You are on page 1of 6

This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Automotive Encyclopedia

Goodheart-Willcox

Automotive The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. Brand Disclaimer: Brand names, company names, and illustrations for
products and services included in this text are provided for educational purposes only and do not represent or imply
endorsement or recommendation by the author or the publisher.

Encyclopedia The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. Safety Notice: The reader is expressly advised to carefully read, understand,
and apply all safety precautions and warnings described in this book or that might also be indicated in undertaking
the activities and exercises described herein to minimize risk of personal injury or injury to others. Common sense
and good judgment should also be exercised and applied to help avoid all potential hazards. The reader should
always refer to the appropriate manufacturer’s technical information, directions, and recommendations; then proceed
with care to follow specific equipment operating instructions. The reader should understand these notices and cautions
are not exhaustive.
Toboldt The publisher makes no warranty or representation whatsoever, either expressed or implied, including but not limited
to equipment, procedures, and applications described or referred to herein, their quality, performance, merchantability,
Johnson or fitness for a particular purpose. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any changes, errors, or omissions
in this book. The publisher specifically disclaims any liability whatsoever, including any direct, indirect, incidental,
Gauthier consequential, special, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the reader’s use or reliance upon
the information, instructions, procedures, warnings, cautions, applications, or other matter contained in this book.
The publisher assumes no responsibility for the activities of the reader.

2006 Edition
Copyright © 2006
by
The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
Previous editions copyright 2000, 1995, 1989, 1983,
1981, 1979, 1977, 1972, 1970, 1968

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be repro-


duced, stored, or transmitted in any form or by any
electronic or mechanical means, including information
storage and retrieval systems, without the prior written
permission of The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
Manufactured in the United States of America

ISSN 1080-627-X
International Standard Book Number 1-59070-422-3
Publisher
The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—06—10 09 08 07 06 05
Tinley Park, Illinois
www.g-w.com
This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

3 4 Automotive Encyclopedia

Introduction Acknowledgments

The publication of a book of this nature would not be Hofmann Corp.


possible without the assistance of many segments of Honda
the automotive industry. The authors and the publisher Hunter Engineering Co.
would like to thank the following companies, organiza- Huth Mfg. Co.
tions, and agencies for their contributions to Automotive Jeep
In recent years, there have been significant changes the chapter. Important technical terms are listed at the
Encyclopedia. Kwik-Way
in the design and construction of automobiles. Although beginning of each chapter and are printed in bold italic
Lexus
these changes have increased dependability, improved type when introduced in the body of the text. Additionally, AC-Rochester
Lincoln Div. of McNeil Corp.
