The Lessons

1: The Three Basic Sentence Types 2: Sentence Particles

3: ~TDlesl,'l and -*, -Masu 4: Simple Questions with 'i:r~ Ka

5: Doing Things with J~ SU'ru

6,: Modifying. Verbs, Adjectives & Desu 7:: Modifying, NOlIDS

8": Explanatory (JJNol

9: iJf Go Marksthe Subject

] 0: ~ {O Marks the Direct Object 11 : ~;tw a Marks the Topic.

12:: KO~EO,~,a~do Words

13:: Some High-Traffic Particles 14: ConnectingWords

15,: Quoting with ~ To

16,: Complete Sentence Modifiers 17: Question Words

18,: 'The Past Forms

19: The -l(' -r« Flann

2 10 18 24 32


.50 58 64 68 74 ,82


102 112 118 128 13:8 14,8,

20: Negative Verbs,

'21 : Negative Adjectives & Desu 22: Let's Do It!

,23·:: Desire

24: If and, Whe,n

25: More -Te Form Expr-essions 26:: Probably ~ Surely, Maybe 27,: Commands

28: 'Can ,D,t)!

29: Passi v -' Ve rbs

30: Making II Happen

:31: 'Giving and Receivlng

:3,2,:' Appearances and Hearsay

166 176 182 ,1'8,:8,

2-8, ''''·'1,4,

'22 22':" 23'1 2 2 25"

Tables, and Si


The Four Politeness Levels Basic Verb Facts

Sentence Structure Summary: Sentence Particles Summary: Desu and ... Masu Interjecti ons

SWlUllUY: Simple Questions Existence

Honorific Language Relative Time 'Table

A 'Generic Counting Sequence The BIRSic Numbers and Units How Units Are Combined Frequently Used Counters Dates and Durations


Personal Pronouns

KinshipTerms HOIUfS, and Minutes

4 .5 10


22 23 29 31 38 44 45 46 46 47 49 57 16.3


Quoting Structure

Some Common Question-Word ,+ Ka Forms Summary: Question- Word Sentence Structure Summary: Past Forms

Summary: ,_ Te Forms

Summary:: Negativ Verbs

Summary: Negativ ~ Daldesu and Adjectives Summary:: The ~'L,e't':sn"ll_JI Think .u-> Forms

of VI arbs I

Summ ar" y- ilil Ba Forms

~ ,,', .'~' """ u;, r"'U;Jll.U~1

Summary: The Abrupt Command Forms ofVerbs

112 135 137 147 1,551



178 1910


s' ,- -, ~ 'Th '-C"" q- 'lB·' ' A, bl T" "'"", F' " "

·_u,n,)In,~ry~ __ ~~ ,', 1111"1- e ',' " , 01 " " ·on11S

~ll -

-S'V b Ull',_, er .,81


Com paring Pa ' :, i ve and ~IC,an!Be Able Tic' Verbs 23,S;

S,umm1UY: The •• '-aUSil rve Forms of Verbs 241


--. -'



- ----

In:pViJleoo i~ bullt ,on d1i1i'-1~ b~ic s,ciD'UCIl-ce.lypeS; verb, ~;e:ctive,Md noun. IUtd the sinlp:le seneenees otre.aclililype 00'01£1 ~llrdly be .'l,impl~r.. A ',er~~lioJl wi;ud" li_k~I"g,(t~ll by ruUii~~f I'l'liakes:f.l colltt,fplete: ~He.lilCe.. Aln adA,ect;l1- -:t d~~ri,bi"g, word. 'Uk;e "·oo~d:·"-·~by h:."i.clfc c-anm,ne 0: oomJP1~1~ '~~~C'n.oo. [OO.~C!Ill~ i~ JnpMQ~~ Ii:e mf~1!Il il18 of me ""~rn ·~lO be" ls b'uih righ1. m .. A Rtnm-u ",,~rd, .IIL ml~oo :1:1, p~ r8.'IJ", pJ;m~~e" ~:hin8. 0:1' ~d'en-.must ,come whil:l a 8e,am~.e verb •• ~p bi:. 'I b1!tl (ll"!~~ 1;1, .t,lin8~~ ,nOUA IIlM ~101 be SLIl:l'OO. 80 ~:osi!y.o f,;ng~i'Sh (iOll1Pll_risbliS,.1hQ; simph~~!u .:"~_'a,~ ~'lltSe oonmcmte:es .1:'IJ:>e: I ike:

Ooss. Wem, C8Lfite. W m 'OO:n'Dl!e. is cold. Wt:llS flUlu!\'ili(:.

