdom of Pergamum defeated an army of invading Gauls in 230 BCE. One reason may have been that increasing technical mastery led artists to set themselves harder problems to solve. The most obvious is that the restraint of Classical Greek art gives way to a sense of movement and drama. Rather like the city-states of 5th-century Greece. A huge program of new city building was begun in Asia Minor. 230 BCE. 1st century BCE. who. This process of “Hellenization” was further boosted by the Romans. by the 1st century BCE. Mesopotamia. Caption head here Please fill here please fill here pease fill here please fill here please fill here please fill. The library at Alexandria was the most famous in the ancient world. But there is a Dying Gaul. Naples: Museo Archeologico Nazionale. mosaic. Though Hellenistic art continues a clear line of development from the Classical period. too. and Pergamum for instance are all Hellenic cities. Antioch. please fill here please fill here please fill Alexander and his successors implanted Greek cultural values across a vast swathe of the ancient world. with naturalism again the chief concern. Alexandria. please fill here please fill here please fill please fill here please fill here please fill. the original city-states of Greece itself were overshadowed politically. In the face of this huge expansion of the Greek world. The influence of Aristotle. but the cultural impact of Greece on these vast territories proved enduring. but retained much of their cultural status.56 E A R LY A RT HELLENISTIC GREEK ART c. 300—1 BCE In 336 BCE. there are important differences. Alexander the Great began his blaze of conquest across the Middle East and Egypt. had exported Greek artistic traditions across the whole Mediterranean. and North Africa. Roman copy of Greek original of c. Greek prestige was enhanced. marble. Rome: Pinacoteca Capitolina. extended over the entire period and beyond. who died in 322 and had been Alexander’s tutor. His empire fragmented after his death. these new Greek kingdoms were political rivals but shared a common cultural inheritance. This mosaic from Pompeii is a Roman copy of a Greek original.

with their writhing. an interest later fully shared by the luxury-loving Romans. while the body has repoussé reliefs of Dionysus. Where on the Parthenon. Thessaloníki: Archeological Museum. now personality was judged at least as important. a clear note of triumphalism creeps in. possibly Hermarchus. not only is there a sense that technical mastery is being celebrated for its own sake. 3000 B C E —1300 C E 57 sense. The Altar of Zeus at Pergamum. civic piety set the tone. too. . height 34 in (86 cm). for example. gilded bronze. Whereas in Classical Greece individual worth was automatically equated with physical perfection. The shoulders are decorated with statuettes. The 4th-century Derveni krater is not just a technical tour de force but an object of conspicuous ostentation. the battle between the Gods and the Giants.3 m) high and fully 295 ft (90 m) long. One side of the sarcophagus is a battle scene in which the figure of Alexander. that the Hellenistic world needed a more emphatic style of art to underline the fact of its conquests. is accorded the sort of heroic treatment previously reserved only for gods. portrays an aging and crumpled figure. The vigor of the carvings. The stoic dignity with which he accepts KEY EVENTS 336 BCE Accession of Alexander the Great. perhaps the most famous work from the entire period. Ariadne. 175 BCE 168 BCE 146 BCE 133 BCE The Hellenistic world also placed a premium on luxurious and elaborate surface decoration. on the Alexander Sarcophagus. Pergamum Altar of Zeus at Pergamum begun Start of Roman expansion into eastern Mediterranean Greece and North Africa fall under Roman rule Pergamum bequeathed to Rome his fate makes clear an interest in the individual that was reflected in the development of lifelike portraiture. clad in a lion-skin.5 m) high and 240 ft (73 m) long. begins conquest of Persia Alexander conquers Egypt. Derveni krater. This was partly prompted by the teachings of Aristotle. A NEW TREND IN SCULPTURE Altar of Zeus (detail) c. lays foundations of Alexandria Death of Alexander sparks breakup of his empire Death of Aristotle Final fragmentation of Alexander’s empire Original bronze of Dying Gaul cast. a sumptuous marble tomb carved probably in 310 BCE for the ruler of Sidon. The sculpted frieze depicts the Gigantomachy. Berlin: Pergamonmuseum. 180 BCE. is far removed from the placid assurance of the Classical period. On the upper level is a second frieze 5 ft (1. embodies another key characteristic: scale. 230 BCE c.C . The expressiveness of heroic figures such as these found a different outlet in the almost equally well-known Dying Gaul. and other mythological figures. marble. OSTENTATION 332 BCE 323 BCE 322 BCE 302 BCE c. late 4th-century BCE. The base of the platform on which the altar stands contains a frieze 71/2 ft (2. interlocking figures. But his obvious nobility of spirit makes it clear that the sculpture is intended as a sympathetic portrayal. a point that is emphasized by his physical frailty and decrepitude. This enormous krater (vessel for mixing wine and water) was found at Derveni in northern Greece. The mid-3rdcentury bronze statue of a philosopher.

almost like a relief. the Aeneid. when Renaissance interest in Greek statuary was reaching a peak. This kind of dramatic. It is an astonishingly accomplished work. energy to the composition This means it belongs to the very end of the Hellenistic period. Polydorus. and Athenodorus c. .58 E A R LY A RT Laocoön Hagesandrus. struggling figures. anchoring it large-scale treatment had a significant impact on Michelangelo and on later artists of the Roman Baroque. continuing. after he had urged the Trojans to reject the apparent Greek peace offering of a wooden horse. balancing and writhing figures. to the heroic nobility of its expressive. He is physically separated from the other figures and also carved from a separate block. It has been suggested that the figure of the elder son (right) may have been added later. According to Pliny. As with all Antique statues. the father and the other son. desperate struggles of and Athenodorus. this was due to the dramatic circumstances of its chance discovery in Rome in 1506. TECHNIQUES Despite its technical sophistication and complex interlocking figures. Polydorus. Stylistically it derives from the Altar of Zeus at Pergamum of around 150 years before. who sent two snakes to kill him and his sons. Laocoön was a Trojan priest punished by Poseidon. The statue illustrates an incident in Virgil’s account of the Trojan Wars. point of death is contrasted with the Hagesandrus. In part. the group was carved The figure of the son who is on the by three sculptors. The twist of the muscular The Laocoön is thought to have been carved torso adds dynamism and in the second half of the 1st century BCE. in part. tragic emotion generated by its contorted. it would originally have been painted. acutely observed and highly The flanking figures finished. 42–20 BCE Few Greek statues exercised a greater hold on the Renaissance imagination than the Laocoön. It is essentially conceived in one plane. the work is only intended to be viewed from the front. Overwhelmingly its impact of the sons create a stems from the sense of heightened and triangular composition.

excluding base. Laocoön Dimensions height. while their sinuous lines unify the group’s rhythmic continuity. increasing tactile values . 3000 B C E —1300 C E 59 Tortured expressions highlight the new interest accorded to the tragic dignity of suffering The snakes bind the bodies of the father and his sons into a single composition. 72 1/2 in (184 cm) Medium marble Location Rome: Vatican Museums Strong diagonals reinforce the sense of drama and movement Draperies are contrasted with gleaming skin tones.C .

could be supplied headless. Greece provided Rome with a huge range of models to adapt to its own ends. portrait head. 300 CE Uniquely among the leading powers of the ancient world. 13–9 BCE. but Roman painting and sculpture were derived largely from Greek models. Rome. Hence the lifelessness traditionally and. At its most extreme. available in a variety of sizes. Rome weren’t just copied by the Romans. easily installed. they were actively recycled. What was originally an idealized image of male beauty has been slightly clumsily converted into a vehicle stressing Roman imperial might and the godlike person of the emperor. Greek poses recast in Roman garb were pressed into service to reinforce Roman power. this practice allowed a kind of off-the-rack shopping whereby heroic Greek figures. is just one of 33 surviving Roman copies of the Hellenistic original. like Roman engineering. for example. This kind of pragmatism is illustrated by the celebrated late-2nd-century CE equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius. Rome developed only a limited artistic language of its own. 161–180 CE Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius cast. Roman art was largely imitative and utilitarian. whilst seeking to stress the continuity between the rule of the Emperor Augustus and the earlier . marble. on balance. was never less than bold. the result was an apparently permanent Roman inferiority complex in the face of the Greek artistic achievement and the stifling of independent Roman schools of art. Arm outstretched. Rome Death of Emperor Trajan: Roman Empire at its greatest extent Ara Pacis. the buyer supplying his own. Even the much earlier Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). itself known only from Roman copies. the emperor’s son-in-law . 27 BCE —c. his pose is just one of numerous Roman reworkings of the 5th-century BCE statue of Doryphorus. Yet rather than acting as a stimulus. Greek sculptures KEY EVENTS 264 BCE 218 BCE 149 BCE 46 BCE 27 BCE 13–9 BCE 79 CE 113 CE 117 CE Rome completes conquest of Italy. the visual means it used to do so were secondhand.60 E A R LY A RT IMPERIAL ROME c. The 1st-century CE Medici Venus. However potently Rome projected images of its political power. first Punic War (to 241 BCE) Second Punic War (to 201 BCE): Hannibal invades Italy Third Punic War (to 146 BCE): Carthage destroyed by Roman army Julius Caesar appointed dictator (assassinated 44 BCE) Octavian becomes first Roman emperor (as Augustus). Rome Pompeii and Herculaneum destroyed after eruption of Vesuvius Trajan’s Column built. The man in the detail (left) is Marcus Agrippa. Roman architecture. head turned slightly to the side. rightly attributed to Roman art. The frieze shows members of Augustus’s family and state officials. dies 14 CE Ara Pacis Augustae created.

Rome: Musei Capitolini. seascapes augmented by complex architectural settings using sophisticated illusionistic devices seem to have been the preferred subjects. Palestrina: Museo Archeologico Prenestino. The surviving murals were clearly painted by journeymen. severely disapproved of by those seeking a return to the stern values of the republic. 175 CE. . As ever in the imperial Roman world. is obviously dependent on Greek models.3000 B C E —1300 C E 61 Roman republic. above all in its use of a continuous large-scale frieze of figures. These offer crucial clues to the earlier Greek painting on which they were modeled. the manner in which they do so is unambiguously Greek. ROMAN PAINTING Equestrian statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius c. 80 BCE. mosaic. In imperial Rome the love of luxury. height 138 in (350 cm). This was a world in which more almost always meant better. gilded bronze. The virtues they seek to embody may be Roman. The Romans followed Greek models to produce magnificent floor mosaics. In contrast to what is known of these Greek originals. in most cases Greeks—superior interior decorators rather than artists as the Greeks would have understood the term. tended to equate opulence with quality. there was a premium on presentation over content. the paintings at Pompeii seem to have been almost exclusively decorative murals for expensive villas. Landscapes and Nile in Flood (detail) c. Most of the surviving examples of Roman painting are from Pompeii (preserved thanks to the eruption that obliterated the city in 79 CE).

300—450 CE As Rome’s empire was eroded. contain figures that almost deliberately seem to caricature their more elegant predecessors: stumpy and badly proportioned. flaunting their deliberate abandonment of the Greek visual tradition. The choice of these was deliberate: all come from the reigns of well-loved emperors with whom Constantine wished to identify. In addition to reliefs carved in the reign of Constantine himself. Mummy-case portrait from Fayum. by contrast. encaustic on wood. so as to legitimize his rule. these vigorous but less sophisticated artistic models were adapted by the early Christian Church in the search for a visual language appropriate to its theological needs. His decision in 330 to move the capital of the empire from Rome to Constantinople (modern Istanbul) confirmed an existing shift of political and economic power to the east. In turn. neatly encapsulates the move away from the rationalism of Greece. In the same way. RADICAL CHANGE The Arch of Constantine in Rome. the arch incorporates a series of sculptured reliefs from earlier periods. built by the Emperor Constantine early in the 4th century. His legitimization of Christianity in 313 . foreshortening and other devices to create a sense of space are totally ignored. Roman art increasingly departed from the naturalistic ideals it had inherited from the Greeks. The early reliefs are all carved in the fully naturalistic tradition inherited from Greece. The later reliefs. A tradition of Roman-style portrait painting continued in Egypt through the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. London: British Museum. almost all shown in profile. The contrast is so great there is a sense that these reliefs are almost Constantine’s reign marked a crucial moment for Rome.62 E A R LY A RT LATE ROMAN & EARLY CHRISTIAN ART c.

In the absence of surviving paintings. A similar fusion of pagan forms and Christian subject matter is evident in an ivory of around 400 depicting the Holy Women at the Tomb of Christ. It was taken by Constantine from an earlier monument to decorate his triumphal arch in Rome. has two tiers. last Roman emperor in the west 329 330 391 395 410 455 476 constitute idolatry. were resolved. Roman. derives directly from an imperial Roman tradition. Even the cross itself was only slowly adopted as a universal symbol. which is to say pagan. ivory. Again. it being a central tenet of Christianity that Christ had been made man. Rome. 400. There was a longrunning controversy as to whether God the Father could be represented or whether this would Roundel from the Arch of Constantine This medallion. . 315 CE. for example. The basic form of churches themselves came from secular Roman buildings known as basilicas. the mother of Jesus. even bearded or beardless. beardless man in Roman dress. old. No such strictures applied to the figure of Christ himself. often arcaded with aisles and an apse at the far end. hence the urgency with which he set out to reconcile rival Christian sects. which shows a sacrifice being made to Apollo. Peter’s basilica. there was little agreement as to how he should be shown: young. benign. The sumptuous mid-4thcentury sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. What had been a minor sect. early Christian statuary and mosaics provide the only clues as to how these questions had consequences that were equally momentous. Mary. However. In both a youthful Christ occupies the central scene. prototypes were used. large oblong halls. now enjoyed the full weight of imperial patronage. Constantine’s decision was overridingly political: he used the Church as a central point around which the empire could regroup. erected c. these never included the Crucifixion. they clearly stem from the earlier Greek tradition. dates from the reign of Hadrian (117–138 CE). His pose in the upper tier. if the figures are slightly awkwardly rendered. who is portrayed as a young. each containing five scenes of sharply carved if crudely realized figures. Inevitably. Although many scenes from the life of Christ were depicted quite early on. seated with arms outstretched in benediction. CHRISTIANITY AND ART Holy Women at the Tomb of Christ c. completed Constantine dedicates Constantinople as new capital of Roman Empire Emperor Theodosius imposes Christianity on Roman Empire as sole religion Death of Theodosius: Roman Empire definitively split into East and West Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome Vandals under Gaiseric sack Rome Deposition of Romulus Augustulus. The challenge thereafter was to find visual means to express the Christian message. stern. a form of death reserved for the lowest class of criminal. frequently persecuted. Milan: Castello Sforzesco.3000 B C E —1300 C E 63 KEY EVENTS 312 CE 313 325 Constantine confirmed as emperor Edict of Milan: Constantine legitimizes Christianity in Roman Empire Council of Nicaea called by Constantine to resolve theological differences within Church St. and Mary Magdalene worship the risen Christ.

Gestures and even colors came to acquire precise and unvariable meanings. 12th century. Justinian’s Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople projects this mood of fierce piety even more strikingly.64 E A R LY A RT BYZANTINE ART c. This portrait of the splay-footed emperor. The interiors of Byzantine churches were richly decorated with mosaics. part gangster. . Even today. and reliefs. Just. mosaic in vault of apse (detail). seated Christ. As the teachings of the Church were codified. shadowy recesses evoke an astonishing sense of the grandeur and mystery at the heart of imperial Byzantium. almost 600 years after the Ottoman conquest of Byzantium in 1453 when what was then still the largest church in Christendom became. a mosque. near otherworldly mosaics in the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna in Italy. is of a luminous. Vitale. They are important not just as an emphatic assertion of the vigorous (if short-lived) Justinian reconquest—the attempt by the Eastern Emperor Justinian to recreate a unified Roman Empire in the face of the barbarian conquests in the west—but as a supreme example of the new sensibilities of the Byzantine world. over the altar. But hardly less remarkable is that of Justinian and his Madonna and Child. retinue. Trieste: Cathedral of St. precise rules came to govern how they could be depicted. The Byzantine tradition that Mary should be depicted wearing a blue robe was carried over into Western art. The dominant image. which were not venerated as icons. Ravenna. The later formality of the Byzantine tradition Byzantine capitals in Church of S. but not statues. as it remains. part man of destiny. The most important subject of Byzantine art was Christianity. its glinting mosaics and vast. is one of the most compelling images in Western art. gilding. 6th century. flanked by angels and donors. It marked an near absolute break with the Classical Greek inheritance that had driven earlier Roman art. the Byzantine Empire evolved a new and elaborate visual language dominated by complex religious imagery. 500—1200 CE Vastly richer than the beleaguered Western Empire and increasingly drawn toward the east. Among the earliest examples of Byzantine art are the glittering.

c.65 Christ Pantocrator. is an exceptionally potent image of an implacable God. 547 CE. mosaic. “the Mother of God. Egypt. falls to Lombards Triumph of Orthodoxy: religious images officially promoted Mission of Cyril and Methodius begins spread of orthodoxy in eastern Europe Final schism between Roman and Orthodox churches Emperor Justinian I and his Retinue. The conversions of Bulgaria in 864 and Kievan Russia in 988 to this distinctive brand of Christianity were crucial in expanding its reach and in implanting it in new lands. late 11th century. Monastery church. and religious leader of the Byzantine Empire.” staring down from the dome of the monastery church of Daphni in Greece. Ravenna: S. highlights a further. The glowering mosaic figure of Christ Pantocrator. they would exercise a profound influence on the spreading world of “orthodox” Christianity (“orthodox” because sanctioned by the Byzantine Church). 547 555 558 692 726 751 843 864 1054 Hagia Sophia begun in Constantinople (consecrated 537) Justinian launches reconquest of West Roman Empire Mosaics in San Vitale Ravenna Byzantine conquest of Italy and southern Iberia complete Dome of Hagia Sophia collapses (rebuilt by 563) Trullan Council sanctions use of figures of Christ in art Emperor Leo III bans worship of religious images. remains a ubiquitous icon of the Orthodox Church. Vitale. and high-ranking members of the clergy. last Byzantine possession in Italy. KEY EVENTS 532 533 c.” she became a central figure of Byzantine. central fact of Byzantine art: that religious “icons” (literally “images”) were increasingly valued as aids to contemplation. and later of western. the right hand raised in blessing. The figure of “Christ ruler of all. It was in Byzantium. mosaic. . Catherine in the Sinai Peninsula. In part this was a matter of doctrine. Christian art.” his left hand holding the Bible. Justinian is portrayed as the political.REACHING INFLUENCE belies just how inventive it originally was. too. Daphni (Greece). Small and often portable. “Christ the ruler of all. Flanked by imperial officials. military. generals. Yet once established in the 5th century that it was precisely her virginity that made her An image such as the 6th-century panel painting of the Virgin and Child from the Monastery of St. provoking “iconoclast” crisis Ravenna. that the Virgin Mary was developed as one of the key icons of Christian art. FAR .

Inlaid with garnets and colored glass. found in a burial mound at Oseberg in Norway. THE VIKINGS By contrast. 790 c. gold. The discovery at Sutton Hoo in 1939 of the burial goods of an early AngloSaxon king. Once these rival traditions had been reconciled in 664 by the Synod of Whitby. from Ireland and from continental Europe. London: British Museum. not much more than 200 years after the Romans had abandoned Britain.7 cm). KEY EVENTS 563 597 c. generally agreed to be Raewald. ruler of East Anglia. the treasure highlights a world poised between a pagan past and a Christian future. produced works of art of a remarkable and immediately recognizable potency. it produced exceptionally vivid and sophisticated works of art. height 5 in (12. 600—900 Northern Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire has traditionally been seen as entering a “dark age. drawing on the same Celtic roots that are obvious at Sutton Hoo. transformed people’s understanding of emerging Anglo-Saxon England. and violent. the piece shows clear affinities with the intricately intertwined patterns of Celtic jewelry and illuminated manuscripts. early 7th century. is evidence of a warrior society capable of exceptional craftsmanship. Belt buckle from Sutton Hoo. Oslo: Universetets Oldsaksamling. 800 Book of Kells . wood. Britain came firmly within the orbit of the Roman Church. Nonetheless. At the same time.” lost in impenetrable obscurity: marginal. 825. SAXON & VIKING ART c. it. This intricately carved dragon’s head was among the grave goods found in a burial mound excavated in 1904. Augustine to England Lindisfarne Gospels Synod of Whitby: Roman Christianity adopted in England Bede completes his Ecclesiastical History of England First Viking raids on western Europe Viking ship’s figurehead c. the Viking world as it emerged over the next 200 years was at first genuinely beyond Rome’s reach. Already Christianity was penetrating Britain. Yet among the objects found in his grave were a Byzantine bowl and gold coins from Gaul.66 E A R LY A RT CELTIC. The 9th-century carved dragon ship’s figurehead. evidence of long-range trading contacts. Raewald died around 625. 731 c. 650 664 Irish monastery established at Iona Mission of papal emissary St. too. Yet drawing on earlier Celtic traditions and increasingly becoming part of the Christian world. shadowy.

produced at Iona in about 800 and taken to Ireland for safekeeping when the Viking raids began. interspersed with extracts from the Gospels. animals. is the most famous product of the fusion of Celtic art and Christian subject matter. Among its innovations was the use of richly decorated and elaborate capital letters at the start of each passage. swooping line work. Book of Kells Dimensions 13 x 10 in (33 x 25 cm) Medium ink on vellum Location Dublin: Trinity College Library . The Book of Kells. above all a series of sumptuous illuminated manuscripts. Interlaced patterns are a key characteristic of Celtic decorative art. they may have been influenced by Roman floor mosaics Triskele—three legs radiating from a central point—are a recurring motif in Celtic art The capitals—Chi and Rho— are first two letters of the Greek word for Christ and are one of the oldest Christian symbols The complexity of the patterning is similar to contemporary Celtic jewelry Naturalistic details—human heads. It is a book of verses. The thousands of hours of patient labor lavished on it represented an act of worship just as much as the examination of it was intended to induce a mood of contemplation.3000 B C E —1300 C E 67 The Book of Kells c. and birds—are dotted among the swirling. 800 The monastery established in 563 on the remote island of Iona off the west coast of Scotland was one of a handful of isolated Dark Age Irish Christian communities that were responsible for an extraordinary outpouring of Celtic Christian art.

conquered and forcibly Christianized by Charlemagne after a KEY EVENTS 771 772 774 792 800 814 843 845 875 910 936 Charlemagne sole ruler of Frankish Empire Conquest of Saxony begun. Peter’s in Rome. the Low Countries. Charlemagne’s promotion of Latin not only helped preserve Roman texts that might otherwise have been lost. Mark from Carolingian Gospel Book c. In extending his rule deep into Germany. Saxony. It was a deliberate assertion of Rome reborn. its unity destroyed after his death in destructive dynastic quarrels. It reached its largest extent under Charlemagne in the early 9th century when it covered France. but it also established a common language among Europe’s elites and strengthened the authority of the Roman Church. In the 10th century. Charlemagne’s empire would prove vulnerable. territories the Romans had been unable to subdue were brought within western Christendom. king of the Franks. Charlemagne also sparked a cultural revival that decisively influenced the development of later medieval art. purple vellum. complete 802 Lombardy brought within Charlemagne’s empire Imperial (Palatine) Chapel begun at Aachen. and most of Italy. The strange-looking creature framed by the arch is the winged lion. Abbeville: Bibliothèque Municipale. a nascent German state had been created.68 E A R LY A RT MEDIEVAL ART OF NORTHERN EUROPE c. CULTURAL RENEWAL St. away from the Mediterranean toward the north. As it turned out. Mark the Evangelist. A shift of Europe’s political and cultural center of gravity was taking place. France Accession of Otto I as Holy Roman Emperor savage 30-year campaign. the Frankish Empire had become the most successful of the new states formed after the collapse of Rome. On Christmas day 800. Germany. 800. symbol of St. had become a major center of early medieval art and religious teaching. 800—1000 By the 8th century. the western half of the fractured empire would subsequently emerge as France. But his longer-term legacy proved remarkably enduring. . Charlemagne. In the same way. was crowned emperor of a new Roman Empire by Pope Leo III in St. In effect. completed 805 Coronation of Charlemagne in Rome Death of Charlemagne Treaty of Verdun divides Carolingian Empire into three Paris sacked by Vikings Charles the Bald crowned first Holy Roman Emperor Foundation of Benedictine abbey at Cluny.

Charlemagne’s capital. 970. western European religious art stresses the suffering of Christ.” Under Charlemagne. As early as the 6th century. in an obvious narrative sequence. Cologne Cathedral. The carving of the Crucifixion shows Longinus thrusting his spear into the dead Christ’s side. An early 9th-century ivory panel. As important was the development of a narrative tradition in religious art that would endure throughout the Middle Ages. The image of St. The so-called Cross of Gero. suffering unbearable agonies. narrative images of this kind became a fixed part of the western tradition. There is no Roman precedent for the double-jointed twist of the evangelist’s right wrist any more than there is for his oddly angled feet. Similar painted scenes. it is a clear attempt to imitate the richness of the late Roman world. its provenance hard to unravel. encapsulates this new. contains three scenes. In reality. . dominated by the Crucifixion. subsequently used as the cover of devotional volume known as the Pericopes (meaning simply “extracts”) of Henry II. Unlike Byzantine art. images are to the ignorant. only faded fragments of which survive. An example of the artistic outpouring generated by the Carolingian renovatio (renewal) is a Gospel book produced at the city of Aachen.3000 B C E —1300 C E 69 Cross of Gero c. early in the 9th century. Book cover 8th century. ruled 967–983. framed by a triumphal arch. it looks forward to the Middle Ages rather than back to Rome. Holy Roman Emperor c. silver gilt and ivory. illumination on vellum. 985. is not just an obvious celebration of the evangelist. Cividale del Friuli: Museo Archeologico. Otto II. of what would become almost the single most important Christian image in medieval Europe: Christ not just on the cross but clearly human. This depiction of the Crucifixion is an early example. carved around 970 and now in Cologne Cathedral. He married a Byzantine princess. are known to have decorated Carolingian churches. tortured sensibility. height 73 5/8 in (187 cm). Mark. Its Classical origins are clear. however. The four women offering homage to the emperor represent the four parts of his empire. Chantilly: Musée Condé. Pope Gregory I had affirmed the didactic purpose of religious imagery: “What scripture is to the educated. set within an elaborately jeweled frame. Otto. oak. the second Saxon Emperor.

a new architectural language. The foundation of a new monastery at Cluny in central France in 910 sparked a hugely important reform of the western Church. whether Viking. Magyar. in many cases. Odo. One consequence was a program of new church building across much of western Europe. they were not merely reinvigorated themselves but the Church as a whole became much more expansive and assertive. came into being. Early medieval art. There is a heaviness to its massive walls and . the Romanesque. possesses this austere gravity in abundance. St. for example. increasingly lavish. these were buildings that were deliberately magnificent and. Wealth from trade funded the city’s beautiful Romanesque cathedral. Nave of Pisa Cathedral 1094. Pisa was one of the powerful maritime republics of medieval Italy. As a reflection of the new power of the Church. 1224. south wall of Chartres Cathedral. in architecture above all. by about 1000 the Christian states of Europe had begun a slow process of recovery. was almost exclusively religious. stained glass. Cluny extended its control over a number of other monastic foundations. The cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.70 E A R LY A RT ROMANESQUE & EARLY GOTHIC ART c. In the process. built around 1120. the only pan-European body in Christendom. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE Quite rapidly. or Muslim. much larger than anything yet seen in Europe. Rose window c. Under its second abbot. 1000—1300 Despite external threats. At the heart of their regeneration was the Church.

and the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris (1243–48). and Romanesque capital c. date from the late 12th century. probably painted by an English illustrator in the Low Countries. begun in 1220. At Autun Cathedral. The vigor and elegance of this teeming scene. and the saved. for example. The mid-12thcentury illustration of St. the whole presided over by the serene figure of Christ. It was a style that reached maturity at Chartres. The pilgrimage church of Ste.3000 B C E —1300 C E 71 immense tunnel vaults that emphatically projects the new self-assurance of the Church. there is nothing new—its ribbed vaults and pointed arches had appeared in a number of earlier buildings—yet St. Denis has a unity. climaxed at Amiens.” that is quite different. the area immediately above the main entrance. is the Last Judgment. It is a compelling example of the self-belief that underpinned the art of medieval Europe. a visual language expressly designed to celebrate the central place of the Church in an increasingly confident European society. This was not a world looking back to Rome. The self-confidence of this world found other outlets. Italy First Crusade (to 1099) Foundation of Cistercian order in France Rebuilding of St. at Augsburg cathedral. flanking the central door of the the west facade. originally it would have been painted. in France. At much the same time. where the floor-to-ceiling stained-glass windows are both a technical tour de force and an exultant celebration of a new monarchy certain of its own power. the tympanum. for example. Madeleine in Vézelay in the Burgundy region has many fine examples of Romanesque carving. projects a similar certainty of its own worth: stylized. makes clear the revitalization of European sculpture. THE GOTHIC KEY EVENTS 1031 1065 1066 1077 1085 1088 1096 1098 1137 1147 1154 Beginning of Christian reconquest of Spain Earliest known stained glass in Europe. a new manner of sculptural decoration was created. John from the Gospel of Liessies. Denis just outside Paris. is crowded with figures dominated by Christ in the center. abbot of the monastery of St. Structurally. angels. an art form almost abandoned after the fall of Rome. at Padua. lavish. As with all medieval sculpture. Gothic carvings. . the largest in the world. Self-aware and increasingly self-assured. filled with demons. the damned. 1135. The early Gothic cathedrals with their soaring verticals reaching up to pointed arches were triumphant assertions of a new sensibility that equated massive building projects with personal piety. a reminder to worshippers entering the building of their mortality. begun in 1194. Gothic art was more than just an extension of the Romanesque. Denis: first properly Gothic building Second Crusade (to 1148) Accession of Henry II unites much of France and England In 1144 Abbot Suger. presided over the consecration of the rebuilt choir of the abbey church. begun First university in Europe established. reinforcing papal authority Third abbey church at Cluny. Germany Norman conquest of England Emperor Henry IV forced to seek absolution from Gregory VII. The subject depicted. Chartres Cathedral These Old Testament figures. It was different in every important sense. the whole lit by what Suger memorably called “the liquid light if heaven. That this is a radically different type of structure is obvious. as it is on almost all later such carvings. it sought to create its own towering monuments to God. and elegant.

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began to wipe out one third of Europe’s population. and economically. it seemed just the latest in a series of traumatic events. huge areas of eastern Europe had been seized by the Mongols. carried by ship-borne rats from Asia. Europe staged a comeback. fresco.1300—1500 73 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE C. Europe looked ill equipped to deal with these threats. the creation of the Goths who had destroyed the glories of art and architecture in the Roman Empire. Yet. The virtuoso use of perspective. 1465–74. the southeast of the continent was being menaced by the aggressively expanding Ottomans. At the same time. 1300 –1500 The word “Renaissance” (meaning “rebirth”) was first used in the 15th century to describe a revival in Classical learning. in the face of these enormous handicaps. Mantua: Palazzo Ducale. RECOVERY THROUGH TRADE Camera degli Sposi Andrea Mantegna. trade routes had been consolidated. Meanwhile. demonstrates the enthusiasm with which the Gonzaga family. At the same time. “Gothic” was used to describe a style of architecture regarded as barbaric.C . In the previous century. A sense of pan-European identity began to emerge. it appeared destined to remain at the mercy of more powerful neighbors. By the end of the 14th . Technologically inferior and politically fragmented. embraced the new art and learning. Yet politically. the Black Death. the soil from which the Renaissance grew could hardly have seemed more barren. the Catholic Church was divided by a period of schism. In addition. When in 1346. principally as the result of commerce. socially. Between 1315 and 1319. Throughout the Middle Ages. it was wracked by periodic bouts of savage internal warfare. the rulers of Mantua. combined with Classical motifs. I t was only in the 19th century that “Renaissance” was used to explain the cultural flowering of the 14th and 15th centuries that launched the intellectual framework and artistic traditions of the modern world. there had been a run of catastrophic harvests. Edward III’s attempted conquest of France in 1337 began over 100 years of brutal conflict between England and France.

height 35 in (89 cm) Bonn: Rheinisches Landesmuseum. painted by Giotto 1346 First occurrance of Black Death. city-states grown rich on trade with the Orient. For example. Padua. Financed by TIMELINE: C. with sophisticated patterns and rhythms.74 century.” Roettgen Pietà. ITALY Nevertheless. Germany 1389 Battle of Kosovo: Ottomans gain control of Balkans c. it was in Italy that the Renaissance achieved its fullest flowering. the establishment of the Hanseatic League in 1360 created a series of northern European cities that could rival the traditionally dominant Mediterranean. which was usually highly ornamental with realistic detail. In its later years Gothic art became increasingly decorative and elegant. in three years reduces Europe’s population by one third 1350 1360 Hanseatic League founded 1378 The Great Schism: rival popes in Rome and Avignon (to 1417) 1387 Medici bank founded. Venice and Genoa. The Triumph of Death (detail) Pieter Brueghel the Elder. GOTHIC ART “Gothic” describes principally a style of architecture common in Northern Europe between 1100 and 1500.1300. 1300—1500 1380 Foundation of international banking system by Hans Fugger in Augsburg. Also the newly rich city-states believed that they needed to embody the spirit of the Roman Empire itself. limewood (originally painted). led the way. oil on panel. 46 x 63 3⁄4 in (117 x 162 cm) Madrid: Museo del Prado. but others were quick to imitate them. c. c. and when used by Italian painters is called “International Gothic. 1562. by the early 15th century the most powerful of these citystates. Money and goods were exchanged. 1300 Venetians improve Brenner Pass. a network of sea and land routes linked much of the continent. It was here that the physical remains of the ancient world—notably sculpture and architecture —were most numerous and so most easily studied. facilitating trade with northern Europe 1337 Start of 100 Years’ War between England and France 1300 1304–12 Scrovegni Chapel. but without any overall scheme of representation. The ravages of the Black Death were indiscriminate: the rich were as vulnerable as the poor. but so were ideas. Florence . Equally important was the establishment by Hans Fugger in Bavaria in 1380 of a banking network that in time would make the Fuggers the richest family in Europe. Florence. It also includes the decorative art of the period. consciously chose to see itself as the direct heir of Rome. and together these led to a general rise in prosperity.

fall of Bordeaux to France ends 100 Years’ War 1454 Gutenberg Bible. The most decisive contribution to this new spirit of inquiry was the invention of moveable type by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany Dome of Florence Cathedral Completed by Filippo Brunelleschi in 1434. Florentine artists not only proclaimed the superiority of Classical antiquity but asserted that it represented a golden age of creativity whose spirit needed to be revived in the present. At the same time.1300—1500 75 its own indigenous banking dynasty.c. oldest known book printed with moveable type 1492 Muslim Granada falls to Spain. 1421–44 Brunelleschi’s Foundling Hospital. and architects were at the forefront in instigating these fundamental changes. This sparked an unprecedented revolution in the speed. POISED FOR EXPANSION in the 1450s. and were ready to reject the dogmatic propositions and blind faith that controlled the elaborately complex medieval world. Santa Maria Novella. the dome of Florence Cathedral was an emphatic statement of civic pride in which science was used to produce architecture of outstanding beauty. People began to look for rational explanations of the physical environment and human behavior. philosophy and art. sculptors. and they condemned the recent past as a dark age. Columbus’s first Atlantic crossing 1400 1415 Burning of Jan Hus for heresy provokes religious wars in Bohemia 1429 Joan of Arc sparks French revival in 100 Years’ War 1434 Dome of Florence cathedral completed 1450 1450 Alliance of Florence. Florence. first properly classical building of the Renaissance 1425 Masaccio’s Holy Trinity. and would look. and was thus looking ahead to a world in which all three would be. he was conscious that he was unifying science. Florence 1453 Constantinople falls to Ottomans. ease. the Medici. and cost of the spread of information and ideas. When Brunelleschi demonstrated how perspective could be represented schematically on a flat surface. and Milan dominates north and central Italy 1469 Lorenzo de Medici (the Magnificent) assumes control of republic of Florence . Naples. permanently different. When Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic in 1492 he opened new horizons and at the same time confirmed that Europe had moved from the shadowy margins of the world to occupy center stage. Painters. European thought was becoming more questioning and freethinking.

Padua 1 sculpture Nicola (c. Ursula at Cologne. 1325–28 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Bernardo Daddi b C. 1300 – C . 5 Pisa. small-scale portable altarpieces. easy-tolook-at. cute children. 1314/19) were father and son. Pucelle’s works are renowned for being more realistic in their depiction of human features than those of the traditional. 1348. Then. c. Paul Getty Museum). Belgium 1 illumination Pucelle was an eminent illuminator of manuscripts and a master miniaturist. The Marriage of the Virgin. Madonna. Pistoia. but each retained a distinct individual style. “flat” icon painters. 1245–c. 1265– 68 (Siena Cathedral). Blended Giotto’s tough realism with the sweetly lyrical qualities of Sienese artists (such as Ambrogio Lorenzetti). tempera and gold leaf on panel. 1284) and Giovanni (c. Look for smiling Madonnas. Martyrdoms of Sts. Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux. at which Giovanni was a pupil. fresco 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $2. his works were expensive and purchased by nobility and royalty. 1290 – C . Coronation of the Virgin (oils) A younger contemporary of Giotto. Nativity (pulpit). 1315 (Prato Cathedral) KEY WORKS draperies. A favorite of the French court.562. 1305 (Padua: Cappella dei Scrovegni). c. KEY WORKS Belleville Breviary. Traveled to Italy and Belgium to learn new techniques. c. who was possibly Daddi’s teacher. Worked together. 1220–c. Nicola (also called Niccolò) founded a workshop. as now. The Fontana Maggiore in Perugia is the most famous of their joint works. They are credited with bringing a previously unseen naturalism to stone sculpture.76 Nicola and Giovanni Pisano b 13TH – 14TH CENTURIES n ITALIAN Polyptych with the Crucifixion and Saints Bernardo Daddi. 1349 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. 1330–40 (London: National Gallery). and . KEY WORKS Arrival of St. Owned an influential workshop in Paris at the start of the 14th century. 1330 (Florence: Santa Croce) Jehan Pucelle b C. Renowned for their religious stonework. Pioneers of the Gothic style. c. 1330 (Los Angeles: J. Siena. approx. 61 x 85 3⁄8 in (155 x 217 cm). 1323–26 (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale). 1350 n FRENCH 5 France. flowers. c. Lawrence and Stephen. art that is kind to the eye and mind tends to have a wide following. London: Courtauld Institute of Art. Italy. Perugia. Creator of popular. Madonna and Child. such as altars and pulpits. recognized as such in his lifetime.000 in 2004.

Chantilly (France): Musée Condé. Note the fine detail—an obsession of the brothers. One of the Four Riders of the Apocalypse Paul (or Pol) Limbourg. Italy 1 illumination 2 Chantilly (France): Musée Condé. 1300–1500 77 Limbourg brothers b ACTIVE 1390s – C .C . and landscapes of real places (such as the Duc’s châteaux). Their work and patronage reflect the notion Death. ILLUMINATION 7th–15th centuries “Illumination” is the term used to describe the hand-painting and handwriting of books decorated with motifs in rich colors. The use of gold and vivid hues of red. Illuminated “P” by Bartolomeo di Fruosino. who was a painter. illumination on vellum. 1413–16 (Chantilly. 1421 . first-hand observation from life. New York: The Cloisters that. Other styles may include elaborate borders around the text or small pictorial scenes. for the wealthy. France: Musée Condé) Paul (or Pol). 1416 (Chantilly. commissioning and collecting art is a celebration of God’s glory and an act of true devotion. 1385–90 (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale). and green are employed. and Jean Limbourg were pioneering illuminators who trained as goldsmiths and then worked for the great French patron of the period. 1413–16. blue. they were sent to train in Paris. fine detail. They were born in the Netherlands. the initial letter of a page is much larger than the others and furnished with images and bold colors. Through the influence of an uncle. 1416 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Paris. The medium is often associated with religious books. KEY WORKS The Nativity. They used old forms (illustrated Books of Hours—personal prayer books) but with fresh and stunningly innovative illustrations—scenes of everyday life (courtiers and peasants). but it is not possible to distinguish his hand from those of his brothers. at a time of great political turmoil. unusual biblical events. Their best-known work is the “Months” from Les Très Riches Heures because they are most accessible to a secular society and look wonderful in reproduction. where their father was a wood carver. Characteristically. and observation. The Anatomy of Man and Woman. c. c. Their two great works are Les Belles Heures and Les Très Riches Heures. Note how they used contemporary advanced Italian ideas such as landscape background (one of the brothers went to Italy). France: Musée Condé). Herman. and anticipated Netherlandish art—storytelling. Jean. Their brilliant colors and meticulous technique marry perfectly with their subjects. Duc de Berry. c. Les Très Riches Heures. Paul was probably the head of the workshop.

77m in 1976. 1328 (Florence: Santa Croce). c. fresco 2 Florence: Santa Croce (Baroncelli Chapel frescoes) 3 $3. 1301–02 (Pisa Cathedral) Duccio di Buoninsegna b ACTIVE 1278 – 1319 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. 1366 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. Gaddi popularized Giotto’s tough realism by making it decorative. KEY WORKS Annunciation to the Shepherds. He is not as innovative in style or technique as Giotto. 151 1⁄2 x 87 3⁄4 in (385 x 223 cm). 1280–85 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Paul.e. 1300 – C. it is claimed that he initiated the move from the static “old” and “unreal” Byzantine style to the “modern” and “realistic” style. who was his . c. Madonna and Child Enthroned. c. John the Evangelist. Traditionally said to be Giotto’s teacher—i. Francis and Dominic. adding anecdotal details. tempera on wood. 1240 –1302 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. human form. Cimabue was a contemporary of Dante. He tells a story with tenderness and humanity. Florence. The Bromley Davenport Altarpiece—The Man of Sorrows. KEY WORKS Maestà. c. 1360–66 (New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery) Cimabue (Cenni di Peppi) b C. Francis. fresco. 1300 (Florence: Palazzo Pitti). Peter. and emphasizing the storytelling side of picture making. Paris 1 oils 3 $1. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. Duccio influenced all those that followed (just as Giotto influenced Florentine artists). Christ Enthroned between the Virgin and St. Key early Sienese painter. The Entombment of Christ. Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels and Sts. So many works have been attributed to him that his name has almost come to represent a group of like-minded artists rather than an individual. mosaic 2 Pisa: Cathedral (apse mosaic) The most prominent artist working in Florence at the end of the 13th century.78 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Taddeo Gaddi b C. 1355 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Rome 1 oils. Sts. and Andrew (oils) He was Giotto’s principal follower (and godson?).000 in 1991.114. 1280. The Crucifixion (oils) Madonna and Child Enthroned with Eight Angels and Four Prophets (or Maestà) Cimabue. and emotion. though we know he existed. with more credible 3-D space. tempera.

1308–11 (Washington. c.630 in 2001. He makes decorative use of color. 1319 –1348 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. straight noses. Crucifixion with Two Martyrs (oils) by Pietro Lorenzetti Siena’s Pietro (1320–c. KEY WORKS The Charity of St. and almond-shaped eyes. The Holy Women at the Sepulchre. rather than completely new like Giotto’s. and the way he uses the setting as part of the narrative. KEY WORKS Maestà. oils 3 $906. which can be rather sly. c. small mouths. his most important works are the frescoes of Good and Bad Government (Palazzo Pubblico. 1348). Ambrogio’s work is warmer and less solemn than his brother’s. Nativity. fresco. Look at the way the people act and react together. but he is a better narrator of events. DC: National Gallery of Art) Allegory of Good Government: Effects of Good Government in the City (detail) Ambrogio Lorenzetti. c. c. 1308 (Siena: Museo dell’ Opera Metropolitana). followed in the steps of Duccio di Buoninsegna. Siena: Palazzo Pubblico. c. and may be arranged so as to divide up the constituent parts of the story. 1335–40 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). The perspective and scale may be haywire. Ambrogio Lorenzetti. c. but the buildings still look real and livedin.C . old-fashioned. They had shadowy lives (there is a difficult chronology for extant work) and both died of plague. Siena)—the first Italian paintings where landscape is used as background. but with more realism and expression. 1308 –11 (Washington. Lorenzetti brothers b ACTIVE C. red. 116 1⁄2 x 550 3⁄8 in (296 x 1398 cm). The Apostles Peter and Andrew. Scenes from the Life of Blessed Humility. 1348) and Ambrogio (1319–c. DC: National Gallery of Art). Nicholas of Bari. and pale green. 1300–1500 79 contemporary. Some of the oddities or quirkiness can be explained because his style is not actually of the Renaissance: it is essentially Byzantine and Gothic—that is. 1341 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) . but with a new twist. Florence 1 fresco. Pietro Lorenzetti. 1308–11 (Siena: Museo dell’Opera Metropolitana). His hand gestures help tell the story. 1338–39. notably blue. He paints no-nonsense (slightly sceptical?) faces with long.

simplicity. Despite humble beginnings as the son of a farmer. An unsubstantiated story tells how he was discovered by chance by the great painter Cimabue who saw the boy Giotto sketching his father’s sheep. support the main action or emotion. Padua. painted what he saw. Croce The painter who brought a new level of realism to art. which would establish the framework for Western art until 20thcentury Modernism changed the rules. is one of directness. He looked. In other words. He lived through a period when Florence was becoming one of Europe’s most important and influential cities. Florence: S. the sense of space around and between the figures. well-built. Look for his outstanding features: faces expressing genuine emotion. oils 2 Padua: Cappella dei Scrovegni. large bones.” The impact. strong. solid figures. but I immediately understand the sentiment which emerges from it. Naples. Francesco. 1267 – 1337 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. the color. Milan 1 fresco. who grew rich and important in Florentine society. you only have to look to know exactly what is going on). the composition. and construction was finished in 1359. such as trees and rocks. selfexplanatory storylines (like early silent movies. Giotto became an educated and cultivated man. Assisi: S. Florence Giotto designed the Campanile in 1334.80 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Giotto di Bondone b C. accessibility. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Giotto’s innovation was in the way he portrayed supposedly real-life events to appear as though enacted by lifelike people expressing believable emotions and occupying recognizable settings and spaces. Assisi. For it is the lines. how shape and movement of incidentals. his paintings are about life. and then opened up a “window on the world. .” HENRI MATISSE Campanile of the Duomo. Giotto then became Cimabue’s apprentice. and believability. 22 years after his death. Rome. I do not trouble myself to recognize which scene of the life of Christ I have before me. even now. meaningful gestures. Here it is viewed from the top of the Duomo. But notice also “When I see the Giotto frescoes at Padua.

Francesco. 106 3⁄8 x 90 1⁄2 in (270 x 230 cm). The Virgin and Child. Assisi: S. frescoes. One of the frescoes depicting “The Legend of St. where he finds problems that are difficult for him to resolve. Francis. for example. flying angels) eluded him. c. most memorable for their emotional and spiritual impact.” who had died less than 80 years earlier. 1305. c. 1295–1300 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Francis Giotto di Bondone. which is decorated from floor to ceiling with a complex arrangement of selfcontained scenes. Padua Giotto di Bondone. fresco. . 1300–1500 81 Cappella dei Scrovegni.g. Giotto’s key monument is the Scrovegni (or Arena) Chapel in Padua (c. c. KEY WORKS Stigmata of St. The climax of the chapel’s glorious decoration is the large fresco of the Last Judgement on the west wall. 1304–13). 1305–10 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) The Ecstasy of St. he had no knowledge of perspective or anatomy. Francis. 1305 (Padua: Cappella dei Scrovegni). The Lamentation of Christ. and a convincing sense of weightlessness (e. 1297–99. c. c. 1305–06 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum).C . Enthroned Madonna with Saints and Angels.

and the faces and gestures lack Duccio’s precision. lovely as it is.200 He was Sienese.517 in 2004. illumination 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. rhythmical. luminous blues. 12 3⁄4 x 8 3⁄8 in (32. golds. not to create ideas of space. The Angel and the Annunciation. form. he was essentially a large-scale. It is interesting to compare his work with that of his exact contemporary. Creator of altarpieces and illuminated manuscripts (look for a love of detail. A highly gifted monk (monaco is Italian for “monk”). reds. oils. and also known as Ugolino da Siena. 1342 (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery) KEY WORKS KEY WORKS St.2 cm). Annunciation (oils) Ugolino di Nerio b ACTIVE 1317 – 27 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. flowing. golden draperies. A close follower of Duccio. 1370 –1425 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. Happiest when working on a small scale—predella panels and manuscripts. with convoluted poses and gestures. meticulous observation of detail. 1320 (Boston. 1285 – 1344 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. DC: National Gallery of Art). Crucifixion (oils) 3 $200.665. Simone’s work was a final chapter of the past. The Betrayal of Christ. 1422 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) . The Adoration of the Magi. Galleria dell’Accademia 3 $1. fine technique. Florence 1 oils in 1990. but narrative is less well focused. panel. Maestà. the storytelling lacks deep meaning. and with a similar style. MA: Museum of Fine Arts). fresco. 1324–25 (London: National Gallery) Lorenzo Monaco b C. 1413 (Washington. His poetic imagination strove to unite the natural with the supernatural. illumination 3 $220. 1400. Madonna and Child. Simone’s allconsuming emphasis was on decoration for sumptuous overall effect. Although he experimented with new ideas (such as perspective).82 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Simone Martini b C. 1315 (Siena: Palazzo Pubblico).4 x 21. decorative illustrator. it lacks everything that is in Giotto: Simone’s figures are artificial. Look for the qualities you might see in illuminated manuscripts (despite the difference in scale): glowing color. Apotheosis of Virgil. Mary Magdalene. and decorative Gothic with Giotto’s realism. 1409 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Giotto’s was the future.000 in 1991. c. and movement. Death of St. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. Madonna Enthroned between Adoring Angels Lorenzo Monaco. closely worked line. a precise. but seems to have spent all his professional life in Florence. everything is arranged decoratively. Christ Discovered in the Temple. St. 1326 (Assisi: Lower Church). because. 1333 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). c. fresco. colors are less clear. rhythmic. c. Martin. Giotto. not least of illuminated manuscripts. KEY WORKS The Nativity. 1340–44 (Milan: Biblioteca Ambrosiana). faces are stylized and without genuine emotion. Peter (oils) One of the leading painters from Siena and a follower of Duccio. decorative line). lively drawing. c. Lorenzo was born in Siena. c. Avignon 1 tempera.

Venice 1 oils. rather than a window on the world (Renaissance). Anthony and St. Florence. His works could almost be fabulous textiles woven with gold thread. As well as using traditional techniques such as tooled gold. The Meeting of St. uninhibited qualities—the kind that children show when making a picture: a delight in storytelling.C . Most of his work is either lost or destroyed. Fabriano in the Marches. Virgin and Child Enthroned. The Annunciation (oils) He was an Italian painter. Paid great attention to natural detail—animals. faces with wide-eyed expressions. oil on panel. DC: National Gallery of Art) . One of the foremost artists of his day. San Sepolcro Altarpiece. he was the most accomplished exponent of the International Gothic style. c. sometimes. 1423 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Paul Getty Museum). space. Look for his charming. Paris: Musée du Louvre.5 x 66 cm). c. and narrative. named after his birthplace. sudden attention to unexplained detail. The Madonna and Child Surrounded by Six Angels. Combined the old decorative style of the International Gothic with the new ideas from Florence. fresco 3 $497. unreal figures with pink cheeks. also observe stylized crow’s-feet on older male faces. 1440 (Washington. and with a liking for patterned textiles and static figures. 5 Fabriano. He created delicate.624 in 1986. prissy. plants—which he recorded with delicacy and sympathy. c. Margaret. he also experimented with light. and curious harp-shaped ears. His preference was to turn a work of art into a highly luxurious object (a characteristic of the International Gothic style). 1435 (Washington. DC: National Gallery of Art). Adoration of the Magi. 1395 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). bow-shaped lips. 10 1⁄2 x 30 in (26. c. spaces and perspective that don’t quite work. 1300–1500 83 Gentile da Fabriano b 1370 – 1427 n ITALIAN The Presentation in the Temple (from the Altarpiece of the Adoration of the Magi) Gentile da Fabriano. lots of physical activity. 1437–44 (London: National Gallery). 1437–44 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Note the bright little eyes with prominent whites and. The Nativity. 1423. birds. Florence 1 oils The best painter of early Renaissance Siena. Paul. KEY WORKS St. 1423 (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum) KEY WORKS Stefano di Giovanni Sassetta b 1392 –1450 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. decorative colors. Coronation of the Virgin. unsophisticated. Worked all over Italy. 1420 (Los Angeles: J.

Paris: Musée du Louvre. Matthias. when you can. St. George and the Princess of Trebizond. John the Evangelist and St. Santa Anastasia. Scenes from the Story of Esther (oils) “The El Greco of the Quattrocento. and had an interest in everyday details.84 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE The Last Judgment Stephan Lochner. and butterflies combine to create a rich tapestry effect. Hungary 1 oils. KEY WORKS Madonna of Humility.000 in 2001. birds. and meticulous. 17 x 11 3⁄4 in (43 x 30 cm). The Nativity and the Adoration of the Magi. He was an accomplished modeler of flesh and hair. engravings. A Nobleman Attended by Knights and a Knight Fallen from his Charger in a Landscape (works on paper) He was very popular with princely courts as a painter. tempera on wood. c. 1455–59 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Portrait of Ginevra d’Este Antonio Pisano Pisanello. Rome.000 in 1995. portraitist. c. Prophet or Evangelist (oils) Best remembered as collaborator of Masaccio. and made skilful use of perspective. decorative backgrounds like tapestries. decorator. Developed a charming. 1437–38 (Verona: Santa Anastasia) Pisanello (Antonio Pisano) b C. but few works now survive. 1453 (London: National Gallery). St. c. fresh draftsmanship. 1436–38. fresco 2 Verona: San Fermo. using fresh colors. KEY WORKS The Annunciation.300 in 1990. 1423–24 (Verona: San Fermo). and medallist. oil on wood. he was recognized as a painter of great distinction. London: National Gallery. in reply to the influential “modern” style of Duccio. The Feast of Herod. It is good for an inconclusive art-historical debate: is he the late flowering of the International Gothic style or the pioneer of early Renaissance? (It is more profitable to forget the debate and just enjoy what you can. especially of animals. 1453 (London: National Gallery).) Notice his fascinating direct observation from life. His work has qualities similar to those of illuminated manuscripts. St. Como (Italy): Castiglione Olona 3 $270. 1415–20 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Paris: Musée du Louvre (drawings) 3 $212. Exquisite coloring and minute detail are characteristic of Lochner’s work. learned by working with the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti. in which the spaces. Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum. and logic of the “real” world are deliberately ignored. 48 x 67 1⁄3 in (122 x 171 cm). c. 1383 –1447 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. 1440s. Rome 1 oils. fresco 2 Rome: San Clemente (fresco cycle). He had a graceful figure style. Martin of Tours. KEY WORKS St. decorative. and costumes. scale. c. Liberius and St. Notice how the leaves. and convincing narrative style. c. 1428 (London: National Gallery) Giovanni di Paolo b ACTIVE 1420 – 82 n ITALIAN 5 Siena 1 oils 3 $800. John the Baptist Retiring into the Wilderness. He painted flat. 1395 – 1455 n ITALIAN 5 Verona. perspective. c. flowers. which relate to his pioneering of the art of the portrait medal—a medium at which he excelled.” Sienese painter who adopted a deliberately old-fashioned style. . emotions. 1423 (Philadelphia: Museum of Art). His portraits have distinctive profiles. Masolino da Panicale b C.

Look for ordinary mortals introduced into religious works standing alongside divine figures. silken-looking hair. . For 21 years. 1440 (Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum). c. stone. chubby faces. Worked in Brussels. 14th century (Dijon: Musée Archéologique). Hugely influential on the development of northern European sculpture. 1300–1500 85 Stephan Lochner b C. Brussels 1 sculpture A sculptor and a founder of the Burgundian School. c. Born in Haarlem. rich. The leading master of his time in Cologne.C . before moving to France. Fragment of Crucified Christ. His work is characterized by fine draperies. Arms of a Virgin or a Magdalene. Annunciation. rounded figures with slightly silly. Sts. Dijon: Chartreuse de Champmol. height of figures 70 4⁄5 in (180 cm). late 14th century. somewhat fussy. Duke of Burgundy. and anecdotal detail. Symbolic well surrounded by statues of Moses and other Old Testament prophets. c. natural. 1350 – C . gold backgrounds. 1440– 45 (Cologne Cathedral). 1445 (London: National Gallery) 5 Dijon. KEY WORKS The Virgin in the Rose Bush. KEY WORKS Portal of the Chartreuse de Champmol. Catherine of Alexandria. where he worked from 1442 until his death. Author of religious works of soft. 1385–93 (Dijon). and realistic human figures. 14th century (Dijon: Musée Archéologique) The Moses Well Claus Sluter. glowing colors. Matthew. and John the Evangelist. lived in Dijon as chief sculptor of Philip the Bold. 1400 – 51 n GERMAN Claus Sluter b C. 1405 n DUTCH 5 Cologne 1 oils 2 Cologne A shadowy early German painter about whom little is known and to whom few works are attributed for certain.

g. the first great Renaissance fresco cycle 1424 Ghiberti completes first set of Florence Baptistry bronze doors. e. first printed book in Europe (Germany) Publication of Alberti’s De Re Aedificatoria. commandingly certain of his worth in every sense. STYLE From the start. the Medici. Santa Maria del Carmine. the muscular Isaac derived from Classical originals. The richly garbed figure on the white horse is Lorenzo de’ Medici. 1427 Masaccio completes frescoes in Brancacci Chapel. The change came first—and most obviously—in sculpture. If the shimmering. more commissioned 1434–64 Florence ruled by Cosimo de’ Medici 1445 1452 Johannes Gutenberg’s Bible. they made up a revolution in Western art. The frame may be Gothic. the figures and landscape are just as clearly products of the Renaissance.4 cm). Gozzoli’s mid-century Procession of the Magi artfully combined the two. Florence. especially those based in its birthplace. SUBJECTS Though religious subjects continued to predominate. rebirth) in early 15th-century Italy: a renewed. the sense of space is equally marked. and the discovery and mastery of linear perspective. Florence. but the key elements of the Renaissance are unmistakably present. first comprehensive treatise to set out principles of Classical architecture The Procession of the Magi (detail) Benozzo Gozzoli. Florence: Palazzo Medici-Riccardi. The Sacrifice of Isaac Lorenzo Ghiberti. Together. Renaissance artists. Figures are modeled naturalistically. fresco. were conscious that their work represented a decisive break with the immediate past.86 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE THE EARLY RENAISSANCE Three major principles underlined the Renaissance (literally. jewel-like picture surface looks back to the International Gothic. Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello. 1469–92 Lorenzo (the “Magnificent”) de’ Medici rules Florence . on a procession that is more regal than religious. surrounded by numerous retainers. His Magi are portraits of his patrons.. 1402. bronze.3 x 43. more systematic study of Classical Antiquity in the belief that it constituted an absolute standard of artistic worth. there was an increasing interest in secular subjects. 21 x 17 in (53. 1459. a faith in the nobility of man (Humanism). KEY EVENTS c. Ghiberti’s panel for a new set of bronze doors for Florence Baptistry owes a direct and immediate debt to Roman models.

is a key element in the curious air of mystery that pervades his work. A great and enigmatic masterpiece. He The architectural details—ceiling of the semi open-air structure and rich floor tiles—are painted exactly The vanishing point is precisely calculated: exactly on the center line of the painting. are realized with remarkable economy.C . The flagellation is carried out with hardly any animation. ultimately what marks them is a distinctively haunting sense of serene detachment. Its precise meaning remains disputed but its soft modeling is ravishingly well done. dividing it in two. 23 x 32 in (58. the seated figure of Pontius Pilate gazes impassively at Christ’s punishment The significance of the three figures in the foreground has been endlessly questioned. Piero della Francesca. Who are they. 1300–1500 87 15th century WHAT TO LOOK FOR The two most obvious technical triumphs of Renaissance painting were the ability to portray convincingly naturalistic figures in equally convincingly realized illusionistic spaces. and why are they so detached from the flagellation? The statue immediately above Christ’s head provides clear evidence of Piero’s interest in the Antique. epitomized both developments. 1470. consistently cool and clear. Flesh tones (which use a base of green paint). Urbino: Galleria Nazionale delle Marche.5 cm). On the left. c. The Flagellation of Christ Piero della Francesca. a quarter of the way up constructed exceptionally elaborate perspective schemes while his figures have an overwhelming sense of assured monumentality.4 x 81. no less than limpid skies. TECHNIQUES Piero’s palette. oil and tempera. author of three mathematical treatises. . Yet however rational his paintings may be.

accord with the Renaissance principle that human beings are the measure of all things. two sons. St. goldsmith. expressing qualities of feeling. 1415. he revolutionized the art of painting during his short lifetime and was the bridge between Giotto and Michelangelo. tempera 2 Florence: Brancacci Chapel (fresco cycle). 1425–52 (Florence: Baptistry) The Trinity Tommaso Masaccio. pupils included Donatello. Madonna and Child with St. . 1402 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). His simple. fresco (post restoration). with the eye drawn by fluid drapery. Catherine (oils) An important early-Renaissance Florentine whose work forms a bridge between Masaccio and Botticelli. glass 3 $245. c. designer. Creates believable spaces. 1406 – 69 n ITALIAN 5 Tuscany 1 fresco. Married Marsilia c. and intellectual curiosity that are as relevant today as 500 years ago. Tommaso and Vittorio. This piece was covered over in 1570 with a panel painting by Vasari. Masaccio (Tommaso Giovanni di Mone) b 1401– 28 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 fresco. tempera. He painted believable and dignified human figures.88 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Lorenzo Ghiberti b C. oils 2 Spoleto: Cathedral (frescoes). The Expulsion from Paradise.679 in 2000. Renowned in his lifetime as the best bronze-caster in Florence. Fusion of classical artistic style with realism. the same is true for foreshortening. suffering— also expressed simultaneously through gestures and hands (but why are the hands so small?). 1427 (Florence: Santa Maria del Carmine) Fra Filippo Lippi b C. so helping them to look real). and writer. Famous for the bronze doors of the Baptistry in Florence. 1425. His deeply moving pictures can plumb the most basic and profound of human emotions. His sincerely-felt religious works expressed worship of God by sensitive interpretation of the New Testament and by mastery of all the chief technical interests and developments of the period (all of them. Masaccio was the first painter to understand and use scientific perspective. The individual expressions on the faces show minds and emotions at work—enquiring. Born and worked in Florence. in which the human figure is the central feature. Also produced stained glass and sculptures. Look for rich decoration and elegance of sculpting. 263 3⁄4 x 124 in (670 x 315 cm). Joseph in Egypt (Porta del Paradiso). also worked in Siena. including the artist’s skill.” He left very few known works. Florence: Santa Maria Novella. Lucy. Uses light to model draperies and figures (instead of outline. Madonna and Child (sculpture) He was a sculptor. 1378 –1455 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. which human figures dominate with authority. Opened a large. doubting. Masaccio means “Big ugly Tom. and St.484 in 2002. and only rediscovered in 1861. KEY WORKS The Sacrifice of Isaac. Santa Maria Novella The greatest of the early-Renaissance Florentines. KEY WORKS Crucifixion. both worked in the studio. and ornate carving. movement in the landscape. Lawrence. 1426 (Naples: Museo di Capodimonte). Prato: Cathedral (fresco series) 3 $183. wellordered compositions. His relief work is defined by clean lines and plenty of activity. influential workshop. emotion. Siena 1 sculpture.

The Annunciation. . and holy. landscape. Rome 1 fresco. 1440–45 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). c. KEY WORKS Virgin and Child. After previous failed attempts on their lives.1438–40. Perugia. Look for the chubby figures with slightly glum youthful faces. Fiesole. his soft draperies have highly detailed borders. They are delightfully happy. carefully drawn drapery folds. happy faces with peaches and cream complexions and pink cheeks. proportion. 1439–43 (Florence: Convent of San Marco) He was a Dominican friar whose work combines old-fashioned (Gothic) and progressive (Renaissance) ideas. c. The Annunciation. finely painted decorative detail. The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Angels and Saints. tempera on panel. c. The Beheading of St. decorated costumes. 1438–40 (Florence: Convent of San Marco). Orvieto. enthusiastically telling the story of God’s goodness. Thomas Aquinas by the Cross (oils) Noli me Tangere. Madonna and Child with Stories of the Life of St. c. 1448–50 (London: National Gallery). such as flowers. gold grounds. 1435–45 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). Damian Fra Angelico. c. everyone is busy doing something. and eyes that look as though they never blink. 1425–30 (Florence: Convent of San Marco). and have great innocent purity—as though he saw no evil in the world (perhaps he didn’t. c. He uses old-fashioned gold embellishments and modern perspective with equal enthusiasm. Anne. communication between human figures.C . The Adoration with the Infant Baptist and St. c. 14 1⁄2 x 18 in (37 x 46 cm).) There is disarming and childlike innocence in the detail: youthful. Paris: Musée du Louvre.537 in 2003.080. 1300–1500 89 being a gift from God): perspective. St. 1459 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) His paintings interpret the Christian message with directness. 1387 – 1455 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. Peter and St. The Mocking of Christ. tempera. KEY WORKS Fra Angelico b C. attractive. oils 2 Florence: Convent of San Marco (fresco series) 3 $1. 1452 (Florence: Palazzo Pitti). Cosmas and St. the twin martyrs were finally killed. Bernard. Angelico takes evident pleasure in colors (especially pink and blue) and things that he has observed closely. Note his love of rich detail—marble floors.

known as “contrapposto. Both works told of the death of oppressors—a warning to enemies to keep away. the homoeroticism is instantly apparent. symbol of victory and power David Medium bronze Height 62 1⁄4 in (158 cm) Location Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello . Goliath’s helmet displays Donatello’s ability to sculpt in relief.” Although David stands with the head of Goliath at his feet. David’s expression is strangely dreamy and contemplative In his left hand. as is the innovative twisting pose about the hips. One of the first nude statues of the Renaissance. He stands on a laurel wreath. 1435–53 This piece was created for the Medici. paired with a statue of Judith and Holfernes. David holds the sling he used to bring down Goliath Many Florentines were shocked by the statue’s nudity In his right hand is the sword that decapitates Goliath Donatello probably trained as a goldsmith. As a result. the figure does not seem capable of the great strength or violence needed to have killed the giant. Donatello’s David was a move away from traditional religious imagery. he was particularly skilled at working with bronze with fine detail and highly polished surfaces. and was first mentioned in the report of the marriage of Lorenzo il Magnifico (1469). It stood in Florence’s Palazzo Medici.90 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE David Donatello c.

Florence 1 tempera. 1445–48 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Luca della Robbia b C. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1432–38. marble. KEY WORKS St. Famous throughout Italy. Museo Nazionale del Bargello Unquestionably the greatest sculptor of the early Renaissance. The Martyrdom of St. Trained in textiles and as a goldsmith before sculpture. Florence: Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. equestrian statues. 1400 – 61 n ITALIAN 5 Perugia.C . John in the Desert. Set up successful studio in Florence. Cantoria (choir gallery. Worked in stone and terracotta. . 1415 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). Worked closely with his nephew Andrea della Robbia (1435–1525). Born in Florence. Careless with money. he reinvented the art of sculpture just as other contemporaries were reinventing the art of painting. strict attention to detail. traveled widely. He had complete mastery of sculpture in bronze. fresco 2 London: National Gallery. KEY WORKS The Resurrection. prone to anger. Essentially. 1411 (Florence: Or San Michele). Portugal. and give his figures a sense of more than mere objects of beauty for passive contemplation. detail) Luca della Robbia. George.839 in 2002. ready to spring into action. 1445 (Washington. and probably homosexual. c. and an awareness of the properties of draperies and metalwork reflected in his sculpture. Zuccone. and terracotta. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi He was an important and very influential Venetian who worked in Florence. and Spain. he came from a large family of artists and artisans. Was able to bring sculpture to life by his ability to tell a story. Follower of the humanistic movement. He was more interested in constructing with light and color than with modelled form and perspective. Mark. nudes. The carvings illustrate the 150th Psalm and depict angels. and girls in song. Madonna and Child with Saints (sculpture) His full name was Luca di Simone della Robbia. 1399 –1482 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 sculpture. c. stone. His innovations and discoveries were profoundly influential on Michelangelo. boys. Cosimo de Medici. to combine realism and powerful emotion. Patronized by the Medici. Almost nothing is known about him now and there are only a few known works surviving. Look for rich color and luminous tin glazes. he was a popular member of Florentine society and close to his patron. and nothing escaped his extraordinary capabilities: relief sculpture. unmarried. Lucy. A warm personality who gave practical help to struggling artisans. wood. KEY WORKS St. groups of figures with single figures seated or standing. c. 1436 (Florence: Museo dell’Opera del Duomo) also patrons in Naples. 39 3⁄8 x 37 in (100 x 94 cm). 1300–1500 91 Donatello b 1386 –1466 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. Physically strong and rough. ceramics 2 Florence: San Miniato al Monte 3 $254. St. c. His scenes are thick with symbolism and the faces expressive. c. Padua 1 sculpture 2 Florence: Museo dell’Opera del Duomo. Roundels of the Apostles. Prolific sculptor of the early Renaissance. c. he was well known for choosing only good-looking boys as studio apprentices. keeping the formula of his tin glazes a secret. 1442–45 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). Achieved fame and wealth through glazed terracotta artworks. c. but creations filled with energy and thought. 1444 (Florence: Pazzi Chapel) Domenico Veneziano b C.

His works are instantly recognizable by the schematic use of perspective and foreshortening. decorative qualities.” He was a Florentine painter. One of Uccello’s greatest works. with no-nonsense faces and expressions. 1465–70. 1460 (London: National Gallery). c. The Flood. He liked crowded scenes. Galleria degli Uffizi 3 $36. he worked in his early years with Ghiberti on the doors of the Baptistry in Florence. Paris: Musée du Louvre. They are also often hung at the wrong height in galleries so that his carefully worked out perspective effects are visually ruined. Duomo (frescoes). tempera 2 Florence: Palazzo Medici-Riccardi (fresco series). and carefully observed solid figures. or are there several? Forget perspective and foreshortening for a moment.750 in 1993.92 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Paolo Uccello b 1397–1475 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 tempera. Thomas Aquinas Benozzo di Lese Gozzoli. mid1430s (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Study of Male Nude (drawing) Down-to-earth early-Renaissance Florentine. and can make his work look rather wooden and the figures toylike. Does he use a single viewpoint for the perspective. c.) The Crucifixion. 90 1⁄2 x 40 1⁄4 in (230 x 102 cm). Orvieto. (If necessary. . Galleria degli Uffizi The Hunt in the Forest Paolo Uccello. But the sheer enthusiasm and gusto with which he used perspective stops his pictures from becoming dry and boring. oil on canvas. born Paolo di Dono and nicknamed Uccello (“the bird”). St. A good craftsman who enjoyed what he saw. many of his works are in very poor condition. fresco 2 Florence: Santa Maria Novella. which demonstrates his fascination with perspective. Gozzoli was a painter of high-quality altarpieces and predella panels. The saint is enthroned between Aristotle and Plato. and enjoy his strong sense of design and attention to decorative detail. 1470–75. sit or lie on the floor and work out the proper viewpoint. 1455 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). 29 1⁄2 x 70 in (75 x 178 cm). Pisa 1 fresco. Sadly. Originally trained as a goldsmith. His wife. complained that he loved his perspectives more than her. The Triumph of St. which enabled him to show off a combination of brilliant. 1421 – 97 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. oils. His over-theoretical application of the science of perspective tends to swamp all other considerations. 1447–48 (Florence: Santa Maria Novella) Benozzo di Lese Gozzoli b C. c. Battle of San KEY WORKS Romano. tempera on panel. c. George and the Dragon. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum. however. The leading stag (center) is the focus of the “vanishing point. Rome.

and delicate idealism. Anthony Abbot. 1480s. DC: National Gallery of Art) . A Satyr Mourning over a Nymph. DC: National Gallery of Art) expensive fabrics decorated with gold thread and jewelry. and (principally) sculptor. mythological fantasy pictures are unique. they are entirely fanciful and can have disturbing suggestions of struggle and violence. He painted portraits. oils 3 $30. Note how well he arranges crowds. his observations of nature. 1490 (Washington. 1459–61 (Florence: Palazzo Medici-Riccardi).000 in 2001. wiry hair. DC: National Gallery of Art). His love of animals and birds. Tobias and the Angel. c. 1435 – 88 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 sculpture. Study of the Madonna. 1477–80 (Florence: Museo dell’Opera del Duomo). The Baptism of Christ. tough warrior. The Visitation with St. whose name he took. He was a prime example of the artist as a craftsman. The Raising of Lazarus. faraway atmosphere. and mythologies. prehistoric life. particularly if bald. freshness. Look for clear. 1521 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils 3 $150. Note his love of fine detail. Kneeling Angel Writing with Forefinger and Two Shepherds (works on paper) He was an out-of-the-ordinary earlyRenaissance Florentine who led a bohemian lifestyle and was fascinated by primitive. c. grace. Notice the bowshaped lips pressed together. Nicholas and St. and has a propensity to paint the tops of heads. which is reflected in the eyes and expressions on the faces. How do you interpret the strangely ambivalent role played by the animals in his pictures? Note the charming landscape details that look as though they have come out of a woven medieval tapestry. 1495 (London: National Gallery). 1470–80 (London: National Gallery). delicate landscapes and skies that contrast with craggy outcrops and rocks. c. 1495 (Washington. Many of his works were done as decorative panels for furniture (such as cassoni) or rooms. and are firmly placed on the ground. the refined hands touching each other or others. DC: National Gallery of Art). Authentic paintings by him are very rare. the stylized curly.910 in 1953. altarpieces. height 395 cm (155 1⁄2 in).C . Had a workshop where Leonardo da Vinci trained. KEY WORKS Andrea del Verrocchio b C. poses that imply movement through weight being placed on one foot or one leg. He portrayed two types of face or body: epicene youth and craggy. Venice: Campo Santi Giovanni e Paolo. His strange. Allegory. Beheading of John the Baptist. Nobody knows what they mean or why they were painted. hence their elongated shape. and his storytelling are especially endearing and memorable. he trained with a goldsmith. Also painted similarly fresh. or with a hat or helmet. bronze. 1462 – C. His figures seem modeled and conceived as sculpture. 1300–1500 93 Gozzoli’s figures have good hands (with long fingers) and good feet. 1461–62 (Washington. goldsmith. c. c. They have a dreamy. 1470 (Florence: Palazzo Vecchio). showing in Equestrian Monument to Bartolomeo Colleoni Andrea del Verrocchio. 1500 (Washington. 1461–62 (London: National Gallery). Putto with Dolphins. c. Madonna and Child (oils) The son of a brickmaker. The work was a competitive challenge to Donatello. KEY WORKS Procession of the Magi. 1478–80 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) KEY WORKS Piero di Cosimo C. The Dance of Salome. sharp outlines and bright colors. Madonna and Child with Saints. Became a leading Florentine painter. so we are free to interpret them as we like. His altarpieces show an overall mood and style of refinement. tempera.

but firmly in the second division. KEY WORKS Virgin and Child with an Angel. oils. 1470 (Milan: Museo Poldi Pezzoli). Perugia. They had a pioneering interest in anatomy and landscape. and gestures in his figures— . ran one of the most successful workshops in Florence. Andrew and Francis (oils) He was a well-known early-Renaissance Florentine. MA: Museum of Fine Arts). notably anatomy— the male. They never worked out how to use the middleground. Study for a Seated Prophet (works on paper) Battle of the Ten Naked Men Antonio Pollaiuolo. KEY WORKS Hercules and the Hydra. c. Signorelli was intense and gifted. c. 1465–70. obsessively painted hair and a curiously tired and drawn look around the eyes. 1470–80 (London: National Gallery) 5 Florence. Observe the movement.400 in 2002. fresco 3 $489.000 in 1998. muscles. nude or seminaked. sculpture. Rome 1 tempera. 1432 – 98 n ITALIAN Cosimo Rosselli b 1439 –1507 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. c. engraving. 15 1⁄8 x 23 1⁄4 in (38. Florence. and back views in the manner of an anatomical analysis (they are said to have dissected corpses to study anatomy—a daring and risky venture at the time). Portrait of a Woman. 1470 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Portrait of a Man. but outclassed by Raphael and Michelangelo. He painted run-of-the-mill religious works. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. c. 1432–98) was a shadowy figure who. oils. This work shows the artist’s mastery of depicting the human body in motion. with his brother Piero (c. Mary Magdalen. c. John the Baptist. His religious and secular subjects were chosen to make the most of his interest in dramatic (overdramatic?) compositions. Rome 1 fresco. 1470 (Boston. His figures have stylized. Apollo and Daphne. They also painted detailed landscapes and had an interest in spatial recession. engravings Antonio (c. 1441 –1523 n ITALIAN 5 Arezzo. choosing subjects to display these interests and skills to the full. tempera 2 Orvieto Cathedral (fresco series) 3 $790. doing something that shows straining muscles and sinews. c. Orvieto. side.94 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Pollaiuolo brothers b C.3 x 59 cm). 1441–96). but their work jumps abruptly from foreground to background. 1481–82 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Luca Signorelli b C. Crucifixion with Madonna. Shows front.

1479 (London: National Gallery). 1498 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Domenico Ghirlandaio b 1449 – 94 n ITALIAN The Visitation Domenico Ghirlandaio. c. young faces with soft eyes. widely spaced strokes that follow the main curves and contours. 1479–85 (Florence: Santa Maria Novella). which could be illustrations to a story—a forerunner of the Dutch and 19th-century genre. like the patrons who commissioned these works. Do not confuse with his brother David (1452–1525).000 in 1980. Bernard. and grasp. he uses long. He used contemporary settings. middleclass people. Rome 1 fresco. 5 Florence. visits her cousin Elizabeth (pregnant with St. 1491. His frescoes were commissioned as decoration for important public buildings. The Vision of St. KEY WORKS The Adoration of the Kings. St. 1486–90 (London: National Gallery). domestic pictures. His figures have long hands. but stylistically outdated in his later years. Portrait of an Old Man and a Boy. tempera 2 Florence: Santa Maria Novella. good male bone structure. and portraits to illustrate religious subjects. Successful.) He painted hands that look distorted by arthritis and mouths with set expressions. c. 1486 (Florence: Badia Fiorentina) “Ghirlandaio … was created by Nature herself to become a painter. c. c. His religious subjects show all the standard technical qualities of earlyRenaissance Florentine painting (see Filippo Lippi). Agostino Altarpiece. 1479–85 (Florence: Santa Maria Novella). Justus and Clement of Volterra. KEY WORKS The Holy Family. Santa Trinità. Good draftsmanship. San Pietro Martire (oils) Florentine painter who achieved success with a solid. 1457 – 1504 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. Mary. He painted serious. 67 5⁄8 x 65 in (172 x 165 cm). Consequently many are still in situ. 1485 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Filippino Lippi b C. In tempera. Birth of the Virgin. forward inclination of heads. oils. tempera 2 Florence: Santa Maria Novella. KEY WORKS A Legend of Sts. manners.C . Pisa. He painted important fresco series and a few portraits. Look for homely. 1491 (London: National Gallery). Observe his sweet. c.” GIORGIO VASARI . He emphasized the sculptural quality of the figures to the point where they sometimes look as though they have been carved out of wood. Rome 1 fresco. Birth of John the Baptist. Note his wonderful hands and fingers. Rome: Sistine Chapel (all fresco series) 3 $318. The Circumcision. (Michelangelo always showed flesh and blood. wrists. Rome: Santa Maria sopra Minerva (both cities for fresco series) 3 $2m in 2005. well-fed. old-fashioned yet realistic storytelling style. feel. tempera on panel. 1300–1500 95 but sometimes there is too much of this and the paintings are overcrowded. John the Baptist). who was left-handed and so used hatching that goes from top left to bottom right. which really do look as though they touch. and legs. 1480 (London: National Gallery). faces. Penitent Mary Magdalen (oils) The son of Filippo Lippi. pregnant with Jesus. His most famous pupil was Michelangelo. oils. dress. Paris: Musée du Louvre.

Washington. which he turns into designs of shape or color. He found ideas like scientific perspective of no interest. and humanist ideals. and ankles—and beautifully manicured nails. instead. c. wrists. they have fine and crisply drawn outlines like tense wires. c. His subjects have wonderful bone structure—especially in their cheeks and noses. shows odd. in relationship to others. fresco 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi 3 $1. KEY WORKS The Madonna of the Magnificat. 27 1⁄2 x 41 in (70 x 104 cm). strange and distant. he cleverly combined old Gothic decorative styles with new. Lorenzo was a painter of altarpieces and portraits. One of the great draftsmen of all time. tempera and oil on panel. 1481. upturned thumbs and toes. Notice his fascination with pattern—in elaborate materials. 1480–81 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). His later work is odd and retrogressive because he retreated into the past. tempera 3 $1. at a key moment. Known as Sandro. He painted deeply-felt religious pictures and pioneering large-scale mythologies. c. unable to cope with Florence’s turbulent descent into social and political turmoil. 1481–83 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). La Primavera (see pages 98–99).96 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Alessandro Botticelli b 1445 –1510 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. Alessandro di Mariano Filipepe Botticelli was a major Florentine artist.2m in 1982. they attended Verrocchio’s workshop together. Portrait of Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici (oils) The Adoration of the Magi Alessandro Botticelli.1m in 1995. 1458 –1537 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. St. long and refined hands. or in crowd scenes)—always with great dignity. 1484 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Lorenzo di Credi b C. Quirinus of Neuss (oils) A minor Florentine who had a similar style to the early works of fellow pupil. Botticelli may have painted this while in Rome working on the Sistine Chapel. Note the way he portrays the human figure (on its own. high-key palette with orange/reddish tone. DC: National Gallery of Art. Rome 1 tempera. but his style was lifeless and lacked individuality. with dreamlike unreality and distortions. Draperies and flesh both have the same squashy appearance. or both. hair. feet. Used an unpleasant. who emphasized ornament and sentiment rather than scientific observation and realism. Virgin and Child with Eight Angels. classical. The Birth of Venus. . and crowds. Technically competent. Leonardo da Vinci.

1454 –1513 n ITALIAN He was a master of fresco painting and supremely skilled at fitting his decorative scheme to the space of the room. simplified. 1300–1500 97 The story goes that in 1497. c. Madonna and Child (oils) The last serious artist from Perugia and Umbria. 1490s (Florence: Palazzo Pitti) Pope Pius II Canonizes St. Rome. influenced by the teachings of the fanatical friar Savonarola. and direct. middleranking painter from Perugia. Catherine of Alexandria with a Donor. and sentimental (oversweet?) style. Sebastian Pietro Perugino. fresco. and fanciful charm in this work. 1445 –1523 n ITALIAN 5 Perugia 1 fresco. Enjoy his intense and childlike realism. Highly skilled. lips pressed together. St. Gregory the Great. Notice his carefully planned and executed perspectives (geometric and aerial). Siena: Piccolomini Library of the Cathedral 3 $300. full of incident. oils. Siena 1 fresco. His religious pictures are painted in a soft. Jerome and St. ambitious. Note the brilliant colors. 1480–85 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). 1502–08 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) St. Siena: Cathedral. feathery trees and skies. 1492–95 (Rome: Vatican). pretty.000 in 2001. tough. Ultimately second rank. c. Virgin and Child between St. prolific. 1490 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Pietro Perugino b C. Borgia rooms frescoes. Mary Magdalene. which influenced Raphael. c. c. He painted lavish and brilliant decorative borders. Dead Christ with Virgin Mary and other Figures (oils) He was a hardworking.58m in 1990. 1480–1500 (London: National Gallery). oval-faced Madonnas. the bottom one fleshy. bustling scene.C . The artist’s name is painted in gold lettering on the arrow embedded in the saint’s neck. tempera. delicate fingers and a genteelly crooked little finger. and love of storytelling—and believe you have walked into the daily life of Umbria in the 15th or 16th century. Albizzi Pietà. milky on the horizon. St. and Mary Magdalene. John. 1495. KEY WORKS Crucifixion with the Virgin. graduating to deep blue at the zenith. tempera and oil on panel. which tends to become routine—he reused figures from other compositions. Lorenzo destroyed many of his works featuring profane subjects. Bernardino di Betto Pinturicchio b C. . KEY WORKS 5 Perugia. St. ornamental detail. Look for slender figures with gently tilting heads and the weight on one foot. prolific. His portraits can be very good. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. Umbria. Trained in Florence. KEY WORKS The Annunciation. oils 2 Rome: Vatican Museums. Venus. Uninhibited love of color. St. Jerome. c. hence his nickname: his real name was Pietro Vannucci. his facility in recording almost microscopic details he has observed in nature. 21 x 15in (53 x 39 cm). 1503–08. DC: National Gallery of Art). Hence he gives a particularly vivid sense of looking through the wall at a busy. attention to detail. Raphael was trained in his workshop. Catherine of Siena Bernardino di Betto Pinturicchio. 1485 (Washington. tempera 3 $5. He was probably a pupil of Perugino. c. His work declined in quality in later years. but not at forefront of new ideas.

Mercury. which promoted a particular type of divinely inspired beauty. the Goddess of Love. and the painting was probably commissioned by Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici (1463–1503) to hang in a room adjoining the wedding chamber of his townhouse. 1482 La Primavera (Spring) shows the garden of Venus. His refined. combined with complex literary references. uses his caduceus—a wand entwined with snakes—to hold back the clouds so that nothing can blight the eternal spring of Venus’s garden Venus is shown wearing the characteristic headdress of a Florentine married woman—a reference to the nuptial theme of the painting . feminine style found favor with the Florentine intelligentsia in the troubled times in which they lived. Sandro Botticelli was the principal painter in Florence in the second half of the 15th century. His masterpieces were his large mythological paintings. From 1434 to 1737.98 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE La Primavera Alessandro Botticelli c. Florence was controlled by the wealthy Medici family. the messenger of the gods.

Botticelli shows her courtship with Zephyrus. Behind Flora.C . the City of Flowers . he pursued the startled nymph and took her as his bride. curving bellies. and slender ankles embody the ideal of feminine beauty in Renaissance Florence. Their pointed faces. The intertwined hands. winged figure is one of Botticelli’s most imaginative inventions. is the principal figure on the right-hand side of the painting. He is pursuing his lover. God of the West Wind and herald of Venus. if somewhat artificially. transforming her into the goddess Flora. and flowing hair of the Three Graces displays his skill to the full. Flora. She tiptoes across the meadow of flowers. sloping shoulders. 1300–1500 99 La Primavera Medium tempera on panel Dimensions 80 x 123 in (203 x 314 cm) Location Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi Botticelli perfected a style in which crisp line was paramount. When Zephyrus fell in love with Chloris. shows how Flora emerged from the courtship TECHNIQUES Flora’s gown is decorated with flowers that are slightly raised to imitate embroidery. intricate drapery folds. It is the ghostly Zephyrus. the embodiment of beauty. The Goddess Flora has particular significance for Florence (Firenze). Botticelli ingeniously. Botticelli was fascinated by decoration and stylized pattern. Other examples are the “halo” of foliage that is silhouetted against the sky around Venus. and the carpet of flowers. Chloris. long necks. the Goddess of Flowers. strewing blossoms around her The blue.

100 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Piero della Francesca b 1420 – 92 n ITALIAN 5 Sansepolcro. c. Loving. c. Arezzo. Florence. His religious works and portraits have special qualities of stillness and a dignified serenity resulting from deep Christian belief. Had a passionate fascination with mathematics and perspective.” . The Baptism of Christ. His figures and faces are reserved. The Story of the True Cross. Few works remain and many are severely damaged. Borgo Sansepolcro: Museo Civico. Was interested in new ideas and experiments as a means of reaching greater spiritual and scientific truths. Look for his ability to fill mathematical spaces with light. KEY WORKS Madonna della Misericordia. fresco. Urbino 1 fresco. Nothing was left to chance—he recorded everything with total certainty and care. The painting was commissioned for a place in Italy called “Town of the Holy Sepulcher. oil. tempera. and a humanist interest in man’s independence and observation of the world. 1445 (Borgo Sansepolcro: Museo Civico). his meticulous mastery of technique (fresco. intellectual character?). 1450s (London: National Gallery). 89 x 81 in (225 x 205 cm). 1460s (Urbino: Galleria Nazionale delle Marche) Resurrection of Christ Piero della Francesca. tempera. 1452–57 (Arezzo: San Francesco). Acted as town councilor in his beloved native Sansepolcro. aloof. The Flagellation of Christ. and self-absorbed (a reflection of Piero’s own slow. c. instinctive feel for light and color. 1463. which he used to construct geometrically exact spaces and strictly proportioned compositions. oils 2 Borgo Sansepolcro: Museo Civico. and precise line). hard-working. c. Arezzo: San Francesco One of the greatest masters of the early Renaissance. currently very much in fashion.

His figures are always realistically portrayed. Pope Pius II (1405–64) Crowned by Two Cardinals Vecchietta. Moscow: Pushkin Museum. 23 3⁄8 x 17 3⁄8 in (62 x 44 cm). The Crucifixion. The use of foreshortening suggests the influence of Florentine art. with faces recreated without idealism. goldsmith. The Resurrection. sculptor. 1300–1500 101 Matteo di Giovanni b 1435 – 95 n ITALIAN Madonna and Child with Sts. in Siena. c. influenced by Florentine art world. 1457 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Catherine. The artist’s style is elegant. 1472 (New York: Frick Collection). c.497 in 2000. Also called by his birth-name. Assumption of the Virgin. fresco. Siena 1 tempera. who had a strong influence on his sculptural techniques. painter. illumination. 1480–95 (London: National Gallery). densely populated scenes in his frescoes. In the 1430s. Madonna and Child with Holy Bishop. Young Martyr. tempera on panel. Far ahead of his peers in Siena in terms of understanding lighting and its painterly properties. James (polychrome wood) He was an architect. 1458–64. 1461–62 (Siena: Palazzo Pubblico). 1470. 1480–95 (London: National Gallery). 1490 (San Francisco: De Young Museum) Toward the end of his life. Saint Sebastian. he met Donatello. and linear. experiments with foreshortening. 1442 onward). an understanding of foreshortening. flowing draperies. oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $88. and Two Angels (oils) One of the most prolific and popular painters of the Sienese School. built. Lorenzo di Pietro (known by his nickname of “Vecchietta” from c. expression) uncomfortably combined with old-fashioned ones (gold grounds. panel. St. 5 Sansepolcro. He also produced illuminated manuscripts. Adept at working both in miniature and on a large scale. KEY WORKS Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints. Born and worked in Siena. . In contrast to contemporary Florentines. movement. c. he designed. sculpture 2 Siena: Palazzo Piccolomini 3 $152. elaborate decoration).780 in 1990. 1461–62 (Pienza Cathedral).C . he continued to paint frescoes for the rest of his career. and decorated an ornate burial chapel for himself and his wife Francesca inside Santa Maria della Scala. he had a rather awkward and traditional style. St. decorative. and engineer. The Risen Christ. c. His works also demonstrate his architectural training: look for intricately detailed buildings and architectural details in his paintings and sculptures. figures placed one above the other. Siena: Palazzo Piccolomini. his works sometimes characterized by his self-portrait as one of the figures. 1476 (Siena: Santa Maria della Scala) Vecchietta b 1410 – 80 n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 tempera. including the illuminations for Dante’s Divine Comedy. Catherine and Christopher Matteo di Giovanni. c. In the 1450s. Look out for open mouths. he was commissioned by Cardinal Branda Castiglione to paint a series of frescoes in Lombardy. and forward-thinking lighting techniques. KEY WORKS Christ Crowned. foreshortening. His work shows the influence of modern ideas (perspective. Look for Vecchietta’s precise brushwork.

Not much is known about him.185 in 1998. Sketchbooks. Many works have perished. 1496. Gentile Bellini b C. 1480 (London: National Gallery).102 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE The Madonna of Humility adored by Leonello d’Este Jacopo Bellini. Much respected in his own lifetime. Paris: Musée du Louvre. Miracle at Ponte di Lorenzo.000 in 2001. Saint Anthony Abbot and Saint Bernardino of Siena. 23 5⁄8 x 15 3⁄4 in (60 x 40 cm). tempera 3 $696. Santa Lucia (oils) He was Giovanni’s father. Progressive—was interested in latest artistic developments such as perspective. c. Sultan Mohammed II. oil on canvas. He was noted especially for panoramic views of his native Venice. c. oil on panel. KEY WORKS Portrait of Doge Giovanni Mocenigo. landscape. DC: National Gallery of Art) He was Giovanni’s brother. London: British Museum (sketchbooks) 3 $67. and architecture. Madonna and Child Blessing. Very little of his work survives other than sketchbooks. . 1450 (London: British Museum/Paris: Musée du Louvre). peopled with crowds and processions. Mark’s Square Gentile Bellini. Venice: Gallerie dell'Accademia. 1407–50. 1400 –70 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. 1480 (Venice: Museo Correr). KEY WORKS Madonna and Child. 1429 – 1507 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils. c. One of a series of nine Venetian paintings showing the Miracles of the Cross. 1500 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia) Procession in St. The figure on the left is the donor who commissioned the painting. 1459–60 (Washington. 1448 (Milan: Pinacoteca di Brera). thus established a subject and tradition that reached its apogee in Canaletto. Cardinal Bessarion attended by two brothers of the Scuola della Carità in Prayer with the Bessarion Reliquary (oils) Jacopo Bellini b C. 1455 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia). Venice 1 tempera. 144 1⁄2 x 293 3⁄8 in (367 x 745 cm). oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre.

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Giovanni Bellini
b C. 1430 –1516 n ITALIAN

5 Venice 1 oils; tempera 2 Venice: Accademia and
various churches

3 $1,237,500 in 1996, Virgin
and Child with Male Donor, Landscape Beyond (oils)

One of the supreme masters of the early Renaissance and the Father of Venetian painting. The best known of a distinguished family of painters. Among the first to exploit oil-painting technique in Venice. Known for his altarpieces, portraits, and, above all, the depiction of light— beautifully and carefully observed, lovingly and accurately recorded, and always warm. His work sings of the harmonious relationship that should exist between man, nature, and God. The profound mood and spirituality of his religious pictures results from his belief in God’s presence in light and nature.

Agony in the Garden Giovanni Bellini, c. 1460,
32 x 50 in (81 x 127 cm), tempera on wood, London: National Gallery. The painting shows Bellini’s sensitive gift for understanding and representing light, as well as a keen awareness of figures in space.

His figures respond to light and often turn their faces and bodies toward it, in order to enjoy its physical and spiritual benefits. Is he the first painter who really looked at clouds and studied their structure and formation? Notice his love of detail in rocks, leaves, architecture, and rich materials such as silks. Note how his style becomes softer as he gets older (a natural trait in most humans?). No outlines, just gradations of tone. Bellini’s influence on Venetian painting was enormous. He was appointed offical painter to the republic in 1483, and almost all of Venice’s eminent painters during the next generation are believed to have trained in his workshop.
KEY WORKS St. Francis in the Wilderness, c. 1480 (New York: Frick Collection); Barbarigo Altarpiece, 1488, (Murano: San Pietro Martire); The Madonna of the Meadow, c. 1501 (London: National Gallery); The Doge Leonardo Loredan, 1501–04 (London: National Gallery); San Zaccaria Altarpiece, 1505 (Venice: San Zaccaria)

“Giovanni Bellini is very old but still the best of all …”
ALBRECHT DÜRER, 1506

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Antonello da Messina
b C. 1430 – 79 n ITALIAN

5 Messina; Naples; Milan; Venice 1 oils; tempera 2 London: National Gallery. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $367,400 in 2003,
Madonna and Child with a Franciscan Monk. Ecce Homo in a trompe l’oeil (oils)

He was from Messina, Sicily. Made a key visit to Venice in 1475–76. One of the pioneers of oil painting in Italy. He combined Italian interests (sculptural modeling, rational space, and man-themeasure-of-all-things characterization) with northern European obsessions (minute detail and unadorned reality). He had a marvellous ability to observe and paint light, and created wonderful portraits and faces that seem to live and breathe, showing bones under the skin and an intelligence behind the eyes that looks and answers back. Sense that he shines both an intellectual and a physical spotlight on his subjects.

“Once this new secret that Antonello had brought from Flanders into the city of Milan had been understood, Antonello was admired and cherished by those magnificent noblemen for as long as he lived.”
GIORGIO VASARI ON ANTONELLO DA MESSINA

He had a wonderful ability to recreate the appearance and feel of the skin— differentiating between lips, a stubbly or shaven chin, a hairless cheek—eyebrows, hair, the liquid surface of an eye (can only be done with oil paint and requires supreme technical mastery). Oil-paint equation: learns technique from northern artists in Naples and hands it on to clever Venetians, such as Bellini. It is very likely that he used a magnifying glass—and it is worth using one when looking at his paintings.
KEY WORKS Christ Blessing, 1465 (London: National Gallery); Virgin Annunciate, c. 1465 (Palermo: Galleria Nazionale); Portrait of a Man, c. 1475 (London: National Gallery); St. Jerome in his Study, c. 1475 (London: National Gallery)

Vivarini family
b ACTIVE 15TH CENTURY n ITALIAN

5 Venice 1 oils; tempera 2 London: National Gallery 3 $130,000 in 1990, Head of St.
Francis (oils) by Antonio Vivarini

They were a Venetian family. Antonio (c. 1415–84) and his younger brother, Bartolomeo
Madonna and Child with Sts. Peter, Jerome, and Mary Magdalene with a Bishop Alvise
Vivarini, 1500, oil on panel, Amiens (France): Musée de Picardie. Notice the way in which the baby Jesus is set in the absolute center of the painting, his pale skin drawing the eye toward him.

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Monument to Doge Pietro Mocenigo Pietro Lombardo, 1476–81,
Istrian stone and marble, Venice: SS. Giovanni e Paolo. As part of the tomb of Pietro Mocenigo, this intricate monument features 15 life-size marble figures.

Carlo Crivelli
b ACTIVE 1457 – 93 n ITALIAN

(c. 1432–c. 1499) created old-fashioned, large polyptych altarpieces with stiff figures and elaborate carved frames. Antonio’s son, Alvise (c. 1445–1505) did more modern work in the style of Bellini. Good example of craftsmen’s business producing work to please conservative clientele.
KEY WORKS The Madonna with the Blessed Child, c. 1440 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia); Sts. Francis and Mark, 1440–46 (London: National Gallery)

5 Venice; Marche Region (Italy); Croatia 1 tempera 2 London: National Gallery. Milan: Pinacoteca di Brera 3 $840,000 in 1988, Madonna and Child at a Marble Parapet (oils) He was an average Venetian artist with a self-conscious, old-fashioned style. Crivelli’s work shows an extraordinary and obsessive attention to detail, a system that virtually overwhelms everything else. His strange, hard, dry, linear style makes the figures look real but unreal (a bit like biological specimens); similarly with the architecture, his buildings look like painted stage sets rather than the real thing. Note the lined faces with bags under the eyes and bulging veins on hands and feet. The real yet unreal-looking fruit and garlands, which have complicated symbolic meanings, resemble marzipan cake decorations. KEY WORKS Madonna and Child Enthroned with Donor, c. 1470 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); St. Michael, c. 1476 (London: National Gallery)

Lombardo family
b 15TH –16TH CENTURIES n ITALIAN

5 Italy 1 sculpture 2 St. Petersburg:
Hermitage Museum. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Pietro Lombardo (c. 1435–1515), architect and sculptor, worked in several Italian cities before moving to Venice, c. 1467. He set up a workshop, employing large numbers of apprentices. His sculptor sons, Tullio (c. 1455–1532) and Antonio (c. 1458–1516), were among his pupils. Pietro was instrumental in bringing the Renaissance to Venice, reworking Florentine ideas about Classical antiquity into a Venetian ideal. His most famous work was rebuilding the Doge’s palace (1498). By the 1480s, Tullio and Antonio were recognized as sculptors in their own right, often commissioned for tomb sculptures and religious pieces. Tullio collected Classical statues and is noted for poetic portraits like reliefs inspired by Roman grave portraits. Both of them worked for the courts of Northern Italy (see page 106). Pietro’s grandsons continued as architects and sculptors well into the 16th century.
KEY WORKS Adam, Tullio Lombardo, c. 1493 (New York: Metropolitan Museum); Monument to Andrea Vendramin, Pietro & Tullio Lombardo, c. 1493 (Venice: SS. Giovanni e Paolo)

The Annunciation with St. Emidius Carlo
Crivelli, 1486, 81 1⁄2 x 57 5⁄8 in (207 x 146.5 cm), tempera and oil on canvas, London: National Gallery. Painted for the Annunciation Church in Ascoli Piceno, Italy.

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THE COURTS OF NORTHERN ITALY
During the Renaissance, being an artist could be a lucrative career. Most artists worked solely for commission and survived through patronage of the aristocratic courts. Italy was divided into city states or principalities and almost every city, large or small, had a system of artistic patronage. Among the most important of the large cities north of Florence were Mantua and Urbino. In Mantua, the ruling family were called Gonzaga (prominent from the 14th to 17th centuries). Their court artists included Andrea Mantegna and the Lombardi. Urbino came to artistic prominence in the 15th and 16th centuries, soon outshining the earlier established courts. With the naming of Federigo da Montefeltro (1422–82) as the 1st Duke of Urbino, the region became a center for artistic excellence. The Duke showed a partiality for Flemish art, but his most famous court painter was a fellow Italian, Piero della Francesca.

