Chapter 2: vector Spaces

Sect.ion z .. ~:. Vector Spifu::e,$

De! in.i.tions:

~.. If If is a f Le ld I then a v,ector spec« over IF is a tuple.

'f/J :::;; (V ;+, 0; -; 0) T where V is a set., 0: .FxV ..:; V, and. +., - and o ar,e operations on V: + is .binary, .~ Ls unar'y and 0 .is nullary .• 'The. m,e:mber.$ of V ar·e called vectors I and the ,oper.atio:n ois

called the scalar multiplica.t.i.on of v·ectors 6 The op,er.ati,on.s + T -

and (I, ca lied. vector additi on, addi t i ve invers ion, and the zero vector, respectively. If c ",. F and 0:: e V, th.en we d.e.not.e

9 (c I 0::)' by coa: o,r co:. Th·e operations in "VI .$,atisfy th,e f'ollowingproperties:

(a), Addition is

(~'O:, f.. E V) [a' + {3 - .(3 + IX] .•

(b) Addit10n is associative:

(Y~~ P, 7 e V) [(a: +~) + 7 = q + (~ + 7)J.

(c) The zero vector .1.5 an ad'di tive leftidenti ty: (VaeV) CO + a ~ a).

" d) Additive invers ion pro! .f or addi t.i ve 1 et t: i.nverses· ,of th,e members of V:

(VaEV)(-(a) + a = 0).

For any 0:. in V I we call - (0: ) the opposite ,of 0::, and. denote .it also by -,IX.

ee) 'The one. of the field is an .identity for scalar

mul·t .. ip,lication:

(lfo::eV) ;( 10 ,0: "" a)! •

( f) Multiplication !of scal·ar:5 is (left) th scalar mu.ltiplicati.on of vector.$:

(g) Scalar mul tiplic.ati'on of vectors is (left.) distri.butive over vector addition;

(1:1) Scalar mU.l t~iplic.ation of vectors is (right J distribtrtive

over scalar addJ. t:l.on:

z. If~' is a vector space over a :fi,eld IF ,then we define sU.btract.ion .in Vii to be the bin.ary opera.ti.on ~. defined on the set


V .by a.dcii tion of the a.ddit,ive inverse; ex'~.{:'l = 0:; + (-13')'.

3. If \I isa vec'tor apace over a field IF" and a E V, then for' any nO' ;scala,r c Ln f, we will ,also denote c-Iea by ale. We c:a.l .. l this operation Ie on V div.l"sj,on .by the sC.3.1ar c.

4\ ~ ,A vector space ovar ;;JI will .be called a. r,at iona1 vect'OI" space or just a nat j onal spaee '. 'Th.e terms re,al (vector J space and co'mple,x' (vector) s,pace: ,an~: similarly defi,ned.. In qeJleral, fe,.r any field If, a vecto,r space ever F Ls also cal.led an 1F~'vector space or an IF-'spac,e .•

:Exa:mpl,es: 1. Th,e e.n.t.rywi,se

~n .. -d I~·xfl . - - d f' .,ii' f- . t' h' t t

s,p,ac'e,s ~r an.... ~- ar'e c e . .l.n,ey.n e _ex:.,

,additi,on and entrywise sc,alar m.ult.iplicat.ion..


2., Let:x be any set and let IF be a field. W's, d,enot.e the :set ,of ,all .functions r : X ·~F' bYFx. Thus

and we d.ef..ine addi t.ion and scalar multiplica,tion in .Fx pointwise:

(.f + g) (x} :: f (x) + g (x) and (c'f) (x) = cf (x) ~ yields a vector space o,ver IF " IF:>: r called the space of funce ions .from X into IF.

:3. This example is a. 9' of 2. Let X be any set a.nd let 'JJ be a v,ec:t,or space over a. fie,ld1, IF., Let

and define addition and sc.alar roul tiplicat.ion in v'" pointwise:

(f + g') (x) "" if (x) + g (x) and (cf') (x) = cf (xl ..

Then 'v- ,is an IIf-sp'ace, call,ed the space of fu.nctions from x into 'QJ.