I~ :ph~;I1I,~. Were frier,a,ds.

("Jerb type: ,Qorlion>

(llidj;!Xili V'C' type: dJe,scf.i1;li!U'la.) (noM 'lypC!:' n __ sIi d~[Uyil1,g,)

,. IEI~a! !Iljllml~![gl'!' 01 'I~tl mI:Il1Ili1 "8fl4l:l! lL.IutilO 1111Ja!itlu 1Ji!~ .tj~k ru'a, 11iI~IiKiIH W1 ~Jilamlfu.!: B. V~~ ,mn ~(I!I)~I!I ~CJ~os up I;)\f llilllf1Qr ucll!1,!!l ~!I!l!im oi!l[fiia Infi){m{!11i(I11 ~n 111101 CAilpyJ'ig~1 rKI.llca i!lBlillo

1- [(d1II}:r.I!'D,~Il),

hI, EI'IgJim .• ~ ,rue Sen'El)lltn~ &figme:n~~" b0(l:3;D:lrIle lfn:(i![Y cmlln~'l huvc. !iUihJ~cil~;-!Dhl.n: 16. [hey clQ!l'~ !l:ay w~@,·~ doll'll I!h~ action. or w.hft~: ~s berng rlIes:crili..lecl 0:1' idremified-iHLd :n llaU'I.I!0 ~g1i~!k ,l;!poo.k:SI,· w'hu ~pl!)(ke 'lhJ~, WI,Y wOillll~d soumi flilllitW" s.illy. Itt In,prumse. IIQugh. oo:ntl!m:es Ute tl&i:e soU!nd ~rfcclily ,llOl'IlHiI; in ,[nct. ~t ,often sl)W1Id~ qillille unmlll!!r,oJ 'Ull ine~ucle: t112 subject vd'!.0Di! if's ,alrej}clI,()br",~ou:s Fmlill w:hflit CiI!IIU.'I oofow in tWit~ cOJ!N~rSldioJl! 00'1 5im_fJiyfro:m the s:itu!.lltlOI,'I"

SOMe p~()iple polim te r~e m:is~i:"g !lrud~;i~e~.'l, .:lind oomlpIOJ~~ ~hat J~Pi~1IIIe.'lC is u vagl:elM,Si!lIl.S,~i bUl: if'.'!$ bfilU~r to U,il:ltk of ~he sMjee~:s as merely rr.nt!lita;~(;:d r,~'lhe:l' 1[1:1.0 :nltDBf~tlte.r nbSi.:'"t 'Tl:I.e specific ~uhjec;1 isn't wWll;)is, hIDt;'II!I~~cl ~n Englisl1.. I~tttwr: ~l1UQh 19if Ut~ tiOl!il. n £oub!>.U~i:!I[c like "he" or '!,~h0" fil~s Uli;p~ac~ in:S~l)ad. H'olw ,do you Icm'l!Ow wrm,o I"hoi'" 0:1' <jshe" :ig1Dy Wh9'i eame before i,lill Ilhe ,cOR¥CrSlJiti(llR. or by tin~ O'l~tU,aI~iIOI. T~~ fi~me h,Qi,dis rGf Ul'rli ,~n~tarl,el1, I'i~~jcc'~s in J~pnn~ili. $'01 long ill! 'You're p!l)'iilg ~dtCn,lioOOJi. c!he GOi'iteM~ u,:!IuaUy :F:illh;: ilil, thel SUbj:~l For you. Once you ,!,Ill 'Used to l'h~S .uppmach. i,[' 8 aC[U.311 y qm(e efflc'jeru. buU you do have III S~l,li¥ 011 ~(lur [008 • .K,e,eping tunoo ~m '~o ~he ~CllU~~ i:i!; eruclal,

Slimrple verboilype senle:nces


A v~rb=ly~' ~nt!;n.ce ~,cU,'l. of.oo (Iclion. All U1i1l: vCm-lyp~ S!H1U~iIt~es in li'hi:s l~50!1 (Joluisl[ ,ofonruy

a :;~ng:lt: '\I'erb ,nnd uQ!.hing, else,

Ya.miSiI1~~~ Sayur~ tlU a new boylrl'ililtl ,and iJI'09s:n"ll'!! ally ~I1t '1,(11 '~Elq Q!'I¥1J11ng 'I,D do wUh 9Ihll'1"~chl al'llYmQre'.