fuel economy, reduced emissions, and enhanced safety, safety is stressed in the appropriate sections. Review Accurate Instruments
Linde Div. of Union Carbide
they have made it more difficult to troubleshoot and repair questions are provided at the end of each chapter to help AC-Delco
Lisle Co.
late-model vehicles. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of you evaluate your understanding of important concepts. Alfred Teves Corp.
LORS Machinery, Inc.
the fundamentals of vehicle construction, operation, and The 2006 edition of Automotive Encyclopedia has Allen Test Products Div., Allen Group
L.S. Starrett Co.
service is more important than ever before. been updated to reflect the most recent changes in the Ammco Tools, Inc.
Marson Corp.
Automotive Encyclopedia is a book of fundamen- automotive field. It includes information on the latest Audi of America, Inc.
Mazda
tals. It explores the many sciences involved in vehicle developments in automotive technology, such as OBD II Auto-Test
Nilfisk of America, Inc.
operation: electricity and electronics, computers, hydrau- diagnostics, antilock brakes, side air bags, refrigerant Battery Council International
Nissan
lics, pneumatics, internal combustion, power trans- recovery and recycling, and automotive waste disposal. BMW
Oatey Co.
mission, and steering and suspension geometry. Full color has been used throughout this edition of Brake Systems, Inc.
OTC Tools and Equipment
Automotive Encyclopedia also covers vehicle design, Automotive Encyclopedia to enhance illustrations and Buick
Peerless Instrument Co.
operation, troubleshooting, service, and repair. This infor- highlight important information. Cadillac
Perfect Circle
mation establishes the foundation on which a thorough Automotive Encyclopedia is designed to be used by Carter
Peugeot, Inc.
knowledge of automotive technology is based. Once students interested in entering the field of automotive Central Foundry Div., General Motors Corp.
Pontiac
these fundamentals are mastered, knowledge gained technology. It can also be used by technicians preparing Central Tools
Porsche
through experience will enable you to troubleshoot and for ASE certification or who need to brush up on certain Century Mfg. Co.
PPG Industries, Inc.
service late-model vehicles. topics. Champion Spark Plug Co.
Robert Bosch Corporation
Each chapter of Automotive Encyclopedia opens William K. Toboldt Chevrolet
Robinair Div., SPX Corp.
with a list of learning objectives. These objectives identify Larry Johnson Chilton’s Motor/Age
Rochester
the skills you should be able to master after completing W. Scott Gauthier Christie Electric Corp.
Rubber Manufacturers Association
C-R Industries
Safety-Kleen
Curtis-Wright
Sealed Power
DaimlerChrysler
Sioux
Dayco Corp.
S-K Tools
Deere & Co.
Snap-on Tools Corp.
Delco-Remy Div., General Motors Corp.
Star Machine and Tool Co.
Detroit Diesel Corp.
Sun Electric Corp.
DeVilbiss
Sunnen Co.
Dodge
Tecumseh Products Co.
ESB Incorporated
3M Co.
Everco
Tire Guides, Inc., Boca Raton, FL
Federal Mogul
2005 Tire Guide-www.tireguides.com
Fel-Pro, Inc.
Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A. Inc.
Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.
Triad
Fisher Body Div., General Motors Corp.
U.S. Sales Co.
Ford Motor Co.
VICA
Gates Rubber Co.
Volkswagen of America, Inc.
General Electric Corp.
Winona Van Norman
General Motors Corp.*
* Portions of the materials contained in this text have
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.
been reprinted with the permission of General Motors
Hein-Werner
Corporation, Service Technology Group.
Hercules Motor
This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