It has been suggested that Piero della Francesca, court painter to the 1st Duke of Urbino, partially designed the Palace at Urbino.

Ercole de’ Roberti
b C. 1450 – 96 n ITALIAN

5 Ferrara; Bologna 1 tempera 2 Milan: Pinacoteca di Brera (for the Madonna Enthroned with Saints altarpiece, 1480) His most famous post was as court painter to the d’Este family in Ferrara. Shadowy figure, with very few works firmly attributed to him. Look for meticulous, fine detail and poetic sensibility; the careful placing of figures in space— well-proportioned with good movement. He was interested in perspective, architectural details, and the way buildings are constructed.
KEY WORKS St. Jerome in the Wilderness, c. 1470 (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); St. John the Baptist, c. 1478–80

(Berlin: Dahlem Museum); The Wife of Hasdrubal and Her Children, c. 1480–90 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)

Cima da Conegliano
b C. 1459 – C. 1517 n ITALIAN

5 Venice 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $84,948 in 1992, Madonna
and Child in Landscape (oils)

He was a successful but minor Venetian, content just to follow others. “The poor man’s Bellini”— similar use of light, but harder and less
Pietà Ercole de’ Roberti,
c. 1490–96, 13 1⁄2 x 12 2⁄5 in (34.4 x 31.3 cm), oil and tempera on panel, Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery. An alterpiece predella.

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subtle. Works best on a small scale, when his crispness comes to the fore. Good light; satisfying blue mountains; intense faces; general air of busyness; slightly comical, frozen poses (as when a photographer says “hold it.”)
KEY WORKS Madonna with the Orange Tree, 1487–88 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia); The Annunciation, 1495 (St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum); Virgin and Child, c. 1505 (London: National Gallery)

Andrea Mantegna
b 1431 – 1506 n ITALIAN

5 Padua; Mantua; Rome 1 engravings; oils; fresco; tempera 2 London: Hampton Court. Mantua: Ducal Palace 3 $25.5m in 2003,
Descent into Limbo (oils)

and portraits. He had a dry, scholarly style, which became obsessed with detail, especially when it came to the archaeology of classical antiquity and geology (but scholars do get obsessed by minutiae). His frescoes are wonderful large-scale schemes for churches and villas. Pioneering printmaker—with superb engraving technique, which suited his style perfectly. Notice the extraordinary outcrops of rock and the way he could make everything (even human flesh) look like carved stone (late monochrome works consciously look like bas-relief sculpture). Stunning mastery of scientific perspective and foreshortening —seen at its most impressive (in situ) in his large, decorative schemes, which are more relaxed than the panel paintings.
KEY WORKS St. James Led to His Execution, c. 1455 (Padua: Ovetari Chapel, Church of the Eremitani); St. Sebastian, c. 1455–60 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum)

He was a precocious, highly individual master of the early Renaissance who worked for the dukes of Gonzaga at Mantua. An austere intellectual. Mantegna’s panel paintings are highly individual interpretations of standard Renaissance subjects such as altarpieces

The Dead Christ Andrea Mantegna, 1480s, 26 3⁄4 x
31 4⁄5 in (68 x 81 cm), oil on canvas, Milan: Pinacoteca di Brera. Mantegna’s first teacher (Squarcione) criticized his work for “resembling ancient statues … rather than living creatures.” The just reply is that his figures resemble both.

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THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE
At the same time that the Renaissance was emerging in Italy, an equally significant artistic flowering was occurring in the Low Countries. Art in northern Europe was not “reborn” in the sense of rediscovering an Antique past. But it was crucially reinvigorated, above all by the development and almost immediate maturity of a new medium: oil painting.
STYLE

Oil painting was not the only important innovation introduced in the Low Countries. Of almost equal significance was easel painting. The notion, still prevalent today, of paintings as self-contained, independent of their settings, was being born. The combination was revolutionary. Unlike tempera and fresco, oil dries slowly, allowing precise reworkings; it can also be applied in tiny increments before drying to a hard, brilliant finish. Painted onto durable and largely nonabsorbent woods such as oak, the result is highly detailed and lustrously jewel-like. As early as the 1430s painters such as van Eyck had developed a form of linear perspective the equal of that devised in Italy, but arrived at pragmatically rather than theoretically. It was augmented by aerial perspective, the gradual softening of colors to suggest more distant objects.
SUBJECTS

Portrait of a Young Woman in a Pinned Hat Rogier van der Weyden,
c. 1435, 18 1⁄2 x 12 3⁄5 in (47 x 32 cm), oil on oak, Berlin: Gemäldegalerie.

Religious subjects dominate the art of the period, but they are always given an earthly, hard-edged precision. There is no lack of opulence—in draperies, settings, or landscapes—but where the

Italian Renaissance is characterized by unworldly idealism, northern European painting of the same date has an almost unnervingly clear-eyed and dispassionate directness.
St. Jerome in a Rocky Landscape Joachim Patenier, 1515–24, 14 1⁄5 x 13 2⁄5 in (36 x 34 cm), oil on oak, London: National Gallery. Patenier, later widely imitated, was the first painter to make landscapes his principal subject. KEY EVENTS
1432 1450 1456 1475 Completion of van Eyck’s monumental Ghent Altarpiece Presumed visit by Roger van der Weyden to Rome and Florence Van Eyck’s spreading fame is confirmed by Neapolitan account of his achievements Hugo van der Goes’s Portinari Altarpiece (see page 116) despatched to Florence

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c. 1420 –1520
WHAT TO LOOK FOR

Figures seem always to have been painted from life. There is a growing stress on domestic detail. This may frequently be loaded with allegorical or other allusive meanings, but the sense that everyday

objects—and by extension everyday life— are worthy of being precisely rendered for their own sake is central. In this work, van Eyck piles detail upon detail to create an entirely believable world.
The Arnolfini Portrait
Jan van Eyck, 1434, 32 x 23 in (82 x 60 cm), oil on oak, London: National Gallery. The work’s exact subject, though it clearly concerns a wedding or betrothal, is unknown.
The Latin text reads: “Van Eyck was here.” It may mean he was a witness or he was “here” in the sense of creating the painting. Either way, it underlines the new status claimed by artists Both figures are very richly dressed, a statement of wealth and social status

The bride is in green, the color of fertility. Is she already pregnant or merely fashionably attired?

The convex mirror is a technical triumph. Window, bed, ceiling, and the two principals are shown from new angles, and two other figures are visible. The border shows 10 scenes from the life of Christ.

Neither figure wears shoes, an indication that they are on sacred ground

The dog may be a symbol of fidelity or lust. The bed is similarly suggestive

TECHNIQUES
Van Eyck’s use of oil allowed him to achieve an extraordinary level of detail. Every object in the painting is depicted with the same concentrated clarity.

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Jan van Eyck
b C. 1390 – 1441 n NETHERLANDISH

5 The Hague; Lille; Bruges 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. Ghent: St. Bavo’s Cathedral. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $1m in 1985, The Three Maries at the Sepulcher (oils) He was an artist-cum-diplomat in service of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. Obscure origins. Only known work is from 1430s onward. Key exponent of Netherlandish art and oil painting. He was the first painter to portray the merchant class and bourgeoisie. His work reflects their priorities, such as having their portraits painted; taking themselves

A Man in a Turban Jan van Eyck, 1433, 10 x 7 1⁄2 in (25.5 x 19 cm), oil on oak, London: National Gallery. The detailed depiction of the headdress and the way it sits on the head suggest that it may have been studied separately.

seriously (as donors of altarpieces, for example); art as the imitation of nature; art as evidence of painstaking work and of craftsmanship; prosperity and tidiness; wariness; restrained emotion. He had a brilliant oil-painting technique, which he was the first to perfect—luminous, glowing colors, and minute detail. His three-quarter pose of face brought new realism to portraiture. He painted Madonnas that look like housewives, and

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saints that look like businessmen. Notice his precise delineation of all facial features, especially the eyes. He was fascinated with ears (they are miniature portraits) and by folds and creases in cloth. Also note the fall of light that unifies the objects and models them. Convincing but empirical perspective. Inscriptions on paintings and rich symbolism.
KEY WORKS

Rogier van der Weyden
b C. 1399 –1464 n NETHERLANDISH

5 Tournai (Belgium); Brussels 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado; Escorial. Berlin: Staatliche Museum 3 $71,442 in 1938,
Dream of Pope Sergius (oils)

The Annunciation, c. 1425–30 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); Ghent Altarpiece (The Adoration of the Lamb), 1432 (Ghent: St. Bavo’s Cathedral); The Arnolfini Marriage; 1434 (London: National Gallery)

Robert Campin (Master of Flemalle)
b C. 1378 – 1444 n NETHERLANDISH

5 Tournai (Belgium) 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery A shadowy figure whose identity is difficult to pin down. Attributions are rare and speculative. One of the founders of the Netherlandish School. His devotional altarpieces and portraits are painted with the concentrated intensity that you get in a diminishing mirror (do visual intensity and detail equal spiritual intensity and commitment?). Virgin and Christ child are shown as down-to-earth people in everyday settings —not idealized, but presented in a way that creates a fascinating three-way tension between realism, symbolism, and distortion, which Campin is able to manipulate with the greatest subtlety. Notice his acute powers of observation, especially in the way things (such as window shutters) are made, how light catches a corner, how drapery falls, or flames look. Uses light to isolate objects. The odd perspective is worked out experimentally, not scientifically. Use a magnifying glass to examine the extraordinarily fine detail; don’t forget to look out of his windows at what is happening in the street. Objects and details usually contain or imply much complex symbolism.
KEY WORKS Entombment, c. 1420 (Private Collection); A Woman, c. 1430 (London: National Gallery); The Virgin and Child before a Firescreen, c. 1430 (London: National Gallery); St. Barbara, 1438 (Madrid: Museo del Prado)

The greatest and most influential northern painter of his day. Set the standard by which the rest are judged. Brussels-based. Worked for the dukes of Burgundy. Had a large workshop and was much imitated. Look for the presence of Christ in contemporary life and powerful tension between reality and unreality. The meticulous detail of cloths, clothes, fingernails, and hair; faces drawn from life; anecdotal detail create an illusion of reality. But the stiff poses, cramped spaces, and static expressions are wholly unreal. Is it this tension that draws the eye so magnetically into the drama and the serious aspiration of the religious message (itself an interplay of the real and unreal)?

“Van Eyck’s eye was at one and the same time a microscope and a telescope.”
ERWIN PANOFSKY

Note also his superb portraits, each with minute, natural individuality—especially the fingernails, knuckles, red-rimmed eyes, and stitches on clothing. He was also fascinated by architectural and sculptural detail. See how he uses facial expression and poses that are appropriate to the emotion expressed, showing tearstreaked faces and an understanding of grief; observe how one figure echoes the poses and gestures of another, as if in emotional sympathy. He adopted a softer, more relaxed style after 1450 (Italian influence after visit to Rome).
KEY WORKS St. Luke Drawing the Virgin, 15th century (St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum); Descent from the Cross, c. 1435 (Madrid: Museo del Prado); Triptych: The Crucifixion, c. 1440 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum); Francesco d’Este, c. 1455 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art); Portrait of a Lady, c. 1455 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)

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The Deposition
Rogier van der Weyden c. 1435 – 40 This altarpiece is a masterpiece of early Netherlandish painting. The northern European artists brought an intensity of emotional expression and a minuteness of realistic detail to their work, which give it a quite different character and appearance to that of their Italian counterparts. This painting is the central panel of a triptych.
Many northern altarpieces at this time were made with carved wooden figures set in shallow boxlike spaces. Van der Weyden seems to have accepted this convention, but through the new medium and technique of oil painting he has brought the figures to life. The artist heightens the sense of tension by forcing the eye and mind to reconcile conflicting qualities. Much of the painting detail is intensely realistic, such as the red-rimmed eyes and the tears on the faces. This conflicts with the highly unnatural composition in which the almost life-size figures are hunched and packed into a narrow space beneath a tiny crucifix. The shrinelike background shown in the painting concentrates the viewer’s attention on the figures and avoids the distractions of a true-to-life setting. Set against a plain gold background, The Deposition has an overriding sense of dramatic power about it. Van der Weyden was a master of depicting human emotion, and his religious painting reflects the strength of his personal conviction. His work had a profound effect on the course of art throughout Europe.
The Deposition
Medium oil on panel Dimensions 86 3⁄8 x 103 1⁄4 in (220 x 262 cm) Location Madrid: Museo del Prado

The skull represents Adam, who is thus symbolically present. Adam was cast out of Paradise after eating the forbidden fruit. Christ sacrificed himself on the cross to redeem the world from Adam’s original sin.
St. John the Evangelist stoops to comfort Mary, Christ’s Mother, who swoons with grief

Mary, wife of the disciple Cleopas—she was supposedly present at the Crucifixion

C . Joseph of Arimathea. Trickles of blood and marbled flesh tones of the dead Christ are contrasted with the white of the linen A follower of Christ holds a jar of ointment— the attribute of St. 1300–1500 113 TECHNIQUES Notice the intriguing conflict between the deep emotion of the picture and the artist’s ability to look at an area such as the cloak of Nicodemus and record every detail with dispassionate objectivity. The face of St. was permitted to take the body down from the cross and lay it to rest Van der Weyden was a celebrated portrait painter. The expressions of grief are highly individual. who appears inconsolably anguished . for example. holding Christ’s corpse. John. Mary Magdalene. is grave yet restrained as he struggles to control his emotions.

oil on wood. 1430 – 94 n FLEMISH 5 Bruges 1 oils 2 Bruges: Memling Museum 3 $265. 1450. 1445 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). with good space) and small portraits (he learned from manuscript illuminations). Portrait of a Man. 45 1⁄4 x 27 3⁄8 in (115 x 69. rather than intense. and often set in landscapes of exquisite beauty. Liked soft textures (his drapery has soft. c. soft hair. small. pronounced eyelids. His motifs such as garlands of fruit and flowers held by putti are borrowed from the Italian Renaissance (from Mantegna?). Hell Dieric Bouts. Memling’s gentle and occasionally sentimental style made him a popular acquisition for 19th-century collectors. The Virgin and Child with an Angel. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1470–75 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts) Portrait of a Man Hans Memling. He was better at small devotional pictures (full of life. c. restrained paintings with beautifully observed detail and painstaking craftsmanship. c. 1415 – 78 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Louvain (Belgium) 1 oils 3 $3. rounded. clouds like chiffon veils. narrative scenes. 1470–80 (London: National Gallery). 13 x 9 3⁄4 in (33 x 25 cm). Hans Memling b C. not crisp. and portraits. soft landscapes and smooth. Bathsheba. Justice of the Emperor Otto. The panel is one of a pair displayed in the Musée des Beaux-Arts.114 Dieric Bouts b C. Lille: Musée des Beaux-Arts. The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Two Angels (oils) Also known as Hans Memlinc. KEY WORKS Portrait of a Man with an Arrow.74m in 1980. His static figures are exaggeratedly slender and graceful. folds). Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. Bruges-based successor to van der Weyden. 1482 (Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie) . idealized faces. from whom he borrowed a repertoire of motifs and compositions. melting to white on the horizon.200 in 1992. His large altarpieces are too rigid. Decorative. the other depicts Paradise. with stiff figures like statues. demure. Possibly a pupil of Rogier van der Weyden. Look out for his interesting skies of intense blue. Solemn. 1462 (London: National Gallery). Very little is known about him and few attributable works exist. oil on wood. A prolific. He created altarpieces. This work was mistakenly believed to be part of a documented but destroyed triptych by Bouts of the Last Judgement. 1480s. style. 1470–75 (Washington. Lovely details of rocky backgrounds and shimmering light. KEY WORKS The Annunciation. The Resurrection (oils) Also known as Dirk Bouts. almost unnoticeable birds.5 cm).

Edward Grimston.C . oil on panel. Portrait of a Canon. 1466 – 1530 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. merchants. Brought Italian refinement to northern realist tradition (visited Italy. Anne. c. whom he met?). c. 1446 (London: National Gallery). long fingers bent at second joint. Bruges 1 oils 3 $380. 1507–09 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). Underrated. 1524 (St. KEY WORKS The Man of Sorrows. c. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1500 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 29 1⁄4 x 26 3⁄4 in (74 x 68 cm). Italy 1 oils 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $403. c. The Virgin and Child (oils) color. Met Dürer in 1521. His intimate. The Virgin in Glory. placed figures in the corners of rooms to suggest both space and intimacy. 1452 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). follower of Massys. sometimes brightly outlined. The Nativity (oils) He was a major original early-northern Renaissance painter—pre-Italian influences. small-scale religious works and portraits are organized and painted with meticulous detail. 1525 (Bruges: Municipal Museums) He was a major painter from Bruges. Note how Christus uses brownish rather than pink flesh tones and favors red and green color schemes. Quentin Massys b C. 1495 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Robes have elaborate. 1526 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Jan Provost b C. and influenced by van der Weyden. 1515 (Private Collection). Virgin and Child with Sts. 1470 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) The Money Lender and his Wife Quentin Massys. He organized broad areas of tone and filled in on top with meticulous detail. often flipped back to show a lining or undergarment in contrasting color. The Last Judgment. A Christian Allegory. The painting’s attention to meticulous detail forms a clear and satisfying artistic parallel with the couple’s evident obsession with material possessions. follower of van Eyck. The Virgin at Prayer (oils) Also known as Quentin Metsys. Look for his precise drawing (he trained as a miniaturist). Antwerp.000 in 1990. 1457 (Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut). He was the first northern painter to understand and use Italian single-point perspective. airy landscapes. and wives. 1300–1500 115 Petrus Christus b ACTIVE 1444 – 72/3 n FLEMISH 5 Bruges 1 oils 2 Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts 3 $182. KEY WORKS St. Note especially his interest in space and light: liked deep space. mid-15th century (Birmingham. 1465 – 1529 n FLEMISH 5 Valenciennes (France). A Young Lady. with figures that are lifelike (for the time). Important painter of unknown origins. admired Leonardo’s way with soft light and his interest in the contrast between ugliness and beauty). UK: Museums and Art Gallery). The Last Judgment. delicate modeling. Opulent details. 1514. Jerome and Francis.400 in 1995. which makes cleaning and restoration especially risky.200 in 1988. bankers. with understated satire (the influence of Erasmus. Best known for animated portraits of tax collectors. crisp drapery. The Adoration of the Magi. KEY WORKS The Crucifixion. tender faces with wide cheeks and prominent lower lip. with folds arranged decoratively. Paris: Musée du Louvre. good . Painter of altarpieces.

100 x 120 in (254 x 305 cm). clear. 1480 – C. UK: Victoria Art Gallery) Jan Gossaert b C. The Portinari Altarpiece is of an unusually large scale for a Netherlandish painting (commissioned to be standard size of Italian triptych). Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. The very wobbly space and odd changes of scale in the central panel perhaps suggest the artist was in difficulty with such a large-scale work? Much symbolism: scarlet lily as blood and passion of Christ. and so on. blue distances with heavy clouds and cold seas. c. 1516 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). 1478 – C. and 2) after visit to Rome in 1508–9. fine oil technique. and subtle shading with light. c. fine natural detail. The kneeling man (right panel) is Tomasso Portinari (agent in Bruges for the Medici bank—he was reckless and the bank was closed). The center panel from the Portinari Altarpiece. purple columbine as Virgin’s sorrow. the composite central panel has Virgin and Child (naked child on floor is a northern idea). Saint. discarded shoe as holy ground. Joseph and shepherds (an Italian idea). Barbara Seated Holding a Book on her Knees (works on paper) He was an obscure genius about whom little is known (spent his last years in a monastery. oil on panel. Only work known for certain to be by him is the Portinari Altarpiece (c. 1470 (Bruges: Municipal Museums). Portrait of a Man. His works have a bird’s-eye viewpoint. A Nobleman. Brussels 1 oils 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi (Portinari Altarpiece) 3 $84. . Had a more conservative portrait style. Rome 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $1. The Adoration of the Magi. classical architecture and details. probably St. there are Portinari men (members of a prosperous Florentine mercantile family) in the left panel. His work is a fascinating (sometimes uncomfortable) synthesis of: 1) northern skills and vision—acute observation. 1475 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). The first painter to make landscape the principal theme. hence the name Mabuse. KEY WORKS Neptune and Amphitrite. c. Adam and Eve. Italian aspirations— idealization of figures and faces. precise draftsmanship à la Dürer. From Mauberge in Hainault. The Fall of Man.800 in 1968. Madonna and Child Enthroned Accompanied by Six Musicmaking Angels (oils) Also called Jan Mabuse. c. and different symbolism. c. which was commissioned for a chapel in Florence and introduced Italian artists to new ideas and techniques they had never seen before: oil paint. 1475 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 1520 (London: National Gallery). women in the right (each with patron saints). The kneeling woman (right panel) is his wife. perspective. with improbably craggy inhabited mountains. 1476. c. going mad).1532 n FLEMISH 5 Netherlands. 1525 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $176. The men look troubled. and The Adoration of the Shepherds Hugo van der Goes. 1475). 1470s (Bath. Maria. KEY WORKS Death of our Lady. the Magi are at the back of the right panel. Wooded Landscape with Many Figures (oils) Also known as Joachim Patinir. firm modeling.000 in 1961.116 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Hugo van der Goes b ACTIVE 1467 – 82 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Ghent. He had a crucial role in the development of Netherlandish painting by introducing Italianate ideas (albeit a bit derivative). the women have fashionably high foreheads and pale faces.5m in 1998. 1525–28 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Joachim Patenier b C.

The Annunciation. c. detailed technique. which gives a feeling of calm. Had a conscious awareness and acknowledgment of the Netherlandish tradition in which he was placed (and that was coming to an end). Note cosy. Last great Netherlandish painter in tradition of van Eyck’s and van der Weyden’s meticulous realism. subtle. moves from love of particular detail to more generalized storytelling. The Virgin feeding the Child from a Bowl of Soup (oils) Also known as Gerard David. rich colors. Mary Magdalen. Fascinated with landscape and townscape. KEY WORKS Christ Nailed to the Cross. KEY WORKS Joris Vezeleer. and St. Paris: Musée du Louvre. 1506 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 1515 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). solemn. There are few attributed works. c. but he had many imitators. 1515 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). but never takes over completely. Note the individualism of each tree with detailed leaves. The Baptism of Christ. 1520–25 (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery).117 God the Father Blessing Gerrit David. Antwerp 1 oils 2 Bruges: Groeningemuseum 3 $1.142. High-quality. c. and “rediscovered” in the second half of the 19th century.400 in 1988. KEY WORKS Rest on the Flight to Egypt. Notice how the Italian influence on his work increases progressively and inexorably. His paintings remind us that fine craftsmanship and skill are Godgiven talents. A Rest during the Flight to Egypt. homely details. Gerrit David b 1484 –1523 n NETHERLANDISH tiny-scale hermits. The Penitence of St. not crowded. c. France 1 oils 3 $350. John the Evangelist (oils) He was a popular. 39 3⁄4 x 50 3⁄8 in (101 x 128 cm). stiffly posed figures and draperies) with progressive ideas (landscapes and rocky formations. and harmony with nature and God. Spaces are open and relaxed. extravagant costumes. poise. Splendid. Gerrit David’s work was neglected for centuries. 1520–25 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). c. overloaded symbolism. The Annunciation. sometimes with Christ tucked in somewhere—fantasy at its most endearing. 1510 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Joos van Cleve b C. Worked in Bruges and Antwerp. but seemingly expressionless. faces. c. and that he worshiped God by exercising his. 1490 –1540 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Antwerp. Virgin and Child with Angels. c. detailed surfaces). Italian-style modeling with light. 1481 (London: National Gallery). His characters have modest. 1518 (Washington. Antwerp-based painter of devotional altarpieces and portraits. Christ on Cross with Mary. David was a painter of altarpieces and portraits. He loved exact details of objects and faces. 1525 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) .000 in 1993. placing figures naturally and at ease within them—his landscapes are especially fine. harmoniously woven together. oil on panel. The Last Judgment. Jerome. 1518 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 Bruges. 1506. c. holy families. DC: National Gallery of Art). Combined tradition (finely detailed northern technique. c.

1468–1507 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Jean Fouquet b C. Pietà. 1475–80 (Zamora Cathedral. c. Traveled to Italy c. 1507/10 n SPANISH 5 Spain 1 oils. but what to be. c. figures with obviously Spanish features. St. Italy 1 oils. Taught his son. c. Credited as the “master” of Castilian painting and at the center of the Hispano–Flemish movement. Look for paintings thick with symbols. Appointed Peintre du Roi in 1475. 46 1⁄2 x 48 in (118 x 122 cm). Had a large workshop that produced important illuminated manuscripts. little survives as testimony. . sorrowful expressions. Death of St. sadly. Markedly northern European in contrast to Italian paintings of the same era. c. 1470. c. Spain). Peter the Martyr. Spent 14 years (1479–93) painting the ceiling in the Old Library at Salamanca University. Lived and worked in Tours for the rest of his life. whose style showed the influence of the early Italian Mannerists. fresco 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $221. 1488–1561). KEY WORKS Virgin of the Milk (Virgen de la Leche). St. The Adoration of the Magi (oils) He was court painter to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Alonso (c.000 in 1998. late 15th century (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Pietà with Two Donors Fernando Gallego. chalks 2 Chantilly (France): Musée Condé Also spelled “Foucquet. His art greatly influenced the Castilian style. even after his death. Epiphany. Gallego’s palette changed from bright tones to muted shades.” BERNARD BERENSON Pedro Berruguete b C. Christopher. Peter the Martyr. late 15th century (Madrid: Museo del Prado). surprisingly for an artist whose importance was recognized in his own lifetime. Dominic Presiding over an Auto Da Fé. to paint and sculpt. and carefully depicted landscape. Strong use of gold and sumptuous draperies and jewelry. Strongly influenced by Italian Renaissance and Flemish art. 1465 (Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia). fresco 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $240. Greatly influenced by Italian Renaissance. Virgin and Child with Parrot. St. 1446–48. The style of his illuminations drew richly on his Italian experiences. 1490 (Los Angeles: J.” He was master painter and illuminator allied to the royal court in Tours. KEY WORKS The Virgin. tempera on panel. San Idelfonso (retable). Andrew. Pentecost (oils) His birth and death dates are shrouded in mystery. He was famed for bringing the Renaissance to France. the local surroundings of Tours were inspiration. 1481 n FRANCE 5 France. 1415 – C. although. 1455 – 1504 n SPANISH 5 Spain. and St. Married and had at least two sons (birth dates unknown). Spain). 1480–90 (Barcelona: Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya).200 in 1989.118 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE “Art teaches us not only what to see. Madrid: Museo del Prado. Italy 1 oils. a post he held until death. Fernando Gallego b C. 1470 (Salamanca Cathedral. One of the most important French painters of his time. Alonso. c. which is often uncomfortable. 1440 – C. Works include the decoration of the palace at Urbino. Toward the end of his life. Note the Northern influences: rigid poses. illumination. 1494 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). became court painter to Charles V. and Gallego’s use of realism. Paul Getty Museum). such as the use of a flat yellow instead of gold.

his art Anne of Brittany with St. Paul Getty Museum). Visitation. A painter whose birth and death dates are a mystery. 1480 (Los Angeles: J. c. but his art is known around the last quarter of the 15th century. others are sceptical. 1480 (Los Angeles: J. Madonna with Saints and Donors. c. Another artist about whom very little is known today was nicknamed the “Master of Moulins. gold. Ursula. Born. c. Helen Jean Bourdichon. 1490–95 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). In his lifetime he was respected and appears in the 1504 list of “Greatest Living Painters. Paul Getty Museum) Jean Hey b 15TH –16TH CENTURIES n UNKNOWN 5 France. St. KEY WORKS Book of Hours. illumination on vellum. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. Bourdichon’s close-up technique placed large figures in the foreground. 1490 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). c. c. lived. Charlemagne and the Meeting at the Golden Gate. 1450 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). Little of his work is documented. Los Angeles: J. KEY WORKS Margaret of Austria. Self-Portrait. oils 2 Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. Estienne Chevalier with St. 1300–1500 119 KEY WORKS Portrait of the Ferrara Court Jester Gonella. His income from the royal court allowed him to become a wealthy landowner and ensured his family financial security. 1455 (Los Angeles: J. and St. when he was living in France. c. Portrait presumed of Madeleine de Bourgogne presented by St. c. Anne. Paul Getty Museum A prolific illuminator. 1490 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels. Madeleine. Coronation of the Virgin. of which his most famous work is the illuminated Grandes Heures for Queen Anne of Brittany. he was a great favorite with a long line of French royalty. Netherlands 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre Also known as Hay. c. Paul Getty Museum) was greatly influenced by the Netherlandish style. sculpture. From the Grandes Heures of Anne of Brittany.and silversmith. appears never to have traveled abroad.” some believe Hey and the Master were the same person. Had a workshop in the castle of Plessis-les-Tours and employed a large number of assistants. Most renowned for illuminated manuscripts. Hours of Simon de Varie. Stephen. 1503–08. and worked in Tours. Appointed Peintre du Roi in 1481.” compiled by Jean Lemaire de Belge. His name suggests he or his parents originated from the Netherlands or Belgium. painter. 1500 (London: National Gallery) Jean Bourdichon b 1457 – 1521 n FRENCH 5 France 1 illumination. Seemingly a diplomatic and jovial man. 1450 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1480 (Los Angeles: J. from Louis XI to Francis I. 1498 (Moulins Cathedral).C . Paul Getty Museum). 1442 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). and designer. .

86 1⁄5 x 37 4⁄5 in (219 x 96 cm). The Ship of Fools. who was an avid collector. intricate intensity reflects his belief that he was depicting certainty and reality. oil on panel. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1510–15. 1490–1500 (London: National Gallery). his works show bewildering detail and unique imagery of part-animal. . c. c. c. moralizing works. The right wing of a triptych. Brilliant rapid technique and luminous color: flecked highlights and chalk underdrawing. Christ Mocked. c. Hieronymus Bosch b C. Best known for his complex. especially by ardent Catholics such as Philip II of Spain. the seductive temptations of the flesh. they are a complete contrast to the Renaissance view of man controlling a rational world. 1450 –1516 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Hertogenbosch (Netherlands) 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $62. The Path of Life. KEY WORKS Death and the Miser. of which the central theme is the sinful depravity of man. Bosch had no real successor until Bruegel (see page 157). Probably the greatest fantasy artist ever. 1505. Anthony Hieronymus Bosch. Brussels: Musées Royaux. and the almost inevitable fate of eternal damnation (salvation is possible but only with the greatest difficulty). visions of depraved activity and torture. St. Like hellfire sermons. 52 x 47 in (132 x 120 cm). Not drug-induced but illustrations of ideas and images in wide circulation at the time. Acute. showing scenes of anguish and humiliation against a backdrop of mayhem. of the medieval painters. oil on panel. not fantasy. Also produced more conventional religious works. The Temptation of the Holy Antonius (oils) Bosch is the last. Madrid: Museo del Prado. Much admired in his lifetime. Anthony of Egypt was tempted by demons and erotic visions. 1485–90 (Washington. c. c. parthuman creatures. deadly sin (notably lust).120 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE The Garden of Earthly Delights: Hell Hieronymus Bosch. and perhaps the greatest. Was influenced by ornate manuscript illumination.300 in 1977. human folly. 1490–1500 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1500–02 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Triptych of the Temptation of St.

Successful in his own time. 1495 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). spiritual intensity.C . Married three times. The settings range from the bare and almost abstract to the highly detailed. Died of the plague. Little interest in “realism” or “modern” Renaissance ideas—his style has more in common with the medieval world and with 20th-century German Expressionism (which he influenced). He lost his fortune in 1525 after backing the wrong side in a peasants’ revolt against the Prince Bishop. Young Woman with Long Hair and Wearing a Hat (sculpture) Major figure in German art history. Seated Bishop. 1511–1520 (Washington. His distorted bodies and anguished hands and feet express inner torment or suffering. owning land—including vineyards. to express mood. Successful both as an artist and engineer. From the right wing of the many-paneled Isenheim Altarpiece. reliefs. had five children. Obscure. ranging from pitch black to bright yellow. Jacob’s Church) . 1490 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art). Tilman Riemenschneider b 1460 – 1531 n GERMAN 5 Germany 1 sculpture 3 $420. religious fanatic who painted works of powerful. oil on panel. Andreas) or Gothardt. 1520–24 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) The Resurrection of Christ Mathis Grünewald. Virgin of the Annunciation. His works are mainly religious: altarpieces. Jerome and the Lion. The demons come out of an imagined medieval hell and are mixed with faces or details that have the qualities of first-hand observation of the Italian Renaissance. His altarpieces express his single-minded religious fervor (he became a Lutheran) but are full of visual contradictions and anachronisms. KEY WORKS The Isenheim Altarpiece (see pages 122–123). c. austere. Saints Erasmus and Maurice. KEY WORKS St. c. 1501 (Rothenburg: St. near Strasbourg. end of 15th century (Paris: Musée du Louvre). DC: National Gallery of Art). His overwhelming masterpiece— The Isenheim Altarpiece—is in Colmar.000 in 1985. 1470 –1528 n GERMAN 5 Mainz (Germany) 1 oils 2 Colmar (France): Unterlinden Museum (The Isenheim Altarpiece) Also known as Neithardt (after his adopted son. c. especially imagery lacking precedent or following. characterized by strong Gothic symbolism and realistic carving. and life-size statues. c. c. Worked for the Archbishop of Mainz. Grünewald distorted scale to convey emotion or significance. Renowned as the first sculptor in limewood who produced altarpieces finished in a monochrome brown glaze rather than multicolored polychrome. 1512–16. Holy Blood Altarpiece. became very wealthy. Now regarded as one of the all-time great painters. but overlooked until the 20th century. Colmar (France): Unterlinden Museum. The Small Crucifixion. He used intense colors. 1300–1500 121 Mathis Grünewald b C. which was intended to give support to patients in Isenheim’s Anthonite monastery hospital. busts.

and this image was intended to bring them comfort and to reinforce their faith—the message is that Christ. at Isenheim near Strasbourg. it is unequivocally a cruel instrument of torture. intensifies the sense of Christ’s suffering.122 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Crucifixion (from The Isenheim Altarpiece) Mathis Grünewald c. and St. Anthony. St. 1510 –15 Grünewald’s altarpiece was commissioned as the focus of the high altar of the chapel in the monastery of St. the Mother of Christ. who is dressed in symbolic white Mary Magdelene is the fallen woman who anointed Christ’s feet . Plague was the killer disease of the time and the monastery also contained a hospice where plague victims were cared for by the monks of the Anthonite Order. comforts Mary. Here. unblemished Christ figure. The victims had no hope of recovery. John the Evangelist— whom Christ asks to take care of his Mother—are nearly always present in Crucifixion scenes and display extreme mental anguish as they witness Christ’s agony. whose broken body is shown covered in sores like those caused by the plague. Mary. The wooden cross strains to bear the weight of Christ. The plague victims who knelt before this altar would have been able to associate with this vision of earthly and human suffering. The figures on the left. which. understands their condition and suffers with them and for them. Crucifixion Medium oil on panel Dimensions 198 x 312 in (500 x 800 cm) Location Colmar (France): Unterlinden Museum Christ’s favorite disciple. Christ’s Mother. along with his bleeding side and wrenched arms. adding to the emotional tension and anguish of the scene In many Crucifixion scenes the crown of thorns is depicted almost as an ornament adorning the head of a serene. John the Evangelist.

which refers to the sacrifice of Jesus . John the Baptist holds a book representing the scriptures. and his unbearably stretched arms The lamb of God represents Christ’s sacrifice in shedding his blood for the salvation of mankind St. Note the expressive hand gestures of all the other figures. The illuminated saints at the base of the cross radiate their own mysterious light and the red of the two St. This device was no longer employed by the majority of artists—one reason why this work is called the last great medieval altarpiece The background of the painting is dark and threatening. The words above his arm are “He must increase but I must diminish” Christ’s agony is depicted by his broken feet. The Gospels tell us that John was beheaded by Herod long before the Crucifixion. Darkness has fallen onto the earth as described in the Gospels. Johns’ robes is almost incandescent. Only those features that are essential to the spiritual message are included The stoic figure of the Baptist dominates the right side of the painting. Christ’s hands express his intense physical and spiritual pain. 1300–1500 123 TECHNIQUES Grünewald’s work is charged with emotional intensity heightened by his sublime skill with color. The size of the figures reflects their importance—Christ is the largest and Mary Magdelene is the smallest.C . his pierced skin. His presence symbolizes the message of mankind’s redemption.

1477–89 (Kraków: Church of St. he was probably the most famous artist in Germany. 1465–70 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek). The St. His most famous piece of stone sculpture is the altarpiece at Nuremberg’s Bamberg Cathedral. Madonna and Child (oils) Prominent German sculptor. suggesting he may have traveled to Italy. and thus influencing the future of Northern European art. The Annunciation. sculpture 2 Würzburg: Mainfränkisches Museum 3 $289. Wolfgang Altarpiece Michael Pacher. Raphael and Tobias.138 in 1998. Lorenz) Martin Schongauer b C. 1516 (Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum). Anne with the Virgin and Child.627 in 1992. KEY WORKS Madonna in the Rose Garden/Madonna of the Rose Bower. c. Borrowed from Flemish techniques and ideas (especially from van der Weyden). truly expressive style. KEY WORKS The Death of the Virgin. The Annunciation. 1500–10 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 1445 –1533 n GERMAN 5 Nuremberg. 1518 (Nuremberg: Parish Church of St. c. He is believed to have been German. 1473 (Colmar: St. Austria. Mary). 1430 – 91 n GERMAN 5 Colmar (France) 1 tempera. Produced only a handful of paintings and engravings. 1475 (London: National Gallery). but it is conceivable that he was Austrian. although nothing is known of his training. wood with polychromy/oil on panel. In his day. c. Wolfgang Parish Church. His rare paintings (only four are known) are characterized by a tame palette of muted colors. Crucifixion (sculpture) Pacher was a panel-painter and wood-carver. He concentrated on religious subjects and about 115 plates by him are known. engravings 3 $146. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) . 1480 (St. Pacher’s use of light and shade on the altarpiece create the impression of unlimited depth. c. He is credited with melding Germanic and Italian techniques. Carrying the Cross (works on paper) Son of a goldsmith who settled in Colmar. He died in Salzburg. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). oils. Lorenz). Renowned for his wood sculptures—with Riemenschneider. KEY WORKS St. St. 1474 (St. Altarpiece of the Four Latin Fathers. 16th century (Nuremberg: Parish Church of St. Had a modest workshop in which he trained his apprentices—among them his sons—to a high standard. 1471–81. and none are as noteworthy as his sculpture. soft touch—his gracefulness became the stuff of legend. Especially well known in his lifetime for his engravings. the greatest wood-carver of his age—executed in a unique. His later work has a more delicate. with precise lines and convincing volumes. 15th century (Barcelona: Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya). Kraków 1 sculpture 2 Nuremberg: Bamberg Cathedral 3 $60. The Large Carrying of the Cross. Mourning Virgin. Much influenced by Dürer.124 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Michael Pacher b ACTIVE 1462 – 98 n UNKNOWN 5 Tyrol (Austria) 1 oils. Martin’s). but most of his career was spent in Bruneck (Brunico) in the South Tyrol. The work he produced is strongly influenced by Italian art. c. 1483 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) Veit Stoss b C.793 in 2004. Alsace. also a painter and engraver. The Crucifixion with Soldiers Sharing Christ’s Clothes. Crucifix. The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Angels and Saints.

and have hard little faces and faraway looks. glassy eyes. small. rings on fingers. DC: National Gallery of Art). although his style The Nymph of the Fountain Lucas Cranach (the elder). Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery. calculating facial expressions. manipulative hands. 1534.3 x 76. which incorporate the elemental and supernatural. crazy hats and clothes. Cupid Complaining to Venus. c. Note the sloping shoulders. .000 in 1978. one leg twisted over another. He painted impressive and solid court portraits. Coronation of the Virgin. active studio. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). The Bewitched Groom. Augsburg (Germany) 1 oils 2 Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum 3 $7. KEY WORKS A Princess of Saxony. intense color. 20 1⁄5 x 30 1⁄4 in (51. 1544 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) remained essentially provincial rather than international (Italian). 1510 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). woodcuts 2 Freiburg Cathedral 3 $448. and sometimes the gruesome and macabre. prominent navels. Both wear outrageous designer creations. and armor. Large.8 cm). present-day high-fashion posed and posing models who strut along the catwalk. long arms and legs. Most notable for the strange. unique. c. Staunch Protestant. Worked for the Electors of Saxony in Wittenberg. 1517 (Basel. He makes us adopt the role of voyeur. rocky landscapes. 1517 (Washington. 1530 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). KEY WORKS The Three Ages of Man and Death. sometimes with strange highlights. Hard.92m in 1990. 1300–1500 125 Hans Baldung Grien b C. c.C . jeweled collars. Portraits of Kurfürst Herzog Johann von Sachsen and of his Son (oils) He was a leading figure of the German Renaissance. 1484 –1545 n GERMAN 5 Strasbourg. feet turned out. These women are curiously reminiscent of the brittle. and capricious pictures of female mythological subjects. greedy. Freiburg-im-Breisgau (Germany) 1 oils. his later work is secular. which have a compelling power and character. Especially gifted at visionary themes. c. He also produced very high-quality woodcuts with strong chiaroscuro. Good draftsmanship. round breasts. Wittenberg. His early subjects tended to be religious. 1512 (Freiburg Cathedral). feathers. May have trained with Dürer. 1530s (London: National Gallery) Lucas Cranach (the elder) b 1472 –1553 n GERMAN 5 Vienna. Girl and Death. The Virgin as Queen of Heaven (oils) Painter and engraver from Strasbourg. c. oil on panel. Judith with the Head of Holofernes. being especially good at old men’s faces. A teasing diaphanous wisp of silk simultaneously covers and reveals the nymph’s loins.

Note also the Italian features—strong. who came from Hungary and trained in the Netherlands.200 in 1978. he was greater. God only knows that. London: British Museum (prints). Born (four years before Michelangelo) in Nuremberg. strong hands and feet. The Isolated Rock of Doss Trento (works on paper) The greatest northern artist of the Renaissance.203. taught Dürer the technique of engraving and an admiration for van Eyck and van der Weyden. and anything unusual. Vienna: Graphische Sammlung Albertina. engravings 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek. assured figures and faces. Dürer portrays himself as an image reminiscent of Christ.” ALBRECHT DÜRER produced powerful woodcuts and pioneering engravings. curious. minute observation of detail. His portraits have strong lines. rounded modeling.1 x 48. 9 3⁄4 x 9 in (25 x 23 cm). He had rich. Highly gifted but selfconscious as a painter. dignified. His goldsmith father. more at ease. Was a brilliant draftsman and painted exquisite watercolors. Look for northern features— apocalyptic imagery. Vienna 1 oils. oil on panel. and animals. Vienna: Albertina (watercolors) 3 $1. soft. both north and south of the Alps. Fused northern European and Italian styles and had a profound influence on art. His marriage was unhappy and childless. He was fascinated by landscape. emotional expression. complexity of design. STYLE Uniquely and subtly synthesized (often in the same work) characteristics of the old northern or medieval tradition and the new Italian and humanist discoveries. He traveled widely in Europe and went on key visits to Italy in 1494 and 1505. Also look for objects as symbols.7 cm). woodcuts. classical A Young Hare 1502. watercolor on paper. His social pretensions. immensely ambitious. he was prolific. plants. and his unusual degree of self-consciousness are revealed in his numerous self-portraits. Many thousands of his works survive to this day. Follower of Luther. tenacious. patrician patrons who encouraged him to travel. and more innovative as a printmaker: . “There lives no man upon the earth who can give a final judgment upon what the most beautiful shape of man might be.126 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Albrecht Dürer b 1471 –1528 n GERMAN 5 Germany. artistic ambitions. crisp. 26 2⁄5 x 19 2⁄5 in (67. beautiful. lopsided faces with enlarged eyes that have liquid surfaces. LIFE AND WORKS Self-Portrait at the Age of Twenty-eight 1500. and very successful. WHAT TO LOOK FOR and he established his own busy workshop in Nuremberg. Munich: Alte Pinakothek. angular line. Dürer’s watercolors were created for his own pleasure. composed.

9 1⁄2 x 7 1⁄2 in (24. perspective and foreshortening. though its compositional structure is more like a triptych. 1503 (Vienna: Graphische Sammlung Albertina). engraving. 1526 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum) Melancolia 1514. Virgin and Child Holding a HalfEaten Pear. 1300–1500 127 Altarpiece of the Rose Garlands 1506. architecture.C . The numbers in the top right of the engraving form a “magic square.5 cm). . New Testament subjects. 63 3⁄5 x 76 1⁄2 in (162 x 194. Johannes Kleberger. 1497–98 (Virginia: Museum of Fine Arts).2 x 19. aged 40. nudes. This painting was Dürer’s first attempt at a single-panel altar. c. oil on panel. Prague: National Gallery. Great Piece of Turf—Study of Weeds.” with the two middle cells of the bottom row giving the date of the engraving: 1514. 1512 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum).1 cm). KEY WORKS The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. London: British Museum.

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Europe had four major powers.C . Francis I of France was determined that his country should compete with both these powers. ESTABLISHED POWERS T By 1511. it summarized what had already been established as an ideal of behavior for monarchs. nobles. and their wish to outdo each other culturally. Written in 1514 and first published in 1528. Rome an artistic showpiece that proclaimed this spiritual and political reality. was profoundly beneficial for the arts. each led by strong-willed men who did indeed fight hard and use art to display and reinforce their power and ambition. 1500 –1600 The 16th century saw the establishment of an ideal that would be followed by all self-respecting European rulers until the 20th century. Italy. who controlled Spain. A succession of energetic popes made The Delphic Sibyl (detail from Sistine Chapel ceiling) Michelangelo. 1508–12. and a generous and knowledgeable patron and protector of the arts. But by the late 1520s warfare engulfed Europe. and the . and southern Italy. the achievements of the artists of the High Renaissance marked a high point that subsequent generations constantly revered and tried to emulate. At first there was a certain equilibrium between these rival power blocks. fresco. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 effectively left the Roman Church as the sole effective defender of Christendom. the Low Countries. Charles V. Il Cortegiano (“The Book of the Courtier”) by Baldassare Castiglione. and accounts in no small measure for the great flowering of European art. Europe’s most powerful temporal ruler was the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor. the Church began to fragment. The Papacy cleverly combined Classical and Biblical authorities to assert its political and spiritual leadership. with virtually no limit on expense. with its new ruling dynasty. while Henry VIII of England also wanted his nation. hese principles were set out in one of the best-selling books of the 16th century. 1500—1600 129 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM C. Indeed. and ladies. a diplomat from Urbino. Rome: Vatican Museums. It was twofold: be strong and fearless in battle. Austria. to be a major player on the European stage.

Germany 1519 Habsburg Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor 1522 First circumnavigation of the globe completed (Magellan and del Cano) 1545 Council of Trent called to counter threat of Protestantism 1549 Direct Portuguese rule imposed on Brazil 1500 Portuguese discovery of Brazil (Cabral) 1500 1508–12 Michelangelo paints Sistine Chapel ceiling 1520 1517 Martin Luther’s 95 Theses attacks abuses of Catholic Church 1527 Sack of Rome 1521 Cortés conquers Aztec Empire 1540 1534 Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII of England breaks with Rome 1543 Of the Revolution of Celestial Bodies published. the African coastline was accurately known. instead of Latin. in with Rome in 1534. the Great Bible. His supporters had intended to strengthen the Church by stamping out corruption. In the course of the ensuing conflict. the Catholic Church was severely weakened by the crisis sparked by Martin Luther in 1517. especially in the sale of indulgences.130 Theatrum Orbis Terrarum: Map of the World by Abraham Ortelius. they created a permanent split between an emerging Protestant north and a Catholic south. intellectual certainties predicated on the perception of a universe in which the Earth was at the very center. as well as the kings of Denmark and Sweden. TIMELINE: 1500—1600 1509 Spanish settlement of Central America begun. as the Bible became theological reasons—broke available in vernacular languages. invention of the watch. and unleashed a campaign to destroy art treasures with When in 1517 Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to a church door in Wittenberg. Meanwhile. 1539. Copernicus . Many German princes. his goal was simply to protest against the corruption of the Church. Instead. Even in the first decade of the 16th century. 1574. But his further writings struck such a chord with antipapal feeling that the pope’s authority was rejected across much of northern Europe. DISINTEGRATION What had started as cultural rivalry degenerated into destructive warfare. burning and destroying what had become the finest city in the REFORMATION world. also fractured. Francis I invaded Italy. were rapidly won over to the Lutheran doctrine. then Title Page. In 1525. and the Mediterranean at the center of the world. the outline of the American continent was assuming recognizable shape. this case English. By the second half of the century. The pace of European exploration after the 1490s was exceptionally rapid. Charles V’s army sacked Rome in 1527. Henry VIII of England— Printing was crucial in spreading the albeit for political rather than Reformation.

and the staggering wealth gained as a result made it the richest country in Europe. Copernicus published his proof that the Sun. Long-held scientific beliefs were being challenged as well as religious ones. summoned in 1545. after an audacious act of conquest.C . where the Habsburgs were determined to crush an anti-Catholic revolt and reimpose their own rule. not the Earth. Château de Chambord. it is no surprise that the self-confidence of the art of the High Renaissance gave way to the uncertainties of Mannerism. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: slaughter of French Protestants in Paris 1588 Spanish Armada: attempted conquest of Protestant England by Spain 1560 1565 Dutch Revolt starts: extended attempt to gain independence from Spain. protracted conflict began in the Low Countries. By the mid-16th century. a vicious. 1500—1600 131 Catholic connections. begun in 1519. Against this turbulent background. Philippines claimed by Spain 1580 1571 Battle of Lepanto: Ottoman navy defeated by united Christian fleet 1600 1598 Edict of Nantes ends 30-year religious war in France . both England and France had established footholds in North America. In 1565.800 workmen were employed in its construction over 12 years. 1559 Treaty of CateauCambrésis: France forced to concede Habsburg supremacy in Italy 1570 Publication of Palladio’s Four Books of Architecture. With the Council of Trent. By the end of the century. Spain found itself in control of much of South America. was the center of our planetary system. In 1543. is the largest. Italy 1572 St. MANNERISM The voyages of discovery showed that the world was much larger than had been imagined and full of curious new lands and creatures. This northsouth divide gave a savage twist to the rivalries between the continent’s leading powers. Loire Valley Francis I’s desire to emulate the cultural superiority of Italy found potent expression in the lavish châteaux of the Loire Valley. 1. but in reality power was shifting away from Italy. whose principal characteristics were a deliberate flouting of rules and willful eccentricity and distortion. the Catholic Church committed itself to restoring its former supremacy. Chambord.

Changed the status of the artist from artisan to gentleman. Pivotal in the creation of the High Renaissance period of Florentine art. An example of Leonardo’s lifelong fascination with animals. “The mind of the painter should be like a lookingglass that is filled with as many images as there are objects placed before him.001 in 2001. fresco 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre (Mona Lisa). designer. Leonardo da Vinci b 1452 –1519 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. This may have been a factor that led him to become detached from others. but returned to Florence following the French invasion of Milan in 1499. metal point drawing. sculptor. Duke of Milan. genius.8 cm).360.132 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Two Horsemen after 1481. inventor. The Medici ignored him entirely. he worked for Ludovico Sforza. London: Royal Collection (drawings) 3 $10. Horse and Rider (works on paper) Unique. at times. Milan.3 x 12.” LEONARDO DA VINCI . writer. France 1 oils. Had such a fertile mind that he rarely completed anything. 5 3⁄5 x 5 in (14. and painter. were at war with Florence. near Florence. he produced many of his most famous Leonardo was born in Vinci. The universal Renaissance man: scientist. perhaps lonely. Between 1500 and 1516. architect. sculpture. drawings. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. philosopher. and there are relatively few paintings by him. the illegitimate son of a notary at a time when illegitimacy was a serious stigma. LIFE AND WORKS Leonardo trained with Verrochio but much of his life was spent working at the courts of foreign dukes and princes who. After 1483.

two landscapes) and demands that the viewer’s imagination should supply the inner meaning and missing visual detail. showing the infant St. DC: National Gallery of Art). died in the king’s arms near Amboise in the Loire Valley. Leonardo’s most remarkable legacy is his notebooks filled with writings and sketches in which he explored his private thoughts about art and science. oil on panel. and “the motions of the mind” (psychology). John the Baptist adoring the infant Christ accompanied by an angel. . It comprises a brilliant bag of technical and perceptual innovation (the use of oil paint. 74 x 47 in (189. 1510 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) The Last Supper 1495–97 (post-restoration). and so on). observations from nature. It set a new standard—and it reaffirms that art you have to interact with creatively is always best. but careless. c.C . More than a depiction of one event. they also explore beauty. soft and shadowy figure with no outlines. He spent his last years in the service of Francis I of France and. man’s relationship with nature and God. He then put this into practice (as witness his keenly observed anatomical drawings and his plans for flying machines. spirituality.5 x 120 cm). STYLE Leonardo had an insatiable curiosity to find out how everything operates. KEY WORKS Ginevra de’Benci. 1500–1600 133 The Virgin of the Rocks c. London: National Gallery. 1483 (Kraków: Czartoryski Museum). This is the second version created by da Vinci. Milan: Santa Maria delle Grazie. Cecilia Gallarani/The Lady with an Ermine. investigating these subjects. 1474 (Washington. c. Mona Lisa. He was technically inventive. a relaxed pose. paintings. 1510) because it was lifelike in a way that had never been seen before. c. mixed media fresco. ugliness. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Why is the Mona Lisa (see page 138) so important? It created a sensation (c. the fresco refers to other episodes narrated in the Gospels. and diagrams for visionary scientific and mechanical projects. Painted for the Milanese Foundation of San Francesco Grande. 1508. His paintings are multilayered. 181 x 346 1⁄2 in (460 x 880 cm). according to legend.

Observe too the continuity in his works—how a gesture. humanity. helped raise the social status of artists from craftsmen to intellectuals.92m in 1996. Bindo Altoviti. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. This was Raphael’s first major work on a theme that was to become a central feature of his art—the Madonna and Child. 60 3⁄5 x 46 4⁄5 in (154 x 119 cm). . stillness and movement. pre-1516 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) The Sistine Madonna Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio). balance. London: Victoria & Albert Museum (cartoons) 3 $7. oil on wood. He had complete mastery of all Renaissance techniques. In short. curved line and straight line. 1515 (Washington. Madonna of the Chair. harmony. Profoundly influential. fresco 2 Rome: Vatican Stanze. subjects. 1513 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). total Christian belief. Notice how everything has a purpose. or in one figure. Rome 1 oils. Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione. Dresden: Gemäldegalerie. contemplation and activity. emotional. Study for the Head of an Apostle (drawing) “Il Divino.134 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) b 1483 –1520 n ITALIAN 5 Tuscany. and intellectual expression. he projected an ideal at almost every level—which is why he was held up as the model for all ambitious artists until the overthrow of academic art by the Modern Movement. tension and relaxation. 1513. and ideas. Villa Farnese (fresco series). or movement begun in one part of the body. 1518–19. especially how he uses contrast to Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de’ Medici and Luigi de’ Rossi Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio). Umbria.” A child prodigy who died young. c. is carried a stage further in another. DC: National Gallery of Art). heighten our perception and feeling (one of the oldest and most successful devices): stern men and sweet women. pose. and used and developed them with apparent ease: deep. He reworked the subject with constant variation and invention. KEY WORKS The School of Athens. 104 1⁄3 x 77 1⁄5 in (265 x 196 cm). but one of the greatest masters of the High Renaissance and therefore of all time. c. superb draftsmanship. 1510–11 (see page 139). oil on canvas.

solemn. and technique by Leonardo. oils 3 $1m in 2000. with dignified compositions and figures. well balanced. oil on wood panel. monumental. Otherwise he flirted with (relative) failure. 1524. KEY WORKS Punishment of the Gamblers. Flagellation. Look for well-fed people with a tendency to chubby cheeks. Raising of Lazarus. 1512 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Fall of Icarus. Raphael. 1517 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Fra Baccio della Porta Bartolommeo b C. 1511 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). He achieved a certain marriage of muscularity and poetry. fresco 2 Rome: Villa Farnese (fresco series) 3 $695. c. Mother of Mercy. Madonna and Child (oils) The last significant Florentine High Renaissance painter. style. muscular people. Portrait of Pope Clement VII (oils) Venetian expatriot and Titian’s contemporary. and figures became overblown as he strove unsuccessfully to keep up with his friend Michelangelo. 1511 (Rome: Villa Farnese). Influenced in subjects. 93 3⁄4 x 78 in (238 x 198 cm). but lack real emotional depth and originality. 1510 (London: National Gallery). Florence: Palazzo Pitti. Nativity (oils) Major Florentine painter who influenced the change in style between the early and High Renaissance. which are harmonious in color. He excelled at painting portraits—which can be magnificent. and plenty of foreshortening. elaborate altarpieces of throned Madonnas with the Christ child show the main characteristics of the High Renaissance style—monumental. grand in conception and scale. Synthesized those influences to produce handsome. Portrait of a Woman. and Michelangelo. 1515 (Lucca. Fontainebleau 1 fresco. Madonna of the Harpies. 1495 (Florence: Convent of San Marco). c. Rome 1 oils. color. Italy: Academy) Andrea del Sarto b 1486 –1530 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. balanced.1m in 2001. 1485 – 1547 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. but the compositions. and a self-satisfied look. dramatic gestures. Marriage of St. 1510 (Florence: SS. 1474 –1517 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $2. Observe landscapes that look prosperous and well farmed. In 1531 obtained the sinecure of keeper of the papal seal (made from lead. double chins. Catherine. Interesting use of perspective. . Rich color and landscape backgrounds maintain his links with Venice.” hence his nickname). Look for rather fierce-looking. c. del Sarto painted this for the convent where he took refuge.400 in 1987. His large-scale. 1517–19 (London: National Gallery) Renaissance with generalizations (notice it especially in faces and drapery) and idealization. Forced to flee from the plague. who settled in Rome when Michelangelo and Raphael were there. 1516–21 (Rome: S. Pietro in Montorio). or “piombo. KEY WORKS Portrait of Savonarola. Annunziata). religious pictures and portraits. which makes his figures look like soulful athletes. Warm color and light. Is it a misfortune to be talented but not outstanding in an epoch of giants? Do they cause you to live in their shadow and diminish your talent? Or do they inspire you to reach heights you would otherwise not have achieved? KEY WORKS The Daughter of Herodias. 1500–1600 135 Sebastiano del Piombo b C. with good strong hands. Bartolommeo replaced the intensely observed detail of the early Lamentation over the Dead Christ Andrea del Sarto.C .

174. confident. He had a profound belief in the human form (especially that of the male) as the ultimate expression of human sensibility and beauty. more human. so it could be the design for shaping a block of marble.136 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Michelangelo Buonarroti b 1475 –1564 n ITALIAN The Last Judgment 1538–41. oil on panel. John (Doni Tondo) 1504 – 05. employs a wet-in-wet oil paint technique. Never a natural painter—he conceived the figure in sculptural terms and used light to model it. temperamental. c. Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes. Rome (especially Sistine Chapel) 3 $11. He was born near Florence. he found relationships with others difficult. Gradually that image becomes more expressive. 576 x 528 in (1463 x 1341 cm). David. faces expressing the full range of human emotions. Look for: tempera hatching. Christ raises the good with his right hand and dismisses the damned with his left. contour. Also argumentative and belligerent. KEY WORKS The Entombment. fresco. full of latent energy. . brilliant draftsmanship exploring outline. lonely. 1500–01 (London: National Gallery). the son of a minor official with noble lineage. Workaholic. diameter 47 in (120 cm). beautiful and expressive hands. and flawed. Vatican City: Sistine Chapel. The Risen Christ (works on paper) The outstanding genius (and infant prodigy). melancholic. painter and architect second. In the center of the composition. fresco. He was endlessly inventive—never repeats a pose (although he borrows some from famous Greek and Roman sculptures). oranges. 1508–12 (Rome: Vatican Museums) Holy Family with St. less perfect. yellows against gray or blue. tempera 2 Florence. fallible. quasi-divine. Sculptor first. 1501–04 (Florence: Gallerie dell’Accademia). muscular. and volume. Rome 1 sculpture. 5 Florence. and showed his talent at an early age. who cast his influence over all European art until Picasso broke the spell and changed the rules. he uses fiery reds. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. reminiscent of a sculptor exploring volume. Bologna.001 in 2000. twisting poses. His early work shows the human being as the measure of all things: idealized. In his paintings.

Michelangelo’s close study of anatomy is apparent in this mastery of the human form The sorrowing face of the Madonna is an inspired union of classical idealism and Christian piety. Peter’s Basilica Michelangelo was only 25 when his Pietà was unveiled at St. it has become a real moment in human existence: a sculpture that invites the viewer to share Mary’s grief. Michelangelo took the study of anatomy very seriously. More than a lofty religious symbol. emphazing how recently the blood flowed in his body Mary’s outstretched hands show an acceptance of her fate The Pietà was sculpted from one single block of marble. giving the work a realism most other sculptors were unable to attain. As an adolescent he befriended a priest who allowed him access to dead bodies lying in rest at the church before being buried. Michelangelo did not believe that his Christ should appear superhuman. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. The dead Christ of the Pietà is a testimony to many hours spent studying genuine corpses. he wrote that there was no need to conceal the human behind the divine. 1500–1600 137 Pietà Michelangelo 1500 Pietà Medium marble Dimensions height 68 1⁄2 in (174 cm). he removed the subject from its usual sphere. width at base 76 3⁄4 in (195 cm) Location Rome: St. Christ’s veins are distended.C . far removed from normal life. In this superb work. The work ensured his reputation as one of the Renaissance’s finest artists. taken from the quarries at Carrara .

idealization. the latter above all in his mastery of color. and huge scale are unified by brilliant coloring and daring brushwork.138 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM THE HIGH RENAISSANCE The years between about 1500 and the Sack of Rome in 1527 saw a prodigious outpouring in Italy in all the visual arts. In Rome. lyrical and dreamlike “visual poems”. For Raphael it meant heroic confidence. Mona Lisa Leonardo da Vinci. Thus the male nude “made in God’s image. the former astoundingly audacious in his vision of the male form. has an extraordinary power. but it manifests itself in different ways. In Venice. Raphael and Michelangelo simultaneously created works of startling novelty. the celebrated Titian redefined the possibilities of painting.5 cm). Rome 1528 Renaissance ideals defined by Castiglione in The Book of the Courtier . or portraits—became increasingly important. c. Drama. Praised by Giorgio Vasari because it “appeared to be living flesh rather than paint. began to explore the relationship between the human figure and landscape. Yet though religious subjects generally remained pre-eminent. STYLE Idealization is the benchmark. Titian’s poesie. Similar elegance allied to acute psychological insight and astonishingly close observation of the natural world are obvious in Leonardo. SUBJECTS The visionary goal of High Renaissance art was a perfect union of the human and divine. nature and imagination. KEY EVENTS 1498 1503 1506 Milan—Leonardo completes his huge. Julius II. Madrid: Museo del Prado. heroic and often deliberately distorted. other subjects—whether Classical scenes.“ landscapes. 131 x 110 in (332 x 279 cm). the largest statue carved since Antiquity Foundation stone of Bramante’s new (and in the event never finished) St. psychologically penetrating Last Supper Michelangelo completes David in Florence. 30 1⁄4 x 21 in (77 x 53. Peter’s laid by Julius II 1508–12 Michelangelo’s almost single-handed epic labor on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. which the Church used to convey a spiritual ideal. The Emperor Charles V on Horseback in Mühlberg Titian. significantly widening the repertoire of Western art. under the energetic patronage of an exceptionally able (and self-promoting) pope. Christian and pagan Antique.” the central motif of Michelangelo’s painting and sculpture. and grace. 1503 – 05. technical sophistication. oil on canvas. Both Michelangelo and Titian pioneered more personal if no less heroic styles. Paris: Musée du Louvre. 1548.

the great Greek mathematician. are awarded the dominant positions in the picture Pythagoras. base 304 in (772 cm). expressive portrait and each group a model of statuesque harmony and continuous. fresco. For his interpretation of Philosophy. and Law. demonstrates his propositions Heraclitus was a portrait of Michelangelo. Vatican: Stanza della Segnatura Euclid. too. silhouetted against the sky. Raphael drew exclusively on the inspiration and precedents of Greek and Roman Antiquity.C . Poetry. The color scheme. As a complement to Michelangelo’s religious theme in the Sistine Chapel. 1509–11. the leading Classical architect in Rome Raphael decorated the Pope’s library with four subjects: Philosophy. The architectural setting was based on designs by Bramante. giving a geometry lesson. The School of Athens Raphael. 1500 –1527 WHAT TO LOOK FOR The greatest triumph of the High Renaissance was the rebuilding of St. Many hundreds of preliminary drawings were made from life. Peter’s in Rome and its decoration through the leadership of Pope Julius II. then working on his Sistine ceiling Raphael included a selfportrait. . graceful movement. Theology. Raphael was renowned in his own day for his ability to include a huge variety of complex poses and realistic expressions in a single work. an indication of the growing status accorded artists TECHNIQUES Each figure is a masterful. was a portrait of Bramante Plato and Aristotle. is serene and harmonious. 1500–1600 139 c.

landscape.795 in 1957. The Sleeping Venus and The Tempest opened the door for the development of the nude. oil on canvas. c. he was the young. Caesar Enthroned Receives Head of Pompey (oils) The Three Philosophers Giorgione. significance. 1509. so just think how many pictures have falsely or mistakenly had the label “Giorgione” attached to them (and still do?). Few works are known to be his for certain. Also known as Giorgio Barbarelli or Giorgio da Castelfranco. 1502–03 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia). short-lived genius of the Venetian School. and importance with the greatest of Renaissance painters. Sacra Conversazione—Madonna and Child with St. Catherine (oils. Dreamlike landscape settings. double-sided) Short-lived (for an artist). The Sleeping Venus. plus wicked restorations and overcleanings). lyrical. mostly secular.400 in 1991. It is impossible to identify a recognizable technique (so few works known for certain. dreamy Giorgione mood. To own an authentic Giorgione has been one of the supreme ambitions of collectors since the Renaissance. 47 3⁄5 x 55 1⁄2 in (121 x 141 cm). 1505–10 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia). well-regarded painter of the greatest period of Venetian art. KEY WORKS Old Woman.140 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Giorgione b C. His small-scale. of the same generation . 1476 –1510 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils 3 $6. who ranks in achievement. plus a passion for observing the real world. and mythological painting on which so much of Western art has depended. The Tempest. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. John the Baptist and St. pictures are consciously poetic. Giorgione was patronized by collectors who enjoyed poetic ambiguity. 1508–10 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie) Jacopo Palma Vecchio b 1480 –1528 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils 3 $293. c. and mysterious—carefully observed portraits of youthful and sensitive young men being beautiful. Look for that indefinable.

Had a liking for animals. Venice: Galleria dell’Accademia. His less good grandnephew was Palma Giovane (1544–1628).7m in 1989. Sacra Conversazione (drawing) Notable Venetian storyteller with an eye for homely. Ursula (detail) Vittore Carpaccio. 1510 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza) as Titian. 1479 –1542 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1500–1600 141 Lady with a Lute Jacopo Palma Vecchio. Carpaccio painted a series of works showing an unusually domesticated interpretation of the martyrdom of St. c. c. Palma Vecchio’s sensuous portraits of women were eagerly bought by wealthy Venetians. etc.C . but few survive. and frothy trees. but he is somehow ungainly and gauche. tempera on canvas. Ursula. Not a pioneer. The Flight into Egypt. Look for skilful drawing. 1525–28 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Dosso Dossi b C. c. DC: National Gallery of Art) Vittore Carpaccio b ACTIVE 1490 –1523 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 tempera 2 Venice: Scuola di San Giorgio. Mantua. however. His high-quality pictures are well executed and decorative. factual detail. pleasingly soft and harmonious coloring. 1520s (Rome: Galleria Borghese). crowds. lush landscapes. using rich light and color. Few works remain. 1495 (Venice: Gallerie dell’ Accademia). 1495. It is fashionable to say he is wonderful—he ought to be. 1500 (Washington. KEY WORKS The Dismissal of the English Ambassadors. such as Canaletto. Carpaccio’s faithful representation of the visible world is composed of many tiny parts. 1520 (London: National Gallery). 1525 (Washington. sensuous. KEY WORKS Portrait of a Poet. most of which are badly damaged. Judith. seem to be no more than an accumulation of small-scale visions and fine details. Melissa. A Blonde Woman. mastery of all the skills of perspective and the human figure. allegories. c. 1516–20 (St. Ferrara 1 oils 3 $3. 1523–24 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). DC: National Gallery of Art). 38 2⁄5 x 28 in (97 x 71 cm). Young Knight in a Landscape. 1516 (London: National Gallery). Set his religious and mythological stories within images of his own familiar Venice and thus chronicled his own times. c. poetic. . 9 x 9 in (23 x 23 cm). but have the misfortune to be emotionally empty (the fate of many artists who just fail to reach the first rank). and processions. Had great success with half-lengths of sumptuous blonds masquerading as goddesses and saints (high Venetian fashion of the day). Private Collection. But his most elaborate works. He painted myths. 1520 – 25. portraits. Ursula) 3 $360. KEY WORKS Sibyl. Allegory with Male and Female Figure (oils) Somewhat obscure Venetian painter in mold of Titian and Giorgione—moody. Circe and her Lovers in a Landscape. but a forerunner of later Dream of St. c.000 in 1990. domestic genre painters and recorders of the Venetian scene. Gallerie dell’Accademia (Scenes from The Life of St. c. and lack the boldness and grandeur that they seem to be striving for. Venus and Cupid.

000 in 1995. 1510 (London: National Gallery). 1520 –1530 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) Paolo Veronese b C. soulful expressions and was obsessed by hand gestures and fingers.142 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Lorenzo Lotto b C. Catherine. c. 1570s (London: National Gallery). 1570–75 (Washington. The Finding of Moses. and light. The scene is a fantasy interpretation of the occasion when Christ turned water into wine.800 in 1977. c. Look at the faces.1528 – 88 n ITALIAN 5 Verona. His portraits. Rome. He had a huge output. 1480 – C. Look for the stunning oriental carpets in his paintings of interiors. robust style. but wellobserved light and attractive colors. but good landscape details and bold modeling with light. and allegories have sumptuous colors and a rich. DC: National Gallery of Art) Vincenzo Catena b C. 1480 – 1531 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils 3 $185. He was at his best in portrait painting. Paris: Musée du Louvre. St. churches. So called because he came from Verona. John the Baptist. Venice 1 oils 2 Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia. 1522 (Washington. Everything looks meticulously clean— because cleanliness is next to godliness? KEY WORKS Madonna and Child with the Infant St. especially conjugal double portraits. 1563. DC: National Gallery of Art) Reputable second-rank Venetian. At times it even comes close to caricature. and classy architecture. such as a Venetian church or a nobleman’s villa. he is one of the major Venetians and one of the greatest-ever creators of decorative schemes. 1506–1515 (London: National Gallery). He never quite made all the parts work together. KEY WORKS Allegory of Love. Look for the posh people (his clients). Try to spot some of the illusionistic tricks and remember that these works were intended to go hand in hand with a particular building—with its space.7m in 1990. 1520s (Recanati. . Christ Bearing the Cross. St. c. KEY WORKS decorative qualities. so that his work can look like a mishmash of everyone else. He liked searching. architectural detail. let your eye have a feast and enjoy the glorious visual and Marriage at Cana Paolo Veronese. Bergamo. but too many borrowings that he never fully absorbs. Vicenza: Villa Maser 3 $2. but are often uncomfortable compositions with overcramped spaces and inexplicable changes of scale. who made a detailed study of his work. 1556 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. Madonna and Child (oils) Minor and uneven Venetian with a difficult personality. Jerome in his Study. c. oil on canvas. Good middle-of-the-road painting—uninspired figures and composition. 262 1⁄5 x 389 3⁄4 in (666 x 990 cm). Works have uncertain anatomy. He died a forgotten man. Doge’s Palace. rich materials. c. There are influences from many of his contemporaries. Was much admired by Bernard Berenson. altarpieces. Is that why the dogs and animals often seem more alive than the people? The Madonnas and deities he portrays are no more than Venetian nobility in fancy dress. c. I (Unfaithfulness). Italy: Church of Sta Maria sopra Mercanti). surrounded by their servants. Cupid Disarmed by Venus (oils) Also known as Paolo Caliari. Have they become bored by too much good living and leisure? These are the last days of the really good times for the Venetian Empire. Marche Region (Italy) 1 oils 3 $404. Madonna and Child with Two Angel Musicians and Landscape Beyond (oils) The Annunciation. See his work in situ – in one of his large-scale decorative schemes. Don’t look for profound meaning or a deep experience. Was much traveled.

1553. vulgarity. 1512 (London: National Gallery). poetry. He was a genius at creating a psychological relationship between figures so that the space between them crackles with unspoken messages. using new subjects or brilliant reinterpretations. 1556–59 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. He was the supreme master of the Venetian School and arguably the greatest painter of the High Renaissance and of all time. 1500–1600 143 Titian b C. DC: National Gallery of Art). Portrait of Ranuccio Farnese. Czech Republic: Château Archiépiscopal) . 1542 (Washington. spirituality—and always convincingly. 5 Venice. also idealization and understanding of the hidden secrets of his subjects’ characters. showing us tragedy. Rome 1 oils. drama. 42 x 53 1⁄2 in (107 x 136 cm). Madrid: Museo del Prado. 1487 – 1576 n ITALIAN Venus and Adonis Titian. KEY WORKS Christ Appearing to the Magdalen (Noli me Tangere). oil on canvas.376. Venus and Adonis (oils) Named Tiziano Vecellio. Titian never belittled anyone or anything. Had a Shakespearean response to the human condition. realism. Study the faces and the body language—portraits with a thrilling likeness (who was it I met or saw who was just like that?).C . Diana Surprised by Actaeon. but better known by the shortened version. Titian’s sensuous color tones accentuate the soft and shimmering beauty of the lovers’ flesh. 1570–75 (Kromeriz. He had a miraculous ability with rich color and luscious paint. One of the few painters whose reputation has never gone into eclipse or been overlooked. c. The Flaying of Marsyas. Superman is the measure of all things. Also worked with Giorgione.000 in 1991. frailty. comedy. and was constantly innovative. Was he too wise or discreet to tell quite all that he knew? Gods and saints seem to be as much human as divine (and therefore understandable and approachable). fresco 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado. London: National Gallery 3 $12. Probably a pupil of Giovanni Bellini. ambition. c.

Titian’s name appears on an urn in Latin—“TICIANUS F[ecit].” He was one of the first artists to sign his work and was active in seeking to raise the social and intellectual status of painters.144 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Bacchus and Ariadne Titian c. and she was sky where it became the eventually granted immortality. Bacchus and Ariadne occupy the center and left. and this painting’s rich. Titian uses artistic entire life. constellation Corona Borealis. glowing brilliance reflects its passionate subject. 1522 –23 Titian’s crowning achievements are his mythological poesie (poems). The revelers are all confined the Minotaur’s labyrinth to the bottom right. Bacchus’s right hand is at the center Theseus. his triumphant return The greatest painter of the Venetian from his conquest of school. Although the scene is crowded. Titian has worked out the composition with great Ariadne has been abandoned by her lover care. whom she of the painting where the diagonals helped to escape from intersect. Titian chooses to focus on the electrifying moment when Ariadne. There is an overriding sense of ordered chaos about the painting. and fine. inspired by its magical union of license by employing cheetahs for the task light and water. Bacchus’s Bacchus’s chariot feet are still with his companions. This early work was one of a series commissioned by Alfonso d’Este. Titian was based in Venice for his India. the duke of Ferrara. daughter of King Minos of Crete. lustrous color. famous for his ability to inject his pictures with moments of crackling psychological energy of the kind that pervades this work. the god of wine. He was also the Renaissance master of color. in northern Italy. but was traditionally pulled by leopards. TECHNIQUES This close-up detail of Ariadne shows Titian relishing two of the special qualities of oil paint: translucent. He was one of the most successful painters in history. crown and threw it into the He later married her. After falling in love. signifying his head and heart have joined Ariadne. Bacchus took Ariadne’s and they fall in love at first sight. precise detail. . to decorate an alabaster pleasure chamber at his country house. meets Bacchus.” or “Titian made this picture.

waves the leg of a calf above his head Bacchus and Ariadne Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 69 x 75 in (175 x 190 cm) Location London: National Gallery . 1500–1600 145 The muscular figure shown wrestling with the snakes is based on a celebrated antique Roman statue of the Trojan priest Laocoön (who was killed by sea serpents). and many artists. including Raphael. crowned and girdled with vine leaves. The statue’s rediscovery caused a sensation. A maenad crashes cymbals together in a riotous procession The longing glance that this maenad exchanges with the satyr contrasts with the intense expressions of the main characters This drunken satyr.C . which was unearthed in 1506 (see pages 58–59). incorporated crossreferences to it in their work.

1520 –1600 Mannerism is the name given to the predominant artistic style of the period bridging the High Renaissance and the Baroque. The art of the period became violent.” The cradle of Mannerism was Rome.4 cm). SUBJECTS AND STYLE Mannerism was a reaction to social. The style’s subjects include religious WHAT TO LOOK FOR Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror Girolamo Parmigianino. In sculpture. The movement was finished throughout Europe by c. The term comes from the Italian maniere. conflicting style. deliberate lack of harmony and proportion. A posthumous portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio (1389 –1464). diameter 9 5⁄8 in (24. and mythological or allegorical scenes. 1518. realism. look for anticlassicism and distortion of the viewer’s expectations. excitable. Spreads Mannerism across Italy and into France c. strongly muscled anatomy. and Girolamo Parmigianino. unnerving. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. voyeuristic sexual scenes. unreal textures. often characterized by a sinister form of symbolism. a huge step away from the harmony of High Renaissance. El Greco. tense symbolism. His later works were considered the beginning of Mannerism Sack of Rome. 1528 Jacopo Pontormo finishes his Deposition. founder of the Medici dynasty. and religious upheaval. political. 1523–24. KEY EVENTS 1520 1527 Death of Raphael. c.146 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM MANNERISM c. 33 3⁄4 x 25 3⁄5 in (86 x 65 cm). artificial poses. meaning “manner” or “style. look for sense of movement. After the violent Sack of Rome in 1527. Figures look deliberately tense or as though suspended halfway through an action. vivid color. a Florentine altarpiece in the Mannerist style 1534–40 Girolamo Parmigianino paints The Madonna of the Long Neck (see page 150) 1541 Birth of El Greco Cosimo de’ Medici (Il Vecchio) Jacopo Pontormo. oil on wood. In architecture. Faces are rich with expression. Agnolo Bronzino. tempera on wood. where the style was developed by artists influenced by the late works of Raphael and Michelangelo. complicated or obscure subject matter. exaggerated postures. as terrified artists fled from the city. deliberate distortion of space. Look for distorted or elongated figures. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum scenes viewed from an unusual aspect. portraits whose sitters wear unexpected expressions. Tintoretto. 1700. Key figures include Rosso Fiorentino. Jacopo Pontormo. Mannerism spread throughout Italy. . often with a nightmarish.

1520 –23 (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum). oils He was a Mannerist painter. Giulio moved to Mantua under protection of the Gonzaga family. look for deliberate “mistakes:” missing expected features. 1505 –25 (Rome: Vatican Museums). c. Architect and painter. 1530 –40. 85 x 65 1⁄3 in (216 x 166cm). Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. and collector. it remains an important source for students of Renaissance art. entertaining man—and an inveterate gossip— whose patrons were said to have enjoyed his storytelling ability as much as his art. 1532–34 (Mantua: Palazzo de Tè) KEY WORKS Madonna and Child Giulio Romano. Despite inconsistencies. strongly influenced by his later style. instead of being smoothly carved and finished. In architecture. Studied under and worked with Raphael. . The Attack on the Porta Camolia at Siena. and also by the work of Michelangelo. 1560–80 (Florence). columns that are sturdy but look ready to tumble. A popular. Paris: Musée du Louvre. art historian. for instance. a major exponent of Mannerism. Most famous for his volumes of biography. writer. c. Uffizi offices (finished by others). but exaggerated. c. such as central motifs. The Annunciation Giorgio Vasari. reprinted and extended in 1568). often decorating the houses of the aristocratic. Threatened with prison in Rome. 1570 (Florence: Museo Ragazzi) 5 Florence 1 fresco. In paintings. 1520 (London: National Gallery). 1500–1600 147 Giulio Romano b C. oil on wood. and an overwhelming bias in favor of Michelangelo. most famous architectural work is Mantua’s Palazzo del Tè. optical illusions. also look for realism. or stonework left rough. The Fall of the Giants. Vasari’s writings have now outshone his other works. c. The Christ child reaches for grapes—a symbolic reference to the Eucharist. Giulio finished several of his commissions. The Prophet Elisha. the central Christian sacrament.C . c. fresco. 33 1⁄3 x 30 1⁄3 in (105 x 77 cm). Mantua 1 chalks. 1544 (Rome: Palazzo della Cancelleria). Lives of the Artists (1550. Peter’s. Also a pornographer— designed a series of celebrated and notorious pornographic engravings. Crowning of the Virgin (Madonna of Monteluce). Also a respected architect—most famous for designing the Uffizi art gallery in Florence. KEY WORKS Paul III Directing the Continuence of St. architect. Mary Magdalene Borne by Angels. The Holy Family. This intimate scene formed the center panel of a triptych for the dominican church of Santa Maria Novella at Arezzo. oil on panel. oils Also known as Giulio Pippi. c. and a strong sexual overtone. but in his time he was a highly successful painter. 1564–67. After Raphael’s death. 1496 – 1546 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. look for a similar style to Raphael. muscular anatomy. Giorgio Vasari b 1511 – 74 n ITALIAN which was dedicated to Cosimo de’ Medici. 1566 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). errors.

1514 –16 (Florence: SS. and pale pinks). Cappella Capponi). deliberately complex and artificial compositions. c. religious and secular decorative schemes for churches and villas. c.) Out of fashion in the 18th and 19th centuries. (Like most good artists he did not care what style he painted in—he just got on with it. Notice the elongated faces and bodies. A Florentine. but has returned to favor in the 20th and 21st. he was also a talented painter (good enough. J. Look for flesh that seems to be made of porcelain (as smooth as the people he portrays). c. which communicate such arrogance. London: National Gallery. Portrait of Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici. DC: National Gallery of Art) “Sometimes when he went to work. high-key colors (acid greens.8 cm). or insolence. The Meeting of Joseph and Jacob in Egypt (drawing) He was best known for his aloof and icy portraits. and sharp observation of character. Very good portraits—with An Allegory with Venus and Cupid Agnolo Bronzino. He was consciously radical and experimental—in line with his temperament and the political and social moods of his time. Look also for more rarely seen allegories and elongated and arrogant poses. Took Michelangelo’s and Dürer’s classicism and energy and contorted them into beguiling works with irrational compositions—figures in complicated but frozen poses—and bright. Deposition. Paul Getty Museum). and eyes that can often seem vacant. to have studied with Leonardo). Court painter to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. the meaning of Bronzino’s allegory is unclear. fresco 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi and churches. c. He sums it up with rare beauty: note the body language of the poses and faces. capricious. Pontormo was one of the originators of the wayward style now known as Mannerism. like those of a child’s doll. anyway. 1537 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). He painted altarpieces. 57 2⁄3 x 45 in (146. 1540–50. and portraits. insolent colors. Annunziata). Paris: Musée du Louvre (for drawings) 3 $32m in 1989. oil on panel. Portrait of Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici (oils) He was also known as Jacopo Carucci. 1537 (Malibu: .“ GIORGIO VASARI ON JACOPO PONTORMO Agnolo Bronzino b 1503 – 72 n ITALIAN 5 Tuscany 1 oils 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. Monsignor della Casa. hysterical.5 x 116. he would fall into such deep thought that he came away at the end of the day without having done anything but think. Brilliant drawings. Portrait of Maria Salviati. and intense. from Pontormo. 1528 (Florence: Santa Felicità. Designed for King Francis I of France. (The word “Mannerism” was not invented or defined until the 20th century. 1541–44 (Washington. solitary. Painted portraits of brittle artificiality— he lived in an age when artifice and striking poses reigned supreme. melancholy.750 in 1996. clear blues. and hypochondriacal. and the equally arrogant ease of his technique.) KEY WORKS The Visitation. Nervous. c. contempt.148 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Jacopo Pontormo b 1494 – 1557 n ITALIAN 5 Tuscany 1 oils. Taught Bronzino. slow. Palazzo Vecchio 3 $410. with its superb facility. Humble background.

Artist from Bergamo who is best remembered as an accomplished painter of low-key. A brilliant resolution of the problem of uniting several figures in a single sculpture. Portrait of a Man.440 in 1995. c. 1575 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). in which the sitters are allowed to speak for themselves without too much manipulation by the artist. 1561–62 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). KEY WORKS Giambologna b 1529 –1608 n FLEMISH 5 Belgium. and violent. bronze. Studied in Antwerp before arriving in Italy c. c. Had a wide range of sitters. Unpleasant. Lived in Rome before settling in Florence.101. and pupil of Michelangelo. 1529–30 (Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut). Exiled from Florence for dueling. realist portraits. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). mid-1560s (St. The Panciatichi Holy Family. 1500–1600 149 religious works with intricate designs. His works were hugely influential on the future of sculpture. The Fountain of Neptune. Many of his famous works are monumental. such as Francis I’s golden saltcellar. 1583. Hercules and the Centaur. . Nymph of Fontainebleau. Portrait of Prospero Alessandri (oils) Son of an architect. Portrait of a Bearded Man in Black. c. 1525 – 78 n ITALIAN 5 Albino.” 1540–43 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). Portrait of a Gentleman. engraving 2 Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello A sculptor and engraver. Mannerist sculptor. 1594–1600 (Florence: Loggia dei Lanzi) Benvenuto Cellini b 1500 – 71 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. capable of producing both miniatures and monumental statues with equal ability. 1540 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Famous for the Fountain of Neptune in Bologna and the equestrian statue of Cosimo de’ Medici in Florence. Rumored to have crucified a man and watched him die in order to sculpt a realistic Christ on the cross. KEY WORKS A Lady with a Dog. Committed more than one murder. arrogant. Bisexual—imprisoned twice for sodomy. Bergamo 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $1. KEY WORKS Samson Slaying a Philistine. but these lack the precision and excellence of his smaller pieces. Portrait of a Lady. 1576 (Boston: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum) The Rape of the Sabines Giambologna. 1542–43 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Giovanni Battista Moroni b C. KEY WORKS Saltcellar. Wrote an entertaining autobiography. Possessed a strong preference for painting figures silhouetted against a plain background. 1555–60 (London: National Gallery). Florence: Galleria dell’ Accademia. c. including middle and lower classes. c. including Francis I and Cosimo de’ Medici. Patronized by the Medici. sadistic. 1550 to study. involving many figures whose poses are deliberately stolen from Michelangelo. but also fathered four children. with good precise detail. Many influential patrons.C . c. 1563–66 (Bologna: Piazza del Nettuno). Florence Triumphant over Pisa. Italy 1 sculpture 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum Also called Giovanni da Bologna or Jean de Boulogne. France 1 sculpture. 1555–60 (London: National Gallery). called the “Saliera.

Rome. Christ in Glory Flanked by Putti on Clouds (works on paper) Once hugely revered and popular (especially in 17th and 18th centuries). Had a sophisticated line in erotica. c. Now no longer well known: his virtues are completely out of fashion. drawings 2 Parma (churches. His drawings are full of energy. and had a lyrical and sensitive style. 1527 (London: National Gallery) Antonio Correggio b C. northern Italy. projecting a cool. prolific drawings.272. Chose subjects from mythology and the Bible. Most important works are in Parma. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. 84 3⁄5 x 52 in. Look for beautifully executed. with easyto-read subjects displaying pleasing anatomy and relationships. intimacy. precocious. Compositions are complex but satisfying. their impossibly long necks. He also produced small-scale panel paintings. and light. much admired (“Raphael reborn”) and very influential.000 in 1995. foreshortening. Madonna and Child (oils) He was short-lived. Bologna 1 fresco. which was considered very beautiful at the time). Jerome. Notice the recurrent bizarre.150 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM then transforms into fantasies— like a musical composer making variations on a theme. elegant. and enigmatic image. color. London: British Museum (drawings) 3 $322. 5 Parma 1 oils. he loved drawing as an activity for its own sake. in northern Italy—like his contemporary. elongated human figures. reserved. His religious and mythological paintings are a paradoxical combination of real and unreal. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror. oil on canvas. He was especially great as a portraitist. (215 x 132 cm). Invented the idea of light radiating from the Christ child. and precious works. This work is a union of artificial elegance and spirituality. youthful faces. 1523 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). movement. Look for the distorted and convoluted perspectives and variety of scales (his style was the epitome of Mannerism). and sweet smiles. which he .1534–40. and brilliant. His works are full of genuine charm. From Parma. engravings. oils. everything (though immensely accomplished and not unambitious) is gentle—light. public buildings). drawings 2 London: British Museum (drawings) 3 $1. Vision of St. contrived. 1494 – 1534 n ITALIAN The Madonna of the Long Neck Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola Parmigianino. large frescoes. His art starts with acute observations from life. as well as a tool.000 in 1987. and knowing looks (especially in his late work. The in-situ decorations in Parma are forerunners of the over-the-top Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola Parmigianino b 1503 – 40 n ITALIAN 5 Parma. refined. and consequently very influential. and tender emotion. Correggio. and occasional sentimentality.

1517 – 92 n ITALIAN 5 Bassano. c. Note how Bassano packs great drama into small spaces—which is why everyone seems to be in such a hurry. and spectacular lighting. 1550–70 (London: National Gallery). c.C . animals. 1520–30 (London: Courtauld Institute). like cheap. chosen for their power and drama. 1510–15 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). The significance of the circumcision is that it is the first occasion on which Christ shed his blood. although facially realistic and finely detailed. Venus. Sheep and Lamb. KEY WORKS The Mystic Marriage of St. chalks 2 Urbino 3 $2. Note how he interpreted them to make the best of his interest in stocky peasants. demonstrate a problem with anatomy and perspective. and well-handled crowds. Satyr. Titian (despite disliking the latter intensely). Paris: Musée du Louvre. 1524–25 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Germany Gallerie dell’ Accademia 1 oils 2 Venice: Venetian painter of portraits. c. Mark to the Doge. striking light.144 in 1994. 1576–79 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Jacopo Bassano b C. who lived at Bassano (where grappa is made). 1590. Madonna del Popolo (works on paper) Paris Bordone b 1500 – 71 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. marvelous. Liked wistful faces and idealized profiles. . urgent handling of paint. KEY WORKS Rest on the Flight to Egypt. fresco. and either The Circumcision of Christ Federico Barocci. Worked for King Francis I of France.000 in 1987. The Presentation of the Ring of St. sentimental side derives from Leonardo and influenced French Rococo. 1570–73 (Vatican: Pinacoteca). stormy mountain landscapes. Beautifully painted hands and arms. Strongly influenced by Giorgione and his teacher. c. 1535 (Venice: Galleria dell’ Accademia) Barocci was an Urbino-based painter of sentimental religious pictures. sweetly-faced Madonnas. Venus with Mercury and Cupid. Venice 1 oils 2 Bassano: Museo Civico 3 $2. 1560 (Rome: Galleria Borghese) Federico Barocci b 1526 – 1612 n ITALIAN 5 Urbino (Italy). Rome 1 oils. c. landscapes. 1512–14 (Strasbourg: Musée des Beaux-Arts). sweet wine—all fruit and sugar. Two Dogs Resting beside a Treetrunk (oils) Best-known member of the prominent Venetian da Ponte family. without acidity. KEY WORKS Rest on the Flight into Egypt. Judith. Many fine drawings. oil on canvas. and Cupid. Sugar-plum colors and soft forms (he was one of the first artists to use chalks). 140 x 98 4⁄5 in (356 x 251 cm). Catherine. 1525 (London: National Gallery) moving into the picture space or trying to get out of it. religious works. 1500–1600 151 illusionistic decorations in Baroque Rome 100 years later (the link from one to the other was Lanfranco). evident in his work). which reflects the drama of the scene as though Bassano were part of it. Madonna del Popolo.576. important member of the first Fontainebleau School. KEY WORKS The Good Samaritan. The charming. He was a painter of standard religious subjects. who suffered from terrible poor health (at times. His work lacks bite. France. See how he turns the ceiling into an illusionistic sky and then makes exciting things happen in it (Mantegna did this first and Correggio followed him).020. His works. and mythological genre scenes.

57 1⁄3 x 76 1⁄5 in (146. 1555 (Washington. c. London: National Gallery. hasty brushwork and exciting lighting show his passionate involvement in his creations.6 cm). 62 1⁄5 x 39 1⁄3 in (158 x 100 cm). When you find an extraordinary or off-center composition. DC: National Gallery of Art). too. Very prolific. In his monumental and vast religious works and mythologies. 1570 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). . he was a formidable draftsman. scale—and sometimes the absurdity— of grand opera. drawings 2 Venice: Scuola di San Rocco. where the congregation would be both kneeling and looking up or forward to works hung on the side wall. His late religious work tended to be gloomy. Christ at the Sea of Galilee. c.000 in 1994. George and the Dragon Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto. 1575–80 (Washington. Accademia Susanna Bathing Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto. KEY WORKS Summer. c. oil on canvas. The Raising of Lazarus (oils) His father was a dyer (tintore)—hence his nickname. verve. everything was treated with the drama. Tintoretto. Very little is known about his life. DC: National Gallery of Art) St. Ducal Palace. Tintoretto used a model stage and wax figures to design his extraordinary and inventive compositions. 1555 –56. try standing or kneeling to one side so that you view the work from an oblique angle: he designed many works to be seen in this way. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. panache. he was one of the major Venetian painters in the generation following Titian. A popular subject as it provides an excuse for female nudity. 3 $825. c.152 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto b 1518 – 94 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils. The Woman who Discovers the Bosom. he is said to have trained briefly with the greatest painter of the Venetian School. Although unpopular and unscrupulous. His thick. Poor anatomy in some portraits—hands that don’t belong to the body. Such a small scale is unusual. oil on canvas. especially if they were big works for the small or narrow spaces of Venetian churches.5 x 193. 1570. He painted portraits of notable Venetians but his busy studio produced many dull efforts.

1555 (Los Angeles: J. fresco. and elongated. 1522 (St. he moved to France under patronage of Francis I. Primaticcio took over as leader of Fontainebleau School. 1494/5 –1540 n ITALIAN Francesco Primaticcio b C. overcrowded scenes. Former apartments of Anne de Pisseleu. died in Paris. Worked with Giulio Romano in Mantua. fostered two brilliant schools of decoration and architecture. Francis (1514–47) employed a variety of artists and artisans: painters. After death of Fiorentino. thereby spreading Italianate art to northern Europe. and Correggio. Highly talented early Mannerist and pupil of Andrea del Sarto. 2 Fontainebleau 5 Italy. prominent muscles. 1520 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Ulysses Shooting through the Rings (works on paper) Real name. In 1532. Official painter of Francis I in 1532–1537. The first—and most influential—was established by King Francis I in the 1530s. After death of Francis I. faces filled with expression. Most of the early workers. 1530 –1560 & c. Member of first Fontainebleau School. Principal painters included Toussaint Dubreuil. now in the Uffizi) as well as excellent portraits. elegant limbs. look for anatomical correctness. and France. characterized by sensuality.C . writers.and silversmiths. and dreamlike sequences that have a strange realism to them.600 in 1990. fresco. Look for paintings and stucco. Look for lots of movement. France tempera. after a period of great social and political unrest in France. stucco 1 oils. Rome. 1500–1600 153 Rosso Fiorentino b C. Paul Getty Museum) FONTAINEBLEAU The royal palace at Fontainebleau. designers. Influenced by Mannerism. KEY WORKS Portrait of a Young Man Holding a Letter. Unconventional. architects. decorating the palace in Fontainebleau with painting and stucco decorations. stucco workers. such as Fiorentino and Primaticcio. 1589 –1610 . 1504 – 70 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. and Ambroise Dubois. bold colors. tiny heads. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Painter. The Virgin and Child with Angels. Château de Fontainebleau. Settled in Fontainebleau (and died in France). Cellini. Duchesse d’Étampes Francesco Primaticcio. before moving to Venice. c. c. worked for Henry II as Surveyor of Works. Martin Fréminet. UK: Bowes Museum). stucco 2 Château de Fontainebleau 3 $424. Musical Angel. but over-muscled figures. in high relief. came from Italy. 1533– 44. gold. Study of God. 1530–39 (County Durham. The influence of the Mannerist style seen here spread quickly throughout northern Europe. printmakers. The second Fontainebleau School was established by Henry IV in 1589. born and trained in Bologna. Giovanni Battista di Jacopo. near Paris. 1518 (London: National Gallery). KEY WORKS The Rape of Helen. Became assistant to Rosso Fiorentino and appointed official art buyer to the king. and textile workers. c. poets. Credited with taking Italian Mannerism to France. but returned to Italy regularly on art-buying trips. Works include large number of religious scenes (famous for his Musical Angel. Born and worked in Florence. Michelangelo. Also worked in stucco. sculptors. eccentric painter. France 1 oils.

1555 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) . but had already been reigning for a year. Modena. while retaining the bloom of youth. 9 4⁄5 x 8 1⁄4 in (25 x 21 cm). rich decoration. c. c. c. He was apprenticed to Médéric Fréminet. oils Dubreuil was a painter and draftsman who had a strong association with the second Fontainebleau School. DC: National Gallery of Art) Charles IX François Clouet. 1594 –1602 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). miniaturist. and the French classical landscape painters. and later developed a mature style in Bologna. c. KEY WORKS Landscape with the Death of Eurydice. KEY WORKS François I. who trained him. retired in 1570. both were favorites of Francis I and both nicknamed “Janet” or “Jehannet.154 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM François Clouet b C. Portrait of a Young Man Wearing a Plumed Hat (oils) Italian-born decorator of palaces and portrait painter. The Continence of Scipio. mannered. France 1 oils. mainly of mythological and classical subjects. stucco 2 Bologna: Palazzo Pozzi 3 $134.400 in 1998. He was a key link figure between Correggio and Parmigianino (who influenced Niccolò with his elegant figure style). 1570 (Washington. In his lifetime. He also painted portraits in both Italy and France. 1540 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). father of Martin Fréminet. KEY WORKS Angélique and Médor. Credited with forging the link between Mannerism and Classicism. c. At the time of painting. 1594–1602 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Niccolò dell’Abbate b C. Appointed court painter to Francis I in 1541 and remained so for Henry II. Look for meticulous detail.” Ran large. Paris. from family of painters. and Charles IX. 1550–74. such as Claude and Poussin (whom Niccolò influenced). and realistic expression. the young French king was only aged 11. 1510/16 – 72 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. c. natural-looking facial features. Pierre Quthe. 16th century (Paris: Musée du Louvre). He is best known for the frescoes to be found in the Tuileries Palace. Francis II. Little of his work survives. 1594–1602 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). and artificial style playing with fantasy landscapes and themes of love. Settled in France in 1552 to work for the royal court. Appointed Premier Painter to Henry IV. attention to contemporary fashions. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. 1552 (London: National Gallery). He had a refined. and draftsman. Hyante and Climène at their Toilette. c. Strongly influenced by the Italianate paintings of first Fontainebleau School. oil on wood. Often confused with his father. but his reputation as a talented painter remains intact. 1562 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). he was famed for painting murals in the Louvre—all destroyed by fire in 1661. Worked for the king in Fontainebleau and Paris. Famous portrait of Francis I —lavish with gold—has been attributed to both François and Jean Clouet. Lady in her Bath. He trained in his birthplace. Clouet’s portrait invests the young face with firmness and maturity. Dubreuil designed large-scale tapestries and painted murals and frescoes. Hyante and Climène offering a Sacrifice to Venus. 1512 – 71 n ITALIAN 5 Modena. drawings 2 Chantilly (France): Musée Condé Portrait painter. Bologna. unknown to have left France. King of France. Painted portraits of the nobility as well as allegorical landscapes. Jean Clouet. Toussaint Dubreuil b 1561 –1602 n FRENCH 5 France 1 fresco. Dicé gives a Banquet for Francus. elaborate. successful studio.