Shln'!ctrl want) te tell Mr 1'I00w much ,she sflli meal'1!S (0 him. and 'Ullifl ~(I)r ;u:hB'I"ICG'lo 'Ulilk.1G ~Br- WtloJ'! ahel !iEltlms to ll1i1111~nUilY .~ ~aVia ri "th vilD to talk abr,uJ~ he p.~aadB: ,



:rom»m~' ~ql!lf1~v.a~\!IIl!):JI ''''Ii 1~(I'lll~~I'!"·

u'lliu!g Y0l:ltU (fU)






" '~1lromlll'l!t!:ru1S ;'m.nk~ ~ '~~ijl!lt!li1'tMk IJMljllt'fI':' Wh~1l m!'d~tI~ tJiR'Ci. -tl'1 Lo liomeo. H!!.l~ •. UI~. tttfll'U.,Y ~!,!\,[ie~ "1_ NI[_!!!ll~t~'d!!l Dr Y;!J~I,·'[J.I!t11 I Qiji,ll~ t'lll1ve!l \l~ IInl 1l\~1li'!i'~r11gf1Jl of "Plcallll··~ w,lui'fI Il!tlk:~d w ~lll NI,MnS

r~ll1ng ~I CIIII ~ U,kic "]"" you!"

.' if~, dbii,1 ioW! Jmm (lit! 'WI~tC:Kt lhu( tlu:: !!U:bJ{!Ul d'r t'he ""cib iii !)hill~r' iela1 hlrn~~r{"~ ....... j. ij~ 1I'I;!Il;'1j, !il'lll'ilil_ '!(I '1111llllt [Ill Qi:i~¥!c~luiQn, Ihc .... ~.rJ;~f' Imd 11!i!ll!~ r,~ ~ lII'11ong .~ on u IC[l!:Il~ ldidif: .. n, iC',(lnr;!dllU' wl~~ II llf)'in.s: (0 JlUII rn lin ~!)d .Iluhjccl.


'E~Non .. p-~a.:'~ verbs:

-. ,

~n fig. ~. ,t'Hnamu ts the ,main, diictionary to:lI'. of the vCji'b foli' ··~quetlllMJ( a favcllr,~· alCJ;d in ng. l i~ro, l/l~j' is fll,~;':p~. dlC:l~~~'1.m:J f'OJTI'JI Qr me verb for ~'gQ.'~ But lhc OO'll~:e~t 'in Rg •. 2: d~I1miIliI1ld!S !!hat d~e wrltl be Iran$!'I,Ue4 ~'w~]l tI,OI'-. th'll ls, ~ trlUi~i(!Ir:e ~ell9l~e. InJiI.1iP~nese. nile :pI1lin. ,dic~iou"l.lQl ["fm of a. vemis i1JSi!!Q ~() s'P<Wk o,f bofll :p,mer1J[, M1:di flliuim evtnts. so it~,!1 be~t to cilil ,it the nen,ast form.

At the ba!Jl" 'L.emon [Hart regular pali!:Cn Matsuda has ilefln raul1lng Pili nan:stGJP ,itbQu~ M1~ VIIOrnQJ1 wh(l came In ~orthe flr:slilme ~ho J1I1ghl Dpt'Ol'€lIl when 'that v~ry f "",mal'l naflste sa, !SiMa Ihas 9~KeI'l Icst try!"I' to flnd U1S bar : again. Ths prQ~ rli e,tarall1r1r.JIHlOO8 that eStla wants SCHI'lO· ~ bod!!, to came illfld meel hQr, 0 nd M a:ls uea leaps D~ th 11" .' dh an ce ,

~ ilm jJj·111C ",,(:1'1:1 fell: "stlJ:B,mm/w:iUg0," ,:Jill\.{!. mh~ ~O:IIIIEc~ m~ i~, de ltf fllill the. ~l;K'ilk!:f' i~ W~d ~J1;IbjCi;:f-...,I,~ ..• ~I!i.o 1P~~(j!l1l.ifil,Q wU I, gQ .