4\. Every field Ls a. v,ector .spac,e over itself T usin9' sca.lar addition for vector additi,on and mul'tiplicat.ion of scalars for scalar mUlt.iplicatien of vectors ~

5. Oonsider the field IF with four members 1 given inprev'ious examples: F =: {OIl, IX, (a:+l)} •. Thi,$, fi,eld .is a il2-s,pace, using


---~----- - -


its f ieldad.di.tio:nand, Btu.l tiplica.tion 'operations to def.ine,r mul tiplication and v',e,ctor ,addition.


1.., A,s with fields, - and 0 can be; ,dlef ined fr'om the addi.ti.on oper,ation in a vector space 'PJ ,.

2,. 'T.he "'few s,impl,efa,ctsU discussed onpg ,. 3,1. 'of the text ,are e.ssentially the same as several facts we verified f,or fi,elds in section ,1. i.

:3 • As in our w'ork with matrices f ·we will usesum.rnatj,on ,notat ion .in vector spaces,with'out hes.itation. It should be remarked, however, that it re.guires a .recursive dei'i.nition, so proofs invQlving summation n,ota.tionoften require induction.

It i.s a.5,5umed that the re,adier underst.and,$ what a. .1 inear Lon of finitely many 'vector,s is t ,and 5'0 we deno,tethe set of a l L linear co,mbinations of memb,ers of a subset S ,of a vector apace 'f/J by <8>: If S ;!; V, then


<8> ;;::;; { I CJO::J j = 1

cnEF} '.

",omework Ass.ignment for Section Z~l.:

1.. Prove tn,at if IE: is an exten.sion field o.:fa field. IF , then IE is a v,ecbor space over :IF I ' the f h;!ld operations to define t.he vector spaceoper,ati.Qn,s in IE,. Co,nclude that; any field isei.tber a rational vector space or a zp-space for some prime p~

:2.., *Let X be the (open) u, ball in 1R:3;

and let 'f!JJ' be the vector space (lR3} x . A. member o.f '!fjJ is called a vect.or fi,e1.d on x.. Recall the',ition 0'£ the curl of a, d.:if'ferent.iable m.,ember 'of lll: If f = (£1.' f2t x3) I L'e,. if


curle!) - Vxf = (



8f3 af2 l;J'f1
r )1 •.
aX1 aX'l ax:!,: _,r--


If r E 'V is irl"'ot.ati ana.l i.rrotati.onal combt nat.fona,


such that cu.rl (f)' = vector field on X. v,ecbor fields on i~e~ that <N> ~ w.

0, then we s,a.ytbat .f .i.s an Show that the s,etW of X is closed under linea,!" Next " def ine a relation ~w on V

Thus, two veceor .fields t , diff·er,ence is an irrotationatl an equiv,al,ence, r,elation .on V.,

g on x are ::::-w"'related iff their v,ector field on x~ Show tfia,t, ~'ii Ls

3. Do pro,blem, ,#3 on p'g. 33 of the text .
" • Do pr'oblem #4 on pg,. 3,4 o,f the t,ext. S. '*Let X, '~r Wand ::::w' ,be as in problem. #2, and le,t iU ~ V I =::\w .be th,e s,et 'Of equi va l.enoe ,cla,s,s,es olf vecbor f i.'elds under~w:'

where for f E V, [f']lw = [f] ~w =: {g E V I (f - q) E W}. ,D'efine relations R+ on U2:xU and n, on (lRxU) xU by

.( ( [fJlw" [g]w) " [h]~) e R+ ~, f + g h,
i( (e, [fJwl r [g)w) E Ro ~ cf "" g. Prove that R+ and R" are functions, den.ote tbem by + and (> I a.nd then pro:ve that they make U into a, real vector apace " Ill.


Sect.ion 2.2: Subspaces

))efi:ni tic:m: .If 'fIJI is a vector' space over' a fie.ld g:', then a

,subspace of " is an U=--s,pace. W ;:::;; ,(Wi +, <>; ,- i ,OJ, wh,ere W S; V and.

the operations of 'IW th.e restrictions of th.ose Q·f "to the subset W. In this case, we wribe '~ ~ tf~ {By a conventional abu.s,eofno:t.atio.n, we w.illalso call the set Wa subspace o,f \I (or of V) in this case.)