Christ on the Cross (oils) Real name Domenikos Theotocopoulos. Only then will you appreciate his genius and the significance of his superb technical skills. El Greco excelled as a portraitist. oil on canvas. 5 Crete. 1500–1600 155 El Greco b 1541 – 1614 n GREEK/SPANISH The Resurrection El Greco. He believed that otherworldly appearances were a better aid to devotion than naturalism. 192 x 141 3⁄4 in (488 x 360 cm). and spiritual. revelation of spiritual light. from a Legend of 1323 El Greco. oil on canvas. Favored by Philip II of Spain until he fell out of favor in 1582. Look for the thrilling draftsmanship and the tense probing line that outlines his forms. may be El Greco’s eldest son.000 in 2000.C . painting mainly ecclesiastics or gentlemen. hence the name El Greco (the Greek). Art historians can have a good time trying to piece together the sources: directly applied color (Titian). Agnes. KEY WORKS St. 1597–99 (Toledo: Museo de Santa Cruz). fragmented spaces and jewel-like acid colors (Byzantine mosaics and icons). and enter the spiritual world of visionary Christianity. Toledo: Cathedral. Toledo: Church of Santo Tomé. Madrid: Museo del Prado. feet. sculpture 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado. and faces are not intended to describe. DC: National Gallery of Art) . Italy. A one-off. The strange colors are a reflection and The Burial of Count Orgaz. Museo del Greco 3 $5. arrogant. you have to forget this. The boy. Joseph and the Christ Child. The soaring compositions are about the ascent from the material to the divine. 1584–94. He was born in Crete. But to touch the real El Greco. intellectual. who is standing in the bottom left-hand corner. causing El Greco to lose all of his royal patronage. hands. Laocoön.285. writhing figures (Michelangelo and Parmigianino). 108 1⁄4 x 50 in (275 x 127 cm). At once intense. 1597–99 (Washington. Toledo (Spain) 1 oils. This painting is a good example of the visionary style that so displeased the Spanish monarch Philip II. Madonna and Child with St. The elongated figures. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1610 (Washington. c. with a bewilderingly wide range of sources. rather to reveal the inner spirit. Trained in Venice but worked in Spain. his works reveal the essence and idea of a person rather than a strict likeness. 1586–88. Martina and St. The faces of the mourners for the saintly Count are clearly portraits of contemporary gentlemen of Toledo.

1530 (Detroit Institute of Arts). Italy 1 oils. Good at modeling with light in the Italian manner. elongated figures). Monumental genre and still-life scenes (such as a butcher’s shop) that have a religious subject hiding in the background. ambitious. emotional (unrealistic) faces. 1566 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Parable of Royal Wedding (oils) Painter of altarpieces and large-scale peasant subjects. engravings 2 Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum 3 $652.042 in 1998. 1590 (Bilbao: Museo de Bellas Artes) Market Scene. c. oil on panel. gestures. grandeur. St. portraits (worldly Flemish burghers and plain backgrounds). 1531 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza) Family Group Maerten van Heemskerck.5 x 113. He spent most of his life in Haarlem and became Dean of the Painters’ Guild.219 in 1987. Butcher’s Stall with the Flight into Egypt. Catherine (oils. and Venice 1552–58). A Bruegel without the humor and moral observation. St. and mythologies (large in scale. Portrait of a Lady with a Spindle and Distaff. 1551 (University of Uppsala. Cook in front of the Stove. Sweden). 1530. 1559 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts) The Adoration of the Shepherds Pieter Aertsen (studio of). This portrait is in a vigorous and relatively sober style and dates to before Heemskerck’s visit to Rome. Painted altarpieces (vertical. c. John Evangelist. 16th century. Florence. Lawrence and St. KEY WORKS St. c. Antoine Anselme and his Family. 1532–36. Adopted Italian idealization rather than northern realism. Half-length Portrait of a Woman (oils) Leading Haarlem painter of his day. with elegant. and colors (hot reds. . 45 1⁄2 x 55 in (118 x 140 cm). and idealization (visited Rome. 1531 –1603 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. John the Baptist and St. a Rubens without the panache and power.156 Maerten van Heemskerck b 1498 – 1574 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem.“ MICHELANGELO Marten de Vos b C. His works were portraits. strong pinks. Many Aertsen altarpieces were destroyed in the Reformation riots. KEY WORKS The Crucifixion.7 cm). Van Heemskerck was totally transformed by a visit to Rome.000 in 2002. Private Collection. c. He combined Flemish realism and detail with Italianate subjects. turquoise blue). 33 1⁄4 x 44 3⁄4 in (84. 1550 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek). Paul Stung by a Viper on the Island of Malta. oil on wood. and decorative). Kassel (Germany): Staatliche Museen. Pieter Aertsen b C. Abduction of Europa. 1508 – 75 n DUTCH 5 Antwerp 1 oils 3 $317. Look for classical profiles. but Flemish painting attempts to do so many things well that it does none well. muscular figures. Italy 1 oils 2 Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts 3 $210. Likes movement. 1577 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). Michelangelesque. and mythologies. c. KEY WORKS “There are countries where they paint worse than in Flanders. a pair) Leading painter in Antwerp. altarpieces.

then dropped the “h. Leading Flemish artist of his day whose subjects reflected contemporary religious and social issues. Drunkard Pushed into the Pigsty (oils) Nicknamed “Peasant” Bruegel because of the subject matter of his paintings. Brussels 1 oils. oil on canvas Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. This famous series of depictions was commissioned by Niclaes Jonghelinck. not his character.C . later work (from Brussels) is simpler and more consciously and artistically composed and organized. 1563. France. greed. 1500–1600 157 Pieter Bruegel (the elder) b C. and misdemeanors. Bruegel’s bird’s-eye views place us outside his world (we look down. Clear outlines and detail lead the eye through each picture. then by The Tower of Babel (detail) Pieter Bruegel (the elder). They are powerful because. the fineness and charm of detail he draws us into it—we are simultaneously in his world and apart from it. The Gloomy Day. Early work (from Antwerp) is busy and anecdotal. distanced. Hunters in the Snow—February Pieter Bruegel (the elder). Spelled his name Brueghel until 1559. we can recognize ourselves— especially when he illustrates human follies. as well as enjoying the existence and minutiae of his day and age. 45 x 61 in (114 x 155 cm). 1525 – 69 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. Like all great artists. drawings 2 Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum 3 $4. Paved the way for Dutch masters of the 17th century. 1559 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). oil on panel. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. 1567–68 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) . The Wedding Feast. An attempt to build a tower so tall it would reach up to Heaven. Italy. Saw the Alps in 1552–53 on his way to Italy. KEY WORKS Netherlandish Proverbs. and superior). Bruegel speaks simultaneously about the personal and the universal. godlike.” Brilliant works and accurately observed commentaries on the appearance and behavior of the ordinary people of his day—like a first-rate stage play or TV soap opera. 1565.56m in 2002. c. 1565 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). 46 x 63 3⁄4 in (117 x 162 cm).

158

HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM

Albrecht Altdorfer
b C. 1480 –1538 n GERMAN

5 Austria; Regensburg (Germany) 1 oils; engravings 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek 3 $7,021 in 1998, Jahel and Sisera (woodcut) Mainly a painter of altarpieces. Their most notable features are strange, visionary landscapes with eerie light effects, and in which wild nature is in control, with man taking second place. Small output. Gave up painting to go into local government.
KEY WORKS Christ Taking Leave of his Mother, c. 1520 (London: National Gallery); St. Florian Altar, c. 1520 (Linz, Austria: Monastery of St. Florian; Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi)

Bartholomeus Spranger
b 1546 –1611 n FLEMISH

5 Belgium; Italy; France; Austria; Czech Republic 1 fresco; oils; drawings Painter, draftsman, and etcher; exponent of late Mannerist style. Key figure of Northern European Mannerism. Born in Antwerp, worked in France, then moved on to Rome, where he studied under Taddeo Zuccaro. He was appointed court painter to the Pope in 1570. In Vienna, he worked for Emperor Maximilian II. Then he moved on to Prague, where he stayed for the rest of his life. Became court painter to Emperor Rudolf II in 1581. His works were mainly of mythological or allegorical subjects. Very popular in northern Europe and hugely influential on Haarlem school. Works are typical of the late Mannerist period. Look for a glut of nudes, improbable poses, a sensual style, luminosity of skin tone, and exaggerated features. His paintings are also filled with rich colors, finely executed small details, such as jewels, fruit, and flowers, and detailed decorations, such as on background furniture.
KEY WORKS Christ, the Saviour of the World, 16th century (Montauban, France: Musée Ingres); Diana and Actaeon, c. 1590–95 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art); The Adoration of the Kings, c. 1595 (London: National Gallery); Venus and Adonis, c. 1597 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum); Allegory of Justice and of Prudence, c. 1599 (Paris: Musée du Louvre)

Beheading of Saint Catherine Albrecht Altdorfer,
c. 1505–10, 22 x 14 1⁄5 in (56 x 36 cm), oil on panel, Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Altdorfer appealed to German humanists wanting to revive native German traditions.

Adam Elsheimer
b 1578 –1610 n GERMAN

5 Venice; Rome 1 oils; engravings; drawings 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek 3 $450,000 in
1990, St. Jerome in the Wilderness (oils)

Popular, early practitioner of small-scale, ideal landscapes. Spent his working life in Italy. Very influential on artists such as Rubens, Rembrandt, and Claude. Lazy — should have painted more pictures. Full of the kind of remarkable precision and detail that you see when looking down the wrong end of a telescope. All his works are painted on copper plates, which allows such fine detail (he must have had brushes with only one bristle). Often used several sources of light in one picture, such as sunset and moon, daylight and torchlight. Painted charming trees, which look like parsley.
KEY WORKS Saint Christopher, 1598–99 (St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum); The Baptism of Christ, c. 1599 (London: National Gallery); St. Paul on Malta, 1600 (London: National Gallery); Nymph Fleeing Satyrs, c. 1605 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum); The Flight into Egypt, 1609 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek)

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. 1500–1600

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Giuseppe Arcimboldo
b 1527 – 93 n ITALIAN

5 Milan; Vienna; Prague 1 oils 2 Stockholm: Nationalmuseum 3 $1.3m
in 2000, Reversible Anthropomorphic Portrait of a Man Composed of Fruit (oils)

16th century). Worked mostly in Prague for Rudolf II, who was addicted to alchemy and astrology. Arcimboldo returned to Milan in 1587.
KEY WORKS Fire, 1566 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum); The Librarian, 1566 (Balsta, Sweden: Skoklosters Slott); Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter (series of four), 1573 (Paris: Musée du Louvre)

Best known for fantastical faces and bodies made up of vegetables, trees, fruits, fish, and the like—he had the type of artistic curiosity produced in times of cultural and political upheaval (as much in the late 20th century as in the late

Water Giuseppe Arcimboldo, 1566, 26 1⁄5 x 20 in
(66.5 x 50.5 cm), oil on canvas, Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. The Four Elements—Earth, Air, Water, and Fire—were popular subjects for series paintings.

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HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM
Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling
Hans Holbein (the younger), c. 1526–28, 22 x 15 1⁄3 in (56 x 39 cm), oil on panel, London: National Gallery. The animals in the painting may allude to the the family coat of arms of the sitter, Anne Lovell.

system. Also produced more informal and flattering (but never too relaxed) soft-focus images of high society that surrounded the court. Note the way he draws and models with light (as does a photographer); the remarkable sharp focus detail (stubble on a chin, fur); intense lighting; wonderful feel for structure of a face and personality inside it. Portraits before mid-1530s are full of objects (sometimes symbolic); later they are flattened designs on a dark background (like postage stamp images?). The famous album of 80 drawings at Windsor contains the lovely, soft-focus, informal portraits.
KEY WORKS Portrait of a Woman, c. 1532–35 (Detroit Institute of Arts); The Ambassadors, 1533 (London: National Gallery); Christina of Denmark, c. 1538 (London: National Gallery); Edward VI as a Child, c. 1538 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)

Hans Holbein (the younger)
b C. 1497/8 –1543 n GERMAN/SWISS

5 Germany; Switzerland; France; England 1 oils; drawings 2 Windsor Castle (England): Royal Collection 3 $1,957,500 in 1984,
Portrait of a Scholar (watercolors)

Painter and designer, chiefly celebrated as one of the greatest of all portraitists. Holbein was forced to leave Switzerland because of the Reformation. He came to England and established himself successfully as the propaganda portrait painter of the era of Henry VIII. He died of the plague, and very little is known about his life. He was famous above all for his portraits (many of his early religious works were destroyed during the Reformation). There are interesting parallels with official court photographs of the mid-20th century, such as the work of Cecil Beaton: masterly, memorable, posed, officially commissioned images—in sharp focus—of the monarch and ruling officials, which are self-chosen icons of the political and constitutional

Portrait of a Youth in a Broad-brimmed Hat Hans Holbein (the younger), c. 1524–26, 9 1⁄3 x 8 in (24.5 x 20.2 cm) chalk on paper, Derbyshire (UK): Chatsworth House. The artist learned his three-color pastel technique in France.

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. 1500–1600

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Hans Eworth
b C. 1520 – C. 1574 n FLEMISH

5 Netherlands; England 1 oils 2 London: Courtauld Institute 3 $91,800 in 1984, Portrait of Margaret Clifford (oils) Antwerp-born. Arrived in England in 1549. Difficult to identify. Look for very pale faces with tight, hard eyes; carefully observed and outlined figures, encased in lavish costumes and jewelry.

“A vacant mind invites dangerous inmates, as a deserted mansion tempts wandering outcasts to enter and take up their abode in its desolate apartments.“
NICHOLAS HILLIARD

known for miniatures, which he produced in quantity to pay the bills for a large family. His reputation extended to France, which he visited c. 1577–78. Look for innovative oval format, symbolism, French elegance, fine outline. Life-size portraits of Elizabeth I exist.
KEY WORKS

Queen Elizabeth I, c. 1575 (London: National Portrait Gallery); Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1576 (London: National Portrait Gallery); Young Man Among Roses, c. 1590 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum)

Isaac Oliver
b C. 1565 – 1617 n BRITISH

5 England; Venice 1 watercolors; drawings 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $60,000
in 1996, Young Gentleman in Black Silk Doublet, Black Earring (watercolor miniature)

Queen Mary I Hans Eworth, 1554, London: Society of Antiquaries. Painted shortly after her marriage to Philip II of Spain, Mary wears his gift of the famous Peregrina pearl.
KEY WORKS Sir John Luttrell, 1550 (Private

Collection); Portrait of Elizabeth Roydon, Lady Golding, 1563 (London: Tate Collection); Portrait of a Lady, c. 1565–68 (London: Tate Collection)

Son of a Huguenot goldsmith who settled in England in 1568. Painter of miniatures (portraits, and mythological and religious images). Was a pupil of Hilliard, but adopted a different style, with strong shadows. His life revolved around the courts of Elizabeth I and James I. A visit to Venice in 1590s led to softer style and richer colors.
KEY WORKS

Nicholas Hilliard
b 1547 – 1619 n BRITISH

5 England; France 1 watercolors 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $292,000 in 2002, Portrait of
a Lady Wearing a Black Dress and Hat (miniature)

Charity, c. 1596–1617 (London: Tate Collection); Lodovick Stuart, 1st Duke of Richmond, and 2nd Duke of Lennox, c. 1605 (London: National Portrait Gallery)
Portrait of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex Isaac Oliver,
c. 1590s, miniature, watercolor on vellum, Beauchamp Collection, UK. Devereux (1566–1601) was a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I.

The son of an Exeter goldsmith, he trained as a jeweler. Principal portrait painter during the reign of Elizabeth I. Hilliard was especially

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. 1600—1700

163

THE BAROQUE ERA
C.

1600 –1700

“Baroque” was first used disparagingly to describe something artificially extravagant and complex. Only relatively recently has it been used to denote the art and architecture of the 17th century—an era that saw the creation of some of the most grandiose and spectacular buildings, paintings, and sculpture in the history of art.

T

he spectacular art and architecture of the period was reminiscent of grand opera, an art form that developed in 17thcentury Italy. Artists too assumed a grandeur not known before, sometimes adding to their role of creative practitioner that of impresario, art dealer, courtier, and diplomat.

IDEOLOGICAL DIVISION

The reasons for this extravagance lay in societies pulled apart by deep ideological and religious divisions. On one side were those fiercely committed to the absolute authority of the Catholic Church and the “Divine Right of Kings” with their requirements of unquestioning obedience. On the other were those
Fountain of the Four Rivers Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1651, marble and travertine, Piazza Navona, Rome. The magnificence of Bernini’s sculptural projects was inspired by a belief that, through art, he was expressing the absolute authority of God and the Catholic Church.

committed to Protestant reform and a belief in self-determination, personally and nationally. The former used art without restraint to overwhelm and impress, creating such wonders as the Baroque churches and fountains of Rome and the palace of Versailles outside Paris. The latter disapproved of all worldly show, destroying religious art, whitewashing the interiors of churches and dispersing royal and noble collections. The consequences of this ideological struggle are most clearly seen in three places. In England, Charles I’s unyielding insistence on his divine right to rule led to his execution in 1649, the dispersal of his art treasures, and the institution of a Puritan Commonwealth that rejected any form of aesthetic experience. In the Netherlands, the Habsburgs attempted to stem the tide of Protestant revolt, finally conceding and then formally recognizing a compromise that split the

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Low Countries in two: which they could buy a Protestant north (the and sell like other Netherlands) and a commercial goods. Catholic south (Flanders). The new RISE OF FRANCE republic of the In central Europe the The Hanging, after engraving by Jacques Netherlands, Austrian Habsburgs Callot (1592–1635), oil on canvas, Clermontmercantile and faced another Ferrand: Musée Bargoin. Callot’s series of bourgeois, was able to engravings “The Miseries of War” illustrated Protestant revolt, this many of the horrors of the Thirty Years’ War. strengthen and time in Bohemia. By expand its trading empire, especially in 1618, this had given rise to general the East Indies. This new wealth warfare, with other powers sucked in funded a magnificent flowering of art. according to their religious affiliations: What the Dutch wanted were the Baltic powers, Denmark, and landscapes, seascapes, still lifes, and Sweden, on the Protestant side against genre scenes of everyday life to hang the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies. on the walls of their townhouses, and Religion was the starting point but by the 1630s the war had become a trial of strength between France and the Habsburgs. The Thirty Years’ War, as it was afterward known, was the most brutal yet fought in Europe, carving a swathe of destruction across Germany and leaving perhaps one million dead. In some areas, 40 percent of the population was killed. It ended in 1648, with France emerging as the most powerful state in Europe. This new dominance was brilliantly exploited by Louis XIV whose direct personal ,
Chapelle Royale, Versailles Louis XIV’s
chapel was begun by royal architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart in 1689. During services the upper balcony was reserved for the royal family, while the nobles stood below.

TIMELINE: 14TH—15TH CENTURY
1609 Invention of telescope (Netherlands); Dutch Revolt ended by treaty between Spain and Netherlands 1618 Start of 30 Years’ War

1630 Foundation of English Massachusetts Bay colony

1648 Treaty of Westphalia ends 30 Years’ War

1600

1620
1621 Hostilities renewed between Spain and Netherlands 1633 Galileo condemned for heresy by the Inquisition

1640
1636 French intervene in 30 Years’ War 1649 Execution of Charles I in England

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. 1600—1700

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SCIENCE IN THE 17TH CENTURY
In the course of the 17th century, European monarchs, as well as being generous patrons of the arts, also became patrons of the sciences, in particular astronomy and physics. State backing was given to science in England in 1662 when the Royal Society was established. A French equivalent, the Académie Royale des Sciences, followed in 1666. The century was characterized by an accelerating scientific revolution. The telescope, the microscope, the slide rule, the thermometer, and the barometer were all invented before 1650. As early as 1609, the Italian Visit of Louis XIV to the Académie Royale des Sciences in 1667
By the mid-17th century, it was clear that scientific advances would play a key role in the development of states. Official patronage duly followed.

Isaac Newton’s telescope
As well as discovering the laws of motion and gravity, Newton wrote a comprehensive treatise on optics.

scientist Galileo Galilei used a telescope to discover four moons of Jupiter. He made other important observations that confirmed the Copernican theory of the solar system. By the end of the century, Sir Isaac Newton in England had laid the theoretical foundations of the new science of physics.

reign lasted 54 years. He asserted his authority by controlling his court from his own vast creation, the largest palace in Europe, Versailles. His brand of absolutist rule—centralizing and martial, visually spectacular and rigidly ceremonial—created a style of kingship that was increasingly imitated at other European courts, notably by Peter the Great in Russia.
A NEW STYLE OF MONARCHY

In the end the extravagance of Baroque art and architecture and the beliefs that it sought to promote were

unsustainable. The future would lie not with unquestioning faith and obedience but with self-reliance. By then end of the century Spain was in decline politically and economically, central Europe was exhausted and devastated, and the Papacy forced to accept that it would have to live with rival Christian churches. France continued to prosper, but the soon-to-reemerge power was England, which was evolving a new form of constitutional monarchy and which was destined to supersede the Netherlands as the world’s leading trading nation.

1659 Treaty of Pyrenees confirms French dominance in western Europe

1667 Completion of Bernini’s Piazza, St. Peter’s, Rome

1683 Ottoman threat contained after siege of Vienna

1688 The Glorious Revolution in England: overthrow of James II

1694 Bank of England founded

1660
1660 Restoration of monarchy in England 1662 Royal Society established in England

1680
1678 Louis XIV initiates major building works at Versailles 1685 Edict of Nantes revoked: French Protestants face renewed persecution 1689 Accession of Peter the Great, Russia

1700
1699 Habsburgs recover Hungary from Ottomans

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T H E BA RO QU E E R A

Guido Reni
b 1575 –1642 n ITALIAN

Atalanta and Hippomenes Guido Reni, c.1612,
206 x 297 cm (81 x 117 in), oil on canvas, Madrid: Museo del Prado. Atalanta the virgin huntress would challenge her suitors to a race in which losing was punishable by death. Hippomenes distracted her by dropping three golden apples given to him by Venus and thus overtook her.

5 Bologna; Rome 1 oils; fresco 2 Bologna: Pinacoteca 3 $2.44m in
1985, David with the Head of Goliath (oils)

One of the principal Bolognese masters. Greatly inspired by Raphael, he was much admired in the 17th and 18th centuries, and much despised in the 20th.

THE SCHOOL OF BOLOGNA

c. 1550 –1650

Bologna never achieved the artistic preeminence of Florence, Venice, or Rome, but nonetheless this ancient university town made a significant contribution to the arts of Italy and Europe. Situated midway between Florence and Venice, the School of Bologna drew inspiration from both, creating its own distinctive style. In particular, Bolognese artists tried to synthesize Florentine classicism with Venetian theatricality, seen most successfully in the works of Carracci, Domenichino, Guercino, and Reni. The Bolognese School style was much imitated in the 18th century, but has been despised for most of the 20th.

Reni’s style was much influenced by his visits to Rome, the first of which came soon after 1660. His images of intense and idealized (unreal and artificial) emotional experiences are usually religious. His mythological works do not have the same levels of intensity, but are highly polished pieces. He himself was very beautiful but remained celibate—two qualities that are reflected in his paintings, which convey a remote and unapproachable beauty. Are they too self-consciously slick, posed, and theatrical for popular 20th-century taste? Look for eyeballs rolling up to heaven (as a means of signaling intensity of feeling), and surprisingly subtle and sensitive paint handling.
KEY WORKS Deianeira Abducted by the Centaur Nessus, 1621 (Paris: Musée du Louvre); Susannah and the Elders, c. 1620 (London: National Gallery); Lady with a Lapis Lazuli Bowl, c. 1630s (Birmingham: Museums and Art Gallery); St. Mary Magdalene, c. 1634–42 (London: National Gallery)

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Annibale Carracci
b 1560 – 1609 n ITALIAN

5 Bologna; Rome 1 fresco; oils 2 Rome: Farnese Gallery. Windsor Castle
(England): Royal Collection (for drawings) 3 $2m in 1994, Boy Drinking (oils)

The arguments against his greatness are that he was too eclectic—merely a plagiarist with no originality, the whole less than the individual parts. Look who his followers were—the awful Bolognese School. But, look for a large number of

Born in Bologna, lived in Rome from 1595. Most talented member of a brilliant trio (with brother Agostino and cousin Ludovico). Revived Italian art from doldrums that followed Michelangelo. Victim of change of fashion from around 1850. The arguments for his greatness are that he is as good as Raphael (brilliant draftsmanship, observation of nude, harmonious compositions); as good as Michelangelo (anatomical knowledge, heroic idealization—his frescoes in the Farnese Palace are on a par with Michelangelo’s in the Sistine Chapel); and as good as Titian (richness of color). He was original: he invented caricature and his early genre scenes and ideal landscapes are full of fresh observation. Influenced Rubens and Poussin.
The Holy Women at Christ’s Tomb Annibale
Carracci, c. 1597–98, 47 1⁄3 x 57 1⁄3 in (121 x 145.5 cm), oil on canvas, St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. All the figures are from studies of live models.

Fishing Annibale Carracci, 1585–88, 53 1⁄2 x 99 1⁄2 in
(136 x 253 cm), oil on canvas, Paris: Musée du Louvre. He created the ideal landscape, in which a noble classical vision of nature becomes the setting for a narrative.

wonderful drawings, full of humor and personal touches. He had a strong belief in drawing and observing from life as an answer to sterile academicism—to the point of establishing a school to teach it—a belief shared in a different way by Impressionists, especially Cézanne. He gave up painting almost entirely in 1606.
KEY WORKS The Butcher’s Shop, 1580s (Oxford: Christ Church Picture Gallery); Domine Quo Vadis?, 1601–02 (London: National Gallery)

Landscape with Tobias Laying Hold of the Fish. The Last Sacrament of St. c. Rome. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum. Harmonious classical landscapes with mythological themes. Margaret of Cortona. Rome. Paul Getty Museum). Naples: Chapel of S. Carlo ai Catinari. oils. 1614. Moses and the Messengers from Canaan. drawings 2 Windsor Castle (England) 3 $3m in 2000. 1625–28. Rome: Vatican Museums. Paul Getty Museum). 1610 (York: City Art Gallery). c. Martino 3 $822. Jerome was one of the four fathers of the Christian Church. 1630s (Florence: Palazzo Pitti) Christ and the Woman of Samaria Giovanni Lanfranco. worked in Rome and Naples.331 in 2003. oil on canvas. Ecstacy of St. with extreme foreshortening and brilliant light. Jerome Domenichino. KEY WORKS Elijah Receiving Bread from the Widow of Zarephath.168 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Giovanni Lanfranco b 1582 – 1647 n ITALIAN 5 Parma. Cecilia with an Angel Holding Music. 1621–24 (Los Angeles: J. 1625–27 (Rome: S. He painted crowds of figures on clouds floating on ceilings. Andrea della Valle). 1617–18 (London: National Gallery). Rebuke of Adam and Eve (oils) Bologna-born. Andrea della Valle and S. St. KEY WORKS Monsignor Agucchi. c. Figures with expressive gestures that symbolize emotion but do not embody expression. 1620 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) . oils 2 Rome: Churches of S. 1621–24 (Los Angeles: J. St. oil on canvas. Small in stature (Domenichino means “little Dominic”). c. Huge scale. Domenichino b 1581 – 1641 n ITALIAN 5 Bologna. Assumption of the Virgin. A decorative interpretation of Christ’s meeting with a prostitute. 29 1⁄5 x 33 4⁄5 in (75 x 86 cm). Gennaro (Duomo). excessive. Crucifixion (oils) Key figure who established the enthusiasm for large-scale illusionistic decoration of churches and palaces in Rome and Naples. Naples 1 fresco. The Host is the symbolic center of the scene. inspiring—his work needs to be seen in situ. Church of S. Look for idealization that is influenced by Raphael and antiquity (unlike his contemporary Caravaggio). He was a fine draftsman (Windsor Castle’s Royal Library has a superb collection of his drawings) and an excellent portraitist. Naples 1 fresco.

His intense classicism influenced French Baroque development and he became a great friend of Poussin. oil on canvas. Lot and his Daughters. Figures heavily classical in stance. Much influenced by Caravaggio. decorative works. 69 x 85 4⁄5 in (175. Decapitation of St. 1641–47 (Bologna: S. 1621–23 (Turin: Galleria Sabauda). c. More obsessed than Bernini with classical ideal and the philosophy of the “Antique. 1645–48 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) . Born in Pisa. 1600–1700 169 Orazio Gentileschi b 1563 – 1639 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. KEY WORKS Portrait of Gaspare Mola. c. but without his wild energy and imagination. robust. KEY WORKS The Lute Player. late 1630s (St. He preserves the differences between painting and sculpture. muscular. c. Los Angeles). sharp-edged draperies. They were great rivals and Algardi’s studio seized control when Bernini was briefly out of favor with Pope Innocent X’s court for shoddy work on St. Tomb of Leo XI. Paul Getty Museum. The Finding of Moses (oils) Greatly esteemed Tuscan. In 1626. Look for large-scale. Hercules Mounting the Pyre (works on paper) Best sculptor in Baroque Rome after Bernini.C . Pope Liberius Baptizing the Neophytes.6 x 218 cm). Alessandro Algardi b 1598 – 1654 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. 1610s (St. Paris. 1622 (J. Pieces often symbolically crafted with attention to classical geometry and line. he became court painter to Charles I of England. Birmingham (UK): Museums and Art Gallery. and unconvincing realism.” so his work is more solid.992.000 in 1995. The use of harmonious blues and yellows is typical of Gentileschi. simplified subjects and compositions. 1615–20. Annunciation. a safe choice artistically. permanent. and psychologically real than transitory fluidity of Bernini. Bologna 1 sculpture 3 $37. DC: National Gallery of Art). England 1 oils 3 $6. His marble reliefs became prototype for supplanting painted altarpieces with sculptured ones. Peter’s.500 in 2005. Peter’s). 1634–44 (Rome: St. he domesticated Caravaggio’s excesses. Cupid and Psyche. Paolo). but settled in Rome in 1576. powerful. 1610 (Washington. Preferred nobleness of cool white marble to Bernini’s subtle color-play. cool colors. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Paul. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Rest on the Flight into Egypt Orazio Gentileschi.

Malta. both in life and in his art. oil on canvas. It arrived three days after his death. Rome: Palazzo Barberini. Contemporary of Shakespeare (1564–1616). He was forced to flee to Malta. he died near Naples while waiting for a Papal pardon. displaying a complete disregard for proprieties and accepted rules.000 in 1971. and his girlfriend a prostitute). notably in Naples. His technique is equally Judith and Holofernes 1599. after another fight. Sicily 1 oils 3 $312. 57 x 76 3⁄4 in (145 x 195 cm). Nonetheless. LIFE AND WORKS From his native Bologna he moved to Rome in 1592 where two distinct phases in his career occurred: an early period (1592–99) where he learned from the examples of the High Renaissance and the Antique. Died of malarial fever at the age of 38. where. Rembrandt. he moved on to Sicily. . Martha Reproving Mary for her Vanity (oils) His full name was Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. and a mature period (1599–1606) where he rejected decorum and turned to an exhilarating realism. at the height of his success. Immensely influential. His biblical subjects show immense moments of dramatic revelation. Caravaggio’s interpretation emphasizes real life drama and shock rather than the symbolism of virtue defeating sin. He lived in a state of hyperexcitement. The only major artist with a serious criminal record (hooliganism and murder). and young men display charms that suggest decadence and corruption (his tastes were heterosexual. His many followers took up his mantle. In 1606. and Velasquez. Spain. and the Netherlands. he was wellreceived in Papal circles and executed many important Church commissions. and echoes of his influence are to be found in the works of artists as diverse as La Tour. his tempestuous character led him into a murderous brawl over a wager on a tennis match.170 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Caravaggio b 1571 –1610 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. in which severed heads and martyrdom are shown in gory detail. and his use of peasants and street urchins as models for Christ and the saints caused deep offense to many. ensuring his contribution to the future development of art. STYLE He is known for sensational subjects. Wounded in Palermo.

with halflength figures. The Conversion of St. 26 1⁄3 x 20 4⁄5 in (67 x 53 cm). Also look closely at the modeling of flesh to observe the range of subtle rainbow colors used. Rome: Galleria Borghese. 1599–1600 (Rome: S. 1601–02 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) His early works tend to be quite small. and still-life compositions. London: National Gallery. Thomas. oil and tempera on canvas. after 1606. KEY WORKS Calling of St. Maria del Popolo). Matthew. Paul. His later work. 55 1⁄2 x 77 1⁄4 in (141 x 196. more subdued version of this work five years later. .2 cm). Later. his The Sick Bacchus 1591. and shadows became richer and deeper. The Incredulity of St. Most of the early erotic works were commissioned by high-ranking Church dignitaries. was hastily executed and is more contemplative and less forceful. Luigi dei Francesi). Still-life details can contain symbolic meaning e. 1601 (Rome: S.C .g. fruit that is full of wormholes. 1600–1700 171 The Supper at Emmaus 1601. sensational and theatrical. and dramatic lighting with vivid contrasts of light and shade (chiaroscuro). oil on canvas. with tense compositions. Caravaggio painted a second. masterly foreshortening. WHAT TO LOOK FOR figures gained plasticity.

Preferred allegorical themes of conflict and discord. c. thereafter he lost his spontaneity and became boringly classical. The Liberation of St. 1652 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. Florence. Style more rough and ready than his celebrated master but copies Caravaggio’s theatrical lighting effects and also foreshortens the action so viewer feels an accomplice to the scene. c. Chose dramatic subjects. The Bolognese Pope summoned him to Rome in 1621.400 in 1998. At his best in his early work. 1630s (Royal Collection) Guercino b 1591 – 1666 n ITALIAN 5 Bologna. including being raped at 19 and tortured during the subsequent court case to see if she was truthful. The Fortune Teller. Painted decadent everyday scenes as well as mythological and religious subjects. 1620 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). 1621 KEY WORKS Judith and her Maidservant Artemisia Gentileschi. 1610 (Ohio: Dayton Art Institute).5 cm). Allegory of the Four Seasons. “Guercino” means “crosseyed.172 T H E BA RO QU E E R A (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery). KEY WORKS Cupid Artemisia Gentileschi b C. 1615 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Daughter of Orazio Gentileschi. oil on canvas. 1622–23 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Bartolommeo Manfredi b 1582 – C. Cain Murdering Abel. c. 44 4⁄5 x 36 4⁄5 in (114 x 93. fresco 2 Windsor (England): Royal Collection (for drawings) 3 $1. Along with fellow Caravaggisti like Valentin. often erotic. and Figs (oils) Little-known artist who was a successful imitator and follower of Caravaggio. 1610–15 (Detroit Institute of Arts). Honthorst and Terbrugghen. Rome 1 oils. Still Life with Grapes. Stylistically close to Caravaggio—made powerful use of foreshortening and chiaroscuro.672. 1622 n ITALIAN 5 Rome 1 oils 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. c. Art Institute of Chicago 3 $65. 1610 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum).000 in 2002. bloody. Portrait of a Woman Playing the Lute (oils) Chastized. Florence: Palazzo Pitti. c. .g. and with a woman as victim or gaining revenge. c. Now regarded as one of the most important 17th-century Italian artists. KEY WORKS Judith Slaying Holofernes.” The Dead Christ Mourned by Two Angels. with whom Manfredi was often confused. The Triumph of David. Her tendency toward bloodthirsty themes was probably related to her own dramatic life. 1610 (Art Institute of Chicago). and has exciting light and strong color. c. was self-taught and successful in his day. 1617–18 (London: National Gallery). he influenced northern artists who stayed in Rome. England 1 oils 3 $619. also produced wonderful drawings. e.854 in 1989. 1612–1613. Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting. but was neglected until recently. Peter by an Angel. Naples. The Woman Taken in Adultery. Came from Bologna. natural. Pomegranates. Toilet of Venus (oils) Full name Giovanni Francesco Barbieri Guercino. which is lively. These depictions of Old Testament heroines such as Judith appealed greatly to private collectors throughout Europe. she was a better painter. c. 1597 – C. She was the first female member of the Florentine Academy.

pursues her in vain. 1621–22 (Rome: Galleria Borghese). Francesco a Ripa) . he blends sculpture.700 in 1981. allowing it to discover a freedom. David with the Head of Goliath (oils) A devoted Roman Catholic for whom art was the emotional inspiration and glorification of godliness and purity. he had a sparkling personality. architecture. He epitomizes the Baroque style with its love of grandeur. which it had never had before. and painting into an extravagant theatrical ensemble. Rome 1 sculpture. 1622–25. 1623 (Rome: Galleria Borghese). David. movement. oils 3 $206. nowhere more so than in his fountains. A child prodigy.” Bernini set sculpture free from its previous occupation with earthly gravity and intellectual emotion. KEY WORKS The Rape of Proserpine. the Sun god. which permitted it to move. regarding sculpture as the “Truth.C . He was a virtuoso technically. soar. theatricality. and wrote comedies—qualities that shine through his work in sculpture. able to carve marble so as to make it appear to move and come to life or have the delicacy of the finest lace. Bernini’s unprecedented life-size masterpiece depicts the chaste nymph. 1635 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). Constanza Buonarelli. At his best. brilliant wit. Rome: Galleria Borghese. and his finest works are to be found in Rome where he was the favorite artist of the Catholic Church. Although gifted as a painter. The Blessed Lodovica Albertoni. and have a visionary and theatrical quality. where the play of water and refractions of light over his sculptured forms of larger-than-life human figures and animals creates a vision that is literally out of this world. 1671–74 (Rome: S. turning into a laurel tree. Daphne. he despised the medium. 1600–1700 Apollo and Daphne Gianlorenzo Bernini. height 95 2⁄3 in (243 cm). while Apollo. marble. and passionate emotion. Cornaro Chapel (see pages 174–175). 173 Gianlorenzo Bernini b 1598 – 1680 n ITALIAN 5 Naples.

TECHNIQUES No sculptor before Bernini used light to accomplish an illusion of life in 3-D sculpture. created to resemble a miniature theater. The angel looks adoringly at St. and architecture. the Cornaro family. and gilt bronze rays symbolically represent the power of divine light. sculpture. Theatrically lit by a hidden window behind the altar. It is as though she is on a visionary cloud. It contains one of Bernini’s most ambitious works. the divine light of God pours down on swooning Teresa at the very climax of her spiritual ecstasy. High above are vaulted painted heavens. in privileged front-row loggia boxes. Commissioned by Cardinal Federigo Cornaro. Teresa’s spiritual account of an angel piercing her heart with an arrow of divine love —her mystical union with Christ. Warming reds and yellows in the lower human zone balance the religious purity of the white marble group. The central figure group is of marble and gilded wood. the chapel is a stunning amalgam of painting. Teresa. Bernini stuck faithfully to St. while below. this directed light accentuates the poised moment of action.174 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Cornaro Chapel Gianlorenzo Bernini 1645 –52 The centerpiece of the lavishly decorated but intimate and candlelit Baroque Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome is the Cornaro Chapel. are observers of this spectacle. Unlike diffused light of the Renaissance. ready to plunge his arrow into her heart for a second time .

Made from rich polychrome marble. it presents a spectacular climax that is both architectural and spiritual. the son of Venus with his love-laden darts.175 The elaborate and carefully calculated setting brilliantly heightens the full visual impact of the white marble figure group. This emphasizes the seemingly sexual quality of the saint’s mystical experience. Cornaro Chapel Medium marble. bronze Height 137 4⁄5 in (350 cm) Location Rome: Santa Maria della Vittoria . Bernini’s attention to detail can be seen in the precise carving of the little finger of the angel’s left hand Bernini’s ability to make marble seem like flowing drapery was one of his most exceptional skills Modern interpretations draw parallels between the appearance of the angel and Cupid. gilded wood.

engravings 3 $696.176 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Salvator Rosa b C. The Latin inscription below Rosa’s hand means “Be quiet. Rome. He was said to have fought by day and painted by night. actor. Now best remembered for large. 45 3⁄4 x 37 in (116. 1615 – 73 n ITALIAN 5 Naples. anti-authority.3 x 94 cm). KEY WORKS The Return of Astraea. musician. 1641. c. satirist.000 in 1992. unless your speech be better than silence. and Sword (oils) scenes (both much collected in the 18th and early 19th centuries). . dark. Portrait of Artist Wearing Doublet. One of the first wild men of art— quarrelsome. self-promoting. Florence 1 oils. fantastic mountainous landscapes and unpleasant witchcraft Self-Portrait Salvator Rosa. Torn Glove.” He painted a companion portrait of his mistress Lucrezia whom he portrayed as one of the Muses of Poetry. lover of the macabre. Poet. London: National Gallery. 1640–45 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). stormy. Cap. oil on canvas.

oils. Peter Luca Giordano. 1634 – 1705 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. color. created very theatrical. Naples. fresco 3 $453. Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia. learned allusion. Venice. large-scale work. c. oils 3 $1. stucco 2 Rome: Palazzo Barberini. and painter. KEY WORKS mythological subjects. drawings. decorator. Known as key creator of Roman High Baroque and for large-scale. 77 1⁄5 x 101 3⁄5 in (196 x 258 cm). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1640–47 (Florence: Palazzo Pitti) The most important Italian decorative artist of the late 17th century. Malta 1 fresco. Paul. Giordano’s last work was the Treasury Chapel ceiling of S. which enabled him to emphasize dramatic action. but he showed it could be done and thereby had much influence on the development of exuberant Baroque decorations).1684 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) “Rosa is a great favorite with novel writers. Naples. the leader of the 12 disciples of Christ. 1633–39 (Rome: Palazzo Barberini). Clorinda Rescuing Sofronia and Olindo. 1670 (Los Angeles: J. bold compositions. oil on canvas. silhouettes. 1633–39 (Rome: Palazzo Barberini). Paul Getty Museum) Pietro da Cortona b 1596 – 1669 n ITALIAN Luca Giordano b C. 5 Rome. Concert. Allegory. Peter. Loved Mattia Preti b C. The Marriage at Cana.” JOHN CONSTABLE . and subjects that polarize good and evil. extreme. c. Glorification of the Reign of Urban VIII. c. The Spirit of Samuel Called up before Saul by the Witch of Endor.200 in 1991. Florence 1 fresco. c. Death of Seneca c. architecture. 1656–59 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). c. Prolific and energetic. 1668 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) The Martyrdom of St. KEY WORKS The Fall of the Rebel Angels. contrasts of light and dark. 1660. who was crucified upside down by Nero in 64 CE. Wooded River Landscape with Cascades and Men Dragging Net (drawing) 5 Naples. The Raising of Lazarus (oils) Virtuoso architect. A dramatic representation of St.600 in 1997. Florence. Peter (oils) Accomplished painter of large-scale decoration that successfully combines the realism of Caravaggio and the theatricality of grand Venetian painting (it sounds unlikely. dramatic. Allegories of Virtue and Planets. particularly the ladies. rich theater of space. much sought after by Catholic grandees in Italy and France. Martino. 1656 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). Santa Bibiana 3 $391. successful decorator of palaces (especially ceilings). 1600–1700 177 Human Fragility. 1666 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum).C . and spiritual uplift. KEY WORKS Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power. Madrid 1 oils. The Liberation of St.185. 1655–60 (London: National Gallery). violence and lust. 1630 (St. human activity. 1613 – 99 n ITALIAN The Crucifixion of St.000 in 1989. 1660 (Los Angeles: J. Nicknamed “Luca Fa Presto” (Luke works quickly). Paul Getty Museum). c. illusionistic paintings where ceilings open up into a bold.

Portraits tended to be bombastic and self-consciously dramatic. raped by Pluto. “The style of absolutism” was used by the Catholic Church as a means of harnessing the magnificence of art to influence the largest possible audience. and the Spanish mystic St. work was to be visually stunning and emotionally engaging to reflect the new Counter-Reformation confidence of the Church. movement. Chastity—were also common. Teresa of Ávila (both canonized in 1622). used by the Catholic Church to proclaim its continuing power—hence the best examples are to be found in Italy. Exploiting the ideas of Classicism and religious doctrine. Modesty. These included recent saints such as St. Peter’s and of the Palazzo Barberini Charles I’s Banqueting House. and pomposity. card players. Also loved by Absolute Monarchs who wanted to emphasize their worldly authority and the riches of their possessions and lifestyle. and water sellers. Peter’s Louis XIV orders massive reconstruction program at Versailles . However. the Fontana del Moro was then altered by Bernini in 1653. SUBJECTS Religious subjects were paramount. Southern Germany. Its hallmarks are illusion. founder of the Jesuits. exaggerated decorations. Originally designed in 1576 by Giacomo della Porta. Ignatius Loyola. drama. The subsequent boldness of the artists’ styles translates as huge freestanding sculptures. France. stone. the everyday also found a place with scenes that included taverns. London: ceiling by Rubens completed Bernini’s colonnaded piazza in front of St. are 19th-century additions. rich color. planned around a series of geometrically controlled spaces to create an animated grandeur. intensely lit. He designed the central statue of a muscular Moor holding a dolphin. especially the lives of saints and martyrs. were used to illustrate religious ideals of purity. The tritons blowing shells. Austria. 1653. and Central Europe. Spain. Rome: Piazza Navona.178 T H E BA RO QU E E R A THE BAROQUE The dominant style of the 17th century. Faith. KEY EVENTS 1595 1601 1629 1634 1663 1669 Annibale Carracci summoned from Bologna to decorate Farnese Palace. STYLE Fontana del Moro Gianlorenzo Bernini. Statues of allegorical figures— Peace. Mythological characters. emotional oil paintings with grand operatic-style themes. such as the chaste nymph Daphne or Proserpine. from which water exits. and a new architecture. Rome Caravaggio paints the first of two versions of The Supper at Emmaus Bernini appointed architect of St.

Part of Carracci’s frescoed cycle depicting The Loves of the Gods. To complement the outstanding Farnese collection of Antique sculpture. Carracci All the figures are based on studies of live models created on the vaulted ceiling a picture gallery of mythological scenes illustrating stories from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. painting. for which the artist made a detailed study of Classical reliefs. curly-haired boy who is present whenever love is in the air. and died aged only 49. . The central panel depicts the triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne. The couch belonged to Anchises Cupid. 1600–1700 179 c. Anchises captures the heart of goddess Venus. The resulting effect is one of the triumphs of the Baroque ambition to marry architecture. Their child was Aeneas. 1597–1604. the founder of Rome Landscape shows Mount Ida. He is shown in the act of removing Venus’s sandal Venus wore jewels and sweet-smelling perfume. is nearly always shown as a pretty. Venus disguised herself as a mortal and seduced Anchises. 1590–1700 WHAT TO LOOK FOR The best example of secular Baroque decoration is Carracci’s rarely seen frescoes for the vault of the sculpture gallery of the Farnese Palace in Rome. the son of Venus.C . So disappointed was Carracci by the small fee he received for the work that he took to drink. Anchises was a Trojan shepherd. and sculpture. where Anchises traditionally met the beautiful Venus Venus and Anchises Annibale Carracci.

” NICOLAS POUSSIN Portrait of the Artist 1650. I [Death] am ever present. Immensely influential on French artists up to (and including) Cézanne.1m in 1999.180 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Nicolas Poussin b C. intense. 38 x 29 in (97 x 73 cm). The shepherds examine an inscription whose meaning is “Even in Arcadia. usually biblical or from Greco-Roman antiquity. although notionally in motion. London: National Gallery. Rome 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. presenting the standard to be lived up to. engravings of Raphael’s works exposed him to Italian High Renaissance. during a trip to Paris.” His paintings. a hidden geometrical framework of verticals. oil on canvas. are severe. The figures. Except for two years as court painter to Louis XIII (1640–42). oil on canvas. Paris: Musée du Louvre. “Painting is the lover of beauty and the queen of the arts. Did not survive to see his style glorified by the French Academy in the late 17th century. Struggled in early years through poverty and ignorance until. 1648–50. Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $6. horizontals. . Paris: Musée du Louvre. have the stationary quality of Arcadian Shepherds c. LIFE AND WORKS style. like a carved bas relief (another classical reference). 1593 – 1665 n FRENCH 5 Paris. The Agony in the Garden (oils) Founder of French classical painting. 33 1⁄2 x 47 1⁄2 in (58 x 121 cm). he worked in the epicenter of Baroque Italy. constant references to classical antiquity. and diagonals into which the figures are placed and by which they are tied together. A grave Poussin makes no concession to vanity in his portraiture. and references: complex allegorical subjects with a moral theme. though more at home with his classical style. STYLE Note how the figure groups are positioned flat on the surface of the picture. so set off for Rome. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Son of a French farmer. and intellectual in subject matter. became inspired when an artist arrived to decorate his village church.

Worried about the declining birth rate. DC: National Gallery of Art) The Rape of the Sabines c.C . Poussin liked well-sculpted nudes. Romulus. especially muscular backs. The darkreddish quality of many works is because he painted on a red ground. 1648 (Washington. 1648 (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery). Rome’s founder. which is now showing through the oil paint that has gone transparent with time. c. 1600–1700 181 statues. and drapery that could have been carved out of marble. arms. 62 1⁄2 x 81 in (159 cm x 206 cm). KEY WORKS Cephalus and Aurora. . The interweaving arrangement of arms and legs are like an intellectual puzzle (which belong to whom?). oil on canvas. Landscape with the Ashes of Phocion. The Holy Family. Paris: Musée du Louvre. and legs. c. 1630 (London: National Gallery). 1637–38. arranged a feast that resulted in young Romans marrying Sabine maidens.

Naples. From Boulogne in France. Probably met his friend Poussin in Rome but was more emotional. British Museum (drawings). especially in the 18th and early 19th centuries. 1600 – 82 n FRENCH 5 Rome 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre Son of an Italian. dramatic. continuing the master’s style. KEY WORKS Christ and the Adulteress. bawdy scenes. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $1. Originator of the pastoral or picturesque landscape.86m in 1999. One of the Caravaggisti. 1620–25 (St Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) 5 Rome. Evening Landscape with Mercury and Battus (oils) Also called Le Lorrain or Claude Gellée. 1620s (Los Angeles: J. Immensely influential and popular. Lorraine (France) 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery.182 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Moïse Valentin b C. c. Worked in and around Rome. Claude’s landscapes and seascapes are enjoyable on two levels: as exquisite depictions in their own right and as a poetic setting for the staging of . loved the plebeian side of art. Paul Getty Museum). but most of his known work dates after 1620. 1593 –1665 n FRENCH Claude Lorrain b C. The Expulsion of the Money-Changers from the Temple. Preferred seedy. he settled in Rome. His life is obscure.

KEY WORKS Landscape with Herdsman. authoritarian austerity—you believe it should not be possible. colorful. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Notice how he moves your eye from side to side across the picture in measured steps via well-placed figures. Produced decorative landscapes in which he sometimes tries almost too hard to combine the heroic qualities of Poussin with the pastoral features of Claude. Paris 1 oils 3 $423. but few works can be confidently attributed to him. the sails of a boat in the far distance. Very popular in the 18th century. Classical Landscape with Figures. balanced compositions and colors to produce a serene.C . Uses a formula of well-proven. Landscape with Ascanius Shooting the Stag of Silva. Brilliant. Annunciation to Maria (oils) Born in Brussels. detailed. Ex Voto. or birds gliding on a current of air. memorable style. engravings 3 $108. 1635 (London: National Gallery). 1672–75 (Birmingham. KEY WORKS Triple Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu. London: National Gallery. 1642 (London: National Gallery). which combines over-the-top Baroque grandeur with severe. 1648 (St. 1600–1700 Landscape with the Marriage of Isaac and Rebekah Claude Lorrain. 1615 – 75 n FRENCH mythological or religious scenes. drawings. 1648. Italianate Wooded River Landscape with Fishermen on Boat (oils) He was the brother-in-law of Poussin. Landscape with Hagar and the Angel. 1602 –74 n FRENCH 5 Brussels. or paths (coulisse). 5 Rome 1 oils. c. c. buildings. 1660 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). A Landscape with Mary Magdalene Worshipping the Cross. and at the same time takes you from warm foreground to cool. The Old Testament story lends artistic respectability to this pastoral landscape. but frequently disappoints. UK: Museums and Art Gallery) . 1646 (London: National Gallery). 183 KEY WORKS The Judgment of Paris. calm. and harmonious atmosphere— although somewhere in the airless heat there is usually a refreshing breeze: a rustle in the tree tops. oil on canvas. crisp. 1682 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum) Phillippe de Champaigne b C. Moses with the Ten Commandments. 58 x 77 in (149 x197 cm). but he showed that it could be done. an unfurling flag.077 in 2003.000 in 1994. c. luminous. minutely detailed distance (aerial perspective). 1662 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Gaspard Dughet b C. successful painter of portraits and religious pictures at the court of Louis XIII (favored by Cardinal Richelieu). Champaigne had a unique. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1645–46 (Washington. Ought to be very good. arrived in Paris in 1621. Magical painter of light—the first artist to paint the sun itself.

including decoration of Louvre. non-existent backgrounds. distinctive horny finger nails and peasant hands. Louis (c. Beware of copies and imitations passing as the real thing. Unconvincing when painting young flesh—the faces are wooden and masklike. 1666 (Château de Versailles).184 T H E BA RO QU E E R A creating virtuoso candlelight effects (such as the way it makes a hand look translucent). In fashion with art historians. The Rape of Proserpine (sculpture) Studied antiquities in Rome. Paris: Musée du Louvre. c. 1588 – 1677 n FRENCH 5 Laon (France). France: Musée Départemental des Vosges). Returned to dominate Sun King Louis XIV’s sculptural projects. Blind Hurdy-Gurdy Player in Profile (oils) Shadowy figure with few attributed works. Antoine (c. allegories. c. Monument to Cardinal Richelieu.094. 1639 (Musée de Grenoble) Le Nain brothers b C. DC: National Gallery of Art). c. Painters of largescale mythologies. cunning. Four Figures at a Table.000 in 1991. second biggest collection after King’s. 1643 (London: National Gallery) Georges de La Tour b C. Lyrical with careful contrast of gesture and pose. Master at François Girardon b 1628 – 1715 n FRENCH 5 Paris. with distinct classical style. 1675–77 (Paris: Sorbonne Church) . DC: National Gallery of Art). 1635 (Washington. dry skin. c. oil on canvas. Rome 1 sculpture 2 Paris: Palace of Versailles. Note the style. 1640 (Washington. KEY WORKS Job and his Wife.302. St. Three Musicians Playing the Lute (oils) by Mathieu Le Nain St. Also painted cardsharpers and fortune-tellers. Major master or overrated enigma? His work has two points of focus: peasant scenes (pre-1630s).362 in 1987. Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $194. piggy eyes. and altarpieces. Joseph the Carpenter Georges da La Tour. lined brows and convincing old. Preferred Poussin’s painting as chief influence rather than his sculptor counterparts. sinister. c. 1593–1648). Los Angeles: J. The Repentant Magdalen. c. Louis Le Nain. 511⁄8 x 39 3⁄4 in (130 x 100 cm). 1632–35 (Epinal. 1607–77). KEY WORKS A Landscape with Peasants. Used strong and beautiful chiaroscuro and lighting. nocturnes with spectacular handling of candlelight (post-1630s). Difficult to assign works as all signed their work by surname only. These humble settings for religious scenes were inspired by a Franciscan-led religious revival. greasy hair. 1593 – 1652 n FRENCH 5 Lorraine (France) 1 oils 3 $3. doing nothing much. and flat. sensitivity when handling light and color. and Mathieu (c. many in poor condition. Le Nain brothers. with dignity. They were admired by Cézanne. Note how he paints peasants and saints with unnerving realism: wispy. Paul Getty Museum 3 $2. pleasing and detached powers of observation. Musée du Louvre. 1640. On death owned 800 sculptures. 1588–1648). but best known for smaller-scale portrayals of peasant groups sitting in an interior. who are in the process of reconstructing his oeuvre. KEY WORKS Apollo Tended by the Nymphs. Jerome.922 in 1990. Unified muscular bodies.

1630 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). Like Caravaggio. in 1616 Ribera settled in Spanish-owned Naples where he was known as “Lo Spagnoletto. He paints old men’s faces wonderfully. oil on canvas. 64 3⁄5 x 36 1⁄5 in (164 x 92 cm). Margaret. 1637 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Francisco de Zurbarán b 1598 – 1664 n SPANISH 5 Seville. across a brow.5m in 1990. Venetianstyle palette that he adopted from the 1630s a step forward or a step backward? Be aware that many pictures have darkened with time. with convincing. 1600–1700 185 José Ribera b 1591 – 1652 n SPANISH 5 Naples 1 oils. but generally lacks convincing emotion. St. employs strong chiaroscuro effects. 1628 (Hartford. down an arm. Particularly good at martyrdom. Bartholomew.C . his work has a hard-edged realism. Died out of fashion and in financial difficulty. adopting a looser style with gentler modeling and airy harmonious tones. necks. KEY WORKS Martyrdom of St. Isaac Blessing Jacob. engravings. and hands. Paris: Musée du Louvre.9m in 1998. but the technique is exquisite and this results in an almost unbearable “can’t look but must look” tension. Observe his marvelous painting of textures and surfaces. KEY WORKS Beato Serapio. Connecticut: Wadsworth Atheneum). Ribera softens his dramatic lighting. shown through powerful images of resigned suffering. drawings 2 Naples: Museo di Capodimonte. 1637 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $1. Apollo Flaying Marsyas. Martyrdom of St. c. Sometimes the subject matter is repelling. His principal patrons were Spanish religious orders. St. He was the major Neapolitan painter of the 17th century. In his late work. His most characteristic works are of saints and monks in prayer or meditation. He makes brilliant use of chiaroscuro and tenebrism (light coming from a single source above). leathery flesh faces. Bartholomew (oils) Spanish-born. He couldn’t do convincing women’s or boy’s flesh and faces. not great). Notice how the brushstrokes follow the contours of the flesh. It has dramatic visual impact.” Naples was one of the main centers of the Caravaggesque style at this time. Madrid 1 oils 2 Naples: Museo di Capodimonte. Is his brighter. 1642. though. The Club Foot José Ribera. Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $4. and was an early exponent of realism—his saints and philosophers are real people from the streets of Naples. and demonstrates a smooth technique and care for precise detail. 1630–34 (London: National Gallery) . Dorothea (oils) “The major painter between Velasquez and Murillo” (read this as code for good.

KEY WORKS The Young Beggar. Shows bouquets in baskets. Bilbao: Museo de Bellas Artes.000 in 1990. The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin. c. Masterpieces are his Titian-style portraits. 1661 (London: National Gallery) . Still Life of Flowers in a Basket Juan de Arellano. Portrait of Fernando Valenzuela (oils) Deeply influenced by Rubens. Born and bred in Seville. on rough stone plinths. Uphill struggle to find virtue in the overly sweet and sometimes sickly religious pictures—maybe being widowed at 45 made him excessively misty-eyed about young mothers and children. Irises. St. and moody lighting. Religious painter with fixation on the macabre. 1680s (St. The genre scenes are appealing as subjects. Good portraits. they influenced Reynolds and Gainsborough. capturing degeneracy of last Hapsburg ruler of Spain. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Fewer.5 cm). Cordoba 1 oils. with full-blown flowers and curling leaves. and yellow. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. fussy with exaggerated detail. c.8m in 2000. and strong composition. The Virgin of the Rosary. Vibrant coloring and dramatic lighting. c. influenced by Netherlandish art. skilful works. 1680s (St. done for the export market. 1671.000 in 2004. It is easy to extol his confident. 1645 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Spain has a long tradition of still-life painting. and Titian whose works were in Spanish Royal collection and studied for seven years in Italy. oil on canvas. Madrid 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado. with Two Donors. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Bartolomé Murillo b 1617– 82 n SPANISH Juan de Valdés Leal b 1662 – 90 n SPANISH 5 Seville 1 oils 2 Seville: San Francisco. Peonies. St. particularly of Charles II. vivid movements. genre scenes (good line in ragamuffins). brilliant palette. Joseph and Christ Child (oils) 5 Seville. Detailed. Sacrifice of Isaac (oils) Spanish painter and engraver.261. Often complex and complicated works. volatile. draperies. Founded the Seville Academy of Painting with Murillo. 1658–60 (Washington. Preempting Rococo. paint handling The Assumption of the Virgin.246. or in vases of crystal or metal. DC: National Gallery of Art). often executed and designed as pairs. 1652 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). grand gestures. London: Dulwich Picture Gallery (for genre) 3 $4. Pious family. A Murillo revival campaign is currently under way. masterly way with color. white. KEY WORKS Regarded until about 1900 greater than Velasquez and as good as Raphael. S. Painter to Charles II in 1683. with a careful balancing of red. and other Flowers in an Urn on a Pedestal. Produced acres of soft-focus sentimental religious pictures for the home market. Employed loose brushstrokes. Still Life of Mixed Flowers (oils) Pre-eminent Spanish flower painter of the 17th century. blue. Convolvuli. van Dyck. Now the poor man’s Velasquez. 1671 (London: Christie’s Images) KEY WORKS light. Anticipates the decorative exuberance of the 18th-century Rococo style. His later work is more loosely painted. Garland of Flowers with Landscape. Maria la Blanca. 33 x 41 1⁄2 in (84 x 105. verging on the operatic. 1649 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Claudio Coello b 1642 – 93 n SPANISH 5 Italy. engravings 3 $1. better. 1614 – 76 n SPANISH 5 Spain 1 oils 3 $1m in 1993. Loved swirling forms. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $4. The Repentant Mary Magdalene. c.186 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Juan de Arellano b C.

1630 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). KEY WORKS The Forge of Vulcan. eagle-eyed observation (he never flatters or idealizes). which ought to selfcancel. realism. An early work showing the continuing influence of Spanish polychrome sculpture. Madrid. 1631–32.C . . oil on canvas. 42 x 31 4⁄5 in (106. Francisco Lezcano. 96 x 66 1⁄2 in (248 x 169 cm). Gifted to the Duke of Wellington by the king of Spain for his victory over Napoleon’s army. and a feeling of sensual intimacy through the use of seductive colors and paint handling. oil on canvas. c. Madrid: Museo del Prado. London: Wellington Museum. Observe the extraordinary and unique interweaving of grandeur. London: National Gallery 3 $8. which is recorded with pinpoint accuracy in his early work and evoked by loose. c. characters. and intimacy. Rufina (oils) Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velazquez was the great Spanish painter of the 17th century whose life and work were inextricably linked with the court of King Philip IV. and costumes. but result in some of the finest official portraits ever painted. St. 1636–38 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Christ on the Cross Velasquez. flowing paint in later work.7 x 81 cm). while still in his teens he painted pictures that display powerful presence and total technical mastery. 1620. 1634–35 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). Is better with static. Italy 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado. (see pages 188–189). He wasn’t a prolific artist but was precocious. Las Meniñas. and mythological paintings sometimes fail to convince because he was simply too realistic in his work.1m in 1999. Sensational color harmonies (especially pink and silver) in his late work. His religious Waterseller of Seville Velasquez. solitary poses than with movement or people supposedly communicating with each other. The Surrender of Breda. which has the effect of drawing the viewer into the picture and therefore closer to the figures. He had a great sensitivity to light. See how he makes ambiguous and mysterious use of space. Notice the grand poses. He was very influential on late-19th-century French avant-garde painting. 1600–1700 187 Velasquez b 1599 –1660 n SPANISH 5 Seville.

who must therefore be posing for Velasquez. Velasquez needed to be an expert in observation and manipulation. It reflects the King and Queen. In this remarkable and influential group portrait of the Infanta Margarita and her maids of honor (las meniñas).188 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Las Meniñas Diego Velasquez 1656 As an ambitious courtier. but why is he there and what is on the canvas? It cannot be that he is painting a portrait of the Infanta. We can still see the childlike vulnerability in the Infanta Margarita’s features despite her knowingness. The little Infanta has come into the room to look at them. which probably would have contained cold perfumed water . Velasquez plays an elaborate and artificial game with our perception. He portrays himself on the left. By working this way. The maid of honor on the left proffers a red terracotta jug on a gold plate to the Infanta. The answer is in the mirror at the end of the room. TECHNIQUES Velasquez developed a technique whereby the details of a painting come into focus only at a certain distance. The lace cuffs worn by the maid of honor are nothing more than loose brushstrokes that suggest rather than describe. he displays all his cunning as an artist and politician. since he stands behind her. Velasquez achieved a very special sharpness of characterization in his portraiture. Velasquez has reversed all the rules and expectations of portraiture. and the relationships in the portrait. painting on a large canvas.

Her grim features and dark dress serve to accentuate the Infanta’s delicate beauty The Court Jester Nicolasito playfully treads on the huge. which was not given to him until three years after the date of the picture. stands behind the dog. Mari-Bárbola. Dwarves and clowns provided entertainment at Court. is the central figure in the painting. sleepy mastiff. who did much to promote painting to the status of the liberal arts. Such a detail helps to develop a feeling of spontaneity in this painting The Infanta Margarita.Velasquez wears a royal decoration. Their presence is a reminder of the power of the Church Las Meniñas Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 125 x 108 1⁄2 in (318 x 276 cm) Location Madrid: Museo del Prado . Another court favorite. James). the cross of the Order of Santiago (St. The image of the cross on the artist’s chest was added to the painting two or three years later. and often feature in the paintings by Velasquez. at the behest of the connoisseur king. She was just five years old when Las Meniñas was painted A second maid of honor awaits the child’s orders. Behind her a nun and a priest converse in the shadows. the future Empress.

Jacob Jordaens b 1593 – 1678 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp 1 oils. Landscape with Birds. Collaborated with other artists (for example. c. He was much influenced by his visit to Rome in 1608. without any clear visual and emotional focus. 1603 (Utrecht: Centraal Museum). harmony. Snyder’s paintings are often allegories representing the five senses or the four physical elements. Prolific. pantries. he sometimes added the still life or animal component of the image/narrative to Rubens’s work). Prolific and much imitated—there are many wrong attributions. c. or animal fables. Fruits. watercolors. Best when not being too ambitious (for instance. whose style he emulated (was an assistant for Rubens). 1625 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Roelandt Savery b 1576 – 1639 n FLEMISH but his best and most freely painted work came after 1630—geometrically structured compositions. Woman Selling Vegetables and Fruit (oils) The undisputed master of the Baroque still life. watercolours 2 London: National Gallery 3 $2. 1612 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum). KEY WORKS Still Life with Dead Game. KEY WORKS The Artist and his Family in a Garden. proverbs.190 T H E BA RO QU E E R A of Chicago). rich color. He finally settled in Utrecht. for instance). The Lamentation. Rose. but quantity took precedence over quality. 1615–20 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). and fish. Utrecht 1 oils. in genre scenes). such as rare imported Wan Li Chinese porcelain. After 1610. Son of an innkeeper. canvas. much traveled (France. largescale still lifes that literally groan and overflow with fruit. 1621 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $1. flesh and fowl. Vienna. If you visit the market area of Brussels today. successful. Produced good portraits. he painted hunting scenes. 49 1⁄5 x 78 in (125 cm x 198 cm). He also etched and made designs for tapestries. KEY WORKS Flowers in a Niche. the Alps).8m in 2001. Best known for his painting of animals. Large output from commissions. vegetables. Painted landscapes—the wooded and mountainous scenes are notable for their brilliant cool blues. 1615–20. a pair) Leading painter in Amsterdam after the death of Rubens. balance. By comparison. Prague. c. 1650 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle) Pantry Scene with a Page Frans Snyders.4m in 1996. Hungry Cat with Still Life. Look for market scenes. c. Italy 1 oils 2 Antwerp: Rockox House. London: Wallace Collection. Portrait of his Wife Catharine (oils.24m in 2001. 1614 (Art Institute 5 Amsterdam. Vienna. and Vegetables in a Market. Prague. you will see shops and restaurants with just such lavish displays of produce—he painted embroidered reality. Bouquet of Flowers (the Liechtenstein Bouquet). The Four Evangelists. Portrait of Rogier le Witer. which contain fluidity. Tulip. both alive and dead. Became as rich and successful as his clients and so was able to consume and enjoy the produce he painted. 1649 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Frans Snyders b 1579 – 1657 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. There is possible symbolism in the details (grapes as Eucharist. Also flowers and mythologies. The work of the last two decades of his life is more subdued. not far-fetched fantasy. gouache 2 The Hague: Huis ten Bosch 3 $2. rhythm. his work seems hectic and badly organized. Look also for the odd symbol of successful bourgeois capitalism. and other Flowers Flanked by Lizard (oils) . c. Still Life of Iris. Good landscape etchings. which he studied from life (including the dodo in Rudolph II’s menagerie). Wild Boar Hunt. plus moralizing messages. 1622 (Prague: National Gallery) .

c. Was never hesitant. 1600–1700 191 Sir Peter Paul Rubens b 1577 – 1640 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. Hélène Fourment in a Fur Wrap Sir Peter Paul Rubens. must be seen in situ in order to experience their full impact and glory. Had a huge output and a busy studio with many assistants. wood. His large-scale set-piece works. drawings. 1617. Antwerp 3 $68. Paris 1 oils. which are miracles of life and vigor.C . 47 3⁄5 x 65 1⁄3 in (121 x 166 cm) oil on panel. The Judgment of Paris. The greatest and most influential figure in Baroque art in northern Europe. figures at full stretch both physically and emotionally. muscular Christianity in which well-developed martyrs suffer and die with enthusiasm. and the genesis of the major works. 1635–38 (London: National Gallery) KEY WORKS Battle of the Amazons and Greeks (detail) Sir Peter Paul Rubens. Rubens developed a new interest in landscape painting. Rome. In his later years. A wonderful storyteller. Samson and Delilah (see pages 192–193). 2) Muscles—gods built like Superman. . Rubens was in Italy from 1600–08 and this work shows the lasting influence of his study of Greco-Roman and Italian Renaissance art. businessman. color contrasts and harmonies that activate the eye. The Garden of Love. 1636–38. c. Note also the rosy. Rubens’s work is always larger than life. Rubens’s second wife (who was aged 16 when they married in 1630) was the ideal female model for his art. However. 3) Mammaries—he never missed a chance to reveal a choice breast and cleavage. and the businesslike eye contact in the portraits. never introspective. so enjoy the energy and enthusiasm he brought to everything he saw and did. He was the illustrator of the Catholic faith and divine right of kings.4m in 2002. blushing cheeks. scholar. Munich: Alte Pinakothek. gifted man of many talents: painter. 1621–25 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1632–34 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). such as altarpieces and ceiling decorations. Massacre of the Innocents (oils) Extraordinary. 69 1⁄4 x 24 4⁄5 in (176 x 63 cm). widely traveled. including van Dyck. The Life of Maria de Medici series. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. chalks 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek. do not overlook his many sketches and drawings. diplomat. There are three possible themes to explore in Rubens’s work: 1) Movement— inventive compositions with energetic diagonals and viewpoints.

1609 Rubens was only 31 years old when he painted this magnificent work. the superhuman Israelite warrior who was the scourge of the Philistines. The picture tells the Old Testament story ( Judges 16) of the downfall of Samson. The artist depicts the tense moment when the first lock is cut and the soldiers prepare to gouge out the Israelite’s eyes. who was a rich and influential alderman. Samson’s ruin was caused by his lust for the Philistine Delilah.192 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Samson and Delilah Sir Peter Paul Rubens c. Samson used his returned strength to destroy the Philistines’ temple. When his hair grew back. which resonates with the enthusiastic and energetic talent that brought him honors and riches. sacrificing his own life while taking his revenge. It was designed to hang high on the wall above the mantelpiece of the Great Saloon of his Antwerp townhouse. The picture was painted for a close friend and patron. The barber performs his task with deep concentration. Delilah reclines languidly. who beguiled him into revealing the secret source of his strength—his uncut hair. Cheeks flushed with pleasure. Nicolaas Rockox. Each of the main characters has specific hand gestures that reveal their mental and physical state The sweep of Samson’s back leads the eye up to the climax of faces of the leading characters . The tilt of her head echoes the statue of Venus above The intricate and intertwined hands holding the scissors are a brilliant visual metaphor for the deceitful and elaborate plot to cause Samson’s downfall.

and embroidery in vibrant reds and golds . they are carrying the sharpened stakes that they will use to put out Samson’s eyes. muscular frame was inspired by the work of Michelangelo (see page 136) The picture is strewn with rich materials and colors— silks. An intense. satins. flawless skin and the shimmering glossiness of the rich. Samson and Delilah Medium oil on wood Dimensions 73 x 801⁄2 in (185 x 205 cm) Location London: National Gallery Samson’s enormous. red gown that she wears. Entering stealthily through the doorway. emphasizing her pale. and Rubens’s marvelously translucent flesh tones.TECHNIQUES Note Rubens’s expert use of light on Delilah and her flowing clothing. set off against warm browns and gold. Rubens’s chiaroscuro treatment of light was strongly influenced by Caravaggio (see pages 170–171) The faces of the Philistines are illuminated from below by a flaming torch. The dominant color in the lower left of the painting is a rich and vibrant red. almost-white beam shoots from behind over her shoulder.

oil on canvas. England 1 oils. Best remembered for his portraits. especially those of the . Princess Royal (oils) ill-fated Court of King Charles I of England (who was beheaded in 1649).24m in 1989. look for religious and mythological subjects (the stock in King Charles I of England out Hunting Sir Anthony van Dyck. The king awarded him a knighthood in recognition of his talents. Antwerp-born infant prodigy from a family of silk merchants. Portrait of Mary. Italy.194 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Sir Anthony van Dyck b 1599 – 1641 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. of which this is the finest. As well as portraits. c. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland 3 $1. Paris: Musée du Louvre. 1635. drawings 2 London: National Gallery. 104 1⁄2 x 81 1⁄2 in (226 x 207 cm). Van Dyck painted 38 portraits of Charles I. He died relatively young.

as in Boors Carousing). bodies. 1621–25 (Genoa: Palazzo Rosso). 1635–36 (Private Collection). 1610 (St. The Earthly Paradise. He painted wonderfully sensitive images of children. c. Attended by Cupid. These faces never smile. Archduke Leopold Wilhelm and the Artist. which gave him the nickname “Hell” Brueghel (he also retained the “h” in his name).000 in 1999. A Lady as Erminia. Forest’s Edge (Flight into Egypt). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) David Teniers (the younger) b 1610 – 90 n FLEMISH Jan Brueghel b 1568 – 1625 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. and reserve adopted by people wishing to appear consciously set apart. much copied in (notably British) portraiture and life: the aloofness. c. After 1651. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). tempera 3 $4. Van Dyck set the ultimate role model. Hubert and St. noses. Village Kermesse (oils) He was the elder son of “Peasant” Bruegel.185. KEY WORKS Fight between Carnival and Lent. 1620 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). also known for his detailed views of the painting galleries of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm (Regent of the Netherlands). especially hair. Anthony Pieter Brueghel (the Younger).9m in 2001. Later did fashionable hellfire scenes. Realistic details. and the rich but unflashy silks and satins. KEY WORKS Portrait of Charles V on Horseback. Even his martyrs suffer with perfect manners. Pieter Brueghel (the younger) b 1564 – 1638 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp 1 oils. they know their duty and they will fight to retain their privileges to the end (the Divine Right to Rule). Later work is weak. Rome. Italy 1 oils 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek 3 $1. Wooded Landscape with Covered Wagons and Cattle on Road (oils) He was the second son of “Peasant” Breugel. Duke of Richmond with Lennox. Notice that air of aristocratic privilege (still around today). 46 1⁄2 x 63 1⁄3 in (118. fineness. 1602 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). He is known to have sometimes worked with Rubens. nicknamed “Velvet” Breughel (also retaining the “h” in his name). and impeccable taste and breeding assumed by his sitters—those subtly elongated fingers. An Old Peasant Caresses a Kitchen Maid in the Stable. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum).4 cm). Wallace Collection 3 $4. landscapes. 1610 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) . c. Brussels 1 oils 2 London: Courtauld Institute. 1632. c. Geronima Brignole Sale and her Daughter Amelia. Produced flower paintings.85m in 1990. Archducal Gallery (oils) Teniers is best remembered for his lively small-scale paintings of peasant and guardroom scenes (and depicting them misbehaving.1 x 158. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. His brilliant but restrained technique reflected the elegance. Made copies and imitations of his father’s work.C . c. oil on panel. 1650 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) 5 Antwerp. 1595–1600 (St. The Adoration of the Magi. and allegories with rich. c. KEY WORKS The Kitchen. very finely painted. and poses. disdain. velvety textures. 1595 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des BeauxArts). Also painted rare landscape watercolors. 1650 (London: National Gallery). 1638 (Oxfordshire: Bleinheim Palace) A Village Festival in Honor of St. James Stewart. KEY WORKS The Battle of Issus. 1600–1700 195 trade of all artists of the time). Peasants Making Music. 1646 (St.

alla prima pioneer. STYLE The content of Dutch Realism reflected everyday domestic tastes: sensitive and unpretentious scenes.196 T H E BA RO QU E E R A DUTCH REALISM Seventeeth-century Holland consciously developed a new type of art. with glass often in evidence. For example. cleanliness. sexual morality. . 1655. They also had a liking for portraits but these too tended to be small-scale and distinctly bourgeois in character. 1633. both of which threatened their prosperity. oil on canvas. as it was one of their luxury industries. First artist to practice self-portraiture as speciality 1616 1648 1650 1659 full of rich and exotic goods. oil on panel. Munich: Alte Pinakothek. they painted superb flower pieces. its principal subjects were secular and focused on the present day—landscapes. 13 1⁄2 x 10 2⁄3 in (34. Domestic scenes are full of themes of love. Group including Terbrugghen also returns from Rome excited by realism Frans Hals. Private Collection. c.4 x 27. These early works are similar in style to Van Goyen. still lifes. Being a nation of market gardeners. and household economy and order. heavy with rain. well made. including naval battles and storms at sea. and often full of symbolism and anecdotes. Still lifes are The Flea-Catcher (Boy with his Dog) Gerard Terborch. SUBJECTS National pride was the main subject. KEY EVENTS 1602 1610 Dutch East India Company founded Utrecht School established. and trading in works of art was commonplace at all levels of society. painting directly onto canvas. Small-scale. wins fame with Dutch “Civic Guards” group portrait Holland becomes an independent republic Founding of the Delft School with Vermeer as leading exponent Major late Rembrandt self-portrait. This new style of art was made to decorate and please. celebrate the particular qualities of the Dutch countryside: flat. River Landscape with Peasants Ferrying Cattle Salomon van Ruysdael. landscapes. usually painted with a close attention to detail. but it was also created for financial gain.1 cm). neatly cultivated lands with gray skies. although rarely accurate descriptions of exact places. Investing in works of art was a major activity. and genre scenes that recorded their daily activities. Canals and shipping feature large.

15 1⁄2 x 20 in (39 x 51 cm). . indicating that even the might of arms cannot defeat death The vanity of knowledge is represented by a book. What is ostensibly an object for visual enjoyment is. a sober Calvinist discussion. 5:15). 1645. naked shall he return to go … and shall take nothing of his labor” (Eccl. 1600–1700 197 1600s WHAT TO LOOK FOR Nothing in Dutch art is ever quite what it seems. oil on oak. a reminder of the earthly powers and glory death takes away The shaft of light highlights the central object—the human skull. and evocation of reflected light on surfaces. But riches too are a vanity: “As he came forth of his mother’s womb. The exotic objects. A visual sermon based on the Book of Ecclesiastes. light is a Christian symbol of the eternal TECHNIQUES Dutch painters were the first to establish a tradition of still-life painting: Steenwyck’s subject gives him ample scope to show off his technical mastery. a principal reminder of mortality. c. London: National Gallery. and empty jugs are symbolic of the essential emptiness of earthly possessions. A ghostly Roman emperor’s face is just visible on the urn. The Japanese sword is a symbol of worldly power. there is no escape from the inevitability of death. and often there is a skull or other symbol The Vanities of Human Life Harmen Steenwyck. attention to detail. in fact. not even in a still life. snuffed-out candles.C . of death—a momento mori—a reminder that even for the richest citizen. symbol of the human quest for the acquisition of knowledge and learning The shell is a symbol of worldly wealth—it would also have been a rare and prized possession in the 17th century.

who usually look pink-cheeked. anecdotal detail. oil on canvas. Although successful. 1621 (London: National Portrait Gallery). Tieleman Roosterman in Black Doublet. King James I of England and VI of Scotland. 1581 – 1666 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem 1 oils 2 Haarlem: Halsmuseum. adding to the sense of vivacity. KEY WORKS Young Man with a Skull. but spoiled by over-fussy. c. the year 1624). 1645 (Washington.000 in 1985. Dutch-born and trained. which introduced a hitherto unknown level of realism to English art. well fed.001 in 1999. 32 2⁄3 x 26 3⁄5 in (83 x 67 cm). Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $11.625. Was very influential in the late 19th century brushstrokes and bright colors. Arrived in London around 1618 and worked for Charles I. the shimmer of silk and satin. England 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery 3 $91. 1626–28 (London: National Gallery). and fluent. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Mad Babs. Italy 1 oils 2 Budapest: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $230. Painter of portraits and group portraits (especially of the “Civic Guards. having been totally out of fashion. expressive eyes. 1627 (London: National Portrait Gallery) Pieter Lastman b 1583 – 1633 n DUTCH The Laughing Cavalier Frans Hals. became much admired by young artists such as Manet. Portrait of a Man. rather stiff. Hagar and the Angel (oils) Chiefly remembered as Rembrandt’s most influential teacher. London: Wallace Collection. the intricacy of lace and embroidery. happy. 1624. and facial expression (see Rembrandt). straight onto the canvas. narrative pictures. He had a unique (for the time) sketchy painting technique. KEY WORKS Abraham on the Way to Canaan. and prosperous. well-formed. Juno Discovering Jupiter with Io.SVAE 26/Aº 1624” (his age. Portrait of Young Boy in Maroon Dress and White Ruff with Spaniel (oils) The major portrait painter in England before van Dyck. pink cheeks. 1614 (St. assured.” all-male social clubs) and of members of the newly established Dutch republic. c. White Ruff (oils) Stay-at-home self-portraitist who never moved from Haarlem in the Netherlands. 26. His best works are his later full-length portraits. 1618 (London: National Gallery) when his style. Also painted single genre figures of children and peasantry.000 in 1988. 1647 n DUTCH/BRITISH 5 The Hague. 1590 – C. Painted lush. 3rd Earl of Southampton. The picture is inscribed “AETA.198 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Frans Hals b C. His exciting. which are powerful. formally posed portraits (but with insight into personality). 1618 (London: National Portrait Gallery). Endymion Porter. One of the first masters of the Dutch School (preceded Rembrandt). lively. DC: National Gallery of Art). Painted elegant. 5 Amsterdam. Masterly command of beautifully observed. but the identity of the sitter remains unknown. but simple poses are full of animation. early 1650s (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Daniel Mytens b C. 1629–30 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). he was constantly in debt (because he had eight children?). well dressed. KEY WORKS Henry Wriothesley. with broad . Portrait of Willem Coymans. yet he still captured the appearance and feel of different textures: plump flesh. full of gesture.

Germany: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen). Burnley. KEY WORKS Still Life with Books. . His later work is softer and quieter. Was famous and successful with his still-life paintings of flowers and groaning. Rome 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $1. Ohio: Allen Memorial Art Museum). who was deeply influenced by Caravaggio’s subjects and style (he spent ten years in Italy). Lancashire: Towneley Hall Art Gallery. Was fascinated by reflected light. Hamburg: Kunsthalle.C . St.000 in 1985. 1621 (Kassel. Jan Davidsz de Heem b 1606 – 84 n DUTCH 5 Utrecht. Had many pupils and imitators. 1628 (The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum). The rediscovery of his sensitive and poetic paintings has been part of the general reappraisal of Caravaggesque art in the 20th century. 1629 (Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum) Still Life of Fruit and Flowers (detail) Jan Davidsz de Heem. The Annunciation. Antwerp 1 oils 2 Dresden: Gemäldegalerie 3 $6m in 1988. 1640 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) The most important painter of the Utrecht School. Lute Player Carousing with a Young Woman (oils) Utrecht-born. A Table of Desserts. oil on canvas. Sebastian Tended by Irene and her Maid. he became with Honthorst the leader of the Caravaggism associated with the Utrecht School. On his return to the Netherlands. sometimes to the point of stillness and silence. His early work has hard. exquisitely laid tables. c. 1640s. raking light. Fruit and Rich Tableware on a Table. 1612. 1600–1700 199 The Expulsion of Hagar Pieter Lastman. 1625 (Oberlin. Banquet Still Life (oils) Hendrick Terbrugghen b 1588 – 1629 n DUTCH 5 Utrecht. he lived and worked in Antwerp from 1636. oil on panel.460. His style became more exotic and opulent after moving to Antwerp. 1640 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). KEY WORKS Flute Players. The drama of the moment when Abraham banished Ishmael (his first son) and Hagar (his mother) is accompanied by an extensive landscape of equally dark mood. which throws detail into sharp relief.

he never visited Italy to drink at the fountains of Baroque but had access to High Renaissance works and was taught by Dutch “Caravaggio in a tea cup” artist. Perhaps Aeltje Pietersdr. Dutch master. Studies of Old Men’s Heads and Three Women with Children (detail) Rembrandt. free-flowing techniques of etching into copper rather than the heavier. reflecting Dutch social engineering of the period. stunning masterpieces. his modest parents recognized the importance of education. However. etchings. Unlike the Utrecht School founders and Rubens. Pieter Lastman. c. Son of a miller but. Birmingham (UK): The Barber Institute of Fine Arts. drawings 2 Amsterdam: Rijskmuseum.200 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Rembrandt b 1606 – 69 n DUTCH 5 Netherlands 1 oils.000 in 2000. LIFE His full name was Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn. the Rembrandt Commission currently argues over how many works he painted. who had worked in Italy. From a group of rapid sketches using thin pen strokes. The Hague: The Mauritshuis Museum 3 $26. Also one of the great printmakers. Portrait of a Lady aged 62. Generally considered to be the greatest.460. developing the exciting. Born in Leiden. so he was sent to Leiden University. Uylenburgh. He created prolific. Wife of Johannes Cornelisz (oils) new. surface-scratching of engraving. which is ultimately a flawed enterprise: you cannot resolve disputed attributions by majority vote in committee. 1635. but most elusive. . ink on paper. treasured in galleries worldwide.

8 cm). thanks to marrying a successful art dealer’s cousin.1 x 43. 1669. 1670 (The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum) Observe his emotional manipulation of light and shade—light being warming. 1655 (Washington. And this is the secret to his other works. London: National Gallery. especially the fleshy areas around the eye and nose in old faces (no other artist has ever painted them with such care and so convincingly). spiritual. the activity of painting. the threatening. he was left lonely and poor in his old age. He was enthralled by Jacob Blessing the Children of Joseph Rembrandt. heart-rending emotions. He was intrigued by human skin.5 cm). He never flinched. shadow being the domain of the unexplained. c. Vase with Flowers. Joseph Accused by Potiphar’s Wife. warm. he is seen as art’s first major self-portraitist as a recognized specialty. revealing. His beloved son. bankruptcy. SUBJECTS AND STYLE His subjects were biblical history (his preference). oil on canvas. and how hand and body language convey emotion. The Three Crosses Rembrandt. Kassel (Germany): Gemäldegalerie. and prints. 1656. KEY WORKS Saskia as Flora. 1635 (London: National Gallery). 69 x 82 4⁄5 in (175.C .5 x 210. At first money rolled in. The Blinding of Samson. His direct honesty and intense personal scrutiny over the years reveals an aging face of a true human being. One of Rembrandt’s greatest achievements as a history painter. or his own face). even in front of the toughest subjects (the Crucifixion. Titus. One of Rembrandt’s best etchings: a complex. Faces and gestures are the key— he was fascinated by the way faces reveal inner states of mind. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. He was also interested in showing emotional crises and moral dilemmas—you sense that he has experienced the intense feelings he portrays. which resulted in wealthy portrait commissions and quickly won renown. not beautiful but with penetrating realism. 33 4⁄5 x 27 3⁄4 in (86 x 70. and housekeeper common-law wife saved him from ruin but when they died (Titus at the age of 27). . drawings. dying 11 months later in Amsterdam. the evil. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Self-Portrait at the Age of 63 Rembrandt. 1636 (Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut). He inherited his wife’s fortune on her early death but later his popularity declined. and loss of his grand house and massive personal art collection. This is one of the last of over 75 self-portraits—paintings. in a way that can evoke deep. DC: National Gallery of Art). and comforting. His palette is distinctive: rich. 1600–1700 201 His personal life was increasingly touched with tragedy. and landscapes. resulting in debt. with a stunning exploitation of light and shade.5 cm). portraits. earthy. later work is looser in style. purifying. oil on canvas. 1653. etching. 15 x 17 1⁄4 in (38. early work is detailed. He had a unique ability to find all humanity beautiful. In fact. crowded work.

1655 (Los KEY WORKS Countryside with Angeles: J. 1637 (Paris: Museum). Munich: Alte Pinakothek 3 $200. Liked the formula of sitters posing by an open window.5 x 29 cm). Small-scale works with fine detail. he seems to have given up painting. Portrait of Young Woman Holding Leather Fan (oils) Bol was a pupil of Rembrandt. The Hermit. and less serious or gloomy. . 1639 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) A pupil of Rembrandt in the 1630s and strongly influenced by him in style and subject matter. Working very much in the master’s style. Woman at a Window. 1637–40 (Paris: Musée du Louvre).030. as a consequence. more elegant. c. Paris: Musée du Louvre. Candlelight. but his works are generally lighter. 1654. Young Man Holding Ottoman Short Sword (oils) KEY WORKS Astronomer by of figures engaged at a window. Paris: Musée du Louvre. oil Rembrandts are now on panel. so that several so-called 1647. and hidden symbolism.202 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Gerritt Dou b 1613 – 75 n DUTCH Govaert Flinck b 1615 – 60 n DUTCH 5 Leyden (Netherlands) 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. Recent revival of interest due to reattributions by the Rembrandt Commission The Village Grocer Gerrit Dou. skilful special effects. 67 1⁄3 x 58 1⁄4 in (171 x 148 cm). glassy finish. Bol married a rich widow and. Budapest: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $2. Young Shepherdess with (St. Remembered as Rembrandt’s first pupil (age 15). The Dentist (oils) Also known as Gerard Dou. to whom his works have often been attributed (Rembrandt being more prestigious and much more valuable). 1663 Musée du Louvre). Paul Getty Bridge and Ruins. Flinck was prolific and much esteemed in his own day. Portrait of a Husband and Wife Ferdinand Bol.000 in 1996. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). dedicated to self-conscious illusion. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum 3 $325. obsession with surface show. DC: Angels Announcing the Birth of Christ to the National Gallery of Art) Shepherds. Flowers. 15 x 112⁄5 in (38. brilliant colors. high. In 1669. 1670 (Washington. Dou often used this composition Ferdinand Bol b 1616 – 80 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. focused light and shade (he trained initially as an engraver and glass painter). oil on canvas.000 in 1998. 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. said to be by Flinck.864 in 2001. A conjurer’s world.

Used thick impastoed paint next to thin glazes (like Rembrandt). but not great. London: Harold Samuel Collection. KEY WORKS The Mocking of Christ. Good. Immensely talented—Rembrandt’s best pupil. 1655 (London: Harold Samuel Collection) “The Dutch had no imagination. Delft 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. 1642 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie).C . A Young Woman Sewing. 1600–1700 203 Did allegories and history paintings for public buildings.” VINCENT VAN GOGH .3 x 72. perspectives. and a highly original and distinctive painter. and less than ten authenticated works are known.1655.428 in 1985.400 in 1994. c. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $771. Mercury and Argos (oils) Had a tragically short life. c. but they show great variety. 18 1⁄4 x 28 2⁄5 in (46. Preferred cool colors to Rembrandt’s dark reds and browns. Used strong chiaroscuro (he was a pupil of Rembrandt) and soft focus. but they had extraordinary taste and an infallible feeling for composition. Maes succeeded best when combining humor and complicity. 1654 (The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum) Carel Fabritius b 1622 – 54 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam. Possessed a dark early style that becomes lighter after c. Antwerp 1 oils 2 Dordrecht: City Museum. Nicolaes Maes b 1632 – 93 n DUTCH 5 Dordrecht (Netherlands).2 cm). The Goldfinch. genre. near his studio. Budapest: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $708. David’s Dying Charge to Solomon. KEY WORKS Jacob’s Dream. or old women asleep (very popular at the time). Old Woman Making Lace in Kitchen (oils) Best known for his early genre paintings which often show kitchen life below stairs. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Died in a gunpowder explosion in Delft. elegant. KEY WORKS The Beheading of John the Baptist. which destroyed most of his work. 1643 (Dublin: National Gallery of Ireland) An Eavesdropper with a Woman Scolding Nicolaes Maes. oil on panel. 1650s (St. French-style portraits. 1640. 1640 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum). still lifes. Painted portraits. Later in life went in for small. Sometimes silhouetted a dark figure against a light background (Rembrandt preferred vice versa). Liked painting kitchen utensils.

c.000 in 1998. 1618 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek). He showed good detail. oil on canvas. fresco 2 London: National Gallery 3 $434. This use of artificial light and silhouettes greatly influenced the young Rembrandt. Rocky Landscape with Travelers and Horsemen on Path (oils) Talented maritime painter. Portrait of Laughing Violinist (oils) winter) are characterized by a feeling of natural. 1650s (Washington. Paul Getty Museum). Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane (The Agony in the Garden). Christ Crowned with Thorns. He spent much time at sea with the Dutch fleet. 1657 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) One of the founder members of the realist school of Dutch landscapes. 1650 (Los Angeles: J. 1671 (St. Studied in Rome 1610–12. Christ Before the High Priest. accurate detail. The paintings have meticulous. but eclipsed in popular esteem by his oil-painter son. 1619. His soft. Best remembered now for Supper with the Minstrel and his Lute Gerrit van Honthorst. 1591 – 1630 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem. KEY WORKS Figures on Board Small Merchant Vessels. The Battle of Terheide. 1623 (London: National Gallery). DC: National Gallery of Art). Dutch Ships Near the Coast. DC: National Gallery of Art) Only member of the Utrecht School to establish an international reputation. Dutch Harbor in a Calm with Small Vessels Inshore (works on paper) Esaias van de Velde b C. c. Private Collection. monochromatic scenes (often in . Petersburg: Hermitage Museum).000 in 1990. pen and ink 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $975. 1620 (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum) KEY WORKS 5 Leyden (Netherlands). c. Villagers Skating on a Frozen Pond. 1625 (Washington. Also a prolific etcher and draftsman. KEY WORKS Winter Games on the Town Moat. 1671 (London: National Gallery). 1672) to escape political confusion in Holland. especially in the anecdotal figures going about their daily business. 56 2⁄3 x 83 1⁄2 in (144 x 212 cm). His principal achievements are drawings of ships and small craft and pen paintings in ink on white canvas or oak panel. The Hague 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $450. unstagey open space and atmosphere. London 1 oils. Much favored by royal and aristocratic patrons for his history paintings and allegorical decorations. Willem van de Velde (the elder) b 1611 – 93 n DUTCH striking treatment of illumination by artificial light—especially good when he hides light source and plays with silhouette. Utrecht. A Winter Landscape.000 in 1999. Emigrated with family to England (c. c. London 1 oils.204 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Gerrit van Honthorst b 1590 –1656 n DUTCH 5 Italy.

London 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Fort on a River. Worked extensively from his father’s drawings. Ships off the Coast. Village on the Banks of River with Ferryboat and Peasants (oils) One of the most important Dutch landscape painters. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. James’s Church in Utrecht. Interior of St. The light-filled church interiors are a metaphor for universal laws of mathematics and optics. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $1. The castle is real.1 x 94 cm). 1642 (London: National Gallery). KEY WORKS Interior of the Marienkirche in Utrecht.65m in 2004. air. oil on canvas. c. he produced portraits of particular ships. Dutch Vessels at Low Tide. 1653 (St. The Hague 1 oils 2 St. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art. Had many pupils. enlivened by a flash of red or blue. Painted in subdued browns and grays. chalks. 1638 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle).349. watercolors 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum.500 in 1998. . Repeated same motifs frequently—Dordrecht. ships. sand dunes. Private Collection. Likes gnarled oaks. 1661 (London: National Gallery). KEY WORKS Ships in a Calm Sea. 1644 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Sea Battle of the Anglo-Dutch Wars Willem van de Velde (the younger). 25 1⁄4 x 37 in (64. London: National Gallery 3 $1. 1672 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) 5 Haarlem 1 oils. the setting imaginary. His later work (after 1693) was more freely painted. KEY WORKS Skaters in Front of a Medieval Castle. Small English Man-o-War Firing a Salute (oils) Pieter Jansz Saenredam b 1597 – 1665 n DUTCH Precocious son of hard-working maritime-painter father. Made meticulous preliminary drawings and measurements. and cloud movement. The Morning Gun. Willem van de Velde (the younger) b 1633 –1707 n DUTCH 5 Leyden (Netherlands). After 1670. His paintings have attractive light. Haarlem. naval battles. and Nijmegen River. oil on panel. Paul Getty Museum 3 $2.C . A Windmill by a River. 1700. Los Angeles: J. Uses high viewpoint and low horizon. 1637 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1642 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) River Landscape with Ferries Docked Before a Tower Jan van Goyen. The Anglo-Dutch wars (1652–84) were about control of trade routes. Interior of the Nieuwe Kerk (oils) Supremely gifted painter of architecture —both specific buildings in Dutch towns and interiors of identifiable churches (the once decorated Gothic buildings that were whitewashed to satisfy the Protestant belief in plainness).874.000 in 1999. Prolific and much imitated. Both the elder and younger van de Veldes were official naval war artists to the English crown. and storms at sea. 1600–1700 205 Jan van Goyen b 1596 – 1656 n DUTCH 5 Leyden (Netherlands). Haarlem. His early work concentrates on accurately drawn and carefully placed fishing vessels on tranquil seas. 1640s. space.

oil on canvas. drawings. 1600 – 70 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $3. KEY WORKS Rustic Concert. Extensive River Landscape (oils) Prolific and well-known painter of landscapes and riverscapes. London: British Museum.000 in 2004. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. All his works found a ready market. uncritical. Peasants Carousing and Dancing Outside Inn (oils) The Piper Adriaen van Ostade. A Peasant Courting an Elderly Woman. Salomon van Ruysdael b C. He painted scenes that sum up a preconceived idea of Holland (water. Later on he developed a line in silvery-gray landscapes. An Alchemist. Adriaen’s brother and pupil. Haarlem-born specialist in good-natured. Isaak (1621–49). watercolors 2 St. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $5.465. Both the peasants’ behavior and Ostade’s technique improve as his work develops (perhaps marrying a well-to-do woman toned down his style and subjects). 1661 (London: National Gallery).000 in 1997. chose similar peasant subjects in his early work. flat . lowlife scenes of peasants having a good time in their hovels or taverns. Uncle of the better known Jacob van Ruisdael. Rich. Ostade was a prolific painter (over 800 are known) and a skilled watercolorist and etcher. c. 1653 (London: National Gallery).432.206 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Adriaen van Ostade b 1610 – 84 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem 1 oils. 1650s. 1638 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). with good atmosphere and busy human activity. earthy colors suit the mood.

343⁄4 x 44 in (91 x 111. c. sailing boats with flags. 1648 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). There are also a few late still lifes with hunting themes. Winter Landscape with Figures on Path and Ice (oils) Specialist in night scenes (gloomily imaginative. but not great.404. 1666. Also failed as an innkeeper and went bankrupt. horizon across middle. with pale. Panoramic River Landscape (oils) Pupil of Rembrandt who learned from the master’s landscape etchings and went on to produce a formula for large-scale. The equal division of open sky and landscape is typical of this artist. The riverscape formula that he employed inventively juggles the following elements: compositions that always have a diagonal axis. sweeping brushstrokes. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $3. . Oddly unsuccessful as a painter. KEY WORKS Sailboats on the Wijkermeer. panoramic landscapes of Holland: high viewpoint. cloudy skies. 1656 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Aert van der Neer b 1603 – 77 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 St. Amsterdam 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $1. small figures to increase sense of vast space. Dutch Landscape with Highwayman. Good. buildings on horizon (town. c.528. 1645 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) Philips Koninck lands. An Extensive Landscape. 1648 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 1600 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). evening light on horizon. mature trees b 1619 – 88 n DUTCH 5 Rotterdam. reflections in water.8 cm). big skies)—applying a standard formula that was very popular with Dutch collectors.C . 1666 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland) An Extensive Landscape Philips Koninck. church). cold colors and lots of skaters). He painted with broad. KEY WORKS Wide River Landscape. Landscape with Medieval Castle.000 in 1992. the grain of the panel often shows through. cows. windmill. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland.000 in 1997. 1652 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum). River View by Moonlight. oil on canvas. alternating bands of light and dark to give receding space. rowing boats with fishermen. 1600–1700 207 on a river bank. using thin paint on a light ground. scudding clouds. KEY WORKS Sports on a Frozen River. c. with ghostly full moon or lit by burning candles) and winter landscapes (atmospheric.

1625 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) Paulus Potter b 1625 – 54 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 St. a pink castle. KEY WORKS Winter Scene at Yselmuiden. atmospheres. goats). c. 1656–60 (St. He was prolific and about 700 known paintings are happily attributed to him. Fording a Stream (oils) Small-scale landscapes of horsemen. c. Uses high horizons and warm-colored buildings that intensify the coldness of sky and snow. Winter Scene (oils) Mute painter from Kampen in the Netherlands. battle or hunting scenes (note trademark white horse).000 Two Undershot Watermills with Men Opening Sluice (oils) Jacob van Ruisdael was the principal Dutch landscape painter of the second half of the 17th century. elegant coloring. 1650 (Las Vegas: Guggenheim Hermitage Museum) 3 $4. Simple compositions—clear. Fishermen by Moonlight.75m in 2004.208 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Philips Wouvermans b 1619 – 68 n DUTCH Hendrick Avercamp b 1585 –1634 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem 1 oils 2 Dresden: Royal College. 1613 (Geneva: Musée d’Art et d’Histoire). watercolors 2 Windsor Castle (England): Royal Collection 3 $7. The WolfHound. sheep. c. 1660 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) 5 Amsterdam 1 oils. the thin painting of his figures gives them vitality and movement. Good at weather. Two Cows and a Bull in a Meadow (oils) Jacob van Ruisdael b 1628 – 82 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem. KEY WORKS Cattle and Sheep in a Stormy Landscape. Also vanitas-type still lifes. observation of light. London: National Gallery Best painter of cows (also horses. Noted for a few life-sized animal pictures. His earliest known works date from 1746.519. Landscape with Stag Hunt in Full Cry. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $1. usually in a landscape with bare trees. white sky. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum).268. Landscape with Bathers. 1647 (London: National Gallery). and a happy throng on the ice and snow. foreground figures. KEY WORKS Horses Being Watered. Unpretentious decorative art at its best. Popular. Specialized in atmospheric winter scenes. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $1. but more at ease on a small scale. harmonious. Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. hilly landscape. London: National Gallery.57m in 2001. .000 in 1996.