... T' .. ms'slI,ohllng:es, the' p1olii'.n,ea&; .e,v,e~

lapa,ese v,eribs, do:n 'tchoo~,e f.or .IITIiW1illber (.IliOW ID31:I!)' peO'ph~ or tlW1Igs do, ~.he ,aeuO,n) or ~~DJ1 whclihct'lite spC'·3lker. the lislcne:r" !/j(l" mmoone else dooslic ~o,tion). An EngUs.h, il[Ililater bos [,(Ii hmgUfillh ll!ilt~G!Ilfi ;"'req:ue.s~'· and. "'roql,Hl,Shr er '~sot' and !.iGoesr 10 lmaikc the verb ~grec with tbi: subiCiCC ,0'1 tllile ~~nlence. bUll a JaJ.Hlflese splif~t~rsimply s.ajl~ tlln~mll' Oil' £k~ fiomM~,er Wl'aiO C![ , W W1Hly peopte 8 lie mating a iOOq1Ie:Sl or gO~filg Slomewhere.

AC[UIilI,lly. 11iI1lI~,"S ,I1Q't qlli,te tme. 'b~i;;l~Y,Se :th~wh"() do~ m;H~er in a dliflfemrJ![ way_ l:ap_ese wtbs ,c~Dl~se ftlrm COexpNs>s diffemnJlle:vels, of [p,oUteness dt!pe:nding en. the strUatl.oD,M,(i} thee is) re~llItl.ombip ootweem ithe s, aliildl the Wj:stener., The upU·· yOU! }j;a;w in pamn'lile-.&e:s afilcr III nal [filll'[atibj;'l i~ Ilie 11 r.u ~.w.o c)tn:m..gtes f!nle~~ 'i·P()I,~ltenJ:;.,'s Leve:1 2~~. ~ffv,aJ wsed amOl'Dlll, :ricu~, In l1UlN [annal Si:tLHHIjO'J:U~i' a bigl1ar l~~~, ·of pOm:i.I£:I.0!:!S is cal!led 'far"

This e);:am.pJ~ m u,sll',a'tr;.!'! .~. Pl3 \te:rb. which ,oo.di 1m - ~ 1~ ~lr:i1io'sn:. 'The ",P,(Mlf '~o.rm olf _1:10- is 1W't()mima~~f. ,and lhc-mOiS'~ ferm O'f Urn ibi, ,iJillUl3Uo.,

ThEi leader 101 theopp,os~ltl)nh'as obtained 31 ool!l~ 01 a. hfghly ,clwWed massag,s 'OIP,p~I[j,oo 11!~ldlel!'

Illat ap~.ears to show Ihe U.S. presh:!:enl attemp'U~g 10 Innuence Japanese polier .~~ France. At B qU1!'5tJoJl arnd answer se~lM fn tt1e tDuu ~Japan's l&glstafur,a], 1m ,fJS~ e prime I1lnister to oontirm '(hat the €Opr)' m Indeed genul'ne.

'r!ime Mimii-ttlr: ,l£~ t 1"" e Mitom(m,!(Jm~. ~l!. Mlw~efe'l'llflMl

~~ oonfilr,mlU." tf'L;H

'" tIlJr.'QI'I/,enmrf~ is d;e,~liilt. PU rl1mlO~ lh'il y~J'b mU'Of,Ifl'j'U. whllJ;!b. bitl! ~ ffllIltl: Qfw.fu.. lmnmh'C1.~@ni,llIgs~ ·'.II.obflwh~'dgCJctDflfumi mJmi:I/IICC.GpIiQ~p:WV>~C'Q,~i~~. "


AWI~~h .many !· radation D e~s~~ foil' mOSL purpose if's en . Yigh 110 disdl1guiS'b four l~e]s Il1r p-o]iloe ness,: PLl = rudelco.l'ld,esoondmg: Pl2 = pl~/llibrupt/flmlili~~ PL3 ;;1 erd inill"y p9!1 ite; illiid PlA, = v. ~ry pOllit~. In 'Lilb b60k. yell! wiU see mosfl~y the W!iddl~ lWO ~evt.:·l!$.