T'heorem 2:. 1: L,et!IJI be a, vector space over afield f T and l,et 'Viol .be a nonempty 5ubs,et o.:f 'V '. "l'hen W is a subspace of' 'tt if f


1,. The condition (c) in th,eOrellt 2.1 oan be replaced by the condd ti,on<,W> ~ w.

z , since W s <w> for every ,~ubset Wafa v,ector space \1" (c) can be replaced by \\I' = <W>.

Exa:mpl'es ::

:1. Th,s set of ir.rot.atio.nal v,ector fields on the unit .ball TX, descri.bed in exercise 2 on pg. 61, isa subspace of the space

( :3 X ~ 1- 1 t ",. 1.:::1, X

\ IR )1 , vee or .L 1e os on ,0

2. If W .is any none,mpty subset of a vector space TIi I thendl> is ,a subspace Q·f ''U, be.cause <W> = «w».,

:3. If n is a non.zeronatural number i then the set ()if .invertible nxn m.atrices over IF; S ~ {A is IFIIXli II A is, invertible} I Ls no"t: a


subspace of !r" ; in particular " I E S but I - I ~ S.

4. If A is an mxn matrix over a field ~~ then the set

W = { B e lFl:IXk ! AS = O} I

• llXit + • .

.1$ a. sub-s,p,a,el€! of IF ~ :Inpa.rt.icular! J..f k = 1, th,en W 1..S the

soLution space of th,e hom,ogeneons syst,em. Ax = o,

5. The set of sol nt-ions of a homo.geneou.s linear dif.fer,ential equation, such as

isa subspace of th,e spaoe of functions from IR Lnt,o IR, if the



coeff icient functions ,ao I , ••• ,. an are centd.nuoue and an (x) ~, 0, for all x e IIR.,

'Theorem 2,.2,: Let V be a vector sp,a.ce ovez a f.i.elcl If and let 6 .be any collection of subsp,ai,e,es of W. T.hen n6 is a subspace of \rI,.

Pr',Q,of: Let W "'" n6. l.f W' E. 6 ,then ,0 E W~. It .f,oll,ows that 0' is in :w. Th:us W is nonempty. If CE F and 0::, ,f3, eW, then. for ,any w~ in 6, we have 0::, e e W" r so sdrice tw' :5 1IJ ;w,e h,av,e tha't th,e v,ect,or c,a; + ,(3 is in W'. We have shown

so' that CQ; + {J is in. the int.erse.cti,on n~ = w ~ l1:fo110ws that ~' is a subspace of ~, as desired ••••

C'Ol'"'olla.ry: r.f S Ls a,et ofa vector space tit over a. fi'eld ~" then there is a 'smallest.' subspace of t!J which contains S, i~e.. there is a subspace ~ of ~ w~th S ~ Wand

De! ini tiol}.: If S is a subset of a vector space 'f/J I then th.e subs'pace spa.nned .by S in TIJI is

T'tuf'!,or'em 2,. 3: If ,50 is a nonempty subse,t of a vector space 'qJ I then Span.(S) _, <s> ~

No,'ta.ti.on: Because of theorem 2.3, we define <c:> to be Span.(I2!), which is the zer-o subsp,a.c:e of the, gi'ven. vector spac,e "" so that, Independent; of' wnether S ~ V is empty or nonempty I we have Spau(S) = <8>.