5 6 Automotive Encyclopedia

7 Engine Fundamentals 73
Table of Contents Engine Fundamentals 73
Engine Fuels 73
Engine Design 73
Reciprocating Engines 74
Engine Components 74
Combustion Chamber Design 79
Engine Operating Sequence 81

8 Measuring Engine Performance 85


Engine Performance 85
Bore, Stroke, Displacement 88
Compression Ratio 88
1 Automotive Safety 13 4 Fasteners, Seals, and Gaskets 47 Engine Efficiency 88
Safety 13 Fasteners 47 Brake Horsepower 89
Right-to-Know Laws 15 Threaded Fasteners 47 Engine Torque 90
Proper Disposal of Automotive Wastes 15 Keys and Pins 52 Rated Horsepower 90
Fire Prevention 16 Snap Rings 52 Indicated Horsepower 90 11 Engine Removal,
Ventilation 16 Rivets 52 Friction Horsepower 91
Disassembly, and Cleaning 123
Jacks and Lifts 16 Adhesives 53
Tool Safety 16 Sealants 53 Engine Removal 123
Dress Properly 18 Seals 53 9 Engine Top End Construction 93 Engine Disassembly 124
Lift Properly 19 Gaskets 55 Engine Top End 93 Cleaning 127
Welding Safety 19 Cylinder Heads 93 Inspection and Measurement 128
Intake Manifolds 94
5 Measuring Instruments 59 Exhaust Manifolds 94
2 Owner’s Manuals, Service Valve Trains 94
12 Engine Top End Service 131
Measuring Instruments 59
Engine Top End Service 131
Manuals, and Repair Manuals 21 Micrometers 59 Cam Functions 95
Cylinder Head Service 131
Telescoping Gauges and Small Hole Gauges 61 Camshafts 96
Introduction 21 Valve Seat Reconditioning 133
Vernier Calipers 61 Camshaft Bearings 97
Owner’s Manuals 21 Valve Guide Service 134
Dial Gauges 62 Camshaft Drive Mechanisms 97
Service Manuals and Repair Manuals 22 Valve Service 137
Feeler Gauge 62 Valves 98
Technical Service Bulletins 22 Valve Spring Service 139
Valve Springs 102
Flat Rate Manual 24 Valve Operating Mechanisms 142
Valve Lifters 102
Computerized Service Information 25 6 Meters, Testers, and Analyzers 65 Push Rod Service 143
Valve Seals 104
On-line Services 25 Rocker Arm Service 143
Automotive Meters, Testers, and Analyzers 65 Valve Retainers and Keepers 104
Technical Assistance Hotlines 25 Lifter Service 143
Analog and Digital Meters 65 Rocker Arms 104
Multimeters 66 Push Rods 104 Camshaft Service 145
3 Automotive Tools 29 Test Light 67 Camshaft Bearings 146
Tachometers 67 Timing Belt Service 147
Tools 29 10 Engine Bottom End Timing Chain Service 147
Wrenches 29 Dwell Meters 67
Battery/Starter Testers 67 Construction 107 Timing Gear Service 148
Sockets and Ratchets 31 Head Bolt Torque 148
Specialty Wrenches 32 Timing Light 68 Engine Bottom End 107
Pliers 33 Oil Pressure Gauge 68 Engine Block Construction 107
Screwdrivers 34 Fuel Pressure Gauge 69 Crankshafts 108 13 Engine Bottom End Service 151
Hammers 35 Compression Gauge 69 Vibration Dampers 111
Vacuum Gauge 69 Engine Bottom End Service 151
Electric Drills 38 Connecting Rods 112 Engine Block Service 151
Impact Wrenches 38 Vacuum Tester 69 Piston Construction 112
Exhaust Gas Analyzers 69 Cylinder Reconditioning 153
Files 39 Piston Rings 113 Crankshaft Service 156
Retrieving Tools 40 Oscilloscopes 70 Compression Rings 113
Scan Tools 71 Bearing Clearance 158
Soldering Tools 40 Oil Control Rings 114 Bearing Removal 159
Hacksaws 41 Engine Analyzers 71 Piston Pins 115 Replacement of Inserts 159
Taps and Dies 42 Flywheels 116 Piston Service 165
Cleaning Equipment 43 Balance Shafts 116 Piston Ring Service 166
Bearings 118 Connecting Rod Service 170
Main Bearing Caps and Seals 120 Piston Pin Service 171
Balancing Engines 173
This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents 7 8 Automotive Encyclopedia