M,os[ sentences aren't made UPI ,or an~y a ~i'!'!gle 'erlJ and nothj~l1g else, of course •• dd oUler e]"1IIIl nbin tlfl,~ sentence can afi,f!ct the politc~~s level as .well. B'l!!( iif tile n~ilm verb ~s ln !I plain form~ im: USUl1Jly m.akes :I'he enWt(;le FL2.ru1di r it"s in one onh~ l"wm~ 'I)'f -nIQ·S'u.~L mO~llllypi,ca11:!!'."r.nabs the sen~.O(lee PL3.

The fQur polilMeH li:ivfls;

IJU RlJifi~~n~linu~ bnt to IIIV(loidl,


Plll~1!/fum1l i!Ji1";

ug: wilb clQ~ frimld ,


Oldiruli'y pcJld~:

)'Qur me i'Jverlll~hiJil:~.


Vit::ry~al~:. ' .

u \'.o'llih 'iIlI·~ (!ia:i p,p. :1S-39l'.

At '<'I WGrk]ng dinner, 11'9 client abruplly gats up .to lea!,!',! E wf,er fls lfi1am~ 'that llhaoo i!.Q9ncy has. falled to follo.wone ;_

QHlls InslnHJHons in preparing iti pro.ogsat i

CU qt! Wff tJ i:1" 9 Kot.·rimusu.

\ViI1 go lmrr:mIl'e!I',YIl , "I will go home .. ·•

''III he meaViQg!' (PL3)

• ka,llrlm, SU ~s l:he' flU Ji!)l1JI of th.c verb ko ru f'Mllim iii. m~lle .. ve"). ! lk,pendm:g OD the poillt 'lilf view of !!E ~cj'. Aufer~ can mlllOIl, ¢i~ll.e'f "pi' ~mr.I~~'I"e" ""come hOflilMirrivc:,.'·

Onllly'the poUteness lis dlifterenl

The ·dil!;lliO:Il~TY furn1J and -mas« orm dlBr'ffer (lJII~y in polilre:nes.s. ntl~ Iml!!lIliog. l:Iiumiber. person. or tense, Iku;rnd its pllit'@ iDCI'Jl11 ikirna,Stt fire both Iii,olll"pasuverm: s are l'aflPrmJ: Mid /(M·(.J'lf,ljma u, 'i'U''OI'lle,~ _d mif{)1izemtJ·,~u,. ilM J..YJ(!fD mad ka~rf»W~IJ'. CnntIDi[ w:iLW ~eU wh,ctber I~he: ,e"'eJ!~(ac,~ doJl'l spa 00 of is pre,s,em or fUllum.

Impnrtan'l. U:Sale' Ro1le: fiLl senhmccs,' .o~n;d quile ftIJ.JI!IiUiar Ilji],d, ~vcw ali:m.lp.1:;, $01 they are wcsc:rved [lOT infomw 8itJliI'MiQnIi such as conversalioM among lfu:.miIIly .and r'rie'nd~. or per- 5118oUli,ghef talus speakin_g to persons of1Qwe:r smws .. 1'1.3 'en~~nC~5 S()W1.d q!i!~le a bir more fonnnl, and they are apij:uopriam· when speaking llo !.i:f.nITI,gem:. new '01 rehnivly dfustrnd ~quainWlnCQS, and one" elders ood soci,al . uperio(8,. There's nothing intrinsh:aU, rud.e a!bout. 'PL2 f'Omls i btu, [0· aNo~d , he ifiu of m:d,e~e$SfrollWii u~.ins lh~~l it the wrong, time, begiJnmng le.}fflOf5 of JOipoo,e wiIJ do bes~ In slick with PL3 roms at fi,I"S(,