This is Potter’s most monumental work. impastoed paint. watercolors 2 London: National Gallery. Forest Scene. Dulwich Picture Gallery 3 $5. seascapes. 1665–69 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) A Herdsman with Five Cows by a River Aelbert Cuyp. His father owned a factory for stamping and gilding leather. KEY WORKS The Sea by Moonlight. harmony with nature. and winter scenes. clouds. oil on panel. oil on canvas. 1608–09. 1647. Note how the golden light catches just the edges of plants. His work is painted on dark priming and. The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1660 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie). or animals. 1648–52 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). c. a sense of proprietorship and timelessness. These winter scenes were painted in the studio. c. from sketches for sale in the local art market. He uses a warm palette of earthy golds and browns contrasted with cool. Oaks by a Lake with Watermills. Orpheus Charming the Animals (oils) Winter Scene with Skaters near a Castle Hendrik Avercamp. stillness. London: National Gallery. He favors skies with rain clouds and flying birds (not convincing—it looks like a stage backdrop). His work has a certain amount of stock imagery although he can be quite inventive within the formula: mountains. c. he worked on panel but subsequently painted on canvas. Melancholic. clarity. the different spelling occurs regularly in their signatures) and had a second career as a surgeon. soft shadows (surprising how few definite shadows there are). The light floods in from the left. c. 1660–65 (Washington. silvery skies and foliage. Nice ambiguities and easily overlooked details. 1650 (London: National Gallery) Panoramic View of Haarlem. has dark tones. with highlights laid on in thick. c. The Jewish Cemetery. A Distant View of Dordrecht with a Milkmaid and Four Cows. . The Young Bull Paulus Potter. 1650. waterfalls. 93 x 133 1⁄2 in (236 x 339 cm). Before 1650. golden light (which he took entirely from Italian paintings) he transformed his native Holland (especially Dordrecht) into a fantasy dream world.C . Essentially. beaches and dunes. 1648 (St. as a result. c. everything and everyone in their appointed place. casting long.852. such as birds in flight. 1660s (London: Harold Samuel Collection). c. 1600–1700 209 Aelbert Cuyp b 1620 – 91 n DUTCH 5 Dordrecht 1 oils. He is also attracted to massive forms and often uses a low viewpoint to silhouette features against the sky. he was nephew to the landscape painter Salomon van Ruysdael (c. London: National Gallery. Is it morning or evening? He was much loved and collected in England. security. his paintings are descriptive (no hidden symbolism) with a yearning for grandeur. which epitomizes the start or end of a perfect day. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum).000 in 1994. KEY WORKS Son of a painter. He is more naturalistic than his predecessors and it is possible to identify species of trees in his paintings (note how he likes rotten trees and broken branches). He produced some of the most beautiful landscapes and riverscapes ever painted. 17 3⁄4 x 29 in (45 x 74 cm). 1600–70. Using Italianate. The patrician classes who commissioned and collected his work appreciated the qualities of order. oil on wood. diameter 16 1⁄5 in(41 cm). Sunset after Rain. c. Works like these were produced on commission for wealthy members of Dordrecht society. Cuyp married a wealthy widow in 1658 and neglected his art for local politics.

hard and soft. KEY WORKS The Swearing of the Oath of Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. c. his love of a lady’s neck and the light reflecting off a surface. its foibles. small-scale topographical and capriccio (see page 234) views of towns in the Netherlands and Rhineland. the rendering of fabrics and the way clothes are made. and gentle genre scenes show self-absorbed moments of a mundane world being raised to immortality by art. Music Lesson (oils) Precocious and successful. See how he uses gentle symbolism but without overt moralizing. its ordinariness.2m in 1997. His range is generally limited to repetitive scenes of finely painted dark landscapes with watermills and cottages round a pool. Düsseldorf. Germany 1 oils 2 St. its people. his ability to draw us quietly into his intimate world and leave a lingering question over the secrets or affections that are being shared. Look for harmonies of brown. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. c. and occasional figures. Spain. detailed bricks against blue skies and fluffy white 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $8. gold. who is best known for still lifes and meticulous. View of the Jesuit Church of St. Wooded Landscape with Travellers on a Path through a Hamlet (oils) Last of the major Dutch landscape artists of the 17th-century golden age. and silver and gray-blue. Haarlem. Italy.000 in 1997. The Message. Paris: Musée de Louvre 3 $1. c. A typical composition is of buildings closing in on one side with an open area leading out of the picture on the other—another good use of contrast. and yellow.008. One senses from the acuity of his observation and the minute care with which he applies the paint that he viewed this world. KEY WORKS A View in Cologne. The Inn of the Black Pig at Maarsseveen. he gave up professional painting when he married in 1668 and became a wine gauger instead. 1663 (London: National Gallery). c. Paul Getty Museum) Jan van der Heyden b 1637 – 1712 n DUTCH Meyndert Hobbema b 1638 – 1709 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. Andreas (oils) A prosperous inventor and designer of fire engines and lighting. painting was a secondary activity for van der Heyden. 1665–68 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) . his love of detail. and its objects (not forgetting the dogs) with the greatest of affection and pleasure. he sets warm. 1668 (Detroit Institute of Arts) cloud—satisfying contrasts of warm and cool. overgrown trees. 1648 (London: National Gallery). England.210 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Gerard Terborch b 1617 – 81 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam. restrained. A Lady at her Toilet. c.26m in 2001. sharp. 1660–65 (London: National Gallery). Terborch (or Ter Borch) was one of the finest and most inventive masters of the Dutch School. His small-scale. c. 1668 (Los Angeles: J. KEY WORKS A Stream by a Wood. Famous for dexterous painting of walls and masonry. 1658 (Lyon: Musée des Beaux-Arts). A Watermill. exquisitely balanced against dark backgrounds. London: National Gallery 3 $4. very beautiful.

pale yellow) adds to the paintings’ vitality and reflects their character. promiscuity. Two Soldiers and a Woman Drinking. DC: National Gallery of Art) . and landscapes. and households with stock characters and facial expressions (rather like a TV soap opera—and maybe his works fulfilled a similar need). c. The complex symbolism indicates that the “father” holding the baby is a cuckold. 1659 (London: National Gallery). mythological scenes. c. little is known of his life. 1660 (Washington. From Delft. Figures in an Interior with Man and Woman Seated at Table Playing Cards (oils) Steen. oil on canvas. Courtyard of House in Delft with Young Woman and Two Men (oils) Jan Steen b C. were prolific and popular. 34 1⁄2 x 42 in (87. It is known that he died insane but. who was his talented contemporary in Delft. portrayed rich interiors with a bogus view of pseudoaristocratic life. after 1665. 1658 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum). 1626 – 79 n DUTCH 5 Netherlands 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $2. the genre scenes carry an unambiguous (sometimes heavy-handed) message about drunkenness. c. His very late work (1670s) is feeble but his best work bears a similarity to that of Vermeer (see page 213). He also makes discreet use of symbols and emblems. and enjoys. and he uses carefully worked-out geometric perspective.C . London: Wallace Collection. juicy fresh colors (rose red. Pieter de Hooch b 1629 – 83 n DUTCH 5 Delft. His best and most widely known work dates from his years in Delft (1654–c. religious works. The lively and easy use of flowing.24m in 1992. Watch out also for portraits. Skittle Players Outside an Inn. he moved to Amsterdam and. celebrating well-behaved middle-class life. and generally depicts sunny courtyards and sunlit interiors. 1660/61). Observe the way he plays with. 1658–60 (Washington.7m in 1989. idleness. c. otherwise. blue-green. KEY WORKS A Young Woman Playing a Harpsichord. Full of symbolism. Before 1655 he painted lowlife peasant and soldier scenes. feasts. KEY WORKS The Pantry. usually with a single vanishing point. His compositions are carefully designed with well-placed verticals. A Dutch Courtyard. c. etc. and diagonals.8 x 107 cm). DC: National Gallery of Art). Amsterdam 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $6. space and light—he creates views from one room or area to another and uses the geometric patterns of the tiled floors and courtyards to construct the illusion of space. His lively. 1664. 1660–63 (London: National Gallery) Pieter de Hooch is a perennially popular Dutch master and one of the bestknown and best-loved genre painters. ran a tavern and owned a brewery. one of the best and most important Dutch genre painters. 1600–1700 The Christening Feast (detail) 211 Jan Steen. crowded scenes of taverns. horizontals. flooding them with warm light and leaving the foreground uncluttered.

Many of the objects and still-life details are symbolic. His son never visited Italy but continued his father’s . polite Dutch households. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Jan van Huysum b 1682 – 1749 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $3. Falconer’s Bag. Flowers and Fruit. Smooth enamel-like paint. Still Life with Flowers. Officer Paying Court to a Woman in Interior (oils) Still Life Jan Weenix. c. c. Fruit. Birds. 1723 (St. it is meant to be read as part of the meaning of the picture (a neat way of drawing you into the intimacy and secrecy of the scene). Weenix’s early still lifes caught the eye of the Elector Palatine. Flowers in a Terra-cotta Vase on a Marble Plinth (oils) One of the most prolific flower painters. marble. if there is lettering or a document. smallscale scenes of well-ordered. 1640s (St. to Holland. Ornamental bouquets of asymmetrical flower arrangements.000 in 1995. and was skilled at textures. Italianate Evening with a Muleteer and Goatherds on a Wooded Path (oils) Dutch landscape painter who studied in Rome and introduced the Italianate Arcadian landscape. Portrait of Peter I. c. 1618 – 52 n DUTCH 5 Utrecht 1 oils 2 London: Wallace Collection 3 $1. 1695 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 1635–41 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). 1690. The Prodigal Son. such as silk. c. His palette is warm and personal. More detailed and literal than Claude (see page 182). especially using reds and browns. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum).212 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Jan Both b C. High-quality painter of intimate. A few fruit pieces and landscapes. He also painted hunting trophies and still lifes. cool tones.000 in 1999. c.1 cm). à la Claude. not necessarily of the same season. Düsseldorf 1 oils 2 London: Wallace Collection 3 $456. silver. Boy Bearing Fruit (oils) Son of Jan Baptist Weenix (1621–63) who called himself Giovanni Battista after his trip to Italy 1642–1646. vivid blues and greens. and glass. 1646 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Gabriel Metsu b 1682 – 1749 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Amstersdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $1. A Dead Cock. he gained an impressive international reputation. 1692 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum). Note his liking for dark interiors—rooms with windows closed or curtains drawn. whose carefully organized compositions and meticulous technique and palette reflect the lifestyle of the Dutch bourgeoisie. he does not usually make references to classical mythology. 19 1⁄2 x 15 in (49.5 x 38. c. or a dark corner.96m in 2000. he worked directly from life rather than from studies. Bandits Leading Prisoners. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1723 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) Jan Weenix b 1640 – 1719 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam. KEY WORKS The White Peacock. Leeds: City Art Gallery. KEY WORKS Italian Landscape. who employed him in Düsseldorf from 1702–14. Whenever possible. 1653 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1702–20 (London: National Gallery). oil on canvas.426.2m in 1992. Dead Hare on Plinth by Urn. 1655–59 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) KEY WORKS popular Italianate seaports and courtyard scenes. 1697 (St. A Soldier Visiting a Young Lady. KEY WORKS Hollyhocks and Other Flowers in a Vase.

DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $2. The Only 35 works known Hague: Mauritshuis Museum. 1670 (London: National Gallery) Look closely: nothing is quite in View of Delft Jan Vermeer. so often disappointing. It is likely that Vermeer used a camera obscura. Lady Standing at the light. exquisite. tantalizing Holding a Balance. c. By stopping short he requires the individual eye and imagination to supply what it most desires to see and feel. 1600–1700 213 Jan Vermeer b 1632 – 75 n DUTCH 5 Delft 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. Unrecognized in his own lifetime. and enigmatic human relationships. c. DC: observation of the organization of space. With a few Holland for the equivalent of 50 cents. 1656–61 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum). and in its full realization. The Hague: Mauritshuis selects that tantalizing fraction of a second Museum. National Gallery of Art).C . Girl with a Pearl Earring Jan Forgotten until the end Vermeer. 39 1⁄3 x 46 in focus—visually and emotionally he (100 x 117 cm).5 x 40 cm ). The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum. becomes clear and resolved. oil on canvas. oil on canvas. 1664 (Washington. Woman but with a unique. he constantly reworked KEY WORKS Kitchen Maid. memorable exceptions. In the 1880s this famous work was sold in for certain. along with manipulation of breathtaking skill and sensitivity. 18 1⁄3 x 15 3⁄4 in of the 19th century. . 1660–61. c. Virginal. The work was much but not yet fully perceived or understood admired by Marcel Proust. c. Washington. just before something that is anticipated which projects a slightly fuzzy image.7m in 1990. the same theme: the corner of a room. Makes the eye linger over the seemingly innocent but precisely calculated interplay of cool blues and sensuous yellows and whites. Cupid Disarmed by Venus (oils) Now regarded as the finest Dutch genre painter. 1660–61. This is perceptual and poetic creativity. (46.

and the interplay between two figures. the regular pattern of a slate and marble floor.214 T H E BA RO QU E E R A The Artist’s Studio Vermeer c. Vermeer often used the placing of a chair in the foreground. Vermeer confirms the status of painting as a liberal art. observation. it is a complex allegory about the art of painting. meticulously developed craftsmanship. who hung it in his private rooms at Berchtesgaden. the Muse of History. and during World War II it was confiscated from its Austrian owners by Adolf Hitler. into delicate beads of light. The painting has also had an interesting history—in 1677 Vermeer’s family petitioned the courts to prevent it from being auctioned to pay the artist’s debts. . Typical of Vermeer is the intimate glimpse of the relationship between two people. It changed hands several times. it is a very subtle and intricate arrangement of space and light. 1665 This is one of Vermeer’s later and most ambitious works. like variations on a theme. especially on the curtain and the chairs. meticulous observation of light. such as genre painting The line of the tabletop draws the viewer’s eye in to the painting toward a vanishing point positioned just below the bulbous finial of the map’s roller bar The model represents Clio. Vermeer may be suggesting that an artist’s fame need no longer rest with traditional history painting but can be achieved with new subjects. whose attributes are the wreath of laurel and a book in which she records all heroic deeds. which symbolizes the fame that can be achieved by an artist. not unlike pearls The Muse of History carries a trumpet. and precise handling of color. The nine Muses were the goddesses of inspiration in the arts and sciences. study. Note how Vermeer turns highlights. intellectually and emotionally. the fulfillment of many years of experience. It operates on two levels: visually. The source of light is hidden behind a heavy curtain that is drawn aside to reveal the artist at work. and discussion.

The roof beams create a strong horizontal pattern continued by the map’s roller bars. but wears a 15th-century costume. The Northern Dutch provinces gained full independence from Spain in 1648. It would seem that Vermeer is connecting the art of his own era with the art of the time of the great masters van Eyck (see page 110) and van der Weyden (see page 111) TECHNIQUES Vermeer uses the tiles like stepping-stones to lead the eye into the composition. The lack of candles refers to their waning power. . 1600–1700 215 The Artist’s Studio Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 47 x 39 1⁄2 in (120 x 100 cm) Location Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum The chandelier is decorated with the twoheaded eagle of the Hapsburgs.C . the Spanish royal family. the latter was still under the political control and cultural influence of Spain The artist’s easel points with new confidence toward the new republic of Holland The painter is not dressed in the clothes of his own day. The underlying structure of horizontals and verticals gives the picture its mood of stability and calm The vertical crease marks the frontier between Protestant Holland and Catholic Flanders. The line is reinforced by the angle of the tabletop.

Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1630s (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery). direct style. Chesterfield Portrait. He was the principal portrait painter for Charles II. c. two boys.216 T H E BA RO QU E E R A William Dobson b C.920 in 1992. which show richly dressed. A few very fine early works show his talent for landscape and observation of unimportant faces. but had settled in England by the age of 30. c. Italy. London 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery.328. and learned the virtues of allegory and elegance. KEY WORKS Elizabeth Claypole (née Cromwell). Portrait of Lord Mungo Murray in Highland Dress (oils) German-born of Dutch parents. Duchess of York Sir Peter Lely. 1635–40 (London: Tate Collection) fashionable. The first wife of James II was reputedly more clever than beautiful. Robust. England 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery 3 $263. Greenwich. Many substandard works were produced by studio assistants. Established a successful formula (polite. Half-length portraits: red-faced. Two Ladies of the Lake Family. Studio assistants were responsible for much poor-quality work in his name. 1658 (London: National Portrait Gallery). KEY WORKS The Executioner with the Baptist’s Head. 1676 (London: Tate Collection). c. and especially notable for his A talented Catholic portrait painter who spent the 1640s and 1650s in Rome and France. 1640s–50s (St. which emphasize the sitter’s learning or bravery (or both). he established a successful practice during the reigns of Charles II and James II but his more direct and realistic style never quite suited fashionable taste. Rome. c. Became principal state portrait painter from the reign of Charles II to George II. London 1 oils 2 London: National Maritime Museum. masklike faces with repetitive mouths and eyes) that emphasized status rather than realism or personality. Barbara Villiers. Portrait of the Artist’s Wife. slightly raffish-looking women with heavy eyes and long. KEY WORKS Trial by Fire. Portrait of King George I of England (oils) Anne Hyde.2 x 143 cm). conservative male subjects with classical allusions and visual references. KEY WORKS Portrait of John Banckes. 1660s. c. probably Philip Stanhope and brother Charles (oils) 3 $437. St. female portraits. 71 3⁄4 x 56 1⁄3 in (182. German-born.900 in 2000. c.754 in 1997. 1610 – 46 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils 2 London Galleries 3 $161. Duchess of Cleveland. Thomas Hobbes. 1660 (London: Tate Collection). earthy. 1685 (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery) .000 in 2003. Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery. whose family name was van der Faes. Netherlands. He died in poverty. mobile fingers. 1669–70 (London: National Portrait Gallery) Sir Godfrey Kneller b 1646 –1723 n GERMAN/BRITISH 5 Amsterdam. When at his best. 1665 (Private Collection) John Michael Wright b 1617 – 94 n BRITISH Sir Peter Lely b 1618 – 80 n DUTCH/BRITISH 5 Edinburgh. he had a wonderful feel for light. Only 50 known paintings: nothing known pre1642. A direct contemporary of Lely. Portrait of Sir Thomas Cricheley (oils) Brief career as a painter to the doomed court of Charles I at Oxford. King Charles II. Hampton Court Palace 3 $1. Petersburg: The Hermitage Museum 5 Haarlem. Lely settled in England in the early 1640s.

1680s (London: St. The only English painter of fashionable. National Maritime Gallery 3 $88. Duchess of Marlborough. Time. silvery tones and short brushstrokes. as well as major stately homes where his work is found today. Kneller’s principal competitor. 1690. Cecilia an Organ England’s most famous woodcarver of all time. elegant style. Royal patrons included Charles II. but it lacks the necessary histrionic drama and excess (the British always believed that foreigners do that kind of thing better). 1670/71. flowers. 1695–1700 (London: National Portrait Gallery) . London) and country houses. Capriccio with Saint Paul before Agrippa (oils) Ambitious and successful. Piccadilly). 1716 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) “There is nothing on earth so terrible as English music except English painting. c. London: Victoria & Albert Museum. which tumbled down furniture. London 1 sculpture 2 Surrey (England): Hampton Court. Truth. he arrived in England c. c. This intricately carved piece meticulously imitates Venetian needlepoint lace.000 in 1995. Dahl was prolific and successful. paneling. Produced competent portraits of aristocracy. and George I. Writer Sir Horace Walpole often wore it as a joke. Psalm 48. Very distinct personal style—his sculptures seem organically alive. royalty. Retired from painting in 1728 to become an MP and country squire. was so realistic that an overseas visitor was convinced it was the standard dress of an English gent. View of Olyo Farm. His theme was often cascades: fruit. KEY WORKS Thetis Accepting the Shield of Achilles from Vulcan. Unknown Woman. 1600–1700 217 Grinling Gibbons b 1648 – 1720 n BRITISH/DUTCH 5 Rotterdam. 1710 (London: Tate Collection). KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. 1691 (London: National Portrait Gallery). settled in London in 1689. fresco 2 London: Greenwich. Languorous. c. This famous cravat (right). but poor characterization. 1680s (Suffolk: Petworth House) Woodcarving of a Cravat Grinling Gibbons. Sussex (England) Petworth Park 3 $140. St. William III. Tate Collection 5 England 1 oils. à la Venetian needlepoint. Ceiling. formerly known as Sarah Churchill. Born of English parents in Rotterdam. even chimneys and walls. Produced quality work. and once belonged to 18th-century collector Sir Horace Walpole. limewood. leaves. used diffused. Born in Sweden. Good on draperies. KEY WORKS Marble font.” HEINRICH HEINE Michael Dahl b 1659 – 1743 n SWEDISH/BRITISH Sir James Thornhill b 1675 – 1734 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery. illusionistic Baroque wall and ceiling paintings for public buildings (including the Painted Hall of Wren and Hawksmoor’s naval hospital in Greenwich. and Justice.000 in 1999. James’s Church. c. Valdres (oils) 3 $42. King David Playing Harp. c. birds.C . His earlier works are best. fish.920 in 1989. and the literati.

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parties. and human nature. By contrast. the art. and create harmonious relationships in which superstition.C . and convenience. delicate colors. rather than supporting ideologies. children. explain the workings of the world. and oppression would be eliminated. Spectacular church interiors were created from a blend of Baroque architecture and Rococo decoration. industriousness. and philosophy of the 18th century are full of references to the differences between sense and sensibility. was a period of relative calm in which all the arts developed a refinement and elegance—often small in scale—suited to satisfying simple human needs and longings. FRANCE AND ENGLAND The principles of the Enlightenment were also reflected in the politics of the two major powers. and precise outlines prioritizing morality and self-denial. but to emphasize that choice was part and parcel of human fulfillment. the 18th century. slavery. discussion. food. and asymmetric curves emphasizing frivolity. not as competing ideologies that would fight Interior of Abbey Church. reason and emotion. 1700–1800 219 FROM ROCOCO TO NEO-CLASSICISM C. the Age of Reason. literature. reading. frivolity and morality. so did education. A each other to the death. but expressed in surprisingly . The Enlightenment also liked intellectual and emotional dualities. t the heart of 18th-century thought and politics was the Enlightenment—a belief that human reason would resolve political and religious dilemmas. comfort. music. and sensuality. Thus. travel. town planning. This duality is equally well represented in the two principal artistic styles of the century: the Rococo with its light-hearted subjects. 1700 –1800 The 17th century had been a period of religious confrontation and warfare. landscape gardening. the universe. and Neoclassicism with its serious historical subjects. sensuality and self-denial. This emphasis on “a pursuit of happiness” manifested itself in many ways: family life. tyranny. straight lines. indulgence and sobriety. Ottobeuren. Bavaria In the 18th century Germany staged a cultural recovery. and conjugal love became important. France and England.

was rapidly evolving an early form of parliamentary rule. Both nations benefited from scientific discoveries. with the end of the Seven Years’ War. TIMELINE: 1700—1800 1703 Foundation of St. Both also had substantial colonial territories—chiefly in India and North America—backed by powerful military and naval forces. during which the king and his family were executed and Europe was plunged into war. Petersburg by Peter the Great 1714 Hanoverian succession in Britain 1729 Bach’s St. As important. unification with Scotland in 1707. French ideas through one of theory. and agricultural revolutions. population growth. duc d’Orléans.C L A S S I C I S M Cry of Liberty and the Departure for the Frontier Le Sueur brothers. and with very different outcomes. Catholic France remained committed to the absolutist model of kingship established by Louis XIV. English ideas were filtered though a prism of robust middle-class pragmatism. was emphatically confirmed. and aristocratic otherworldliness. Protestant England. more properly Britain after its formal James Watt rotary steam engine Britain’s technological lead in the second half of the 18th century gave it a decisive advantage over its European trading rivals. France had been ejected from India and North America and British naval superiority. upon death of Louis XIV 1735 War of the Polish Succession becomes Europe-wide conflict (to 1738) 1740 1740 Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia launches War of Austrian Succession (to 1748) . different ways. print. 1792. However Anglo-French rivalry was more than just a question of power politics. Industrialization boosted productivity and lowered costs. Musée de la Ville de Paris. The French Revolution brought 10 years of political chaos to France. Britain’s superiority was clear. After 1763. each stood for a fundamentally different approach to government.220 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O . Matthew Passion first performed 1751 Diderot begins publication of L’Encyclopédie (to 1780) 1700 1704 Grand Alliance forces under duke of Marlborough defeat French at Blenheim 1720 1715 France ruled by regency of Philippe II. philosophical speculation. the linchpin of its maritime empire.

the latter despite its still huge Latin American empire. Like many other 18th-century writers and artists. 1700—1800 221 INDEPENDENCE AND REVOLUTION British self-confidence received a stinging rebuff with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 by the American colonists. The revolutionary rallying cry of “Liberty. Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut. oil on canvas. Fraternity” soon became hollow words. she simply went on to build a second worldwide empire. France. Goethe in the Campagna Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. as the bloodshed and tyranny of the “Terror” and then the dictatorship of Napoleon usurped the Enlightenment principles that the Revolution had sought to establish. and it succeeded in creating what would eventually grow into a new world power. 1787. Having lost her American colonies. was a country that was kept unsteadily afloat by a volatile combination of aristocratic privilege. this fatally flawed structure fell apart in the turmoil of the French Revolution of 1789. and Russia (Catherine the Great) were all growing in influence and power. and about to reap the economic benefits of an industrial revolution. 1761 British destroy French power in India 1776 American colonies declare independence from Britain 1788 First British settlement in Australia 1793 Final partition of Poland 1799 Coup brings Napoleon to power in France 1760 1762 Accession of Catherine the Great of Russia 1763 Treaty of Paris confirms British supremacy in North America 1780 1777 Watt develops first true steam engine (Britain) 1789 French Revolution 1784 The Oath of the Horatii. Elsewhere in Europe the Austrian Habsburgs (Empress Maria Theresa). Ottoman Turkey was also shrinking in terms of power and territory. an Anglo-Scottish enterprise that defined a British national identity. corruption. modeled on the examples of both France and England. the whole centered on an inept monarchy. David (France) 1800 1798 Napoleon invades Egypt . It was the clearest possible statement of the political and philosophical principles of the Enlightenment. Britain recovered. reduced by the end of the century to little more than an impotent bystander. Prussia (Frederick the Great). Goethe visited Italy to seek inspiration among the Classical ruins. Italy and Habsburg Spain were subsiding. even if they lacked the global reach of France and England. 64 1/2 x 81 in (164 x 206 cm). Equality. on the other hand. and added enormous riches to a land already grown fat on modern agriculture. Poland was on the verge of extinction. In the end.C . and debt.

Two years later. Breakfast in the Open Air. He entered the French Academy in 1717 with A Journey to Cythera (right). Created a fresh. even though his own style was far more light and delicate. where a half-spoken sentence or a snatched glance can be made to mean everything). Rural Pleasures. chalk 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. Pierrot: Gilles 1721. possibly to consult a famous physician. LIFE AND WORKS Watteau came from a poor family and had indifferent health throughout his short life. Conversation. which could not be fitted into any existing category and for which he received the new title of “peintre de fêtes galantes. he trained as a scene painter at the Paris Opéra from c. oil on canvas. in 1719.222 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Jean-Antoine Watteau b 1684 – 1721 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils. which was a major “With a material art he has realized the miracle of representing a domain that it seemed only possible to evoke with music. The very titles of his works. 1702–07. A laughing stock. new. . which was badly needed at the time. He then went to work for the curator of the Luxembourg Palace. London: Wallace Collection 3 $3. His forms are often half-suggested and require completion in the imagination (as in love. carefree exuberance. There he had access to Rubens’s Marie de Medici series. grounded in an acute observation of reality. Never sentimental. Artist from the Commedia dell’Arte in a Landscape (oils) The most important French painter of the first half of the 18th century. Paris: Musée du Louvre. 1721 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). 72 4⁄5 x 59 in (185 x150 cm). become the spirit of the Rococo: daring.” a variant of the term “fête champêtre” or “outdoor feast. airy. His statues seem about to become flesh and blood and join the human activity. but the grim English winter aggravated his condition and he died of TB in 1721. this mournful clown is the rejected lover and pitiable fool. unassuming style. His last great work was a shop sign known as L’Enseigne de Gersaint.000 in 2000.” which had been applied to the 16thcentury outdoor scenes of Giorgione (see page 140) and the Gardens of Love found in medieval manuscripts.” CAMILLE MAUCLAIR ON WATTEAU influence. From a Flemish town ceded to France from the Spanish Netherlands. The character Pierrot: Gilles comes from the form of Italian improvised comedy known as commedia dell’arte. there is a melancholy that is sometimes accredited to his poor health. he went to London. STYLE He is famous for inventing the fête galante or “courtship party”—a sort of stage set and dream world of perfectly mannered human love and harmony with nature.234. Le Conteur.

Paris: Musée du Louvre. KEY WORKS The Scale of Love c. 1717 (Paris: Musée de Louvre). reputation suffered. but his color-flecking techniques influenced Delacroix and the later Post-Impressionists. During the French Revolution and with Neoclassicism. and white chalks set down separately on tinted paper. he made exquisite red-and-black chalk drawings. light. WHAT TO LOOK FOR At his death he was developing a more sober blending of his early Flemish realism with his playful fête galante. Curators now find that many of Watteau’s paintings are in poor condition. chalk on paper. 1715–18 (London: National Gallery). suggesting the deeper issues of humanity. oil on canvas. DC: National Gallery of Art) Head of a Negro c. These numerous drawings. which he bound in large volumes. probably due to his careless techniques concerning his materials. 1710–21. His delicate brushwork and pastel colors perfectly echo his subject. which he used to counterpoint frivolity with a melancholy. trois crayons. a combination of red. or is departing from. and pastels done from life.C . The Faux Pas. c. Italian Comedians. which he used as a repertoire for his paintings. However. the island of Cythera. black. It is not clear from Watteau’s composition whether the party is about to go to. 1700–1800 223 A Journey to Cythera 1717. 51 x 76 1⁄2 in (129 x 194 cm). and facial expression. London: British Museum. Watteau was a master of the French technique. He possibly learned this method by studying Rubens’s drawings. his Gesture. have become important references. 1720 (Washington. gouaches. . the birthplace of Venus.

The Young Schoolmistress. profligate. Pots. 1732. La Musique Pastorale (oils. whereas Watteau could transform reality and endow it with the magic of poetry and dreams. Note his loving observation of light and handling of paint. a pair) Nicolas Lancret b 1690 – 1743 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. such as childish pleasures. (albeit elegant) reality. Huntsman and his Servant (oils) Lancret was a chief follower of Watteau’s style. Simple. c. The surfaces and textures of the still lifes are so believable that you want to touch them—you know exactly what everything is and where it is in space. Popular with aristocratic collectors. Bathers. but his drawing and use of color lack confidence. pleasure in simplicity and relationships.3m in 1989. c. The House of Cards. c. St. a world of narcissistic. The son of a master carpenter. The Swing (oils. namely the French royal court of the mid18th century (this does not stop them from being wonderful paintings). a pair) Watteau’s pupil. A favorite of Madame de Pompadour. Chardin was criticized for not attempting more ambitious subjects. Les Amusements de la Campagne. 6 2⁄3 x 8 1⁄4 in (16. His work doesn’t have the depth of feeling and the richness of color that is the hallmark of Watteau. easy-to-understand symbolism. etc. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $600. Had similar subjects and style. 1735–36 (London: National Gallery) KEY WORKS Jean-Baptiste Pater b 1695 – 1736 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. The genre scenes crystallize moments of simple. overindulgent ancien régime of Louis XV. 1736 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) François Boucher b 1703 – 70 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. Chinese Hunt. The Dance. 1730 –35 (London: National Gallery). and for. sober color. Exemplified in paint the best qualities of the Age of Reason. the dignity of domestic labor. Jean Chardin b 1669 – 1779 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $2. he instead preferred to perfect what he knew he could do best. restful intimacy. Paul Getty Museum) Diligent artist. Stockholm: National Museum 3 $2. Creator of lavish images of. 1735 (Washington.237. Most . Detroit Institute of Arts. Liked theater subjects.094 in 1988. open personality with love of craftsmanship. c. Dance before a Fountain. oil on panel. Subjects and style reflect his modest. widowed.224 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Still Life Jean Chardin. (St. producing exquisite small still lifes and genre scenes that demonstrate harmony of order. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Epitomizes the full-blown Rococo style. London: Wallace Collection 3 $740. Vegetables. and Cruets on a Table (oils) KEY WORKS The Four Ages of Man: Maturity. Fish. (London: National Gallery).000 in 2003. self-indulgent luxury. His works have a cruder color than Watteau’s.000 in 1997. Although a member of the prestigious Royal Academy in Paris. London: Wallace Collection. Experience teaching Youth.8 x 21 cm). KEY WORKS Les Baigneueses (Women Bathing). DC: National Gallery of Art). but his own style was more prosaic—he painted only the day-to-day A key artist of the sumptuous. 1730–35 (Los Angeles: J. and a man of simple tastes.

Early on he had aspirations as a history painter. Massachusetts: Worcester Art Museum. c. oil on canvas. His overriding feature is excess of emotion—overexpressive faces and overdramatic gestures.3 cm). 1751 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) work. who (according to Boucher) enjoyed a similar lifestyle. KEY WORKS Broken Eggs. unattractive color. he designed for the royal tapestry works and porcelain factories and became King’s Painter in 1765. Became very successful but fell into obscurity with the revolution and died in poverty. 1757 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). . Many weaknesses: false emotion.C . satins. which are good and worth looking for. and he played up to their enthusiasms by selling engravings of his works and elaborating their themes in notes in exhibition catalogs. Montpellier: Musée Fabre. 1765 (St. 1700–1800 225 magnificent with his depictions of the classical gods. pink flesh set among frothy and false vegetation. 28 1⁄4 x 37 in (73 x 94. 1739 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Spoilt Child. KEY WORKS The Breakfast. a brilliant marriage between his patrons’ needs (the subject matter) and style and technique—one of the hallmarks of great painting. it can seem so false you may well be moved to laughter rather than tears.000 in 1998. like bad acting. Notice the acres of soft. Portrait of Benjamin Franklin (oils) Best known for his sentimental storytelling genre pictures and titillating images of young children that were part of his later Le Geste Napolitain Jean-Baptiste Greuze. 1757. and lace in the portraits—all painted with great technical skill and caressing sensuality. 1756 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Diana Bathing. also heavily sentimental pastoral and genre scenes. lavish silks. The Laundress. You know what feeling he was trying to convey (or do you. Paul Getty Museum). he did make some striking portraits. In addition. poor drawing. Greuze’s anecdotal scenes were popular with a novel-reading public. Played to a pre-French Revolution audience that turned luxury and idleness into an art form. bad composition. in fact?) but. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Jean-Baptiste Greuze b 1725 – 1805 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. Boy with Lesson Book. Reclining Girl. London: Wallace Collection 3 $900. In fairness. Had an unpleasant personality. 1742 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1761 (Los Angeles: J.

is as typical as the handling: eroticism meets highly finished treatment.” a recurring motif in Rococo interior decoration). 1746–54. Allure is everything. above all in France. porcelain. 1717 1750 Sophisticated 18th-century society placed a premium on intimacy. it appealed to sophisticated. Draperies flow. As a reflection of a supremely cultivated society. with a premium on highly finished. Rococo painting concentrated 1775 1767 . limbs intertwine. It was a shift in taste precisely reflected by Rococo art. the heroic certainties of the Baroque were giving way to the elegant intricacies of the Rococo (from the French “rocaille. SUBJECTS The Last Judgment (ceiling fresco) Johann Baptist Zimmermann. German artists fused architecture and painting to create light-filled interiors that soar into visions of heaven. bosoms daintily exposed. the world’s largest painting. Completes the decorative cycle in 1752–53 with fresco of the continents. KEY EVENTS 1702 1714 Flemish-born Watteau arrives in Paris Death of Louis XIV Watteau paints his elegiac A Journey to Cythera (see page 223) Tiepolo spends three years at Würzburg. on aristocratic dalliance. In place of the large scale of the Baroque. smiles entice and eyelids flutter. The Swing (see page 228) “Education de l’Amour” (modeled by Etienne Falconet after Boucher). In the hands of its most outstanding exponents—the French painters Boucher and Fragonard. small scale and highly wrought. but Tiepolo successfully linked the two. aristocratic patrons. self-evidently sexual.5 cm). ravished by muscular young giants. melting skin tones. whether antique or religious. 1763. fresco and stucco. shimmering surfaces in which the depiction of gorgeous fabrics. The subject matter. The Rococo rarely lent itself to religious subjects. c. the Italian Tiepolo—the result is a captivating. 12 in (30. c.” meaning “shellwork. A conspicuously courtly painting style. and luxuriant landscape backgrounds— often overgrown. elegant and seemingly effortless. over the main staircase Boucher appointed director of the French Academy Fragonard paints his airy masterpiece. it was briefly supreme. Wies (Germany): Wieskirche.226 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M THE ROCOCO By the early 18th century. Antiquity became a matter of scantily clad shepherdesses. STYLE Light colors and deft brushwork predominate. never threatening— is relished for its own sake. idealized world.

London: Wallace Collection. Precise painting of an apparently naturalistic setting highlights new interest in landscape Soft background lighting focuses attention on the principal figures in this tableau Bacchus and Erigone François Boucher 1745. Erigone swoons as her arm touches the fruit Flesh tones are precisely and lovingly rendered. here aided by the (fatal) promise of wine. Bacchus transformed himself into a bunch of grapes. classical myths made most sense when transformed into scenes of ravished innocents.C . Yet at its best it encapsulated much more than aristocratic frippery. is a recurring theme. For Boucher. what was left of Rococo sentiment had been obliterated. As early as the Putti underline classical origins of this scene as well as its essential unreality mid-18th century. It was an art that was self-consciously pleasing. the Rococo was being criticized for these apparent frivolities. oil on canvas. sensually curved and exposed. highly finished surfaces. exemplified in Erigone’s delicate. . elegant legs. 1700–1800 227 c. TECHNIQUES Darkened leaves are lit so that they appear iridescent at the edges from the light of the shaded sun. by the French Revolution in 1789. reflecting the privileged aristocratic world that brought it into being. Similar light plays seductively on the girls’ exposed breasts. and technical sophistication of the Rococo.5 cm). 39 x 53 in (99 x 134. To seduce Erigone. 1700 –1780 WHAT TO LOOK FOR Boucher epitomized the gorgeous colors. Seduction.

landscape backgrounds. and clouds froth with equal erotic intensity. passionate embraces. and futile resistance. Note the lap dogs and fleshy statues ready to join the fun. . Even his drapery. virtuoso.228 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Jean-Honoré Fragonard b 1732 – 1806 n FRENCH 5 Paris. but confident style suits his subjects. Died in poverty after the French Revolution. or have no clothes at all. Rejected the trappings of official art. sensuous fingers. Le Verrou (The Bolt) (oils) Precocious. from mythology. France 1 oils. nervous. 32 x 25 1⁄2 in (81 x 65 cm). London: Wallace Collection 3 $7.776. his seductive pinkand-green palette and soft. 1767. foliage. oil on canvas. The trees were inspired by Tivoli Gardens. Paints hands with long. and titillating private paintings. The participants in his pictures of love and seduction may be in contemporary dress. successful—much favored by the ancien régime for his easy-to-enjoy. He likes pink cheeks and heaving bosoms. The Swing (Les hasards heureux de l’escarpolette) Jean-Honoré Fragonard. Rome. Look for occasional early works in a “correct” official style—which he soon rejected. chalks 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. sidelong glances.000 in 1999. London: Wallace Collection. dappled light prefigure Renoir. His exciting.

Young Lady with a Parrot. England 1 oils 2 Windsor Castle (England): Royal Collection. frothy. Mary in Egypt (oils) 5 Venice. Paris. 1788 (St. c. is now rated as highly. 17 1⁄2 x 12 1⁄2 in (44. His nephew.C .8 cm). Vienna 1 pastels 2 Dresden: Gemäldegalerie. 36 1⁄5 x 49 in (92 x 124. and mythological pieces. Detroit Institute of Arts. Indianapolis: Museum of Art.5 cm). Paul Getty Museum). No pretentious intellectualizing or moralizing. She was much sought after by the rich and fashion-conscious as she took her artistic skills around the capital cities of Europe. c. 1700–1800 229 KEY WORKS Bathers. DC: National Gallery of Art). Developed his own line of fresh. oil on canvas. boudoir scenes. One of the last works the artist produced. KEY WORKS The Grand Turk giving a Concert to his Mistress.800 in 1991. Esther before Ahasuerus c. in 1745 she went blind. The Last Communion of St. The Stolen Kiss. KEY WORKS The Rape of the Sabine Women. Ricci was widely traveled and was employed in London and Venice to create stage sets.000 in 2000. 1730 (London: National Gallery) Known for her highly successful portraits in pastels. Vienna. Worked in the Venetian tradition. light-filled fantasy or semitopographical landscapes. 1727 (London: Wallace Collection). Louis Michel (1707–71). Paul Getty Museum) Sebastiano Ricci b 1659 – 1734 n ITALIAN Rosalba Giovanna Carriera b 1675 – 1758 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. 1729 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Ships in a Gale Marco Ricci. rightly. c. 1741. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait with a Portrait of her Sister. fresh color. Venus Requesting Vulcan to Make Arms for Aeneas (oils) Also known as Charles-André van Loo. London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $105. pastel on paper mounted on canvas. Young Girl Reading. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Carle van Loo b 1705 – 65 n FRENCH 5 Rome.5 x 31. Aeneas Carrying Anchises. Landscape with Ruins.000 in 1998. An Opera Rehearsal (oils) Nephew of Sebastiano. 1705–08. and attractive people. KEY WORKS Fishing Boats. Standard mythological and religious paintings. 1765 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $250. c. forgotten—his success due to quantity. She inspired Maurice-Quentin de La Tour to use pastel. 1700 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum). 1715 (Los Angeles: J. Venice: QueriniStampalia Galleria 3 $622. drawing 2 Windsor Castle (England): Royal Collection. . but is now. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $478. Royal portraits. c. Female Personification of Summer (works on paper) Decorative painting at its best. Worked in England 1708–16 and collaborated with his uncle on religious Caterina Sagredo Barbarigo as “Bernice” Rosalba Giovanna Carriera. which cleverly combine delicacy and graciousness with spontaneity. 1776 (Washington. England 1 oils. An engaging eyeful of easy compositions.500 in 2001. c. plus a judicious realism that neatly negotiates the fine divide between honesty and flattery. Most successful member of a family that dominated French painting in the mid-18th century. 1709 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Washington. 1730 (Art Institute of Chicago) Marco Ricci b 1676 – 1729 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. 1725 (Los Angeles: J. huge altarpieces. not quality.

Madrid) are a truly miraculous combination of fresco and architecture on a vast scale. An Allegorical Monument to Sir Isaac Newton. Paris: Musée du Louvre. They constitute one of the greatest artistic experiences of all time. historical. luminous. Easy-going. 1720–21 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Giambattista Tiepolo b 1696 – 1770 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. illusionistic. Madrid: Royal Palace 3 $2. Paris.000 in 2002. He loves rich textures. saints. KEY WORKS Rebecca at the Well. 1710–67. shimmering vision of happily radiant gods. rather than through talent. 32 1⁄3 x 16 1⁄2 in (82 x 42 cm).128. 1713–14 (London: National Gallery). England. the Veneto. . happily married to Francesco Guardi’s sister. Last of the great Venetian decorators in the Renaissance tradition. Vienna. KEY WORKS St. Netherlands. Christ entrusts the keys of heaven to the disciple Peter. frescoes 2 Würzburg: Residenz. giving life and crispness. Was successful.230 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Giovanni Battista Pittoni b 1687 – 1767 n ITALIAN Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini b 1675 – 1741 n ITALIAN 5 Venice Accademia 1 oils 2 Venice: Gallerie dell’ 3 $443. The preliminary sketches show a deft. richly colored. Bacchus and Ariadne. 1727–29 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Well-traveled (Germany.005 in 1990. which weave under and over color. The Marriage of the Elector Palatine. and mythological subjects— was much sought after in his lifetime. especially in England. oil on canvas. 1725 (York: City Art Gallery). Cupid. c. England) Venetian painter. Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $489. airy. and Faun (oils) Poor man’s Tiepolo. Venus. and rich. but his work is now out of fashion and very underrated. Omphale (oils) 5 Venice. He has a confident. Peter Giovanni Battista Pittoni. sought after. appealing. 1708–13 (London: National Gallery). Bright. Prosdocimus Baptizing Daniel. and astonishingly gifted. delicate technique with flickering dark outlines. doe-eyed females. His work—religious. Had a flashy. Lamentation (oils) Full name Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. which were influential in creating a fashion and demand for this type of work. quick. The Delivery of the Keys to St. both at home and abroad. but brought up to date). Würzburg (Germany). His great decorative schemes in situ (Venice. Würzburg.000 in 1998. which is more a mishmash of earlier Venetian artists and borrowings from Tiepolo than truly original. and historical and allegorical figures in an epic fantasy world. resolute technique and uses luminous colors. Observe his brilliant storytelling and perspectival illusion. demonstrating that commercial and critical success is sometimes (often?) achieved by showing off. Madrid 1 oils. decorative compositions on a large scale (very much the Venetian tradition. loosely painted style. Large-scale schemes were the result of teamwork (the painting of the architectural settings being especially crucial). c. watched by cherubs. where walls and ceilings seemingly disappear to reveal a celestial.

and most refined.” H. The Bible tells how the prophet Abraham offered a meal to three angels. DC: National Gallery of Art). with whom he worked on major projects and whose style he successfully imitated. Horseman with Punchinellos. c. c. They still sparkle with spontaneity and sharp. The Tiepolo Family (oils) Son of Giambattista. Allegory of the Marriage of Rezzonico to Savorgnan. 1720–70. Apollo in his Sun Chariot (see pages 232–233). muscular men. The Building of the Trojan Horse. The Display of the Elephant. theatrical gestures—but always avoids cliché and frivolity. second half of 18th century (St. c. KEY WORKS Theatrical Scene. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). chalks 2 Venice: Querini-Stampalia Galleria 3 $775. Venetian goings-on from aristocracy to lowlife. Ca’ Rezzonico: Museo del Settecento) KEY WORKS Italian counterpart to Lancret and Hogarth (see pages 224 and 238) in that he successfully caught the 18thcentury taste for small-scale scenes of everyday life—in his case. dispassionate observation. Venice: Scuola Grande di San Rocco. 1760 (London: National Gallery). 23 2⁄3 x 18 1⁄2 in (60 x 47 cm). 1752 (St. frescoes 2 Vincenza: Villa Valmarana 3 $874. 1774 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts) “… the last. oil on canvas. Queen Zenobia Addressing her Soldiers c. 1758 (Venice. 1752–53 (London: National Gallery). one of whom brandishes its sawn-off horn. c. JANSON Giandomenico Tiepolo b 1727 – 1804 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils. preferring scenes of everyday life and witty anecdote.C . London: National Gallery. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. KEY WORKS The Marriage of Frederick Barbarossa. W. representing the Trinity. The Olympus.500 in 1995. 1751. . c. Ridotto in Venice (oils) Abraham and the Three Angels Giambattista Tiepolo. stage of illusionistic ceiling decoration is represented by its greatest master. 1750s (Madrid: Museo del Prado). He Exhibition of a Rhinoceros at Venice Pietro Longhi. Skilled draftsman and printmaker. 1730 (Washington. The rhino is exhibited for the amusement of revelers. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Pietro Longhi b 1702 – 85 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils. oil on canvas. 1700–1800 231 flourished in his own right (but without his father’s celestial inspiration and vision).000 in 2005.

232 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Apollo Bringing the Bride Giambattista Tiepolo 1750 –51 Tiepolo was the most celebrated fresco painter of the 18th century. Appearing luminescent in her majestic matrimonial splendor. The French court at Versailles was emulated by rulers in many parts of Europe. Among his most startling works are those at the Residenz. he displays a bravura disregard for historical accuracy. He may have relished his mastery of illusionistic techniques for its own sake. or palace. they allowed him to create works that extend the real space of these vast settings into his imaginary. That at Würzburg in Bavaria was unusual only in attracting arguably the greatest Rococo architect. Together. Tiepolo. they created an astonishingly sumptuous decorative program.97 x 14. But as important. Twelfth-century Germany—scene of the Burgundian princess Beatrice’s arrival for her marriage to Emperor Frederick Barbarossa—is transmuted into a sky-borne 16th-century Venice. and ability to tackle huge decorative schemes in record time. astonishing fluency. who escorts her in his chariot to her wedding. The settings of Tiepolo’s frescoes were always crucial. Balthasar Neumann. she is dressed as though in a painting by Veronese. who exercised a profound influence on Tiepolo. frescoes by Tiepolo complete the decorative cycle of the Imperial Hall Though only a fragment of a building is shown. With exceptional daring. of the worldly Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. no less magnificent. and its most accomplished frescoist.07 m) Location Würzburg Palace: Imperial Hall . painted world. Typically. as well. and from a steeply angled perspective. Apollo Bringing the Bride Medium ceiling fresco Dimensions 22 8⁄9 x 46 1⁄6 ft (6. increasing the sense of heroic expansiveness Two other. famed for his seemingly ceaseless invention. Apollo. the 16th-century Venetian painter. large ares of cloud-flecked sky are left blank. it implies a strongly imagined architectural setting The merging of painting and setting makes the fresco seem as if it is an extension of the elaborate space Beatrice is accompanied by the Sun God.

paint has to be applied at speed. These magnificent horses testify to his virtuosity. limpid colors add luminosity and underline the airy magnificence of the sky TECHNIQUES Fresco was well suited to Tiepolo’s style.” COUNT CARL GUSTAV TESSIN Pale. Allegorical figures usher Apollo and Beatrice toward the princess’s future husband Tiepolo suspends reality to create a convincing parallel world Clouds and figures spill over the frame of the fresco into the real space of the room Tiepolo revels in his mastery of extreme foreshortening and the drama and excitement it projects. encouraging the deft. apparently able to tackle any subject in the absolute certainty that it can be invested with his unique brand of epically elegant heroism. This demands an exceptionally sure touch. Because the plaster dries rapidly.C . 1700–1800 233 “He paints a picture in less time than it takes another to grind his colors. flickering style he excelled at. .

especially for young English gentlemen. and to experience life and broaden horizons. Born in Piacenza and trained in the school of stage designers in Bologna. Rome 1 oils 3 $3. It was very much the done thing in the early 18th and 19th centuries. oil on canvas.9 cm). Interior of St. Had a good line in picturesque. Panini trained in architectural drawing. The Sermon of St.1 x 27. Rome (oils) Ruins with Figures Giovanni Paolo Panini. Worked in Rome. Wilton (UK): Wilton House. 96 3⁄4 x 70 4⁄5 in (38.234 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Giovanni Paolo Panini b C. He was married to a Frenchwoman. Also known as Pannini. 1691 – 1765 n ITALIAN 5 Bologna. Highly successful view painter.843. ancient ruins.000 in 2004. and views and events in modern Rome. . who would return home with quantities of works of art with which they filled their country homes. Roman Ruins with a Prophet. His drawings were much sought after in his day. 1751 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) THE GRAND TOUR 18th century Once-in-a-lifetime tour around Europe to see the major sights and works of art. Paul Amid the Ruins. Peter’s. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). An elegant portrait painted in Rome by the Italian artist Batoni was the typical Grand Tour souvenir-cum-status symbol. KEY WORKS Roman Ruins with Figures. 1744 (St. c. 1730 (London: National Gallery). and was much admired by the French. who anticipated Neoclassical taste. contemporary of Canaletto.

C . Dresden: Gemäldegalerie 3 $16m in 1992. being surprisingly subtle and poetic (later works tend to become mechanical and dull). c. See the way he enlivens perspective with crisp. Delightful. anecdotal (figure) details and firsthand observation. He was much loved and collected by English Grand Tourists. accurate. but also the pageantry and history of a once-great empire in its dying years. The Doge’s golden barge is moored ready. London 1 oils. but cunning fictions. . London. London. original. pre-1755 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) The Basin of San Marco on Ascension Day Giovanni Antonio Canaletto. His early views of Venice (during the 1720s and 1730s) are the best. with Figures Parading (oils) The most famous Venetian view painter of the 18th century. engravings 2 Royal Collection. Views are not of reality. KEY WORKS The Stonemason’s Yard. architectural details and opens up a scene by using several different viewpoints in one work. Stunning use of perspective and composition (he may have used a camera obscura). Paul’s Cathedral. from St. unexpected fall of light on a wall. 48 x 72 in (122 x 183 cm). oil on canvas. Instantly recognizable. drawings. fluent drawings and sketches. 1754 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). 1742 (Windsor Castle. 1740. Rome: The Arch of Constantine. London: National Gallery. 1726–30 (London: National Gallery). The Old Horse Guards. James’s Park. sense of something (unseen) happening around the corner. and also painted views of England. St. London: National Gallery. Every year on Ascension Day the Doge of Venice went to the Lido to perform a ceremony whereby Venice was “married” to the Adriatic Sea. Also produced exciting. England: Royal Collection). Shows clever use of light and shade: judicious balance of both with razor-sharp shadows and an exciting. 1700–1800 235 Giovanni Antonio Canaletto b 1697 – 1768 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. A View of the Ducal Palace in Venice. One of the few painters who has been able to capture not just the light and feel of Venice.

642. A Seaport and Classical Ruins in Italy. and hazy. Guardi was widely collected in the 18th century. His coloring is generally more somber than his uncle’s. Note the inaccurate perspective and seeming indifference when people or buildings get out of scale. relaxed. loose. London: Victoria & Albert Museum.943. Venice (oils) Prolific Venetian view painter and best-known member of a family of painters. He painted views of northern European towns. c. oil on canvas. 1760–65 (London: National Gallery). 1765 (London: Wallace Collection). and bigger-scale style of Canaletto (their works are usually hung together). Venice: The Grand Canal with the Riva del Vin and Rialto Bridge. from whom he learned his craft. St. His charming Venetian scenes capture the spirit of the city more by atmosphere and mood than by topographical accuracy. DC: National Gallery of Art). c. commissioned by the old-fashioned. Bellotto left Italy in 1747 because of family problems. View of the Giudecca and the Zattere. suppression of detail. Dresden.236 Francesco Guardi b 1712 – 93 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils. 1770s (London: National Gallery) KEY WORKS Landscape with Ruins Francesco Guardi.000 in 1991. flickering style of painting. never to return. View of the Venetian Lagoon with the Tower of Malghera. Warsaw 1 oils 2 Dresden: Gemäldegalerie. 28 1⁄3 x 20 1⁄2 in (72 x 52 cm). Warsaw: National Museum 3 $5. sharp. but his paintings sold for half the price of Canaletto’s. 1730s (Washington. small-scale style is in complete contrast to the intense. A nephew of Canaletto. The cool. drawings 3 $13. Fortress of Königstein (oils) View of Warsaw from the Royal Castle Bernardo Bellotto. Bernardo Bellotto b 1720 – 80 n ITALIAN 5 Venice.218 in 1989. oil on canvas. aristocratic patrons who ruled them and . Guardi liked capricci—fantasy townscapes with real and imaginary buildings. 1775. An Architectural Caprice. c. c. Bellotto’s views of Warsaw were used in the reconstruction of the city after 1945. Mark’s Square. busy. Warsaw: National Museum. misty. 1772. cool colors and somber palette. 1770s (London: National Gallery).

Less imaginative use of space (used only a standard singleviewpoint perspective). 41 1⁄2 x 35 1⁄3 in (105. KEY WORKS Landscape with a Woman Leading a Cow. Paul Getty Museum) Pompeo Girolamo Batoni b 1708 – 87 n ITALIAN 5 Rome 1 oils 3 $625. England 1 oils 2 Royal Collection. Venice. Rococo style and made him a founding member of the Royal Academy). he is now virtually forgotten. 1746 (London: National Gallery) Francesco Zuccarelli b 1702 – 88 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. Zuccarelli’s work was usually made to become part of a decorative room setting. Paul Getty Museum). Zuccarelli produced sugary. silvery palette (he painted on darkly primed canvases). KEY WORKS Christ in Glory with Four Saints. Once spoken . Established a formula that favored stock poses with stylish clothes. careful attention to detail (lace. the Frauenkirche and the Rampische Gasse. Architectural Capriccio. Time Orders Old Age to Destroy Beauty. Warsaw). softly colored. c. with beautiful results. Portrait of Sir Charles Watson (oils) He was a highly successful portrait painter. He knew exactly what his snobby clientele wanted and provided them with it. KEY WORKS Dresden. oil on canvas. who favored his soft.3 x 89. Glasgow Art Gallery 3 $313. blue-green. Landscape with Shepherds. Landscape with the Education of Bacchus.500 in 1997. easily painted pastoral landscapes and cityscapes. 1750 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie). but a better response to trees and vegetation.C . but the figurepainting is more crude than Canaletto’s. 1744 (Los Angeles: J. ruins in the background. The Neustadter Market in Dresden. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Wooded Landscape with Washerwomen by River (oils) A Florentine painter of Venetian-style high quality.800 in 1993. 1736–38 (Los Angeles: J. Was much admired by collectors of his day (especially the English. London: Christie's Images. Polished and finely painted work. Vienna. and dogs at the feet—or both. 1749–53 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie). 1700–1800 237 who employed him on a salary as court painter (Dresden.8 cm). Paul Getty Museum). His impressive. 1740s (St. about in the same breath as Canaletto. stitches in clothing). His anecdotal detail is good . especially of English visitors to Italy on the Grand Tour. large-scale works are distinguishable from Canaletto’s by their different subject matter and cooler. 1750 (Los Angeles: J. 1765 (San Diego Museum of Art) An Italianate River Landscape Francesco Zuccarelli.

but we are left to draw our own moral conclusions. which were often developed as a series (for instance. with a tough childhood. moral subjects—slices of contemporary life. Sir John Soane’s Museum 3 $602.250 in 1991. Hogarth helped to establish the first permanent public display of English art at the Foundling Hospital in central London. engravings 2 London: National Gallery. 1738 (London: Tate Collection). Tate Collection. 1745 (London: National Gallery) . producing confident drawing and color-rich textures. London: National Gallery. Brilliant as a storyteller. 27 1⁄2 x 35 3⁄5 in (70 x 91 cm). 1743. KEY WORKS The Strode Family. Private Collection. Self-Portrait William Hogarth. Talented both as a painter and printmaker. The Lady’s Death William Hogarth. c. Also a very fine handler of paint. Marriage à la Mode: VI. engraving. 1742 (London: National Gallery). The Graham Children. Painted attractive. Showed engaging. argumentative antiforeigner. Hogarth is best known for his portraits (individual and group) and modern. he shows people and their behavior for what they are.238 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M William Hogarth b 1697 – 1764 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils. open faces in portraits and was especially good at representing children. The Edwards Hamilton family on Terrace in Kensington (oils) Hogarth is considered the “father of English painting. anecdotal details and “warts and all” realism.” He was a quirky. oil on canvas. The Rake’s Progress and Marriage à la Mode). The final grimly comic scene in a story of a disastrous fashionable marriage. In neither does he idealize nor criticize. The Shrimp Girl. he laid the foundations that led to Reynolds and the Royal Academy. c.

1700–1800 239 Arthur Devis b 1711 – 87 n BRITISH Allan Ramsay b 1713 – 84 n BRITISH 5 London. Standing in a Landscape. from 1739. oil on canvas. His principal achievement is the brilliant way he used allusion and cross-references to enhance the dignity of his sitters and turn portraiture into a type of history painting. Lady Caroline Howard. Italy 1 oils. and architecture. Had poor technique—his pictures are often in bad condition because of his use of inferior materials such as bitumen and carmine. antique statues. the careful painting of objects. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait Shading the Eyes. with lots of references to classical mythology. In 1781 he went to Flanders and Holland. 1742–43 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). Nottinghamshire (oils) Small-scale family conversation pieces with doll-like figures (he used dolls as models). the eyes. neatly dressed and arranged in their houses and parks. DC: National Gallery of Art) Master Thomas Lister (The Brown Boy) Sir Joshua Reynolds. Portrait of Omai. Devon. 1764. 1778 (Washington. 1750–51 (London: Tate Collection) 5 London. Commodore Keppel. c. Successful with the newly emerging middle classes. Robert Dashwood of Stanford Hall. London: National Maritime Museum). 1740 (London: National Portrait Gallery). Portrait of Mr. the arts generally. and the social standing of artists in Britain. His later work. Italy 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. His sitters are often in the poses of well-known examples of Greek and Roman sculpture or the Madonna and Child. and the first President of the Royal Academy. especially of women. c. . Well connected. 91 x 55 in (231 x 139 cm). Was especially good with children. in spite of repetitive and unimaginative poses. KEY WORKS Richard Mead. The turn of the head on the body gives life to the figures.” 22nd Chief of Macleod. drawings 3 $760. the beautiful use of light. Portrait of a Lady. He made inventive use of hands and gesture to bring life and character to his figures. 1753–54 (Greenwich. and delicacy.000 in 2000. c.000 in 1993. Raised the status of portraiture. Bradford (UK): Art Galleries and Museums. these have a lovely softness. The pose mimics an Antique statue of Mercury. but terrible as a “history” painter. UK: Dunvegan Castle). and Mrs. Norman “The Red Man. and his official full-length portraits are rather wooden. Gives us a charming and authoritative insight into 18th-century society.348. His intensity of observation is worthy of the best still-life painters: note the detail on costumes. Lancashire 1 oils 3 $478. Miss Janet Shairp. A discriminating collector of old-master prints and drawings. 1750 (Aberdeen: Art Gallery and Museums) Best known for his portraits. Portrait of Sir Edward and Lady Turner seated holding Lace and Basket (oils) Sir Joshua Reynolds b 1723 – 92 n BRITISH 5 London. 1747 (Isle of Skye. from the 1760s onward. where even the color of the iris is noted exactly. is better.C . Wearing Robes and a Headdress (oils) Interesting and successful Scottish portrait painter who worked mainly in London. His early work is often very labored and derivative. and afterward one can see the influence of Rubens and Rembrandt on his work. At his best with small and intimate three-quarter-length portraits.800 in 1989. charm. Tate Collection 3 $13. 1747 (London: National Portrait Gallery). KEY WORKS Jacob Bacon and His Family.

whose topography is precisely recorded. Born in Sudbury. His portraits after 1760 are of natural. free chalk drawings. the rustle of breeze-touched foliage. Suffolk. his only great interest outside of painting was music. Mrs. the natural blush on a girl’s cheek. and sketchily.” c. Fashionable and successful.240 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Thomas Gainsborough b 1727 – 88 n BRITISH Mr. Portrait of Colonel John Bullock (oils) Best known for his portraits (which he could sell). Kenwood House 3 $3. 28 x 47 in (71 x120 cm). Lovely. his heart was more in landscapes (difficult to sell). . Bath 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Ipswich. DC: National Gallery of Art) The Painter’s Daughters Chasing a Butterfly Thomas Gainsborough. freely. experimental craftsmanship were the antithesis to Reynolds’s intellectualism and bad technique. Gainsborough’s sensibility and instinct. 1759. oil on canvas. lyrical. London: National Gallery. c. 1770 (San Marino: Huntingdon Art Collections). and his imaginative. Also prints. There are parallels with early Mozart (1756–91): interweaving of structure and texture. enabling him to capture the shimmer of silks and satins. Observed with love. Wonderful paint handling.5 x 105 cm). 44 2⁄3 x 41 in (113. used very thinly. he went to London in 1740 and studied engraving before setting up as a portrait painter in 1752. 1777 (Los Angeles: J. No fan of literature. 5 London. c. 1749. poetic—a conscious escape from a hard day’s labor. or rouge on a matron’s face. c.000 in 2002. 7 and 11. light-hearted seriousness. Paul Getty Museum). oil on canvas. sympathetic observation and response to character in a face (especially that of a pretty woman). physical pleasure in being alive. An amorous man. 1785 (Washington. His early works lack the easy relaxation of the later works. The newly married couple sit in their estate.504. untheatrical poses—gorgeous best clothes and hats. Victoria & Albert Museum. Countess of Chesterfield. c. they are charming but the portrait figures look like dolls and the landscapes concentrate on detail rather than atmosphere. and Mrs. London: National Gallery. Portrait of Anne. KEY WORKS “The Blue Boy. His landscapes are imaginary. Andrews Thomas Gainsborough.

Aimed for the top: large-scale history painting on the scale of Raphael’s Vatican frescoes. oil on canvas. Portrait of Samuel Johnson. Also painted portraits and conversation pieces endowed with an austere charm. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art. 1778–80 (London: National Portrait Gallery) Johann Zoffany b C. and made a fortune painting native princes and British colonialists. KEY WORKS Dawkins and Wood Discovering the Ruins of Palmyra. and sporting. 1700–1800 241 Gavin Hamilton b 1723 – 98 n BRITISH 5 Rome 1 oils 3 $35. Look for good anecdotal details such as costumes. and severely intellectual branch of Neoclassicism. He lived in India from1783 to 1789. . KEY WORKS The Progress of Human Culture. Germanborn painter who established his career in Rome and London from 1760. UK: Towneley Hall Art Gallery) Scottish-born. Florence. Charles Townley’s Library at 7 Park Street. only to be expelled in 1799 after a series of quarrels.000 in 1993. Was so paranoid and pretentious as a person that he ruined his opportunities and died lonely and unloved. Hygieia (oils) works—they capture the ease and prosperous confidence of Georgian upper-class society. Achilles Lamenting the Death of Patroclus. Italy 1 oils 3 $18. 1772–77 (Royal Collection). and literary activities.480. His delightful. India 1 oils 3 $4.C . London. painter.000 in 1990. 1765–72 (London: Tate Collection) James Barry b 1741 – 1806 n BRITISH 5 London. c. Westminster. painters. Zoffany’s portraits were popular with George III and Queen Charlotte. Dutton Family in the Drawing Room of Sherborne Park. archeologist. 1758 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). The Tribuna of the Uffizi. 1772 (Royal Collection). A pioneer of the international. but outpaced by other. archeological. informal group portraits are his best The Drummond Family Johann Zoffany. Venus Anadyomene (oils) Highly gifted Irish-born history painter who became a professor at the Royal Academy. 1777–83 (London: Royal Society of Arts). 1769. better. who became his patrons. Gloucestershire (oils) Also known as John Zoffany. KEY WORKS The Academicians of the Royal Academy. 1734 – 1810 n GERMAN/BRITISH 5 Rome. 1763 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). artistic. Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus. picture dealer. c.000 in 2001. resident in Rome. 1781–83 (Burnley.

Unknown Lady of the Sotheby or Isted Families. theatrical play of light over face and costume. Friend of the Prince of Wales (later Prince Regent). a successful Irish/Italian painter. Note single dab of bright highlight on noses. c. 1795 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery 3 $49. Look for pink faces and rich colors. c. 1798 (Aberdeenshire: Fyvie Castle). 1780 (Washington. He was never at home with female sitters. delicate portraits. c. Mrs. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. and illustrator. UK: Best-ever Scottish portrait painter. inventive.242 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Towneley Hall Art Gallery). 1810. 1775 (Yorkshire. c. oil on canvas. Look for long. often against dramatic skies and landscape backgrounds. 7th Earl of Cork (oils) Best remembered as the most fashionable and outstanding miniaturist of the 18th century. James Gregory. 1793 (Washington. Figures are bathed in light and animated by brilliant. His best works have no alterations or reworkings—he becomes messy and clumsy when he is forced to make changes. Self-Portrait Hesitating Between the Arts of Music and Painting. for Adam houses. KEY WORKS Miss Eleanor Urquhart. broadly brushed technique using square brushes straight onto coarse canvas. with carefully observed tones and shadows. He has a strong. DC: National Gallery of Art). in the style of Reynolds.000 Portrait of Philip Tisdal with his Wife and Family (oils) Best known for work done during her stay in England (1765–80). His work is at its best with handsome. strong-jawed male figures. A few unsuccessful large-scale oils. 29 3⁄4 x 23 1⁄5 in (75. looking vaguely disheveled and adopting the stern. aquiline noses with very noticeable nostrils and shadows under the nose. Group Portrait of the Children of Edmund Boyle. Scott Moncrieff. 7th Baronet (oils) Richard Cosway b 1742 – 1821 n BRITISH 5 England 1 watercolors. c. DC: Hillwood Museum and Gardens). confident method is in harmony with the temperament he sees in (or imposed on?) his sitters. 1774 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). .000 in 1995. miniaturist. Married Maria Hadfield (1759 –1838). c. c. who often look dull and plain. His no-nonsense. when she was very successful with elegant. 1771–75 (Burnley. and decorations. London 1 oils 2 Devon (UK): Saltram Park 3 $747.5 x 59 cm). confident. UK: Nostell Priory) KEY WORKS Sir Henry Raeburn b 1756 – 1823 n BRITISH 5 Edinburgh. without underdrawing—he paints directly from life. Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. faraway look. Portrait of Mrs. William Glendonwyn. Note the matinée-idol style of portraiture—heroic stances and soft focus with “alone but self-assured” poses. 1814 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland) Portrait of Sir Walter Scott Sir Henry Raeburn. No-nonsense character. just as happy playing golf or speculating on property (went bankrupt). London 1 oils 3 $270. c. but was very good with children. She was partial to sentimental figures with pink faces and cheeks. 1770–75 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Group of Connoisseurs. Portrait of Sir George Stewart Mackenzie. 1795 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Angelica Kauffmann b 1741 – 1807 n SWISS 5 Rome. history paintings. Private Collection.500 in 1998. Mrs. Marley. Scott’s “Waverley” novels made him the most important and influential Scottish novelist. Isabella McLeod. He was the first Scottish painter to be knighted.

a reflection of the similarly well-ordered English society that produced it. Cozens strongly influenced Girtin and Turner. SUBJECTS AND STYLE The White House. they were considered evidence of the divine harmony of nature. the prevailing mood was accordingly almost always contemplative and calm. In the hands of a series of exceptional painters. It is then no surprise that the majority of these works were small in scale. pale skies.” Landscapes were rarely regarded as an end in themselves. a distinctive tradition of landscape painting was emerging in England. who made copies of his works. 1791. 1700–1800 243 THE ENGLISH LANDSCAPE TRADITION 18th century From as early as 1750. 1800. watercolor on paper. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Precisely rendered and closely observed details contrast with flat. I would have starved. the subtle reordering of nature for aristocratic patrons in imitation of the classical landscapes of 17th-century painters like Claude Lorrain. Chelsea Thomas Girtin. partly a reflection of 18th-century English landscape gardening. it developed into a rich celebration of a distinctively English approach to nature. in particular of its domestication in an England that was increasingly prosperous and selfconfident. Similarly. London from Greenwich Hill John Robert Cozens c. watercolor and black ink. in buildings as much as in landscaped parklands. At any rate. the impact of man. . in the 18th century. Private Collection. The intimate and the ordered were valued above the dramatic. This is a landscape that is fundamentally benign and tranquil. Rather.C . New Haven: Yale Center for British Art. is seen as a complement to nature rather than an intrusion. Turner greatly admired Girtin’s brilliant watercolor technique and later said “Had Tom Girtin lived.

c. 1713 – 82 n BRITISH 5 Wales. Lindisfarne. c. Nottingham: City Museums & Galleries. oil on canvas. drawings 3 $444. Two Great Temples at Paestum. 1797–98 (Washington.000 Cetera. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum 3 $286. A Blot: Landscape Composition. which he transformed into visions of classical Arcadia. Luminous skies full of atmosphere. 1760s. Lake Albano. c. Watercolor landscapes and etchings.244 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Richard Wilson b C. 1762 (Washington. Rome. UK: Lees Collection) Snowdon Richard Wilson. DC: National Gallery of Art) Thomas Girtin b 1775 – 1802 n BRITISH 5 UK. c. 1798 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). Welsh Landscape with Cottages Near Lake (oils) The first major British landscape painter. In 1793 he went insane. in which he shows how a landscape can be a vehicle for emotion and mood when made with imagination and inventive techniques. but died of consumption aged 27. notably during and after his visit to Italy 1750–57. which were influenced by Dutch masters. Mountain Landscape with a Hollow. After Rain (oils) English landscape draftsman. but educated in Rome. Italy (works on paper) Alexander’s melancholic son. he produced lovely. London. c. DC: National Gallery of Art) John Robert Cozens b 1752 – 97 n BRITISH 5 Italy. KEY WORKS Satan Summoning his Legions. and famous for his method of using accidental blots on a piece of paper as a visual inspiration out of which an Potentially a rival to Turner. idea. 1800 (London: Tate Collection) . oils 3 $468. Gulf of Salerno. England 1 drawings 3 $631. Painted brilliant watercolors that pushed the interpretation of landscape and watercolor technique through to new frontiers. 1770 (Washington. Wilson was especially attracted to the Welsh countryside. might develop (still worth trying. such as a landscape. prefiguring those of Turner.800 in 1997. Sepulchral Remains in the Campagna. Well traveled (Alps.000 in 1990. 1783 (Oldham. but it can become overfamiliar and repetitious. Switzerland 1 watercolors.900 in 1996. space. 1770–80 (London: Tate Collection). KEY WORKS The Valley of the Rhone. DC: National Gallery of Art). c. 1746 (London: Tate Collection). and light. His work shows great sensitivity to light. direct topographical views and sketches. The Valley of the Dee. 1776 (London: Tate Collection). Jedburgh Abbey from the South-East (watercolors) Alexander Cozens b 1717 – 86 n RUSSIAN/BRITISH 5 Russia. as the Surrealists realized). 1761 (London: National Gallery). also a landscape painter. KEY WORKS Village Along a River Estuary in Devon. c. The White House at Chelsea. KEY WORKS Caernarvon Castle. c. Had a wonderful sense of color and of the noble grandeur of nature. Paris 1 watercolors. Fascinated by systems. London: Tate Collection. 1760 (Cardiff: National Museum of Wales). Italy. He is especially known for successful set-piece works that are a synthesis of idealized classical formulae and actual places. Born in Russia. Wonderful early watercolors. Naples). Italy 1 oils 2 Cardiff: National Museum of Wales. 1783 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum).

and portraits of country houses. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $92. c. Nîmes William Marlow. 1700–1800 245 William Marlow b 1740 – 1813 n BRITISH The Pont du Gard. Distant View of Rome with Vatican and Castel Sant’Angelo (oils) Successful. c. A Post-House near Florence. London. KEY WORKS The Pont Royal. England 1 oils. Leicester: New Walk Museum. Created satisfying. c. painting Grand Tour souvenir views. 1781 (London: Tate Collection). 1777 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada). 1765–68 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). 15 x 22 in (38 x 56 cm).960 in 1989. Peter’s in the Distance. Marlow traveled in France and Italy in 1765–66. The artist loved drama and designed stage sets for Drury Lane Theatre. A Midsummer’s Afternoon with a Methodist Preacher. One of the first to celebrate the delights of English native scenery.793 Scene de Patinage à Hyde Park (oils) Strasbourg painter and stage designer who settled in England in 1771 and produced stagey landscapes and seascapes. 5 England. 1790. oils. river scenes. Italy. KEY WORKS Landscape with Cattle. Jacques Philippe de Loutherbourg b 1740 – 1812 n FRENCH/BRITISH 5 France. 1767 (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery). Produced successful Grand Tour souvenir views. balanced compositions and was able to capture the cool light and well-ordered topography of England. as well as the intense light and rougher topography of Italy. The Falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen. France. He also painted battle scenes and biblical subjects in an energetic style. c. c.C . View of the Tiber and the Ripetta with St. London: Charles Young Fine Paintings. Italy 1 watercolors. Paris c. 1788 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum) Battle Between Richard I Lionheart (1157–99) and Saladin (1137–93) in Palestine Jacques Philippe de Loutherbourg. Travellers Attacked by Banditti. France. seascapes. oil on canvas. 1767. UK: Boughton House). oil on canvas. drawings 3 $264. Important as a link between the old Arcadian classical landscape . 1770 (London: Tate Collection) traditions and the new realism and Romanticism of Turner and Constable. topographical painter in watercolor and oils. 1768 (Northamptonshire. Much traveled in the UK.

measured. is one of the most remarkable published works of art and science. Edinburgh 1 oils. drawings 3 $109. Produced wonderful.625. An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump. Cheetah and Stag with Two Indians. hunting. His paintings often have unusual light effects and offer fascinating insights into the Age of Reason and nascent Industrial Revolution. portraits. personal fascination with the anatomy and character of the horse touched something more widespread and profound: man’s relationship with nature (wholly dependent on the horse until the invention of mechanical power)—plus the mid-18th-century belief in rational investigation as a means of understanding the natural world and comprehending the qualities of beauty. scientific experiments. 37 x 49 in (94 x 125 cm). Stunning draftsmanship. That is all … ye need to know. 1775 (Private Collection). the 4th Duke of Atholl and His Family. 1770. truth beauty. Stubbs’s inspiration was not real life but an Antique sculpture he saw in Rome in 1754. but not his forte). Italy 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. and the unspoken relationship between animal and man.” His paintings are models of rational beauty: subtle. Mrs. Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery. . Mr. Portrait of the Royal Tiger (oils) The greatest-ever painter of the horse. c. He painted goodish. 1764–68 (Private Collection). Rome.000 in 1995. occasionally great. London 1 oils 3 $4. half-concealed geometry of horizontal and vertical structures around which play curving cadences (like Mozart). Derby (England): Museum and Art Gallery 3 $1. and horsebreeding. Mares and Foals beneath Large Oak Trees. he was deeply influenced by a visit to Rome. Tate Collection. 1762 (London: Tate Collection). c. loving observation David Allan b 1744 – 96 n BRITISH “Beauty is truth. which exemplify the saying “beauty is truth. His deep.120 in 1992. KEY WORKS Two Boys Fighting over a Bladder. John Ashton. and early industrial forges.000 in 1984. 1765 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) George Stubbs b 1724 – 1806 n BRITISH 5 Northern England. modest pictures. c. Also painted scenes of rural life. Developed new and original subjects: night scenes. with powerful patrons. harmonious.” JOHN KEATS 5 Italy. His book. c. Anatomy of the A Horse Frightened by a Lion George Stubbs. Thomas Coltman about to Set Out on a Ride (oils) Known as the “Wright of Derby. but out of the mainstream. John. Portrait of Three Boys Wearing Windsor Uniform (oils) The Scottish Hogarth.” Talented and versatile painter. 1767 (Private Collection). gentle color has too often been tragically destroyed by insensitive cleaning and restoration. 1773 (Private Collection) of space. racing.246 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Joseph Wright b 1734 – 97 n BRITISH 5 London. The exquisite. was a successful portrait painter and established the tradition of Scottish genre paintings with anecdotal illustrations of Scottish life and history. c. Successful. but always a loner. Derby. truth beauty. 1783 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). oil on canvas.611. 1769 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Horse (1766). The Connoisseurs. London. KEY WORKS A Neapolitan Music Party. c. and Mrs. anatomy. Wanted to be remembered as a history painter (de rigueur at the time. careful. 1768 (London: National Gallery). KEY WORKS Mares and Foals.

David. 1827 (Windsor Castle. prints 3 $91.5 cm). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) of animals and their owners or keepers.800 Place des Victoires. pen and ink with watercolor on paper. 9 x 12 4⁄5 in (23 x 33 cm). worked in England. Paris (works on paper) A French Coffee House Thomas Rowlandson. 1785 (Los Angeles: J. The Dinner.81m in 1988. Paris. and as a vet). c. Paul Getty Museum). meticulously executed paintings Miss Casenove on a Grey Hunter JacquesLaurent Agasse. animals were not considered a serious art subject (and still aren’t. 1787 (St. 1794 (Private Collection). Walked the tightrope between observation and caricature with skill. England: Royal Collection) Jacques-Laurent Agasse b 1767 – 1849 n SWISS 5 Switzerland. Private Collection. the Low Countries 1 drawings. L. France. The artist was much influenced by Stubbs in subject matter and technique.5 x 25. England 1 oils 2 Geneva: Musée d’Art et d’Histoire 3 $5. and a great eye for detail and character. KEY WORKS Sleeping Fox. He was known for his faithfully observed. 1800. Prolific draftsman and printmaker. chronicler of 18th-century life and morals. 1790s. The Nubian Giraffe. 12 x 10 in (30. . but had a small output and died poor and unknown. eager enthusiasm for life. A truly great painter. 1700–1800 247 Thomas Rowlandson b 1756 – 1827 n BRITISH 5 England.C . Germany. oil on canvas. Had huge technical facility. even today). Revolutionary France was a popular target for British caricaturists. Two Leopards Playing in the Exeter Change Menagerie (oils) Swiss-born. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. KEY WORKS Box-Lobby Loungers. Expressed all his observations with admirable economy of line. Paris-trained (by J.

etching with watercolor. love over repression.000 in 1998. 1781. 1795 (London: Tate Collection). The Good and Evil Angels Struggling for Possession of a Child (pen and watercolors) Genuine visionary Romantic—truly inspired and driven by inner voices and sights. which are similarly stylized. 1786 (Washington. Look for idealized human figures with spiritual expressions.5m in 2004. Sussex 1 engravings. c. drawings 3 $1. he also had a special line in female cruelty and bondaged males. Manchester: Whitworth Art Gallery. 1819–20 (London: Tate Collection) William Blake b 1757 – 1827 n BRITISH 5 London. Ghost of a Flea. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection. The woman represents Fuseli’s lost love. Swiss-born eccentric. technique. Believed in the liberating power of the human spirit. DC: National Gallery of Art) on paper—watercolors and drawings—and a combination of these with print techniques (engraving). Newton. 1795 (London: Tate Collection). overdeveloped body language is all. An artist who created mostly small(ish) works The Ancient of Days William Blake. Highly dramatic interpretations of literature in which facial expression and intense. and a fascination with fire and hair. KEY WORKS Frontispiece to Visions of the Daughters of Albion. Oedipus Cursing His Son.162. and symbolism. 1824. Shakespeare. Inspired by Michelangelo. Impoverished. difficult to understand. Blake’s imagery and symbolism are highly personal but at heart is the wish to express his dislike of all forms of oppression. 39 3⁄4 x 50 in (101 x 127 cm). pen. A defective technique has ruined many of his oil paintings. Neglected in his lifetime. 1799–1800 (Washington. KEY WORKS Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking. individuality over state conformity. He had an extraordinary originality in imagery. Polynices. and ink on paper. 9 x 6 2⁄3 in (23 x 17 cm). Fuseli produced wonderful drawings. Blake’s God is an oppressive lawmaker imprisoning the imagination.248 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M The Nightmare Henry Fuseli. . Anna Landolt. Henry Fuseli b 1741 – 1825 n SWISS/BRITISH 5 England. Michigan: Detroit Institute of Arts. Uses biblical sources. watercolors. Championed creativity over reason. oil on canvas. 1784 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). and Milton. DC: National Gallery of Art). Satan Starting from the Touch of Ithuriel’s Lance (oils) Also known as Johann Heinrich Füssli. British Museum 3 $3. Was obsessed with women’s hair. especially from the Old Testament. Italy 1 oils. Job and his Daughters.

000 in 1999. trained by his uncles. in which he explored facial distortions and grimaces after he started to suffer from delusions and paranoia.300. fresco 3 $275. etching. The Hanged. mythologies. Graz. In a way they do.5 cm). His compositions and poses are so carefully calculated as to be merely stagey: notice how in the portraits the head often turns in one direction while the hands and body turn in the other. and obeying all the currently correct aesthetic principles—does not lead to lasting fame. Wrote an influential theoretical treatise. and made a reputation from popular prints of Ancient and modern Rome. and portraits consciously aimed to contain the best of Raphael (expression). whose Baroque busts won early approval with the Austrian Court. He thought the work would help heal and protect him from evil spirits. and Spain. rich bottle-green. Quiet Sleep. Rome 1 oils. and Titian (color). but in spite of their competence they also end up looking lifeless and contrived. and was a committed teacher. made all the more powerful by a brilliant technique and a mastery of perspective. Settled in Rome in 1740. and shade. and printmaker (etchings). Used inventive imagery.Venetian-born. His most original works are images of fantastic prisons (1745–61). DC: National Gallery of Art) Carceri d’Invenzione (Prisons) Plate IV Giovanni Battista Piranesi. Note his paint surface that looks like polished lacquer. Vienna. KEY WORKS Character Heads: The Gentle. 21 1⁄2 x 16 1⁄3 in (54. The Immaculate Conception. Noli me Tangere. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Francesco. and dusky pinks). 1700–1800 249 Giovanni Battista Piranesi b 1720 – 78 n ITALIAN 5 Rome 1 engravings 3 $310. Worked in Germany. 1771 (London: National Gallery). The Well.” a series of busts.” one of the founders of Neoclassicism and one of the foremost artists of his day. 1761 (Rome: Villa Albani). which moved from archeological exactitude to dramatic. Hamburg: Kunsthalle.000 in 2005. Three Standing and One Seated Pointing to Left (works on paper) Architect. His etching work was continued by his son. 1749 (Washington. KEY WORKS Round Tower. 1749 (St.745 in 2003. Rich Franz Xaver Messerschmidt b 1736 – 1783 n AUSTRIAN 5 Munich. c. well thought of in official circles. His religious paintings. archeologist.C . c. Anton Raphael Mengs b 1728 – 79 n GERMAN textures and colors (especially a velvety royal blue. He is proof that having all the right credentials—being well taught. 1770–79 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) 5 Dresden. 1760. Studies of Four Figures. The Gothic Arch. which are Surrealist before time. His portraits are now considered better than his history paintings. The Arched Evil. The Lecher. Bratislava 1 sculpture 2 Vienna: Österreichische Galerie 3 $4. Piranesi was also a successful restorer and dealer in Roman art and artifacts. with an active studio. Later he became deeply influenced by famous Roman Republican heads after a visit to Rome and his style became more Neoclassical. many self-portraits. 1770–83 (Vienna: Österreichische Galerie) . overwhelming Romantic grandeur. light. Italy. The Adoration of the Shepherds (oils) “The German Raphael. Ill-humored Man (sculpture) Sculptor. KEY WORKS Parnassus (ceiling fresco). DC: National Gallery of Art). 1750–58 (Washington. Correggio (grace).5 x 41. Painted flesh and faces that look impossibly and perfectly healthy. Famous for his “Character Heads.

though with brilliant highlights. Color schemes are often somber. symbol of the ancien régime. poses invariably sternly heroic. Greek especially. dreary paintings of “improving” history subjects. decisively influenced Neoclassicism. is stormed Work begins on the Arc de Triomphe by sculptor Claude Michel Clodion Restoration of the French monarchy and final overthrow of Napoleon at Waterloo Kedleston Hall. it generated huge. Paint is applied with smoothly precise consistency. the painter David.250 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M NEOCLASSICISM Neoclassicism was a deliberate reaction against the decorative priorities of the Rococo. SUBJECTS Paulina Bonaparte Borghese as Venus Antonio Canova. Light falls evenly. grave. of ancient art. Wiltshire. building in a series of opulent and imposing English houses. Typically. was the most influential Neoclassical sculptor. the Scot Robert Adam actively sought to emulate the grandeur of Ancient Roman. and thus truth. It was a self-conscious return to what were thought the absolute. The Bastille. Canova. draperies are simple and chaste. and Bowood House. remaining there until 1780 French Revolution begins. Overwhelmingly. Greece and Republican (not Imperial) Rome furnished most subjects. On the whole. KEY EVENTS 1738 1755 1775 1789 1806 1815 Excavations begin at Herculaneum. Self-sacrifice and selfdenying heroism were recurring themes. not surprisingly since the vast majority of Classical art was pagan. Neoclassical works became measured. and selfconsciously noble. such as Kenwood House. marble. 1760. Religious subjects always coexisted uneasily with Neoclassicism. Hampstead. c. To Greek purity he brought an exceptionally finished technique. subjects from Classical literature and history were favored. showing alabaster columns and plasterwork by Joseph Rose. Johann Winckelmann. interior of the marble hall designed by Robert Adam. 1808. Rome: Galleria Borghese. . and at Pompeii in 1748 Publication of Winckelmann’s Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works of Art Jacques-Louis David visits Rome. STYLE The German theorist and art historian. who settled in Rome after 1779. but its most brilliant exponent. Following a visit to Rome in 1754. radically fused contemporary political concerns with a new artistic language. Derbyshire. persuasively advocating the “noble simplicity and calm grandeur” of ancient art. severe standards of the ancient world. underlining the supposed moral worth and superiority.

it had been commissioned by Louis XVI. The shadow of death is cast by the men over the women and innocent children TECHNIQUES Despite its massive size. it is also a statement about The helmets. and impeccably composed. 1700–1800 251 1770 –1830 WHAT TO LOOK FOR This landmark painting was the high point of Neoclassical painting. . Sabina (right) is one of the Curatii. and togas are copied from known Roman examples moral and political ideals.C . is betrothed to a Curatii. a Horatii. swords. heroic. Ironically. Authoritative. She will be killed by her brother for lamenting her lover’s death. suggesting both their isolation and their ties to each other The dominant color of the male grouping is a vivid red. Each of the three Doric arches frames a group of figures. Paris: Musée du Louvre. life. and is a deliberate celebration of the art. but are also bound by ties of love to an enemy family. oil 130 x 167 in (330 x 425 cm) on canvas. Camilla (left). 1784. the color of passion and revolution The Oath of the Horatii Jacques-Louis David. but married to one of the Horatii. The picture became a rallying cry for the French Revolution. The Oath of the Horatii is painted with the fine and polished technique usually found in a small Dutch still life. Three brothers (the Horatii) swear allegiance to the Roman Republic. the Curatii. and stern moral values of Republican Rome. They choose loyalty to the state over personal emotion.

volatile character— an artistic Napoleon (dictatorial. chalks 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $5. 1738 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). 1777 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Love Fleeing Slavery. . 1788 (Richmond: Virginia State Capitol).65m in 1996. Rome 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $450. North America 1 sculpture 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. Survived the French Revolution. Paris: Bibliothèque de la Comédie Française. for which he visited North America.53m in 1990. Morpheus. Bust of Alexander Pope (marble) Born in France but worked mainly in England. inflexible). Portrait of Suzanne le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau (oils) Passionate.000 in 1997. KEY WORKS St. Sir Isaac Newton. 1790 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) 5 England. Rome. Diana. (Rome: S. Pupil of the Baroque sculptor Balthasar Permoser in Germany. Bust of Benjamin Franklin (marble) One of the most important French sculptors of the 18th century. softly Neoclassical in subject and setting. Woman Leaving the Baths (oils) One of a happy band of competent artists who bridge the gap between styles (Rococo and Neoclassicism.5 cm). drawings. Famed in his lifetime throughout Europe and America. KEY WORKS Dedalus in the Labyrinth Attaching the Wings to Icarus. France 1 sculpture 2 Cambridge: Trinity College 3 $1. Famously commissioned to sculpt George Washington. Delicate. Maria degli Angeli). Deeply François-Marie Arouet Voltaire Jean-Antoine Houdon.544 in 2004. marble. studied in Rome after receiving the Prix de Rome in 1761. George Washington as the Modern Cincinnatus. Bruno 1767. 1781. 1789 (Toulouse: Musée des Augustins) Jacques-Louis David b 1748 – 1825 n FRENCH 5 Paris. Germany. austere. Rome. as though his statues are simply pausing in the middle of an action.542. KEY WORKS George Frederic Handel.252 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Jean-Antoine Houdon b 1741 – 1828 n FRENCH Louis-François Roubiliac b 1702 – 62 n FRENCH 5 Paris. the Huntress. but Rococo in mood and lack of seriousness. whimsical works. where he became the greatest sculptor of his time. This likeness of the writer was commissioned by Voltaire’s niece. Made his name sculpting statues of famous men and ornate tombs. Born and died in France. 1755 (Cambridge: Trinity College) Comte Joseph-Marie Vien b 1716 – 1809 n FRENCH 5 France. height 55 1⁄2 in (133. Brussels 1 oils. Influenced by the Baroque before becoming a Neoclassicist. Madame Denis. in his case) without establishing a significant place in either. The majority of his works are portrait busts. 1754 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). His works are characterized by a vitality seldom seen in those of his contemporaries. his works emulate the busts of Ancient Greece and Rome. London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $2.

Body language and facial expressions used as drama. KEY WORKS The Oath of the Horatii. Portraits of victors of the French Revolution have direct. 1800 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) . Madame Récamier c. Even shadows and light seem to have been disciplined and regimented. You have to experience the sheer physical size of the big set pieces firsthand. Died in exile in Brussels. especially in hands. 1800 Jacques-Louis David. No place for ambiguity: what you see and feel are as precise and as clear as can be. with Napoleon Crossing the Alps on May 20th. feet. Stern moral and artistic rules: behind the theater and storytelling is the ideological commitment to art as a public and political statement in the service of the state. Observe his attention to detail. Love of antiquity and archeological accuracy (Roman noses everywhere). Four separate versions exist. armor. He applies the precision of the painter of miniatures on a massive scale. Château de Versailles. His flesh is as smooth as porcelain. busybody eyes. 1793 (Brussels: Musée d’Art Moderne). differing only in the coloring of the cape. 1803. Founder of French Neoclassical painting. but was an arts administrator as well as a creative genius. 1787 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). never a hair in sight. tassles. 1784–85 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). oil on canvas. If you want authority in art—this is it. 105 x 87 4⁄5 in (267 x 223 cm).C . and stones. Death of Marat. The Death of Socrates. 1700–1800 253 involved in the politics of French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire.

marble. Visited Rome and Naples in 1780 as his interest in Neoclassicism developed. Canova’s most famous work was of Napoleon’s sister. settled permanently in Rome in 1781.254 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Antonio Canova b 1757 – 1822 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. in a variety of winningly graceful poses. Austria 1 sculpture 2 Possagno (Italy): Museo Canova. where opened studio in 1774. closer to our taste than that of the Greeks. Combined astonishingly accomplished technique— best works are highly finished—with rare talent for human figure. females especially.. i. visited Paris again overseeing return of looted Italian art. with side trip to London.e. Pauline Borghese.200 in 1995. KEY WORKS Daedalus and Icarus. In 1817. Theseus and the Minotaur. 1779 (Venice: Museo Correr). Paris: Musée du Louvre. height 59 in (150 cm). Born Treviso. but in 1802 he accepted commissions from Napoleon after visiting Paris. from different viewpoints. Theseus Slaying a Centaur. Bust of a Lady (marble) in 1808 (see page 250). Cupid and Psyche Antonio Canova. Highly significant that many later works were created for museums rather than patrons. .” STENDHAL. moved to Venice. St. 1780s (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). 1796–97. In 1797. The Penitent Magdalene. Canova was fascinated by hands and fingers. so no longer dependent on architectural settings. underlining the changing status of the artist. a grateful pope granted him title of Marchese (marquis) of Ischia. 1824 appreciated in the round. Enjoyed early success with monuments to popes Clement XIV (1782–87) and Clement XIII (1787–92). enjoyed huge fame across Europe and was widely credited with reviving “lost art” of sculpture and frequently compared with best of the ancients. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $547. certainly the most celebrated. After 1815. Pauline Borghese as Venus (see page 250) The leading Neoclassical sculptor. Many group sculptures can only be “Canova … invented a new type of ideal beauty. the French invasion forced him into exile in Vienna. France. Venice: Museo Correr. 1796 (Genoa: Palazzo Bianca). 1781– 83 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum).

Hebe. 1756 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). The Town and Harbor of Toulon. KEY WORKS The Triumph of Alexander the Great. His career took off with the statue Jason with the Golden Fleece. oil on canvas.507.250 in 2003. coastlines.000 in 2003. and many of his clients were British Grand Tourists. c. . oil on canvas. evocative views of Italianate landscapes. he preferred to work from copies Portrait of a Young Woman Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. France 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée de la Marine 3 $3. lushly colored portraits of fashionable women (allegedly painted Marie Antoinette 25 times). 1797. England 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $735. a pair) Established a successful formula for rather stagey. although his works lack the Italian’s sensitive surfaces. Vernet married an Englishwoman. The artist organized famous parties at which guests wore Greek costumes. His major project (commissioned by Louis XV) was 16 views of major French seaports (1753–65). Artist. 32 1⁄3 x 27 3⁄4 in (82. Best at sentimental. 1748 (Paris: Musée du Louvre).347 in 1984. oils 2 Copenhagen: Thorvaldsens Museum. 1806 (Copenhagen: Thorvaldsens Museum) Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun b 1755 – 1842 n FRENCH 5 France. Denmark 1 sculpture. 1777. 1788 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. KEY WORKS Hubert Robert. Stationed mainly in Rome.5 cm).255 The Storm Claude-Joseph Vernet. Avignon: Musée Calvet. much admired by 18th-century collectors. Shipwreck in Stormy Seas (oils. UK: Harris Museum and Art Gallery). 1770 – 1844 n DANISH 5 Rome. Wrote a good autobiography. Landscape at Sunset with Fisherman Returning. 1789 (London: Wallace Collection) Bertel Thorvaldsen b C.2 x 70. KEY WORKS View of Naples. member of the French Academy. Ranked alongside Canova. La Duchesse de Gramont-Caderousse en Vendangeuse (oils) Claude-Joseph Vernet b 1714 – 89 n FRENCH 5 Rome. Stockholm: National Museum 3 $331. 1759 (Bruges: Groeninge Museum) Successful portraitist in last years of the ancien régime. Russia. instead of employing live models. Madame Perregaux. 1810s (Preston. Shipwreck. and especially shipwrecks. Mythological Figures (sculpture) Thorvaldsen is Denmark’s most important Neoclassicist. Left France in 1789 to tour Europe. A museum was built in his honor in Copenhagen (1839–48).

DC: National Gallery of Art. Trained and based in Europe after 1760. Elizabeth Coffin Amory (oils) The greatest American painter of the colonial period. and pioneering as a painter. and shook up less progressive artists. late-18th century (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Art). London (after Joshua Reynolds). New YorK: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $2. . earnest. indecisive as a person but assured. Colonel Guy Johnson. From 1770 onward. Portrait of Sir Joseph Banks (oils) Pennsylvania-born and the first American artist to achieve international recognition. talented. England 1 oils 2 Washington. He later anticipated Romanticism by introducing melodramatic subjects of death and destruction with powerful contrast of light and shade. His art is secondhand—derived. c. Self-taught. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $260. wooden style that caught the taste for the Neoclassical. he cleverly adapted Neoclassicism by delivering the same heroic message using modern rather than ancient history—this was popular with the public and collectors. He was also a popular portraitist. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. The Burghers of Calais. He had the enviable ability of anticipating the next fashion and was thus always successful and in the public eye. rather flat. Italy. if not exactly copied. and was employed by George III (who lost the American colonies). 1775 (Washington. he married well (the daughter of a rich Tory merchant). England: Royal Collection) John Singleton Copley b 1738 – 1815 n AMERICAN 5 US.256 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Benjamin West b 1738 – 1820 n AMERICAN 5 US. Mrs. DC: National Gallery of Art). Slow. timid. Washington. 1789 (Windsor Castle. His early large works often portray obscure literary subjects and have a stiff. Europe. Son of poor Irish immigrants. England 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery.6m in 1987. His work is an acquired taste for modern eyes.000 in 2000. he became the second President of the Royal Academy. from others. KEY WORKS Venus Lamenting the Death of Adonis.

fearful that he would be dubbed a pacifist and Tory hanger-on. This may have been a measure of growing American prosperity but the colony’s cultural insecurity was underlined by the fact that they all trained in Europe. KEY WORKS Paul Revere. Of his 114 portraits of Washington. The best known. established himself as the leading portrait painter. . Bigamist. high-quality. oil on panel. a plain likeness in their own familiar setting. often in debt. KEY WORKS The Skater. falling under the influence of Neoclassicism. 1782 (Washington. Pre-1774. Portrait of John Jay (oils) Penniless. but he achieved great success in London with huge-scale modern-history paintings (heroic actual events presented as though they were moral tales from Ancient History). England 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $210. c. 1771. Benjamin West. 1778 (Washington. Wolfe died at the moment of victory.000 in 1996. severe light and dark contrasts. A distinctively American school did not emerge until the 19th century. softly modeled and silhouetted against a plain background. DC: Museum of Fine Art. Was a heavy drinker. DC: National Gallery of Art). uneducated son of a Rhode Island tobacconist.000 in 1986. c. David Rogers. and frothy) after his visit to Italy. DC: National Gallery of Art).2 x 61 cm). especially Washington. Noah Smith and her Children. a number of painters appeared in Colonial America. melancholic decline as he went out of fashion and felt exiled (he never returned to the US). George Washington and Martha Washington. Decisive. Produced Romantic. Late. His sketches of the sites of the battles of Lexington and Concord were turned into popular prints. Dublin 1 oils 2 Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. carouser. only three were made from life. a white dot on the end of a shiny nose. Portrait of John Phelps (oils) Prominent member of a family of craftsmen and artists. 1700–1800 257 Had two separate and successful careers and styles. Mrs. 1787 (Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). 1768–70 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). bad-tempered. Watson and the Shark. light shining on a forehead. Precise (overhard?) line. Painted almost every contemporary of note. Jean-Antoine Houdon. and addicted to snuff. failed businessman. It did his portraiture no good. He learned his trade in Edinburgh (1772) and London (1775) as an assistant to Benjamin West. The Death of General Wolfe Benjamin West. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $900. Dr. DC: National Gallery of Art). when the State of Virginia commissioned a statue of George Washington. KEY WORKS The Striker Sisters. 1759. The Copley Family. which show his own and his sitters’ liking for empirical realism. The Three Youngest Daughters of George III. it turned to a Frenchman. sober works. loyalist who left for England in 1778. 17 x 24 in (43. As late as 1784. in Boston. 1785 (Windsor Castle.C . 1798 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Gilbert Stuart b 1755 – 1828 n AMERICAN 5 US. the rest are replicas. Note how he adapted to the grandmanner style of portrait painting (more decorative. DC: National Gallery of Art). London. Washington. Private Collection. settled permanently in England. returning in 1785. 1776–77 (Washington. In 1774 he left Boston. pompous. disliking politics. and rapid execution without preliminary drawing. An episode from the conquest of Quebec. 1788 (Washington. Notable for portraits of Connecticut patrons— typically. clear detail and enumeration of material objects. Characteristic features and touches are a pinkish-green palette. Was also a highly successful portrait painter and America’s first virtuoso exponent of the grand manner. England: Royal Collection) THE RISE OF AN AMERICAN SCHOOL mid-18th century From the mid-18th century. 1796 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Ralph Earl b 1751 – 1801 n AMERICAN 5 US. dignified portrait images of independence and self-assurance.