14 Engine Lubrication 177 19 Fuel Supply Systems, Intake 22 Ignition System Fundamentals 24 Starting System Fundamentals
Oil 177 Systems, Superchargers, and and Service 301 and Service 339
Properties of Engine Oil 177 Starting System Fundamentals 339
Selecting Viscosities 178
Turbochargers 243 Ignition System Operation 301
Ignition Coils 302 Starting Motor Operating Principles 339
Oil Service Classifications 178 Fuel Pumps 243
Distributor Cap 302 Starting Motor Types 343
Oil Changes 180 Mechanical Fuel Pump 243
Rotor 302 Starting Motor Internal Circuits 343
Oil Filters 180 Electric Fuel Pumps 244
Spark Plug Wires 303 Neutral Safety Switch 347
Lubricating Methods 180 Fuel Filters 245
Spark Plugs 303 Troubleshooting the Starting System 347
Fuel Gauges 246
Ignition Timing 306 Starter Maintenance 348
Intake Systems 248
15 Engine Cooling Systems 187 Air Filters 248 Specific Ignition Systems 307 Starting Motor Tests 348
Cooling Systems 187 Intake Manifold 249 Breaker Point Ignition 307
Water Pumps 189 Superchargers 251 Electronic Ignition 309 25 Charging System
Belts 189 Turbochargers 254 Computerized Ignition Systems 312
Hoses and Clamps 191 Distributorless Ignition 312
Fundamentals 353
Radiators 192 Direct Ignition 314 Charging Systems 353
Automatic Transmission Fluid Cooler 193
20 Fuel Injection Systems 259 Ignition System Service 315 Alternator Construction 356
Closed Cooling Systems 193 Fuel Injection 259 Performing a Spark Test 315 Alternator Operation 357
Radiator Caps 193 Classifying Gasoline Injection Systems 259 Ignition Coil Service 315 Voltage Regulators 359
Cooling Fans 194 Servicing Fuel Injection Systems 264 Distributor Cap and Rotor Service 316 Voltage Regulator Types 359
Thermostats 196 On-Board Diagnostic Systems 265 Computer-Controlled Voltage Regulation 364
Spark Plug Service 316
Heater Core 197 Verifying Fuel Injector Operation 265 42-Volt Electrical Systems 364
Spark Plug Wire Service 319
Antifreeze Solutions 197 Checking Fuel Pressure 266
Pickup Coil Service 319
Air-cooled Engines 199 Injector Balance Test 266
Relieving EFI System Pressure 266
Contact Point and Condenser Service 320 26 Charging System Service 367
Cooling System Testing 200 Adjusting Ignition Timing 321
Servicing Fuel Injectors 268 Charging System Testing and Service 367
Cooling System Troubleshooting 202 Testing Centrifugal and Vacuum Distributor Advance
Rebuilding a Throttle Body 270 Charging System Inspection 367
Cooling System Flush 203 Systems 322
Methods of Diesel Injection 270 Charging System Precautions and Tests 368
Ignition Control Module Service 322 Alternator Removal 369
16 Diesel and Other Engines 207 Distributors and Direct Ignition System Service 322 Alternator Disassembly 370
Diesel Engines 207
21 Carburetor Fundamentals Bench Tests 370
Truck Engines 209 and Service 275 Repairs/Replacement 372
Racing Engines 210
23 Batteries and Battery Alternator Reassembly 372
Carburetors 275
Rotary Engines 210 Carburetor Circuits 277 Service 325 Alternator Reinstallation 372
Miller-Cycle Engines 214 Air/Fuel Mixture 287 Batteries 325
Variable-Compression Engines 215 Stoichiometric Mixture 288 Battery Construction 325
Hybrid Vehicles 215
27 Computer System Fundamentals
Computerized Systems 288 Maintenence-free Batteries 327
Fuel Cell Vehicles 216 Electro-Mechanical Carburetors 288 Battery Voltage and Capacity 329 and Service 375
Carburetor Service 290 Battery Ratings 329 Computer Control Systems 375
17 Fundamentals of Electricity, Battery Inspection 330 Components of a Computer Control System 377
Battery Testing 330 Sensors 377
Magnetism, and Electronics 219 Jump Starting an Engine 336 Electronic Control Module Operation 382
Electricity 219 Actuators 384
Insulators 221 Computer Control System Troubleshooting 386
Conductors 221 On-Board Diagnostic Systems 386
Volts, Amperes, Ohms 221 Diagnostic Trouble Codes 386
Types of Electrical Circuits 222 Activating Self-Diagnostic Systems 387
Magnetism 223 Using Diagnostic Information 389
Electronics 227 Sensor Service 390
Actuator Service 394
18 Automotive Fuels 235 Electronic Control Module Troubleshooting 394
Automotive Fuels 235
Volatility 235 28 Exhaust Systems 397
Combustion of Gasoline 237 Exhaust Systems 397
Antiknock Qualities 239 Exhaust Manifold 397
Fuel Additives 240 Mufflers 398
Lead-free Gasoline 240
Catalytic Converters 399
Alcohol as a Fuel 240
Exhaust System Corrosion 400
Diesel Fuels 241
Servicing Exhaust Systems 402
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) 241
This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents 9 10 Automotive Encyclopedia