• St1ln .. ,hMI and his pawerrts nlvEI Jusl sat down lor a spsdal ~ N€IW Year's meal. s,



ll':01Ute:r: ~'nt::..t:: '_ ~.-"t.. IS

llli.d'akiml}s<u. f

~II m:t:ivelpiIII~e

·'M wiU'" ,

. . ~.L~' leat~."*. JlL~,) "f

It(ldQl;il7]a.fld rs lhe po,Urc fOinin of IlfldfJkl~ ("reeciv. "," The I,Ie:ID tall 00 _ Iis~ 10 ~ r recci'Vms 8By(bm.ll. bUI '!be l1i1tJllL ~lmI'I1ID U-<te of j,1$ po-I Uw [mm is ns ,01 ~~ ell! p~io;n SP~!lll, III tile l:Icgi:1!II1I!in( of 3, raeul, ,W ~ here. '0'1 at IiilI1I r Lil)lcs wtwJrl'king served smlIl!lni n'II' Ito 1m[ Of drink. v,"IWn ,. ~d lllj, W Y, "M1ld~Sm(1$tt ~*ln~!lIIIJ fiIlc;t1lS "J will partnke." Inn nho r~l.n- !;im nUlJli: fl'cm~.~ 've!), C3IiU.'d "'DiS in'!" IJ)~ l~tWr\1ll ""fhMkym. For ,me idil1.g wll1lt ~ >Lm ullom In t!.:II"· jlil r~iliflg l! i.rudakimfl"'u a~onl wiJtl~ til,1i r~Jr. I il~ Srun-"CilJ'mlrI has ftlr"B!~1!I his Rllllnool'ii. ;inti bi~ mOIlle comwL'l him In Llc ~I fimmJO.

,i 1M Icmgllted 'illS I.mplies he"s' ,yillS lli,ll wo,rd 'Il'irb pttiil:iwlor !.o:us~Qft,,lhml.a.9JTl: -Ifill I dots n t !t<ltm[1Jly Mmve a long vD\Ii,i\!I.

The Ita~Me sbows a 'few 'e!IMT basic verbs' 'Wcrth. lemn:illl1lg rigL1t aW,31)'. In I~a:cb case tho P~Ili:m!i. dic~iolWaJl' fO'flJI is liven f:i:rsl~ foJlllwed. hy.!'!; iPQ~i,te,,~nl!U~;N I(Ctl.1f!, land mill e,aQh ease, citi1er '01 dmsc, illY itself ean make a 'CQ'il~,Ie;le, sel$l~i'H~e ~!l tib0"righ~~ituati(lJm. Wn Lk~ iliO;sc:oot of any muil-lift ecme IU j mncmo:nm: .subj.ools ha've hOOD ~s:i,gned to siN;ow whBlt the verbs mjgLumaan 9'51 ~nmJ3fjG~.

MONt clJ:s.cU$'ii.ll>Jj orvtn~b g!!:CUiPS CM!"'w~~ Win me.; 'La paslooms~"aJn.d O'DlleT verbferms .aw mtrodU0fi:d ill [he seoQ~d h~mr oBh0 bool~ b,'lWiti~':s w.onh bl"ii,efly men.riol!lJh'ni,~ [112m here, Japaiileoo. b.a;s, jt1;$l two irl"~ula.r!il'erb5, l!mil allimeresr. fitimo one tOr' two groups.. as ilh.lslmted in th~ :ta:.h~c'. For IGr!!UI,' 1I (oom~Umes ca.ll.led u~v(W1ls).lhepDHil:ernlmis 'mad,e,'b:y ebara,gillf!; the hURl ~U ,ofdlc di-el[~ordary fb.:rlll. to -£ and addi:lig ~1f1u.u·!'I (Gwing to, the inre.gul. m;m a:.niI:f;atiQo' in the so ~.d fa '!'QW$, of th.~ 1romJ.II!ahl.e---~ In;Uioihrecl].Qtl'~ vefb~, leilmidiil1g 'in -8U , Wl1iilll!~n ~Jjhi1n.~J1U [i,ather '~iTh!m -srimalSu" and taese endli:ngitfIJ "ISJ-l .e wri Hen .,;,chi71':ta£ll. ntlell' [hallil ... F&ima~~.!liJ' •. F,or IGrroup l(someTj:m~s calrniW ru-"'!erbs:).Ui~ poJit;e feRn i8 ml,l(IDe by rille l~aJID ·Ill 'wili ~mi:7,S'u.