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Growing demands for self-rule by oppressed minorities saw Belgium. French rule extended across almost the whole of The Turkish Bath (detail). Only Britain. diameter 78 in (198 cm). oil on canvas. Portugal. In 1812. but ideas of liberty. France. Ingres embodies 19th-century taste for Classical academic style combined with exotic Orientalism. western Europe. motivated by money. Musée du Louvre. These conflicting ideologies clashed in 1848 when Poles. 1800—1900 259 ROMANTIC AND ACADEMIC ART C. and Romania emerge as independent nations by the end of the century. 1800 –1900 The art of the 19th century was complex and multifaceted. and Hungarians rose against their Austrian rulers. and Scandinavia remained free of French control.c. 1863. These attitudes to the art of the era reflect the complex politics of the 19th century. Napoleon’s defeat in 1815 restored Europe’s pre-revolutionary status quo. Greece. once planted. at the height of Napoleon’s success. proved tenacious. There was fierce reaction against self-rule by conservative regimes. others were prepared to starve for the purity of their art. engulfing central and eastern Europe in revolution. Some artists followed the market. Popular nationalism also drove the unification of Italy (after 1859) and of Germany (after 1866). Czechs. Academicism was supported by those who resisted change and wanted art to maintain the cultural and social status quo. Radical new styles were invented that delighted some and caused deep offence to others. Serbia. above all the multinational Austrian Empire. R omanticism was embraced by those who wanted to redefine the place of art and humankind in a rapidly changing world. What had begun in 1789 as a struggle for liberty evolved into a war of conquest. NATIONALISM AND REVOLUTION THE NAPOLEONIC ERA In Europe the decisive event of the early part of the century was the resurgence of France under the galvanizing influence of Napoleon. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Paris. Old styles were revived or combined in unexpected ways. which had already seen the abdication of .

it replaced drawing as the most immediate method of making a record of visual Germany’s southern states committed themselves to the powerful new Prussiandominated German Empire and. Napoleon’s nephew. oil on canvas. preoccupied with its vast empire and the consequences of industrialization.260 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Napoleon Giving Orders before Austerlitz Antoine-Charles Horace Vernet. In the 1870s. The crushing defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71 provided the final impetus for the unification of Germany. and then Europe after 1850. The memory of Napoleon influenced French politics throughout the 19th century. US-based English photographer Eadweard Muybridge. EARLY DAGUERRE CAMERA FROM THE 1840S TIMELINE: 1800—1900 1825 First passenger steam train (Britain) 1812 Napoleon defeated in Russia 1839 Photographs by Louis Daguerre exhibited in Paris 1837 Accession of Queen Victoria (Britain) 1848 Nationalist uprisings in central Europe repressed. In its wake. In its early years it was used principally for studio portraits. was also swept by popular uprisings. France established the Third Republic. last French king deposed 1804 Napoleon declares himself emperor of France 1800 1805 SpanishFrench fleet defeated at Trafalgar 1815 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo. using a battery of cameras with fast shutter-speed. First Britain. 1808. following the downfall of Napoleon III. this was replaced by the Second Empire under Napoleon III. Congress of Vienna restores prerevolutionary order 1820 1830 Abdication of Charles X in France and accession of more liberal regime under Louis-Philippe 1838 Invention of first electric telegraph (Britain) 1840 1852 Accession of Napoleon III . were changing MUYBRIDGE PHOTOGRAPHS OF A JUMPING HORSE appearance. INDUSTRIALIZATION Britain became increasingly aloof from European affairs. PHOTOGRAPHY Photography was first demonstrated to the wider world by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre in 1839. Château de Versailles. began to make studies of horses and humans in motion. forcing a second king to abdicate and the inauguration of a new republic. This allowed people to see for the first time the action of a galloping horse. 150 x 254 in (380 x 645 cm). however. Gradually. mimicking those painted for the wealthy at a fraction of the cost. one king in 1830. In 1852.

Britain had set the pace but France. 1861 Unification of Italy. the iron-and-glass structure was 1. 1800—1900 261 rapidly from rural to urban societies amid great social upheaval. confident identity and continued to expand westward. Europe’s states engaged in a frenzied race to take over as much of the globe as they could. The impact of these enormous changes was highly significant for continental European art especially in France. It too became a major industrial power. with railroads. steam ships. significantly. and. From 1870 onward the principles that had governed the western tradition for over 400 years began to dissolve. Originally the goal had been trade rather than territory. and the electric telegraph causing a revolution in communications. Germany proved ever more effective rivals. abolition of serfdom in Russia 1863 Paris Salon rejects Manet’s Déjeuner sur l’Herbe. first Salon des Refusés held 1876 Bell patents telephone (Britain) 1885 Development of first automobile (Germany) 1860 1859 Publication of Origin of Species (Darwin) 1867 Dual monarchy of AustriaHungary established 1870–71 FrancoPrussian War and unification of Germany 1880 1884 Berlin Conference initiates “scramble” for Africa 1900 1895 Invention of wireless telegraphy (Marconi) . the United States established a new. After about 1870 empire in itself came to be seen as desirable. adding new states to the Union. At the same time an important shift in attitude toward Europe’s overseas colonies took place.848 ft (563 m) long. Huge new industrial cities appeared. London Built for the Great Exhibition of 1851. though less so for Britain and the United States.C . The Modern was being born. Industrial processes and goods were displayed from all around the world. EUROPE AND THE WORLD The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park. After the trauma of the Civil War of 1861–65.

1800. his overriding interest was appearance and behavior. especially Manet (see page 307). LIFE AND WORKS Royal factory. Painted The Disasters of War series 1810–14. France 1 oils. sweet innocence. which was also the year he completed his Los Caprichos series. oil on canvas. Goya painted a nude and a clothed Maja. 1770–71. 37 1⁄3 x 78 4⁄5 in (95 x 190 cm). hope and despair. and was one of the greatest portrait painters of all time. Visited Italy c. He produced a wide range of powerful work. Bullfight—Suerte de Varas (oils) A solitary and lonely figure. he worked for the Frenchheld Spanish court until 1814. drawings 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado. . Went to Madrid in 1763. His art is about Spain and its The Clothed Maja c. returned to work on the cathedral in Saragossa in 1772. Following the Napoleonic invasion of Spain in 1808. He influenced several French 19th-century painters. causing him to be denounced to the Inquisition for obscenity. Was then pardoned by reinstated Ferdinand VII. Retired to Bordeaux in 1824. London: British Museum (prints) 3 $7. Became principal court painter in 1799. In Madrid by 1775 and in 1776 began drawing tapestry cartoons for the An admirer of the French Enlightenment.262 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Francisco Goya b 1746 – 1828 n SPANISH 5 Spain.02m in 1992. Full name Francisco di Goya y Lucientes. Goya became stone deaf aged 48. He understood youth and age. STYLE Born in Saragossa. engravings. Madrid: Museo del Prado. and the worst aspects of man’s inhumanity to man.

DC: National Gallery of Art) . 6 1⁄5 x 8 1⁄5 in (15. 1803–04 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). Therese Louise de Sureda. and because his work is always beautiful to look at. 1800–1900 263 obsessions. The Disasters of War 1810–14. Plate 36.8 x 20.c. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Here Neither. gray tones against color. With Goya one has the uneasy sensation that the relationship between viewer and sitter is reversed. Private Collection. etching. Intensity and introspection. Goya created a series of 82 prints showing the brutality of war. impressionistic paintwork. they examine you and your views on human behavior as much as you scrutinize them. free. KEY WORKS The Duke of Wellington. 1812–14 (London: National Gallery). even when the subject matter is horrific. 1814 (Washington. He is hauntingly memorable because he is never judgmental (simply showing human behavior as it is). published 1863. His portraits are untraditional.8 cm). c. drama. untraditional. The Third of May 1808.

clothes. Painted in Genoa. Sappho at Leucate. 31 x 25in (79 x 65 cm). He had an interest in mirrors. Montauban (France): Musée Ingres 3 $2. Eventually driven to suicide. brilliant handling of paint. pen and ink 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $328. Tortured. Best known work is Napoleon in the Plague House at Jaffa (1804). but not always) manipulated this artificial idealism and fused realism with distortion. strong contrasts of light and shade. the back is too long. Later works increasingly sterile. and Art Gallery. hands. 1801 (Bayeux: Musée Baron Gérard). he was a crucial precursor of Romanticism. 1814 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Florence 1 oils. mirrors. 1856 (London: National Gallery) The Valpinçon Bather Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.492 in 1989. He created the most manicured paintings in the history of art—everything carefully arranged (hair. where the sitter’s husband painting figures that are reflected in was president of the French Chamber of Commerce. smiles. His work conveys total certainty—his subjects were well established and officially approved: portraits. and in-demand painter who gave up art in his mid-40s after inheriting a large sum of money. capable. Paris: Musée du Louvre. attitudes. Italy 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $695. Great admirer of the Italian Renaissance and Raphael. and sloping Portrait of Madame Bruyère Antoine-Jean Gros. Renowned for refusing to paint faces he did not find psychologically interesting. not the Antique. 1796. yet drew his subject matter from modern life. Rome. maybe his (and his society’s) whole world was that glassy reality/ Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson unreality of the looking glass? b 1767–1824 n FRENCH 5 France. uptight personality. all painted with the high “finish” required by the Academy. and interest in Eastern exoticism. Male painter of aristocratic portraits. with a total mastery of line and precise observation.572 in 1987. Napoleon Bonaparte Receiving the Keys of Vienna at the Schloss Schönbrunn. Madame Moitessier. 57 1⁄2 x 38 1⁄2 in (146 x 98 cm). Notice the way he (usually. the body is distorted. To produce artistic harmony. and never dead academicism: chubby hands with tapering fingers (can look like flippers). Jupiter and Thetis (oils) One of the major heroes of French art and the master of high-flown academic illusionism.264 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Antoine-Jean Gros b 1771 – 1835 n FRENCH 5 France. 13th November 1805. Italy 1 oils. Bristol: City Museum shoulders. Became a writer. nudes. oil on canvas. Napoleon on the Battlefield at Eylau. drawings 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. . 1792 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Napoleon on the Battlefield at Eylau (oils) the cort of Napoleon I. poses.652 in 1988. settings. 1808 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) KEY WORKS Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres b 1780 – 1867 n FRENCH 5 Paris. 1808 (Château de Versailles) David’s most famous pupil and the most successful painter of the early Napoleonic period. Despite Neoclassical background. for example. oil on canvas. Loose. La Révolte du Caire (oils) Also known as Anne-Louis Girodet de Roucy or Roussy. strange necks. faces. Had David’s ability to manage huge-scale compositions with many figures. KEY WORKS The Sleep of Endymion. so that the end result is alive and thrilling. 1808. which portrays Napoleon as a Christ-like figure surrounded by dying French troops. and mythologies. associated with KEY WORKS La Grande Odalisque. 1827 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). A talented. The Apotheosis of Homer.132. even light)—and some of the most exquisite drawings ever made.

1800–1900 265 .c.

usually suppressed feelings. It appealed particularly to northern European temperaments and flourished most creatively in Germany.266 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT ROMANTICISM As the rationalism promised by the Enlightenment dissolved in the bloodletting of the French Revolution. The desire to see everything as larger than life frequently expressed itself in bold color. elemental KEY EVENTS 1789 1793 French Revolution Execution of Louis XVI: apparent triumph of new liberal French political order is followed by the Terror Wordsworth and Coleridge publish Lyrical Ballads. vigorous brushwork.2 x 30. key doctrine of Romantic feeling. color. 1836–42. Colors exploded. frequently destructive. and the wonders of nature. Chamonix J. exoticism favored. Friedrich excelled in images of an implacable nature under whose vast skies man inevitably shrank. 1798 1799 1814 Monk by the Sea Caspar David Friedrich. watercolors. allowing themselves freedom to express raw.2 cm). Movement. almost always beyond the reach of man to control. oil on canvas: Berlin Staatliche Museum. The artist turned the calm certainties of later 18th-century English landscape painting upside-down. M. W. 1809. brushwork knew no limits. 9 1⁄2 in x 12 in (24. c. Couvent du Bonhomme. and drama were actively championed. the subconscious was recognized as a mainspring of human activity. Self-expression in the modern sense—that the artist is not just uniquely well equipped to see into the human soul but has a duty to do so— inevitably led to a huge variety of artistic styles. It also marked a decisive break with the conformities of the past. heroism. artists struggled to come to terms with a world that had plunged from apparent certainty into chaos. and France. Heroic individualism defined Romanticism. In stark contrast to the optimism of the 18th century. Schlegel coins term “romantic poetry” Napoleonic coup: Bonaparte becomes First Consul (1804 Emperor) Constable’s Stour Valley and Dedham Church appears same year as Goya’s great antiwar polemic The Third of May forces. Turner. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. humanity was seen as puny and subservient to nature. death. Artists turned away from the logical and rational. and themes of love. This was a world of vast. Britain. 43 1⁄3 x 67 3⁄4 in (110 x 172 cm). Landscapes became larger. For the first time. and more threatening. brooding. a single definition is impossible. STYLE It is no surprise that Romanticism resists neat categorization. SUBJECTS Heightened emotions dominated. the results were mixed. . Perhaps predictably.

it decays. Once dry. Géricault visited the local hospital. to add luster to his color scheme. The face of death. Whereas David’s art (page 252) encouraged service to the State. The picture is not just fading. 193 x 282 in (491 x 716 cm). In pursuit of authenticity. somber mood of the painting is not entirely deliberate. it is slowly disintegrating before our eyes. Géricault’s masterpiece encapsulates these virtues and takes art into the realm of political protest. Paris: Musée du Louvre. Here the survivors see the vessel that will save them.c. a tar-based pigment. 1819. L’Hôpital Beaujon. He even took a severed head and an assortment of limbs from the morgue back to his studio in the Faubourg du Roule. oil on canvas. Géricault castigates the State for abandoning those who serve. The Raft of the Medusa Théodore Géricault. 1800–1900 267 18th and 19th centuries WHAT TO LOOK FOR The Romantics believed in the freedom of the individual. The story and the painting scandalized the French nation. to make detailed studies of the sick and dying. They were not interested in compromise—better to be a heroic success or a total failure. A distraught father grieves over his dead son TECHNIQUES The dark. . A silhouetted figure against a dramatic sky features in many of Géricault’s works Emotions are deliberately played on. Géricault’s huge painting was intended to be deliberately challenging—to a complacent state presided over by a newly restored monarchy as much as to a smug bourgeoisie. It theatrically recreates a real-life incident when the captain of a The tattered remains of a billowing sail contrast with the menace of an approaching wave shipwrecked French frigate saved himself and abandoned the passengers and crew. Géricault used bitumen.

early loss. Allegedly the illegitimate son of the aristocrat/diplomat. Paris: Musée du Louvre. for instance). Talleyrand. luminous oils and watercolors of picturesque places (Normandy. and often did. watercolors 2 London: Wallace Collection 3 $564. Venice. Before the 1830s he produced set-piece works for the official Salon (now mostly in the Louvre). oil on canvas. The Barque of Dante. Byron). without a specific point of focus or climax. KEY WORKS Venetian Campanili. coppery greens. with whom he worked closely. often sketches: these are what you will most often see outside Paris. Loves rich material and texture. current politics. Palais Luxembourg. lush reds. He uses color as the main means of expression: color and the play of light keep the eye moving. Choc de Cavaliers Arabes (oils) Small in stature but big in spirit— the fashionable. Works to savor and enjoy. Inspired by literature (Dante. Palais Bourbon.400 in 1987. After 1833 his major works are set-piece official commissions (for the Bourbon Palace. Directly inspired by the slaughter of the Greek population of Chios by the Turks. 1827 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Musée Delacroix 3 $7. North Africa (visited in 1832). drawings. and intense. England. and death. 165 x 139 1⁄3 in (419 x 354 cm). Saint Sulpice. fresh. Had complex working methods. Died of consumption. 1845–50 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). The Death of Sardanapalus. struggle. all done with consummate skill and ease. The English Delacroix. He chose big.500 in 1998. A genius and a sad. His later work exploited color theory and used complementary colors and the color wheel. with the Palace of Prince .765. small-scale. Venice (oils) Scenes from the Massacre of Chios Eugène Delacroix. romantic subjects where the linking theme is heightened emotion. Was willing to shock with strong subject matter and vigorous style. c.268 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Eugène Delacroix b 1798 – 1863 n FRENCH 5 Paris. Paris). wild animals. fiery hero of French Romanticism. aged 26. historical events. Odalisque. pastels 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. which can only be seen in situ. 1882 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Richard Parkes Bonington b 1802 – 28 n BRITISH 5 Paris. 1824. Lovely. His Journal is essential reading. The Palazzi Manolesso-Ferro on the Grand Canal. Venice 1 oils. 1826 (Maidstone Museum and Art Gallery). England. Morocco 1 oils. KEY WORKS Orphan Girl at the Cemetery. especially through sexuality. which produced much preliminary work. The Corsa Saint Anastasia. Verona. 1824 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). and costume history pieces.

c. née de Comères (oils) A true Romantic: he was unorthodox. Géricault’s compositions are memorably simple: he often uses silhouette against a dramatic sky and lifts the eye up to a single point of climax near the top of the picture. and art). watercolor on paper. Venice: the Piazza S. 1813–14 (London: National Gallery). c. Was hugely influential on Delacroix. 1828. Watercolor sketches were made on summer travels to be used in the studio in winter. Nottingham: City Museums and Galleries. KEY WORKS A Horse Frightened by Lightning. His early work was much influenced by Rubens (rich color and movement) and Michelangelo (muscles and monumentality).6 cm). virile. 1826 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). 1828 (London: Wallace Collection) Théodore Géricault b 1791 – 1824 n FRENCH 5 Paris. His strong sense of color and lively paint handling were sometimes ruined by the use of bitumen and poor-quality technique (was a lazy student. Portrait de Laure Bro. He depicts soulful human beings and horses (the expression in the horse’s eye is the same as in the human’s)—note his trick of turning the human face one way and the horse the other. should have studied harder). Italy. 30 1⁄3 x 25 1⁄2 in (77 x 65 cm). c. and changed the rules of art with The Raft of the Medusa—the first rendering of a Portrait of a Woman Addicted to Gambling Théodore Géricault. The Raft of the Medusa. 1819 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Was wealthy and only painted when he felt like it. and inspiring. England 1 oils. drawings 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $5. Scandalized French art and the political establishment. The Madwoman. 1814 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). oil on canvas. The Undercliff Richard Parkes Bonington. depressive. innovative lithographs. Officer of the Hussars. 1822. passionate (about horses. women. 1800–1900 269 contemporary political subject in a manner truly comparable with the grandest history painting (see page 267). His talents extended further: he was also a producer of stunning. 1822–23 (Lyon: Musée des Beaux-Arts) Maffet. temperamental. A psychiatrist encouraged Géricault to paint portraits of the insane. . Marco. Paris: Musée du Louvre. 5 x 8 1⁄5 in (13 x 21. Géricault had two main subjects: horses and moments of danger or uncertainty (and often combined both). Had an early death (fell off a horse).21m in 1989.

exhausted by his artistic labors. anticipating artists such as Monet (see page 310). broken brushwork. a close friend of Baudelaire and Victor Hugo. berets. All classes of society. He also investigated the juxtaposition of colors to increase their individual richness and vibrancy. Delacroix had high hopes for the critical reception of this work. except the dyed-in-the-wool monarchists. their faces and bodies picked out by the dramatic halo of light shining behind Liberty. This highly controversial painting commemorates the political uprising in Paris in July 1830. His journals document his insights into color theory. when Parisians took to the streets for three days in revolt against the greedy and tyrannical regime of the king. Delacroix shows dying and dead men. Delacroix’s own life is like that of the hero of a romantic novel. The proletarian emphasis was considered so dangerous that the painting was removed from public view until 1855. Delacroix’s use of color here is uncharacteristically subdued but serves to heighten the brilliance of the saturated tones of the flag. Charles X. To the right lie two soldiers. supported the revolution. With restless energy but frail health. he had many love affairs yet remained unmarried. many soldiers refused to fire on their fellow citizens—some even joined the rebel ranks . and cloth caps are all represented. He died alone. TECHNIQUES Delacroix often used short. victims of the battle. Delacroix conveys this by displaying a variety of hats worn by the streetfighters—top hats.270 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Liberty Leading the People Eugène Delacroix 1830 Leader of the French Romantic Movement in painting. but he was disappointed.

On one of the towers flies the tricolor. His arched pose is a crucial element in the pyramidal composition. the artist echoes the colors of the tricolor flag in the dying patriot’s clothing The artist’s signature is written boldly in symbolic red with the date 1830. A mortally wounded citizen strains with his dying breath to take a last look at Liberty. He also prefigures the popular character Gavroche in Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables. 1800–1900 271 Liberty Leading the People Medium oil on canvas Size 129 x 169 in (330 x 425 cm) Location Paris: Musée du Louvre Emerging from the gunsmoke are the towers of Notre Dame. Shortly after this he visited Morocco. The tricolor flag was a symbol of the 1789 Revolution and Delacroix knew it would bring to mind the glories of the early Napoleonic Empire Liberty wears a Phrygian cap.c. who was killed in the fighting around the Hôtel de Ville. finding Arab civilization more exciting than the dead history of the ancient world . a symbol of freedom during the French Revolution. Significantly. Women played a leading role in the street fighting of the 1830 revolution Delacroix balances realistic detail with a powerful abstracted composition—a pyramid rising up to the right hand of Liberty The young patriot to the right of Liberty represents a popular hero named Arcole. Delacroix was in Paris during the three-day revolution but did not play an active part.

for intense experience. he was full of big ideas. figures Winter Landscape Caspar David Friedrich. c. near the Baltic coast. Born at Greifswald. oil on canvas.5 x 94 cm). influencing late-19th-century Symbolists. Sunrise turning to sunset. KEY WORKS The Cross in the Mountains.213. Friedrich came into his own later. watercolors 2 St. dead trees as death and despair. Times of day and the seasons. 1808 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). for instance. Shoots of grass push through the snow to symbolize the hope of Resurrection. Dresden 1 oils. drawings. 13 x 17 3⁄4 in (33 x 45 cm). Leipzig: Museum der Bildenden Künste. 1835. . but all his landscapes are imaginary or composite—painted out of his head. not sitting in front of nature. Monk by the Sea. His Romantic relationship with nature was intensely spiritual and Christian. oak trees and Gothic churches as representing Christianity. 1811. ships as the transition from the here and now to otherworldliness. when one state is about to become another. 1824 (Hamburg Kunsthalle) The Stages of Life Caspar David Friedrich. looking out of windows or at the horizon as yearning. for greatness. but neglected in his day. each at a different stage of life’s journey. The Polar Sea. London: National Gallery. 28 1⁄2 x 37 in (72.000 in 1993. Spaziergang in der Abenddämmerung (A Walk at Dusk) (oils) Now the best-known German Romantic landscape painter.272 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Caspar David Friedrich b 1774 – 1840 n GERMAN 5 Copenhagen. Look for his symbolism. and loaded with symbolism. Studied nature’s details closely. c. oil on canvas. or winter turning to spring as spiritual transition and hope of resurrection. 1809 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). The five ships correspond to the figures on the shore. Although a meticulous and careful painter of small pictures. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $3. His work is also full of yearning: for the spiritual life beyond the grave. but later settled permanently in Dresden.

Die Farbenkugel (The Color Sphere). Visited England in 1841 to advise on frescoes for the new Houses of Parliament. KEY WORKS The Lesson of the Nightingale. they lived and worked in a monastery in Rome. including the early Pre-Raphaelites. fresco 2 Hamburg: Kunsthalle 3 $8. 1800–1900 273 Peter von Cornelius b 1783 – 1867 n GERMAN 5 Italy. From 1810. oil on canvas. The Great Morning.c. and the young Raphael. The Hülsenbeck Children. His art brought him little fame in his lifetime. Eros with the Eagle (oils) Responsible for bringing frescoes back into prominence in the 19th century. Commissioned by Louis I of Bavaria to paint the frescoes in Munich’s Glyptothek (1819–30). Studied at the Copenhagen Art Academy for two years.852 in 1990. he wrote a hugely influential treatise about it. 14 1⁄2 x 12 1⁄3 in (37 x 31. The Child in the Meadow. 1816–17 (Berlin: Nationalgalerie). well as portraits. Greatly interested in the properties of color. where he spent most of his short life (died at 33). 1816–17 (Berlin: Nationalgalerie) Self-Portrait Philipp Otto Runge. but later works evince the influence of German Gothicism. Study of Lily (works on paper) Born in Germany. 1809 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle). They were a major influence throughout Europe. which has remained pivotal to the study and teachings of color. They were nicknamed the Nazarenes and they dressed like monks. The Recognition of Joseph by his Brothers. 1818 –1840s A group of Roman Catholic German and Austrian painters who were brought together in Vienna as the Lukasbrüder (Brotherhood of St. pen and ink 2 Hamburg: Kunsthalle 3 $151. Spent several years in Rome (from 1811). Runge hoped to create a new art that would fill the voids created by revolution and the collapse of the old certainties. mythical subjects as THE NAZARENES c. 1809–10 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle) Philipp Otto Runge b 1777 – 1810 n GERMAN 5 Germany. where they welcomed others who shared their ideals of intensely spiritual subject matter and the religious properties of light. 1805–06 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle). Hamburg: Kunsthalle. England 1 oils. Also worked on frescoes for Frederick William IV of Prussia in Berlin but the project was canceled after the revolution in 1848. KEY WORKS The Vision of the Rabenstein. and the use of local German landscapes as background to religious and genre paintings.5 cm). the museum of ancient art designed by Leo von Klenze. Cornelius was also an accomplished book illustrator. most notably of Faust. but he was recognized posthumously for his sharp—often naïve—style and vivid use of color. 1811 (Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut). They wished to revive German religious art in the manner of Perugino. He knew Freidrich (see opposite) and met Goethe. where he joined the Nazarenes (see box below). His early works are Neoclassical. Look for intense (often symbolic) color. Runge was interested in trying to express the harmony of the universe and painted pantheistic. Dürer. Joseph Interpreting Pharaoh’s Dream.773 in 1995. 1802. chalks. . 1804–05 (Hamburg Kunsthalle). Also a musician and lyricist. Denmark 1 watercolors. Luke) in 1809 by art students Friedrich Overbeck and Franz Pforr.

July 4th. Would have made a great movie director. The Sortie Made by the Garrison of Gibraltar. Grant in his Tent (oils) German-born. easyto-understand. c. DC: White House. Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way. 1861–62 (Washington. DC: National Gallery of Art). KEY WORKS Patrick Tracy. oil on canvas. Completed eight of a projected series of 13 and was commissioned by an unenthusiastic Congress to do four for the rotunda of the Capitol in Washington. convincing faces done from life. drawings 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 30 1⁄4 x 24 1⁄4 in (77 x 61 cm). Yale: University Art Gallery 3 $260. 1806. Washington. 1789 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Struggled to achieve success—had to earn his way as a portrait painter. 1800 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) Emmanuel Gottlieb Leutze b 1816 – 68 n AMERICAN/GERMAN 5 US. pretentious.274 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT John Trumbull b 1756 – 1843 n AMERICAN 5 US. and finally embittered. he was imprisoned instead. DC: Capitol Collection. 1843 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). DC: Smithsonian Institute 3 $400. KEY WORKS Columbus before the Queen. 1776. c. then returned to London in 1808—but any hope of success was dashed by the War of 1812. Look for stagey compositions. but then went to London and was arrested and very nearly executed in reprisal for the hanging of a British agent in America. DC: Capitol Collection) Portrait of Alexander Hamilton John Trumbull. (In another age he would have gone to Hollywood to make B-movies. His last work was his autobiography. William Pinkney (Ann Maria Rodgers). patriotic scenes of American history. 1784–86 (Washington. Philadelphia-raised. and good. published in 1841. Mrs. unfortunate (blessed with an uncanny sense of bad timing). General Ulysses S.) Why the bad timing? He served with Washington. Was antislavery and racism. The first college graduate (Harvard) in the US to become a professional painter (although his parents thought art to be a frivolous and unworthy activity). London 1 oils 2 Washington. He took as his subjects the recent history of the triumphs of revolutionary American colonies. Signing the Declaration of Independence. but this was going out of fashion. theatrical lighting. 1786–1820 (New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery). Portrait of John Adams (oils) Ambitious. memorable.000 in 2004.000 in 1986. Hamilton founded the First Bank of the United States. c. His main goal was to excel in history painting. Washington. he returned to Düsseldorf in 1841 to study history painting and stayed there (making it a Mecca for US artists). which he disliked. Was noted for large. . Went back to the US. Düsseldorf 1 oils.

The animals’ expressions change from tense and fearful to sad and resigned. Quakers disapproved of art. he is best known for his Peaceable Kingdom paintings illustrating Isaiah 11:6–9 (words are sometimes inscribed round the picture)—the belief in a peaceful coexistence. Noah’s Ark. Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (oils) Hicks had a Quaker upbringing in Pennsylvania (and became a Quaker minister in 1811). 1851 (copy of an original painted in 1848).c.5 x 647 cm). Initially. he learned the trade of decorative coach painting. reflecting the current political divisions among the Quakers.000 in 1990. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Cornell Farm. 1800–1900 275 “No subject can be proper that is not generally interesting. 1825 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Late in his life Hicks also painted depictions of the Declaration of Independence and Washington crossing the Delaware River. 1848 (Washington. It ought to be either some eminent instance of heroick action or heroick suffering. in the background William Penn concludes a treaty with the Indians. 1846 (Philadelphia: Museum of Art). c. Edward Hicks b 1780 – 1849 n AMERICAN 5 Pennsylvania 1 oils 2 Washington. He painted at least 60 different versions of Peaceable Kingdom between 1816 and 1849. An otherwise untrained artist with a primitive style. but illustrating Isaiah was acceptable. oil on canvas. 149 x 254 3⁄4 in (378. DC: National Gallery of Art) . DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $900.” SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS Washington Crossing the Delaware River. The original work was damaged by fire in 1850. 25th December 1776 Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze. KEY WORKS The Falls of Niagara.

” JOHN CONSTABLE . an annual exhibition was held in Norwich (the only exceptions being the years 1826 and 1827). 21 1⁄2 x 32 in (54. The group produced landscapes. 11 3⁄4 x 10 1⁄4 in (30 x 26 cm). oil on canvas. This school was 19th-century England’s only successful attempt at establishing a regional artistic scene. whose landscapes are contemporaneous with Turner’s and who similarly began the development from topographical drawings to fully developed watercolor painting. coasts. who took over as president after Crome’s death. watercolor on paper. Artists of the Norwich School continued working through the 1880s. Northumberland (watercolors) Sublime Romantic watercolor painter. who bought their works and hired them as drawing tutors. It was a provincial school in every aspect as the artists were actively patronized by local wealthy families. View of Mousehold Heath. c. in emulation of the many Italian examples. 1820 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) “No two days are alike. London: Victoria & Albert Museum.276 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT THE NORWICH SCHOOL An important English school of artists founded by John Crome that grew from the Norwich Society of Artists (founded 1803). neither were there two leaves alike since the creation of the world. From 1805 until 1833. not even two hours. John Varley b 1778 – 1842 n BRITISH 5 London 1 watercolors 3 $79. Cotman’s early watercolors are noted for their simplicity and translucency. 1803 –1880s The Marl Pit John Sell Cotman. 1801 (London: Tate Collection). Holman Hunt et al). A Half-Timbered House. KEY WORKS View of Bodenham and the Malvern Hills. Was most influential as a teacher (of Linnel.040 in 1996. 1812. Views of Bamburgh Castle. as opposed to studio work. near Norwich John Crome. Herefordshire. Norwich: Castle Museum & Art Gallery.2 cm). Cox. They used both oils—as favored by Crome— and watercolors—favored by John Sell Cotman. c. 1809–10. c. “Old Crome” was selftaught and worked only part-time as a painter. and favored outdoor painting. and marine scenes from around Norwich and Norfolk.5 x 81.

King George III’s Favourite Charger (oils) Brother-in-law of George Morland. Weymouth Bay. sometimes almost hidden in the landscape. engravings 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $380. and so forth. Produced talented. 1804 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). and landscapes bursting with Romantic drama and emotion. Crossing Lancaster Sands (watercolors) Well traveled (France. He was a devoted family man. London: Victoria & Albert Museum. 1816 (Washington. sunlight. trees. 1800–1900 277 John Constable b 1776 – 1837 n BRITISH David Cox b 1783 –1859 n BRITISH 5 Suffolk. with its dewy freshness. Note how the light in the sky and the fall of light on the landscape are directly connected (not so in Dutch landscapes). Late work much more emotional. Essex. more thickly painted. small-scale. Wivenhoe Park. KEY WORKS Dedham from Langham. notably the vast Gordale Scar (Tate Collection) with bulging-eyed heroic cattle. KEY WORKS Moorland Road. Birmingham. lived in Hereford. Hereford 1 watercolors. How does he get that sense of dewy freshness? Look at the way he juxtaposes different greens (full of subtle color variation) and introduces small accents of red (the complementary color) to enliven them. oils 2 Birmingham (UK): City Art Gallery 3 $158. KEY WORKS Bulls Fighting. Seems to know every square inch of ground and all the local day-to-day activity. shadows.000 in 1990. Adonis. freely executed oils and watercolors that capture the spontaneity of rapidly shifting light and breezes. the figures. Hampstead 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. was full of moral and spiritual goodness. and stormy skies. Memorable mostly for large-scale pictures of animals. darker. 1851 (London: Tate Collection). attempted it). streams. 1811. Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $19. finished paintings (especially the “six-footers”) with which he hoped to make his reputation. 1854 (London: Tate Collection) James Ward b 1769 – 1859 n BRITISH 5 England 1 oils.760 in 1997. absent from the more labored. Wales). Tate Collection. Hampstead Heath. London. c. 1816 (London: National Gallery). Rhyl Sands. 1821 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). c. Constable combined a detailed objective study of nature with a deeply personal vision of his childhood scenery. the layering of clouds to create perspective recession.306.000 in 1996. c. The sketches (not for public display) have a direct spontaneity. He believed that nature. experienced in the open air. exaggerated cliffs. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1811–15 (London: Tate Collection) Flatford Old Mill Cottage on the Stour John Constable. 1813 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). One of the few painters to make one feel wind and rain (the French Impressionists rarely.C . The Lock (oils) One of the great landscape painters who pioneered a new type of plein-air painting based on the direct observation of nature. The Hay Wain (see pages 278–279) 5 Birmingham. . London. Limited subject matter: he only painted the places he knew best. Flanders. He was not appreciated in his time—died in poverty—although he was an inspiration to Géricault. also. pen and wash. Note. if ever. c. Gordale Scar.

Constable infuses the water with brown and orange hues. billowing clouds are a special feature of this part of eastern England. with riots and farms burned down. The carefully observed high. It is perfectly legitimate to read the picture in this way. it failed to sell. such as in the figure of the man fishing. as Willy Lot’s cottage. and behind this work lie many small sketches made in the open air of this actual place. . and so intensifies its impact. but few of his fellow artists or collectors could accept it as serious art. Constable put all his efforts into this picture. with mankind working in perfect harmony with nature. a golden age before the industrial problems of modern times. even today. He was a deaf and eccentric farmer who was born in the cottage and lived there for over 80 years. he would have been the inhabitant at the date of this picture TECHNIQUES If you look carefully. caused by water vapor drawn up from the nearby Stour Estuary The cottage on the left is known. you can see that all areas of green are an interweaving of many different shades of green. Red is the complementary color to green. and the artist was hurt by the constant rejection of his work. but Constable was in fact trying to create a new subject matter for painting. and there are touches of red. Similarly. Constable’s picture represents a nostalgic image of the English countryside. there was an economic depression in agriculture. which is included along the bottom edge of the painting. The finished picture was made in his studio in London as stated in his signature. but when first exhibited. To many people. Constable was a slow worker.278 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT The Hay Wain John Constable 1821 “Constable’s Country” is now a much visited beauty spot and this image adorns many tourist souvenirs. At the time it was painted.

which is the hay cart. The detail shows Constable’s traditional palette of earth colors. Constable avoids treating clouds merely as a backdrop and makes them an integral part of the picture The play of light and shadow over the land is consistent with the pattern of light and clouds in the sky The water prevents the wheels from shrinking.C . leading the eye toward the focus of interest. 1800–1900 279 Outside Willy Lot’s cottage a woman is either collecting water or washing clothes in the estuary. and loading hay onto a cart The dog is an essential part of the composition. The Hay Wain Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 51 x 73 in (130 x 185 cm) Location London: National Gallery . It was added quite late in the development of the picture. which would cause the metal band around the rim to loosen In the far distance it is possible to see the haymakers in the fields carrying their scythes. and his highlights of thick white paint.

direct. 1825 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum).000 in 2003. His manner became more contrived and Romantic after a visit to the Continent in 1825–28.02m in 2000. oil on wood. Overdramatic detailed representations of apocalyptic events from history—they anticipate the Hollywood spectaculars of Cecil B. London: Wellington Museum. He believed that landscape paintings could carry a religious message—hence their intense visionary quality and style. Had a very intense pastoral and Christian vision—nature as the gateway to a revelation of paradise. His individual style. 1817 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). with microscopic details. Impressive mezzotints. London 1 oils 2 Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland 3 $544.500 in 2003. small drawings in the 1820s. argumentative. Tate Collection. After his marriage in 1837. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum 3 $1. c. 1816 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) The Chelsea Pensioners Reading the Waterloo Dispatch Sir David Wilkie. 1840 (Windsor Castle.000 in 2003. best known for his rural landscapes. Pandemonium (oils) Famous in his own day (but then went completely out of fashion). oils 3 $241. down-to-earth. was very influential throughout Europe. 1822. magical. Martin’s work combines impressive scale and imagination with architectural detail and tiny figures. engravings 2 London: British Museum. 1825 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum) . Lullingstone Park (works on paper) 5 England. Oak Tree and Beech. pastoral vision. The Eve of the Deluge. Newcastle upon Tyne: Laing Art Gallery 3 $2. Self-Portrait. c. 38 1⁄4 x 62 1⁄4 in (97 x 158 cm).415. 1813 (Pau: Musée des Beaux-Arts) Samuel Palmer b 1805 – 81 n BRITISH John Martin b 1789 – 1854 n BRITISH 5 London. and ambitious. classical. KEY WORKS The Letter of Introduction. KEY WORKS Leading a Barge. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. Great Day of his Wrath. radical nonconformist. Made exquisite. Mid-day Rest. engravings 2 London: Tate Collection. Spanish Girl (oils) Scottish. England: Royal Collection). KEY WORKS The Bard. Return of Ulysses (oils) Romantic landscape painter who was successful commercially.280 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Sir David Wilkie b 1785 – 1841 n BRITISH 5 Edinburgh. he turned to a less intense. Linnell was an eccentric. Child prodigy from Kent (the “Garden of England”). de Mille. 1851–53 (London: Tate Collection) John Linnell b 1792 – 1882 n BRITISH 5 England 1 watercolors. He provided artistic and financial support to Blake and Palmer. France 1 oils. often showing laborers at work or rest. Early Morning. The painting was commissioned by the Duke of Wellington. Kent 1 watercolors. 1806 (London: Tate Collection). He was much admired by the Prince Regent (George IV) who bought Wilkie’s paintings and ignored Turner and Constable. Kensington Gravel Pits. They win commendations for special effects rather than content. 1811–12 (London: Tate Collection). which embraced the narrative subjects of everyday life and loaded them with authentic detail. 1813 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). c.

using a wide-ranging source of inspiration (from Scotland to Italy). 35 3⁄4 x 48 in (90.045. Turner was inspired by his own journey on a steam train. c. from the sweetest and most lyrical to the stormiest and most destructive. Snowstorm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour’s Mouth.9 cm). His early “old master” style changes dramatically after his visit to Italy in 1819 (introducing a brighter palette. M. Scotland 1 oils. its physical qualities as light. personal response to nature. Observe his ability to portray nature in all her moods. and so on). J. M. Had a never-ending interest in light. Turner. c. Note the detail in finished watercolors. Complex personal—sometimes secret—symbolism. Italy. c. DC: National Gallery of Art) Rain. freer style and imagery). Seascape.8 x 121. 1835–40 (London: Tate Collection). W. Look for the sun—where it is. Switzerland. Approach to Venice.C . New Haven: Yale Center for British Art. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1840. London: National Gallery. setting. 281 6 1⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 in (17. 1818. Steam. France.1 x 24 cm). . what it is doing. frightening. watercolors. warming. KEY WORKS Mortlake Terrace. Turner. with fascinating technical and stylistic innovation. The greatest British painter yet (apologies. M. Norham Castle. especially in his early work. and a deep reverence for the old masters. Constable). c. watercolor over graphite on wove paper. Folkestone (oils) The champion of Romantic landscape and seascape. He had a deep. W. Applied a remarkable range of working methods. Clore Gallery 3 $9. 1826 (Washington. of a balmy Mediterranean summer. but also its symbolism (rising. oil on canvas. Turner b 1775 – 1851 n BRITISH 5 London. and Speed—The Great Western Railway J. hiding. Sunrise. W. c. 1843 (Washington. especially in his watercolors and later work. of a bitter northern winter. 1800–1900 Crichton Castle (Mountainous Landscape with a Rainbow) J. 1842 (London: Tate Collection). He left sketchbooks that show his working process. engravings 2 London: Tate Collection.000 in 1984.

1838. The silver light of a crescent moon. and the mast of the steamer incorrectly shown behind the smokestack. correspondents to The Times attacked Turner’s lack of accuracy. In this late work. At home. which he later transformed into this masterpiece. She took her name from a French ship captured at Lagos Bay in 1759 The Fighting Téméraire Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 35 3⁄4 x 48 in (90. Turner always carried a notebook in his pocket.7 x 121. he observed the French Revolution and the rise and fall of the Napoleonic Empire. Turner 1839 Turner lived in revolutionary times. Turner was a passenger on a steamboat from Margate with the sculptor W. W. F. such as incorrect rigging.282 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT The Fighting Téméraire J. Turner’s art was at its best when it was inspired by a subject that resonated with history and with a sense of time. illuminates the ship and gives it a ghostlike quality The Téméraire was a ship of the line with 98 guns. and made sketches of this historic event. he explores both these themes. along with his Romantic response to the beauty of nature. and nature sweeping all before them. On September 6th. reflected in the water. fate. the sun setting in the east. he witnessed the Industrial Revolution and the dawn of the steam age. Woodington when they witnessed the Téméraire being towed up the Thames from Sheerness to Rotherhithe to be broken up. Abroad. and her moment of glory had come in 1805 with distinguished service at the Battle of Trafalgar. In 1877. The famous ship had been part of Nelson’s fleet.6 cm) Location London: National Gallery . M.

this composition was highly praised. now no longer owns her. In his picture he exploits both the appearance and symbolism of the setting sun. The Morning Chronicle singled out the poignantly symbolic “gorgeous horizon” TECHNIQUES Turner combined his early training in watercolors with the scope for variation in texture of oils to form a style involving washes of great fluidity and impasto details to evoke different surfaces. .” Turner’s treatment of light and handling of paint influenced the young Monet. who studied his works in London in 1870 Turner chose never to sell this picture. The National Gallery acquired it in 1856 as part of the Turner Bequest. the first steam warship in 1815 – both in Turner’s lifetime Although Turner’s late works often received harsh criticism. Turner was able to use the recently discovered synthetic pigments such as chrome yellow to bring a new brightness and intensity to his palette The picture was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1839. The catalog contained lines from Thomas Campbell’s Ye Mariners of England: “The flag which braved the battle and the breeze. The artist left a disputed will through which the nation received all his unsold works The first paddlewheel steamboat was launched in 1783.Turner is reported to have seen the Téméraire on an evening with a blazing sunset. heightening each by contrasting them with a delicate new moon. and by repeating the fiery glow of the sky in the burning gases streaming from the smokestack.

118 1⁄4 x 158 1⁄4 in (300 x 402 cm). 1874. and dictated rules and standards. It had a monopoly of exhibitions and hiring models for life classes. especially in France with its annual salon that was much patronized by Napoleon III and his Empress Eugénie.g. that arranged and promoted exhibitions. Paris: Musée de la Ville. height 55 1⁄8 in (140 cm). awarded scholarships. Stockholm 1735. The exception was London where the Royal Academy was. Vienna 1705. THE FRENCH ACADEMY The academy par excellence was the French Royal Academy. e. oil on canvas. A remarkable example of the imposition of centralized bureaucracy on the arts. and Madrid 1752.g. Gloria Victis Marius Jean Antonin Mercie. Oise (France): Château de Compiègne. their most important achievement was to provoke young artists to react against them. and established branches in provincial cities and in Rome. St. and the various Secession movements (see page 338). Courbet. Petersburg 1721. Manet.284 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT THE ACADEMIES 1562 – late 19th century Academies were the official institutions. as well as in many THE 19 TH CENTURY principalities and municipalities in Germany. Italy. private and independent. In many ways. founded in 1648 under Louis XIV and directed by LeBrun. Enormously influential between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Academies were at their most stultifying and conservative in the mid. Empress Eugénie (1826 –1920) Surrounded by her Ladies-in-Waiting Franz Xavier Winterhalter. bronze. organized art education. funded by a princely ruler or a State. Switzerland. e. Archetypal academic sculpture. in Berlin in 1697. the first academy was founded in Florence in 1562. its example was widely followed. .to late 19th century. 1855. and remains. and Holland.

Cupidon. Painted nudes. A recent revival of interest in his works has resulted in some massive prices at auction. 1870 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). 1870s (Paris: Pantheon) invitation. portraits. Alexandre Cabanel b 1823 – 89 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $400. his work now looks curiously stilted and unconvincing—a dinosaur of art history. Cleopatra Testing Poisons on those Condemned to Death (oils) One of the pillars of the establishment of late 19th-century Paris. fashionable. Rome 1 oils 3 $3. The Life of St. Art that aspires to be this great requires a convincing unity between subject and style. A Little Shepherdess. Bouguereau’s mythological paintings were avidly collected. Louis.2m in 2000. but his style. Death of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta. hairless. His lofty rhetorical subject matter (for example. oil on canvas. contradicts or denies the The Birth of Venus William-Adolphe Bouguereau. La charité (oils) Bouguereau was the archetypal conservative pillar of the French academic system in its final years. Now seen in true light—academic painting at its worst and most flatulent. 1891 (London: Roy Miles Fine Painting) William-Adolphe Bouguereau b 1825 – 1905 n FRENCH 5 France. much sought after. Private Collection. Smooth. oil on canvas. However. 1887. which anticipate (inspire?) the airbrushed girlie pin-ups of World War II or Playboy magazine. Paul Getty Museum). Conventional. 1800–1900 285 Cleopatra Testing Poisons on those Condemned to Death Alexandre Cabanel. and sold for huge prices. Weak technique. which apes the reality of photography. nude Venuses) invites us to suspend disbelief in reality. KEY WORKS The Birth of Venus. garish colors. 1862 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). sickly. KEY WORKS Young Girl Defending Herself Against Eros. He delighted his public with largescale theme paintings and a dazzlingly accomplished technique. 118 1⁄4 x 85 3⁄4 in (300 x 218 cm). firm flesh and rosy nipples.C . . 1880 (Los Angeles: J. 1879.000 in 1993. c. allegories. banal subjects. A warning that much-praised contemporary art can be dire (then and now). Paris: Musée d’Orsay. 1891 (London: Christie’s Images). refusing to abandon the language and manners of a by-now debased Classical tradition. His paintings of everyday peasant life are more convincing than his grander works because they do not aim so high (so cannot fall so low) and do not demand suspension of disbelief to the same degree.

Paul Getty Museum). 1844 (Los Angeles: J. They were also hungry for aesthetic experience. Vienna 1 oils 2 Vienna: Österreichische Galerie 3 $223. His paintings have style. 40 x 88 in (101. finely formed. Despised by avantgarde artists such as Schiele and Klimt. The First of May.6 x 223. The Triumph of Ariadne. with an effortless. with crisp.092. 1870s (Vienna: The precociously talented son of an innkeeper. oil on canvas. Jeune fille de l’Ariccia (oils) He was a smooth-mannered. He captured their preferred self-image—royalty as bourgeoisie. elegance.5 cm). luscious. Frauenporträt in ägyptischem Kostum (oils) A highly successful Viennese painter.000 in 1988. 1851 (Windsor Castle. c. Portrait of Princess Tatyana Alexandrovna Yusupova. 1856–58. sloping shoulders. 1875 (Vienna: Historisches Museum der Stadt) Franz Xavier Winterhalter b 1805 – 73 n GERMAN 5 Paris 1 oils 2 London: Wallace Collection 3 $1. notably of the European monarchy (English. intimacy. and haughty confidence. KEY WORKS The Dream after the Ball. KEY WORKS Princess Leonilla.200 in 2000. 1817 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). highly popular Munich-trained portrait painter. c. When first exhibited. long arms. His work brilliantly combines formality. . Makart delighted his rich clientele by plundering the art of the great masters of the Venetian Renaissance and the 17th and 18th centuries to create decorative allegories and historical images that promised (but in the end. Over-production led to uneven quality. He was the chosen portrait painter of the ruling class of the richest and most powerful nation on earth—they believed it and he confirmed it. Isaac Cuthbert. straight onto canvas.6m in 1997. and anecdote. white highlights that are deep pools of romantic experience and feeling. his portraits revealed this side of their personalities and gave a strong aesthetic thrill (they still do). above all. flowing dresses. heads confidently turned on overlong necks. 1858 (St. Charlotte Wolter as the Empress Messalina. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Sir Thomas Lawrence b 1769 – 1830 n BRITISH 5 London. 1790 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Lawrence went on to become the leading portrait painter of the day. Portrait of Prince Regent (oils) Hans Makart b 1840 – 84 n AUSTRIAN 5 Munich. Was a rapid worker. to show off. Derby Day William Powell Frith. London: Bonhams. dark eyes. flowing hair. and French) in their 19th-century golden age. Observe the way he conveys the above: inventive. England: Royal Collection).286 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Österreichische Galerie). Belgian. dramatic. rich colors. 1870s (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). self-conscious poses. crash barriers were erected around the painting to hold back overexcited crowds. free-flowing paint applied with total confidence and sensual pleasure. Europe 1 oils 2 Oxford: Ashmolean Museum 3 $1. failed to deliver) great talent and emotional content. Mrs. Winterhalter also made lithographs. KEY WORKS Elizabeth Farren. impersonal style.

Wirral (UK): Lady Lever Art Gallery. Portrait of Charles Dickens. 1814. and free from moral comment. and was called. Athlete Struggling with a Python. 1840–56 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). Look for borrowings from (also homages to) Michelangelo and from other great Italian and French masters (Titian. biblical and mythological themes). instead of playing the pompous. It is then that the warmth and freshness that is absent from his “official” works begin to come across. superb. correct academic subject matter (portraits. Lawrence painted portraits of all the European victors over Napoleon. Bought by the soap manufacturer Lord Leverhulme. famous for his detailed. 1823–28 (London: National Gallery) William Powell Frith b 1819 –1909 n BRITISH 5 England 1 oils 2 London: Tate Collection. occasional quirky oil painting. oil on canvas. 1st Duke of Wellington Sir Thomas Lawrence. Surrey: Royal Holloway and Bedford New College 3 $3. The Railway Station. 1862 (Surrey: Royal Holloway and Bedford New College) Garden of the Hesperides Lord Frederic Leighton.701. Sir John Julius Angerstein. joy at painting white textures. color. panoramic chronicles of Victorian life (railway stations. Samuel Woodburn. Also notice the places where he lets go and. c. is himself: sketches from nature. KEY WORKS Othello and Desdemona. Rome. races. 1820 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). Adept at art politics and diplomacy. 1874–77 (London: Tate Collection). 1877 (Liverpool: Sudley House) KEY WORKS Portrait of Arthur Wellesley (1769–1852). 1892. the epitome of the successful Victorian businessman.287 Lord Frederic Leighton b 1830 – 96 n BRITISH 5 Frankfurt. c. Used photographs but was reluctant to admit it. and inventive handling of light. Study of a Nubian Young Man. His works are immaculate and faultless in every way: they display wonderful technique and draftsmanship. the seaside). For Better.300 in 2003. so-called great artist. unambitious.812. Cimabue’s Madonna Carried in Procession through the Streets of Florence. Tate Collection. On the Nile. Paris. admired by Queen Victoria. the Michelangelo of his day. composition. godlike. London: The Wellington Museum. oil on canvas. c. Study. 1880s (London: Bonhams). Wirral (UK): Lady Lever Art Gallery 3 $1. Ingres). So why are his works so often cold. Unwisely attempted to do history and moral paintings. . Refreshingly unpretentious. Very successful. sculpture 2 London: National Gallery. Aimed to be. London 1 oils. 1868 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum).000 in 2000. Was educated in Europe. sophisticated. 1853–55 (London: National Gallery). 1850s (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). c. Counted Queen Victoria among his buyers. The Bracelet (oils) The first British painter to be made a Lord. aloof. and soulless? Because overt support for the status quo always wins support from those with most to lose—but lasting fame requires real innovation. For Worse (oils) A popular painter.

are as good as anything by Constable or French contemporaries. 1891 (London: Tate Collection). Dedicated archaeologist. oil on panel. KEY WORKS The Old Shepherd’s Mourner. Venice 1 oils 3 $462. meticulously painted. and polar bears).500 in 2003. He used photographs and his own site drawings. 1839 (London: Tate Collection) Sir Luke Fildes b 1843 –1927 n BRITISH 5 Liverpool. A Devotee. modern subjects. done on the spot. male dominance. The Village Wedding (oils) A very successful and popular pillar of the establishment who freshened stale Victorian academic tradition with a whiff of acceptable new French ideas—loose paint handling. landscapes.5m in 1995. London. 1837 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). Doctor. Landseer had a prolific output of sentimental portraits and animal and sporting pictures (particular affinity with Highland cattle. pride.500 in 1992. Scotland 1 oils. 1868 (Birmingham. His small plein-air sketches. The Sculptor’s Model. social themes. KEY WORKS Venetians. The Finding of Moses (oils) He was Dutch-born. sculpture. Dignity and Impudence.288 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Sir Edwin Landseer b 1802 – 73 n BRITISH 5 London. conquest. UK: Museums and Art Gallery). Portraits.851. Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $1. London 1 oils 2 Los Angeles: J. stags. naturalized British. 9 1⁄2 x 13 in (24 x 33 cm). 1881. erotic but safe fantasy images of the leisured classes of Greece and Rome—usually the women in private with their clothes off. and female subservience. and an interest in light. Paul Getty Museum 3 $2. Scene in Chillingham Park. His Doctor was one of the most internationally popular paintings of the late 19th century. 1885 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). lions. In the 1880s. courage. UK: Lady Lever Art Gallery. Portrait of Lord Ossulston (oils) fashionable. Was ideally in tune with his times—his animals express the key Victorian virtues: nobility. success. KEY WORKS Phidias and the Parthenon. 1877 (Private Collection) Hugely successful and much admired by Queen Victoria. 1908 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema b 1836 –1912 n BRITISH 5 Netherlands. Wirral. . Alma-Tadema’s paintings often fetched higher prices than quality old masters. Highly successful with the Victorian business classes for whom he produced The Tepidarium Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema. engravings 2 London: Tate Collection.

A View of a Street in Copenhagen.C . 1832 (Copenhagen: Hirschsprungske Samling). The Coffee Bearer. Paris: Musée du Louvre. Also produced less good oils. engravings 3 $1. KEY WORKS The Flight out of Egypt. 1873. The liveliest works are his sketches from nature (from which he made finished exhibition paintings). Contradiction. famous for his impressive scenes of Egyptian markets. 1838 (Copenhagen: Statens Museum for Kunst) Richard Dadd b 1817– 86 n BRITISH Indoor Gossip. bazaars. 1837 (London: National Gallery). 5 Bedlam. 1849–50 (London: Tate Collection).712 in 2000. Oberon. View from a Window in Eckersberg’s Studio (oils) He was a short-lived (died of pneumonia). The Door of a Café in Cairo. Manchester: Whitworth Art Gallery. 1836 (Copenhagen: Statens Museum for Kunst).000 in 1992. oil on panel. Cairo John Frederick Lewis. The luminous calm hides a quiet national pride and strong sense of moral virtues. oils. 1857 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). Traveled in Italy in 1838–40. 1865 (London: Royal Academy of Arts) River Bank at Emilliekilde Christen Købke. and understated symbolic details. KEY WORKS Portrait of Frederik Sødring. but his doctors encouraged him to continue with his painting. The Northern Drawbridge to the Citadel in Copenhagen. emphasis on cleanliness and orderliness (which is probably unreal and overexaggerated). Early work has sporting. Has recently become famous through his meticulous and obsessively detailed paintings of fairy subjects made in the 1850s.26m in 1996. and Titania (oils) Christen Købke b 1810 – 48 n DANISH 5 Copenhagen 1 oils 2 Copenhagen: Statens Museum for Kunst 3 $322. A View of One of the Lakes in Copenhagen. 1854 (Los Angeles: J. Cairo 1 watercolors. Both sentiments are essential Biedermeier qualities and are revealed in his attention to detail. wildlife.2 cm). He was rejected by the Academy. Købke’s famous lake scenes were painted in the studio from numerous outdoor drawings and sketches. lived in Egypt (1841–51). 1800–1900 289 John Frederick Lewis b 1805 – 76 n BRITISH 5 London. 7 1⁄2 x 12 1⁄4 in (19 x 31 cm). reassuring portraits of themselves and their dwelling places. Visited Spain and Morocco (1832–34). 12 x 8 in (30. gifted painter who caught the prevailing Biedermeier middle-class taste for “Mad Dadd” murdered his father in 1843 and was locked up. c. Broadmoor (UK) 1 oils 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $2. KEY WORKS A Syrian Sheik.4 x 20. Paul Getty Museum). 1855– 64 (London: Tate Collection) . Lilium Auratum (watercolors) Best-known member of a prolific artistic dynasty. oil on canvas. and harems. Egypt. Mercy: David Spareth Saul’s Life. and topographical subjects. Lewis preferred the solitude of Egypt’s deserts to the bustling social life of Cairo. using intricate watercolor technique (clever use of gouache) and obsessive detail. 1856 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). 1836. The Fairy Feller’s Master-Stroke.775.

1820s –1870s Scene from “The Last of the Mohicans” Thomas Cole. The reason for the later work is his fear of the clash between this nature and an aggressive material culture. or artistic interpretation (unlike Europe). Hudson (New York State): Olana State Historic Site 3 $7.290 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT KEY WORKS Distant View of Niagara Falls. The group’s vigor waned after the Civil War (1861–65). which he also expresses in verse and diaries. His later work gets larger in scale and overlaid with literary and moralizing ideas. development. Romantic. but his family emigrated to the United States in 1818. They often painted the Hudson River landscape interspersed with other scenes taken from all over the country. . and dramatic light (blood-red sunsets) to the fore. 1839 (Washington. His large-scale. painted picturesque views of the beautiful Hudson River Valley in Upper New York State in the 1820s. sublime vision of Romantics such as Turner. oil on canvas. The Course of Empire: The Savage State. Canada. which give a birdlike feeling of being free to go anywhere. Europe 1 oils 2 New York: Munson-WilliamsProctor Art Institute 3 $1. South America 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. and combines this with the quasi-scientific observation of microscopic details—indicating his deep spiritual belief in the morality of Nature and presence of God in the largest and the smallest feature. 1827. 1838 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art). This is one of four works inspired by James Fenimore Cooper’s novel. but it was a great influence on the Luminist School that followed. The Notch of the White Mountains. Combines landscape with biblical and historical themes. Home by the Lake. 1836 (New York Historical Society). Note the thrilling shafts of light falling on the landscape. Most of the artists associated with the school traveled widely throughout the US and worked in New York. Major figure in American art—founder of the Hudson River School and the tradition of the grand landscape. New York: Fenimore Art Museum. New York. thereby establishing a new tradition for landscape painting in the United States. melancholic. 1830 (Art Institute of Chicago).5m in 1989. which he feared would gobble it up. often at odds with a world given to fast-changing materialism. Thomas Cole. Scene in the Catskill Mountains (oils) The greatest American landscape painter. God-fearing and patriotic (and it shows). Catskill Mountains. stunning vistas or panoramas of North and South America have natural phenomena (Niagara Falls). Adirondacks. mountains. Uses high viewpoints. Combined detailed observation of nature with the heroic. Catskill Mountain Houses (oils) Cole was British-born (Bolton. DC: National Gallery of Art) Thomas Cole b 1801 – 48 n AMERICAN 5 Pennsylvania. exquisite painting of THE HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL Loosely organized group of American painters whose founding father. “The Course of Empire” and “The Voyage of Life” predict the rise and fall of American culture. 1837 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Lancashire).3m in 2003. which to modern eyes can go completely over the top in the manner of bad operas or Hollywood spectaculars. Frederic Edwin Church b 1826 – 1900 n AMERICAN 5 US. Schroon Mountain. conservative. The reason for the earlier works is a genuine response to the beauties of relatively virgin US nature unsullied by too much tourism. View on the Catskill—Early Autumn. His early picturesque Hudson River landscapes (done in the 1820s) interpret the American rural scene through the European conventions of the picturesque and sublime.

Europe. Michigan: Detroit Institute of Arts. his travels to Brazil where he did notable paintings of hummingbirds and orchids. A master of the frozen moment when time apparently stops—creator of scenes of eerie unpopulated stillness with a golden light that suffuses all. Two Fighting Hummingbirds with Two Orchids (oils) Johnson Heade was an important Luminist and long-lived hack portraitist who “came good” after meeting Frederic Church in 1859. 1856 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art) Martin Johnson Heade b 1819 – 1904 n AMERICAN 5 US. Author of simple. Church made two visits to South America. The visual equivalent of transcendentalism in literature—the search for the essence of a reality beyond mere appearance. Aurora Borealis. and sharp. oil on canvas.C . 1862. 1865 (Washington. He is best known for his haunting landscapes of flat lands with low horizons. metal pigments). clear compositions—wide. Niagara Falls.000 in 1987. 1861 (Detroit Institute of Arts). 1864 (Washington. but in having new eyes.1856 (New York: Berry-Hill Galleries). DC: National Gallery of Art). Off Mount Desert Island. he had a long. At his peak in the 1860s. Gloucester (US) 1 oils 3 $5m in 2004. slow decline (suffered from bad rheumatism in his hands). 48 x 85 in (122 x 216 cm). Maine. bright colors (used new. 1859 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Also finely detailed paintings of ships and coastlines. 1867 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland) KEY WORKS Fitz Hugh Lane b 1804 – 65 n AMERICAN 5 Boston. DC: National Gallery of Art) distant mountains and waterfalls. Heart of the Andes. ominous light that precedes a storm. KEY WORKS Approaching Thunderstorm. 1854 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). KEY WORKS The Golden State Entering New York Harbour. Manchester Harbour (oils) Leading member of the Luminist School. Also remembered for “The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes. Rio de Janeiro Bay. South America 1 oils 2 New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art 3 $1.750. following in the footsteps of German explorer Alexander von Humboldt. He sketched Ecuador’s Cotopaxi volcano in 1857. Had a special ability to show that mysterious.” MARCEL PROUST . open spaces where each element is placed with the utmost precision. Seascape: Sunset. heavy. c. 1800–1900 291 Cotopaxi Frederic Edwin Church. South American Landscape. 1859 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art).

Yosemite Valley (oils) Bierstadt was German-born. with low viewpoints. convincing but fanciful compositions. His superb watercolors are built up from pencil underdrawing and were much influenced by Turner. 1863 (New York: Berry-Hill Galleries). 1849 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum).” Contrived simple compositions bathed in golden light. Inspired after accompanying a government expedition to Yellowstone. he was the first significant painter from the Midwest. and Aquarium 3 $4. Mexico 1 oils 2 Bolton (UK): Museums. Born in Virginia and brought up in Missouri. A Storm in the Rocky Mountains. Louis Art Museum). Long Island. 1890s (Private Collection) George Caleb Bingham b 1811 – 79 n AMERICAN 5 Missouri 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $980.4m in 2003. 1872. Made his reputation after a pioneering visit to The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone Thomas Moran. DC: National Museum of American Art) KEY WORKS Yellowstone (1871). Had a decade of brilliant talent. good anecdotal detail. KEY WORKS Ferrymen Playing Cards. California. Shooting for the Beef. The River Schuylkill.8 cm). Brilliant oil sketches. and “jolly flatboatmen.1 x 427.4m in 2004.2 (oils) Thomas Moran b 1837 – 1926 n AMERICAN 5 US. and Aquarium). Mist in the Yellowstone (oils) He was a self-taught. Art Gallery. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $6. Yosemite Valley. Art Gallery. The Much Resounding Sea. UK: Museums. Also worked in Switzerland and Bermuda. 1850 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) . c. He also painted scenes of Venice (Turner again). New York: Smithsonian Institute. painting scenes of the American frontier. Did for the American West what Canaletto did for Venice. As formal as Poussin and as proudly documentary of his new Republic as any 17th-century Dutch master. and California. 1850 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). Jolly Flatboatmen No. Evening on the Upper Colorado River.292 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Albert Bierstadt b 1830 –1902 n GERMAN/AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. DC: National Gallery of Art). He painted large-scale landscapes of the American West during the era of early railroads. The Squatters. Country Politician. Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains. depicting its natural grandeur in the style of Turner’s Romanticism. but raised in Massachusetts.000 in 1978. and crisp use of light and shade. 96 1⁄2 x 168 1⁄2 in (245. 1868 (Washington. 1845–55. 1866 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). oil on canvas. Europe. Irish-English émigré raised in Philadelphia. 1882 (Bolton. 1847 (Missouri: St. 1884 (Washington. KEY WORKS Nearing Camp.

Remington also spent time as a journalist. Aiding a Comrade.” FREDERIC REMINGTON Frederic Remington b 1861 – 1909 n AMERICAN 5 US. Disputed Trail (oils) He was the premier painter of the American West—alongside Remington but very different: Russell was self-taught. Was also a producer of high-quality sculptures. KEY WORKS Indian Braves. 1902 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). rather than a “proper” artist—his late works experiment unsuccessfully with Impressionism and arty ideas. Reproductions of his illustrations in Harper’s Weekly and other popular publications made him a household name throughout the US. M. or the Military Sacrifice. “Art is a she-devil of a mistress. oil on canvas. 1800–1900 293 The Blanket Signal Frederic Remington. Coming Through the Rye. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. 1899 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). published eight books. and if at times in earlier days she would not even stoop to my way of thinking. The Wagons. 1890 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). Reconnaissance (oils) The most famous painter of the cowboy West. but then got better and better. 1890 (Art Institute of Chicago). 1896. but superb in watercolor. 1902 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Charles M. had genuinely worked as a cowboy.7m in 1999. The Advance-Guard. 1904 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Good at working in oils. Russell Museum 3 $2. Remington was a great mythmaker who liked to promote the idea that he was a former cowboy. c. and had a sense of humor. Friend of Theodore Roosevelt. unsympathetic to Indians. He didn’t hit his stride until 1900. Was pro the US cavalry. Bigoted. a military trend Remington strongly supported in the 1890s. Europe. US cavalry officer. but in fact he was Yale-educated and lived mostly in New York. Russell b 1864 – 1926 n AMERICAN 5 Montana 1 watercolors. c. Was haunted by the notion that he was a mere illustrator (which in truth he was). covering the Indian Wars of 1890–01 and the Spanish-American War (in Cuba) of 1898. North Africa 1 oils. Smoking Up. sculpture 2 New York State: Remington Art Memorial 3 $4. One of the Native Americans employed by the United States Army as irregulars. 1910 (New York: Kennedy Galleries) . I have persevered and will so continue. Also made sculptures. sculpture 2 Montana: C. Keen writer. 1889 (Art Institute of Chicago). The Death Song of Lone Wolf. was sympathetic to Indians.C . KEY WORKS The Mexican Major. oils.1m in 2001. His images of the “good” whites protecting “their” territory against the savage “foreign” Indians were consciously adopted by Hollywood cowboy movie directors.

Note the solid. He employs the imagery of children as a metaphor for the future of America. England 1 watercolors. stronger. unhesitating draftsman and frequent use of a silhouetted figure. especially when coping with adversity.5 x 77. His work has a strong narrative content (it’s no coincidence that he started out as a magazine illustrator). KEY WORKS Snap the Whip. c. He was self-taught. The Turtle Pound. 25 2⁄3 x 30 2⁄3 in (64. Well traveled in the US. practical people. Homer was a creator of highly satisfying. 1885 (Art Institute of Chicago). Uses strong contrasts of light and shade with assurance. The Herring Net. Red Canoe (drawing) Homer was one of the great 19th-century painters. His no-nonsense practical painting is completely in tune with its subject matter. but he lifted his art beyond the ordinary by infusing it with a sincerely felt. He was able to interpret nature in a way that convincingly reflected the American pioneering spirit. and the Bahamas. Homer lived for many years on the Atlantic seaboard in Maine.294 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Winslow Homer b 1836 –1910 n AMERICAN Eight Bells Winslow Homer. often in heroic attitude. and produced strong. robust children. oil on canvas. Has an enviable ability to simplify and leave out unnecessary detail. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $4. Houghton Farm. virile images: sea paintings of the Atlantic coast. Note also the progression of his style and subjects as they grow larger. more confident. time. well-designed. fluid watercolors. Made a pragmatic exploration of light and color. c.4m in 1999. 5 US. fresh. England. 1872 (Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). Also painted exquisite. 1898 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). 1886. Tending Sheep. and freer with age and experience. and boldly painted pictures. Paris. 1900 (London: Christie’s Images) . oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. modern women. and a subtle ambiguity of meaning.2 cm). and place. 1878 (Private Collection). Andover (US): Addison Gallery of American Art. underlying moral message. images of down-toearth. The Sharpshooters.

He had more interest in matters like status. oil on canvas.000 in 2004. candid portraits are of people from a fairly narrow social circle. romantic scenes such as Jonah and the Whale. but he was little honored in his lifetime. He uses extra objects or incidents to tell the story behind a portrait. His images of farm life. 1877 (Philadelphia Museum of Art). The Gross Clinic. Used jewel-like colors and thick. and light to animate compositions. 1896–1908 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art) Roadside Meeting Albert Pinkham Ryder. Had a deep interest in science. DC: National Gallery of Art). Ryder was an admirer of the poet Edgar Allen Poe. KEY WORKS Bar-room Scene. Siegfried and the Rhinemaidens. motion. 1888–97 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). his later period was more dreamy. 1835 (Art Institute of Chicago). The Raffle (Raffling for the Goose). The Trap Sprung (oils) The premier genre painter of mid-19thcentury America. 1888–91 (Washington. The Race Track (Death on a Pale Horse). and position in society than in personality—and responded best to achievers (he was one himself). c. The Forest of Arden. unyielding personality. precise draftsmanship and colors. Employed human anatomy. 1800–1900 295 William Sidney Mount b 1807 – 68 n AMERICAN Thomas Eakins b 1844 – 1916 n AMERICAN 5 New York 1 oils. Likes color and emotion but is even more interested in shadows— notice how he uses them to create space. Clear. The Swimming Hole. c. horse dealing. 15 x 12 in (38. drawings 2 Detroit Institute of Arts 3 $800. dark color harmonies. 1884–85 (Texas: Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth) Albert Pinkham Ryder b 1847 – 1917 n AMERICAN 5 New York 1 oils 2 Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art 3 $180. was a gifted teacher at the Pennsylvania Academy. and his sensitive portrayals of African-American farmers appealed to a public hungry for expressions of national self-awareness and self-consciousness. Lived in Long Island and produced scenes of rural life that appealed to New York city-dwellers. Cowboys in the Badlands (oils) He was Philadelphia-born and bred. rich. Landscape (oils) He was an erratic bohemian character who painted brooding. Said by some to be the greatest of all American artists. and perspective to make his pictures work. medicine.C . and boats on stormy moonlit seas. KEY WORKS Siegfried and the Rhinemaidens. William Rush carving his Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River. Has any other painter observed shadows so accurately? KEY WORKS The Biglin Brothers Racing.8m in 2003. He was considered to represent the height of poetic sensibility and was somewhat of a guru figure for the likes of Hartley and Pollock. Studied in Paris and Spain. His middle period (from 1869 onward) features matter-of-fact successful professionals. 1872 (Washington. workmanlike hands. Eager boatman. but bad technique and the use of bitumen mean that most of his paintings are damaged beyond repair. achievement. and how things work. 1901. music-making. 1837 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 Philadelphia. Look for imaginative poses and movement.1 x 30. DC: National Gallery of Art). Pragmatic but difficult. Paris 1 oils 2 Philadelphia: Museum of Art 3 $4. atmospheric 19th-century interiors. . Like many symbolist painters. 1875 (Philadelphia: Thomas Jefferson University). His frank. cumbersome paint.5 cm). Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art.000 in 1983.

His femmes fatales are characterized by luscious lips. UK: City Art Gallery. and thick. The Last of England (oils) Trained in France and was a close follower of the Pre-Raphaelites. View of Bologna. Also went in for romantic medieval themes. KEY WORKS J. 1849 (London: Tate Collection).000 in 2003. W. c. Birmingham. watercolors. M. Chaucer at the Court of Edward III. Rocco 3 $408. Brown’s picture is intended to encapsulate the appearances and activities of the different social classes. Highly detailed work—landscapes painted in the open air and figurative works containing social commentaries on contemporary life. 54 x 77 2⁄3 in (137 x 197. Had a complicated love life and died of alcohol and drug abuse. Switzerland. 1852–65.800 in 2004. Turner. 1851 (Sydney: Art Gallery of New South Wales) John Ruskin b 1819 – 1900 n BRITISH 5 UK. 1857 (London: Tate Collection) Work Ford Madox Brown. His intensely observed and detailed watercolors reflect his passion and knowledge of geology and architecture. sinuous hands. Manchester: City Art Gallery 3 $3.624.000 in 2000. Pandora (works on paper) Ford Madox Brown b 1821– 93 n BRITISH 5 Antwerp. Look for works of much intensity (the most desirable state of existence for artistic folk at that time). c. detailed. Rome.296 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT 1845–51 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum). 1845–46 (London: Tate Collection) Dante Gabriel Rossetti b 1828 – 82 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils. and the leading Pre-Raphaelite. KEY WORKS He was a painter. Brilliant draftsman but his painting technique is a bit suspect. Manchester: City Art Gallery. 1840 (London: Royal Academy of Arts). England 1 oils. Too idiosyncratic to be successful in his own day. Looking North toward the St. oil on canvas. but abandoned this belief after 1858. . The Seeds and Fruits of English Poetry. As a painter had a central belief in the supremacy of truth to nature (not the same as a slavish imitation of nature). watercolors. Europe 1 watercolors 2 Venice: Scuola di S. glistening hair. Bellinzona. poet. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection. and heavily worked watercolors. Mary Nazarene. Gotthard Pass (watercolors) He was most important as a critic and writer. Early Pre-Raphaelite work is rather awkward and stiff at times. Fine. which reached out to intellectual political activists. Paris. drawings 2 Manchester: City Art Gallery 3 $334.3 cm). RA. He is best known for images of erotic femmes fatales painted from the 1860s onward. KEY WORKS Girlhood of Mary Virgin.

6 cm). Women feature heavily in their works. Scenes of chivalry and deep emotion. 1855. 1853. They often used one another as models. a new generation of Pre-Raphaelites .7 cm). London The meaning of “PRB” revealed by mistake to a journalist Pre-Raphaelite paintings are shown at the Paris Exhibition Rossetti meets William Morris and BurneJones. such as Browning and Tennyson. They decided art had “gone wrong” around the time of Raphael and sought to return to ideals shared by artists before Raphael’s time. oil on canvas. an ambitious and confident group of seven male artists. so look for recognizable portraits and selfportraits among genre paintings. Based on Keats’s poem. so the colors shone with luminosity. Wilmington: Delaware Art Museum. Note his spectacular command of light. 23 x 15 in (60. at other times gaudy. rich and quite obvious symbolism. with the same scene often painted by several artists. SUBJECTS AND STYLE Pre-Raphaelites drew their inspiration from literature. sentimentalism. strong literary references. especially Malory’s Morte d’Arthur. The movement was much more long-lived and wide-reaching. They were also inspired by medievalism. In early paintings seek out the stylized “PRB” monogram somewhere in the scene. Shakespeare. and contemporary poets. 8 1⁄2 x 33 in (21. 1800–1900 297 PRE-RAPHAELITES 19th century Artistic movement stemming from the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (PRB). Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria. KEY EVENTS 1848 1850 1855 1857 The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood holds its first meeting at 7 Gower Street. They developed their own paint colors and came up with a new technique of painting on a “wet white” background. Isabella and the Pot of Basil William Holman Hunt. 1867. the model was Holman Hunt’s pregnant wife. The brotherhood was established in 1848 and lasted until c. aged between 19 and 23. oil on canvas. Vivid use of color—sometimes exquisite.C .7 x 38. WHAT TO LOOK FOR The Rescue Sir John Everett Millais. the Romantics. especially the Bible.5 x 83. with faces lit up by the glow. especially those of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones.

Religious. Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery. Palestine 1 oils. who verges on greatness but whose obsession with detail and coloring can be intense to the point of unpleasantness. Commercially more successful with later works (especially panoramic views of the ocean). retiring. Europe 1 oils 2 Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery 3 $1. KEY WORKS Glacier of Rosenlaui. 1851–52 (London: Tate Collection). watercolors 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $2. with a meticulous.000 in 1989. KEY WORKS Ophelia. Look out for delightful. Prince Entering the Briar Wood (oils) His early work (up to the 1850s) was genuinely Pre-Raphaelite. historical romances. The Scapegoat. fascination with materials and realistic details are very worldly. which sold as well as current-day rock group recordings. Paul Getty Museum) John Brett b 1830 – 1902 n BRITISH 5 England. sketches.848. but they are flabby by comparison with his earlier works. Famous and successful after 1877. The Ransom. resulting in early. with subjects overtly designed to catch the fashion of the times and sell well— sentimental scenes. yet the large-scale. strict observation of nature. chosen to fulfill a wish to escape from modern urban and industrial reality. watercolors 2 Birmingham: City Art Gallery 3 $1. 1856 (London: Tate Collection). Painting trips to Italy and the Alps (as approved by Ruskin). 1860–62 (Los Angeles: J. obsessive. precise style. 1854 (Wirral. c. Founding member of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and pillar of the Royal Academy (became its president in 1896). “Sometimes as I paint I may find my work becoming laborious But as soon as I detect any evidence of that labor I paint the whole thing out.47m in 2001. On English Coasts. Val d’Aosta (oils) He was a devotee of Ruskin. A quiet. Egypt. The Shadow of Death (oils) Hunt was a founding member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and its most consistent exponent. A true Victorian. Florence from Bellosguardo. emulator of Holman Hunt. choice of moral themes. note also the commercial prints made from his paintings. producing work with insistent moralizing and didactic themes. Sleeping (oils) He was an infant prodigy who became extremely fashionable.” SIR JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones b 1833 – 98 n BRITISH 5 England 1 oils. intensely detailed.04m in 1999. Manchester: City Art Gallery 3 $3. and stubborn. often humorous. 1852 (London: Tate Collection). His early medieval and mythological subjects are heavily laden with mysticism and symbolism that look back to a “golden” age. rich. UK: Lady Lever Art Gallery) KEY WORKS His virtuoso craftsmanship and attention to detail (natural and historical) makes it all look so easy. high-colored landscapes that are a tour de force of precise observation and technique. portraits (he needed the money with eight children and a lavish lifestyle to support). UK: Museums and Art Gallery). 1863 (London: Tate Collection) Sir John Everett Millais b 1829 – 96 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils. 1856 (Birmingham. tight style. and famous. who encouraged him to become an artist .72m in 1994. The later work is more freely painted. with a streak of calculating shrewdness. His paintings reflect his character and one aspect of the age he lived in.298 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT William Holman Hunt b 1827 – 1910 n BRITISH 5 England. Birmingham (UK): City Art Gallery. The Blind Girl. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection. Italy. otherworldly painter. showing a personal (and typical Victorian) duality. Highly developed sense of 2-D design (due to his closeness to William Morris.

and landscapes that reflect the tapestry and stained glass. This painting postdates his visit to Italy with Ruskin in 1862. Michelangelo. Hope (oils) instead of following a career in the Church) 3 and a technique that shows a love of He aimed to emulate the grandeur and meticulous craftsmanship (due to his achievements of Titian and Michelangelo. 1868. 1880 (London: Tate Collection) .800 in 1986. sculpture 2 Guildford (UK): Watts Gallery $1. gouache on paper. Burne-Jones worked closely with William Morris from 1855–59. George Frederick Watts b 1817 – 1904 n BRITISH 5 England. London: William Morris Gallery. His portraits are his best work. 1880s (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery) Fine Paintings). 1800–1900 299 St. KEY WORKS Music. Sir Galahad. and illustrations influence of his two exemplars but can for texts of medieval and classical legends. now seem pompous and overambitious. closeness to Ruskin). George and the Dragon Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones. Italy 1 oils. 1880s (New York: Roy Miles KEY WORKS Choosing. Produced very successful designs for allegories. King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid. Was also influenced known in his day as “England’s by early Renaissance art (such as Botticelli).121. 1864 (Private Collection).” Produced portraits.C .

with antiestablishment causes. with artists from other traditions often borrowing the ideas and language of Realism. Courbet mounts rival show. Thérèse Raquin 1855 1863 1867 . so Courbet set up his own in a nearby tent. a war veteran. a poacher. Dickens.” Realism was concerned with social realities. The movement was highly influential. The losers include a Chinese. spreading into Germany. and with championing individuals’ rights. shown at Salon Universal Exhibition. including The Painter’s Studio Manet’s Le déjeuner sur l'herbe at Salon des Refusés Publication of Emile Zola’s first major realist novel. Zola. landscapes. remarkable for its social realism. with a SUBJECTS committed political agenda. as such. KEY EVENTS 1848 1850 Revolution in France. which he entitled Le Réalisme. 33 x 44 in (83 x 111 cm). Realists wanted to depict the truth. and a laborer Wearing huntsman’s dress is Napolean III. groups. Above all. an Irishwoman. as well as with natural landscapes and human emotions. Its centerpiece. had been refused by the Universal Exhibition. being associated with new. Millet was described by one critic as “a great painter who walks in clogs the road of Michelangelo. Russia. The Painter’s Studio. The artist produced a manifesto to go with his exhibition. and Romanticism as being too concerned with the imagination. democratic ways of thinking. the effective dictator of the French Second Empire Subject matter is diverse: portraits. and the US. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. STYLE The Gleaners Jean-François Millet. and Flaubert. such as human degradation and poverty. with an exhibition of works by Gustave Courbet. rejoicing in the contrariness of the natural world. 1857. Realism dealt with the harshness of life. a Jew. and wanted to show fact rather than ideals or aesthetics. It rejected Academic art as being too artificial. the movement became a mechanism for social change. Refusing to hark back to historic or pastoral idylls. Whereas artists had traditionally romanticized the poor and their harsh existence. Realism also influenced literary giants such as Tolstoy.300 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT REALISM The progressive movement in art and literature in the mid-19th century (especially in France). rise to power of Napoleon III Courbet’s Stonebreakers. Balzac. genre scenes. In 1857. The movement had a strong following. Realists wanted to cut through the cant of society—and not just in art. It began in earnest in 1855. the Netherlands. oil on canvas. Realists also painted what they saw in everyday life.

To his right are his friends—“those who thrive on life. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. This “lay figure” symbolizes academic art. 1855. the destitute. The artist is in the center. On a table to the left of the artist is a skull. . 142 x 235 1⁄2 in (361 x 598 cm ) oil on canvas. is a manifesto of Realism in which he sets out his central beliefs and opinions. Napoleon III). a cloak and dagger. although painted early in his career. We know a great deal about this work because Courbet described it in detail while he worked on it. 1800–1900 301 C. A skylight also lit the studio The plaster medallion of a woman’s profile is one of very few props depicted in the studio A large floppy hat with a feather. It shows his studio in Paris with three groups of figures. and the losers in life. represented as the poor.” To his left are those who “thrive on death. This is Courbet’s unambivalent comment on the critics who were extremely powerful in shaping 19th-century artistic opinion. but also the evils he fought against.C . and a guitar—the typical gear of the Romantic artist On the easel is a large landscape. depicting the artist’s homeland. and those exploited and oppressed by them. which is the archetypal symbol of death. Light enters through a window on the right side—the side of life. which Courbet rejected the Head of State. Courbet wanted his art to have similar qualities. 1855 –1900 WHAT TO LOOK FOR Courbet’s masterpiece.” not just his enemies (notably A figure in the pose of the Crucifixion. The Painter’s Studio Gustave Courbet. The art establishment frowned upon such subject matter This woman represents naked truth guiding Courbet’s brush TECHNIQUES The boy makes a crude sketch. The skull is resting on top of a newspaper. uninhibited by rules or overrefined techniques.

Le banc de jardin (oils) Max Liebermann b 1847 – 1935 n GERMAN 5 Germany. Portrait of Edouard Manet. wooden portraits with sitters who look distinctly uncomfortable or bored. The Garden of the Artist in Wannsee (oils) A successful painter of middle-class daily life and places—updated replay of Dutch 17th-century and Biedermeier art. France 1 oils. Flowers and fruit are highly worked and end up looking artificial. not He was French-born. oil on canvas. The Ropewalk in Edam. prints 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $3. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Bouquet de fleurs (oils) He was a painter of allegories inspired by music (especially Wagner). KEY WORKS An Old Woman with Cat. KEY WORKS James Tissot b 1836 – 1902 n FRENCH Flowers and Fruit. Benefited from close connections with his more gifted artistic contemporaries. Brannenburg. Produced freely painted. which compensated for lack of depth and insight. 1865 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). which reassured his clients and appeal to modern-day nostalgia. Still Life: Corner of a Table. still lifes. Bavaria Max Liebermann. prints. A Country Brasserie. London. His late religious conversion following the death of his much-painted mistress led to Bible illustrations. 1867 (Art Institute of Chicago). and rejected German nationalist and academic traditions. Memorial Service for Kaiser Friedrich at Kösen. drawings 2 London: The Fine Art Society. Liebermann was regarded as a cultural enemy by the Kaiser because he admired modern foreign art (like French Barbizon and Impressionism). 1894.302 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Henri Fantin-Latour b 1836 – 1904 n FRENCH the modern rainbow palette of the French Impressionists. 1888–89 (London: National Gallery). and stodgy. Palestine 1 oils. Had a brilliant technique. 1878 (Los Angeles: J. but lived in London between 1871 and 1882. . Used the earth-color palette of the old masters. where he became a highly successful. 1904 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 France 1 oils. fashionable painter of small-scale polished depictions of society (especially slim-waisted women) at play.2m in 2000. 1873 (Art Institute of Chicago) 5 France. not very difficult paintings. Paul Getty Museum). 27 1⁄2 x 39 1⁄3 in (70 x 100 cm). Manchester: City Art Gallery 3 $4.8m in 1994. prints 2 London: Christie’s Images 3 $1.4m in 2003.

and John Ruskin. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) KEY WORKS Portrait of Mlle. 1874 (Ohio: Toledo Museum of Art). Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Near Kattegat (watercolors) designer textiles. 1915 (Private Collection) A key Swedish artist whose idealized illustrations of his own country cottage (rustic furniture. for its appeal to the nouveaux riches. James Tissot. 1864. Earlier in his life he painted large-scale decorative. c. Tissot’s art was attacked by the critics Oscar Wilde. 1914 –15 (Stockholm: National Museum). prints 2 Stockholm: Nationalmuseum 3 $1. oil on canvas. Carl Larsson b 1853 – 1919 n SWEDISH 5 Sweden 1 watercolors. Indian Summer.C . KEY WORKS Watering the Plants.714 in 1989. scrubbed floors. simplicity) were internationally influential and established the idea of the Scandinavian style. allegorical murals. 1800–1900 303 London Visitors. Henry James. 1874 (London: Christie’s Images). oils. 1885 (St. Inner Voices (Christ Consoling the Wanderers). Reading the News. wife’s . Sitting Room—View Two. 1899 (Private Collection). L. The Midwinter Sacrifice. L. 48 3⁄4 x 39 1⁄2 in (124 x 100 cm). c. Also portraits and self-portraits. Became manic-depressive after 1906. c.345.

c. breezy days. Paysage panoramique. KEY WORKS The Forum Seen from the Farnese Gardens. 27 1⁄2 x 21 2⁄3 in (70 x 55 cm). Switzerland. 1867–70 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art) Eugène Boudin b 1824 – 98 n FRENCH 5 Northern France 1 oils. Scène de plage (oils) Best known for charming small-scale beach scenes of vacationers on the Normandy coast (Trouville). lyrical landscapes—are based on remembered emotions (“souvenirs”) and sketches from nature. oil on canvas. Cottage. head turned toward us—on Leonardo da Vinci’s masterpiece the Mona Lisa. The Beach at Tourgeville-les-Sablons. it’s probably not a Boudin. Much copied and faked—there are said to be more “genuine” Corots in the US than all the pictures he painted in his lifetime. note the way he tightens the soft focus with sharp dark accents of paint. Also painted scenes of Venice. Some works have darkened with time. abolishing the convention of inserting human figures in order to animate or interpret the landscape. also enchanting figure paintings. 1830 (London: National Gallery). But notice. If you can’t sense the breeze. 1864 (Art Institute of Chicago). Italy 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $3. soft focus. Trod a difficult and not always successful path between Romanticism and realism. 1842. watercolors 2 Le Havre: Musée des Beaux-Arts 3 $1. His late. such as one finds on fall evenings. 1830–40 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). the Netherlands. c. and sought to convey both the spirit (Romanticism) and appearance (realism) of nature growing and vegetating. and France.000 in 2004. Dramatic skies. La femme à la grande toque et à la mandoline (oils) A major landscape painter of the 19th century. Forest in Boisrémond. a forerunner of the Impressionists (very influential on young Monet). Paris: Musée du Louvre. Ville d’Avray. Unquestionably at his best with his small plein-air.304 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Woman with a Pearl Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. artificial. dressed up in their crinolines and bonnets on cloudy. Paul Getty Museum) Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot b 1796 – 1875 n FRENCH 5 France. 1826 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). gentle.000 in 2003. more conventional (academic and sometimes ludicrous) landscapes. 1893 (London: National Gallery) . 1842 (Los Angeles: J. Had a sketchy style and was an exponent of plein-air spontaneity. and unusually unegocentric for an artist. the earlier. Soleil couchant sur les sables du Jean-de-Paris (oils) An important pioneer of plein-air painting and principal figure of the Barbizon School (thereby linking Constable to Monet). England. on-the-spot sketches (called pochades). A bridge between the English landscape tradition and French Impressionism. best-known paintings (post1860)—silvery green. Shows wonderful observation of light and clouds in the sky and empirical exploration of space. KEY WORKS Sunset in the Auvergne. He allowed nature to speak for itself. Distinguish between the small-scale sketches made on the spot and the larger detailed works made in the studio. Kind. Théodore Rousseau b 1812 – 67 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Chantilly (France): Musée Condé 3 $485. too. KEY WORKS Approaching Storm. He was excited by woods and trees.5m in 1984. Corot has based the woman’s pose— hands crossed over one another.467.

1847–48 (London: National Gallery). either the dignity or the cruelty of manual peasant labor. England. Notice the low viewpoint. 1800–1900 305 Jean-François Millet b 1814 – 75 n FRENCH 5 Paris. and paved the way for Impressionism. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. 1857–59.C . whose great innovation was to allow landscape and nature to speak for themselves without human intervention or presence.5 x 66 cm). Peasant Girls with Brushwood. The leader of the school was Theodore Rousseau. oil on canvas. or studio paintings that consciously set out to capture on canvas the qualities and sensations of being outside in the open air. and peace that is not overloaded with drama or symbolism. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) . 1850 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). and vast numbers of reproductions were sold. PLEIN AIR PAINTING AND THE BARBIZON SCHOOL c.) KEY WORKS The Winnower. 26 x 29 in (55. The group made landscape as important as portraiture and genre painting. This picture was a star exhibit at the Paris World Fair of 1867. meaning paintings that were begun and completed in the open air instead of inside the studio.1m in 1996. the paint. engravings 2 London: National Gallery. and the atmosphere. silence. The Sower. His small-scale works describe a selfcontained world of humble people working on and with the land. He portrays. sense of direct contact with the land. (It is as if his style and working methods were a sort of parallel with the way in which his peasants work the land. 1840–1870 A group of progressive. Freshly observed light. mid-19th century painters who worked in and around the French village of Barbizon near Paris. Netherlands 1 oils. The Wool Carder (oils) The son of a Normandy farmer. the light. The Barbizon painters promoted the concept of “plein air” painting. and his carefully considered line. 1852 (St. Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $3. Shows a magical stillness. who painted the final scenes of a rural world and lifestyle at the moment when it was beginning to disappear because of the industrialization of France. so you feel you are standing on the same level as the people you see. surrounded by the forest of Fontainebleau. depending on your point of view. the way he worked The Angelus Jean-François Millet. Works directly onto the canvas—so you can often see pentimenti (alterations).

1864 (Washington. Portrait de Jo. (see page 301). Note the “The sea’s voice is tremendous. physical paint.306 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Gustave Courbet b 1819 – 77 n FRENCH 5 France. everyday activities. Had an intimate knowledge of all the activities. destiny. near Besançon) the copper in the soil turns the vegetation that color. death. the forest) and often produced physically large paintings. uninspired. people. but also to see what it was that inspired him and how real his “realism” is. He chose large-scale subjects (such as life. Switzerland 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. provincial life more highly than fashionable Parisian glamour. la belle Irlandaise (oils) Courbet was the radical scourge of corrupt Second Empire France and the tedious old-fashioned traditions of the French Academy. gutsy technique with thick. The Cliff at Etretat after the Storm. Montpellier: Musée Fabre 3 $2. Brilliant. especially in his landscapes—it is not artistic license: in his beloved homeland (Ornans. The major exponent of 19th-century realism.” GUSTAVE COURBET very unusual rich green. and places he painted and valued down-to-earth. The Source of the Loue. 1869 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). The Sea. Portrayed toughness and realism—real people carrying out unglamorous. but not loud enough to drown the voice of Fame crying my name to the entire world.7m in 1998. the ocean. and bad painting. 1872 (Caen: Musée des Beaux-Arts) . DC: National Gallery of Art). Note his prominent red signature—what a big ego! KEY WORKS The Painter’s Studio. His work can range from the most brilliantly inspired and executed to sloppy. The area is worth visiting for its stunning beauty.

drawings. watercolor. Works have a probing. 1866 (Washington. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1874 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) Called the “greatest 19th-century caricaturist. Paul Getty Museum) The Third-Class Carriage Honoré Daumier. He produced miraculous.235. 1864. Gare Saint-Lazare. engravings 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. London: Courtauld Institute of Art. Never judgmental or unkind. Still Life with Melon and Peaches. Notice his captivating facial expressions. His use of light. His compelling images observe the absurdities and obsessions of husbands. watercolors. and was never successful commercially. involving the use of large areas of flat color. Has anyone ever used black so lusciously and with such visual impact? His work is a paradoxical combination of intimacy and aloofness: one of Manet’s personal characteristics was wanting to be accepted in official art circles but his whole approach to art and those in authority ensured that he wasn’t. The Studio. especially. 1873 (Washington. Took Courbet’s realism one step further. He was unique in that he had a brilliant. Ignored the rich and famous. 1860 (Glasgow Museums). DC: National Gallery of Art). Thus. 1860 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). very visual and sketchy painting technique. even though his work was censored. Went semiblind in 1870. DC: National Gallery of Art).3 x 29.000 in 1993. wives. oils. Spurned by official art circles. he was a father figure for the young avant-garde.C . very influential. lively line. 38 x 51 in (97 x 130 cm).” but is much more because he reveals universal truths about the human condition. etc. 8 x 11 3⁄4 in (20. The bottles (from beer to champagne) symbolize this interaction. Advice to a Young Artist. oil on canvas. Railroads brought the rural poor to Paris seeking employment and a new life. His subjects are French men and women living in a corrupt. c. lawyers. Baltimore: Walters Art Museum. or parodies traditional themes dear to the heart of academic artists. Honoré Daumier b 1808 – 79 n FRENCH 5 France 1 prints. Madame Manet on a Blue Sofa. after 1860 (Washington. KEY WORKS Olympia (see pages 308 – 309). ink wash. sculpture 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $2. Had a prolific output: prints (he was a pioneer of lithography). . His fascinatingly ambiguous subject matter and style portray modern (sometimes seamy) urban and suburban life and people. sketches. 1874. 1800–1900 307 The Bar at the Folies-Bergère Edouard Manet. The Fifer. Makes the everyday sublime and moving. shade. 1866 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). prints. La rue Mosnier aux drapeaux (oils) A hugely important. KEY WORKS The Laundress. key figure in late 19th-century Paris.5 cm). Europe 1 oils. and atmosphere is as good as Rembrandt’s. c. but the message is timeless. some oil paintings after 1860 (he was never comfortable with the scale and technique—at his best with a smaller and more spontaneous scale and medium). greedy. but someone is often withdrawn or preoccupied and not immediately involved in what is going on. many paintings show one or more people in a scene of great intimacy or drama. Upper-class dandies like Manet rubbed shoulders with workers and prostitutes at the Folies-Bergère. hands—all speaking volumes. The Print Collector. politicians. London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $24m in 1989. body language. 1870 (Los Angeles: J. and charcoal on paper. c. Le fardeau—la blanchisseuse (oils) Edouard Manet b 1832 – 83 n FRENCH 5 France. small clay-model caricatures of politicians. At his best he does both at the same time. bourgeois regime (French Second Empire). actors. c. 1881–82. artists.

but as a crude parody of a sacred artistic tradition going back to the greatest masters such as Titian and Goya (see pages 143 and 262–263). but a prostitute. habitually wore the black frock coat and silk top hat that was fashionable in his day. worldly-wise. strong. There is virtually no shadow or modeling with soft light. aged 30. Olympia caused a storm of outraged protest. and very gifted. and he warned Monet. Victorine Meurent. Manet is the great master of black: he was able to use it to bring a rich tonality and elegance to his work. and he never sold it. This picture was shown at the official Paris Salon of 1865. and it was described as being crude. who organized a public appeal to buy it for the Louvre. When he died. who dressed with great care. but the color harmonies are very subtle. Coming from a well-to-do Parisian family.308 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Olympia Edouard Manet 1863 Edouard Manet never achieved his ambition: to be officially honored as the true modern successor of the old masters. but ended life as an alcoholic Black is one of the most difficult of pigments for an artist to exploit as it can easily overwhelm and kill all other colors and qualities. Sargent (see page 326) learned that Manet’s widow was about to sell the painting to an American collector. Goodlooking. He considered Olympia to be his finest work. as his famous painting Déjeuner sur l’Herbe had already caused a scandal. It was seen not as a modern interpretation of a respected theme. He uses a bold composition with strong outlines to the forms. Manet mostly used his family and friends to pose as models. Manet. he was always at ease in society. There is no fine detail. charming. She became a painter herself. It was obvious to everyone that the reclining woman was not a goddess. . it went to auction. TECHNIQUES The candid style shows Manet at his best. he was born to such a role. In 1888. but it did not find a buyer. Here he has employed a professional model. The constant criticism and rejection of his work caused Manet to have a nervous breakdown in 1871. Manet was nervous about how it would be received. Some critics saw this style as merely incompetent when compared with that of Ingres (see page 264).

and an orchid in her hair. but a young woman in a recognizable role. The bouquet symbolically suggests the sweet pleasures offered by Olympia The image of the reclining nude is one of the most revered in the old master tradition. which he often painted for his own pleasure. Olympia Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 51 x 75 in (130 x 190 cm ) Location Paris: Musée d’Orsay . She is explicitly naked with pearls at her neck and ears.The servant brings in flowers—a gift from a previous admirer—but Olympia does not acknowledge her presence. Manet was a master of still life. Her slipper dangles impatiently on her foot. Manet knew that his audience would understand his reference to Giorgione’s Sleeping Venus (see page 140) Manet’s creation is not the goddess Venus. She is ready for her next client: the spectator of the painting.