Defini tion:lf Sl1 + •• , Sn are subse'ts or a vector space .", then

the sum of 51' .~ 0, 0" Sn is

I Sj =
~ 1 51 +... + Sn-

{ L O::J
jl = 1 j

Theorem 2,. 4.:' If !WI ~ ••• t !W'n ~ V, wher,e T/J is a v'ector .space over

a field, then far each j E {1J •.• T nI,

.. •• +

IW :S 'tl •


.I.n f,act, we have



j = 1

P["o'of: 'To seet.hat ~1+ ... + ' is a su.bspace of TIJ I let o be a

scalar in If', and let ~''''' a1 + + ,0:1\ and ,(3 .~ 131 + •.• +- ,an be

vectors in the sum. tw1+ ••• +Mfi' Then


c,a +- ,{3- c ( ~t + .'.'. + ,((1'1) t- j31 + ~ ~ ~ + f3 n "'" I fca::J + f. J) ~ j "'" 1

Since each summand cO:j+ ~'j is in IWp it follows that co: +{3 is in 'iW1 + ...+ {Wn. ThuslWl. + ••• + 'lW,n. satisfies the cl,QS'ure conditio.n (el of theorem 2 .1. Let 0:) e WJ for some j. TheIl

O::J ~ 0 +- ,. ~ ., +- 10 + O:.J + 0 + ~ 0.. + 0' E IW 1+ ••• + IWfl'

so that :w j is correa Lned in the sum 1ifIl + ,.~. +MI:I ~ S inceW j is, it fClllows that. 1111 + +- IWn Ls nonempt.YI :9.0 that

Now, it is \ easy I to verify that. for a·llY 8nbse:es S and 'T of V T we have



,5Q since U W j i.s conta.ined in the sum L W.J T it foll(lwS that

j - 1 j ~ 1

n n
< U rfJ ;:;- s I WJI .
j -- 1 j .1 It. Ls imm.ed.iat.e from th.e defintion olE the 5umtha:t.

I 'W
j - 1 i.s a

,subspace of -c

U hlJ
jl .= 1 >, so we have


n n n
< U w >- ;:!i I W'J ::!iI " IU Wj >,
j "'" 1 jl _, ,1 j "'" 1. a.nO! it follows tha,t

n n
< U WJ >- - I w "
j 1, ." 1
"" J = Examp,

1.. Let Al E ~)(n and 11.2 e rlo:XIl. Let IWl and tw,2 bathe so Lue.Lcn sp,E\ces of the systems Ai x == 0 and A2X = 0 I i A e.

OJ and W2

=_ .[~.', l' I "".

Let ,A, '"



syst.em Ax, "" 10 ,0 Then iii = 1'1'11 ntW2 •

2. L'et..A ,e: I:rmxn and y E. iF!!f1iXl, and let IW he the sH)lution space o:f th.e nomoqeneoua syst.em Ax == -0. If xp e IFI'LXl is a (particular) solu.tion of the nonhomeqeneous syst,em Ax .~ Y I then the solution seta! the. system Ax: ~ y is the sum. of {Xp ,and. IW. W'e ,also,

denobe solut.ion se.t by xp + tw:

{x e IFnK1 I Ax. == y} = I>.;} + \11' "" >=p + iii.

3. Let IW be the space, of solutions of a. h.omo'geneou5 equation:

n.1 {, .. ,. IR . ~ I " . (na + + . - O'}'

'un = y: '~!u:\ anY -;... :a1y' + iloY == '. ,.' I

and I'at Yp be a (p,a.rticula.r)solu,tion of the n.onh.olD.o'gen.eo:us differential equat.Lon


for sO:l'ne:forcing fun.ction f. 'Then t.he set, a,f a,11 solutions of the equla:t Lon ( !It)1 i So the sum. of fyp} and tw:

Home'war.k. .A,s's,igmnentfo[' S'eetiof) 2, ~2.:


l.~ Consid,er tbe system Ax ~ b:,where A E 15 and b E :ls ..... a.r-a

igiven by

Find a "'particula.r"sQlution., xp, of the sy,stem Ax = i:J, and, the solution set. ofth.issystelm as a sum x; + IW, where IW

p .

Ls the solu.t .. ion :space ot' the homogeneous system AX .~ 0 ~

2. ., Do p.roble.m #.2 on pg - 3 '9 of the t.ext ·
3 .' Do problem #7 on pg . 4 0 of the text ·
t .. DQ problem #8 on P9 " 4, o of the te,xt ·
:5 . D,o problem #9 O'Fl. pgr .' 4 a of the text · 67

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