29 Emission Controls 405 34 Manual Transmission 35 Automatic Transmission 39 Driveline Service 553
Introduction 405 Service 469 Fundamentals 487 Driveline Service 553
Automotive Emission Standards 405 Manual Transmission Maintenance 469 Automatic Transmissions 487 Drive Shaft 553
Positive Crankcase Ventilation 406 Check Fluid Level 470 Fluid Couplings 487 Universal Joint Service 554
Exhaust Emission Controls 408 Replace the Rear Seal 470 Torque Converters 488 Center Bearing Service 555
Precombustion Controls 408 Test the Gearshift Operation 470 Automatic Transmission Operation 490 Differentials 555
Post-combustion Controls 413 Check Clutch Pedal Free Play 470 Actions of Key Elements 491 Transaxle Lubrication 558
Manual Transmission Troubleshooting 470 Automatic Transmission Operation 497 Wheel Bearing Lubrication 559
Manual Transmission Service 472 Other Automatic Transmissions 500 Driving Axles 560
30 Engine Troubleshooting 421 Electronic Transmission Control 500
Removal of Transmission From Car 472
Engine Troubleshooting 421 Disassembly: Three-speed Manual Continuously Variable Transmissions 500
Test Equipment 421 40 Four-wheel Drive Systems 569
Transmission 473
Effect of Emission Controls 421 Four-wheel Drive/All-wheel Drive 569
Strategy-Based Diagnostics 422
Clean and Check: Three-speed Manual 36 Automatic Transmission Four-wheel Drive Systems 570
Transmission 473
Self-diagnosis 422 Reassembly: Three-speed Manual
Service 507 Four-wheel Drive Componenets 570
Troubleshooting Charts 422 Automatic Transmission Maintenance and Service 507 Four-wheel Drive Service 576
Transmission 475
Disassembly: Four-speed Manual Check ATF Level 508
Check ATF Condition 508
31 Driveability and Tune-up 433 Transmission 477
Inspect for ATF Leaks 509 41 Suspension and Steering
Clean and Check: Four-speed Manual
Driveability and Tune-up 433
Transmission 479
Test for Broken Transmission Mount 510 Systems 579
Tune-up Test Procedure 435 Changing Automatic Transmission Fluid 511 Suspension and Steering Systems 579
Reassembly: Four-speed Manual
Checking Compression Pressure 440 Adjust Bands 512 Front Suspension Systems 584
Transmission 479
Using a Vacuum Gauge 440 Adjust Engine Curb Idle Speed 513 Rear Suspension Systems 585
Disassembly: Five-speed Manual
Tuning Emission Controls 441 Throttle Linkage Adjustment 514 Steering Systems 588
Transmission 480
Gearshift Linkage Adjustment 515 Suspension and Steering Service 596
Clean and Check: Five-speed Manual
Troubleshooting Tips 515 Troubleshooting Suspension 597
32 Clutches 443 Transmission 483 Road Testing 516
Reassembly: Five-speed Manual Troubleshooting Manual Steering 598
Purpose of the Clutch 443 Stall Testing 516
Transmission 483 Troubleshooting Power Steering 599
Design and Construction 443 Air Pressure Testing 517
Reinstallation of the Transmission in the Car 484 Testing Electronically Controlled Transmissions 518
Parts Location and Relationship 443
Clutch Service 451
Clutch Adjustment 452 37 Transaxles 521
Clutch Overhaul 453
Transaxles 521
Clutch Troubleshooting 454
Transaxle Construction 521
Transaxle Operation 523
33 Manual Transmission Manual Transaxle Troubleshooting 528
Manual Transaxle Maintenance 529
Fundamentals 457 Automatic Transaxle Troubleshooting 531
Manual Transmissions 457 Automatic Transaxle Maintenance 532
Application of Torque 457
Gear Usage 457 38 Driveline, Universal Joints,
Three-speed Manual Transmission 458
Helical Gears 459 Differentials, and Driving Axles 537
Synchronizing Clutch 460 Drivelines 537
Four-speed Manual Transmission 460 Universal Joints 538
Overdrive Revival 460 Drive Shaft 538
Planetary Gear Systems 461 Differential 538
Transmission Overdrives 463 Driving Axles 539
Five-speed Overdrive Transmission 464 Torque Transfer or Drive 541
Hotchkiss Drive 541
Torque Tube Drive 542
Control Arm Drive 542
Slip Joints 542
Constant Velocity Joints 543
Transfer Cases 543
Center Bearings 543
Differentials and Axles 543
Limited-Slip Differentials 547
Front-wheel Drive Driveline 548
This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright © The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents 11 12 Automotive Encyclopedia