The Haystacks. scenes in London). Norway 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. and interweaving of paint and color. 1899. London. Stand back and enjoy the imagery— familiar and nostalgic for us now. Claude Monet b 1840 – 1926 n FRENCH 5 France. The Houses of Parliament. Note the thick. but challenging and modern in its day. KEY WORKS The Petit Bras of the Seine at Argenteuil. He would sit in the middle of it and paint it. under different light conditions (the Rouen Cathedral.3 x 93. his garden. 35 x 39 1⁄3 in (89 x 100 cm). and garden 3 $29. 1872 (London: National Gallery). where he painted the same subject dozens of times. Giverny (near Paris) for Monet’s house.310 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Waterlily Pond Claude Monet. crusty paint. oil on canvas. 1918–24. Or stand close up to his compositions and enjoy the complexity. 1908 (London: Christie’s Images) .1 cm). which gets thicker as the light gets more interesting—particularly when it catches the edges of objects. In old age Monet’s eyesight deteriorated because of cataracts and he depended on instinct and memory to paint his later works. 34 3⁄4 x 36 2⁄3 in (88. London. light—notably in the “Series” paintings. London: National Gallery.000 in 1998. from scratch—a subject that he could control in every detail (except the light). 1904 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). studio. One of a series of 18 paintings depicting the Japanese bridge in Monet’s water garden. Spent 40 years (the second half of his life) creating The Japanese Bridge at Giverny Claude Monet. Waterlilies. Bassin aux nymphéas et sentier au bord de l’eau (oils) The true leader of the Impressionists—he was constantly exploring “What do I see and how do I record it in painting?” Monet had a never-ending interest in observing and painting that most elusive quality. Italy. at Giverny. or The End of Summer. 1891 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). Musée Marmottan.520. texture. oil on canvas. Impression: Sunrise (see page 312). haystacks. at Giverny. Paris: Musée Marmottan.

which He was a second-rate painter who knew what talent was (one of the first collectors of great Impressionist paintings). firm breasts. Did he never become bored by all that comfortable. Italy 1 oils 2 Philadelphia: Barnes Collection. and that something is essential. Cropped compositions influenced by photography. and nature knocks them all flat. 1907–08 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) “There is something in painting which cannot be explained. and who occasionally showed some in his own work. and soft-focus quality. Scenes of everyday contemporary Paris. Typical Impressionist subject matter and technique (very similar to Monet and Manet). 1893. oil on canvas. 36 1⁄2 x 29 in (92 x 74 cm). female flesh. boulevard Haussmann (oils) Pierre-Auguste Renoir b 1841 – 1919 n FRENCH 5 France. 1880 (Rouen: Musée des Beaux-Arts) . and less mush. Wet Weather. Most remembered for his lyrical paintings of pink.” PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR Gustave Caillebotte b 1848 – 94 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $13m in 2000. You come to nature with your theories. Renoir was much influenced by Delacroix and Ingres. At the Café. The Parisienne. but soon developed an individual and un-Impressionist style. he destroyed many works he deemed inadequate. Washington. Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $71m in 1990. 1872 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). makes one think of soft feather cushions and Turkish Delight? See how the sensuality of his technique marries with the subject matter: long. The Boating Party (see page 313). The early works have bite and observation. 1877 (Art Institute of Chicago). which caress the canvas. pink. Socially conservative. DC: National Gallery of Art. free brushstrokes of warm color. View of Rooftops (Snow). The early works have cooler colors. and hampered by being too anecdotal— it could often be one of those illustrations for a 19th-century novel that visualize a specific phrase or sentence in the text. He is the greatest ever master of dappled light. the late works become rather repetitive at times. Recognizable pink-green-blue-purple palette—often too strident and overdoes the purple. KEY WORKS The Gust of Wind. Note the blushes on the cheeks and the obsession with small. which pervades all his work. especially street scenes with exaggerated. KEY WORKS Rue de Paris. Girl Combing her Hair. Le Moulin de la Galette (oils) Renoir was one of the first Impressionists. plunging perspectives. c. 1878 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). Interesting work but essentially derivative. more black. L’homme au balcon.311 Bather Arranging her Hair Pierre-Auguste Renoir. sensual. 1874 (Cardiff: National Museum of Wales). buxom young girls. Rouen. giving it a seductive. Very prolific.

railroad stations. brilliant colors intended to capture an instant briefly glimpsed define Impressionism. only Pissarro. its goal simply to depict the immediacy of the world with complete fidelity. It was never consciously revolutionary. remained consistently true to its goals. Private Collection. By painting rapidly. Aged 14 Edgar Degas. slices of life. Plein air (literally. STYLE Delicate. apparently random. escaping Franco-Prussian war. Impermanence of light and atmosphere are his real focus. Degas excelled in exquisite. the product of transitory lighting conditions and chance moments. “open air”) painting (see page 305) not only demanded an immediacy on the part of the painter—the speed of work necessary was a key reason for the fragmented. still lifes. Yet in seeing this as accidental. Whether picnics. and Monet. polychrome bronze with muslin. Monet aimed to capture fleeting moments. (19 x 24 3⁄4 in). . Sisley. It amounted to a decisive rejection of the Academy’s ponderous “official” history-painting. shimmering visual language of Impressionism—it naturally placed a premium on landscapes and outdoor scenes. By replacing tonal gradations—the gradual lightening or darkening of a color to suggest shadows and depth—with tiny dabs of pure color. mosaiclike brushstrokes in light. Paris: Musée Marmottan. 1880–81. the Impressionists pointed the way to a new way of seeing. the studio was abandoned for painting on the spot directly onto the canvas. the giant of the movement. city views or sun-flooded landscapes vibrantly alive with color. As important. the emphasis was consistently on the world immediately surrounding the painter. SUBJECTS The here and now dominated.312 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT IMPRESSIONISM Impressionism marked the birth of modern painting. Yet although almost every major avant garde French painter of the period was influenced Impression: Sunrise Claude Monet. height 38 1⁄2 in (97. Little Dancer. it prompted a strikingly different pictorial language that began the overthrow of the naturalistic tradition the Renaissance established. KEY EVENTS 1869 Monet and Renoir establish key Impressionism characteristics. The artists aimed at more than just spontaneity. joined by Sisley (1871) Critic derisively coins name “Impressionism” at first exhibition Renoir increasingly abandons Impressionism after visiting Rome Last Impressionist exhibition held Monet begins epic cycles. oil on canvas. repainting same subjects in different conditions 1870 1874 1881 1886 1890 The modern world became paramount. painting at Bougival on the Seine Monet and Pissarro in London. boating parties.8 cm). Impressionism exulted in the everyday. 48 x 63 cm by Impressionism. satin ribbon and wood base. 1872.

Deep in conversation. an apparently deliberate flaunting of the accepted canons of Academic painting. 1800–1900 313 1860s –1880s WHAT TO LOOK FOR Impressionism was near universally derided as “unfinished. Fournaise (in the straw hat) was the proprietor of the restaurant celebrates the pleasures of youth and summer. and the debris of this meal is a sparkling achievement. is chatting to the proprietor’s daughter The Boating Party Pierre-Auguste Renoir. above all in his quivering. The spontaneity is deceptive. Renoir artfully used Impressionistic techniques to create complex groups of rhythmically composed figures. . Yet his most enduring achievement was to combine the visual imperatives of Impressionism. the man in the straw hat is Gustave Caillebotte. reinforcing deft brushwork. flirts with the actress Jeanne Samary. It unapologetically M. feathery brushwork. a talented artist (see page 311) Renoir was an accomplished still-life painter. TECHNIQUES Typically. Renoir’s Boating Party encapsulates Impressionism’s unshackled joie de vivre. 51 x 68 in (129. since he constantly reworked the painting.” Critics complained that its subjects were trivial and its execution crude. a close friend of Renoir’s. DC: Phillips Collection. 1881. with the traditions of European figure painting. The result was an unprecedented luminosity that shone through their work.5 x 173 cm). Paul Lhote. oil on canvas. However. He had a reputation as a ladies’ man Baron Raoul Barbier. wearing pince-nez glasses. Impressionists used canvases with white backgrounds. heightening colors.C . his seeming spontaneity was the product of painstaking labor. Washington.

portraits. Autumn. “The forgotten Impressionist”—the most underrated of the group. Portrait of the Artist’s Mother and Sister. oil on canvas. blues and purples) to produce the sensation of light. still lifes. Cache-cache (oils) She was a member of the Impressionists and effective hostess and go-between to the writers. Sisley had to earn a living as a painter when the family business collapsed in 1870. transient against permanent. but never really settled into a style with which he was completely at ease or that was completely his own. KEY WORKS The Harbor at Lorient. 1875 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art) Alfred Sisley b 1839 – 99 n BRITISH/FRENCH Camille Pissarro b 1830 – 1903 n FRENCH 5 Paris. Look for places. L’Hermitage Pontoise. He progressed from dark. horizontals. 1876 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). 1870 (Los Angeles: J. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. an autobiographical diary. delicate style derived from Manet (she married his brother. in effect. 29 x 36 2⁄3 in (73. KEY WORKS View from Louveciennes. Floods at Port Marly. The Climbing Path. then and now. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum 3 $8m in 2004. Tate Collection 3 $3. His developed palette is quite chalky and pale. and connections. Surfaces are thickly painted The Bridge at Moret Alfred Sisley. 1890 (Nice: Musée d’Art et d’Histoire) . 1869–70 (London: National Gallery) (sometimes patchily) with a sketchy look. Rouen—note the factory chimneys). old against new. warm against cool. Un jardin à Louveciennes.2m in 2000. Note the play of contrasts in content: rural against industrial. 1893. Musée d’Orsay 3 $4m in 2000.314 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Berthe Morisot b 1841 – 95 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils. Cleverly used structural details like roads and bridges to take the eye through the landscape and link all the parts together. Sisley only painted places he knew well and he particularly responded to the Seine and Thames valleys. Pissarro chose a wide range of subjects: landscapes (Seine valley). Always an anarchist and always poor. KEY WORKS Women Going to the Woods. poets. natural against artificial. England 1 oils 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art. as if they could be worked further if he could decide what to do with them (a sign of his uncertainty?). peasant scenes (especially laundresses). watercolors. diagonals). He often chose high viewpoints (such as cityscapes painted from windows). Was most confident in later work. structures. Les quatre saisons (oils) He was a reclusive. and painters in their circle. Note the interesting color combinations (especially pinks and greens. 1869 (Washington. He also liked well-structured compositions (notice the verticals. Her works are. 1866 (Tokyo: Bridgestone Museum of Art). 1869–70 (London: National Gallery). The Walk. takes his place as one of the major Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. watercolors 2 Paris: Musée Marmottan.5 x 92. Eugène). drawings 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. nonetheless. curmudgeonly. modern cityscapes (Paris. chemin de l’Etarche (oils) 5 France. Paul Getty Museum).5 cm). then back to Impressionism. DC: National Gallery of Art). England 1 oils. early landscapes to Impressionism and to experiments with Divisionism. with predominant greens and blues. Attractive. and unsettled artist who. free. Like Constable.

Also was interested in photography—he borrowed and used the cut-off effect brilliantly. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $25. or Dancer on the Stage Edgar Degas. even when he was old and nearly blind. and The Star. 23 3⁄4 x 17 1⁄3 in (60 x 44 cm). 1876–77. experimented in many media: pastel. Even when the subjects of his portraits make eye contact. London: National Gallery. Ballet and racing scenes are a means of exploring complex space and movement. and single. 1886 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) 5 France. Edgar Degas b 1834 – 1917 n FRENCH “Anyone can have a talent at 25. The difficulty is to have talent at 50!” EDGAR DEGAS KEY WORKS Madame René de Gas. pastel on paper. Degas was fascinated by meticulous but innovative craftsmanship. Worked and reworked the same subject or theme to achieve ever greater understanding and perfection.28m in 1999. prints. Shy. sculpture 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. 1888–92. Italy 1 oils. perfect unions between subject matter and means of expression. Notice how often he used the receding diagonal as the main armature for his compositions. his extraordinary capacity for drawing. pastels. 1872–73 (Washington. Had astonishing color sensitivity. prints. c. haughty. they give nothing away.4 cm). and attention to detail are equally self-absorbed—one of those rare.8 x 98. Danseuse au repos (pastels) Degas was one of the greatest draftsmen of all time. 1884–90 (Art Institute of Chicago). 1800–1900 315 Woman Drying Herself Edgar Degas. whatever the topic. Successfully bridged the gap between the old master tradition and modernity. His technique. DC: National Gallery of Art). Degas increasingly worked with soft waxy pastels as his eyesight deteriorated. c. His technique shows the same qualities of precision and balance as classical ballet. The Millinery Shop. depending on touch and feel. pastel. The Tub. 49 x 38 3⁄4 in (103. conservative.C . Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Each picture shows a selfcontained and self-absorbed world. . and sculpture.

flashy dresser. Successful. 1890 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts).316 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT c. oil on canvas.4 cm). prints 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $3. but they were late in the day by 20 years—post-1890s. Chase is best known for his spirited portraits and still lifes in oil. meaningful moments of the well-to-do. richly painted flags at wartime parades act as an exciting visual motif and symbol of patriotism. 1887 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). Paris 1 oils.2m in 1998. The Bath. Next to the French. and Ingres. 1918 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Childe Hassam b 1859 –1935 n AMERICAN 5 US. In the Box (oils) The daughter of a wealthy Pittsburgh family. witty. and cropped angled viewpoints that capture personal. Best remembered for his late (post-1917) “flag paintings. 1874 (Paris: Musée du Petit Palais). New York 1 oils 2 Houston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $3. Cassatt settled in Paris.9 x 91. prints 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $7. the emphasis was on contre-jour. May 1917 (Washington. Japanese prints.” where brightly colored. Flags. elegant portraits (style learned in Munich).6m in 1993. Peonies (work on paper) Chase was a prolific and versatile artist from a prosperous Indiana background. they had tended to learn their art in Germany. both direct and spontaneous: his early works are dark. Mary Cassatt b 1844 –1926 n AMERICAN 5 Paris 1 oils. Afternoon on the Avenue (oils) America’s foremost Impressionist artist. In his earlier work. 1895. cultivated in the European manner (friend of Whistler).7m in 1996. c. she also helped the Impressionists. gregarious. Before that. She mixed with avant-garde and helped American collectors spend their loot (very Henry James). after 1890s they become light-filled French-Impressionist-style scenes of Long Island (Shinnecock). heavy. Hassam painted more than 4. DC: National Gallery of Art). Avenue of the Allies. Developed two distinct styles. Produced attractive works with strong sense of design. . Detroit Institute of Arts. Girl Arranging her Hair. DC: National Gallery of Art).000 works (oil and watercolors). Manhattan’s Misty Sunset. as they did not often visit Paris until the 1880s. Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). 1880 (Los Angeles County Museum of Art). KEY WORKS Grand Prix Day. 1891 (Art Institute of Chicago) William Merritt Chase b 1849 –1916 n AMERICAN 5 Munich. Mother about to Wash her Sleepy Child. Allies Day. Evening in New York. Portrait of a Lady in Black William Merritt Chase. Great Britain. 1886 (Washington. the Americans were the best and largest group of Impressionists. 1911 (Youngstown. courageous color. 72 x 36 in (182. A friend of Degas. Spottable influences from Degas. KEY WORKS Musical Party.

Nassau. France 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $1.C . oil on canvas. 1893 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). 16 1⁄2 x 25 1⁄4 in (41. Bahamas (oils) Weir was the most academically successful American Impressionist. particularly in watercolor and silverpoint. and was a close friend of Monet. 1895 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Robinson was the leading American Impressionist painter. Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. 1892 (Youngstown. 1800–1900 317 At the Piano Theodore Robinson. He made several visits to France between 1876 and 1892. Portrait of Moses Swaim. DC: National Gallery of Art) . Watching the Cows. he was a pioneer. 1894 (Washington. 1892 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Became president of the National Academy of Design. DC: National Gallery of Art). He died relatively young. DC: Smithsonian Institute. Was most successful in his smaller works.000 in 1987. c. whom he had met at Giverny in 1887. which he used by squaring up—traces of the grid can occasionally be seen on the canvas. Painted landscapes and vignettes of village and farm life. He found East Coast American light too bright compared with the light in France. 1867 (Indianapolis: Museum of Art). He studied in Paris. Known only as Marie. Willimantic Thread Factory. 1899 (Indianapolis: Museum of Art) KEY WORKS Julian Alden Weir b 1852 – 1919 n AMERICAN 5 Paris. Was conservative in technique and temperament. 1884–87 (Washington. c. his later years marred by poor health and poverty. He sometimes worked from photographs. and the brushstrokes too carefully considered. and had difficulty painting it. Riverside Yacht Club.2 cm). Boats at a Landing (oils) At the Seaside. c. Low Tide. US 1 oils. 1879 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). In the US. The Red Bridge. His early work was much influenced by Manet. the true identity of Robinson’s mysterious model remains unknown. Washington. KEY WORKS Union Square. later work is closer to Monet. Theodore Robinson b 1852 – 96 n AMERICAN 5 US. The Brass Bowl. 1887.9m in 1994. Miss Motes and her Dog Shep. watercolors. drawings 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $400. despite her appearance in numerous works. but his Impressionist style is cautious by French standards—compositions are rather static. 1893 (London: Christie’s Images).8 x 64.

4m in 1999. It was commissioned by the city of Calais to commemorate six 14th-century civic heroes. Andromeda. Washes his figures in light (try to see them in natural light). Italy 1 sculpture 2 Paris: Musée Rodin. Married his lifetime companion Rose Beuret in 1917 in Meudon. . bronze. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) The Burghers of Calais Auguste Rodin. His famous set-piece projects (such as The Gates of Hell ) evolved over many years. 1885 (Private Collection). c. KEY WORKS The Thinker. Shy. untidy. DC: Hirshhorn Museum. c. human feelings. The Gates of Hell. Note his stunningly beautiful recreation of (large) hands. Also sculpted portraits. and whole body poses as an expression of human libido and anima (he always worked from life. Rodin molded). Paris. He carried out an extraordinary and enriching hide-and-seek exploration with the processes of his art. 1885 (St. which show ideas in evolution. nudes. Eve (sculpture) The glorious. height 79 1⁄2 in (201. Sinner. One of a number of casts of Rodin’s original plaster model. Became an international celebrity and was deeply attractive to smart women. A cast of The Thinker overlooks his grave in Meudon.318 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Auguste Rodin b 1840 – 1917 n FRENCH 5 France. 1884–89. He used studio assistants or commercial firms to make large-scale versions of his original models—what you see may never have been touched by Rodin (he wanted to disseminate his work widely). and the relationship between intellectual and artistic creativity. at the age of 77.7 cm). 1880–81 (Private Collection). triumphant finale to the sculptural tradition that starts with Donatello. kisses. 1880–1917 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). friend of poets. Rightly spoken of in the same breath as Michelangelo (although they were quite different: Michelangelo carved. embraces. Rose died two weeks later and Rodin nine months after. physically enormous. Observe the ways he uses the fluidity of clay and plaster (even when cast in bronze). San Francisco: Palace of the Legion of Honor 3 $4. and the unknown forces in nature. even when borrowing from antiquity or classics). impoverished beginnings. to release his figures. Bases are important because he makes his figures grow out of them. and small models. Washington. Was fascinated with biological procreativity. workaholic.

This version was commissioned by a wealthy Bostonian collector living in England The Kiss Medium marble Height 71 in (182 cm) Location Paris: Musée Rodin. accounting for the smooth. either lover can look like the instigator The Kiss exists in three different marble versions. anonymous surface. Francesca was stabbed to death by husband Giovanni as she exchanged her first kiss with his brother Paolo after falling madly in love with him. Rodin’s profound knowledge of anatomy allowed him to incorporate subtle exaggerations and distortions in order to achieve his aim of rendering inner feeling through muscular movement The man leans down. the sculpture depicts the illicit lovers. but depending on where you stand. London: Tate Collection (copy) The figures appear to emerge preformed from the stone. 1800–1900 319 The Kiss Auguste Rodin 1901– 04 One of the most powerful sculptures ever created. whose story is told in poet Dante Alighieri’s masterwork The Divine Comedy (1321).C . its influence reached far into the 20th century. The statue eventually became an independent work because the blend of eroticism and pure happiness didn’t fit The Gates’s damnation theme. Rodin believed man and woman were one entity united through erotic love . Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta. Originally part of Rodin’s huge The Gates of Hell. none of which were carved by Rodin. It is a perfect example of Rodin’s ability to express intense emotion through the physicality of sculpture and one of the great images of sexual love.

Used color borders that complement the areas of color in the picture. Used a formula of lines to express emotion: upward diagonal = happiness. He was a dogmatic man. 1925 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). His own work was overly theoretical and tidy. 1925 (Tokyo: Bridgestone Museum of Art) Seurat. Concarneau.320 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT DIVISIONISM 1880s Divisionism is the name for a way of painting. Art Institute of Chicago 3 $32m in 1999. having produced very great work. reclusive man who died suddenly from meningitis aged 31. Color theories don’t work in practice because pigments lose their brightness and the mixing in the eye tends to end up as a gray mush. 1884–86. using small dots of color. 81 2⁄3 x 121 1⁄4 in (207. 1890 (Indianapolis: Herron Art Institute). which mix and vibrate in the eye and are intended to give the same sensation as light itself. a shy. His work can seem austere and rigid because he painted according to workedout theories. Through his work and writings he was the chief promulgator of the theory and practice of Divisionism. in which color effects are obtained optically rather than by mixing colors on the palette: i. Port of Gravelines Channel. Why did he ignore the significance of vertical lines? He made wonderful drawings using soft black crayon on textured paper. KEY WORKS Model from the Back. 1891 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) Georges Seurat b 1859 – 91 n FRENCH Paul Signac b 1863 – 1935 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. 1887 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). There is hidden symbolism and references to old masters in the set-piece figure paintings. KEY WORKS Gas Tanks at Clichy. More convincing as a theory than in practice. reworking the original as well as numerous preliminary drawings and oil sketches.5 x 308 cm). Good pleinair watercolors. Seurat labored extensively over this piece. Lighthouse at Groix. His subjects are modern life and places. small areas of pure color are put side-by-side on the canvas so that at a distance. He applied the latest ideas of color and optical mixing—painting separate dots of pure color on the canvas (Pointillism). for instance). the eye cannot differentiate between them but mixes them together and so experiences another color (optical mixing). and tiny. The originator of Pointillism and Divisionism. A keen yachtsman. Port of Concarneau. Pointillism is Divisionism as practiced by Seurat. and so Signac became its chief promulgator. . harbor scenes became his favorite subjects. Seurat was its originator. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $4m in 1998. He moved from observed outdoor scenes to studio-based subjects. he influenced others (Matisse.e. oil on canvas. free. horizontal = calmness. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (oils) 5 France 1 oils 2 St. calme du matin (oils) Frenchman Signac was a patient follower and disciple of Seurat. preliminary sketches for his big works. downward diagonal = sadness. not what he saw or felt. and from small dots to larger brushstrokes. but he died young. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte Georges Seurat. Signac spent a lot of time on the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. The Circus. Art Institute of Chicago. 1886 (Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria). but despite this. drawings 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

carefully placed shapes. witty. Nocturne: Blue and Gold. Much influenced by Japanese art. in which he never lacked self-confidence. 1871 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). 1872–77 (London: Tate Collection). designed by Whistler to harmonize with the painting. The hidden reality was very different. 1870s. London: Victoria & Albert Museum. Played a major role in introducing modern ideas to British art. France 1 oils. Some works are still in their original frames. He chose simple subjects. and dandy artist who was born in the US.C . Why was he so tentative? Was he never at ease with painting? Arguably his best works are his prints. engravings 2 London: Tate Collection. watercolor. he developed a new style of painting and role for the artist. Note the subtle harmonies of soft color. Leading figure of the Aesthetic movement. and later lived in Europe (France and England). 1800–1900 321 Mother and Child on a Couch James Abbott James Abbott McNeill Whistler b 1834 – 1903 n AMERICAN McNeill Whistler. Arrangement in Gray and Black: Portrait of the Painter’s Mother. Harmony in Gray. His portraits say little about the sitter’s personality. KEY WORKS The White Girl. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (see page 323). Was a contemporary of Oscar Wilde. which he used after 1870. egocentric. 1862 (London: Tate Collection).6m in 2000. Look for his famous “butterfly” signature. Chelsea in Ice (oils) A small. and Manet (he had to be up to date and in the forefront of fashion). quarrelsome.” JAMES ABBOTT MCNEILL WHISTLER . and suppression of detail. 5 England. Glasgow: Hunterian Museum 3 $2. Whistler wished his art to appear to be effortless. The thin paint surface belies the fact that he worked and reworked his pictures. wiping away his efforts until he had reached his notion of perfection (which must have been agonizing for his portrait sitters). c. Look for painting as an aesthetic object and experience—the subject matter taking second place to the visual pleasure of color and form. the king of artists would be the photographer. 1879 –80 (Private Collection) “If the man who paints [only what] he sees before him were an artist. he became interested in Oriental art and decoration in general. Upright Venice. Velasquez. expressive of mood.

SYMBOLISM Prompted by the poet Théophile Gautier. tilted perspectives.” in the words of the painter Odilon Redon. . whose later painting was based directly on his dreams. ART FOR ART ’ S SAKE The Cyclops Odilon Redon. or political—than the pursuit of pure “artistic sensation” reached a peak toward the end of the 19th century. bold. In England. 1830s.322 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT SYMBOLISM AND AESTHETICISM From the mid-19th century. Redon’s highly personal vision later made him a hero of the Surrealists. c. Otterlo. Japanese Ghost Katsushika Hokusai. it was a means of infusing Academic figure painting with an allusive and richly imaginative new pictorial language. Across the Channel in England. unusual viewpoints. spiritual. Semi-human figures inhabit fantastic landscapes made more mysterious by brushwork that eventually approached the abstract. it was echoed by Aestheticism. flat colors. Netherlands: Kröller-Müller Museum. and strong outlines amounted to a pictorial language entirely different to anything then known in the West. woodblock. going so far as a court appearance to defend the integrity of the movement. the spiritual. London: Victoria & Albert Museum. who had argued for the rejection of conventional morality and the primacy of “pure sensation.” a series of poets and painters in France increasingly elaborated a world in which imagination was allowed free rein. The idea that art could be an end in itself with no higher purpose—whether moral. From series of One Hundred Stories. a theme that resonated with the Symbolists’ obsession with spiritual transformation. Their use of everyday subjects. This was “a crusade on behalf of beauty. a literary cult developed in France that explored the mystical. Odilon Redon.” a “poetic passion. JAPANESE ART The impact of Japanese prints on the transformation of the visual arts in Europe in the second half of the 19th century was crucial. as to some extent for the more Classically minded Puvis de Chavannes. For Gustave Moreau. it was exemplified by the Aesthetic movement. went further still.” which utterly rejected utilitarianism in favor of the exquisite. Oscar Wilde was its best-known literary exponent. the American-born Whistler its chief (and most notorious) champion in the visual arts. this features a man turned into a snake on his death. It found an outlet in the visual arts in Symbolism. and the morbid. “the ambiguous world of the indeterminate. 1914 (oil on canvas).

Whistler would wipe away his mistakes to leave only a thin film of transparent paint. oil on panel. haunting surface pattern. 23 3⁄4 x 18 1⁄2 in (60 x 47 cm). The result is a beguiling. Detroit Institute of Arts. Whistler continually sought ways to represent immediacy and the infinitely changeable nature of light Rapid brushwork. scattering a shower of sparks into the night Whistler was deeply influenced by Japanese prints. .C . But Whistler went much further. Whistler’s unusual signature has similarities with the collector’s seals found on Chinese art. He was an enthusiastic and early collector of Oriental blue and white porcelain. in particular their non-naturalistic handling of space and concentration on expressive surface patterns Like the Impressionists. The painting captures the drama and beauty of the fleeting instant in which a rocket explodes. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket James Abbott McNeill Whistler. conveys a sense of an instant captured. c. of the transient made permanent TECHNIQUES Rather than build up thick layers of paint. irrespective of their subject matter. 1875. His nominal subject matter is dissolved until it becomes nothing but a complex interplay of color and form infinitely delicately rendered. The loose. could be expressive in themselves had been commonplace since the days of Delacroix. 1800–1900 323 late 19th century WHAT TO LOOK FOR That color and form. however painstakingly arrived at. light brushwork and subtle color harmonies were influenced by Velasquez.

glazes. Gauguin. Today. his work now looks at best decorative. detached from literary connections. He had a very recognizable dry technique. Paul Getty Museum). he is better known for his later work. 1851 (Los Angeles: J.4m in 2004. His was a valiant but ultimately unsuccessful attempt to make the Classical and Academic tradition relevant to the modern world. 1887 (St. Sorbonne University. prolific. sometimes bright and shimmering. c. His late watercolors (and some unfinished oils) are as free and sketchy as modern abstraction. who were everything he was not.000 in 1998. DC: National Gallery of Art). Tried to touch big emotions such as hope and despair. 1879 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). John the Baptist. and successful artist. literary. Orpheus. 1876 (Paris: Musée Gustave Moreau). Moreau was much influenced by a tour of Italy (1857–59). determined to revive the tradition of history painting (actually in terminal decline) and to be a rival of the greatest old masters. flat style searches for a “modern” simplification of form and color. His idiosyncratic style is halfway between the strange. watercolors. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Odilon Redon b 1840 – 1916 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. c. not the outer eye. Worked on canvas. and was a Surrealist before his time. introspective subject matter (he had a classic Freudian. pastels. Musée d’Orsay. at worst. drawings 2 Washington. but always sinister. After 1894 he overcame his neuroses and his art blossomed into radiant color and joyful subject matter. KEY WORKS The Beheading of St. L’enfance de Sainte Geneviève (oils) Puvis de Chavannes was internationally sought after in his day as the leading painter of large-scale murals to decorate public buildings. His early small-scale. Le poète et la sirène (oils) An intense. workaholic. KEY WORKS Diomedes Devoured by Horses. Used deeply worked surfaces and textures with inventive impasto. drawings 2 Paris: Musée Gustave Moreau 3 $2. he influenced many who seem impossibly far removed from his style (such as Matisse). and a timeless monumentality for the figure. it was only in the next generation (Matisse) that this would be fully unlocked. His statuesque figures in landscapes are the direct descendants of the great Classical tradition. and Munch. He produced a huge quantity of sketches and watercolors. these preceded his finished oil paintings. A gifted teacher. Salome.5m in 1989. Woman on the Beach. He was noted for erudite. 1881 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). it needs to be seen in situ in the elaborate Beaux-Arts Renaissance-revival buildings that he decorated (and which were themselves to be overtaken by the simplified architecture of Modernism). The Prodigal Son. Vase au guerrier japonais (works on paper) Pierre Puvis de Chavannes b 1824 – 98 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Paris: Hôtel de Ville (murals). To do his work full justice. and colors that unlocked his imagination. black-andwhite drawings and prints had neurotic. and mythological subjects. Young Girls by the Edge of the Sea. Hesiod and the Muse. Boston: Public Library (murals) 3 $850. 1869 (London: National Gallery). His oeuvre divides in two: pre. talented. 1865 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). lifeless. fantasy world of Bosch and the surreal dream world of Max Ernst. unhappy childhood). He was active at the same period as the Impressionists. 1891 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) also admired by avant-garde painters such as Seurat. His archaic. 1879 (Washington. imaginative.324 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Gustave Moreau b 1826 – 98 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. using a chalky white coloring with a stiff style that made his work look like a fresco. either as experiments or to work out their final design and details. His work is sometimes dark and mysterious. The Poor Fisherman. His smaller works were Redon became one of the principal fin de siècle Symbolist artists. prints. but missed the target. Panthéon. .and post1894. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3. then affixed to walls. His inspiration came from the inner mind. oozing romantic decadence and symbolism.

Kentaurenkampf (oils) Leading German Symbolist painter. They are often large in scale and were turned into Japanesestyle screens. strange juxtapositions. KEY WORKS The Two Sisters. Swiss-born. Les communiantes. Whistler. 1893 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). The Isle of the Dead. KEY WORKS Salome. 1895–1900 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Also produced studies for the above. master of the sinuous. Meticulous craftsman of Classical.C . DC: Sackler and Freer Galleries 3 $3. c. 1907 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts) Arnold Böcklin b 1827 – 1901 n GERMAN 5 Switzerland. but now seems cloying and artificial. all drawn from the depths of the imagination (and from Symbolist writers such as Poe and Baudelaire). pastels and silverpoints. 1894 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Thomas Wilmer Dewing b 1851 – 1938 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. 1857 (Munich: Neue Pinakothek). with beautiful tonal treatments. workaholic. capturing the essence of fin de siècle decadence. 1912 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). Song (oils) A painter of accomplished works depicting elegant. No. Driven by theory. erotic (sometimes pornographic). prints 3 $135. unreal colors of astonishing richness and intensity. Later. c. Good example of Aestheticism—a pot-pourri of Pre-Raphaelites. Brilliant but controversial. Founder member of Nabis. stylized or Art Nouveau appearance. Gaulish Goddess of Herds and Flocks. Orpheus and Eurydice. insignificant subject matter. A committed Catholic who applied his art to the service of church decoration. trivial. The result is paintings with deliberately flat. Design for the front cover of The Savoy. Ophelia Among the Flowers. contemplative works have no specific meaning. Lady with a Lute. Germany. How King Arthur Saw the Questing Beast. sensual. DC: National Gallery of Art).1 million in 2002. Observe his very fine drawing and print techniques. black-andwhite drawing and print. As effective (more so?) with his stage and costume design and book illustrations. His fascinating early subject matter anticipated Surrealism— floating heads. 1914 (Paris: Petit Palais) Raphael). Note the frames. 1910 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts) A self-taught. Had a boring private life—his eroticism was all in his mind. No realistic representation. everyday subjects. 1890s (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). The Shell. Switzerland 1 oils. Art Nouveau illustrator. distant women in tastefully furnished interiors or wandering in lush. KEY WORKS Pan in the Reeds. dreamy landscapes. stately. la promenade au jardin (oils) He was a leading Symbolist who led reaction against Impressionism. 1906 (Munich: Neue Pinakothek).300 in 1993. small-scale easel painting is king. 4 (works on paper) Maurice Denis b 1870 –1943 n FRENCH 5 France. Italy 1 oils 2 Basel (Switzerland): Kunstmuseum 3 $168. 1871–74 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). A Nightpiece. tubercular. KEY WORKS The Letter. 1886 (Washington. Self-Portrait with Death as a Fiddler. and Japan. Died of tuberculosis at the age of only 25. decorative. fresco 2 St. 1883 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Aubrey Beardsley b 1872 – 98 n BRITISH 5 England 1 drawings. Anemones and Lilacs in a Blue Vase. 1891 (Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum). strange colors.087 in 2000. 1800–1900 325 His poetic. Petersburg: Heritage Museum 3 $467. curious creatures. KEY WORKS The Trees. 1905–08 (London: National Gallery). he developed an exquisite pastel technique and the ability to produce saturated. mythological figures in intense moody landscapes that are intended to trigger dreamlike reveries. Highly original and gifted. 1892 (New Jersey: Princeton University Library). The Gossip. c. Düsseldorf-trained but most influenced by Italian art (especially .000 in 2004. Very much the languid fin de siècle fashion.

cheap interiors. He was fond of and used the sense of intimacy and unobtrusive observation that is one of the qualities of photography. 87 x 87 in (221 x 221 cm). Group with Parasols (oils) Sargent was the last seriously successful portrait painter in the grand manner. Brighton Pierrots (oils) The leading British painter of the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist period. oil on canvas. England. 1906 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) John Singer Sargent b 1856 – 1925 n AMERICAN 5 France. look for the lines of the underlying grid he used for squaring up (enlarging) the photographs. In his late work. . and prostitutes. Venice. 1906 (London: Tate Collection). drawings 2 Washington. in a palette of muddy colors. Also made good etchings. Italy 1 oils. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $21m in 2004. music halls. and painted them in an earthy manner. without glamor. 1882. Born in Florence. as it destroyed any sense of intimacy. The painting was enthusiastically reviewed by Henry James in 1883. Note the careful and diligent application of paint in his work. France. Sickert had personal links with French artists such as Degas. Style perhaps best described as a French idiom spoken with a very strong English accent. Jack the Ripper’s Bedroom. KEY WORKS Interior of St. The imagery for many late works was taken directly from newspaper photographs—a mistake. he lived mostly in The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit John Singer Sargent. and thick. US 1 oils. heavily worked paint. prints 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $286. his unusual color combinations and interesting light effects. 1896 (London: Tate Collection). He chose down-to-earth subjects—street scenes. sometimes with striking or unusual viewpoints. Mark’s. with a disregard for fashion. behind which lay much work and preliminary drawing.326 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Walter Richard Sickert b 1860 – 1942 n BRITISH 5 England. La Hollandaise. High-quality craftsman—his pictures are very carefully composed. c.000 in 1993.

free paint technique. fluent style. His work successfully bridges the divide between the old masters and Impressionism. He had a brilliant oil technique—his assured fluid paint and bold compositions match the confident faces and expensive well-cut clothes of his sitters. Zorn did much to preserve the folk traditions of the Dalarna region. time-consuming murals for public buildings in Boston (1890–1921).61m in 2003. where he was born. prints 2 New York: Hispanic Society of America (murals) 3 $5. US 1 watercolors. He was very talented. prolific. Grew bored with faces and spoiled clientele: look for his preferred small-scale plein-air landscape sketches. 1907 (Washington. and internationally acclaimed painter with an easy. His watercolor technique was less assured. and the odd sculpture. Was trained in Paris to use “au premier coup” technique—one exact brushstroke and no reworking. Bathing Time (oils) Born and raised in Valencia. landscapes. he had an enviable facility with light effects. Sorolla y Bastida was a painter of beach scenes. KEY WORKS Mrs. especially Monet) and precise matching of tones. Les Baigneuses (oils) Zorn was a prolific. 1888 (Washington. Paul Getty Museum). US 1 oils. Anders Zorn b 1860 – 1920 n SWEDISH Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida b 1863 – 1923 n SPANISH 5 Sweden. Mrs. showing them at their glittering best. he succeeded with large-scale portraits of the nouveaux riches of the UK. he painted the English aristocracy but made them more formal and aloof. c. US. prints 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $2. and genre scenes.608. 1909 (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum) Girls from Dalarna Having a Bath Anders Zorn. and very successful painter with a popular line in worldly-looking. The Bridge of Sighs. Hugo Reisinger. 1883–84 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Wounded Foot. and 2) (false) spontaneity. 1905 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art) KEY WORKS The Relic. Europe.C . and rich. Painted directly onto canvas—fast. Influenced by Velasquez. John Crosby Brown. In the 1880s and 1890s. 1893 (Bilbao: Museo de Bellas Artes). DC: National Gallery of Art). Stockholm: Nationalmuseum. Also produced uninspired. 1900 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 Spain. His real interest was in light (he was friendly with the Impressionists. society portraits. After 1900. in flattering and relaxed poses. 1910 (Los Angeles: J. Successfully bridged the divide between old masters and Moderns (like Sargent and Zorn). 1800–1900 327 Europe. Mrs. 33 4⁄5 x 20 4⁄5 in (86 x 53 cm). . oil on canvas. He captured the spirit of the golden age that perished in World War I. Walter Rathbone Bacon. KEY WORKS Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau). etchings. DC: National Gallery of Art). talented. 1908. He had a virtuoso. Court of Dances. Shows a nice balance between (social) realism and idealism. Adrian Iselin. intimate glimpses of family and friends. he was an accomplished. Made brilliant watercolors. successful. and France. c. and rapid charcoal sketches. 1897 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). c. oils. which cleverly—like Manet—suggests 1) equality with the old masters (Titian) and the modern (the Impressionists). fleshy nudes in plein-air settings.000 in 1990. He also painted elegant portraits of the rich and famous.

Where Cézanne’s work was intensely contemplative and minutely observed. “truth” in art did not have to mean naturalism.328 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT POST-IMPRESSIONISM late 19th/early 20th century However liberating Impressionism was. Furthermore. From about 1880. shoots himself in 1890 Norwegian Edvard Munch in Paris. its concentration on surface appearance and the moment inevitably limited its emotional range. Gauguin. 1888.” This inevitably led to a wide diversity of styles. producing large-scale groups of figures painted using precise dots of paint. then back to Pacific 1895 Cézanne’s first major show 1888 1889 Van Gogh’s Bedroom at Arles Vincent van Gogh. which has remained unchallenged ever since. KEY EVENTS 1886 Van Gogh joins brother in Paris. painstakingly reworking his paintings to reveal the WHAT TO LOOK FOR Landscape at Pont Aven Paul Gauguin. This is the third version of the painting that Van Gogh produced. oil on canvas. world’s underlying reality. returns to Paris 1893. Private Collection. Van Gogh’s was tortured and highly expressive. 1889. oil on canvas. It was painted for his mother while recovering from a mental breakdown. Seurat pioneered a new monumentality. and strong outlines. Art Institute of Chicago. after bouts of madness. a technique known as divisionism. This belief. Van Gogh harsh colors. the attempt to show the world “as it actually is. with the result that the term “Post-Impressionism” can really only be applied to the period rather than a particular style. SUBJECTS AND STYLE Modern life provides the dominant subject matter. 1891 1895 . Brittany. Gauguin and Van Gogh both sought ways to express troubled. Term “Neo-Impressionism” coined Van Gogh moves to Arles. was the first claim that art was what the artist asserted it to be. a number of painters sought to fuse the new visual freedom generated by Impressionism with greater emphasis on form and content. Gauguin used flat color and distorted perspective. The Scream (1893) combines northern brooding with Symbolist imagery Gauguin goes to Tahiti. Gauguin developed his nonnaturalistic style during a stay in Pont Aven. Cézanne moves to Provence. often dreamlike emotions. The sheer variety of styles covered by the term Post-Impressionism highlights a crucial feature of the period: that the absolute standards governing Western art established in the Renaissance no longer applied. The four giants of the Post-Impressionist era were Cézanne. Seurat and Van Gogh. Cézanne achieved a similar sense of grave serenity by very different means.

Highly attracted to Tahitian feminine beauty. flattened. ambiguous.5 x 116 cm). . Japanese prints. 5 France. and Manet. and suffused with melancholy. 1891. 1902 (Essen: Museum Folkwang) The Meal Paul Gauguin. in the South Seas. Cambodian sculpture. from syphilis. Primitive Tales. sometimes biblical. Egyptian art. Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $35m in 2004. 1902 (Essen: Museum Folkwang). St. Although an acute observer of nature. Plenty of scope for detective work on his visual sources. among them: South American art. 1800–1900 329 Paul Gauguin b 1848 – 1903 n FRENCH Nevermore Paul Gauguin. oil on canvas. Tahiti 1 oils. 23 4⁄5 x 45 2⁄3 in (60. which remained unsatisfied. Hence. and many works are as full of sexual as well as spiritual yearning. Sunflowers. Had a decisive influence on the new generation (including Matisse and Picasso). Maternité II (oils) Gaugin was a successful stockbroker who. prints 2 Washington. Yearned for the simple life and died. he believed that the source of inspiration had to be internal. simplified forms. pottery. sculpture. look for symbolic. medieval art. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). complex. 1888 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). not natural. Gauguin had a poetic ability to evoke moods that were haunting. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. part enigmatic portrait of three Tahitian children. 1901 (St. 1873 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). London: Courtauld Institute of Art. unknown. in Brittany (especially in 1888) and from Tahiti in the 1890s. colors. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. at the age of 35. Constant search for a personal and spiritual fulfilment. saturated colors. not external (which sparked a major quarrel with Van Gogh). 28 3⁄4 x 36 1⁄4 in (73 x 92 cm). Also produced interesting woodcarvings.C . Riders on the Beach. oil on canvas. intense. symbolism. KEY WORKS Landscape. and sculpture. DC: National Gallery of Art. 1897. Powerful subjects expressed with a strong sense of design: bold. abandoned his career and family to become an artist. Rich coloring and distorted perspective combine to produce a work that is part still life. The Vision After the Sermon. His best work is from his visits to Pont Aven.

impoverished. poverty. difficult to love.330 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Self-Portrait 1889. despite the rapid pace of his output. Gachet (oils) He was an odd and aloof child who became grim. oil on canvas. Dismissed from his post as lay preacher for his too literal interpretation of Christ’s command to give away worldly goods to the poor. who. His subjects are wholly autobiographical. Van Gogh produced this painting in the asylum at St. cultured man. Rémy four months later. he . Paris: Musée d’Orsay. and suicidal— but he painted works that are now among the world’s best known. While the popular image of Van Gogh is of the tormented genius. He took up painting at the age of 27 and wanted his art to be a consolation for the stresses and strains of modern life. failed love affairs. England. Vincent van Gogh b 1853 – 90 n DUTCH 5 Netherlands. Otterlo (Netherlands): Kröller-Müller Museum 3 $75m in 1990. he was also an educated. Following his violent breakdown in Arles in May 1889. and most expensive. drawings. tracing every moment and emotion in his life. engravings 2 Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum. France 1 oils. melancholic. and spiritual crises. after years of unfulfilling careers. best loved. put deep thought and planning into his art. 25 3⁄5 x 21 1⁄2 in (65 x 54.5 cm). LIFE AND WORKS Van Gogh came late to his artistic vocation. Portrait of Dr.

London: National Gallery. firm outlines. He distorted form and color in order to express inner feelings. Although an enormously productive period. the Man with the Pipe 1890. Charles Dickens). the majority of which were done during his stay in Arles. An unsuccessful attempt to found an artists’ cooperative at Arles with Gauguin led to a breakdown (he cut off part of his left ear during a quarrel). Van Gogh was reading a collection of poems by the American writer Walt Whitman.1 x 73 cm). hurried style that is instantly recognizable. Portrait of Armand Roulin. completing 200 paintings in his last 15 months alone. under the influence of Impressionism and Japanese woodcuts encountered on his move to Paris. Van Gogh had an instinctive. Musée du Louvre). strange perspectives. so that his yellow chair becomes a symbol or image of Van Gogh himself. 1890 (Private Collection) Portrait of Doctor Paul Gachet. One of a series of 12 sunflower paintings by Van Gogh. virtually unknown to the art world. like a child’s drawing. but he also used color symbolism. which. At the time he was planning Starry Night. etching. leaving 800 paintings and 850 drawings. The Artist’s Room at Arles. Peasant Girl in a Straw Hat Sitting in Front of a Wheatfield. He had a passionate belief in the importance of first-hand observation. thrilling use of color. 36 1⁄2 x 28 3⁄4 in (92. with yellow being especially significant in his works. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. 7 x 6 in (18 x 14 cm). His early subjects were Dutch peasants and workers. oil on canvas. formed the source material for the quickly emergent cult that continues to grow around him. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Starry Night 1889. moving away from the reproduction of literal visual appearances toward a symbolic and expressive synthesis. self-taught. 29 x 36 in (73 x 92 cm). His swirling brushwork bristles with energy and emotional power. 1800–1900 331 found a new mission in art. Prisoners Exercising. This moralistic tone disappeared from his later art. swirling style. 1889 (Paris. He ranks with Cézanne and Gauguin as the greatest of the Post-Impressionist artists. 1887 (Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum). and he briefly entered an asylum in 1889. applied as thick as furrows. and he died at his own hand. STYLE Sunflowers 1888. developed into an expressive. His obsessive letters to his devoted brother. 1888 (Essen: Museum Folkwang). KEY WORKS French Street Scene with Access to a Vantage Point. 1890 (Moscow: Pushkin Museum). which can be electrifying. Theo. He was able to endow inanimate objects with human personality (as did his favorite author. which takes on a life of its own. He used paint straight from the tube. oil on canvas. . one of which uses similar imagery.C . his depression finally overcame him. which often explain work in detail. whose honest struggle he sought to portray.

000 in 1993. DC: National Gallery of Art). sculpture 2 St. preferred curves. woodcuts. Most important now for his writings—especially interviews with Cézanne—and as the editor of Van Gogh’s letters. 1888 (New York: Josefowitz Collection). smiley faces. Well-heeled and popular with fellow artists. prints. 1897 (Musée de Grenoble). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Sérusier’s landscape was named The Talisman because it was so influential in the development of Symbolism.023. simplified form (he disliked straight lines. etc. round tabletops. bright. In the 1920s. Madeleine au Bois D’Amour (oils) A close friend of Gauguin. Study of Breton Women. including the “art is my favorite subject” enthusiasm. Produced good. 1888. 1888–90 (Quimper. He painted like a child.473. Sérusier’s favored subject was Breton women at work. sculpture 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $4. Was influenced by Japanese prints and French Symbolists.577 in 2000. He had all the qualities of a child.332 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Emile Bernard b 1868 –1941 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza 3 $450. Breton Landscape. . otherwise forgettable. or every blade of grass).000 in 1998. flat color). c. Van Gogh. Interior. decorative style (firm outline. France: Musée des Beaux-Arts). On the Beach (oils) There was a short period when he was at the forefront of new ideas (1890–1901). often satirical. realistic works. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. 1903–04 (St. obsession with arbitrary detail (every leaf on a tree. He usually worked around a simple idea with a central single object. KEY WORKS Seated Female Nude. Portrait of Joseph Brummer (oils) The Talisman Paul Sérusier. Bernard painted his own competent versions of Gauguin’s style (clear outline. His work has an unconscious (genuine) naïvety. 1891 (Rennes: Musée des Beaux-Arts). with lesser Henri Rousseau b 1844 – 1910 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. 1895 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Félix Vallotton b 1865 –1925 n SWISS 5 France 1 oils. wobbly perspective. 1892 (New York: Josefowitz Collection) KEY WORKS borrowings from Egyptian and medieval art. KEY WORKS Farmhouse at Le Pouldu. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Paul Sérusier b 1863 –1927 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $550. but was too hung up on theory—needed to loosen up his art. solid. and Cézanne. painting scenes of everyday life in original. he gave up painting and retired to Venice to write. Good. Deux lavandières au bord de la cascade (oils) His stiff. Buckwheat Harvest. woodcuts. He was lionized by the young avant-garde (Picasso et al) because of the childlike vitality of his work. traditional. big signature. but on a bigger scale.000 in 2003. who spread his ideas and was a founder member of Nabis. simplification) is largely indebted to Gauguin. Solitude. A disciple of Gauguin. 1890 (Washington. Breton Women on a Wall. 160 1⁄4 x 84 2⁄3 in (270 x 215 cm). flat colors. oil on panel. and a desire to please. 1908 (St.). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $1. but not as good as he thought (although he did influence the Nabis). Woman in a Black Hat. He was a minor customs official who took up painting on retirement to supplement his pension.

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He did what most children grow out of, or are taught not to do; he is a reminder that we may flourish best and achieve unexpected recognition if we are what we are and do not constantly strive to be what we are not.
KEY WORKS Self-Portrait of Rousseau, from L’Ile Saint-Louis, 1890 (Prague: National Gallery); Artillerymen, 1893–95 (New York: Guggenheim Museum); Child with a Puppet, c. 1903 (Winterthur, Switzerland: Kunsthalle); Jaguar Attacking a Horse, 1909 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts)

The Rugby Players Henri Rousseau, 1908, 39 2⁄3 x 31 2⁄3 in (100.5 x 80.3 cm), oil on canvas, New York: Guggenheim Museum. In 1908, Picasso organized a banquet with other avant-garde painters in Rousseau’s honor.

their uncertain, shadowy world; you sense that he was part of that world, not just an observer. The economy of the brushstrokes and the simplicity of the materials are as direct and basic as his subjects. He used paint thinned with turpentine that allowed fine, rapid marks, and unprimed cardboard, which he did not try to disguise—exploiting its rawness and color and the way it absorbs diluted oil paint.
KEY WORKS Woman Doing her Hair, 1891 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay); Quadrille at the Moulin Rouge, 1892 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); At the Moulin Rouge, 1892–95 (Art Institute of Chicago); Rue des Moulins, 1894 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
b 1864 – 1901 n FRENCH

5 Paris 1 oils; prints 2 Paris: Musée
d’Orsay. Albi: Musée Toulouse-Lautrec

3 $13.2m in 1990, Danseuse assise
aux bas roses (works on paper)

Toulouse Lautrec was the epitome of the bohemian artist: the crippled aristocrat who haunted the Parisian cafés and brothels, and commemorated their inhabitants in art of supreme quality. There is an extraordinary immediacy and tension in his work, resulting from his mastery of his subject matter and technique. The prostitutes and drunks, although sometimes close to caricature, are shown without sentiment or criticism—he loved them and understood them. The brilliant, wiry draftsmanship and thin, nervous paint seem to reflect
Le Divan Japonais Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892, 30 x 23 1⁄2 in (76.2 x 59.7 cm), lithograph, Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. Passionate about lithography, Toulouse-Lautrec created many lithographic posters advertising Montmartre nightlife.

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Paul Cézanne
b 1839 – 1906 n FRENCH

5 Paris; Aix-en-Provence 1 oils; watercolors; drawings 2 Philadelphia: Barnes Foundation. Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $55m in 1999, Rideau, cruchon et compotier (oils) Cézanne is considered the Mother and Father of modern art. A solitary, pioneering, difficult workaholic. He thought that his life and work were failures.

excitement for young artists such as Matisse and Picasso. His last years were marked by loneliness and poor health. Already suffering with diabetes, he died from pneumonia after being soaked in a downpour while painting outdoors.
STYLE

At the heart of Cézanne’s painting was a determination to continue LIFE AND WORKS the highly disciplined French Classical tradition Cézanne’s ambitious epitomized by businessman father from Poussin, but to Aix-en-Provence terrified do so outdoors his son, who was saved and “from by his determined artistic nature.” In all sensibility. His father his works, he eventually allowed him combines a to go to Paris to study remarkable art, giving him a small faithfulness to allowance, and later a what he observes fortune. Cézanne never with a deep had to sell his work to awareness of live—a rare privilege. his emotional In 1870, he married Self-Portrait Paul Cézanne, response. His Hortense Fiquet and c. 1873–76, 25 1⁄5 x 20 4⁄5 in (64 x 53 cm), palette is usually they had one son, Paul. oil on canvas, Paris Musée d’Orsay. restricted to Cézanne’s early efforts Hailed by Picasso as “My one and earthy greens, were as inept as his social only master … father of us all.” reds, and blues, behavior, and he was and there may be an instinctive rejected as “incompetent” by the École underlying gridlike structure, as if des Beaux Arts. His subsequent lifelong struggle to find a coherent way of painting to hold the composition together resulted miraculously in work that became and define the different areas. a key influence on Modern Art. His first Cézanne did not originate new subjects: one-man show in 1895 caused huge rather his originality was in his way of seeing and painting. For example, his landscapes often took him weeks or months to complete. The difficulty was that the detail was always changing as the light changed—and even as he moved position. In other words, there never came a moment when he deemed any work to be finished—one of the reasons for his sense of failure, and why he rarely signed his work.
WHAT TO LOOK FOR

Still Life with Basket Paul Cézanne, 1888–90,
25 3⁄4 x 31 1⁄2 in (65 x 81 cm), oil on canvas, Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Cézanne worked so slowly that the fruit often rotted and he had to substitute plaster replicas.

His works have multilayered significance: central to Cézanne are the same (traditional) subjects painted over and over again in a constant attempt to record accurately what he sees, to express what he feels, and to produce

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an aesthetically satisfying picture. Not easy, as these goals are constantly changing and are often in conflict; he achieves it in the works of 1885–1901.

Montagne Sainte-Victoire with Trees and a House Paul Cézanne, 31 x 39 in, (78 x 99 cm), oil
on canvas, Moscow: Museum of Modern Art of the West. Mt. St. Victoire is a well-known landmark near Aix-en-Provence, revisited frequently by Cézanne.

Cézanne’s paintings have an extraordinary power, as though you were seeing through his own eyes. Examine the marks that he makes— small, precise, beautiful, each in place for a reason. He only makes marks when he has seen and felt something. He also weaves the marks together to produce a harmony of color and design. Every picture surface trembles with the thrill and anxiety of his intense seeing, feeling, and making.
KEY WORKS The Artist’s Father, 1866 (Washington DC: National Gallery of Art); The Abduction, c. 1867 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum); Still Life with Apples and Oranges, c. 1895–1900 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay); Le château noir, 1900–04 (Washington DC: National Gallery of Art)

The Large Bathers Paul Cézanne, c. 1900–05, 81 3⁄4 x 98 in (208 x 249 cm), oil on canvas, Philadelphia: Museum of Art. The artist never painted from naked models; instead he assembled his nude compositions from photographs.

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Pierre Bonnard
b 1867 – 1947 n FRENCH

5 France 1 oils; drawings 3 $6,232,000 in 2003, Matinée au Cannet (oils) He was one of the great masters of color. If Matisse is the king of color, Bonnard is the queen. Though less intellectual than Matisse, he shared his view that art should be a celebration of life and a source of visual joy. Painted the places, rooms, and people that he knew most intimately, notably his neurotic, bath-obsessed wife, Marthe. Early work is progressive, later work is deeply personal and stands outside the mainstream. Lovely, free drawings that are masterpieces of observation. The paintings were done in his studio from memory and from black and white notes and sketches—all that glowing color came out of his head. Stand well back and see how he creates thrilling spaces (rich, textured foregrounds and hazy distances). Walk forward and see how glorious color harmonies take over (blues, violets, greens, with glowing pinks and oranges). When really close, let the detail of flickering brushwork and subtle color weavings fill your eye. His work becomes brighter with age (unusual).
The Letter, c. 1906 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); Table Set in a Garden, c. 1908 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); Bathing Woman, Seen from the Back, c. 1919 (London: Tate Collection)
KEY WORKS

The Almond Tree in Blossom Pierre Bonnard, 1947, 21 2⁄3 x 14 3⁄4 in (55 x 37.5 cm), oil on canvas, Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne. Bonnard’s last painting, which he was still perfecting while on his deathbed.

Edouard Vuillard
b 1868 – 1940 n FRENCH

5 France 1 oils; prints La table de toilette (oils)

3 $7m in 1989,

Vuillard was a shy, highly talented painter and printmaker who was in the forefront of new artistic ideas up to 1900, after which he retreated into his own comfortable, intimate world. He is best known for his glimpses of middle-class life—mostly cluttered domestic interiors. Had a nervous style, with busy surfaces that flicker with light or allow the image to build up like a mosaic. Was fascinated by repeating patterns, such as woven material or wallpaper. Rich, earthy palette. Warm sense of color. Pioneered simple design, strong color, and energetic brushwork. An enthusiastic photographer—his works show this, having a snapshotlike quality.
KEY WORKS Landscape: Window Overlooking the Woods, 1899 (Art Institute of Chicago); Vase of Flowers on a Mantelpiece, c. 1900 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art) Portrait of Théodore Duret, 1912 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)

Mother and Child Edouard Vuillard, 1900, 20 1⁄4 x 19 3⁄4 in (51.4 x 50.2 cm), oil on board, Private Collection. Vuillard never married, but remained deeply devoted to his widowed mother, who was a dressmaker.

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Sir William Nicholson
b 1872 – 1949 n BRITISH

5 England 1 oils; prints 3 $246,750 in 2001,
Le début de la rue Montagne Sainte-Geneviève (oils)

Nicholson was a highly accomplished painter of landscapes, portraits, and still lifes, with an easy, fluid, intimate style and a wonderful eye for observation, composition, color, and light—and an ability to edit out the superfluous. Successful, and knighted for his achievements. Also made poster and theater designs, and woodblock prints. Ben Nicholson’s father.
KEY WORKS Beerbohm, 1905 (London: National Portrait Gallery); The Lowestoft Bowl, 1911 (London: Tate Collection)

Ferdinand Hodler
b 1858 – 1918 n SWISS

Free and expressive paint-handling—he used painting as a personal and emotional release. After a stroke in 1911, his work became increasingly loose, reflecting his physical handicap, awareness of death, isolation (he disliked Modernism), and melancholy at the defeat of the German Empire in 1918. Impressively versatile, he produced stunning, small, late watercolors and prints, which were easier to handle after his stroke and show thrilling emotional and technical invention. His plein-air landscapes (especially those around his house at Walchensee, Bavaria) hover between Impressionism and Expressionism and were a great commercial success in Berlin. Compositions in late works often lean curiously to the left. He painted a series of self-portraits every year on his birthday (after 1887).
KEY WORKS Nude Girl, 1886 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts); Centaurs Embracing, 1911 (London: Courtauld Institute of Art); Samson Blinded, 1912 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum); Magdalen with Pearls in her Hair, 1919 (London: Tate Collection); Self-Portrait with Straw Hat, 1923 (Basel, Switzerland: Kunstmuseum)

5 Geneva 1 oils 2 Bern: Kunstmuseum 3 $2,705,727 in 1998, Lake Silvaplaner (oils) A talented painter of monumental figure paintings, portraits, and landscapes. He painted modern narratives and allegories with a confident drawing style and strong outlines. Powerful, intensified color; his hatched brushstrokes and broken color give optical vibrancy. Untroubled by self-doubt, but sometimes falls into the trap of the pompously overserious statement. Liked silhouetted figures or mountains against a sky.
KEY WORKS Tired of Life, 1892 (Munich: Neue Pinakothek); Silence of the Evening, c. 1904 (Winterthur, Switzerland: Kunstmuseum)

Carl Milles
b 1875 – 1955 n SWEDISH

5 Sweden; Europe; US 1 sculpture 2 Lidingö (Sweden): Millesgården 3 $540,567
in 1989, The Small Water-Nymph (bronze)

Lovis Corinth
b 1858 – 1925 n GERMAN

5 Germany; Paris 1 oils; watercolors; prints 2 Berlin: Staatliche Museum 3 $1,310,400 in
2004, Walchensee, Morning Fog (oils)

His work is rarely seen outside Germany. Major figure who tried to reinvent the tradition of the old masters in a modern idiom. Ambitious, gifted, Prussian. In his traditional style he painted established subjects (portraits, still lifes, mythologies), using an earth palette and influenced by old masters, especially Rembrandt and Hals. In his modern style he painted frank, direct interpretations.

Greatest Swedish sculptor, and one of the most famous sculptors since Rodin (who was a big early influence). Best known for his large-scale fountains, which show his strong grasp of architecture. Widely traveled in Europe; later taught in the US, where he did most of his best work. Combined eclectic influences from his travels into highly individual style. Fused classical and Nordic cultures to create vigorous, unusual groupings. His figures are full of vitality, while his fountains are conceived as an architectural whole: figures must be viewed against the background of sky and water.
Folke Filbyter (Le cavalier de la légende), 1920s (Lidingö, Sweden: Millesgården); Fountain, 1936–40 (St. Louis, Missouri: Market Street); Orpheus Fountain, 1930s (Michigan: Cranbrook Art Museum); Pegasus and Bellerophon, 1940s (Iowa: Des Moines Art Center)
KEY WORKS

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SECESSION AND ART NOUVEAU

late 19th/early 20th century

In the 1890s, several groups of painters in Vienna, Munich, and Berlin sought to break away from the official academies and promote new ideas and styles. They labeled their new groupings Sezession, and their avant-garde exhibitions created considerable outrage and scandal. In the end, these groups were splintered by internal politics, leading to further breakaway groupings.
VIENNA SECESSION

Founded by Gustav Klimt, who aimed to put Vienna on the international stage artistically by pursuing new avant-garde ideas, with links to other progressive artists all over Europe. In particular, Klimt wanted to create a union between the fine arts of painting and sculpture and architecture, and the applied arts of design and decoration.
Façade of Secession Building, Vienna
The new home for art, designed and built in just six months in 1898, was a rejection of the traditional architectural styles of the Austro-Hungarian empire.

ART NOUVEAU

French for “new art;” also known as Jugendstil or Sezessionstil in Austria and Germany and Stile Liberty in Italy. Art Nouveau describes a highly decorative style, most often seen in architecture and

the applied arts, which was at the forefront of fashion in the 1890s. It aimed to reject historical influences and create one encapsulating style for all the arts. The French-speaking version is organic and free-flowing; the German/Scottish version is geometric.
KEY EVENTS
1892 Rejection of Munch’s early work by Berlin Artists’ Association. German artists start Munich Secession Klimt breaks away from the main Austrian academy and patron, Künstlerhaus, and establishes hugely successful exhibition (57,000 visitors) and magazine Ver Sacrum Leading German Impressionist Max Liebermann starts Berlin Secession movement First of Hector Germain Guimard’s Art Nouveau designs for Paris Metro

1897

1899

1900

Sarah Bernhardt Alphonse Mucha, 1896, color
lithograph, Prague: Mucha Trust. Mucha was a Czech painter and designer who settled in Paris. His work was important in the development of French Art Nouveau.

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Gustav Klimt
b 1862 – 1918 n AUSTRIAN

The Kiss Gustav Klimt, 1907–08, 71 x 71 in (180 x 180 cm),
oil on canvas, Vienna: Österreichische Galerie. The couple are surrounded by a cloud of gold, intended as a symbolic expression of the power of love.

5 Austria 1 oils; mixed media; drawings 2 Vienna: Österreichische Galerie 3 $26m
in 2003, Landhaus am Attersee (oils)

Klimt was the leading Viennese painter who broke away from convention to found the Viennese Secession movement and develop a highly original, sensitive style. Some of his most impressive projects were interior decoration. The intense, introverted subject matter reflects Klimt’s own personality (he was an oversexed workaholic), and fin de siècle Vienna (neurotic, idle, adulterous, gossipy, deeply conservative, but also packed with original talent and fresh ideas from Freud, Richard Strauss, Mahler, and so on). It also expresses his wish to explore modern sensibility and break free from old, stifling taboos and restrictions, and his wish to

demolish the snobby distinction between the fine artist and the craftsman. Klimt’s brilliant, inventive technique reflects his training (at the School for Decorative Arts, where he learned craft techniques), and his fascination with Egyptian art (flat and decorative) and Byzantine art (gold and mosaic). Notice the sensitive hands, hidden faces, private symbolism—he worked through suggestion rather than description in order to touch the inner feeling rather than the outward show.
Judith, 1901 (Vienna: Österreichische Galerie); Hope II, 1907– 08 (New York: Museum of Modern Art); Baby (Cradle), 1917–18 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)
KEY WORKS

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MODERNISM
C.

1900 –1970

Young artists and writers in Western Europe welcomed the dawn of the 20th century with excitement and great expectation. They hoped and believed it would usher in a new era fueled by technological advances and democratic ideals that would result in economic and social improvements for the great majority of humankind.

A

rtists, architects, and ensgineers were to be at the heart of creating this brave new modern world that was to look different from anything seen before. In many ways their dreams were realized. The plethora of new styles and technical innovations that followed in rapid succession radically changed art and the environment, and testified to a freedom of thought and expression that was at times bewildering in its range and diversity.

confrontations or the terrifying destruction of human life and material heritage that would ensue.
THE WORLD WARS

REACTION

What the idealists failed to predict, however, was the effectiveness of those forces that would seek to destroy, and very nearly extinguish, these new freedoms. They could not foresee the fierceness of the political
Young Lady and Her Suite Alexander Calder, 1970, painted steel, height 33 ft (10 m), Detroit, Michigan. One of the dreams of the first generation of Modern artists and architects was the creation of an ideal city.

The most terifying manifestations of the political struggle were the two world wars (1914–18 and 1939–45). By 1919, after more than four years of debilitating warfare on the Western Front, Britain and France, the victors of World War I and the world’s leading colonial powers, could still assert their dominant position in the world, despite the growing realities of American financial and political muscle. Germany, by contrast, was prostrate, politically and economically in turmoil, AustriaHungary was destroyed as a single entity, and Russia launched on a communist experiment that would bring misery and death to millions. After 1929, the Western economies, including that of the mighty US,

Frieze showing heroic Soviet workers, Moscow
Soviet art, like Nazi art, was monumental and deeply conservative. Both regimes ruthlessly crushed any form of individual expression.

able to contain the growth of prewar fascism in Europe, or offer a creditable alternative to communism.
REVIVAL

suffered catastrophic depression. Germany and the Soviet Union, meanwhile, set about establishing totalitarian regimes that were irreconcilably opposed in their political ideologies, but had many features in common. Soon after Hitler began World War II in 1939, France was forced into ignominious surrender, and Britain into Churchillian defiance. In the end it was the unlikely alliance between American manufacturing might and Soviet manpower that secured a victory over Nazi Germany. After 1945, Europe had to acknowledge the reality of American dominance within the Western world. Neither Britain nor France had been
TIMELINE: 14TH—15TH CENTURY

The efforts of France and Britain after the war to hold on to their empires were clearly doomed. Europe entered a period of austerity and introspection. From the late 1940s it was the threat of conflict between the US and the Soviet Union that defined international relations. Further, after 1949, a new factor was added to the balance of world power: the threat of nuclear war and humankind’s complete self-destruction. By 1970 the picture was very different. Whereas Germany in 1945 was a country reduced to rubble and occupied by its former enemies, its Western entity now boasted the largest economy in Europe. Over the

1900 Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams published, Vienna

1914–18 First World War

1919 Versailles peace settlement shrinks Germany and dissolves Austria-Hungary

1936 Stalinist purges in USSR; Spanish Civil War begins (to 1939) 1933 Hitler elected German chancellor

1900

1910
1907 Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon

1920
1917 Russian Revolution

1930
1929 Wall Street Crash precipitates global slump

1939 German invasion of Poland sparks World War II 1941 German invasion of Soviet Union 1947 New York takes over from Paris as the capital of the artistic avant garde 1956 AntiSoviet uprising in Hungary suppressed 1962 Andy Warhol’s Twentyfive Colored Marilyns. and to a lesser degree Italy and Spain. almost every European country enjoyed an unprecedented period of economic growth. The roots of this lay in the even more spectacular buoyancy of the US economy in the 1950s and 60s. Chrysler Building. Russia. drove developments around the world. a role it retained until 1939. slipped into strategies for securing comfortable prosperity rather than achieving any great ideal. but perhaps what is most striking is the degree to which Modern Art and its early development in Europe and the US is interlinked with the fight for democratic freedom. in fact. The European Economic Community which started idealistically in 1957. atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. the center of gravity shifted to New York City. or where freedom of expression Soviet postcard from World War II Hitler suffers in the Russian winter as he runs from a hail of shells. New York This Art Deco skyscraper. INTERLINKING was most under threat or was a new discovery. After 1945. where freedom of speech and conscience were taken for granted. 1900—1970 343 same period. and Paris became the capital of the avantgarde. Even the economies of Sovietdominated Eastern Europe grew. All countries in the war used art to project their propaganda messages. but in Britain and the US. American financial aid to Western Europe. was conceived in prosperity but opened during the Great Depression. and the Netherlands. greatest in those places that had experienced foreign occupation. a landmark of 20th-century architecture. At the end of the 19th century this meant France. launched in 1947. and thereafter America’s dynamism and its tempting vision of a consumer society. made major contributions. Against this turbulent background. the Marshall Plan. Modern Art was of less interest. New York 1969 US succeeds in landing men on the Moon 1940 1938 Hitler annexes Austria and border regions of Czechoslovakia 1950 1945 German surrender ends war in Europe. artistic innovation was. kick-started Europe’s war-ravaged economies. Germany.C . Japanese surrender 1960 1957 Treaty of Rome: EEC created 1955 Warsaw Pact established 1962 Cuban missile crisis 1970 1967 Year of “Flower Power” and growing protests against war in Vietnam . as the US became the standard bearer for the Western democracies.

he was given a box of paints while recovering from an appendicitis operation. Maryland: Baltimore Museum of Art. La robe persane (oils) The King of Color—he celebrated the joy of living through color. LIFE AND WORKS Matisse first studied law in Paris and worked as a legal clerk before taking up art studies at the influential Académie Julian and under Moreau at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Vence (South of France) 1 oils. Pennsylvania: Barnes Foundation 3 $17m in 2000. he turned to Cézanne. He reworked this picture 22 times. a small Cézanne Bathers which he kept all his life and used as inspiration at low or critical moments Self-Portrait Henri Matisse. Large Reclining Nude Henri Matisse. 1918. oil on canvas. . Professorial and social. Matisse usually hides small images of himself in intimate portraits of others. Major hero of the Modern Movement and one of its founders. Although penniless. and a bit of a loner. he experimented with Divisionism and absorbed a deep knowledge of color theory. sculpture. Vollard. oil on canvas. 25 3⁄4 x 21 1⁄4 in (65 x 54 cm). of his career. on the FrenchSpanish border in the summer of 1904. where he met several of the future Fauves. 26 x 36 1⁄2 in (66 x 92. In the late 1890s. A rare full painting of the master at work.7 cm). he came to art late and almost by chance. Coming from the gray cold light of northern Europe. but not convivial. which he first experienced in Collioure. when. the discovery of the brightness and warmth of Mediterranean light. he bought from art dealer. 1935. In fact. In 1899. altering the background and model’s proportions until he was happy.344 Henri Matisse b 1869 –1954 n FRENCH 5 Paris. collage. drawings 2 Paris: Musée d’Art Moderne. aged 21. Nice: Musée Matisse.

and Pleasure) Henri Matisse. and sensation. In his own words.C . joyous combination of subject matter (notably the open window. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Luxe. 1953 (London: Tate Collection) His work explores the full range of what color can do. each aware of the other’s innovations. Matisse said he “dreamt of an art of balance and purity and serenity. he loved exploring the exotic. The Snail. Also a brilliant and innovative printmaker (1952 being the year of his printed blue nudes. The open brushwork is deliberate. To the end. sculpture often being an explorative extension of his painting. 1908 (Moscow: Pushkin Museum). 1927 (Private Collection). “I am unable to distinguish between the feeling I have for life and my way of expressing it. purifying. This is brilliantly explored through his superb Odalisque nudes of 1920–25. especially oriental fabrics and ceramics with their strong decorative feel and heightened colors. emotion. to give movement and life to the color and to register Matisse’s own presence and activity. and opened a school for young artists. and the way it could be used to create form. both of which emphasize pattern and bold but subtle color.” It was this apparent lack of aggression or need for controversy that puzzled Picasso. the illustrations for Jazz and La Cirque. still life. he was champion of the young avante-garde. devoid of troubling or depressing subject matter … a mental soother … like a good Look for his life-enhancing. and his glorious color which takes on a life of its own and is free to do its own thing. SUBJECTS AND STYLE cooling. reminiscent of Cézanne’s Bathers. heating. allowing them to “breathe” and reach their full visual potential. as he experimented with paper cutouts and collages. If in their earlier years they had competed for leadership of the avant-garde. by crowding. 1900–1970 345 “I cannot copy nature in a servile way. et volupté (Luxury. 1904. His hallmark piece when first exhibited. as the foremost Fauve painter. Statuette and Vases on an Oriental Carpet. in later life they kept a respectful distance. I must interpret nature and submit it to the spirit of the picture. armchair. oil on canvas. His late gouaches on paper cutouts enabled him to carve into color. intensifying. Look for white spaces around bright colors. without necessarily imitating nature. 38 3⁄4 x 46 1⁄2 in (98 x 118 cm). 1929 (London: Tate Collection). and his art continued to flourish with ever-increasing richness. his later years are among his most fertile and inventive. relaxing. Reclining Nude. 1909– c. Back. 1905–06 (Pennsylvania: Barnes Foundation). Serenity. Matisse’s principal concern was always with color. As a result. even influenced by them. with very few false turnings. even when a bedridden invalid. plus the stained glass windows and vestments for the Chapel of the Rosary at Vence. and fascination with light and color. Matisse settled semipermanently in Nice. In the 1920s. From 1905–07. near Nice. juxtaposing. yet never in competition. The Black I–IV. and female nude). . In many ways. At this period he also visited Morocco and came under the influence of Islamic and Persian art. Explored color independently from subject matter and turned it into something you want to touch and feel. calme. now still gracing the walls of many students as posters) and sculptor.” KEY WORKS The Joy of Living. His Notes of a Painter (published 1908) is one of the most important statements of the principles of modern art. Paris: Musée d’Orsay.” HENRI MATISSE was a revelation.

32 x 39 1⁄2 in (81. loved the term. 1910 (Washington. and green—but wove them together to create a strong visual “fizz. he earned an income from his winnings as a racing cyclist. Vlaminck.805 in 1990. The River. in the main. most of the artists had moved on to explore new personal ideals. Washington. Private Collection. His early landscapes are full of color. Chatou. although the dotted style eventually gave way. DC: National Gallery of Art) Tugboat at Chatou Maurice de Vlaminck. His later landscapes degenerated into a boring formula. Charing Cross Bridge André Derain. But the group. Les pêcheurs à Nanterre (oils) He was both a volatile and boastful character who made a brief splash as one of the avant-garde Fauve artists in France c. He used a not very subtle palette of four colors—red. superficially they look modern. Derain. and from performing as an orchestral violinist.2 x 100. DC: National Gallery of Art). Vlaminck and André Derain were named the “Chatou Couple” after the Paris suburb where they painted together. Maurice de Vlaminck b 1876 –1958 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils.” Now an object could generate its own brightness. 1906. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $10. insultingly labeled the brightly colored style of the paintings as the work of wild beasts (fauves). They were heavily influenced by Van Gogh and Cézanne. 1906 (St. to wide choppy brushstrokes of stunning pure color. View of the Seine.721. 1910 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). 1906 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). loosely formed around liaisons between the artists about the turn of the century.346 MODERNISM LES FAUVES The name was given to the movement at the 1905 Salon d’Automne exhibition held in Paris. DC: National Gallery of Art. One of the principal places of inspiration was Collioure in the South of France. a friend of Derain. Derain was influenced by Monet’s paintings of the Thames River. freely applied in flat patterns. thickly and freely painted. oil on canvas. oil on canvas. It embodied Derain’s ideal of “color for color’s sake. 1900 – 07 Matisse and Derain studied together in 1898 and Vlaminck. They express the mood of adventure and experimentation that captured the imagination of progressive young French artists at the time. He also wrote novels and his memoirs. Still Life. Dufy.3 cm). By 1907. but they are not. was introduced two years later. Painting was very much a secondary vocation at this time. 1906. drawings 2 St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1906 (Washington. Color harmony is a central theme. c. 19 x 25 in (50 x 65 cm). blue. Louis Vauxcelles. c. The chief group members were Matisse. yellow. Tugboat on the Seine. and with strong simplified designs. as well as the Pointillism of Seurat. Art critic of the review Gil Blas. As a youth. and Braque. and maybe question the reason for this balance between the old and new. c. 1905–06. . Separate the subject matter (which is actually not very innovative) from the way it is painted (which is).” KEY WORKS The Blue House.

oil on canvas.C . 1907. around the Seine. c. featuring docks. Charing Cross Bridge (see opposite). 1910 (Oslo: National Gallery) André Derain b 1880 –1954 n FRENCH 5 Paris. 1900–1970 347 Albert Marquet b 1875 – 1947 n FRENCH The Seine at Paris Albert Marquet. drawings 2 Paris: Musée National d'Art Moderne 3 $1. sculpture. Then he unwisely abandoned color and concentrated on form. London 1 oils. Southern France. 1906 (London: Tate Collection). the elimination of unnecessary detail (Matisse compared him favorably with the Japanese artist Hokusai). Stayed (mostly) with traditional landscape themes. leaves green (Matisse skies can be yellow. KEY WORKS André Rouveyre. cranes. in the early 20th . Collioure (oils) century.79m in 1989. clear. DC: National Gallery of Art).309. harmonious color. and placing half-tones and full tones together. 1927 (Private Collection) He is best remembered as Matisse’s main partner in creating Fauvist paintings in the South of France. who developed an appealing and poetic style: strong. and strong. Derain’s early works were extremely influential in the development of the use of color in Modern art. Le Pont-Neuf. 1904 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). Thus skies are always blue. tugs. The scenes of Paris. 5 France 1 oils. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $8. drawings 2 St. He makes subtle use of color. His later work is mediocre and currently overrated. confident compositions. 25 3⁄4 x 31 2⁄3 in (65 x 81 cm). Early work is notable for attractive paint handling. 1905 (London: Tate Collection). green … anything). but never gets away from them (unlike Matisse). Fauvist Marquet is well known for his panoramic views of the Seine and various French ports. Private Collection. open brushwork. c. simple design. and ships at anchor. KEY WORKS Portrait of Matisse. He was one of the first artists to take an interest in African sculpture. and French ports are the most effective and popular. The Pool of London. Winter on the Seine. 1906 (Washington. He produced small-scale works in oil and watercolor.549 in 1989. with an important series of views of London (Thames River) painted in 1906. Intensifies local colors. exploiting color harmonies as well as color contrasts. Bateaux dans le port. Le carnaval à Fécamp (oils) Marquet was a disciple of Matisse. watercolors.

and immediately launched into a period of astonishing and profoundly influential creativity. In 1907. refers to a notorious brothel in Barcelona. although never fully resolves. from which this work evolved. established himself as the undisputed leader of the avant-garde. Picasso believed that art and the human figure could have a redemptive or “exorcizing” power.348 MODERNISM Les Demoiselles d’Avignon Pablo Picasso 1907 This celebrated painting is now hailed as one of the most momentous paintings in the history of art. Picasso always wanted to be seen as a reinventor of tradition rather than an iconoclast. Here the target is prostitution and sexual disease Picasso would later turn this type of still-life imagery into small brightly painted sculptures Les Demoiselles d’Avignon This is the first indication from Picasso of an interest in still life. The title (not chosen by Picasso. a plethora of new ideas. in a cramped and cluttered space with two dark rooms in an artistic colony known as the Bateau Lavoir. Yet. The painting explores. Paris. Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 96 x 92 in (244 x 233 cm) Location New York: Museum of Modern Art . it was known only to a handful of Picasso’s friends and was hardly ever seen in public until purchased by MoMA in New York in 1938. It is also a theme that links him to Cézanne and Spanish art. It would become a regular feature in his early Cubist paintings and throughout his life. the often forgotten reality is that for 30 years. which was a building like a rabbit warren. This large canvas would have filled one entire wall of his studio. and he disliked it). with all the traditions of Western art. Picasso decisively broke with his own past. Its significance is that through it. He had been planning a large figure piece. and had experimented with a brothel scene. Picasso was working in Montmartre.

Picasso began to experiment spatially with flat. 1900–1970 349 TECHNIQUES After seeing Cézanne’s work in the autumn of 1906. In March 1907. space and form.C . The faces of these figures were repainted after Picasso had a “revelation” about African sculpture at the Ethnographic Museum in Paris in 1907 Early Iberian sculpture influenced the faces of the figures. Picasso acquired two such pieces that had been stolen from the Musée du Louvre This figure begins to explore what would become a hallmark of Cubism: the combination of different viewpoints and profiles in a single figure . splintered planes and patterns of light and dark rather than rounded volumes to create a sense of. rather than an illusion of.

KEY EVENTS 1907 Picasso’s Les Desmoiselles d’Avignon (see pages 348–349) introduces the principle of collapsing form and figure distortion Braque and Picasso work closely as a team to create first “Analytical Cubist” works Picasso’s The Guitar first sculpture made by constructing parts rather than reducing Birth of collage and papier collés as “Synthetic Cubism” evolves Cubism’s effects influence Italian and Russian Futurist/Orphic movements 1909 1911 1913 1918 Portrait of Pablo Picasso Juan Gris. 36 3⁄4 x 29 1⁄4 in (93 x 74 cm). The principles of Cubism were worked out in 1907–1914. manned flight. Paintings were no longer like a window. could be used to make art. Art Institute of Chicago. In the works after 1912. In the eyes of the Cubists. however humble or everyday. oil on canvas.” and used monochromatic paint on canvas.” Woman with a Guitar (Ma Jolie) Pablo Picasso. with conventional subjects such as still life. Any sort of material. oil on canvas. and wireless communications—all of them developed at about the same time. but a forum where almost anything might happen. 1912. art was to be about cumulative experience rather than mere observation. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Their early Cubist works were all small scale.350 MODERNISM CUBISM 1907–1918 Cubism was the most significant art and design innovation of the 20th century. Gris wanted to acknowledge Picasso as the father of the historic new artistic era. Cubism rewrote the rules and expectations as to how paintings and sculpture could be made. Sculpture was to be open and transparent rather than a solid object. PICASSO AND BRAQUE The movement’s inventors were Picasso and Braque. and the human figure. similar in effect and consequence to the invention of the internal combustion engine. they stuck on the contents of wastepaper baskets in addition—this development is known as “Synthetic Cubism. The great innovation was use of fragmented and choppedup forms. 39 1⁄3 x 25 3⁄4 in (100 x 65 cm). . The woman in the title is Picasso’s mistress Eva Gouel (also known as Marcelle Humbert). The works of 1910–11 are given the PRINCIPLES label “Analytical Cubism. landscape. creating an effect like a puzzle that has been put together with the pieces wrongly joined. 1911.

browner. with the images slipping in and out of the different planes.C . Pot de géranium (oils) He was third in the hierarchy of the inventors of Cubism (after Picasso and Braque). and studio interiors. and more antique. 1929 (Washington. Be totally at ease to enjoy the way he develops the language of Cubism. His brilliant and inventive papier collés get better as they get older. Fantômas. Later work concentrates on still life. 1915 (Washington. mixed media 3 $8. and then invented Cubism with Picasso. Still Life: Le Jour. He had a masterly reinterpretation of the traditional still life. Stand back and see how his meticulously crafted. Late work famous for the bird image as a simple symbol of human spiritual aspiration. concentrating mainly on still life. Stand close to them and play the Cubist game of piecing together the final image from the fragmented images and clues. earthy colors and images built up layer by layer. Cubist innovations included the use of letters. transforming everyday objects. He built on the example of Cézanne and the 18th century to lift decorative painting (especially still life) to new heights. in the way romantic music delights the ear. 1919 (Basel. His works have complex geometric designs and grids. Somehow reminiscent of French 18th-century marquetry furniture and its fine craftsmanship? KEY WORKS Violin and Playing Cards. the human figure. Bottle of Rum and Newspaper. papiers collés. and in his formative years he drew witty pieces for various publications. Femme lisant (oils) Braque was one of the most innovative and majestic painters of the 20th century. tabletops. oil on canvas. DC: National Gallery of Art). He often used a dark palette to great effect. 1913 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). The artist rarely left the intimate world of his studio for subject matter. sand mixed with paint. 1900–1970 351 Georges Braque b 1882 –1963 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils. sculpture. 1917 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts) 5 Paris 1 oils. collage 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $7. and trompe-l’oeil wood graining. . and touches the heart rather than the intellect. Juan Gris b 1887 – 1927 n SPANISH Gris moved to Paris from Spain in 1906. This is work that delights the eye. 1906 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). texture. 1921–22 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). KEY WORKS Landscape near Antwerp. such as guitars. 1914 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). they are often (and very effectively) shown in elaborate frames like mounts for brooches. Café-Bar. and his instinct for color. and fruit bowls into masterpieces of color and form. He was one of the key early leaders of the avantgarde. Produced important Fauve paintings. 57 x 68 3⁄4 in (145 x 175 cm). Le Guéridon. line.64m in 1986. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum).7m in 2002. especially blacks and blues. It wasn’t until 1910 that he turned to painting as a serious vocation. His works show a wonderful sense of controlled freedom as he moves images and details around to create lyrical harmonies of color. stylish. Playful use of lettering and speckled patterns. Braque used rich.1949. and shape (he loved music and you can sense it going through his head as he paints). and paint. highly decorative pictures look like expensive jewelry. DC: National Gallery of Art) Studio V Georges Braque. Still Life. Private Collection.

concentrating specifically on welded metal as a material. he made a total commitment to sculpture. Figure (sculpture) A talented sculptor of Lithuanian origin. Refreshingly cheerful and extrovert. moral message. but at the age of 50. murals. 1929–34 (Art Institute of Chicago). and technique: the modern. why can it not be so for adults?). US 1 sculpture 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $1. Daphné. straightforward imagery. films. believed art should touch and transform all corners of everyday life.1m in 2002. After meeting Picasso in Barcelona. Head Called “The Rabbit. which was romantic and idealistic but also challenging (a fresh restatement of “man the measure of all things”). Private Collection. He was an early. KEY WORKS The Smokers. His early Cubist work was pioneering. blue-collar worker and his family at work and play. Homme gothique (sculpture) Fernand Léger b 1881 –1955 n FRENCH 5 France. and posters—he He was one of the first artists to use iron as a sculptural medium. La femme en rouge et vert (oils) Léger was one of the giants of the Modern Movement and an ardent believer in the moral and social function of art and architecture. but spent his early years mainly as a painter. His ambition was to create a new democratic art for and about ordinary people. The Wedding. France 1 sculpture. 1937 (Madrid: Reina Sofia National Museum) Jacques Lipchitz b 1891 – 1973 n FRENCH 5 France. Look for semi-abstract works on a grand scale. books. sensitive. He achieved it through strong. Also made beautiful and strong drawings. London: Tate Collection 3 $20m in 2003. He was simple but not simplistic. Shows muscular happiness and spiritual joy in an ideal world where work and play become one (if it can be so for children. The Two Sisters. oil on canvas. incorporating Picasso’s brutal humor. 1920s. style. The Mechanic. Taught by his goldsmith/sculptor father how to use metals. 1912 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne). Making jewelry and metalwork occupied González up until the 1920s. stage sets. and personal interpreter of Cubism in traditional materials . He had a modern. oils 2 Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum. New York: Guggenheim Museum. exploring their forms and using flowers as symbols of fertility. Léger often painted two women together. drawings. 1911–12 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). plus the machine-made objects of their world.” 1930 (Madrid: Reina Sofia National Museum). Portrayed hands as pieces of machinery. He produced simple images and designs that contain sophisticated spatial and color relationships. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne 3 $3. c. 1935 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Julio González b 1876 – 1942 n SPANISH 5 Spain. US 1 oils 2 Philadelphia: Museum of Art. 1920 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada). González moved to Paris where he was reacquainted with his fellow countryman and they struck up a lifelong friendship. Lipchitz settled in Paris in 1909 and emigrated to the US in 1941. KEY WORKS Woman with Hair in a Bun. tapestries.4m in 1989.352 MODERNISM Two Women holding a Pot of Flowers Fernand Léger.

the Artist’s Sister. His vivacious art. finally. He had the potential to develop as a great pioneer of abstraction. linear drawing. Dufy was not interested in art theories or questioning the meaning of life. 1909–10 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). Large Nude. terracotta. 1916 (New York: Museum of Modern Art).C . Prints and tapestry designs. drawings 2 Paris: Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris 3 $2. and bronze) in the 1920s. 1917 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada). easy subjects such as horse racing and yachting.029. The Baou de Saint-Jeannet. Free. then to a flirtation with Surrealism and. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1949 (Alabama: Birmingham Museum of Art) Raoul Dufy b 1877 – 1953 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. This led to a more figurative. Fête à Sainte-Adresse (oils) He was a talented painter who in the early days might have made the big time with Braque and Matisse—but who lacked their grit. He was one of the first to create a true abstract art.657 in 1990. floating colors. Best known for accomplished. but lacked an underlying philosophical drive and the single-minded dedication to fulfil it— he was distracted by too many ideas. The Colored One. decorative works. Seated Figure. 1934. colorful. 1923 (London: Tate Collection) Frank Kupka b 1871 – 1957 n FRENCH/CZECH 5 France 1 oils. 1904 (St. clear. . was much praised in the 1930s–1950s. if sober and monumental. 1919–20 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) 353 (plaster. Contrastes gothiques (oils) Kupka was a natural anarchist who settled in Paris at the age of 24 and stayed forever. watercolors. 1900–1970 Vertical and Diagonal Planes. The Regatta at Cowes Raoul Dufy. drawings 2 Prague: National Gallery 3 $1. geometric blocks of color.8m in 2004. stone. complex Symbolism. He was always original. 32 1⁄4 x 39 in (82 x 100 cm). KEY WORKS Planes by Colors. Private Collection. watercolor on paper. c. KEY WORKS Man with a Guitar. characterized by solid. KEY WORKS Portrait of Suzanne Dufy. 1913–14 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Mother and Child. much admired by fashionable beau monde of 1920s and 30s. arabesque style. which included book and stage design. c.

His unique and personal marriage of subjects.3m in 2004. which made him one of the leading Fauve painters and placed him almost on a par with Matisse.612 in 1990. 1906 (St. stained glass. murals—which inevitably leads to uneven quality. 1904 (St. Marizy-Sainte-Geneviève. and soccer. His early work takes modern themes such as cities. 1908–16. and intended to celebrate the emotional and joyful impact of pure color. Chagall Kees van Dongen b 1877 –1968 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Moscow: Pushkin Museum 3 $5. Le café de la Tourelle à Montmartre (oils) He was a popular painter known for not very challenging. and quirky. boldly painted works. and was also a theater and textiles designer. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Sonia. 1911 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Robert Delaunay b 1885 –1941 n FRENCH 5 France. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $1.5m in 1990. c. Simultaneous Open Windows. He was one of the very few committed Christian artists of the 20th century. DC: National Gallery of Art) KEY WORKS he produced from 1905 to 1913: they are genuinely original. He chose losers and the exploited as his subjects. 1910 (Washington. An unhappy loner who deliberately stood outside the mainstream of Modern art. characterized by sharp perspectives and deserted streets. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum) Georges Rouault b 1871 –1958 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum).354 MODERNISM Maurice Utrillo b 1883 –1955 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 London: Christie’s Images 3 $1. Les Filles. His later work is lively. His best work was c. Anniversaire (oils) He was a Russian-born Hasidic Jew whose inspiration was his early cultural roots. Homage to Blériot. in saturated.6m in 1990. 1906– 08 (Tokyo: Bridgestone Museum of Art). Had a personal history of mental instability. Spain. Portugal 1 oils 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum 3 $4. lyrical. KEY WORKS Red Eiffel Tower. drawings 2 St. themes. His dark palette reflected his gloomy subjects. Femme fatale (oils) He was Dutch-born but considered an honorary Frenchman (settled in Paris 1897). 1912 (London: Tate Collection). the Eiffel Tower. Christ in the Outskirts. Much supported by Russian-born wife. most famously in his discs. Woman in a Black Hat. but repetitive and unimaginative.296. Premier disque (oils) Delaunay was one of the pioneers of modern art. sentimental. expressing through them his bleak view of life and the activities and rituals used by human beings as they prey on each other in a struggle for survival. He was very prolific—paintings. 1908 (St. Nude with Raised Arm. manned flight. KEY WORKS The Red Dancer. worst work is sugary. vibrant colors. Later work is less gloomy and contains small figures. crustily painted views of Montmartre. Fille de cirque (oils) Rouault was an important French painter with a highly individual style. who produced equally talented art in a similar style. which are abstract. prints. Delaunay used color in a free and highly inventive way. 1914 (Basel. personal style perpetuate an enduring air of childlike innocence and wonder. and slight (but has never lost its popularity). The black outlines and his choice of colors give a deliberate appearance of stained glass to his paintings—there is an iconlike quality in his figures. Uses faces to convey expression. Sought new types of subject matter and made an early breakthrough to abstract painting. 1920 (Tokyo: Bridgestone Museum of Art) KEY WORKS Marc Chagall b 1887 – 1985 n RUSSIAN/FRENCH 5 France. ceramics. Best remembered for the work . Best paintings generally early and pre-1950.7m in 1991. 1907 (St. full of light and pleasure. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Russia 1 oils 2 Nice: Musée Marc Chagall 3 $13. Saint-Denis Canal.

Cubist fragmentation. 1943. War. 1900–1970 Window. Do the odd floating heads and bodies and his combination of simultaneous events in one picture reflect his own strange. oil on canvas. The Rooster. and Expressionist color. 1929 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza). Chagall settled in France in 1914. 1917. Paris through the KEY WORKS (132 x 100 cm). 1913 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). DC: National Gallery of Art). 1964–66 (Zurich: Kunsthaus) The Juggler Marc Chagall. His art combines Russian folk art. . 52 x 39 1⁄3 in 355 concentrated on major stained-glass projects after 1950. 1912–13 (Washington. Private Collection. peripatetic life and consequent cultural eclecticism? The Fiddler.C .

Emphasis on the inherent qualities of materials.” CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI Constantin Brancusi b 1876 – 1957 n ROMANIAN/FRENCH 5 Paris 1 sculpture 2 Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne (with a recreation of his studio) 3 $16. Student of Rodin. His studio became a work of art in its own right because of the way he grouped his work in it to bring out comparisons and reflections of light. fascinated by universal symbols of life and fertility. Interested in abstract ideals such as the purity of primordial (simple) forms. Brancusi. KEY WORKS The Kiss. As soothing as the sound of the waves of the sea. with a profound influence on sculpture and design. light reflecting off surfaces. Princess X. this gleaming. His work shows tireless refinement and search for purity. 1920 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne). 1909 (Paris: Montparnasse Cemetery). Maquettes for the Endless Column. birds. Touches something very basic in the human psyche. 1916 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne). 1937 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne) . modular columns. settled in Paris in 1904. Mademoiselle Pogani. simply but gracefully capturing the gentle elegance of a bird in flight. Bird in Space Medium bronze Height 56 3⁄4 in (144 cm) Location New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art The stone base is a wonderful contrast in texture and color to the lightness of the metal Nothing symmetrical or geometrical means this graceful turning bronze captures an innate sense of flightlike motion The light beautifully catches the yellow bronze as the sculpture starts to widen out and commence its gentle turn “Simplicity is not an end in art but we arrive at simplicity in spite of ourselves. Endless pleasure can be derived from the contemplation of pure line. always sought to achieve a mystic symbolism in his work. Constant reworking of selected themes—children. simplicity of form (such as an egg shape).5m in 2002. Remained indifferent to honor and fame.356 MODERNISM Bird in Space Constantin Brancusi 1923 A wonderful simplification of form and deeply sacred approach to his work made Brancusi highly influential in the development not only of 20th-century sculpture but of abstract art generally. but was never an abstract artist—a reference to a recognizable nature is always present. Notice the bases that are an integral part of the whole work. Often seen as the pinnacle of Brancusi’s work. human heads. a Romanian who settled in Paris. Danaïde (sculpture) Brancusi was a seminal figure in 20thcentury art. others as a gigantic golden feather denoting the whole motion of flight. He made 28 versions of this piece. Some see it as a bird lifting into the air. materials unadorned and unadulterated. Born into a Romanian peasant family. Its Minimalist poise and haunting presence creates a meditative stillness. highly polished bronze stands five feet tall.

Notice the inclined heads with long faces on long necks. dealers. Look for portraits. landscapes. sculpture 2 Milan: Mattioli Collection 3 $28m in 2004. fluent line. drug-addicted. carved stone sculptures and his study of African and Oceanic art. almond-shaped eyes with a glazed and far-away stare. 1916 (St. such as Cézanne and El Greco. Modigliani created very recognizable portraits and splashy nudes. Picasso-like intensity and confident. New York: Guggenheim Museum.460.001 in 2005. Paul Guillaume. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). which show the influence of his original. Many influences. but this is not arbitrary. Sensitive drawings. Art Nouveau. KEY WORKS Head. the churning distortions and paint handling become dominant. 39 1⁄3 x 25 3⁄4 in (100 x 65 cm). All the major innovations from Cubism to Surrealism originated in Parisian studios. elongated noses. oil on canvas. She was the artist’s common-law wife and frequent subject. Would he have gone on to greater things or was he burned out? His early death probably saved his reputation. . tubercular. 1917 (Washington. poetic. decorative. both highly stylized. 1900–1970 357 THE SCHOOL OF PARIS 1900 –1950 From 1900 to 1950 Paris was the center of artistic innovation and attracted artists. c. Nude on a Blue Cushion.and Cubist-like fragmentation of space around the figures. but close up. Chaïm Soutine b 1894 –1943 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Pennsylvania: Barnes Foundation 3 $8. Landscape at Ceret. Undisciplined. He had many influences: African art. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. the paintings look controlled and neat. and depressive. 1911–12 (London: Tate Collection). and moody. painterly. gifted. 1920 (London: Tate Collection). This diversity of styles. Jeanne Hébuterne devant une porte (oils) He was a neurotic. Cracked painting surfaces show the speed with which he worked. woman-beating.C . 1918–19. artists. He had a wide emotional range—from angelic choirboys to dead meat. DC: National Gallery of Art). Chaïm Soutine. tragic. collectors. Matisse-like simplification. c. povertystricken but talented pioneer who achieved a genuine and satisfactory Jeanne Hébuterne in a Yellow Sweater Amedeo Modigliani. and flayed carcasses. Side of Beef. He had acute color sense and produced lovely harmonies of color. DC: National Gallery of Art) He was a Lithuanian-born Jew who worked in Paris. painting over layers not yet dry. 1925 (Buffalo: Albright-Knox Art Gallery) Amedeo Modigliani b 1884 – 1920 n ITALIAN 5 France 1 oils. and connoisseurs from all over the world. and could be first seen there in avant-garde exhibitions. simplified. Good sculptures. Le pâtissier de Cagnes (oils) synthesis between the priorities of the old masters and those of modern art. 1916 (Milan: Galleria d’Arte Moderna). At a distance. 1917 (Washington. His work shows uncontrolled distortion. spoiled. Cézanne. and activity has been labeled loosely as “Ecole de Paris” (School of Paris). Unknown in his own lifetime although was recognized and supported by a few dedicated collectors.

conveying emotion and meaning by suggestion. 1912. Expressionism was a particularly strong tendency in German art as a way of facing up to the spiritual and social crises that arose at the time of World War I. heightened sensation. 1962.3 x 21. these have since become the cornerstone of his reputation. in an exhibition devoted to the artist) in order for you to begin to see fully and understand what the artist is trying to put over. Marc embarked on a series of paintings of animals. and their influence continues in full force to the present day with many different individual styles. because all that you can hope to notice are the eye-catching or superficial qualities of the work. but it will reward the effort involved. and/or intense subject matter. space.g. drawing. color. Egon Schiele dies in influenza pandemic Expressionism condemned as “degenerate art” by Nazi party number of works together as well (for example. and free association. .358 MODERNISM EXPRESSIONISM AND ABSTRACTION Expressionism and Abstraction were key early trends in the development of Modern Art. oil on canvas. Hamburg: Kunsthalle.4 cm). Early practitioners wanted art to become more like music. rather than by description of forms and appearances. including Franz Marc and August Macke Weimar Republic takes control in Germany. Hamburg: Kunsthalle. 35 3⁄4 x 46 1⁄2 in (90 x 118 cm). You may need to see a large KEY EVENTS 1910 1911 Kandinsky paints his first abstracts Kandinsky writes the abstract artists’ chief treatise On the Spiritual in Art and establishes Blaue Reiter group Outbreak of World War I. ABSTRACTION A true example of abstract art has intellectual or emotional meaning (or both). but does not represent or imitate any visible object or figure. In 1911. 5 2⁄3 x 8 2⁄3 in (14. EXPRESSIONISM Any style that conveys heightened sensibility through distortion of e. 1914 1919 1934 Faultier Franz Marc. woodcut. Painted in the year of his Tate Gallery retrospective. Storm Tide in Hamburg Oskar Kokoschka. scale. or a combination of these. Good abstract art is not easy to get to grips with. Several artists are killed in action. Period of cultural and artistic diversity. One piece in a mixed show is often—frankly— meaningless. form.

angles. 1922. Kandinsky was interested in the connections between art and music. Painted at the height of his creative powers. The artist contrasts curved lines. Colors. a quality that is known as synaesthesia. line. and yellow. horizontal lines were “cold and flat. Painted just after Kandinsky began teaching at the Bauhaus. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne.1900–1960 359 early 20th century WHAT TO LOOK FOR Starting out as a figurative painter. which are “youthful” A painting such as this should not be analyzed intellectually but allowed to reach those parts of the brain that connect with music According to Kandinsky’s theories. He left his academic posts in Russia. strong. . He could literally “hear” colors. which are “mature. Wassily Kandinsky was among the first to create a truly abstract art in which color and form take on an expressive life of their own. disillusioned with the outcome of the Revolution. oil on canvas.” whereas green was “the attenuated sounds of a violin” his theories about the emotional properties of shape.” with angular lines.” right angles “cold. this work encapsulates Red was described as giving “the impression of a strong drum beat.” verticals “warm. For Kandinsky. and color. and red” Black Frame Wassily Kandinsky. controlled. It was painted after he settled in Germany for the second time in 1922. and the places where lines touched and planes overlapped had to be absolutely exact. yellow possesses a capacity to “attain heights unbearable to the eye and the spirit” TECHNIQUES Works such as this were planned and executed with the utmost care and precision by Kandinsky.

360 MODERNISM Egon Schiele b 1890 – 1918 n GERMAN 5 Vienna 1 oils. and a forerunner of Expressionism. Town and River (oils) An intense. however. probing outline. alongside simple and balanced compositions reveals much of his inner uncertainty and search for peace and stability. He died. watercolors. cityscapes in Art Nouveau style. most intense. Schiele often isolates his figures against a plain background—like specimens on a dissecting table. he also made many drawings and watercolors. Vienna: Graphische Sammlung Albertina. as well as being able to touch his. if not the shock or horror of 100 years ago. rejection. He made anxiety beautiful. self-portraits. tragic. and guilt—a textbook case for Freud. Look for isolated. The sketchy. and death. Krumau Landscape. Embrace. 1914 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza). His paintings have a tense. Observe the way he worked through his neuroses in his paintings. His art concentrates on sexually intense subjects. prints. strange flesh colors. works are before his nervous breakdown in 1908. gaunt faces lost in inner thoughts. . and (at end of his life) religious works. which exploit the grain of the wood. oil on canvas. and Schiele was arrested and imprisoned on the charge of depraving children. often shown in silhouette. Mourning Woman. They are full of recognizable (almost clichéd) images of isolation.000 in 2002. 1910. together with his pregnant young wife. Look for intense color combinations. rapidly filled with color. 1893–94 (Oslo: Munch Museum) Self-Portrait Nude Egon Schiele. are some of the most accomplished things he did. He saw the human figure or spirit as animal rather than moral. short-lived genius whose art expressed his own self-destructive personality and the claustrophobic introspection of Sigmund Freud’s Vienna. bodies in contorted positions. including portraits. single figures. insanity. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $18. woodcuts 2 Oslo: Munch Museum. but he had a rare ability to portray such intimate emotions in a universal way. which gives them a strong sense of immediacy and urgency. unhappy love affairs. sexuality.871. 1893 (Los Angeles: J. drawings 2 Washington. 43 x 14 1⁄2 in (110 x 35. gifted draftsman. Haus in Aasgaardstrand (oils) The best-known Norwegian and Scandinavian painter. 1885–86 (Oslo: National Gallery). death. 1912 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). It attracted fierce opposition from conservative society.000 in 2003. KEY WORKS The Sick Child. in the great flu epidemic. His work can still extract a genuine gasp. nervous.627. recognized and successful in advanced circles. using scrubby paint (with scratch marks from the handle of the brush). His woodcuts. 1917 (Vienna: Österreichische Galerie) KEY WORKS Edvard Munch b 1863 – 1944 n NORWEGIAN 5 Oslo.5 cm). Paris. couples or groups of figures in highly charged relationships. Paul Getty Museum). The best. His early life was tortured by sickness. rejection. an obsessive interest in eyes and eye sockets. National Gallery 3 $6. Berlin 1 oils. phallic symbols. Madonna. A precocious. He was. Insisted on absolute freedom for creative individuality and self-determination. Houses on the River (The Old Town). Starry Night. so that we can recognize and even come to terms with our own inner fears. unfinished style.

by whom he was deeply influenced. these patterns prefigure fully abstract painting Staring.C . tempera. 1900–70 361 The Scream Edvard Munch c. unsettling diagonal of the bridge and rail contrasting with the opposing diagonal of the water. The apparent haste with which the picture was painted is deceptive. rejection.” The project occupied him for much of his life: an attempt to find pictorial means to represent inner turmoil and angst. and death. 1893 Munch’s The Scream—one of the world’s most recognizable paintings—was part of his The Frieze of Life. greens. and pastel on cardboard Dimensions 35 x 29 in (91 x 73 cm) Location Oslo: National Gallery loneliness. The horizon is relatively high and strongly emphasized. Like the vivid sky. “a poem about life. and Lurid reds. The principal figure is placed firmly in the center of the picture TECHNIQUES Paint is applied with a seemingly violent action—often with the brush handle— creating a potent sense of restlessness and distortion. it was planned and executed meticulously. The composition is simple: the strong. and yellows fill the sky. Much like Van Gogh. their unnaturalness a striking metaphor for the central figure’s despair The Scream Media oil. A near formless landscape suggests a world dissolving into chaos. Munch devised a startling visual language to give expression to the neuroses that dogged his life: despair. love. The obvious primal quality of The Scream—Munch in fact painted two versions—conveys this profound sense of alienation and nightmare with shocking directness. hollow eyes on a skull-like face are a recurring feature of Munch’s deeply disturbed figures .

1925 (Private Collection). His early work was on the cutting edge of the avant-garde. 1920 (Washington. 1932 (Detroit Institute of Arts) Otto Müller b 1874 – 1930 n GERMAN 5 Germany 1 prints. c. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1920–22 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner b 1880 – 1938 n GERMAN 5 Dresden. Nolde’s art hides a unique radical-regressive complexity.9m in 2002. 1920. prints. he was painting the same work in 1940 as in 1910 (but only Beckmann was able to sustain his original levels of Expressionist creativity and freshness after the age of 40). saying “Everything which is primeval and elementary captures my imagination. Was a fully paid-up Nazi and never understood Important avant-garde group of German Expressionists based in Dresden. Zigeunerinnen am Lagerfeuer (oils) Müller was an important but short-lived contributor to the German avant-garde. Powerful images of nudes in landscape. oil on canvas. Heckel. sculpture 2 Davos (Switzerland): Kirchner Museum. He was very interested in non-European “primitive” art. prone to mental and physical breakdown (terrible war experiences). Look for bright colors. Adam and Eve. deriving from Matisse and the Cubists. but he never developed. oils. Painted gypsy subjects after 1920. Schmidt-Rottluff. and Van Dongen. Later associated artists included Nolde. and figure painting. Orchids. bold outline and color. Influential in the revival of the woodcut as an expressive medium.62m in 1997. and Fritz Bleyl. They expressed radical political and social views through modern.000 in 2003. He shares Expressionism’s strengths (spontaneity. visual challenge) and weaknesses (too strident. soon runs out of steam). but believed in racial purity and the concept of a master race. Frauenkirch (Switzerland) 1 prints. 1916 (Dortmund: Museum am Ostwall). This was Expressionism done with flair. KEY WORKS Two Bathers.704. watercolors. resulting in simplification and a conscious crudeness. Asia 1 oils. Had an instinct for color. Great watercolorist. clashing colors and thick paint. engravings 2 Seebüll. artistically and politically? KEY WORKS Young Black Horses. Pechstein. passion. 1906–14 (Die Brücke). They were influenced by the latest Parisian ideas and primitive nonEuropean art. why they rejected his art—perhaps he was (sadly) a curious case of arrested development.” rough texture.” A key member of Die Brücke. oils 2 Berlin: Brücke Museum 3 $1. Berlin: Brücke Museum 3 $4. Germany: Stiftung Ada und Emil Nolde 3 $2. urban subject matter or landscapes and figures. Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie. Expressed the schizophrenic mood of his times in a highly charged. Moritzburg (oils) The Dancers Emil Nolde. “Primitive. c. founded by Kirchner. Akte in der Sonne. Uses bright. most apparent when his work is seen from a distance. Creator of landscapes. Berlin. Blumengarten (oils) A pioneering Expressionist and member of Die Brücke. . Kirchner was sensitive.362 MODERNISM Emil Nolde b 1867 –1956 n GERMAN DIE BRÜCKE 1905 –13 5 Munich. Nolde had been much influenced by a visit to New Guinea in 1913. Germany. seascapes (his best work). Paris. bold outlines. The Artist and his Wife. and deliberately unsophisticated techniques (most of the group were without proper training).

KEY WORKS Two Bathers. Painted powerful. Reviled by the Nazis.584. Flanders. Seated Nude. sickness. Kirchner moved to Berlin in 1911 and became fascinated by the edginess of street life. Untrained.261. oils. 1915 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). 47 1⁄3 x 37 1⁄2 in (121 x 95 cm). Red Tower in the Park. Committed suicide. and animals in landscape. Commercially successful. KEY WORKS Gap in the Dyke. nudes. c. DC: National Gallery of Art). His landscapes are more decorative. 1910 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art). angular. DIE BRÜCKE MANIFESTO tense. Was called “the Giotto of our time. noted for his instinctive. Berlin. 1910 (Frankfurt: Städel Museum) Heckel was a leading German Expressionist (member of Die Brücke). sculptures 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum. but still involves intense color. he alienated his fellow avant-garde artists. prints. Berlin. wiry technique. woodcuts. Dangast.600 in 1997. KEY WORKS Artillerymen. 1920–22 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) .000 in 2000. pessimistic images of nudes.” ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER. 1910 (Berlin: Brucke Museum). Adam and Eve. and anguish with a corresponding fierce and angular style.” Characteristic flat style. Had a sketchy. Self-Portrait as a Soldier. Expressionist style. Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Erich Heckel b 1883 – 1970 n GERMAN b 1884 – 1976 n GERMAN 5 Dresden. using strident colors. 1910 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) KEY WORKS Berlin Street Scene Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Pechstein was a painter and engraver who also designed decorative projects and stained glass. making use of heightened. oil on canvas. 1913.6m in 2001. Palau Islands (South-East Asia) 1 prints. Nelly. which uses consciously harsh color and aggressive simplification. monumental style. engravings 2 Berlin: Brücke Museum 3 $1. Berlin: Brücke Museum. engravings 2 Berlin: Brücke Museum 3 $1. forceful. Influenced by Matisse and Oceanic art. 1900–70 363 “Everyone who renders directly and honestly whatever drives him to create is one of us. Die Lesende (oils) A leading German Expressionist and member of Die Brücke. 1915 (Ohio: Allen Memorial Art Museum) Max Pechstein b 1881 – 1955 n GERMAN 5 Dresden.C . Village Landscape (oils) 5 Dresden. Berlin 1 oils. intensified color. portraits. using pure. His later style (after 1945) is softer and more fluid. 1920 (Washington. Made powerful woodcuts and lithographs. Lake Constance 1 prints. unmixed colors and lyrical subjects of figures. Seated Girl (oils) A leading member of Die Brücke. Leicester: Leicestershire Museum 3 $3.

Münter was a leader of Der Blaue Reiter Group and Kandinsky’s partner and mistress from 1903 until 1914. original. 1911 (St. and colorful still lifes and landscapes. Fugue (oils) One of the pioneers of the Modern Movement and reputedly the painter of the first abstract picture. George I. it can often be a strange. KEY WORKS St. but float into them and let yourself go. he cultivated an intellectual rather than instinctive approach to art. Weimar (Germany). 1926 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) Gabriele Münter b 1877 – 1962 n GERMAN 5 Düsseldorf. 1913 (Washington. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne. oil on canvas. Painted in the same year that the Bauhaus published his major treatise Point and Line to Plane. Black Frame. 1926. Munich 1 oils 2 Munich: Lenbachhause 3 $600.000 in 2000. but at the same time he had a strong physical sensitivity to color. multifaceted personality. Russia. Munich: Städtische Galerie 3 $19m in 1990. backed up by much theoretical writing. and taught at the Bauhaus in the 1920s. Improvisation 31 (Sea Battle). expressive. If you have never looked at a picture this way before. Paris 1 oils. but it will need time and patience. 1908 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). which he could hear as well as see (a phenomenon called synesthesia). 1908 (Madrid: Museo ThyssenBornemisza). exhilarating. KEY WORKS Interior. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Had a complex. Gallery of Art). then try to relax the eye and the mind so the color and shapes reach that part of the brain that responds to music—don’t analyze them. For example. Kind mit Puppe (oils) Strongly influenced by Fauvism. Lived in Germany 1896–1914 and 1923–33. He worked slowly from increasingly simplified figurative work through to sketchy abstracts and then hard-edge abstract. spiritual experience. 39 1⁄4 x 31 1⁄2 in (100 x 80 cm). DC: National . Stand close to the paintings. 1917 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art) Wassily Kandinsky b 1866 – 1944 n RUSSIAN 5 Munich.364 MODERNISM Accent in Pink Wassily Kandinsky. View From her Brother’s House in Bonn. During this time she painted bold. Future (Woman in Stockholm). Several Circles. let them fill your field of vision. She broke for good from Kandinsky in 1917 and ceased to paint. prints 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum. 1922 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne).

rather than anguished. By 1914 he had become more abstract.000 in 2000. Made lyrical use of clear. 1913 (Munich: Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst) An important. and even a play by Kandinsky. 1914 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). Der Wasserfall: Fraeun unter einem Wasserfall (oils) The son of a Munich painter. KEY WORKS The Tiger. German Romantic notions of nature. Animals. Munich: Tunisia 1 oils. in the first German offensive in World War I. Woman in a Green Jacket. 22 3⁄4 x 28 3⁄4 in (58 x 73 cm). Promenade (with Half-Length of Girl in White).C . 1900–70 365 Franz Marc b 1880 – 1916 n GERMAN DER BLAUE REITER 1911 – 14 5 Munich. Marc was a key member of the Der Blaue Reiter group. A possibly great talent. Matisse-like expressive color. and Münter. simplification. and oldfashioned. Marc thought that animals had an inherent innocence that gave them access to greater truths than humans. Paris 1 oils 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum 3 $7. agenda (Rhinelanders are more cheerful?). 1913 (Bonn: Städtisches Kunstmuseum). vibrant color and figurative subject matter. KEY WORKS Garden on Lake Thun. Paris. Market in Tunis (oils) A leading German Expressionist of Der Blaue Reiter group and the most French in outlook and expression—a joyful. Combined progressive French Cubist structure. loosely grouped association of avant-garde German Expressionists. 1912.” AUGUST MACKE August Macke b 1887 – 1914 n GERMAN 5 Berlin. Kandinsky and Marc were the key members. 1912 (Munich: Städtische Galerie). but he died. The Mandrill. “A work of art is a parable. and that their fate paralleled the apocalyptic future to be visited on mankind. Was killed in action at Verdun. an autonomous idea of an artist. Saarbrüken (Germany): Saarland Museum. They wanted to put spiritual values into art and used abstraction. it is man’s thought. Macke. oil on canvas. based in Munich. 1914 (Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie) .59m in 1999. Lady in a Park. aged 27.744. but the group included Klee. very personal art. 1913 (Cologne: Museum Ludwig). which explores a vision of a unified world in which animals and the rest of nature exist in perfect harmony. and the power of color as a means of doing this. meaning “The Blue Rider. Kandinsky’s spiritualism. Little Blue Horse Franz Marc. Author of richly sourced. The Almanac of 1912 included articles and illustrations by Der Blaue Reiter artists and the composer Arnold Schoenberg.” came from the Kandinsky painting used on the cover of their Almanac. Their name. watercolors 2 Bonn: Kunstmuseum 3 $3. 1913 (Moscow: Pushkin Museum).

Flanders. monumental). 1924. Bons Juges (oils) A talented loner remembered for his eccentric. She placed emphasis on strength: of emotion. The poster was published by the International Federation of Trade Unions. print. 1923 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Christ’s Triumphant Entry into Brussels James Ensor. engravings 2 Berlin: Käthe-KollwitzMuseum 3 $149. An early masterpiece motivated more by a belief in the future triumph of Socialism than in Christian religion. 1922–24 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Käthe Kollwitz b 1867 – 1945 n GERMAN 5 Berlin. the Mothers. 1892 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). Florida: Holocaust Museum. self-portraits. Brussels 1 oils. Also a sculptor. Still Life with Sea Shells. Paul Getty Museum. and much honored (except by the Nazis). son’s death (World War I). Best work between 1885 and 1891 (he tends to repeat himself after that). War against War. and the Volunteers. KEY WORKS Still Life with Ray. and gave importance to expressive hands and faces.366 MODERNISM James Ensor b 1860 – 1949 n BELGIAN 5 Ostend. Self-Portrait (watercolors) From a family of strong moral and social convictions. 101 3⁄4 x 169 2⁄3 in (258 x 431 cm). woodcuts. 1902–08 (Berlin: Käthe-KollwitzMuseum). and macaber imagery (skulls. Belated recognition. skeletons. sculpture. . The Widow I. watercolors. Peasants’ War Series. KEY WORKS Weavers’ Revolt Series. of the human body (she saw it as The Survivors. Los Angeles: J. brightly colored. suffering Christ). much of it deriving from childhood memories of objects in his parents’ souvenir shop. nervously painted. a social reformer (but never revolutionary). She was politically committed.600 in 2004. 1888. oil on canvas. 1895–98 (Berlin: Käthe-Kollwitz-Museum). Kollwitz became one of the great printmakers (especially of black-and-white woodcuts). Amsterdam. self-portraits.063 in 2003. Antiwar Day September 21. High-quality drawings and engravings. engravings 2 Ostend: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $705. Chose personal themes—mother and child. 1924 Käthe Kollwitz. Russia 1 prints.

7m in 1989. as long as you can pick up the message. 1929–30 (Detroit Institute of Arts) 5 Paris. His most effective work was in his “machine style” phase (1913–1920s). Petite Udnie (oils) He was a quixotic. see below). height 24 in (61 cm). original lost). mixed media 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $4. 1917 (remade 1964). life. Its prominent figures (Arp. when he used the inspiration of technical drawings to produce telling images that comment ironically on man’s relationship with machines (often with erotic overtones). charming but arrogant. but Duchamp was the first to propose that the interest and stimulus of a work of art can lie solely in its concept or intellectual content—it doesn’t matter what it looks like. and Picabia) deliberately used the absurd. although he was significant in his day. 1914 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). US. 1915 –22 . watercolors 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $2. Côte d’Azur 1 oils. London: Tate Collection. Fountain (replica). but his work is possibly one of its greatest bores (it is possible to achieve both at the same time). New York 1 oils. Dresden. banal. Made for a US exhibition. Duchamp was applauded as one of the great gurus and heroes of the Modern Movement. deep-feeling humanist. Neustadt I (oils) From the same generation as Sigmund Freud. Also painted landscapes and townscapes. famous faces and views. porcelain. and Surrealism. He flirted with Cubism. Switzerland 1 oils. anarchic character. best remembered for his involvement with Dada. Responded best to strong. The Bride. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). but time to say that the suit is now threadbare and old-fashioned. Very Rare Picture on Earth. 1900–70 367 Oskar Kokoschka b 1886 – 1980 n GERMAN Marcel Duchamp b 1887 – 1968 n FRENCH 5 Vienna. In Advance of the Broken Arm. 1914 (Basel. The ragbag of his few works are now icons of the Modern Movement (notably the urinal. KEY WORKS I See Again in Memory My Dear Udnie. To speak ill of Duchamp is to invite the wrath and derision of the entire modern art establishment. Expressionism. Barcelona. 1912 (Philadelphia: Museum of Art). prints. Man Ray. in all honesty his work is quite limited and now looks distinctly tired. Ernst. the artist had decamped to the US in 1915. However. The name (French for “hobbyhorse”) was probably chosen by randomly inserting a penknife into a dictionary. No. 1915 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) DADA The first of the modern antiart movements. 1945 (New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery) Francis Picabia b 1879 – 1953 n FRENCH 5 Paris. he was best known for his powerful Expressionist portraits and self-portraits. and society. A deep-thinking. 1912 (Philadelphia: Museum of Art).C . 1917 (London: Tate Collection). Not quite a case of the Emperor’s clothes. None are very interesting to look at per se. mixed media 2 Philadelphia: Museum of Art 3 $1. 2. Duchamp. intellectual thug who continues to mesmerize and intimidate the art world from beyond the grave. also from Vienna. A brilliant.6m in 2002. Marcel Duchamp. sculpture. and tatty to shock and to challenge all existing ideas about art. very freely painted and rich in color. Bicycle Wheel (sculpture) The father of Conceptual art. offensive. Fountain (Urinal) (replica. KEY WORKS Nude Descending Staircase. Jerusalem. Prague. London. Dresden.15m in 1990. KEY WORKS Bride of the Wind. with strands in Europe and New York.

especially in the 1960s and 1970s. Private Collection. Merz Picture 32A (The Cherry Picture). oils.5 cm). KEY WORKS Merzbild 5B (Picture-Red-HeartChurch). Femme (sculpture) YMCA Flag. biomorphic shapes. culturally. relief. a successor near Oslo was destroyed by fire in 1951. but he was never political.) Poignant attempt to create a new beauty on the ruins of German culture. or satirical. Took natural forms and sought bothered with to make sense of a world that he found politically. animals. His early roots were in Dada. Kendal. 1920 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). Schwitters ran a successful. Ambleside Kurt Schwitters. where the artist settled in 1945. oils 3 $2. Cumbria (UK): Abbot Hall Art Gallery. pioneering advertising agency from 1924 to 1930. and arrangement. content. with Woman Sweating. and man. Norway. both in composition. best remembered for wood reliefs. polemical. UK 1 collage. 1921 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). (It was destroyed by Allied bombs in 1943. . 1947. torn paper collages. Thank You. literally. mixed media. romantic loner who used the fragments no one His work is always personal or autobiographical—the artist as sacrificial victim or spiritual leader. 1929.368 MODERNISM Kurt Schwitters b 1887 – 1948 n GERMAN 5 Hanover. 26 1⁄3 x 22 1⁄4 in (67 x 56. traditional paintings and sculptures as a deliberate contrast to his avant-garde activities. Arp liked simplicity. using light-hearted inspiration from plants. mixed media.233 in 2003. sculpture. picked up in the streets of his native Hanover. Died in England as a refugee. Merz 163. Flight. 1919 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). and socially mad—Germany from 1914 to 1945. His work of 1922–30 is more consciously constructed (and influenced by Russian Constructivism and Dutch De Stijl). Merzbild mit Kerze (sculpture) He was a pioneering. Cumbria. UK: Abbot Hall Art Gallery) Jean (Hans) Arp b 1886 – 1966 n FRENCH 5 France. His early work is modest in scale and appearance. Was influential. A poet. painter. Head Jean (Hans) Arp. cardboard cutouts.800 in 1993. He used material that he. 1946 (Kendal.671. and sculptor as well as an experimenter. and chance. Produced a few high-quality. Germany. poetic. His small-scale “Merzbilder” collages were created in great number and with extraordinary care. The title refers to the English Lake District. Arp regarded his simplified shapes as emblems of natural growth and forms. Switzerland 1 collage. His major (manic) project was “Merzbau”—a whole building filled with personal objets trouvés— a collage gone mad. and (after 1931) stone sculptures. sculpture 2 Hanover: Sprengel Museum 3 $327.

c. The Fall of an Angel. anti-Nazi). figurative images that seem to be painted dreams. where accident is used to liberate images in the subconscious. Germany: Max Ernst Museum 3 $2. and artist created a whole series of works portraying cityscapes using different media. and enter into the imaginative play he sets up. Family. Original manipulator of media imagery and lettering. such as forests and little bird “Loplop. He had an intense social and political commitment (left wing. Zürich: World War I. Early strange.C . 1928 (New York: Smithsonian Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum) An artist and journalist. Cologne. Don’t be tempted into an overly serious. Heartfield is perhaps best known for developing political photo-montage in Berlin in the 1920s and 1930s. sculpture. including oils and frottage. and loses bite. unforgettable image—less is more. by extension. Birds in an Aquarium. Better when small scale. Look for his own childhood memories.⁄4The 81 cm). ours. Took refuge in England from 1938 to 1950. La toilette de la mariée. 1920 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) John Heartfield (Helmut Herzfelde) b 1891 – 1968 n GERMAN 5 Berlin. The Elephant Celebes. After serving in . 1935. London 1 photomontage 2 New York: George Eastman House 3 $7. oil on canvas. he became with Jean Arp. Ernst lived in France after 1921 (and in the US from 1941 to 1953). Forest and Dove. 1922 (Private Collection). Relax. His witty and inventive experimentation unites subject and technique to great effect. founder of Dada in Berlin in 1910. analytical. producing biting and memorable satire. the leader of the Dada movement in Cologne. his lifelong friend. New York 1 prints. Settled in East Germany from 1950.920 in 2000. Le roi jouant avec la reine (sculpture) décalcomania (liquid paint patterns). KEY WORKS Collage with Squares Arranged According to the Laws of Chance.Kunsthaus. 1920 (Berlin: Akademie der Künste). 1927 (London: Tate Collection). or historical approach to his work. frottage (rubbed patterns). Max Ernst b 1891 – 1976 n GERMAN 5 Bonn. 1921 (London: Tate Collection). Pioneer of the Surrealist desire to explore the subconscious and create a sense of disturbing out-of-this-world reality. and anglicized his name as a protest against German nationalism. 1900–70 369 to perfect their shape and inner spirit. highly expressive of its age. oils 2 Bruhl. (60 x Entire City Max Ernst. his later work is more abstract and lyrical. KEY WORKS Massacre of the Innocents.” Enjoy his unusual techniques: witty play with collaged images (one of the first to use them). Sunday Walk (watercolors) KEY WORKS Adolf the Superman: Swallows Gold and Spouts Junk. 1921 (Private Collection). Notice the economy of means: Heartfield knew exactly what he wanted to say and went for the jugular with one The 23 3⁄4 x 31 3 in simple. Although his work is always imaginative. collage. Paris.2m in 2002. 1940 (Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Gallery) One of the leading Surrealists. 1916–17 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). His experimental techniques were a means of activating or liberating his own imagination and. Founder of Dada and Surrealism. Five Fingers has the Hand.

1912–13 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Natalia Goncharova b 1881 – 1962 n RUSSIAN 5 Moscow. oils. drawings 2 California: Norton Simon Museum. 1926 (Washington. and bold blue outlines. drawings 3 $1. American Policeman. 1922–23 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). From Kiev. dated 1911 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). Bold. Blue-Green Forest. watercolors. 1911 (St.370 MODERNISM KEY WORKS Soldier Alexei von Jawlensky b 1864 – 1941 n RUSSIAN 5 Germany. prints 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum 3 $664. strong. film.200 in 2003. Note his birth date—earlier than you might think—he was the same age as Matisse and Kandinsky. 1926 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art) on a Horse. pure colors. Head: Red Light. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Modern Art. Paris 1 watercolors. 1912 (London: Tate Collection). Lady with a Hat. and Futurism. Designs for book illustrations. Paris 1 oils. She was versed in early Cubism. small-scale works. Left Russia in 1924. Paris. Used a progressive.78m in 1989. 1913 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne) “Imagination is more important than knowledge. oil on cardboard laid on plywood. DC: Hirshhorn Museum) . Well traveled in Europe and had an openly radical lifestyle. Reclining Nude (oils) He is best remembered as the founder of Rayonism (one of the briefly flourishing sub-Cubist movements before 1914). c. her lifelong companion and collaborator) in 1915. because imagination is infinite.4m in 2003. Rayonism. London: Christie’s Images 3 $7. earthy. Switzerland. Russian peasant. Settled in Paris (together with Larionov. Otherwise his work is not memorable. religious-icon accent. KEY WORKS The Laundry. Portrait of Alexander Sacharoff. drawings. Fauvism. The artist gave up a military career for art at age 35. ceramics. 1911. He created sensitive. visual language with a consciously strong. much influenced by Kandinsky and Matisse. Paris 1 prints. KEY WORKS Construction. Schokko—Schokko mit Tellerhut (oils) Jawlensky was one of the minor masters of Modernism. 1913. Bathing Boys. 1911 (London: Tate Collection). which showed objects broken up by prisms of light. Sophisticated work with strong French-Italian appearance and sensibility.000 in 2004. KEY WORKS Landscape with a Red Roof. mystical. with simplified forms. Simultaneous Perception (oils) Goncharova was the leading member of the Russian avant-garde. but well traveled. 1913 (Wiesbaden: Städtisches Museum). textiles. Composition (works on paper) She was a leading member of the Russian avant-garde. 20 1⁄2 x 19 3⁄4 in (52 x 50 cm). c. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). His later years were blighted by ill health and poverty. masculine colors. Switzerland 1 oils. theater. Alexandra Exter b 1882 – 1949 n RUSSIAN Mikhail Larionov b 1881 – 1964 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia. Rayonist Composition.” ALBERT EINSTEIN Head of a Woman Alexei von Jawlensky. Effective emissary between the avantgarde movements in Russia and the West. drawings 2 Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris 3 $420. c. 5 Russia. sculpture. well born and connected (links to Pushkin family tree).

Petersburg: State Museum of Russia. independent of gravity.5m in 2000. collage 2 Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum. 1900–70 371 Kasimir Malevich b 1878 – 1935 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia. 31x 28 in (80 x 71 cm). you can experience the excitement and optimistic uncertainty of this revolutionary period. From 1913 to the late 1920s he developed a new type of abstract art and the aesthetic and social philosophy of Suprematism. oil on canvas. Berlin 1 oils. Don’t try and read the simple abstract forms in a literal or material way. 1912 (New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery). St. The new Soviet world was to have been designed by and for engineers. bravely facing an unknown future. or plunge into infinity. ready to regroup or twist and turn. familiar values were to be replaced by new social organizations and new beliefs. Malevich wanted to represent the nonobjective supremacy of pure feeling through the suggestion of geometric forms floating in pure white space. 1916 (Cologne: Museum Ludwig). Black Square. 1911. Suprematist Composition. KEY WORKS The Knife Grinder. both social and mechanical. 1929 (St.C . If you can do this. c. This new art reflects the search for a new utopia in which all the old. He is regarded as the most important Russian avant-garde painter of the Modern Movement. Dynamic Suprematism. Suprematist Composition (oils) Suprematist Compostion No. See them as shapes floating in space. 1915 (Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum). 56 Kasimir Malevich. Petersburg: State Russian Museum) . New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $15.

influencing the fields of architecture and decoration. oil on canvas. glass. new materials. US 1 sculpture 2 University of Cambridge: Kettle’s Yard 3 $458. Note his mastery of the dynamics of spherical surfaces. light. 1938–40 (Museum of London) Birth of the Universe Antoine Pevsner. and kinetic movement. Germany. Berlin. and social reform. Worked closely with elder brother.372 MODERNISM Naum Gabo b 1890 – 1977 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia. 1961 (Musee d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris) CONSTRUCTIVISM 1917 – 21 Important Russian avant-garde movement. Linear Construction in Space No. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne. 1 (sculpture) Also known as Naum Neemia Pevsner. Vladimir Tatlin. 1933 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). Died a much-respected figure. Antoine Pevsner b 1886 – 1962 n RUSSIAN/FRENCH 5 Russia. sculpture 2 Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne 3 $240. Vertical Construction No. Gabo created form through the description of space rather than mass. Model of the Monument to the Third International Tatlin’s unrealized visionary project was for a steel-and-glass monument to the Revolution. and iron. nonobjective art. 1933.000 in 2001. He lived in Russia. 3-D form. KEY WORKS Construction in Space. 2. later joined by Rodchenko and brothers Antoine Pevsner and Naum Gabo. He left Russia (together with his brother Nuam Gabo) in 1921 and settled in Paris in 1923. 29 1⁄2 x 41 1⁄3 in (75 x 105 cm). London. They were concerned with abstraction. A peripatetic. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). Construction in Space with a Crystalline Centre. mixed media. and the US. Antoine Pevsner. 1929 (Basel. 1916 (London: Tate Collection). KEY WORKS Head No. Soviet disapproval meant the group fragmented across Europe. he made conscious use of modern materials such as Perspex. Paris. standing in Petrograd. Creator of 2-D and 3-D pieces. developed “constructed. . Anchored Cross. UK. and the Bauhaus and De Stijl movements. Pevsner’s later work was characterized by spiraling three-dimensional forms. Fascinated by modern technology and engineering. 1944–45.200 in 1999. larger than the Eiffel Tower. His 3-D work emphasizes modern materials (such as Plexiglas). the way he loves to use projections in space and expresses the poetry of technology. Paris. space. 1 Naum Gabo. especially flight. height 11 3⁄4 in (30 cm). Meeting of Planets. pointing at the North Star—linking the world and the universe.” architectural art to reflect the modern world. Oslo 1 oils. Expresses sophisticated aesthetic values plus social ideals—a vision of a transcendental order. plastic and nylon thread. space. Developable Surface (sculpture) He was the leading exponent of Russian avant-garde. University of Cambridge: Kettle’s Yard. Oslo. self-taught pioneer of Russian Constructivism.

Always demanded active participation from viewers. 1923 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) and Futurism. and art as a material and spiritual experience. 1919–20 (New York: Guggenheim Museum).C .5 x 71. mixed media 3 $550. which develop the links between art. 1916 (Private Collection). especially corner reliefs. Black on Black. Composition. Made stage and industrial designs in the 1920s. 1915 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). Line (oils) An active Bolshevik with strong ideals. Germany. Famous for his relief constructions. Project for Construction (drawing) He was the heroic. c. Paris 1 mixed media.5 cm). Proun No. .980 in 1987. and his never-built tower (Monument to the Third International). oils. 1918 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 Russia. c. Believed in art at the service of Revolution. KEY WORKS Line and Compass Drawing. 1900–70 373 El Lissitsky b 1890 – 1941 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia. Switzerland 1 prints. Lived in Paris in 1913 and was much influenced by Picasso The Sailor (Self-Portrait) Vladimir Tatlin. c. tempera on canvas. prints. sculpture. 1911–12. 1912–13 (Private Collection) Aleksandr Rodchenko b 1891 – 1956 n RUSSIAN Vladimir Tatlin b 1885 – 1953 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia 1 photography. He was rejected by Stalin. KEY WORKS Untitled. and architecture. 1911 (Moscow: Tretyakov Gallery). Died in oblivion. Petersburg: State Russian Museum. technological society. Deadly rival of Malevich. oils 2 Moscow: Tretyakov Gallery 3 $28. 95 (works on paper) A pioneering Modernist architect and artist. KEY WORKS The Fishmonger. 28 1⁄4 x 28 1⁄4 in (71. Proun. he believed that art must be in the service of the Revolution to create an ordered.000 in 1988.000 in 1990. St. legendary founder of Russian Constructivism. Mother and Child. design. he was a creator of Constructivist abstractions. sculpture 2 Moscow: Tretyakov Gallery 3 $504. sculpture.

La scala degli addii—salutando (oils) He was a leading Italian Futurist who had a brief. Declined after 1916 into decorative figuration. His work was pioneering in subject and style. 1912 (Milan: Civica Galleria d’Arte Moderna).38m in 1988. 1913 (Milan: Collection Gianni Mattioli). important. Also produced theater design and poems. Dynamism of a Man’s Head. and later cast in bronze. KEY WORKS Girl Running on a Balcony. of which only four remain. flight. such as dynamic.4m in 1990. at the age of 34. Mercury Passing in Front of the Sun. collective experience (crowds and riots). New York: Albright-Knox Art Gallery. Balla recreated speed in this painting by superimposing several images in layers. innovative. His work is always on a small scale and not always successful— his ambitions often outran his technical abilities and the means at his disposal. memories and states of mind shown as continuous time. Ditto for his sculptures. bronze. movement and speed. Civica Galleria d’Arte Moderna 3 $1. 1912. then adding color as a means of representing his ambitious subjects. . Innovative in adopting Unique Forms of Continuity in Space Umberto Boccioni. The Charge of the Lancers. 1913. key period from 1912 to 1916. 1915 (Milan: Ricardo Jucker Collection) Boccioni was a leading Futurist painter and sculptor who embraced the verve of modern life and enjoyed conflict. New York: Museum of Modern Art. but died falling from a horse. Interested in sensations: speed. Umberto Boccioni b 1882 – 1916 n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 oils. height 43 in (111 cm). 1914 (Milan: Civico Museo d’Arte Contemporanea). 38 3⁄4 x 43 1⁄4 in (89 x 109 cm). He is to later artists what Bleriot’s flying machine is to jet aircraft. which he represented by using fragmentation and color—progressing from Divisionism via Cubism to clean-cut Abstraction. Joined a World War I bicycle brigade. oil on canvas. 1914 (Private Collection) Dynamism of a Dog on a Lead Giacomo Balla. 1911 (Hanover: Niedersächsische Landesmuseum). emotions and experiences beyond the incidental trivia of time and place. mixed media 2 Rome: Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna 3 $4. sculpture. sculpture 2 Milan: Collection of Riccardo and Magda Jucker.374 MODERNISM Giacomo Balla b 1871 – 1958 n ITALIAN 5 Rome 1 oils. KEY WORKS Street Noises Invade the House. He was interested in highly charged modern subjects. Romanza di una cucitrice (oils) French Cubist interlocking planes and fragmentation. and light. The sculpture was first exhibited in plaster form in Paris in 1913. Dynamism of a Cyclist. movement.

Influential critic and writer on art. In the 1920s he made mural decorations (especially mosaics in churches). Early works combined Futurism’s dynamism with a Cubist feel for structure. DC: Hirshhorn Museum). Long-lived and adaptable. Carrà. collage. Red Cross Train Passing a Village. Futurism noisily promoted a worship of machinery. “Art is nothing but humanized science. stage designer. 1906). Under Chirico’s influence he turned to Metaphysical painting. and intellectual. such as trains. but later rejected the avant-garde and advocated a return to a more naturalistic type of art. 1912 (Washington. and in the 1930s grand Fascist monuments. 1908 (Art Institute of Chicago).” GINO SEVERINI FUTURISM 1909 –15 Originating in Italy (although it had adherents in Russia). 1958 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) . rules. It was widely influential. Painter. 15 1⁄4 x 11 1⁄2 in (38. using the latest avant-garde styles such as Cubism. ritratto di Emilio Colombo (oils) He was a prominent Futurist painter and later a leading figure in the Metaphysical movement. and Joseph Stella. city streets. The spiraling collage was inspired by a plane dropping leaflets onto the Piazza del Duomo. His early work was dull. dancers. Sea = Dancer (oils) Severini was one of the creators of Futurism. gouache. Why? And does evil political patronage irrevocably taint the art? KEY WORKS Dynamic Rhythm of a Head in a Bus. with precise adherence to geometric Interventionist Demonstration Carlo Carrà. Futurism was one of the most important early avant-garde art movements. until he discovered Impressionism (in Paris. he had only a brief period of real significance. His later work is hardly known outside Italy. His work is of uneven quality—the Futurist paintings can be very good.C . which have dynamic subjects. and war machinery—all of them animated by Cubist fragmentation and strong colors. Suburban Train Arriving in Paris. or else very formulaic and trite. Its main figures included Bocconi. and the only one not to center around Paris. writer.5 x 30 cm). 1900–70 375 Carlo Carrà b 1881 – 1966 n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 oils 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $739. 1914. Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Collection. After 1916 his paintings become less dynamic and more formally pure. buses. Paris 1 oils. 1915 (London: Tate Collection). Autunno.000 in 1990. and revolutionary change. KEY WORKS Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Like other bright lights of the early avant-garde (such as Derain). Does a lasting reputation require longevity and large output more than talent? Fascist Italy (unlike its equivalent in Germany or Russia) produced some very fine architecture and public art. Balla. with goals set out in a series of manifestoes urging a break with the past.3m in 1990. 1911–16. Still Life with Fish. His most significant works are his Futurist paintings. drawings 2 Rome: Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna 3 $3. Wyndham Lewis. Severini. 1911 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Gino Severini b 1883 – 1966 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. speed. modernity. 1915 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli.

1913 – 15 (Percy) Wyndham Lewis b 1882 – 1957 n BRITISH 5 Paris. editor of Blast. Later became a right-wing misfit and admirer of Fascism. but left a legacy on the development of British modernism. aiming to shake up the stuffy British art world and society generally. Inventive. Another prominent figure was Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson. creative use of faceted space and figures. brought Modern art to Britain. Was happier with words than images. Canada: Beaverbrook Art Gallery) A Battery Shelled (Percy) Wyndham Lewis. c. Lewis was one of several young professional artists employed by the government to record their experience of the battlefront. The Mud Clinic.350 in 1993. Note his skilled. 1937 (New Brunswick. Front cover of the Blast War Number. . and journalist. He was also the author of very strong drawings and paintings of World War I battlefields (he was an official war artist). 1921 (Leeds: City Art Gallery). drawings. Interesting exploration of the concept of the man-cum-machine. Interesting later portraits. An angry young man who. 72 x 125 in (182. the Vorticist review. UK 1 oils. London: Imperial War Museum. a difficult personality who had a brief flowering as a leading member of the English avant-garde. Vorticism took Cubist and Futurist ideas. writer. rather like the artist himself. Eliot. spikey draftsmanship and his personal and inventive use of Cubist and Futurist styles and ideas. The issue included articles by Ezra Pound (who coined the movement’s name) and T. oil on canvas. S. His powerful and original early work was among the first abstract art in Europe. 1921 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). Its lynchpin was Percy Wyndham Lewis. 1919. KEY WORKS Praxitella. His work is always angular and awkward. mixed media 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $73.8 cm). Timon of Athens—The Thebaid (watercolors) Lewis was a painter. producing his best work as an official war artist in World War I. short-lived but significant as the first organized movement toward abstraction in English art. with his fellow Vorticists. Self-Portrait.376 MODERNISM VORTICISM An avant-garde British art movement. featuring a Wyndham Lewis woodcut.8 x 317. The movement foundered after its sole exhibition in 1915.

500 in 1990.700 in 1998. Modigliani. in a derivative way. Italy. oils. and carried out a series of controversial commissions. Satellitium. Afternoon (oils) Bomberg was the son of Polish Jewish immigrants. 1914) when he pioneered Cubism and Vorticism in Britain. The Perspective of Idleness. The Cattewater. Palestine. 1914 (London: Tate Collection) William Roberts b 1895 – 1980 n BRITISH 5 France. labeled as indecent by his critics. Spain 1 oils. height 236 1⁄4 in (600 cm). Settled in England in 1905. a figurative Surrealist in the 1930s. 1914. KEY WORKS In the Hold. Michael Vanquishing the Devil Jacob Epstein. where he developed a lasting interest in ancient and primitive sculpture. 1915 (London: Tate Collection). 1913–14 (London: Tate Collection). His skill at Cubist fragmentation led him to design and paint ship camouflage in World War I. He produced rather good work. c. 1922 (London: Hyde Park). drawings.920 in 1998. Studied in Paris 1902–05. His early experience as an advertisingposter designer is (too?) evident. abstract in the 1940s. Leeds: City Art Gallery 3 $102. minor Expressionist paintings. prints 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $240. Tin Hat (sculpture) He was an audacious and original sculptor. 1900–70 377 Edward Wadsworth b 1889 – 1949 n BRITISH Sir Jacob Epstein b 1880 – 1958 n AMERICAN/BRITISH 5 UK 1 oils 2 tempera 3 $274. which inspired much of his later work.” . 1913 (London: Tate Collection). frequently attacked by conservative critics for indecency. 1940 (Bolton.C . UK: Museums. Coventry Cathedral (UK). drawings. which were widely admired. Birth of Venus (oils) Individual Modernist who developed an interesting and curiously homey version of the working man/urban life/machineage imagery and style pioneered by Léger. 1912 (Paris: Père Lachaise Cemetery) David Bomberg b 1890 – 1957 n BRITISH 5 London. hoping to encourage a “new hope for the future. The Return of Ulysses. Was influenced by Picasso. The Tomb of Oscar Wilde. representational in the 1920s. KEY WORKS The Rock Drill. UK 1 sculpture. In later years he concentrated on bronze portrait busts of luminaries. 1913–14 (London: Tate Collection). c. KEY WORKS Abstract Composition. Then changed style. UK 1 oils. Plymouth Sound (oils) He was a successful member of the avant-garde who ran through the voguish styles of his time: geometric and Cubist pre-1914. Toledo. 1932 (Nottingham: Castle Museum). and Aquarium) 5 France. Epstein created a number of large-scale biblical subjects. and his weakness is that he established a formula that became overrepetitive. watercolors 2 London: Bonhams 3 $124. The Mud Bath.500 in 1992. 1920 (London: Christie’s Images) KEY WORKS St. San Miguel. Briefly on the cutting edge of the avant-garde (c. producing gloomy. bronze. 1958. Member of pioneering Vorticists. People at Play. Art Gallery. Rima. and Brancusi in Paris while working on Oscar Wilde’s tomb. and associated with Wyndham Lewis and the Vorticists in London. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection.

1907 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). London: Tate Collection 3 $265. drawings 2 London: Agnew & Sons 3 $173. and Grant). overintense (neurotic?). The Seated Woman (oils) She was the sister of Augustus John and mistress of Rodin. Horse Dealers at the Barbican (oils) Bevan was an interesting. individual Modernist style—stiff. Painted traditional subjects. c. 1908 (London: Tate Collection) Gwen John b 1876 – 1939 n BRITISH 5 UK. his lifelong companion. 1910–20 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). Rather better than the contemporaneous Bloomsbury set (Bell. chalks 2 London: National Portrait Gallery 3 $180. c. Interior (Rue Terre Neuve). Author of tight. not the 20th. with luminous colors. His wonderful early pieces show his great originality and talent. if limited. KEY WORKS Hawkridge. 1920s (Manchester: City Art Gallery) Robert Polhill Bevan b 1865 – 1925 n BRITISH 5 UK. oil on canvas. His best works were his early drawings and the sensitive. drawings. France 1 oils. rather monochromatic portraits and interiors. Dorelia in a Landscape Augustus John.650 in 1990.378 MODERNISM “A great man of action into whose hands the fairies had placed a paintbrush instead of a sword. simplified. after 1918 it went to seed and he ended up doing competent. Meudon (France) 1 oils 2 Cardiff (UK): National Museum of Wales. minutely worked. 1914 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) . angular. underrated painter who studied in Paris in the 1890s and met Gauguin at PontAven. Fry. Had a sensitive talent. c. with successful. The Smiling Woman.850 in 1992. c. 1900 (Private Collection). KEY WORKS Girl Holding a Rose. Private Collection. Dorelia in a Red Dress (oils) He was truly gifted and one of the best draftsmen of any period. and after his wife’s death. Parade at Aldridge’s.” (PERCY) WYNDHAM LEWIS ON AUGUSTUS JOHN Augustus John b 1878 – 1961 n BRITISH 5 UK 1 oils. c. Paris. 24 2⁄3 x 16 in (62 x 41 cm).400 in 2003. 1910 (London: Tate Collection). The Cab Horse. He painted society portraits with style and panache. although limited in range and currently overrated compared with her brother. Gypsy life fascinated John. unexceptional work— although always recognizably John. His romantic bohemian temperament made him an increasing misfit—should have lived in first half of 19th century. simplified. intensely colored landscapes—a personal interpretation of Post-Impressionism. KEY WORKS William Butler Yeats. in Brittany. 1916. Unjustly underrated— deserves reinstatement. Dorelia (Dorothy McNeil) was his mistress.

drawings 2 Dedham (England): Sir Alfred Munnings Art Museum. Sir Alfred Munnings b 1878 – 1959 n BRITISH 5 UK 1 oils. Shrimp on a White Welsh Pony. Grant is third from right. Good design and paint handling. England: Castle House). they practiced and 1920s –1930s promoted modern French art. Within them (and tucked away in portraits). An intellectual elite in rebellion against Victorian restrictions. 1910 (Dedham. movement. Committed suicide. The Friesian Bull. KEY WORKS Head of the Artist’s Mother. UK: Lady Lever Art Gallery) Mark Gertler b 1891 – 1939 n BRITISH 5 UK. England: Castle House). 1920 (Wirral. Came to inhabit the fringes of the snobbish Bloomsbury set.C . On the artistic side. human upper torsos and heads plus horses’ heads and ears silhouetted against a sky piled high with clouds. 1911 (Dedham. Southern France 1 oils 2 Leeds: City Art Gallery 3 $90. he had acute vision. He is remembered primarily for his hunting and racing portraits of humans and horses. taking their name from the London district where they were based. Though fascinating as social documents. poets. or gypsies. and designers.” just as some writers always write a good “story. note his genius for capturing a specific light effect. landscapes. and Roger Fry were the artistic leading lights: their output was variable. Boxers (oils) He was a talented artist from a poor. Vanessa Bell. He had rare flashes of inspiration. Munnings never doubted his own talent or the values that he celebrated (and it shows). Socially he saw only what he wanted to see. Though blind in one eye. 1900–70 379 THE BLOOMSBURY GROUP A loosely knit group of writers. The Red Prince Mare (oils) The brilliant and successful Munnings was an artist who believed (like his clientele) that anything “modern” was a horrible mistake. MerryGo-Round. Shared their interest in modern French art and painted better than they did. Figure studies (back views of nudes) and still lifes. My Horse and Myself. and spontaneous slices of life. He always painted a good “picture. He was president of the Royal Academy. 1916 (London: Tate Collection) .” At his best when he was at his most informal and inventive—in his pictures of horse fairs. priding themselves on their sexual freedom but frequently accused of snobbery. artists. Jewish immigrant family. Fry kneels with arm around bust. KEY WORKS My Wife. 1910 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum).750 in 1997. Duncan Grant. A Group of “Bloomsberries” in Vanessa’s Bell’s Sussex backyard. the play of light on landscape or horses’ flanks. c. Castle House 3 $7m in 2004. unexpected viewpoints. but too often his work lapses into a stock formula: half-way horizon. such paintings are his least interesting artistically. but their confidence unshakeable. local races.

unpolished style. American Indians) and had a direct. Washington Square. DC: National Gallery of Art) William James Glackens b 1870 – 1938 n AMERICAN 5 Philadelphia. c. Edward Hopper. 1912 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) The Little Dancer Robert Henri. c. oils 2 Fort Lauderdale: Museum of Art 3 $1. They believed that art should portray the everyday. drawings 2 Washington. and liquid brushstrokes. KEY WORKS Antonio Banos. New York 1 oils. realities of life—especially New York City life—and rejected officially sanctioned art (which they said was “fenced in with tasseled ropes and weighed down with bronze plates”). 1916 –18. Henri links Eakins (he studied at Pennsylvania Academy) and Manet (he was in Paris from 1888 to 1890)—and his students: George Bellows. ItaloAmerican Celebration. Berna Escudero (oils) Henri was a charismatic.000 in 2003. Initially a newspaper illustrator. favoring the romance of teeming humanity. he studied in Paris and was a protégé of Robert Henri. Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art.8 x 82. Chinese coolies. urban scenes in a spontaneous. comprising Sloan. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $420. Produced attractive and competent images of everyday New York life (interiors and exteriors). but ignored the reality of poverty and overcrowding. 1918 (Washington. 1905 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art). in 1908 he founded The Eight. “real” style using dark tonal contrast. c. sometimes harsh. urban subjects (note his portraits of “my people”—Irish peasants. drawings 2 Washington. who put together 5 Europe. male supremacy. Leader of the Ashcan School. 40 1⁄2 x 32 1⁄2 in (102. New York.5 cm). KEY WORKS May Day. Vacation Home (oils) Philadelphia-born. others of stars such as Isadora Duncan. Knitters. and Henri. France 1 drawings. Bellows. but a great teacher and believer in young people. oil on canvas. Luks. and adventure. Himself (self-portrait). Glackens. Trotsky). hard-drinking. DC: Hirshhorn Museum 3 $600. Note his bravura brushwork. c. The Bersaglieri. Henri produced a number of paintings of dancers—some of unknowns like the model for this portrait. Philadelphia. He was also pugnacious. Stuart Davies. limited color. New York 1 oils.000 in 1990. a braggart.55m in 1998. watercolors. 1913 (Art Institute of Chicago) Robert Henri b 1865 –1929 n AMERICAN George Luks b 1867 – 1933 n AMERICAN 5 Philadelphia. Painted notable watercolors of his native Pennsylvania mining country. Man Ray. The Irish Girl. 1891–1919 A progressive group of American painters and illustrators. 1908 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). 1910 (Arizona: State University Art Museum). Central Park. and Trotsky (yes. His work is popular imagery or illustration aspiring to the level of art.380 MODERNISM ASHCAN SCHOOL c. 1906 (Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). rebellious. . High Bridge Park (oils) Luks was a vaudeville comedian. and anarchic man. Paris. c. overtly derived from Manet and the Ashcan School. He chose down-to-earth. Rockwell Kent. the first art exhibition independently curated by artists in the US. and hard-drinking (he is said to have died from injuries in a brawl). poor. KEY WORKS The Café Francis. They generally painted gritty. Painted Ashcan School scenes of New York lower-class life.

Bellows’s evocation of an illegal boxing match was acclaimed at the time as a landmark of realism. oils 2 Washington. lithograph by George Miller (1917). 1920 (Washington. urban happiness. Lost the plot after 1928. 1909 (Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). Later work too self-conscious and affected by theories of symmetry and the Golden Section. 1912. 1920 (Minneapolis Institute of Arts) 5 Philadelphia. cozy. Polo Crowd (oils) Bellows was a leading member of the Ashcan School. vaguely erotic. oil on canvas. and some of his sketches still decorate the walls. DC: Hirshhorn Museum) George Wesley Bellows b 1882 – 1925 n AMERICAN John Sloan b 1871 – 1951 n AMERICAN 5 New York 1 oils. prints. boxing matches— depictions of raw energy. 18 1⁄2 x 23 3⁄4 in (47 x 60. No. c.C . Mrs. slum dwellers. Recruiting in Union A Stag at Sharkey’s George Wesley Bellows. After 1914. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $25m in 1999. Square. His best period was pre-1913. New York. worked in Santa Fe. Austrian-Irish Girl. . such as construction sites (Penn Station). Easter Eve (oils) He was a member of the Ashcan School. Sloan was a regular drinker at this working-class.7m in 2003. 2. drawings 2 Washington. when he tackled tough. 1900–70 381 McSorley’s Bar John Sloan.4 cm).2 cm). KEY WORKS Wake of the Ferry. Caught fleeting moments well. gritty subjects. 26 x 32 in (66 x 81. Started as an illustrator/cartoonist with Socialist sympathies but was opposed to the idea of art as propaganda. 1907 (Washington. T in Cream Silk. Detroit Institute of Arts. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $2. painted 1909. men-only Irish tavern. Superb etchings. Santa Fe 1 drawings. 1913 (Los Angeles: County Museum of Art). KEY WORKS Cliff Dwellers. Produced New York scenes of the working classes. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. DC: Phillips College). but modified harsh reality with an ideal of honest.

DC: National Gallery of Art). Expressionist work (à la Soutine). drawings 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum. One of the first Americans to use modern idiom. with Jewish subjects based on Russian memories. this painting shows the influence of Delaunay and Kandinsky in its interest in geometric arrangements of bands and circles. 6 (oils) The greatest American artist of the first half of the 20th century: original.5m in 2002. Europe 1 woodcuts.5m in 2002. such as rust and acid green. KEY WORKS Interior of the Fourth Dimension. 24 1⁄4 x 20 in (61. Moved easily between established styles—produced pleasing results but compromised originality. DC: National Gallery of Art) . 1914. Rush Hour. Washington. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. New York. 1915 (Washington. Used Abstraction Marsden Hartley. Maine. Mount Katahdin. KEY WORKS The Aero. and Maine. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $1. homosexual. His early Impressionist work was followed by paintings influenced by the German Expressionists. he was a gifted artist. New York (oils) Russian-born. Later. Later produced several important series of paintings in Provence (France). 1913 (Washington. whom he knew (met Kandinsky and Jawlensky in Berlin and Munich. c. 1942 (Washington. Studied with Matisse (in Paris 1905–08) and produced important Cubist paintings. His “Portrait of a German Officer” series (which commemorates his male lover) is the major monument of early American Modernism.8 cm). Europe 1 oils. 1914 (Washington. Typical of Hartley’s work of the period. Painting No. oil on paperboard mounted on panel. mystical. DC: National Gallery of Art). prints. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $2. DC: National Gallery of Art) 5 US. c. Experimented with abstraction. New Mexico.382 MODERNISM Marsden Hartley b 1877 – 1943 n AMERICAN vigorous brushstrokes and jarring color contrasts. chalks 2 Washington.5 x 50. Max Weber b 1881 – 1961 n RUSSIAN/AMERICAN 5 New York. 1913). and color relationships. DC: National Gallery of Art. oils.

1930 (Washington. Reflections. DC: Hirshhorn Museum) lyrical work. and thick paint like cake icing. 1931 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). full of natural shapes. Studied in Los Angeles and went to live in Paris in 1913. DC: 3 $2. DC: Hirshhorn Museum). Dragon Trail. Work did not sell. Fascinated by urban scenes and advertising posters. 1928–32 (Washington. Unrecognized. primary colors. derived from a love of land and seascape. 1930 (Washington. KEY WORKS Painting. Mural for the Santa Monica Library. Snowstorm (oils) A shy. and sold antiques. Unappreciated in his lifetime. Odol (oils) Arthur Garfield Dove b 1880 –1946 n AMERICAN 5 US. Produced 3-D abstract painted reliefs and geometric paintings. 1900–70 383 Patrick Henry Bruce b 1881 – 1937 n AMERICAN 5 New York. considered a progenitor of Pop Art. 1932 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art). The Mellow Pad. sculpture 2 Washington. DC: Smithsonian American Art Museum 3 $440. 1934–35 (Washington. destroyed work.000 in 1995. First American artist to paint an abstract picture (1907–09).C . KEY WORKS House and Street. KEY WORKS Foghorns. First Theme 1959–60 (oils) He is one of the most important American abstract artists.2m in 1997. rhythms. 1949 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Stanton MacdonaldWright b 1890 –1973 n AMERICAN 5 US. oils. notable for bright colors and jazzy rhythms. Produced small-scale Davis was a leading American Cubist. kaleidoscopic symphony of swirling. London 1 oils 2 Washington. fragmented rainbow colors— derived from French artists such as Delaunay. DC: Phillips College). Good. KEY WORKS Untitled (Three Men with Hats in City Street). mixed media 2 Washington. I make paintings like mine. Early American Modernist. semiabstract still lifes with spare. Simple shapes. Steins. avid sailor. 1929 (Colorado Springs: Fine Arts Center). 1935 (Indianapolis: Museum of Art) Burgoyne Diller b 1906 – 65 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. Gave up painting. and essences of nature. Initially trained in advertising (it shows to his advantage). drawings 2 Washington. Paris. reclusive farmer manqué. although it is entirely proper to admit their influence. also witty collages and assemblages. Visited Paris in 1904. Second Theme. 1945–51 (Private Collection) “I don’t want people to copy Matisse or Picasso. DC: Hirshhorn Museum 3 $1. Borrowed motifs from popular culture. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $1. Europe 1 drawings. Lost the plot on return to US. and Delaunay. I don’t make paintings like theirs. 1922–23 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). Sand Barge. Still Life (oils) Bruce was a member of an old Virginia family. was influenced by Matisse. Developed Synchronism— abstract. From 1924. Much influenced by Mondrian and the Dutch De Stijl movement (see page 389).1m in 2000. primary colors on white or black. Paris Hirshhorn Museum 1 oils 2 Washington. geometric shapes. DC: Smithsonian American Art Museum) KEY WORKS Stuart Davis b 1894 – 1964 n AMERICAN 5 New York. and understated brushwork. later committed suicide. Paris 1 oils. Still Life: Transverse Beams.1m in 2003.” STUART DAVIS .000 in 1990. Conception Synchromy (oils) He was an avant-garde American painter. and studied with Robert Henri (see page 380). developed striking and individual abstract paintings and collages. DC: Hirshhorn Museum 3 $95. hot pinks. both in appearance and his aspiration for social and spiritual reformation.

5m in 2001. KEY WORKS The Dream. The German term. self-portraits. Grosz. In 1937. . where he taught and painted.” Their underlying theme is the human condition and concern for the triumph of the human spirit. A Nazi-backed touring exhibition of modern and abstract art (with works by Beckmann. Produced beautiful. and allegories full of symbolism. Kandinsky. and Picasso) opened in 1937 to show how foul Degenerate art was. His work charts a central vein of the spiritual anguish of 20th-century Europe. 23 3⁄4 x 19 3⁄4 in (60. strong drawing. woodcuts. he experienced the horrors of World War I and the collapse of civilized values in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s. The plan backfired and introduced modern art to huge crowds. optimistic generation of the 1880s. Born into the gifted. “Degenerate” modern artists could not exhibit or work. oil on canvas. entartete Kunst. probably at the 1937 exhibition. even now. he emigrated to the US. Beckmann’s use of black (one of the most difficult pigments) is stunning and worthy of Manet. Carnival. In 1947. Louis Art Museum). for officialdom to pigeonhole. Dix. Painted while he was writing his autobiography. Journey on the Fish.8 cm). drawings 2 Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Art 3 $20. Self-Portrait with Horn One of the great painters of the 20th century. was coined by Hitler and the party’s chief theoretical spokesperson. Generally overlooked because never one of the Modernist “gang. Alfred Rosenberg. expressive. 1945. his understanding of the human condition is worthy of Rembrandt. US 1 oils. Departure. Hitler supported himself through painting and continued to paint throughout his life. by the Nazis. he chose voluntary self-exile to Amsterdam. 1932–33 (New York: Museum of Modern Art).3 x 49. Adolf Hitler and Hermann Goering. but do not belong to any “school” or “ism. Many portraits. Mondrian.384 MODERNISM Max Beckmann b 1884 – 1950 n GERMAN 5 Frankfurt. Beckmann’s works are very much of their time. 1921 (Missouri: St. 1942– 43 (University of Iowa Museum of Art) THE NAZIS AND DEGENERATE ART Nazi ideologues believed that any art that did not conform to a bourgeois ideal of wellcrafted. 1934 (Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie). Before he rose to power. figurative images portraying ideal heroism or comfortable day-to-day living 1930s was the product of degenerate human beings and perverted minds. Detroit Institute of Arts.” and difficult. To sustain such Expressionist intensity and quality is a rare (unique?) achievement. A Little Yes and a Big No. somber paintings. Amsterdam. rich colors. classed as a “degenerate” Self-Portrait in Olive and Brown Max Beckmann. and many confiscated works were burned.

Pillars of Society. the Black Dove. 1926 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Dix was a mocking. The alienating spaces show how things and people become disconnected. 1921 (Berlin: Nationalgalerie). misanthrope. Neue Sachlichkeit (“New Objectivity”) describes a tendency for German art. and Rasha. They chronicle the uncomfortable truth behind the respectable bourgeois façade. prints. The Artist’s Parents. Fritz Glaser (oils) KEY WORKS Suicide. Berlin.200 in 1998. AntiNazi. for all his apparent criticism of it.000 in 1996. Self-Portrait with Model Christian Schad. He was an early user of photomontage. and political activist (Communist). 1921 (Basel. uncompromising. collage 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $492. and anarchic). detail. KEY WORKS Card-Playing War Cripples. critical depiction of the German bourgeois society of the 1920s. he seems to end up loving the ugly corruptness he records. steely portraits. drawings. after 1925. 1927. The exaggerated. oil on canvas. 1924 after marriage and fatherhood. provocative. His small-scale works (especially prints and drawings) are of a consciously artless. Zurich 1 oils. Operation.041. bitter observer and recorder of German society during World War I and the 1920s and 1930s as its moral and social values collapsed. 1929 (Munich: Städtische Galerie) 5 Berlin. New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $2. He emigrated to the US in 1933 and reverted to being a graphic artist. poisonous colors and artless style to create a feeling of instability and menace. drawings. 1929 (London: Tate Collection). 1916 (London: Tate Collection). New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $5. angular. emphasized detail serves to highlight its emptiness. to turn away from Expressionism. oils 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum. His style softened c. Wildwest (oils) Best remembered as the biting and original chronicler of the sad and corrosive period of Germany history between 1918 and the rise of Hitler. 1920 (Private Collection). Grey Day. New York 1 prints. His terrifying personal World War I experiences made him a pessimist. modern style (in the sense of uncomfortable. Note the repetition of certain stock types and faces. Portrait of the Lawyer Dr. mixed media 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum. and took photos in the manner of Man Ray (see page 394).445.000 in 1999. the Pigeon-Chested Man. He was recognized only after 1955. 1900–70 385 Otto Dix b 1891 –1969 n GERMAN 5 Germany 1 prints. 30 x 24 1⁄4 in (76 x 62 cm). KEY WORKS Agosta. including cold. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum) Christian Schad b 1894 –1982 n GERMAN 5 Munich. He was fascinated by street life yet. Bildnis einer Unbekannten (oils) George Grosz b 1893 –1959 n GERMAN He was a painter who also made collages and prints (woodcuts). .C . Best known for his Neue Sachlichkeit work—a cool. Private Collection. expressed in portraits of friends and powerful engravings. Schad abandoned painting in the Nazi era. and acid color. Ugliness fascinated him—reflected in a powerful distortion of realistic observation with intense line.

and teacher at. Provided the basis for the New Photographer’s movement. c. Sailing Boats. photomontage. Paul Getty Museum). abstraction. 1923 (Los Angeles: J. DC: National Gallery of Art). personal style.3 x 20. prints 2 Los Angeles: J. An inspirational teacher. akin to a broken glass pane in which buildings and seascape are the central subject. Quiet. Moholy-Nagy tried to expand the scope of photography through experimental techniques and innovative compositions. Poster by Joost Schmidt for Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar. 1919 – 33 . The Bauhaus tried to teach the virtues of simple.6 cm). A II. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. Its teachers included Albers. KEY WORKS Photogram. on which so many others have been modeled. watercolors 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum 3 $4. but spent most of his life in Germany (1887–1937). Chicago 1 collage. abstraction. He influenced set designs for early films such as Max Reinhardt’s Cabinet of Doctor Caligari. Dual Form with Chromium Rods. highly influential in the fields of architecture and design.386 MODERNISM At Coffee László Moholy-Nagy. A XI (oils) He was a lawyer-turned-artist and theoretical writer. and photography. constructions. mass production. drawings. architecture. Kandinsky. typography. Feininger. 1912 (Washington. 1926. Geometric Abstract artist and leading member of. Son of a concert violinist. Feininger was New York-born and -based. KEY WORKS The Bicycle Race. democracy and worker participation. July–September 1923. clean design. Paul Getty Museum 3 $981. Talented printmaker (etchings). It opened in Germany in 1919 and was closed by the Nazis in 1933—the New Bauhaus was set up in Chicago by Moholy-Nagy in 1937.03m in 2004. MoholyNagy. Klee. and Schlemmer. Sought to create order and clarity using design. remaining there until it was closed in 1933. 1930 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) THE BAUHAUS The most famous modern art school. Bauhaus artists recognized early on the importance of graphic design as a medium to express a corporate identity and image for the school. Newspaper Readers II (oils) László Moholy-Nagy b 1895 – 1946 n HUNGARIAN/GERMAN 5 Europe. He blended Cubist fragmentation of form (he studied in Paris) and the misty light and dreaminess of Romanticism (his German heritage). vintage gelatin silver photograph. drawings. A founder of Bauhaus. New York 1 woodcuts.500 in 2000. He settled in Chicago in 1937. 11 1⁄4 x 8 1⁄4 in (28. the Bauhaus. his influence on art and design training has been profound. 1946 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) Lyonel Feininger b 1871 –1956 n AMERICAN/GERMAN 5 Berlin. Market Church at Evening. 1924 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). 1929 (Detroit Institute of Arts). the moral and economic benefits of a well-designed environment.

drawings 2 Bern: Paul Klee Center 3 $4. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). and a talented poet and musician. spiritual character and was one of the most original pioneers of the Modern Movement. imagination.000 in 1989. visually and mentally. 1900–70 Paul Klee b 1879 –1940 n GERMAN The Golden Fish Paul Klee. Don’t try to understand or intellectualize Klee—just enjoy his work and follow him wherever he chooses to take your eye and imagination (one of his wellknown writings is called “Taking a line for a walk”). Note his quirky. 1932 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle). Dedicated teacher (Bauhaus). which are reminiscent in some ways of medieval manuscript illumination (perhaps he drew on this tradition?). Hamburg: Kunsthalle. enriched. published his Pedagogical Sketchbook.” PAUL KLEE . and displayed his work at a Surrealist exhibition in Paris. 1925 –26. and etchings.788. Bern (Switzerland) 1 mixed media. His work is always very sensual. oil and watercolor on paper and board. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). Had an exquisite color sense and produced neat. personal imagery and the delicate. Creator of the chamber music of modern art—finely wrought. Above all. 19 3⁄4 x 27 1⁄4 in (50 x 69 cm). smallscale works in many media. Segelflug (oils) Klee was a prolific author of drawings. unpretentious abstracts. Death and Fire. 1925 (Basel. KEY WORKS Ancient Sound.C . and humor. 5 Germany. Had a fey. Auftrieb und Weg. let him take you back to the realm of childhood imagery. You will return to adulthood immensely refreshed. watercolors. and stimulated. and delightfully and poetically odd. Ad Parnassum. 1934 (Bern. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum) “The more horrifying this world becomes … the more art becomes abstract. while a world at peace produces realistic art. 1940 (Bern. Diana in the Autumn Wind. In 1925 Klee joined the staff of the Bauhaus. precisely worked surfaces.

Study for “Homage to the Square” (oils) One of the great artist-educators of the Modern Movement. Color. simplification. Liked quiet exploration and experiment. Bauhaus Stairway. Emigrated to US in 1933. and reflective inner states of mind. US 1 prints. The collective advocated a geometrical type of abstract art. New York.08m in 1998. rather than expression and dramatic impact. Had no commercial success. but is visually fascinating because Albers understood that you can never predict scientifically what color is going to do. Grosse Sitzendengruppe I (oils) A leading member of the Bauhaus. 1918. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery 3 $600. Red Blue Chair designed by Gerrit Rietveld.388 MODERNISM Josef Albers b 1888 –1976 n GERMAN/AMERICAN 5 Weimar. “Homage to the Square” sounds boring. oils 2 Essen: Albers Museum. 1920–21 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums). Austere. The hard surfaces and strong colors are a rejection of familiarity and sentimentality in favor of dynamic rationality. and the architect and designer Gerrit Rietveld. Berlin 1 oils. woodcuts. KEY WORKS Glass. and how it constantly catches you unaware and delights you. He was also an accomplished photographer and designer in stained glass. the interplay of shape and form. with Black Contour. 1934 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Piet Mondrian b 1872 –1944 n DUTCH 5 Netherlands. Pillar of the Bauhaus 1923–1933. 1930 (Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum). seeking laws of harmony that would be equally applicable to life and art. prints. The most familiar works are the abstracts of the 1920s and 1930s. Boogie Woogie (oils) One of the pioneers of pure abstract art. Paris. Despite Mist.000 in 1996. sculpture 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum. but you need to get involved and experiment (by half closing your eyes. and the journal they published—the 1920s’ most influential avant-garde art magazine. Best known for his “Homage to the Square” series (1949–70). KEY WORKS Head in Profile. for instance) to really enjoy and appreciate what is going on.” was the name of a group of Dutch artists. He preferred simplification. 5 Weimar. Basel (Switzerland): Kunstmuseum 3 $3. and Light. London. 1921 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Breslau. New York 1 oils. Theo van Doesburg.75m in 2004. Members and contributors included Piet Mondrian. Group of Fourteen Figures in Imaginary Architecture. “Homage to the Square” is the ultimate proof of this. His highly original work combines investigations into perception with a simple beauty. He uses the square because it is the most static of geometric forms. Theoretically and intellectually influential in his lifetime. in which he experiments with nests of squares that explore values of light and degrees of temperature in contrasting colors and hues. mixed media 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $18. reclusive character who hated the green untidiness of nature. 1965 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle) Oskar Schlemmer b 1888 –1943 n GERMAN DE STIJL 1917– 31 De Stijl (from the Dutch for “the style. Painter and sculptor. able to accentuate the color relationship. Most effective and at ease designing mural decorations for ballet and theater. and is without movement. They have simple . Bottrop Collection. social and spiritual form. Study for Homage to the Square Mild Scent.

IV with Red. New York: Museum of Modern Art. mechanical. completed in New York. Pier and Ocean. Yellow. and primary colors only. Blue. white. Note also the deliberate small scale and intimacy of most of his work. c/o HCR International. anonymous surfaces. US elements: black. © 2005 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust. the hesitations—the struggle to achieve that harmonious balance and purity that he desperately wanted. but his imagery has become a commonplace of 20th-century commercial design. 1942–43. Tableau No. 1939– 41 (Private Collection) “Abstract art … is opposed to a natural representation of things … it is not opposed to nature … It is opposed to the raw. and easy. His slow and painstaking progress through Symbolism and Cubism to abstraction repays patient study. 1912 (The Hague: Gemeentemuseum). Reproductions make his abstracts look bland. but it is at one with human nature. Composition in Red and Blue. the alterations. oil on canvas. but found so hard to attain. 1924–25 (Washington. primitive animal nature of man. also. You have to see Mondrian’s work in the flesh to understand it. 1900–70 389 Broadway Boogie Woogie Piet Mondrian. with immaculate. In fact. and Black. 1915 (Otterlo. jazzily colorful work. His goal was to find and express a universal spiritual perfection. Look out. KEY WORKS The Gray Tree. horizontal and vertical lines. you can (and are supposed to see) the brush marks. Virginia.C . for his late. DC: National Gallery of Art). Warrenton. Netherlands: Kröller-Müller Museum).” PIET MONDRIAN . 50 x 50 in (127 x 127 cm).

7 cm) height 23 3⁄4 in (7. aiming at a kind of heightened realism (Dalí. SUBJECTS The personal nature of the subconscious necessarily resists categorization. and spoon encapsulate Surrealism’s determination to subvert the everyday world. painter and sculptor. . entirely abstract (Miró. flat colors.3 cm). favored simple. it generally aimed to surprise. and Freud were its starting points.390 MODERNISM SURREALISM Surrealism was the most influential avant-garde movement of the interwar years. in Paris Breton formally allies Surrealism with the Proletarian Revolution London International Surrealist Exhibition held Leon Trotsky and Breton write Manifesto for an Independent Revolutionary Art Outbreak of World War II sees exodus of Surrealist artists to New York worn surfaces to create chance patterns. Film was an ideal medium for Surrealism. largely written by Breton. asserted by its founder and leader. Surrealism in the visual arts almost immediately developed a bewildering variety of styles. and always to create a dreamlike atmosphere. Ernst experimented with a visual equivalent of stream of consciousness writing: frottage—rubbings taken from KEY EVENTS 1919 1924 1930 1936 1937 1939 André Breton and Philippe Soupault write Les Champs Magnétiques First Surrealist Manifesto issued. or. at other times vague and suggestive. Buñuel. often sexual. Its enduring influence can be found notably in present-day advertising and avant-garde humor. Dada. seemingly randomly assembled. Arp. In whatever style it was executed. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Magritte’s deadpan paintings exploit enigmatic juxtapositions. STYLE Still from the 1929 Surrealist film Un Chien Andalou by Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel. fur. 1936. Oppenheim’s fur-covered cup. working closely with Dalí. frequently to disturb. vaguely biomorphic shapes. for example). china. It could be highly finished. often to shock. Cubism. diameter 9 1⁄3 in (23. Surrealist subject matter literally knew no limits. Perhaps not surprisingly for a movement whose origins were largely literary and which actively championed anarchy. Object Meret Oppenheim. sometimes highly specific. and metal. Its chief goal. André Breton. saucer. was to meld the unconscious with the conscious to create a new “super reality”—a surréalisme. in bold. for example). at the other end of the spectrum. created a disconcerting and deliberately unfathomable masterpiece.

in Greek mythology he was the hero who unwittingly killed his father. married his own mother. 36 2⁄3 x 40 in (93 x102 cm). pioneering work he explores methods of creating imagery that were to become a commonplace of Surrealist painting. The psychosexual interpretation is that the nut represents the female (the crack suggesting the vulva) The mechanical device that pierces the finger is one that was used to punch holes in the webbed feet of chicken so as to mark their age. 1922. who was an academic painter and devout Catholic. Oedipus Rex Max Ernst. with his own In Freudian analysis. and collage. 1900–70 391 1920s –1930s WHAT TO LOOK FOR Ernst was the most complete Surrealist artist in the sense that he experimented with all techniques: figuration. death. constructive/ destructive. notably about the juxtaposition of polarities such as the rational/irrational. Ernst knew he had to escape the dominance of his father. The spike and the arrow stand for pain. oil on canvas. the balloon and the birds represent a longing for escape and freedom The hand that cracks the nut is a metaphor for sexual intercourse. and so become fully mature. penetration. . and intercourse. In particular.C . and gouged out his eyes on realizing what he had done. and the distorted scale suggests the struggle in gender relationships experiences and desires. In this archetypal. Ernst was obsessed by birds. Ernst was a self-taught painter and a pioneer of collage. Private Collection. Freud’s “Oedipus Complex” is an inability to break infantile dependence on parents. upside-down eyes TECHNIQUES Paint is applied in a precise but anonymous manner. he synthesizes his study and understanding of Freud’s ideas. and gender ever since his pet cockatoo died on the day his sister was born. dead/alive. The birds have human. It suggests pain. abstraction. Imagery has been copied from magazines and prints. Oedipus means “swollen foot”.

He ought to have persisted with it. Made a brief but major contribution to Surrealism. 1936 (Private Collection). finally choosing one based on the detailed. Paris. sculpture 2 Figueras (Spain): Salvador Dalí Museum. John of the Cross. The second half of the painting’s title was added on the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Petersburg (Florida): Salvador Dalí Museum 3 $3. as a true pioneer of the Surrealist movement. or freshness. but devoid of any real expression. Glasgow: Art Gallery and Museum) . Ma femme nue regardant son propre corps devenir marches (oils) Dalí was a flamboyant self-publicist. New York 1 mixed media. he produced obsessional images in which detailed reality is suddenly transformed into different. He mastered almost any style (see early work). Philadelphia: Museum of Art. oils. intricate. Christ of St. Ultimately just a flashy showman with a big ego and a long moustache—like a singer who churns out popular arias in a spectacular way. KEY WORKS Seated Girl Seen from the Rear. which are great and profound. There is one exception to the above. oil on canvas.77m in 2000. 1931 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art).” 17th-century Dutch masters—instantly popular and recognizable as “very skillful” (the optical illusions are breathtaking). 1951 (Kelvingrove. c. and one of the most popular painters of the 20th century. 1925 (Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia). Look for the works of 1928–33. meaning. Surrealist Composition with Invisible Figures. 5 Spain. The Persistence of Memory. Briefly. Dalí created works to explore his “paranoiacritical method. St. Technically and imaginatively brilliant. and disturbing images. 43 1⁄3 x 32 2⁄3 in (110 x 83 cm). He was an artist of astonishing technical precosity and virtuosity.Salvador Dalí b 1904 – 89 n SPANISH Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition of Civil War Salvador Dalí. “realistic.” Using Freudian ideas about dreams and madness. 1936.

La femme paralytique (oils) An artist whose reputation and influence is better known than his work.C . Paris. Deeply affected by World War I injuries.945 in 1989. 1923 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Yves Tanguy b 1900 – 55 n FRENCH 5 Paris.77m in 2005. beauty. Portrait of Mme. Let them suggest anything (especially something biological. engravings. drawings. purged of stale meanings and appealing to the senses. He draws on an (unconscious) memory bank of natural and landscape forms. Derniers Jours (oils) A self-taught Surrealist who. Miró claimed that his imagery was sometimes the result of hallucinations caused by extreme hunger. KEY WORKS Pedestal Table in the Studio. Lived in the US after 1940—had a big impact on Abstract Expressionists. Uses a limited number of forms. ceramics. evolved (but never developed further) a style of imaginary landscapes (or seabeds?) full of weird and curiously compelling halfvegetable. liked experimentation and spontaneous action. . unconventional. sculpture 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $883. KEY WORKS 5 France. from c. Mallorca 1 mixed media. DC: National Gallery of Art). warmth. The Red Sun Gnaws at the Spider. Buffalo: Albright-Knox Gallery. 1949 (London: Tate Collection) Harlequin’s Carnival Joan Miró. Miró is best known for his abstract and semiabstract works—highly structured. Searched for a new visual language. Connecticut 1 oils 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $6. Woman and Bird in the Moonlight. but repeats and makes rhymes of them. primitive). 1900–70 393 Joan Miró b 1893 – 1983 n SPANISH André Masson b 1896 –1987 n FRENCH 5 Barcelona. which suggest generative power in nature. 1924. simple forms floating on fields of color. Promontory Palace. 1929 (Washington. poetic. finely wrought paintings and drawings. c. sculpture. 1931 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) KEY WORKS Le port. Spain. color. light. Enjoy the naughty thoughts. silliness. 1948 (Private Collection). prints 2 Barcelona: Foundation Joan Miró. New York. The Look of Amber. dreamy.5m in 2001. 1922 (London: Tate Collection). influential. sexual. Card Trick. half-animal forms. 26 x 36 3⁄4 in (66 x 93 cm). Mallorca: Pilar and Joan Miró Foundation and Museum 3 $11. 1945 (Private Collection). 1927. US 1 mixed media. He experimented with “magic realism” before breaking into a new style. 1924. oil on canvas. Leading Surrealist who explored the irrational and subconscious in intense. K (works on paper) He was a leading Surrealist painter and sculptor: experimental. Disliked order.

whimsical work on many themes and in He was a loner who created a limited and repetitive oeuvre of finely detailed. St. Private Collection. Red Head. and classic buildings. nighttime. mixed media 2 Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $74. 1916 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). Paul Getty Museum 3 $1. semideserted railroad stations or landscapes. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). Cultivated a carefree persona with maxim that the least possible effort would give the greatest possible result. 5 Belgium 1 oils 2 Bruges: Palais des Beaux-Arts. Sitzende Figur mit verschränkten Fingern. and collector—another shining example of the uniquely British “gifted amateur. Made and painted good (if derivative) Surrealist works. Oppenheim produced engaging. usually through photography. Influenced by Magritte and De Chirico exhibition of 1926. Paris 1 sculpture. mixed media 2 Los Angeles: J. true Surrealists. Le miroir (oils) Meret Oppenheim b 1913 – 85 n GERMAN 5 Berlin. witty. 1940 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). collage. Blue Body. and anarchic.698.” MAN RAY Paul Delvaux b 1897 – 1994 n BELGIAN The Aged Emak Bakia Man Ray. Duchamp with Mill.000 in 1999. Paris. Had a free spirit and disliked prescribed roles. Witches and snakes are recurring images. The Red City. Idesbald (Belgium): Paul Delvaux Foundation and Museum 3 $4. especially for women. Hollywood 1 photography. dilettante. and symbolic. which means “leave me alone” in Basque. Impossibilité Dancer-Danger (oils) many media and styles—individually slight but collectively expressing her refusal to be categorized and pinned down. after the original of 1924. Tout Toujours (oils) She will always be remembered for her Surrealist fur teacup Object (see page 390). The sculpture is named after an earlier Man Ray Surrealist film of 1927. Painted documentary portraits of the Dada and Surrealist heroes. silver. sculpture 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $26. 1937 (Private Collection). KEY WORKS Object (Le déjeuner en fourrure).592 in 2002.394 MODERNISM Man Ray b 1890 –1976 n AMERICAN 5 New York.5m in 2003. 1936–67 (London: Tate Collection) “A certain amount of contempt for the material employed to express an idea is indispensable to the purest realization of this idea. 1931 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). 1970. The Last Voyage of Captain Cook. KEY WORKS A Siren in Full Moonlight. 1941 (Private Collection) . 1933 (Bern. dreamland images based on themes of naked women. He was inventive (imaginatively and technically). delicate.884 in 2003. Silhouette. 1917 (Los Angeles: J. connoisseur. Union Nocturne (oils) He was a rich and eccentric painter.” A friend of Picasso and Ernst. height 18 1⁄4 in (46 cm). but not allied with. KEY WORKS Night and Day. he was a champion of Surrealism. Emak Bakia. Paul Getty Museum) KEY WORKS Sir Roland Penrose b 1900 – 84 n BRITISH 5 London 1 mixed media. writer. 1936 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) The creator of memorable avant-garde Surrealist images. vaguely erotic. prints. Admired by.

The titles of his works (sometimes chosen by friends) are designed deliberately to confuse and obscure. KEY WORKS Psychological Morphology. Worked as a freelance advertising artist from 1924 to 1967. 1953 (Houston: Menil Collection) Matta b 1911 – 2002 n CHILEAN Magritte was a leading Surrealist painter who made a virtue of his bowler-hatted. His work risked becoming a tired formula (his very late work is). 1933. revolutionary spirit who was born in Santiago but settled in France in 1933 and became an early Surrealist. Disasters of Mysticism (oils) Roberto Sebastián Echaurren. Change of style after 1943.5m in 1995. New York 1 oils. creating mildly disturbing images suggesting the dislocated world of dreams. and the human psychic space. prints. left for the US when World War II broke out but resettled in Paris in 1954. He painted small(ish) oil paintings. Had a poetic agenda: searching for links between the cosmos. pubic parts). 1926 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). changes of scale and texture. candles). yearning for liberty (blue sky. 1943 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art) The Human Condition René Magritte. confined spaces = sexual repression?). sausages. drawings 2 San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art 3 $1. Like many other artists. KEY WORKS The Menaced Assassin. Empire des lumières (oils) Boymans-van Beuningen). but is saved by an active imagination and a sense of the absurd.5m in 2003. Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Art 3 $11. . Married. oil on canvas. Used classic Freudian symbols and references—death and decay (coffins. Transformed the familiar into the unfamiliar by weird juxtapositions. Witnessed his mother’s suicide aged 13. The term “magic realism” was coined to describe the conceptual tensions between the possible and the impossible in Magritte’s work. cheap-suited provincialism. phallic symbols (guns. Paris 1 oils. 39 2⁄3 x 32 in (100 x 81 cm). 1939 (Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario). Reproduction Prohibited. Used deliberately banal technique. and contradiction of expectation. dreamlike paintings with complex spaces and totemlike figures. fresh landscapes). prints 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art. Intended his work to exalt freedom and aid mankind’s struggle against oppression. Golconde.C . The Song of Love. DC: National Gallery of Art. 1948 (Private Collection). His best work dates from the 1920s and 1930s. 1900–70 395 René Magritte b 1898 – 1967 n BELGIAN 5 Brussels. the eroticism of the human body. sex (naked women. night). without aesthetic virtue—imagery is everything. Washington. 1937 (Rotterdam: Museum 5 Paris. Themes of claustrophobia (closed rooms. Author of strange. Famous for use of everyday objects plus deadpan style. La Rosa. Rome. gouache.

Central to his art is a 3 Self-Portrait 1901. two invite immediate exploration: the almost daily autobiography from ambitious. ceramicist.” was the champion of the avant-garde and PABLO PICASSO the pioneer of Cubism (see page 350). Passionately opposed to Franco’s political regime.9 cm). and he divided All his work was highly egocentric in his early years between France and Spain. printmaker. drypoint engraving. pure abstraction never interested him. sometimes anguished.” with images of the circus and harlequins.6 x 43. In 1904 he settled permanently in France. South of France 1 oils. Paris. themes of death and deprivation. pregnant lover. His output of work was vast. He was convivial and energetic. and its people. young. and theater designer. and the ease with which he switched styles. whereas his true forte was for work in 3-D. sculptor. and latterly in the south of France. by 1907 he us realize the truth. Out of many themes. Although deeply committed to Spain. There is a tendency to judge Picasso by his paintings. and Expressionism. 40 x 23 ⁄4 in (81 x 60 cm). he was the master of traditional techniques and a dazzling . and anticipator of Surrealism. some way. which he attacked in his art. Symbolism. The and the human condition— Born into an artistic family starving artist aged 20. half-starved young hopeful to husband and womanizer to sexually frustrated old man. but he had the rare ability to developing his “Blue Period. his prodigious in Paris during his “Blue Period. Rome. and techniques. early age. the inventor of Cubism. too. Garçon à la Pipe (oils) Picasso stands as the undisputed master and chief innovator of the Modern Movement. Here. Picasso effectively lived in voluntary exile. images. based in Paris. and led a turbulent. Paris: wide-ranging post-Freudian LIFE AND WORKS response to the human figure Musée National Picasso. You have to go back to Michelangelo to find anyone of equal genius or stature. oil on canvas. he vowed never to set foot in his land of birth while Franco lived.” with its turn self-comment into universal truths. intense. SCULPTURE Minotaur Caressing a Sleeping Girl 1933. The dictator outlived him by 32 months. sculpture 2 Paris: Musée National Picasso. However. He visited Paris for the first sometimes blissful. first “Art is a lie that makes evolving the “Rose Period.” with frequent intimate talent showed itself at an references to sex and death. Barcelona: Museu Picasso 3 $93m in 2004. PAINTINGS His paintings display a bewildering range of technical and stylistic originality: he was the master of Classicism. time at the age of 19. 13 1⁄4 x 17 1⁄3 in (33. he was equally inventive as painter. These became more numerous and interesting as he grew older (the quality of his paintings declines after 1939). where he became the focus for the emerging School of Paris (see page 357). its art. painted in Barcelona. Private Collection. and often unhappy personal life (his many love affairs are legendary).396 MODERNISM Pablo Picasso b 1881 –1973 n SPANISH 5 Barcelona. always conscious of which was the most appropriate for his subject matter and mood. The bull is a metaphor for Picasso himself: frustratingly caught up in a marriage he wished to dissolve while committed to a secret.

Showing typical Cubist distortion. constructions. painted in response to the bombing of the Spanish city by the Germans in 1937. After World War II. KEY WORKS Child with a Dove. Family of Saltimbanques. ceramic plate. DC: National Gallery of Art). DC: National Gallery of Art). many twodimensional works are simply ideas that itch to be realized in 3-D. In fact. Guernica. 1950. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria. 1901 (London: National Gallery). The picture was used as a study for Guernica (1937). 1905 (Moscow: Pushkin Museum). 1905 (Washington. the model for this depiction of female grief is said to be Picasso’s then mistress. Dora Maar. Girl on a Ball. which have the attributes of paintings and sculpture. 1937 (Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro Arte Reina Sofia) A Bull c. .Weeping Woman 1937. The Lovers. Picasso moved to Antibes with Françoise Gillot and began his carefree. inventive work in ceramics. innovator through welding. 1923 (Washington. and ceramics. 21 2⁄3 x 18 in (55 x 46 cm). oil on canvas. London: Bonhams.

1939 (South Africa: Durban Art Gallery). Self-Portrait with Patricia Preece. humor. spare. and paintings to capture the essential feel of a place—the so-called “genius loci. flight and aircraft in World War II. drawing 2 Cookham (UK): Stanley Spencer Gallery. 1914 (London: Tate Collection). pastel. as well as artistic). London: Imperial War Museum. feelings. Boy at Breakfast (oils) He was a sensitive painter who made a slow. The Resurrection: Cookham. 1940–41 (London: Tate Collection) Travoys Arriving with the Wounded at a Dressing Station. Imperial War Museum 3 $1. Observe his humanity. He had a dry. photography 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $146. Monster Field.400 in 2004. The voice of “I am English first and foremost. Crucifixion (oils) A difficult. deliberately outdated technique inspired by early Italians. of a certain type: self-contained. and to objects in nature. polite. KEY WORKS The Centurion’s Servant. Potboiler landscapes earned him money. mixed media. and Moon. patient progress from figuration to abstraction. or watercolor show a deeply personal firsthand response to landscape. Sussex 1 oils. Smol. 1935 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). romantic.” KEY WORKS Mineral Objects. Dorset (all UK) 1 oils. His capacity for juxtaposing the unexpected and transposing one object into another by association links him with the Surrealists. he managed to be separate from his own time and era. Preached. Earthy English palette. Focus of his life and major work was around his home village of Cookham. coastline. yet totally of it. of Europe but not in Europe. parochial. gentle. He was careful in every sense and very English. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $255. which he saw as an earthly paradise. Autumn Landscape (oils) One of the best British artists before 1950. and acerbic wit. He worked as a war artist in both world wars. argumentative but inspired personality with a unique and personal vision and great talent. and had an utterly personal agenda and unshakeable belief in his own vision and ability.” His small-scale works in oil. he successfully blended an English pastoral vision with an awareness of European modern art. A Village in Heaven. careful. Circle of Monoliths. 72 x 86 in (83 x 218.” His work shows English eccentricity at its best and most convincing.992. Lean.000 in 2003. 1936 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). 1924–26 (London: Tate Collection). Was a masterly and inspired draftsman. His main . well-focused imagery and style. 1937–38 (Leeds: City Art Gallery). practiced.398 MODERNISM Paul Nash b 1889 – 1946 n BRITISH 5 Kent. serious. London: Tate Collection. and Dutch and Flemish painters.000 in 1990. and illustrated sexual liberation at a time when such things were “not done. Ivon Hitchens b 1893 – 1979 n BRITISH 5 London. Note how he abstracts from nature and organizes his perceptions. Totes Meer (Dead Sea). Focused on trench landscape and its destruction in World War I. Pre-Raphaelites. Sussex. 1937 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) Sir Stanley Spencer b 1891 – 1959 n BRITISH 5 Berkshire 1 oils. It also provided the setting for his profound belief in the return of Christ for and among ordinary people. Like all true visionary eccentrics.5 cm). Macedonia Sir Stanley Spencer. independent. but not too progressive. 1916. oil on canvas. His best works are his religious and World War I subjects. Sun. Disregarded prevailing conventions (social and moral. self-assured. Spencer served in the army as a medical orderly and infantryman.

one of the best-known British modern masters. drawings 2 Washington. London. 1936. Winter Stage. He consciously rejected Renaissance notions of ideal beauty. often in long horizontal format. trees). and English medieval sculpture. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $7. 1977 (Washington. UNESCO Reclining Figure. and as human figures. Flirted with Surrealism in the 1930s. Walk around his sculptures to investigate the constantly changing relationships between the different parts. Also painted still lifes and nudes. His work is a popular choice for international sculptural monuments but it looks best when in a landscape setting rather than in a gallery. Moore was a founder of the English Surrealist Group in 1936. elmwood. Declined when he used assistants for late public monuments. Egyptian. Moore was fascinated by the reclining nude. ambitious Yorkshireman. and mother-and-child images. “… a work must first have a pent-up energy. in which color and form are increasingly abstracted to simple elements.C . DC: National Gallery of Art) 5 Leeds.” HENRY MOORE . Among the first in England to sustain a development of post-Cubist painting. 1900–70 399 theme was landscape. but was much influenced by Mexican. cliffs. gritty. Hertfordshire 1 sculpture. this was gradually replaced by a desire for monumentality. 1929 (London: Tate Collection). 1957 (Paris: UNESCO Headquarters). so that his forms can be read simultaneously as organic nature (rocks. Three-piece Reclining Figure: Draped (sculpture) Moore was a tough. height 25 1⁄4 in (64 cm). an intense life of its own. important war drawings in 1940s. KEY WORKS Mother and Child. 1936–37 (Leeds: City Art Gallery). He investigated ideas in his drawings and was a superb sculptural draftsman. His romantic response to nature and the human figure is often expressed as a synthesis of the two. Direct carving Reclining Figure (LH 175) Henry Moore. West Yorkshire: Wakefield Art Gallery. independent of the object it may represent. 1936 (London: Tate Collection) Henry Moore b 1898 – 1986 n BRITISH and truth to materials were an imperative of his early work. Mirror Knife Edge.5m in 2004. KEY WORKS Balcony at Cambridge.

mysteries of nature. although Hepworth’s starting point was nature. She expressed in sculpture.000 in 1990. also beautiful drawings. Two Forms. St. 1972 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Ben Nicholson b 1894 – 1982 n BRITISH 5 England. La Boutique Fantastique (oils) Involute 1 Dame Barbara Hepworth. Pierced abstract form became a distinctive feature. Patrick Heron. Tate St. Private Collection. 1933 (London: Tate Collection). Italy.” DAME BARBARA HEPWORTH She had a lifelong belief in truth to materials—taking stone.936. Ives School. height 18 in (45. white stone. Doyen of the St. She searched for (and found) fundamental essences and elements. natural materials. Initiated and developed pierced form to explore materials and evoke nature’s mystery and organic growth. Son of Sir William Nicholson. Minoan Head. The Family of Man: Figure I. he married Barbara Hepworth in 1934. Ives in Cornwall became a creative colony for British artists after the arrival in 1939 of sculptor Barbara Hepworth and her then husband Ben Nicholson.400 MODERNISM Dame Barbara Hepworth b 1903 – 75 n BRITISH ST. Paris. and identification with. not the human figure. Switzerland 1 oils. Cornwall. nature and landscape. 1928 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). for the first time. These were distilled and abstracted. sculpture 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $1. England Opened in 1993. KEY WORKS Doves. allowing Hepworth to explore the physical essence and inherent poetry of her materials. the gallery overlooks Porthmeor Beach and exhibits modern and contemporary art. Wallis’s naïve paintings later inspired many of the group. seasons. for instance. adapting the final form to its own peculiarities. 1943 (Private Collection). indicate respect for Classical tradition. Nicholson was a pioneer of abstract art in Britain. after visit to Greece (1953). St. and one of the UK’s first modern artists. which included artists Terry Frost. into simplified forms and pure color like Matisse (she had contact with the French avant-garde in 1932). bronze (after 1950) and making apparent the unique quality of each individual piece. Her inspiration came from light. the tradition of English Romantic landscape. . IVES GROUP 1940s –1960 S 5 England. Made some geometric carvings in the 1930s. Look for a deeply emotional response to. who had discovered retired fisherman painter Alfred Wallis on an earlier visit to the town. “In the contemplation of nature we are perpetually renewed. She was much honored and revered both in her lifetime and subsequently. Her first such piece dates from 1931–32.7cm). 1946. Greek titles. Used strings to express emotional response and tension. Ancestor I (sculpture) Hepworth was a leading member of the first generation of British modern masters. Ives 1 sculpture 2 St Ives: Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden 3 $1m in 2004. and sculptor Henry Moore. wood. Sculpture with Colour (Oval Form) Pale Blue and Red. Ives.