42 Tires and Tire Service 601 48 Safety Systems 709 51 Body Repairing and
Tires 601 Safety Systems 709 Refinishing 757
Tire Types and Basic Structure 601 Seat Belt Systems 710 Body Work 757
Tread Patterns 603 Air Bag Systems 712 Hammers, Spoons, and Dolly Blocks 758
Tire Markings 603 Energy Absorbing Bumper Systems 715 Using Pull Rods and Slide Hammers 759
Tire Service 607 Other Safety Features 717 Body Filler 759
Improvements and Advances 612 Filing and Sanding 761
49 Lamps, Lighting Circuits, Wiring, Patching Rusted Areas 763
43 Wheel Alignment 615 Replacing Panels 763
Horns, Wipers, and Washers 723 Welding 764
Wheel Alignment 615 Lamps and Lighting Circuits 723 Painting 768
Wheel Balance and Unbalance 616 Fuses and Circuit Breakers 724 Masking 769
Car Weight Balance 617 Headlamp Types 724 Spray Guns 770
Wheelbase—Tread Width 617 Daytime Running Lamps 724 Tips on Spraying 770
Rear-wheel Track 618 Lamp Switches 725 Refinishing Materials 772
Springs 619 Fog Lamps 728 Matching Colors 774
Suspension Height 619 Direction Signal Switch 728 Preparing Old Finishes for Paint 775
Shock Absorber Action 619 Stoplight Switch 728 Soft Body Parts 778
Front-wheel Angularity 620 Lamp Service 728 Identifying Plastics 778
46 Automotive Brakes 647 Wires and Cables 734 Repairing Water and Dust Leaks 779
44 Wheel Alignment Fundamentals of Automotive Brake Systems 647 Lighting Wire Sizes 734 Drain Locations 780
Braking System Operation 649 Resistor Ignition Cable 736
Correction 625 Brake Lining Materials 650 Wiring Harnesses and Connectors 736
Wheel Alignment Correction 625 Disc Brakes 651 Horns 737 52 Career Opportunities and
Rear-wheel Drive/Front-wheel Drive Alignment 625 Drum Brakes 653 Horn Troubleshooting 739 Technician Certification 783
Front-Wheel Drive—Alignment 632 Brake Hydraulic System 656 Principles of a Direct Current (DC) Motor 739 Automotive Careers 783
Rear Wheel Alignment 632 Disc Brake Calipers 662 Wiper Motor Construction 739 The Job Market 784
Alignment Troubleshooting 634 Wheel Cylinders 662 Troubleshooting 741 Job Descriptions 785
Brake Lines, Hoses, and Fittings 663 Windshield Washers 741 Entrepreneurship 789
45 Hydraulics and Pneumatics 637 Power Brakes 663 Technician Certification 790
Anti-lock Brake Systems 666
Hydraulics 637 Brake Service 668
50 Speedometers and Cruise
Transmission of Forces 638 Hydraulic System Service 668 Control Systems 745 Appendix 793
Movement of Liquid 640 Disc Brake Service 670 Analog Speedometers 745
Application of Hydraulic Principles 640 Drum Brake Service 673 Speedometer Operation 745
Pneumatics 641 Power Brake System Service 680 Inspection and Lubrication 747 Dictionary of
Effect of Atmospheric Pressure 642
Effect of Vacuum 642
Troubleshooting and Servicing Anti-lock Speedometer Cable 747 Automotive Terms 797
Brake Systems 682 Digital Speedometers 748
Compressed Air 643 Light Emitting Diode 748
Principle of the Siphon 643 Liquid Crystal Display 750 Index 815
Venturi Tube 644 47 Automotive Air Conditioning 685 Vacuum Fluorescent Display 750
Boyle’s Law 644 Automobile Air Conditioning 685 Cathode Ray Tube 750
Charles’ Law 645 Principles of Air Conditioning 686 Digital Odometers 750
Automobile Heating Systems 688 Troubleshooting 750
Types of Refrigerant 694 Cruise Control Systems 751
The Need for Refrigerant Oil 700 Cruise Control System Service 753
Air Conditioning Service Tools and Equipment 701
Servicing the Air Conditioning System 702
Discharging and Recovering Refrigerant 703
Evacuating the Air Conditioning System 703
Charging the Air Conditioning System 703
Retrofitting R-12 Air Conditioning Systems 704
Troubleshooting Heating Systems 704
Troubleshooting Air Conditioning Systems 704
Automatic Temperature Control 705