Was also a book illustrator and stage designer. but will come back into fashion one day. His portraits (his best work?) show a fascination for facial forms that contain the inner personality (like a fossil in a rock). 1935 (London: Tate Collection). and drawings. Does the fact that his work looks equally at home in modern or traditional. which enjoyed playing games (ball and psychological). Once the epitome of acceptable modernity. Moved easily between a pared-down figuration and pure abstraction. romantic imagery of landscape and architecture. prints 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $131. making constructions out of boards that he cut. In the 1950s. The lean. February 1956 (menhir). reliefs. British or European settings suggest that it is bland—or does it mean it is the essence of international savoir faire? KEY WORKS St.C . and painted. country or urban. Notice the way in which he imposed English virtues of politeness or understatement on the unruly appearance of the European avant-garde. athletic look and sense of calculation rather than spontaneity was central to his competitive persona. 1900–70 401 September 1963 Ben Nicholson. Christ in Glory. stylized. In the 1930s. John Piper b 1903 – 92 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils. 1962 (Coventry Cathedral) . Toad (oils) His work is a fascinating example of English tradition and modern idiom cohabiting. KEY WORKS Somerset Maugham. making it as well-tailored as a Savile Row suit and as well-mannered as a game of gentlemen’s cricket (both express deep passions as well as reserve). making interesting use of materials and scratched textures. Nicholson explored abstraction through carved relief sculptures. His work shows debt to modern European art—Cubism. well-regarded painter and printmaker notable for a very personal. Ives Bay: Sea with Boats. KEY WORKS Beach with Starfish. oil and collage on fibrocement. assembled. North Wales (oils) He chose traditional subject matter (landscapes and still lifes) for his paintings. Rocky Valley. his work now looks dated. 1931 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). Mondrian. White Relief.200 in 2003. he returned to the theme. Private Collection. 1949 (London: Tate Collection). 1939 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) Graham Sutherland b 1903 – 80 n BRITISH 5 England. France 1 engravings. 1933–34 (London: Tate Collection). 1963. 1956 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) A serious. and Braque. Underrated. Autumn at Stourhead.050 in 2004. Sutherland’s landscapes reveal a fascination with organic forms and metamorphosis. oils 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $247.

A Marxist. Italy. 300 lbs). Siqueiros considered this his greatest achievement and the union of all his discoveries. US 1 oils. He is revered as Mexico’s greatest painter. and in the quantity and scale of his work—representing Orozco was one of the three great Mexican muralists (with Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros). area 50. crowded images is truly miraculous. 1931 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums). Mexico City: Carrillo Gil Museum 3 $883. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). narrative scenes. loved and financed by US mega-capitalists. which are revolutionary manifestos in their own right and exploit daring.8m in 1995.402 MODERNISM The March of Humanity in Latin America David Alfaro Siqueiros. meters). in terms of his charismatic personality (political revolutionary and turbulent love life). fresco 2 Mexico City (fresco decorations in public buildings). physically and conceptually. Look for monumental. 1964. The way he turns his vision into vast. smaller-scale easel paintings and sketches: portraits. Produced solemn (gloomy?) works with strong political commitment—art in the service of the people’s revolution. watercolors 2 Guadalajara: Orozco Workshop-Museum. sculptural peasants and faces. The large-scale murals he created in the 1920s and 1930s were designed for public spaces and express a utopian view of society—they are political statements of art in the service of society. figures. His publicbuilding murals. His crowning achievements are the vast in-situ murals in Mexico. and future. KEY WORKS Seated Nude. direct. cinemainspired angles and perspectives. The Aztec World. realism.645 sq. in a cold and austere style. and all races and cultures coexist in harmony. political causes in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. David Alfaro Siqueiros b 1896 – 1974 n MEXICAN 5 Mexico. science.000 sq. Mexico City: Polyforum Siqueiros. He revived the art of monumental. earthy subjects. Was technically accomplished and quietly experimental (he made very early use of industrial paints and drip techniques). mural painting. with a storyteller’s instinct for memorable detail. present.000 in 1989. 1929 (Mexico City: Palacio Nacional) Diego Rivera b 1886 – 1957 n MEXICAN José Clemente Orozco b 1883 – 1949 n MEXICAN 5 Mexico. 1931 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) social realism at its most convincing. Modernism (Cubist space). He synthesized first-hand knowledge of pre-Columbian art. Masaccio. Europe 1 oils. Piero) into brilliantly organized and controlled decorative pageants. Zapata. humanity. and still lifes. and was unshakeably consistent in his style and belief. Table on a Café Terrace. Niña Madre (works on paper) A prolific painter and writer who was deeply involved in progressive. His vision was a union between Mexico’s Indian history and a machine-age future in which past. Paris. Cellar (oils) Rivera was a giant—physically (6 ft. Also produced seductive. US 1 oils. Detroit Institute of Arts 3 $2. are based on his experiences of . ft (4. Baile en Tehuantepec (oils) 5 Mexico. 1913 (St. and early Renaissance frescoes (monumental. true fresco. 1915 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). nature.200 in 2004. acrylics 2 Mexico City (murals for public buildings) 3 $330. male and female. simplified forms of Giotto. KEY WORKS Still Life.

23 1⁄2 x 19 1⁄2 in (59. The Two Fridas.9m in 1995. 1932–34 (New Hampshire: Dartmouth College) sufferings. 1900–70 403 the Mexican Revolution and Civil War. 1940 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Frida Kahlo b 1907 – 54 n MEXICAN 5 Mexico 1 oils 2 Coyoacan (Mexico): Museo Frida Kahlo 3 $2. or does it touch deeper levels of emotion? KEY WORKS Self-Portrait with Monkey. Is her art merely parochial.C . 1939 (Mexico City: Museo de Arte Moderno). Arizona: Phoenix Art Museum. Dorothy Hale was a beautiful socialite who. 1938 (Buffalo: Albright-Knox Art Gallery). with an exploration of themes of Mexican politics and identity. 1939. threw herself to her death from the window of her New York apartment. . who created powerful. after losing her husband and her financial security.7 x 49. both physical (she was crippled in a car accident aged 15) and emotional (stormy marriage to Diego Rivera). Autorretrato con chango y loro (oils) Kahlo was one of the best-known Mexican painters. oil on masonite with painted frame. Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair. 1926 (Mexico City: Casa de los Azulejos). figurative images that synthesized her Suicide of Dorothy Hale Frida Kahlo.5 cm). The Coming and the Return of Quetzalcoatl. KEY WORKS Fresco series. showing the struggles and sacrifices of the people and the pain of needless suffering.

Still Life. 34 2⁄3 x 28 1⁄3 in (88 x 72 cm). light. conscious creation of beauty. Private Collection. sculpture 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $6.4m in 2004. 1957 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle) The Mystery and Melancholy of a Street Giorgio de Chirico. reality and dream. drawings 2 Washington. delicate color. clocks. 1943 (London: Tate Collection). KEY WORKS The Balthus b 1908 – 2001 n FRENCH Living Room. Switzerland 1 oils 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $3. Small scale. almost monochrome. Slow. Natura Morta (oils) He was reclusive. engravings 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $1. Italy. US 1 oils. muted tones. ideologically opposed to abstract art. trains.35m in 1990. abstract painter (his style was never fully resolved—principally large . determined to establish the importance of craftsmanship. careful workmanship. His work probes the area between innocence and perversity. almost abstract. to be enjoyed in silence. Consciously worked against the modern grain— Hans Hofmann b 1880 – 1966 n GERMAN/AMERICAN 5 Paris. Late work is weak. 1926 (London: Tate Collection) Giorgio Morandi b 1890 – 1964 n ITALIAN 5 Bologna 1 oils. 1914. and the primacy of human figure. Munich. well-connected intellectually (Bonnard and Rilke were family friends). Much influenced by Nietzsche. The Great Metaphysician (oils) De Chirico was the originator of metaphysical painting. isolated.404 MODERNISM Giorgio de Chirico b 1888 – 1978 n ITALIAN 5 Greece. He painted landscapes and portraits. KEY WORKS The Uncertainty of the Poet. Affirmation of time-honored virtues such as precise draftsmanship. and gifted. oil paint. In Upper Regions (oils) A pioneering.4m in 2004. irrational shadows. oversized objects. around 1910–20. Japanese Girl with Red Table. Golden Afternoon (oils) His full name was Balthasar Klossowski de Rola Balthus. 1941–43 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). low key. Beautiful etchings. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $980. and a sense of latent menace and ungraspable meaning. oil on canvas. with Polish antecedents. poetic simplicity. but only moderately successful.000 in 2003. US 1 oils. De Chirico’s poetic suggestions of the unpredictable were an inspiration for the Surrealists. Sleeping Girl. best known for his post-1920 still lifes of simple objects (such as bottles) of great delicacy and seductive. Good pre-1920 metaphysical paintings. The Painter’s Family. Haunting paintings of deserted Italianate squares with exaggerated perspectives. KEY WORKS Still Life. observation from life. 1913 (London: Tate Collection). 1948 (Parma: Fondazione Magnani-Rocca). 1967–76 (Private Collection) 5 France. Melancholic curmudgeon with a brief period of true greatness. Paris. Self-taught and precocious. Reclusive. Italy.

she commissioned Nadelman to create a set of marble heads for her beauty salons. scientific and sterile…” HANS HOFMANN moved to London around 1914 before emigrating to New York at the onset of World War I. DC: National Gallery of Art).C . he married an heiress and became a pioneer collector of folk art. the common denominator being a search for purity in form and materials. 34 1⁄3 in (88 cm). Man in the Open Air. cherry wood and gesso. City Horizon. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. . He “Imitation of objective reality is not creation… it is a purely intellectual performance. c. After a decade of living the high life. There he counted cosmetics queen Helena Rubinstein among his patrons. In 1919. Hugely gifted and influential as a teacher. KEY WORKS Classical Head with Headdress. Impressed by American popular culture. His Parisian style was eclectic in the Classical Greek tradition. 1915 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). he lost everything financially in the economic depression that followed the Wall Street Crash of 1929. 1918–24. the artist also borrowed from folk art to make observations of high society. KEY WORKS Autumn Gold. He himself created charming folk Tango Elie Nadelman. 1908–09 (Wisconsin: Milwaukee Art Museum). 1959 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art) art—inspired wood sculptures (with a hint of the Hellenistic). Tango (sculpture) A gifted Polish sculptor of great charm. 1909 (Washington. 1920–22 (New York: Jewish Museum of Art) Elie Nadelman b 1882 – 1946 n POLISH/AMERICAN 5 Paris. 1957 (Washington. Was the key figure in bringing news of the European giants (like Picasso) to the younger generation of soon-to-be American Abstract Expressionists.6m in 1987. 1900–70 405 squares modified by thick pigment and bright color). DC: Smithsonian American Art Museum 3 $2. c. height approx. His work is an interesting and successful synthesis of ancient and modern. His sculptures often have the silhouettes of figures in Seurat’s paintings. Nadelman moved to Paris in 1904. DC: Hirshhorn Museum). Standing Female Nude. London. The Dancer. US 1 sculpture 2 Washington.

DC: Smithsonian American Art Museum 3 $2. Untitled (The Hotel Eden).25m in 1985. small-scale. mixed media. Sky Cathedral. Many of the reveries are about travel that he never undertook (maps and images of Paris. murals.000 in 1989. they are poetic reveries rather than Freudian dream worlds. Often tinkered for years with images and contents of individual boxes. This inspiration led her to create wall-sized assemblages. Though often pigeonholed as Surrealist. 1969. Munich 1 sculpture. height 210 ⁄4 in 1 5 Iowa Chicago 1 oils. 1945 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada) Grant Wood b 1892 – 1942 n AMERICAN Mirror Image 1 Louise Nevelson. painted in monochrome. Arbor Day (oils) (534 cm). usually black. Scoured junk shops for bits and pieces. Also portraits. Her sculpture is most impressive when on a large scale. It is distinguished work that carries in it the sort of accumulated experience and mysterious gravitas that comes with old age. Dawn’s Wedding Chapel I (sculpture) Born Louise Berliawsky in Kiev (family emigrated to the US in 1905). 1958 (Buffalo: Albright-Knox Art Gallery) 5 US 1 sculpture. oils 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $230. His quirky work reflects . 1932 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). tempera 2 Art Institute of 3 $1. The glass fronts of the boxes symbolically separate the real world from the dream. which he filed away meticulously. 1972 n AMERICAN 5 US. “unhealthy” aspects. New York. Lived lonely. and stained glass. No sexual imagery—he disapproved of Surrealism’s dark. each box containing an assortment of forms created from wood scraps. reclusive life in Flushing. Nevelson took the boxes that she had previously used as pedestals for her work and turned them into art. imaginative boxes. 1935 (Private Collection). This is a welcome reminder that no one is ever too old to be creative: Nevelson’s best work was done in her 70s and 80s. Untitled (Medici Princess) (mixed media) The creator of strange. with his mother and crippled brother. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts.3m in 2005.406 MODERNISM Louise Nevelson b 1899 – 1988 n GERMAN/AMERICAN Joseph Cornell b 1903 – C. She only discovered her signature style in the 1950s—open-sided boxes made into reliefs. mixed media. KEY WORKS White Vertical Water. for instance) or film stars he never met. He was a painter of fantastical. KEY WORKS Tilly Losch. Nevelson was brought up with wood (the family business was timber) and was always dedicated to being a sculptor (to the point of abandoning her husband and child). oils 2 Washington. childlike landscapes. filling them with carved wooden forms. painted wood. It must be absorbed slowly just like the company or wisdom of the ancients.

calculated. The fifth in the series of six “Power” paintings commissioned by Fortune magazine. carefully painted with a front-on view and emphasis on simplified geometry. who produced small-scale views of industrial architecture (factories. stiff. Wood was the (closet gay) altar boy of American regionalism. strict parents. KEY WORKS Fugue.7 cm). He had a painstaking. Note his subtle colors and acute observation of light and shade. 1928 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Charles Sheeler b 1883 – 1965 n AMERICAN 5 US. 1940 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art. romantic painter and photographer who turned the industrial landscape into works of art as carefully “Paintings must be looked at and looked at and looked at… No writing. photography 2 Washington. oil on canvas. no talking. and the total absence of human presence. Welcome to our City (oils) The leading Precisionist of the 1920s and 1930s. Stacks in Celebration. KEY WORKS American Gothic. 1932 (Ohio: Cincinnati Art Museum) Charles Demuth b 1883 – 1935 n AMERICAN 5 US. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere. 1927 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). 1939. In 1959. 1954 (New York: Berry-Hill Galleries) old-fashioned virtues: sobriety. and free of human presence as any mass-produced objects.7m in 1983. old-fashioned style. Does it parody the chaste and sober virtues it proclaims or is it admiring them? His work never reveals the answer. KEY WORKS My Egypt.C . 1900–70 407 Steam Turbine Charles Sheeler. no singing. often working in tempera. Europe 1 oils. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $1. he suffered a stroke and had to give up painting and photography. Europe 1 oils. University of Rochester 3 $750. Worked for Henry Ford and shared his belief that factories are temples of worship. and sexual morality. Daughters of the Revolution. and he never confessed to anyone. water towers. 1930 (Art Institute of Chicago). watercolors 2 New York: Memorial Art Gallery.000 in 1992. and just as enigmatic. Iowa-raised. and silos). Aerial Gyrations. Landscape (oils) Sheeler was a dour. 22 x 18 in (56 x 45. I Saw the Figure Five in Gold. precise. American Gothic is as famous in American art as the Mona Lisa is in Italian art. 1931 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Replaced the sublimity of wild nature with the sublimity of the urban landscape. 1953 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art).” CHARLES DEMUTH . no dancing will explain them.

New York inhabitant with a small-town puritan upbringing. Her paintings are in a naïve style with nostalgic images of idyllic rural life. Europe 1 oils. 31 3⁄4 x 38 in (81 x 96. electric light). oil on canvas. DC: National Gallery of Art). She copied details from popular prints. Making Apple Butter. significant. Nighthawks. Black Horses. 1958 (Art Institute of Chicago) Chop Suey Edward Hopper.5 cm). Country Fair (oils) Née Anna Mary Robertson. watercolors 2 New York: Whitney Museum of American Art 3 $12. who became a successful and quintessential American painter. Barney A. KEY WORKS 5 US. Hopper preferred cheap restaurants. Chair Car (oils) He was a taciturn. not just an anecdotal story? His subtle space distortions that create a sense that something is wrong or about to happen? Similar talents are shown by the great black-and-white Early Sunday Morning. and old clothes. Influenced by photography and the movies (avid moviegoer). 1930 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). and memorable? Is it his magic way with light? His ability to simplify and generalize—to express a universal mood. secondhand cars. 1942 (Private Collection). full of women and children. engravings. Marvelous observation and recording of light (perhaps most notably harsh. her work was in turn endlessly reproduced as greeting cards. Spare. Cape Cod Evening. Strong color sense and ability to create tense.5m in 2005. tough technique (like many of his subjects). confined spaces. and also Cape Cod. and Impressionism (visited Paris in 1906–07 and 1909–10). A self-taught farmer’s wife from Virginia in Vermont who. Ebsworth. and Mrs. KEY WORKS My Hills of Home. became a celebrity. lean. monosyllabic. 1939 (Washington. in the 1930s. Even when successful. aged 70+. 1942 (Art Institute of Chicago) Grandma Moses b 1860 – 1961 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Vermont: Bennington Museum 3 $180. How is he able to make the commonplace and banal so uneasy. His imagery is the American urban landscape and its inhabitants. wallpaper. . and fabrics. 1941 (New York: University of Rochester). 1929.000 in 1993. Collection of Mr.408 MODERNISM Edward Hopper b 1882 – 1967 n AMERICAN movie producers (like Hitchcock)—many of his pictures could be stills from a movie.

movement. 1938 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). Her work will be remembered and valued far longer than many other 20th-century names that are currently in fashion or overpraised. restless figures in heaving swirling spaces. Her intense and exotic imagery lay in that intriguing area between figuration and abstraction. animal bones.3m in 1997.000 in 2003. 1948 (Art Institute of Chicago). KEY WORKS John Brown Forming an Organization among the Colored People of Adirondack Woods to Resist the Capture of Any Fugitive Slaves. KEY WORKS Martha’s Vineyard. From the Plains (oils) An influential but one-off artist. which have a strong period feel of the 1920s. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $290. Ten Fugitives (oils) Lawrence’s was the first voice of an authentic art by and for African– Americans. modern style with intense colors. 1929 (Washington. anti-Modern and energetic self-publicist. Street to Mbari. and his works influenced Jackson Pollock. with which her work was contemporary (Walt Disney: 1901–66). Jack-in-the-Pulpit No. 1964 (Washington. and pattern has something in common with the best of the classic Disney cartoons. Notice how she transformed all of them into something that has a strong unreal. resided in Harlem. Many of her paintings have the shifting and fantastic qualities seen in cloud patterns in the sky. Many of her paintings depict her memories of that time. poetic life: mountains become flesh. 1941 (Detroit Institute of Arts). 1900–70 409 DC: National Gallery of Art). DC: Corcoran Gallery of Art). oil on masonite. 1926 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). first as hired help and then as the wife of a farmer. political family and was a cantankerous. lean. White Iris No. Researched and understood the Great Migration and Ku Klux Klan persecution.5 x 60 cm). mountains. Roasting Ears. plants become organisms like sea anemones. Homeward Bound (oils) Down on the Farm in Winter Grandma Moses. Born in Atlanta. Determined painter of subjects that proclaim the authentic virtues of the Midwest. Massachusetts: Addison Gallery of American Art).C . outside the mainstream of modern art. 1945. 19 1⁄2 x 23 3⁄5 in (49. She made very powerful images of nature and architecture. Her ability to simplify and intensify color. Red Hills with White Shell. Ranchos Church. Cattle Loading. non-urban American life— bulging. US 1 oils 2 Missouri: Jefferson City. The Wedding. homophobic. DC: National Gallery of Art) . bold and simple patterns. IV. Look for plants and flowers (often in close-up).4m in 1989. Georgia O’Keefe b 1872 – 1986 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. DC: Phillips College). Very popular. Tokyo: Fuji Museum. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3. KEY WORKS Black Iris. even surreal. notably Fantasia. 1930 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art ) Jacob Lawrence b 1917 – 2000 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. 1925 (Washington. 1930s. Grandma Moses spent most of her life on a farm. 1930 (Andover. c. skulls live and see.7. and 1940s. Was a keen user of vulgar colors. 1957 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza) Thomas Hart Benton b 1889 – 1975 n AMERICAN 5 Paris. Unusual and intense color combinations. He is most famous for the “Migration” series—60 small powerful paintings in a spare. Benton came from a national. 1930 (Washington. Considered the High Priest of American Regionalism. which are strengthened by their understatement and the lack of any expression of hatred. West Texas. for murals in Capitol Building 3 $1.

1964 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). manipulated. One of the most influential and original modern sculptors of his generation. 1957 (Harvard University: Fogg Art Museum). His quiet modesty. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3.6 x 7. Every good painter paints what he is … When I am in my painting I’m not aware what I’m doing. 1967 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) KEY WORKS 5 US 1 oils. This did not happen until the mid-1940s when he was aged 50+ (he was a contemporary of Picasso. Number 6 Jackson Pollock. out of small calligraphic marks and gestures. KEY WORKS Hudson River Landscape. Fragments in Time and Space. steel. DC: Hirshhorn Museum). 22 2⁄3 x 30 3⁄4 in (57 x 78 cm). His work is at its best when on a large scale. 1948. Composition. Far East calligraphy. who swung between sensitivity and machismo. and found objects. such as 12 x 24 ft (3. which he welded.2 m). and Japanese woodcuts.000 in 1999. and of human worth. Untitled (oils) Tobey was a sensitive artist who developed a very personal abstract style. and deep feeling touched his work with a profound sense of the presence of fundamental and universal forces. 1951 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). New York. Switzerland 1 oils 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $130.” JACKSON POLLOCK . elation and despair. Was influenced by spiritual faith (a convert to Bahai). nicknamed “Jack the Dripper. Number 8.” was a tortured alcoholic. 1956 (Washington.5m in 1989. mixed media 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art. 1950 (watercolors) This pioneering abstract painter of the New York School. Advance of History. oil on paper laid down on canvas. inventive. rather than Pollock). England. Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Collection 3 $10. 1965 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) “Painting is a state of being … Painting is selfdiscovery. poetic works made from iron. Cubi V (sculpture) Smith created beautiful.7m in 1994. Cubi XXVII. Pollock first showed his drip paintings in 1948 at the Betty Parsons Gallery. heroic. Far East. and coaxed into constructions of great originality. honest beliefs. serene and luminous.410 MODERNISM Mark Tobey b 1890 – 1976 n AMERICAN Jackson Pollock b 1912 – 56 n AMERICAN 5 US. Private Collection. Amerindian art. enamels. Books and Apple. as it is only then that the passionate. David Smith b 1906 – 65 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 sculpture 2 Washington.

but not arbitrary or careless). 1953 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne) The Moon-Woman Cuts the Circle Jackson Pollock. (A child of five cannot conceive or create on this scale. . But why no footprints? KEY WORKS The Blue Poles: Number 11. The Deep. 1900–70 411 monumental nature of his achievement becomes apparent. 1950. How many separate layers of paint can you see? It is just about possible to reconstruct his movements. (Washington. Look for the rhythms and flow in the threads of paint (they may be instinctive.C . Inspired by a North American Indian myth about the moon and the feminine. Paris: Musée National d'Art Moderne. 1952 (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia). Lavender Mist: Number 1. DC: National Gallery of Art).5 x 104 cm). oil on canvas. 1943. and so be “in” the painting at second hand. 43 x 41 in (109.) He put the canvas on the floor and stood in the middle with a large can of household paint—he consciously wanted to be “in” the painting and to become physically part of it.

commits suicide in his studio emotions and anxieties in distorted figurative images. Pollock dripped and flung paint onto his giant canvases. Other artists aimed to express the deepest and most universal of KEY EVENTS 1943 Rothko. and New York replaced Paris as the capital of artistic creativity. Rothko’s immense areas of subtly modulated color had precise. Kline’s early work was black and white. Among its leaders.412 MODERNISM ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM Abstract Expressionism grew out of the human tragedies of the Great Depression and World War II. then smeared by newspapers. oil on canvas. STYLE It grew out of Surrealism but was never a coherent movement and had no program. Part of the artist’s passionate outpourings during the 1970s when his painting became an extreme frenzy of bold colors and paint layering. dripping paint onto huge canvases laid on the ground Pollock killed in car crash Rothko. artists felt compelled to act. Yet as with music. meditative ends in mind. or fields of pure. 1948–60. Ballantine Franz Kline. 1946 1947 1956 1970 Man on the Dunes Willem de Kooning. The spontaneity is illusory: each “gesture” was painted slowly and deliberately. 1971. ultimately all Abstract Expressionist works can only be felt intuitively rather than understood. oils. Styles were wholly personal. reaching maturity in the early years of the Cold War. . Still. torn between the desire to allow chance to determine how it fell and to control the final result. suffering from deep depression. later he used color. SUBJECTS Sometimes energized forms (such as Jackson Pollock’s) were intended to be a near-documentary account of the artist’s struggle to create in his or her direct encounter with the canvas. It was also entirely American. Faced with the real possibility of the denial of freedom of expression and the extinction of the human race. and Gottlieb assert the basic goals of their art in a letter to The New York Times New Yorker art critic Robert Coates coins the term “Abstract Expressionism” Pollock develops new style of Surrealist-influenced “automatic” painting. and create art that would take up these issues. Private Collection. Los Angeles: County Museum of Art. deliberately modulated or contrasting color.

1956. Its impact derives in large measure from scale. Black in Rothko’s hands achieves a gentle luminosity: the sense of an “infinite void” is palpable . with both appearing to hover over a delicate red base. inducing a kind of quasireligious feeling. almost relieflike blocks of color. 93 3⁄4 x 53 1⁄2 in (238 x 136 cm). It is alternately bold and assertive. the upper stacked weightlessly over the lower.C . you miss the point … I’m interested only in exploring basic human emotions. The effect of the work is deliberately sublime. Rothko paints two hazy. Rothko spoke for them all when he said “… if you are moved only by the color relationships. Harvard: Fogg Art Museum. contemplative and questioning.” The Black and the White Mark Rothko. 1900–70 413 late 1940s –1950s WHAT TO LOOK FOR Heroic imperatives dominate Abstract Expressionism. Within a limited range. Abstract Expressionist works were displayed unframed so that they would be perceived as a “presence” rather than a tangible object. seeming to draw the spectator into what can feel like a parallel universe. whether Pollock’s rivulets and rivers of paint. Still’s thick. Texture is important. or Rothko’s layers of thinly applied color. However. large canvases—“portable murals” —that overwhelm and dazzle. oil on canvas. softedged blocks of color. Rothko’s colors have an exceptional richness. a seemingly infinite series of subtle gradations TECHNIQUES In a typical motif. too.

expression. 1948 (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia). Thomas University. Treat the works with the respect and care with which they were created and give them time to reach you. Committed suicide. glowing colors. His last paintings were. DC: Phillips College) work with arbitrary gestures.8m in 1989. Look for his early work to see how slowly and carefully he reached this final. and breathtaking as a high-wire act).5m Newman. sadly.414 Mark Rothko b 1903 – 70 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 London: Tate Collection. White and Black on White (oils) A melancholic Russian émigré who settled in the US at the age of 10. sculpture 2 Washington. between abstraction and figuration (as skilled. Black. Interchange (oils) A Rotterdam-born painter and decorator who went to New York in 1926. 1960 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art) Willem de Kooning b 1904 – 97 n DUTCH/AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. In the complexity of paint and imagery lurk subtle layers of meaning. Wonderful color sense. His deceptively simple abstract paintings have deliberately plain. Orange. His work is at its best seen on a large scale. He produced his best work between 1950 and 1963. so that the color completely fills your field of vision and seeps through your eyes into your mood and feelings. completely filling a space such as the Rothko room at Tate Modern or the chapel at St.6m in 2003. stand close to the works. soft-edged shapes and luminous. Move around them so as to get to know them. Thomas University. wait. feeble (he had Alzheimer’s disease). sculptures in 2002. 1953 (Washington. daring. If you see the intense color fields with the simple vertical stripes as nothing more than that. and complex textures and interweaving of paint. Yellow on White and Red). Rothko said his paintings were about “tragedy. using thrilling and unusual color juxtapositions. Marilyn Monroe. New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $14. a leading Abstract Expressionist. Rothko became a leading member of the New York School and pioneer of Color Field abstract painting. One of the few artists to achieve a genuine synthesis between figuration and abstraction—the image (most famously. 1949 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). the woman) and the abstract expressive gesture coexist and interact as equal partners. 1954 (Private Collection). . KEY WORKS Multiform. developed a personal style of large-scale Color Field painting that attempted to touch emotions and aspirations beyond the power of words to express. White Fire 1 (oils) 3 $3. flabby colors. Door to the River. and splodgy decoration. very personal. he lost control and direction. Untitled (Violet. relax. Green and Maroon. After 1963. ecstasy. and doom”—about fundamental (and romantic) emotions and passions. 1952–53 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). Look for everything or nothing. and became one of the most consistent and longest-lived Abstract Expressionists. turning out Barnett Newman b 1905 – 70 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $18. between aggression and beauty. He creates a truly exciting balance and tension between uncontrolled freedom and conscious control. Houston: St. Who can or will explain the tortured female? KEY WORKS Woman and Bicycle. which are a pleasure to look at.

and collages are always elegant. 1961 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts) . calculated simplicity. cigarette wrappers.6m in 2004.7m in 2005. the unexpected. The collages he built around wine labels. But further acquaintance shows that this is the opposite of what they are. 1950–51. Originally an art critic. writer. New York: Museum of Modern Art. 95 3⁄8 x 213 1⁄4 in (242. moody. Chief. Moment.6 cm). collage 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $2. accident. or the yellow stripe as a flash of cosmic light. erudite. He worked out the compositions and placing of the brush marks very carefully. large-scale paintings. Newman was an articulate advocate for the Abstract Expressionists. Enjoys paint. But if you see. form a deeply emotional response to the Spanish Civil War and Motherwell’s realization that civilization can regress. Painted wellbalanced. They are typical for their time: gestural. Dionysius.Vir Heroicus Sublimis Barnett Newman. serene pictures with astonishing Motherwell was an urbane. 1950 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) you will not see much. 1949 (Washington. KEY WORKS Personage (Autoportrait). drawings. influential painter. His work ranges from small-scale.71 (oils) Franz Kline b 1910 – 62 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. the red background drawing aside to reveal an expanding opening into an infinite blue space (the blue stripe). his big black-and-white abstract paintings from the 1950s and 1960s look like enlarged Chinese calligraphy. fluent. 1946 (London: Tate Collection). full of existential angst.2 x 513. His major achievement. oil on canvas. Kline was not spontaneous. the “Spanish Elegies” series of paintings (more than 150 canvases done over his lifetime). His abstract paintings. cerebral and sensual harmony. DC: National Gallery of Art) KEY WORKS Robert Motherwell b 1915 – 91 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. Visitors to a Kline exhibition become noticably deeply engaged with the works and each other. Restrained use of color. Black on White. Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. Crow Dancer (oils) Kline was a leading Abstract Expressionist who grew up in the industrial coal-mining region of Pennsylvania. intimate collages to grand. KEY WORKS Ballantine. then you will see everything. At first. and philosopher who was a leading Abstract Expressionist. and music are a diary of association. Studied in Boston and London. 1943 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). for example. Lived a lonely life in New York and died young. personal. spontaneous. 1948–60 (Los Angeles: County Museum of Art). He married Helen Frankenthaler. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $5. not an autobiography.

Thus the vertical “necessity of life” arises from the horizontal. Ascent. 118 x 275 3⁄4 in (300 x 700 cm). and awkwardness that reflect both the character of the artist and the agenda shared by his fellow Abstract Expressionists. Towards Disappearance I (oils) Francis took up art as therapy while recovering from spinal injuries as a World War II fighter pilot. he was brought up in the big open spaces of Alberta. He continued the 19thcentury tradition of Romantic landscape. prints. sculpture 2 Washington. with a vertical format for paintings and “images. His later large-scale (for their time) abstract paintings are heavily worked. Blast II (oils) Gottlieb was a well-known Abstract Expressionist. intransigence. but too schematic to be one of the great artists.” His works manifest a deliberate cragginess. heroic. Canada. watercolors. . He had two styles: 1941–51—pictographs. 1944 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). round. open. Around the Blues. 1950s onward—imaginary semi-abstract landscapes. Still was intense. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne. typically with a simple. Large-scale abstracts in which splattered and dribbled pure translucent color floats with weightless ease over a white background. 1951 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art). and difficult to live with. A sensitive intellect in a rugged exterior. 1949 (Champaign. having rough surfaces with thick paint. conjuring up a magical. Used intense colors and simple “imagery” consisting of “flames” or “flashes” of color on a field of single color. His early figurative work explored the relationship between humans and landscape. painterly.416 MODERNISM Adolph Gottlieb b 1903 – 74 n AMERICAN Sam Francis b 1923 – 94 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. loose compartments filled with schematic and symbolic shapes (he was into Freud and Surrealism). life as a force pitted against nature—especially earth and sky. You have to spend time with the paintings and be prepared to meet the artist halfway. 1958 (New York: Adolph and Esther Gottlieb Foundation) KEY WORKS 5 US.8m in 2004.1m in 1999. romantic. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $850. 1953. Jamais. 1956–57 (London: Tate Collection) Clyfford Still b 1904 – 80 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum 3 $2. KEY WORKS Red and Pink. Illinois: Krannert Art Museum). DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3. and Washington. Japan 1 acrylics. 1955–57. acrylic on canvas. (London: Tate Collection) KEY WORKS In Lovely Blueness Sam Francis. light-filled space.000 in 2003. Romanesque Façade. 1960-F (oils) One of the leading Abstract Expressionist painters. Francis was inspired by memories of light patterns on his hospital ceiling and the Pacific sky. serious. France. He saw art as a moral power in an age of conformity. celestial body floating above loosely painted earthly chaos.

making drawings while in the countryside and then exploring multiple versions of the shapes and colors he had observed. Stunning response to light (as good as Hopper’s). Ocean Park No.3 x 73. His early abstract work can be repetitive and unstructured. topography. His most confident work is figurative. 1967 (Washington. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3. Ocean Park No. artificial light kills subtleties. DC: National Gallery of Art). and statuesque. committed suicide after cancer. and poetic abstract painterly style. deriving inspiration from landscape and nature. 1967 (Washington. Natural colors. simple designs.67 (oils) Considered an American West Coast Matisse (whom he was much taken with). gentle. and so on. but lacked the master’s range and tough-minded certainty. 1946. His abstracts are always oddly tentative— justified as sensitive. KEY WORKS The Artist and his Mother. light). very visual. glowing color. 1926–29 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art).2m in 2001. responsive. Returned to abstraction with the Ocean Park series (from 1966). mixed media. translucent. DC: National Gallery of Art). Vigorous figurative work from 1956. Tragic. and disastrous studio fire. Private Collection. Don’t rush: let the eye bask and play. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3.6 cm).64. as a heart disease prevented him from working large scale). Still Life: Cigarette Butts and Glasses. During the 1940s. 1945 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza) Untitled Arshile Gorky. Hugging/Good Hope Road II. investigative. and juicy paint. car accident.C . Scent of Apricots on the Fields (oils) Gorky emigrated from Turkey to the US in 1920. 1973 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Art) . where his wife’s family had a farm. Lovely small-scale work (cigar-box lids 1976–79) and late work (still small. Diebenkorn was talented. with bold. Richard Diebenkorn b 1922 – 93 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. 1900–70 417 Arshile Gorky b 1904 – 48 n ARMENIAN/AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. these works are large scale.6m in 1995. but somehow he could never reach that final distillation of sensation that so distinguishes Matisse. influential. It is important to see pieces by natural light—hard. 1966 (Private Collection). Seated Figure with Hat. His early abstracts (abstraction from nature) of 1948–56 were reactions to specific places (color. Original lyrical. Gorky spent part of each year in Virginia. and can kill color (perhaps the reason he moved on to figuration?). biomorphic forms (influence of Miró and Surrealism). 21 x 29 in (53. KEY WORKS Seated Nude. early death (like many fellow Abstract Expressionists). Black Background.

The Sorceress. mixed media 2 Basel (Switzerland): Museum Jean Tinguely 3 $265. 1961. sometimes to the point of self-destruction. The artist had shown in New York in 1960. 1980 (Paris: Centre Pompidou) KEY WORKS First founded in Paris by Belgian poet and essayist Christian Dotrement. Welded Sculpture Fountain (sculpture. which move and whizz. gestural works. Animals (oils) An important postwar artist and founder member of CoBrA. along with an ability to create on a large scale. 1949 (London: Tate Collection) Turning of Friendship of America and France Jean Tinguely. intensely colored. DC: Hirshhorn Museum). Married Niki de Saint-Phalle and worked with her on his most famous work. their art was experimental and sympathetic to Expressionism and Surrealism but showed its greatest affinity to folk art and children’s art. and Pierre Alechinksy. drawings. unpredictable. Asger Jorn. made from junk. Beaubourg Fountain. Br from Brussels. clanking machines. Paris 1 oils. 1961 (Washington. 80 1⁄3 in (204 cm). Débricollage. KEY WORKS My Spanish Castle. drawings 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $1. Beaubourg Fountain. he is recognizable for thickly painted. At the forefront of European art until the mid-1960s. 1955 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts) Karel Appel b 1921 – n DUTCH 5 Denmark. sometimes abstract. France. The Three Sages. Hip Hip Hooray. and to works of Paul Klee and Joan Miró. 1961 (Private Collection). Children.000 in 2002. sometimes with figurative imagery. His work is highly original and very humorous. ceramics 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $680. Women.600 in 1997. brightly colored Expressionist paintings that attempt to capture the spontaneity of children’s painting. CoBrA’s name was adopted from the names of the three capital cities of the countries of its principal members: Co from Copenhagen. mixed media. 1953 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). Including Karel Appel. the group were mainly inspired by their Marxist beliefs. In the Beginning was the Image (oils) A founder member of CoBrA. when Pop art became the fashion. Delighted in expressing an anarchic freedom (against neat. Asger Jorn b 1914 – 73 n DANISH 5 Denmark. 1968) The creator of bizarre.418 MODERNISM Jean Tinguely b 1925 – 91 n SWISS COBRA 1948 – 51 5 Switzerland 1 sculpture. .9m in 2002. 1970 (London: Tate Collection). Private Collection. Untitled. Thought that change is the only constant in life. prints. sculptures. KEY WORKS Burned Face. Appel has also produced scenery for a ballet. orderly Switzerland?). US 1 oils. but also benefit from adult sophistication/organization and aesthetic sensibility. and A from Amsterdam. Boldly and freely painted.

1953 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza) Jean Dubuffet b 1901 – 85 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. 1950 (London: Tate Collection). anti-art establishment style—but ended up as the art establishment’s favorite example of radical chic. Too Hot. 1964 (San Francisco: De Young Museum) Nicolas de Staël b 1914 – 55 n FRENCH Octave Pierre Alechinsky. which he then promoted via exhibitions: 1942–50 portraits and graffiti. 1961 (London: Tate Collection). The trouble with most faux naïf work is that you have no idea (unless told) whether the work is to be admired because it is by an untrained and innocent eye.C . not beauty. sculptor. Europe. In each case. To Day Red Hot.9m in 1990. de Stael started with admiration for old masters. 1983. he had a thoughtout agenda and different experiments with materials. prints 2 Périgny-sur-Yerres (Paris): Dubuffet Foundation 3 $4. notable for their spontaneity. 1962 (Rome: L’Archimede – Galleria d’Arte). printmaker. print. rich colors. and glowing translucent color. France 1 oils 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $1. 5 Belgium. Committed suicide (because overwrought or overworked?). 1960s black outlined “jigsaw” style and polystyrene sculpture. KEY WORKS Hors de Jeu.100 in 1990. His work is neglected. Far East 1 oils. Promoted Art Brut and tapped into the unschooled creativity of children and psychotics. Paris. Epave (oils) A painter and printmaker who creates decorative. prints 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $440. sculpture. Alechinsky settled in Paris in 1951 where he developed an interest in Japanese calligraphy and visited the Far East. Le Parc des Sceaux. or by an overeducated sophisticate trying to amaze us by how “simple” he or she can be. The Triumpher. joyful. late 1950s “Earth” themes and sand-gravel textures. A one-time member of the CoBrA group. and writer who was also the son of a wine merchant. and simple forms (suggestive of landscape or still life). DC: Phillips College). Dubuffet raised naïvety to the highest level of sophistication and knew exactly what he was doing—one of the few occasions where this “game” works. Pleasure-giving work that is mercifully free from introspection or pretension to profound meaning. lightness of touch. acrylics. 1900–70 419 Pierre Alechinsky b 1927 – n FRENCH 5 Belgium. Developed a challenging and consciously anti-aesthetic. tactile paint. Often uses formula of a central panel surrounded by complementary border of small calligraphic images. military service. Syracuse (oils) An orphaned Russian aristocrat émigré who took French citizenship in 1948. Evolved a successful style that bridged the divide between figuration and abstraction. Paris: Dubuffet Foundation) . Private Collection. Paris Montparnasse (oils) A painter.3m in 2002. 1973 (Périgny-surYerres. using thick. early 1950s obese nudes in smeary oil paint. collector. divorce. He sought intensity. Turned full-time artist in 1945 after an early life of the wine trade. His art went through a succession of cycles. KEY WORKS Spinning Round. Mediterranean Landscape. and dilettantism. abstract paintings. KEY WORKS Composition. 1952 (Washington. not Modernism.

. painterly abstracts in which black is predominant. What distinguishes Wols from many lesser jotters and scribblers is the quantity. 1960s (Private Collection). Thumb. KEY WORKS Italian Flags. destitute. Peinture 41-58 (oils) He produced large-scale. L’homme de la liberté (sculpture) César is celebrated for constructions and compressions in metal. Japan 1 mixed media. a new style of expressive abstraction. Very visual. sculpture 2 Hamburg: Kunsthalle 3 $6. 1951 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Pierre Soulages b 1919 – n FRENCH 5 France. gouache on paper. structure. high-profile and influential presence. active work. drawings 3 $932. Liked animal skeletons. Born in Germany. who had a brief. surfaces like bats’ wings. gestural. and scratching. From his Tachist phase.8 x 15. Every mark is there for a reason. c. and pioneered. watercolors. Disturbing self-portraits. (This is real integrity. megalomaniac dreamer. lived in France. 1950. a method involving “taches” or stains of color splashed on canvas.9 cm).655 in 1999. often with unusual material. The watercolors frequently have an obsessive concern with detail. Untitled (oils) Wols was a lost soul. witty. Switzerland: Fondation Pierre Gianadda) Yves Klein b 1928 – 62 n FRENCH 5 France. 9 3⁄4 x 6 1⁄4 in (24. Found solace in artistic activity and drink. typical of many dispossessed. smearing. uneducated.) Try to see a group of works together: the end result. mixed media 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $513.800 in 1990.1m in 2000. Re I (works on paper) Untrained (except at judo). and unhappy people who were victims of political and social upheavals in central Europe during this era. and integrity of his work.420 MODERNISM Composition Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze Wols. heavily textured. individually and collectively. bones. consistency. 5 France 1 sculpture. such as car parts. prints 2 Paris: Musee National d’Art Moderne 3 $387. is a remarkable record of someone using art to rise above hardships that killed many others—literally or spiritually. Japan 1 oils. Together they are strangely beautiful and moving to look at and be with. His work in paper and plastic lacks strength and tension (as if the material bored him?) and can be kitsch. He made small-scale works in oils and watercolors. KEY WORKS 23 May 1953 (London: Tate Collection). 6 August 1956 (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia) Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze Wols b 1913 – 51 n GERMAN/FRENCH César (César Baldaccini) b 1921 – 1998 n FRENCH 5 Germany. he persisted with. France 1 oils. Intended to be more visual than emotional in impact— he considers black to be the means of making light and color visible and alive. 1944–45 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). He was remarkable for his attention to detail. 1965 (Martigny. US. spraying. KEY WORKS Painting. Private Collection. The oils are often composed of compulsive pouring. Unrecognized in his lifetime. Bateau.200 in 1990. human.

Is the attraction of his objects the aesthetic and spiritual experience they seek to convey? Or is it that they were and remain as instantly recognizable and as chic as the Gucci loafer or Chanel No. KEY WORKS Accumulation of Sliced Teapots. 1960 (Houston: Menil Collection) Armand Fernandez Arman b 1928 – 98 n FRENCH 5 France. and records of “happenings” (notably those saturated with his trademark YKB “Yves Klein Blue”) give a unique. 30 x 30 in (76. His work was more visual than conceptual. grandmother an obsessive accumulator of junk. Untitled Blue Monochrome (IKB 82). 1959 (London: Tate Collection). intense glow. who rejected painting and used real materials. dolls. 1959 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). resin beds. Obsessive interest in manufactured objects (such as keys. if so. Their repetitive accumulation. Arman was a member of the Nouveaux Réalistes. Detroit Institute of Arts. endow them with a kind of poetry.2 x 76. this is possible. His work is transformed through accumulations. and so on. The rhetoric he and his supporters used is huge: blue is the infinite immateriality of the heavens. 1986 (Toronto: Miriam Shiell Gallery). Subida al cielo (sculpture) Arman was a stimulating and witty manipulator of objects. Avid collector since childhood. blue fills the space between object and viewer with spiritual energy. rotary telephones and metal poles. .C . Perspex boxes.2 cm).000 in 1989. Self-Portrait-Robot. Diana (Noli me tangere). Together with Yves Klein and Jean Tinguely. Cut-up musical instruments or charred furniture simultaneously shock and cause reappraisal of the true function of objects. car parts. cut-ups. US 1 sculpture. father a furniture and knickknack dealer. Klein was also infamous for his scandalous behavior throughout his short-lived career. machines. 1900–70 421 His paintings. is it any the worse for that? KEY WORKS IKB 79. With a leap of imagination similar to his own. 1964 (Minneapolis: Walker Art Center). objects. and wall mounts). combustions. and luxurious and bizarre presentation out of context (for instance. 1992 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Office Fetish Armand Fernandez Arman. 1984. blue leads to Zenlike transcendental experience. Requiem Blue. or paint tubes). conceptual art 2 Hamburg: Kunsthalle 3 $330. 5—all of them proclaiming the possessor to be a (self-elected) member of the international club of connoisseurship and savoir-faire? Is this the first example of art as a highclass fashion accessory? And.

KEY WORKS Feltra. the art market and aesthetics—and in doing so to challenge received opinion. They do not work in reality but they do wonders for . Tirage illimité. Subtle. and so on.497 in 1990.600 in 1992. neat. 1960 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux Arts) KEY WORKS The Andes Cordillera Henri Michaux. Michaux sought to use art as an escape from the material world. His aim was to Henri van Herwegen Panamarenko b 1940 – n BELGIAN 5 Belgium 1 sculpture. 15 3⁄4 x 11 3⁄4 in (40 x 30 cm). Worked very rapidly. La bataille des éperons d’or. One must also be able to go back. installations. Asia 1 watercolors. the definition of art. gouache on paper. video 3 $687. After 1956 he sometimes worked under the influence of the hallucinogenic drug mescalin. Composition (works on paper) He was the author of highly original. 1966 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux Arts). prints 2 Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne 3 $1. photography. 1958. art institutions and power structures. France. to reinvent time and space. Armoire charbonnée (Armoire à charbon). without preconceptions. 1967 (Wolfsburg: Kunstmuseum). His strong sense of (complex) composition and color identifies him as European rather than American. influential. experimental. 1969 –71 (New York: Dia:Chelsea) Marcel Broodthaers b 1924 – 1976 n BELGIAN 5 Belgium. installations 3 $120. Even before he used drugs.424. The Aeromodeler. His style is spontaneous. Meidosems.422 MODERNISM Henri Michaux b 1899 – 1984 n BELGIAN 5 Belgium.000 in 1998. Private Collection. successful. 1966 (Ghent: Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst). free. 1948 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). with pencil lines crawling over the paper and brushstrokes that have some of the characteristics of Chinese calligraphy but are never uncontrolled or arbitrary. one must always be able to change …” HANS HARTUNG Hans Hartung b 1904 – 89 n GERMAN 5 Germany. His goal? To investigate issues such as the meaning of art.910 in 1990. The theme is liberating humanity from physical constraints by suggesting ways to jump farther. Armoire blanche et table blanche (sculpture) Broodthaers was an unsuccessful poet turned untrained artist (in 1964) who created bizarre objects and installations or exhibitions of objects and real works of art. the imagination. humorous. Africa. T 47-10 (oils) Hartung is recognized as having been one of the first painters of gestural abstraction. wiry. Germany. Michaux regarded painting as an art of psychic improvisation. Le drapeau noir. 1968 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux Arts) KEY WORKS “One must never forbid oneself anything. UK 1 sculpture. Beautiful machines. acrylics. he used wash and diluted inks for his watercolors. introverted paintings. France 1 oils. Airplane. prints 2 Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne 3 $65. to defy gravity. as they do not allow for revision and second thoughts. to fly. Flugobjekt—Rakete (sculpture) He is an eccentric visionary who designs weird Leonardo-like machines.

460 Hommage au Tachisme.415 in 2004. Produced small. La tour de Babel perfore le soleil—un spiraloid—Tower of Babel (oils) Born Friedrich Stowasser. called “Aktions” or “Happenings. 1970. 25 in (63 cm). opinions. 1961 (Vienna: KunstHausWien). He is motivated by Zen and visions of purity and silence.” Fluxus artists shifted the importance from what an artist creates to the artist’s actions. free sketches. The work consists of Hegel’s 20-volume oeuvre. 224 The Big Way. detailed. promoting artistic exploration and sociopolitical activism. KEY WORKS T-1954-20. He subsequently worked on town planning projects in many parts of the world. 1900–70 423 create images expressing his innermost being. 33 1⁄2 x 21 3⁄4 in (85 x 55. ornamental and jewel-like abstract works. 5 Germany 1 sculpture 2 Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Collection 3 $97. Ignoring art theories. literally meaning “flow.600 in 2004. Hamburg: Kunsthalle. silkscreen. which is organic and labyrinthine in character (a deliberate metaphor for the self-regenerative processes of life). and jute. often with a spiral motif. richly colored. 1956 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) Fritz Hundertwasser b 1928 – 2000 n AUSTRIAN 5 Austria 1 oils. 1963 (Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Collection) . Lines and Curves. ground up and stuffed into sausage skins. Monotony and repetition are deliberate and integral to his work. KEY WORKS 686 Good Morning City Friedensreich Hundertwasser.5 cm). it is his personal belief that he should establish harmony between people and nature. and emotions. mixed media. In 1972 the artist designed posters for the Munich Olympics. wrapping paper.C . It held a similar attitude to that of Dadaism. 1954 (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia). mixed media 2 Vienna: KunstHausWien 3 $441. members often created mixed-media works from any found materials and developed the performance art movement. 1955 (Vienna: Österreichische Galerie) FLUXUS 1962 –1970s Günther Uecker b 1930 – n GERMAN Originating in Germany. Private Collection. 1961 (Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Collection). His paintings are not always as spontaneous as they look: they may be enlarged versions of small. Large Field (works on paper) His typical work (after 1955) consists of nails hammered into a board that are arranged in patterns that are reminiscent of electromagnetic fields. TV 1963. Refreshingly romantic and lyrical. in which he replicates the gestures or accidental marks (but does that make the end result any less valid?). gold and silver. KEY WORKS Tactile Rotating Structure.” the Fluxus movement advocated a shift from aesthetics to ethics in artistic values. Literature Sausage Dieter Roth. 1967. Used mixed media.

He is most famous for monochrome canvases with single or multiple precision cuts. II Cielo di Venezia (oils) Death of a Hero Renato Guttuso. watercolors 2 St. 1959 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). 1941 (Rome: Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna). sculpture. Nature. his social realist works were seen as an antidote to American gestural abstraction. His earlier ceramic work searched for a freedom of expression. After the war he became a Communist politician.424 MODERNISM KEY WORKS Abstraction with Brown Burlap (Sack). as part of a (then new. Spaghetti Eater (oils) Guttuso was much praised in the 1950s when considered by many (leftwing) critics to be on the cutting edge of the avant-garde. 1953 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) Renato Guttuso b 1912 – 87 n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 oils. 1952 (works on paper) He was a doctor-turned-artist who had some success in the 1950s with original work (for the time).862.000 in 2005. Sulfur Miners. 1959–60 (London: Tate Collection) Alberto Burri b 1915 – 95 n ITALIAN 5 US. 1949 (London: Tate Collection) Lucio Fontana b 1899 – 1968 n ARGENTINIAN/ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 oils. ceramics. installations 2 Rome: Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna 3 $1. Igloo object cache-toi (sculpture) He was a leading member of Arte Povera who in the 1960s and 1970s created works that addressed geographical and environmental issues—notably metal- . to produce serious looking collages. Perhaps they are now best seen as engaging period pieces with an innocent 1950s or 1960s view of the creative act and gesture as a bid for freedom (and he was over 50 when he started them). finding a successful if limited “formula” that was in tune with the mood of the times. Can be very good indeed—but can be oh. His originality declined rapidly after the late 1950s when he became too derivative (too many borrowings from Picasso and Goya). conceptual art 2 Berlin: Nationalgalerie 3 $1. 1953 (Turin: Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea). using sacking and other nonarty materials. Fontana was an unknown who in middle age became a significant figure in postwar European art. thus he does capture something specific about postwar European art and politics.195 in 2004. Composition. but now worn out) exploration of the meaning of existence and the role of art.62m in 1989. oil on canvas. KEY WORKS Spatial Concept. 1953. The cuttings and piercings had a meaning in the 1960s. Italy 1 collage 2 Rome: Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna 3 $2. 34 2⁄3 x 40 1⁄2 in (88 x 103 cm). Concetto spaziale. London: Estorick Collection. (Some connection with doctors bandaging patients—he liked to recreate blood with splashes of red paint—and using splints? Commentary on the state of postwar Europe?) Mario Merz b 1925 – 2003 n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 installations. Spatial Concept: Expectations. Umbria Vera. sculpture. 1958 (London: Tate Collection).500 in 2002. and for canvases and supports that have been pierced or lacerated. KEY WORKS Crucifixion.323. so dull! Better when several works are seen together— a single work can look merely superficial or silly. Founder member of the anti-Fascist association Corrente. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $174. but he needed a different medium to find full utterance. The artist was staunchly anti-Fascist and a resistance fighter.

One of Merz’s “igloos. etc. Igloo. 1969. Produced transient. shown here in an exhibition in 1991. Woman Walking (oils) Pistoletto is a conceptual artist best known for work using mirrors arranged so that the spectator keeps on seeing An Italian term meaning “Poor Art” or “Impoverished Art.690 in 2004. 1997 (Turin: Castello di Rivoli Museum of Contemporary Art) ARTE POVERA 1970– Michelangelo Pistoletto b 1933 – n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 conceptual art. puzzling. performance. and amusing. which is now commonplace in contemporary art. broken glass. 1989 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) him/herself. Bordeaux: CAPC Musée d’Art Contemporain. KEY WORKS Architecture of the Mirror. video 3 $184. thereby creating a relationship between image and spectator. temporary work to reveal art as a process of change (like nature itself) and the artist as nomad. 1979 (Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario). Unreal City. framed “igloos” covered with clay. 1983 (London: Courtauld Institute of Art). sculpture. The art objects are made from natural or cheap and tacky materials and carry a strong political agenda. mixed media. Effective. Nineteen Hundred Eighty-Nine. 1990 (Turin: Castello di Rivoli Museum of Contemporary Art). It also hopes to defy any possibility of being commercially exploited. 1900–70 425 What’s to be Done? Mario Merz. . There are references to Fibonacci numbers (an infinite sequence of numbers in which each number equals the sum of the previous two). wax branches. but not as profound as claimed. KEY WORKS Crocodile in the Night. with the proposal that the elevation of humble materials as art corresponds with the wish for the elevation of poor social classes.C . This is often achieved by means of polished steel sheets on which life-size photographed images of people are overlaid. In the First Place.” part of a larger installation involving painting and sculpture.” It was coined by the Italian art critic Germano Celant to describe a type of work first seen in Turin in 1970.

KEY WORKS Artist’s Breath. Enjoy his work for what it is. sculpture. such as marble. He created objects and ideas that are now the commonplace of mainstream. mattresses. sacks. but he was blessed with delicacy and humor. 1961 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Luciano Fabro b 1936 – n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 sculpture 3 $223. 1967 (London: Courtauld Institute of Art).000 in 1998. His work needs sunlight to bring it to life. Fabro is currently working on elegant. Italia d’Oro (sculpture) 5 Italy 1 conceptual art. Declaration of Authenticity No. experimental artist in the forefront of releasing art from traditional ideas. 1960 (London: Tate Collection). and forms. Achrome (sculpture) He was a cherubic-looking aristocrat who was a short-lived (cirrhosis of liver). His work was provocative. Untitled. carved sculptures using traditional materials. devices or strategies to preserve the evanescent (like the artist’s breath) and challenge the idea of art as a tradable commodity. but were genuinely cuttingedge in the late 1950s and 1960s: strange white objects with no specific meaning. especially social deprivation and spiritual starvation. Interested in craftsmanship and aesthetics—a contemporary interpretation of a tradition that goes back to Classical Greece. made by dipping material in kaolin or plaster.058. His intention is to draw attention to. 025. the dark side of 20th-century experience. Close your ears to the wordy . mixed media 2 Hamburg: Kunsthalle 3 $840.426 MODERNISM Jannis Kounellis b 1936 – n GREEK/ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 sculpture 2 Hamburg: Kunsthalle 3 $1. He takes delight in visual and physical properties of material. incorporating public and environment into a work of art.300 Piero Manzoni b 1933 – 63 n ITALIAN in 2002.940 in 1990. and likes to show evidence or traces of flames and smoke. KEY WORKS Carboniera. processes. 1987 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) official art. and make one think about. Let it play freely on your imagination through your own eyes. Senza titolo (oils) Kounellis is a leading member of Arte Povera who creates strange objects and constructions out of materials such as blankets. and blood. refined.

. 53 1⁄4 x 70 in and 53 1⁄4 x 80 in (135 x 178 cm and 132 x 201 cm). Iconografia. 1971 (Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Arts). Untrained (it shows). colorful. 1977– 85 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). The alphabet is part of the art work. and mystical agenda. KEY WORKS Italio d’Oro (Golden Italy). 1973–79. showy. KEY WORKS Canto Guerriero. which included Sandro Chia and Francesco Clemente. drawings) that scratch away at attempting to make sense of a “fragmented but all embracing world” (so what’s new?). Tempo in tempo col tempo (works on paper) Boetti was a leading member of Arte Povera. Specialized in colored-wood creations. and agenda of the young. Sette. ballpoint pen on paper mounted on linen. conceptual art. and bodies. mixed media 3 $431.200 in 2002. Fashionable. Has a personal. which the viewer is supposed to decode. mythical. but ultimately insignificant. These works have all the gloriously refined qualities of haute couture: they are an open invitation for the eye and imagination to have a truly fulfilling private feast. 1991 (Buffalo: Albright-Knox Art Gallery) Alighiero Boetti b 1940 – 94 n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 sculpture. 1979 (Turin: Castello di Rivoli Museum of Contemporary Art) “cutting-edge” art of the 1990s have been in play for a good 30 years. embroideries. expressively painted. 1993–94 (Private Collection) Mimmo Paladino b 1948 – n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 oils. large-scale figurative work made up of dislocated parts of animals. prints. He created bits and pieces (such as assemblages. Aerei. 1981 (Indiana: Ball State Museum of Art). 1975 (Private Collection). Bringing the World into the World Alighiero Boetti. Untitled. death masks.000 in 1990. Naïve systems. Private Collection. A leading member of the Italian Transavanguardia movement. Map. KEY WORKS The Thousand Longest Rivers in the World. which is probably (and deliberately?) impenetrable. sculpture 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $225. Pozzo di eroi (sculpture) Creator of consciously individual. appearance. 1900–70 427 jargon of those catalogers and curators who spend more time looking at keyboards and playing with words than looking at works of art. He is a useful reminder that the ideas.C . 1985 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). not trivial. Road Map of Italy. 1984 (New York: Gagosian Gallery).

installations 3 $125. 1984–85 (Washington. KEY WORKS Great Oval or Painting. in his hometown of Hernani. Bois et marron troué (mixed media) He is a talented self-taught artist whose best work dates from the 1950s and early 1960s. and commercial sponsorship (and why not?—everyone and everything must move with the times). If the new museums of modern and contemporary art are no longer places He was a Basque artist. US 1 sculpture. so-called avant-garde art of the 1970s and 1980s is anticipated by Tàpies. spiritual. KEY WORKS Last Conversation Piece. he studied in London and New York. The installation of Chillida’s sculpture in the Court of Honor of the Berlin Federal Chancellery coincided with the opening of his own dedicated museum.000 in 1997. shop sales. 2001 (London: Tate Collection) Eduardo Chillida b 1924 – 2002 n SPANISH 5 Spain 1 sculpture 2 Bilbao: Guggenheim Museum 3 $644. such as Picasso. and absurdity. but are effectively adult adventure playgrounds driven by management targets for admissions. 38 1⁄4 x 63 3⁄4 in (97 x 162 cm).428 MODERNISM Composition LXIV Antoni Tàpies. He creates feelings of disequilibrium. 1988 (London: Tate Collection). c. stressful mood of Cold War Europe. mainly in forged or welded iron. His later work is less convincing because it is less in tune with the times. the Museo ChillidaLeku. and traditional. constructions with architectural elements (such as iron balconies) that have distorted scale. Antoni Tàpies b 1923 – n SPANISH 5 Spain 1 mixed media. Besaka (sculpture) Juan Muñoz b 1953 – 2001 n SPANISH 5 Spain. fund raising. oils. prints 2 Barcelona: Fundació Antoni Tàpies 3 $753. mixed media on canvas. . and groups of figure sculptures in unexplained silent relationships. Tàpies in particular concentrated on the materiality of paint. Dwarf with a Box. DC: Hirshhorn Museum).000 in 2001. danger. reacting against the intellectual stagnation of postwar Spain. Much highly praised. Two (sculpture) Born in Madrid. 2000. iron sculpture. Le Chapeau Renverse. Double Bind. an artistic alliance inspired by Dada and Surrealism. Creator of large-scale installations that fill a whole gallery—such as marquetry floors with extreme false perspective. then these (and other similar works) are good-quality content for them. nor for genuinely eyeopening artistic and political challenge. budgets. Tàpies was a key member of the Spanish Dau al Set (“the seventh side of the dice” in Catalan). 1967 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne) for individual. Berlin-Tiergarten: Bundeskanzleramt. 1955 (Bilbao: Fine Arts Museum). such as old farm implements. that combine several Spanish influences: modern. From One to Five. notable for abstract constructions. when he used coarse materials to produce somber heavily textured canvases expressing the uncertain.608 in 1990. and aesthetic refreshment. UK. These sculptures are Berlin Eduardo Chillida. 1957. Hamburg: Kunsthalle.

in both professions. Crown Fountain.” “a fool sees not the same tree a wise man sees”). 1999 (Kirishima. DC: Hirshhorn Museum). 1963 (London: Tate Collection). Japan: Kirishima Open-Air Museum).” “womb. If you remove the words that embellish the pieces (“Rembrandt. 1900–70 429 “The conditions you need to be a good goalkeeper are exactly the same conditions you need to be a good sculptor! You must have a very good connection.C . with time and space. KEY WORKS Tximista (Lightning). and neon light. so they touch the ground with a dancer’s lightness. 1983 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Jaume Plensa b 1955 – n SPANISH 5 Spain 1 conceptual art. by being displayed in isolation or attached to big white walls in large official spaces. Lau II (mixed media) The Spaniard Jaume Plensa is a good example of the new academic modern orthodoxy that is heavily promoted by the official art establishment. Many have interlocking and embracing themes.” “Giotto. Modulation of Space. or a clever exercise in marketing and packaging? Is this a good example of the way art establishments are mesmerized by big. He works with large-scale industrially made objects made to look significant.” EDUARDO CHILLIDA sometimes monumental. what do they amount to? Profundity or banality? Is this art with deep meaning. and profound. slick machines? KEY WORKS Knock Knock. but the artist is only the designer: the physical creation is done anonymously. He “uses” steel. presumably in a factory. installations. 2004 (Chicago: Millennium Park) .209 in 1990. but always graceful—often without a base. portentous. 1957 (Washington. sculpture 3 $27.” “desire. Silent Music II. glass.

048 in 2000. The Fever Van. Green. 1943 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada) Widely traveled and acclaimed. water. His “spontaneous naïvety” appeals to critics and intellectuals. 1935 (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery) You could go around a Sir Terry Frost exhibition looking for modern art influences and color theories (they are there to be found and that is all some people do). KEY WORKS An Organ Grinder. fundamental shapes and colors abstracted from nature. or waves. If you go around looking for sunlight. consciously artificial works now look dated. UK 1 oils 2 Lanyon (Australia): Nolan Gallery. Yellow Quay (oils) Frost was a leading St. his everyday directness to popular taste. Produced sensitive early works with gentle. 1951 (London: Tate Collection). Blue Moon. KEY WORKS Parisian Café. Ives Group painter. cool.300 in 2004. Death of Constable Scanlon (oils) He was an interesting pioneer of British abstraction. leaves. often invoking sensations of movement. and White Movement. His distinctive style combines abstraction Sir Terry Frost b 1915 – 2003 n BRITISH 5 Cornwall. and woods. The Studio of Ingres (oils) 5 Australia. London: Tate Collection 3 $719. you will be as uplifted as if you had spent your ideal day in the country. flight. c. 1936–37 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). Nolan was one of the few contemporary artists to have established a place for narrative. but what a waste of an opportunity that would be. 1951–52 (London: Tate Collection). 1934 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). Started off as a spare-time painter (1927–37). Going to the Match (oils) Lowry was a quirky painter who became critically and commercially successful with his instantly recognizable scenes of the bleak north of England—industrial landscapes inhabited by busy “stick” people. His spare. or your emotions. 1952 (London: Tate Collection) Victor Pasmore b 1908 – 98 n BRITISH Sir Sidney Nolan b 1917 – 92 n AUSTRALIAN 5 England 1 oils. Wanted to convey the ecstatic and poetic experiences he found in nature. sculpture 2 Southampton: City Art Gallery 3 $330.000 in 1997. At his best he is very good indeed. His line and form was very sensitive (oversensitive and contrived?). notably the “Ned Kelly” (romantic Australian outlaw) series. KEY WORKS Brown and Yellow. His later work is more purely abstract. mythological painting. Chiswick Reach. and your memory or evocation of them and their interaction with you. at all levels. Took inspiration from the natural world. your sight. then became a fulltime figurative painter who went abstract in 1948 (which was a difficult decision for him). England 1 oils 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $70. . Black.430 MODERNISM Laurence Stephen Lowry b 1887 – 1976 n BRITISH 5 NW England 1 oils 2 Salford: Lowry Centre 3 $2. calculated.8m in 1999.

oil on canvas. 50 x 30 in (127 x 76 cm). If you cannot accept the possibility of magic.C . 1947 (London: Tate Collection). KEY WORKS Boats at Night. technical exactitude. working today in a totally individual manner. Since the 1960s he has worked in a figurative style. 1950 (Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Gallery) . Early work is thickly painted in an Abstract Expressionist style. KEY WORKS Thoughts for a Giant Bird. 1959.000 in 1989. Stand close to them for the full power to develop in your eye.000 in 2001. Prolific. His earlier work shows the inspiration of landscape. colorful. prints 2 London: Tate Gallery 3 $364. Vertical: January 1956 (London: Tate Collection). and the light of Cornwall. simple. and inspired by personal emotion and things seen. Leicester: New Walk Museum. preferably sunlight—so the individual colors and color contrasts and interactions reach their full potential of Mediterranean intensity. KEY WORKS The Trial. Europe 1 oils. Talented athlete and jazz musician. his work will remain meaningless and appear no more than a design for a cover to a handbook on Indian mysticism. Was an exponent of expressive brushwork and color. Oh to be a Serpent that I May Love you Longer (oils) Davie is an unusual but well-regarded painter. Had a difficult. seascape. His last years were marked by illness and personal tragedy. 1956 (London: Hayward Gallery) Patrick Heron b 1920 – 99 n BRITISH 5 England 1 oils. If possible. or are unwilling to travel with him. Frost began to paint after being taken prisoner during the German invasion of Crete in 1941. Entrance to Paradise. prints 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $85. Kelly in Spring. 1947 (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia). see his work in daylight— Red and Blue Sir Terry Frost. Was the creator of a prolific and impressive body of work that is intensely visual. 1949 (London: Tate Collection). His work is all about trying to express the inexpressible and how to reach the primal and mystical forces of humankind (the kind of experience that the hippy generation sought). hard-edge color forms that generate intense color sensations and pulsating spaces. combative personality. 1900–70 431 and figuration. He needs a large scale to express fully the magnitude of his endeavors. but not always obvious. Nevertheless. Magic. postwar abstract art in the UK. 1958 (London: Tate Collection) Alan Davie b 1920 – n BRITISH 5 UK. Lux Eterna (oils) He is greatly revered and respected as one of the pioneers of large-scale. One of the few artists who sought to bridge the gap between European aesthetic sensibility and American direct rawness. and conveys a strong sense of the heat and emptiness of the vast Australian landscape. full of signs and symbols that are highly reminiscent of Indian art and decoration. Peggy’s Guessing Box. 1940s (London: Bonhams). His later works are looser in style. Red and Yellow Image. everything he created was done with very great. His most powerful work dates from the late 1960s and early 1970s—big works with intense.

His refusal to compromise can seem arrogant—is this why he was recently savaged by art critics in Britain (but not in the US)? KEY WORKS The Murder of Rosa Luxembourg. sometimes to specific passages. He is concerned with the Jewish diaspora. exposition of human. with many personal and biographical references. or Production of Waste R. J. very thickly and crudely painted.4 cm). Kitaj. it will certainly never die. 2. but also nudes. The human figure is always central to his work. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Modern Art 3 $341. He has a very personal style. England 1 oils. and Profit. Children’s Swimming Pool. pastels 2 London: Marlborough Fine Art. Kitaj’s self-image is that of a pilgrim existing in a cold. oil on canvas. Sees himself as a martyr crucified by ignorant British critics (with some justification). urban London. although his swimming-pool series are full of life. 1978 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Modern Art). The Ohio Gang. I. and (to his credit) difficult to pigeonhole.000 in 1990. KEY WORKS The Sitting Room. Maintains and advances a definition of art that is central to European painting in the “grand manner”—life drawing. Images mostly of central. which is of high quality. and exploitative world whose saving grace is the warmth generated by human creativity and intellect. literary subjects. in a strongly Expressionist style. sometimes hidden. “exhibition” pieces.000 in 1994. Independent of eye and mind. 1981 (Southampton: City Art Gallery) Kossoff is a somewhat shadowy and neglected figure. He is inclined to gloominess. Chiefly produces small-scale paintings in which the paint can be as thick a bread crust. B. . Price. influenced by his Jewish cultural heritage.4 x 152. Y. KEY WORKS Portrait of Father. Kitaj b 1932 – n AMERICAN/BRITISH 5 US. Private Collection. and Profit (oils) He was born in the US. Price. B. and moral issues.432 MODERNISM Leon Kossoff b 1926 – n BRITISH 5 England 1 oils 3 $460. ugly. M. but settled in the UK in the 1960s. 1960 (London: Tate Collection). 12 o’clock Saturday Morning. 1980 (London: Tate Collection) R. 1964 (London: Tate Collection). The Hispanist (Nissa Torrents). His work is an almost defiant Value. the result of constant revisions piled on one another. Makes large-scale.800 in 2001. 60 x 60 in (152. 1964 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). but British by adoption. Fine draftsman and instinctive colorist. Mornington Crescent with the Statue of Sickert's Father-in-law (oils) Auerbach is German-born. Two Seated Figures No. September (oils) declaration that although the art of painting may be considered by some to be out of fashion. 1977–78 (Bilbao: Fine Arts Museum) Frank Auerbach b 1931 – n BRITISH 5 UK 1 oils 2 New York: Auerbach Collection 3 $600. intellectual. There are crossreferences to literature and philosophy. 1963. Value.

His long-term significance has yet to be assessed and will depend on whether he is followed. after about 1971 (aged 61 and following the death of his lover George Dyer) he declined into repetitive formula. 1950 (New York: Tony Shafrazi Gallery).8m in 2001. Study after Velasquez I. Study for Head of Lucien Freud. oil on canvas. Largely self-taught. Studies of the Human Body (oils) He was one of the most significant figurative painters of the postwar period.C . which he repeats with variation. A loner. oil on canvas. 1944 (London: Tate Collection). “The feeling of desperation and unhappiness are more useful to an artist than the feeling of contentment. he has only one image and one emotion. emotional color. An existential protest against authoritarian political power. and tense. Late developer—nothing of sustained significance until his late 30s. drawings 2 Art Institute of Chicago 3 $7. There is creative interplay between what he intends and what happens accidentally. Paris 1 oils. with controlled drawing and line. personally and artistically. Said by Bacon (and others) to indicate the condition of postwar Europe and modern human isolation. 1967 (Private Collection) . Bacon shows genuine originality in his imagery. 1965 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne). then 20 years or so of very powerful work.” FRANCIS BACON Pope I—Study after Pope Innocent X by Velasquez Francis Bacon. His work is beautifully crafted. he has suffered from unhelpful excess of praise. 1969. 78 x 54 in (197. but in truth. 14 x 12 in (35. and worked from photographs. in bare. His central (only?) image is of an isolated figure. Aberdeen: Art Gallery and Museums. usually male. Like many contemporary artists. and the way he constructs it and handles paint.5 x 30. under stress. watercolors. KEY WORKS Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion. Germany. 1900–70 433 Francis Bacon b 1909 – 92 n BRITISH 5 UK. Three Studies for Portraits (including Self-Portrait) Francis Bacon. because desperation and unhappiness stretch your whole sensibility. or colored space.8 x 137. brightly lit. Private Collection. Bacon would only paint protraits of friends. often naked.5 cm) each. 1951. or if he proves to be a dead end.4 cm). Three Figures in a Room.

434 MODERNISM Roger Hilton b 1911 – 75 n BRITISH Sir Anthony Caro b 1924 – n BRITISH 5 UK.” . 1988 (Missouri: St.5 x 127. 1987 (London: Saatchi Collection). Oi Yoi Yoi. sometimes abstract. France Tate Collection 1 oils. and constructions hugging the ground or tabletop like well-organized A producer of gutsy paintings. causing offence.993. but anything other than the human figure he considers “frivolous. He is a creator of sculpture constructed out of heavy metal. 1940–41 (Private Collection). even when closed. “I paint people not because of what they are like. How well he knows all those blemishes. posed artificially as models in a studio. He delighted in color. which is usually welded together. KEY WORKS January 1957 (London: Tate Collection).5 cm). but how they happen to be. KEY WORKS In the Silo Tower. Became a British subject in 1939. beams. not exactly in spite of what they are like. the founder of psychoanalysis. His work reveals extraordinary powers of concentration (which is not the same as intensity). Sometimes paints views from windows. gouache 2 London: 3 $49. Untitled (oils) 5 UK. Powerful portraits. private parts of the flesh that we study and examine intimately in our own bodies. but rarely see or care to look at in others. oil on canvas. female form. He knows exactly what he can do with his paint—and what he can’t. space. Red-haired Man on Chair (oils) He is the senior living British painter. propellers). 1947–48 (London: British Council). US 1 sculpture 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $96. 41 1⁄2 x 50 1⁄4 in (105. Girl with Roses. Emphasis on structure. often naked.850 in 2002. Freud once remarked. His main subject is the human figure. lumps. Studied engineering at Cambridge (which shows) and worked with Henry Moore (which doesn’t show). Strand (oils) Caro is usually proclaimed (how correctly?) as the leading contemporary British sculptor. Look how carefully the eyes are painted and how much of the inner person they reveal. Naked Woman. bulges.000 in 2005. so there is an intimate sense of deep knowledge (love even?). not detachment. Private Collection. recycling the elements of the engineering and construction industries (plates. and maintaining a rough humor in the face of considerable personal problems. paint. horizontals. 1982–84. sometimes with rudimentary female or abstract forms.” All his models are known to him personally. 1963 (London: Tate Collection) Lucian Freud b 1922 – n BRITISH 5 UK 1 oils 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $6. Louis Art Museum) The Painter’s Mother Lucian Freud. Naked Man on a Bed. German-born grandson of Sigmund Freud.000 in 1990. He knows every corner of his studio and the space that the models occupy. verticals.

sometimes stubborn. 1962 (London: Tate Collection). 1965 (London: Tate Collection) Andrews produced sensitive work that reflected his inner personality. totally absorbed by his subjects and activity. Australia Tate Collection 1 acrylics. plain speaking. A shy. oils 2 London: 3 $75. KEY WORKS Michael Andrews b 1928 – 95 n BRITISH 5 UK.C . unassertive technique (mainly working with spray-painted acrylic). Solid. Painstakingly slow worker (hence few works). values of middle England (and none the worse for that). 1962 (London: Tate Collection) . Large-scale paintings of places and people he knew well and felt deeply about. The Deer Park.680 in 2003. reclusive personality. 1900–70 435 scrap. no-frills work that emphasizes the basic values (space. English sensibility to light and nature. Early One Morning. It isn’t art full of fantasy or poetic imagination. He possessed a delicate. materials) but can be didactic and schoolmasterish. Untitled (oils) Sculpture 3. Under the modern outer garment is a deeply traditional soul. Displays truth to (industrial) materials? His early work (1960s) is brightly painted. suggesting the deep-seated. construction. down-to-earth (literally). honest. KEY WORKS The Colony Room. later work undecorated other than with carefully controlled rust. 1962 (London: Tate Collection). 1961 (Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Gallery). Yellow Swing.

KEY WORKS Neves II. prints 2 Aix-en-Provence: Fondation Vasarely. France 1 oils. Pécs (Hungary): Victor Vasarely Museum 3 $195.5m Louis created large-scale lyrical works. others back. prints 2 Birmingham (UK): Museums and Art Gallery 3 $700. but was awarded French citizenship in 1959. but limited. Some colors jump forward. acrylics in 2002. Hungarian-born. She creates intensely visual. which is trickled and floated onto bare canvas . Winter Palace.000 in 2004. The subject matter is color. blocks of color) do not result from any theory or formula but are a means of using color and form to create sensations of light and space. stripes. Quasar. Widely traveled. Orphan Elegy I. abstract paintings whose appearance and form (large scale. His work was satisfying.600 in 1990. Serif (works on paper) An eminent major abstract painter. Fall. Cintra (oils) Vasarely was one of the key figures in the creation of Op Art in the 1950s.436 MODERNISM Bridget Riley b 1931– n BRITISH Victor Vasarely b 1908 – 97 n HUNGARIAN/FRENCH 5 England. 1963 (London: Tate Collection). Dark (often black) stripes create a rhythmic pulse across the surface. The colors interact at their edges and generate the illusion of other colors or jumps of color. Untitled (oils) 3 $1. Riley has a strong international reputation and a lifelong dedication to the exploration of both the visual and emotional properties of color. He produced hardedge abstract paintings designed to give powerful optical effects and illusions that can often be explored and activated by moving around the paintings. watercolors. 1981 (Leeds: Museums and Art Gallery). 1978 (London: British Council) KEY WORKS 5 France 1 oils. 1949–58 (London: Tate Collection). There is emotional as well as visual involvement. 1966 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) Morris Louis b 1912 – 62 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils.

Since the 1980s his work has declined. 45 x 31 in (114 x 79 cm). The whole constitutes a chronicle of his own activities and of his culture and times. Soviet/American Array II. sharp detail and lush brushstrokes. prints 2 Detroit Institute of Arts. Deeply committed to international cooperation for social change and human rights. abandoned urban detritus) work together. within the same work. impersonal and overblown. technically intriguing. His best work is beautiful to look at. and jazz musician from a RussianJewish émigré family. 1955–58 (Cologne: Museum Ludwig). A late work by Rauschenberg. Created versatile and many-sided works. French Money. c. 56 1⁄2 x 35 in (143. reflecting. he was also one of the first to use mass-media imagery. An influential guru. 1955 (New York: Leo Castelli Gallery). layered. Africa I (oils) He was a multifaceted bohemian: painter. memorable. and are sought after by its members as souvenirs. if you suspend disbelief. personal. without self-consciousness or rules. waterfalls. Explores how to make materials (screen printing. screenprint. and puzzling. papers. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Easy-going but satisfying. Gamma Epsilon. creative. with an underlying innocence (not naïvety)—takes evident delight in collecting material and putting it together. 1900–70 437 in such an inventive way that. KEY WORKS Bed.6m in 1991. words. 1953 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). Detroit Institute of Arts. 1962 (Private Collection) KEY WORKS . and visual work. 1986. Washington. Very New York. the pigment can seem to be rivers. Rebus (works on paper) He is a major pioneering postwar artist. London: Hayward Gallery. fabrics.9 cm). why not this?).000 in 1990. intaglio printed in color on woven paper. collage 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $425. between figuration and abstraction. 1960 (Private Collection) Robert Rauschenberg b 1925 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 mixed media. Produces a very consistent. Prolific. Hamburg: Kunsthalle 3 $6. Bellini Robert Rauschenberg. sculpture.C . Has a passionate involvement. Camels. he produces works that mirror a particular society. 1962 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). mixed media. Also reworked famous hackneyed paintings. 1958 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). Bi-Vega Victor Vasarely. Like Canaletto. which are difficult to summarize—they can switch. which combines high and low art imagery. 1988 (Detroit Institute of Arts) Larry Rivers b 1923 – 2002 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. and influential.5 x 88. found objects. paint. distorting. KEY WORKS Tet. or glamorizing it. Crossing the Delaware. poet. One of the parents of Pop Art. Odalisk. or metals) and images (from contemporary media images. liquid mists of fresh pure color (if you can enjoy a landscape. Vasarely regarded the artist as a workman who produces prototypes for reproduction by others. 1974.

Chatham XIII —Yellow Red (oils) Philip Pearlstein b 1924 – n AMERICAN He is one of the contemporary masters. His works are sometimes to be enjoyed as objects seeming to float on the wall. DC: National Gallery of Art) Blue Feather Alexander Calder. drawings 3 $52. prints. prints. painted sheet metal and wire. large canvases are saturated with pure color. talk about drawing in space. Two Nudes on a Mexican Blanket (oils) Pearlstein is a leading figurative painter with a raw. sometimes to be seen as spaces through the wall giving onto fields of blue (sky or sea?). It uplifts the eye and the spirit—as refreshing as chilled champagne. visual pleasure. His very simple. Stabiles are steel constructions firmly planted on the ground and immobile but their swooping shapes suggest movement. they are marvels of endless variety. and the razor-sharp edges.7 x 45. France 1 sculpture. 1960s (Private Collection). Red Curve. He mixes his own colors. drawings 2 London: Christie’s Images 3 $2. Orange. spatial relationships. energy-filled gouaches. walk around and through the large stabiles to explore their life. delicately balanced constructions of wire and disks painted in primary colors or black. Wonderful. Enjoy the movement and joie de vivre in his mobiles (from mid1930s)—those famous. The canvases must be in pristine condition (damage and dirt ruin the purity and experience). If you must speak art jargon. 42 x 55 x 18 in (106. 1939 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). Blue. Trained as an engineer and industrial draftsman. Tiny or large scale.6m in 2004. Early work includes wire figures and a circus of tiny figures. c.6 x 139. shapes. Vertical Constellation with Bomb. 1943 (Washington.500 in 1990. Animate the mobiles into life (a breath of wind is usually enough). and color. Enjoy them for what they are and let them play on the imagination. and what he creates is a final distillation of something once seen in the world (especially architecture). who has continued Matisse’s exploration of color. Private Collection. Let the child in you come alive and forget worldly cares. gouache 2 New York: Whitney Museum (the video of him playing with his circus is its best-loved exhibit) 3 $5. stretch the eye and stretch the mind’s eye. Look at the meticulously painted surfaces (he always uses oil paint for richness of color). with the minimum of interpretation. and cartoonist. Green. or red (earth or fire?). KEY WORKS Lobster Trap and Fish Tail. 1966 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) Ellsworth Kelly b 1923 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. Deceptive simplicity and soothing unpredictability are among the lifeenhancing qualities of Calder’s works. Yellow. Red. . Child of a sculptor father and painter mother. This piece combines Calder’s two inventions: “stabile” (the static base) and “mobile” parts. 5 US 1 oils. form. 1948. objective style depicting the human body as it appears. which he could animate. Traditional values of painting— technical perfection. 1940 (Private Collection).7 cm).438 MODERNISM Alexander Calder b 1898 – 1976 n AMERICAN 5 US. 1959 (London: Anthony d’Offay Gallery). Let the eye and the mind relax fully and absorb the colors. thus making it a better and happier place. KEY WORKS Rebound. spiritual uplift—are still alive and well. negative space. The Spider.2m in 2003. Untitled (sculpture) The man who gave the world the mobile.

55m in 1997. which is why they may have smudges. tears. work of art. is popular and much collected. KEY WORKS Bedspring. odd viewpoints.C . KEY WORKS Nude Torso. Lipsticks in Piccadilly Circus. but part of Wyeth’s magic is his ability to make the commonplace hauntingly memorable. London. or a consumer object. and from pornographic exploitation. He is unconcerned by fashion or being up to date. First achieved fame with the watercolors he painted in Maine in the late 1930s. 1974 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) Claes Oldenburg b 1929 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 sculpture.3m in 2004. 1936). texture. Male and Female Nudes with Red and Purple Drape. He enjoys experimenting with paradox and contradiction. He mocks the selfabsorbed seriousness of consumer society but is always teasing and humorous. pre-1960s. Christina’s World. mixed media. acrylics. or context. 1968 (Washington. watercolors 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $1. Sewing Machine (sculpture) Oldenburg was born in Europe. work is Abstract Expressionist. mixed media 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art. He starts with commonplace consumer-society objects (such as a hamburger or a typewriter) and metamorphoses them into something strange and comical by altering their scale. DC: National Gallery of Art) He is one of the pioneers of Pop Art. are prominent. Also asks questions about what constitutes a painting.000 in 1996. 1900–70 439 Notice the artificiality within the reality: highly finished surfaces (rather than imitation of perceived textures). installations 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum 3 $600. which becomes a rocket with a warhead and doubles as a sculptural monument in a public place. forever imagining transpositions that carry witty and significance resonances—such as a woman’s lipstick. 1966 (London: Tate Collection) Andrew Wyeth b 1917 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 tempera. Model in Green Kimono. even as a child. and domestic objects. acrylic on 57 canvases) Winter. 1960 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). 1963 (New York: National Academy of Design). DC: Hirshhorn Museum). color. hidden or cut-off faces. London: Tate Collection 3 $1. The artificiality forces the question “why?”— which in turn demands an answer or interpretation. palettes (artist’s studio). KEY WORKS Jim Dine b 1935 – n AMERICAN 5 US. His work has a strong biographical element in which tools (childhood memories of grandfather’s hardware store). Observe the way he heightens realism by using strong design and unusual. sculpture. note also the way he contrasts fine detail with large areas of abstraction. At first sight they look ordinary. paint. UK 1 oils. 1961 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) . Full of wit and simple poetry. He is one of Pop Art’s most original and inventive talents. Has always been a compulsive drawer. 1953 (Washington. Snow Flurries. and stenciled labels. but brought up in the US (his father was appointed Swedish Consul in Chicago. Christina Olson (oils) Wyeth is the son of famous book illustrator. artificial compositions. KEY WORKS Two Cheeseburgers with Everything (Dual Hamburgers). or attached pieces of vegetation). His early. released by sensitive juxtaposition of objects. His highly original creations work on several levels by constantly reversing normal expectations. His watercolors and drybrush paintings are painted in a frenzy (they are often tossed onto the ground. which is painstakingly slow to work with and enables him to exploit his love of detail and focus on the quality of draftsmanship rather than painterliness. Pearlstein lays claim to having given dignity back to the figure by rescuing it from both Expressionist and Cubist distortion. Has a brilliant realist technique. 1962 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). 1946 (North Carolina Museum of Art). prints. but is unjustly derided by many contemporary critics. Pearls. Hearts (oils. never threatening. His subjects are carefully chosen and have deep personal meaning. His large-scale paintings are done in tempera (not oil). 1948 (New York: Museum of Modern Art).

collage. its initial motivation was a reaction against the selfabsorption of Abstract Expressionism and a determination that art should re-engage with the real world. key proto-Pop Art work English critic Lawrence Alloway coins term “Pop Art. New York: Leo Castelli Gallery. and other artists are present 1962 . held at the Sidney Janis Gallery in New York. In America. Oldenburg.8 x 60. and remained the dominant avant-garde movement until the late 1960s. Pop Art epitomized. WHAT TO LOOK FOR As with pop music. styles aimed at anonymity. KEY EVENTS 1952 1955 1958 Independent Group (IG) formed in London: actively seeks to celebrate “pulp imagery” Robert Rauschenberg’s The Bed. there was always an undertow of nostalgia. Just What is it that Makes Today’s Homes so Different. unadorned: in short. were considered more interesting than contemplating life’s deepest mysteries. Witty. 1962.9 cm). in an age of mass production. challenging: Pop Art is born. mocking. in Britain. this was because Pop Art held that it was the duty of art to take the modern world as its subject. comic strips. Campbell’s Soup Can Andy Warhol. the everyday made epic. Coca-Cola bottles. In the US. irreverent. 10 1⁄4 x 9 3⁄4 in (26 x 24. Pop Art celebrated the new consumer society. advertisements—in short. In part. screen print.” Jasper Johns has first one-man show in New York Pop Art announces itself with its first major exhibition. Warhol. household products. however banal and cheap. easy to look at and remember. SUBJECTS AND STYLE The commonplace and the ordinary dominate: famously. 35 3⁄4 x 24 in (90. almost anything produced by Western consumer society. Pop Art was designed to be consciously different. Bold. Fun and economic freedom. Tübingen: Kunsthalle.8 cm). 1956. images from newspapers. Lichtenstein.440 MODERNISM POP ART 1950s –1960s Pop Art emerged independently in New York and London in the mid1950s. simple. so Appealing? Richard Hamilton. hamburgers. look for a world of youthful energy. more excited by mass advertising than the obscurities of high and abstract art. By extension.

Had a great ability to contradict expectations with wit and elegance— nothing is what it seems. and death (traditional high-art subjects) and in modern American society. He parodies other artists and (like Manet) plays with art history. Takes a loving but unromantic interest in the anonymous faces and products seen in the supermarket. 1963 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). plus booklets of photos of similar subjects. intense color. Whaam!. Uses unconventional media such as fruit juice instead of watercolor. Private Collection. and still lifes. Deep interest in life. which are lavishly executed in thick. buttery paint and clear. As I Opened Fire. love. University of Rochester 3 $2. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3.C . He transformed the comic-book images (traditionally dismissed as mere trash) into elegant largescale paintings. 1964 (Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum). Freeway Curve. (Caravaggio and Manet did something similar in their days. 1965 (Cologne: Museum Ludwig) Edward Ruscha b 1937 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. sculpture 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $6. 1900–70 441 Wayne Thiebaud b 1920 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 New York: Memorial Art Gallery.5m in 2002. DC: National Gallery of Art). and thick blue shadows you feel you can touch. or deli. 1963 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art). a painting of water may have that word spelled out in a trompe-l’oeil spill of water. landscapes. Has a meticulous technique: highly controlled use of black outline. Paints clear light. Talk About Space (oils) An Oklahoma boy who went LA hip in 1956. M-Maybe (A Girl’s Picture). 1973 (New York: UBS Art Collection) . Happy Tears (oils) He was a leading American Pop artist with an instantly recognizable style. 1979 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art) Roy Lichtenstein b 1923 – 97 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 acrylics. His recent work plays with images and words.8m in 2002. KEY WORKS Lisp. prints 2 Washington. He achieves this by the sophistication of his technique and the probing nature of his subject matter. which are in the tradition of a serious art gallery experience. acrylics. Ruscha’s early work is Pop—icily perfect images of gasoline stations and billboards. cafeteria. and exaggerates his images with the skill and knowledge of an old master. Lichtenstein first showed in New York in 1962 with the brilliant Leo Castelli whose gallery first promoted Pop Art in the US. His simplified style comes from his early experience as an advertising artist and cartoonist. oil on canvas.) Note how he turns the mechanized impersonality of the comic-book image into something very personal.2m in 2002. Freeways (oils) A painter of portraits. redefines. KEY WORKS Drowning Girl. Accordion Fold W/Vaseline Stains. 1964. which at first sight seems to be just largescale blow-ups of comic-book images. bright colors. for instance. oils. Anxious Girl Roy Lichtenstein. KEY WORKS Display Cakes. 1963 (London: Tate Collection). use of Ben Day dot. He organizes. 1968 (Washington.

1982 (Waterville. 1961 (London: Tate Collection) Three Flags Jasper Johns. or a large scale (through canvases with objects attached). Try to view the paintings by daylight. Very influential. with genuine inventiveness. and also notice the sketches done from life. prints 2 Washington. Varick. 54 x 72 in (137. sculpture.2 (oils) Katz is a veteran. . abstract works of art or literal reproductions of the flag. 1988 (London: Saatchi Collection) Dusk Alex Katz. Blue Umbrella No. Tracy on the Raft at 7:30. He loves polarities— works that are simultaneously cerebral and sensual. encaustic paints. KEY WORKS Ada and Alex. 308 3⁄4 x 45 in (784 x 115. open brushwork that jumps into a focused image at a distance. Maine: Colby College Museum of Art). He is to French art what Californian Cabernet Sauvignon wine is to French Bordeaux—not necessarily better or worse. 1980 (Waterville. themes and ideas beloved of the French Impressionists and Post-Impressionists (Manet. American figurative painter who reruns traditional themes and techniques in a contemporary American idiom. philosophical. simple and complex. Waterville. 1955 (New York: Leo Castelli Gallery). realistic and illusionistic. fascination with recording the effects of light. Enjoy his works for what they are: a refreshing. less complex. The artist’s flat style and lean technique connects with his early experiences as a designer of stage sets and costume. Maine: Colby College Museum of Art 3 $600. The classic Johns are his early American flag paintings. Rudy. 0 through 9. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $15. 1986.2 x 183 cm). gestures. A teasing play on reality and illusion. closed. KEY WORKS Target with Plaster Casts. the middle class at play. Maine: Colby College Museum of Art). Is (and will be) to American 20th-century art what Poussin is to 17th-century French art. 1980 (Waterville. and self-referential. 1958.442 MODERNISM Alex Katz b 1927 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. eye-filling pleasure with a distinguished and recognizable pedigree. color harmonies and dissonances. Look for the selfabsorbed faces. Maine: Colby College Museum of Art). light-hearted and serious. and intriguing psychology that you find in Manet’s work. False Start (oils) Johns was a key figure in postwar American art and a founding father of Pop Art.6 cm). banal or deeply emotional—he enjoys riddles about definitions. His art is cerebral. which he works up into large scale in the studio. drawings 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums. White Flag. Seurat especially): airy landscapes. very visual. encaustic on canvas. beautiful and banal. Used encaustic (wax) technique for his early work. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art. very much admired. He replays. Jasper Johns b 1930 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. 1955 (New York: Leo Castelli Gallery).5m in 1988. Direct wet-in-wet oil technique. but noticeably different: on a bigger scale. oil on canvas. Monet. They caused excitement because no one could work out (and still can’t?) whether they were paintings or objects. He can work on a small scale (the ale cans).000 in 2001. Private Collection. more direct.

but it is a difficult game and few succeed. yet the subject matter is a trivial. raising the question. Other times I paint it and then see it. “Is it a painting rather than a sculpture?” The use of two cans side by side (rather than a single one) is artistic and sculptural. Duchamp likened art to playing a game of chess. throwaway object as its subject suggests? Is it a painting? Or a sculpture? Does it matter? The The use of bronze and the solid base raise expectations that it is traditional sculpture Ale Cans Medium painted bronze Dimensions 5 1⁄2 x 8 x 4 3⁄4 in (14 x 20. a work of art. Marcel Duchamp.C . 1964 Jasper Johns’s Ale Cans—cast in bronze and painstakingly painted—is key not just in the evolution of Pop Art but of modern art as a whole. His Ale Cans—this is the second version he made —is a work of craftsmanship. Johns was hugely influenced by the most radical (and intellectual) of the Dada artists. yet it poses puzzles that are teasingly unanswerable. and has a genuine wit. Many have tried to follow in Johns’s footsteps.” JASPER JOHNS The large oval labels are exceptionally carefully painted.3 x 12 cm) Location Private Collection result is both playful and challenging. a product of the artist’s engagement with contemporary artistic debates. and expectations from. It plays a brilliantly sophisticated game with notions about the perception of. Is it just a worthless. 1900–70 443 Ale Cans Jasper Johns c. but Johns goes further and deeper than Duchamp. “Sometimes I see it and then paint it. disposable object from everyday life .

TV. silk screen. sculpture. Coca-Cola bottles. 1963 (Frankfurt: Museum für Moderne Kunst). A great voyeur. silkscreen technique. Campbell’s soups). films. commercial simplification. At about the time he produced this famous work. he acted out an American dream cycle—pursued a driving need to be famous and rich. . Orange Marilyn (works on paper) A neurotic surrounded by drug addicts. and advertising (Marilyn Monroe. Warhol was a key figure: his work represents one of art’s turning points. Green Disaster Ten Times. video 2 Pittsburgh: Andy Warhol Museum 3 $15. and ended up destroying himself. 1962. but the artist as businessman—the equal of Hollywood movie stars and directors and Madison Avenue advertising executives. 1963 (New York: Leo Castelli Gallery). repetition. KEY WORKS Campbell’s Soup Can (see page 440). talented work.444 MODERNISM Andy Warhol b 1928 – 87 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. Being good in business is the most fascinating kind of art. He set up a new role model for the artist (much aspired to by today’s young stars): no longer the solitary genius expressing intense personal emotion (as Picasso and Pollock did). Suicide. prints.” ANDY WARHOL Twenty Marilyns Andy Warhol. 1965 (London: Hayward Gallery) “I wanted to be an art businessman or a business artist. Jacqueline Kennedy No. Son of Czech immigrants. Was also a (mediocre) fashion designer and filmmaker.75m in 1998. His images were drawn from the world of Hollywood.3. changing the role of the artist and his or her way of seeing and doing things. mass media. glamor. Warhol directed his assistant friends and hangers-on into an organization that he called The Factory. acrylics. He deliberately recalled and exploited the values of the world by using its visual language: bright colors. as did Leonardo in the 16th century and Courbet in the 19th century. 77 1⁄2 x 45 2⁄3 in (197 x 116 cm). and compelling (sometimes shocking) images. Chairman Mao. like his subjects. Private Collection. Look for instantly recognizable.

President Elect. Influenced by billboard signs. they baffle me. brother’s death. 1964–65. His early work is figurative. KEY WORKS The American Dream 1. 1961–64 (Paris: Centre Pompidou) James Rosenquist b 1933 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. 65 3⁄4 x 78 3⁄4 in (175 x 200 cm). Guston said of his works around this time: “You see. .1m in 2005. has effective. I look at my paintings. razor-edged. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Work is flat. LOVE.48 x 26. 1977. American Dream. now very dated. prints 2 Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada 3 $1. He was probably working out the consequences of a traumatic childhood (father’s suicide. In about 1950 he became an Abstract Expressionist. DIE. monosyllabic command—EAT. 1967 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). His crudity perhaps reflects an element of self-loathing? KEY WORKS The Native’s Return. and heraldic. eye-bombarding optical impact. That’s all I’m painting for. prints 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $550. Often uses a single. The Street (oils) He was a well-regarded and influential artist whose work has had several distinct and different phases. 1971 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) F-111 (detail) James Rosenquist. American Sweetheart (oils) He is remembered for the brief period when he created imagery of simple words and numbers painted on a large scale in blazing color. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. which jump in scale and. LOVE. memories of Ku Klux Klan). US. speculate about them. with crude. Very Pop Art.5m in 2005. oil on canvas. nervously painted. but perversely poetic. because of their seeming disconnections. high-minded abstract paintings. A detail from a vast composition. 1957 (London: Phillips Collection). 10 x 86 ft (3. DC: National Gallery of Art) Legend Philip Guston.21 m). he was initially trained. The Painter’s Table. are resistant to (but demanding of) interpretation. oil on canvas and aluminum. Creates large-scale works that are chronicles of an era (1960s). 1962 (London: Mayor Gallery). Around 1970 he returned to figuration.” painter and designer. producing shimmering. as a New York billboard Robert (John Clark) Indiana b 1928 – n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. It is difficult to explain Guston’s changes of direction other than as autobiographical. Pieces together immaculately painted layers of commonplace imagery.000 in 2002. Be Beautiful (oils) One of the leading Pop artists. too. and became very successful. which was a protest against the Vietnam War and American defense spending. 1900–70 445 Philip Guston b 1913 – 80 n AMERICAN 5 Mexico. KEY WORKS Study for Marilyn. 1973 (Washington. cartoonlike imagery that conjures up a bizarre world of everyday junk remnants. Europe 1 oils 2 Canberra: National Gallery of Australia 3 $6.C . very 1960s. 1961 (New York: Museum of Modern Art).

San Francisco: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $90. At their heart is a dialog about the human condition in the modern world. Window at Night (oils) A pioneering Pop artist whose work was very recognizable. and classical music). sculpture 2 London: National Portrait Gallery 3 $100. Bird. artist). Real Gold. The fragmentation and unexpected juxtapositions of images are never arbitrary but part of a clearly thought-out strategy. and to places of imagination (such as museums).” that is pop