The pan ilJIall: Gom~!!l be[oM. ~.m!1;Sfl inme:poJjireil1m'l: (e.g .• tal- in. t~im.Q.~u) is uHed tbe: SbJi o.rp:ro"'lW1aS'~ fO:mli ()if i[h.G ~Tb. In seme cru;e:iii. a ooJt~e:r:s.1on p.attern is the .SM1li'I.e tOfiltrn 'item grol!IDPS if y!.'lU wOlk from rhe srcm,

This bQ~k . Gfrr Ibo$tl:i:e p:lained p:01i~~ fom, '(Oli each new verb e fnst rew ti!!wu}.o; it appea:ts, If yell!, le'am_ 0011. fc~., YC.IU·U ~i[y be: able rol fiJgum om wtuu ki:nd '!iJ.f verb :it rus i\i!i_ply by coMplarill,g ~he I~WO. The 'illdex, ~tty for. each verb aNso' ,gIDves ~ts glO1iBip.

fil' ?/~ t-l 't"t ktIldf,raimtr~~


"H~ t! r.iBks ... !>¥EvetylOlle 'will drink,"

it l'{. ~ li£t-"'( ~ ""t ,'oJ;t:M! l,'~bem(jfil


"Slile; wil~ {;:~L"

~ecdr. all w3mh

V~Il.··~-r Guru! sl~rnuu,u


"lie (Qme!!l.''' ''''l1nl:Y wU] eome,"

"'rb~ydQ I ill."

~~1 ~n do [lr]I."

A DOUII'H~p-e selllimltlce ~r', ~nm[lMn;g (YOil!D! wi~J ,also le:ru:nm~~:er :aoo,u1!'3! SPesiliiJ group of dtscrilllwvt !lO'll~s)I.L~M l!I'C.T1Hype ~1l'I~nces,.ll1IOlU'H}rpes Qftm iJ.cciW wi,thottt e)!.ptic:.. ;tly slllreti s'~bj!'l:I.t ];[' 8 not q Ili'l~ p~i.b.I!e: ~'Q s;ay thal <lcnQI.i.U .ak:cSil; seQltente aU byi ts~~f. Inl PL3 S"tfi~ [Ile n,aUt116m13]~y needS-11O 00 :fGnOiW~d.~, 1:1'" ,dJeJfU e·islaoo"). If!s IUliS n.oun .... ,deSl~ p'braSI: iIlhn~: i1I'ooIDp:l6't~Slantence ib~wu:elf Ie'VOO wi,m~mta staled .gu'bjec;L

't • f!l;isyks ':51 landlae:y is' ~rJl\il no some ~e m 0d~]ll'Ig dofll a, Mt:!

. ~if!t'B she!: 1'I~~~d ~~, run·~om9 errarll::ls1 sha asked K~suko ! ~~ seN.e 1e - to I;he worke:n! on th!tllr miCl"'ilfterM:Ori braak.Kjsuk~ a!i'e.aCl~ kn,Cw\S filatia ~he rqarpe:nter, bu~ Sad1~'s helpef 'I.Oday !'s someone iI'I~w. The Si~.yatlcm al"lQSana's fl,rHn1lngl fil'lgor ma~" iI ~~9all' wi1al thl s\I;tlIjeot or tiis: sa rttenee I.S.


Siada,: ,L, A ). ~ -r "

MIJSt.1tJlJ] fk:m.

'u_w Ii:!

rs my dlsJu:gllllter.u (Pl3)

KOsiHk",: l&!l ":I I !

ill! r~teljj)

~~O:h!~t' ,(p1L2-3)

.. i!l'r-M.ft.U!!!,! ls 1l!~d bath ". ,j'lirl/J;'illl~d.e:"jy(f!.ll iilg wamltirn:~~ ~td fol' I·du!.!i!hter," HQ'e tl;ie ,can:t!!!)I!1 makes ~l d~1if tb~t ,8MlIl ~!l.:eMii "my duughtir.·· y~~ ;~i ftoornJItt III ~In ikiilil.iih'ip' ~~l'['[IiIl illlJ 'po 91,

i, dcpendill~ollwh~I'~ l~nU~~ r'Or Il!~ 'If:'itl ~illJi.!flliQJI.it1I!!$l~tii.e mm be replacud by LU ~U~:S n:mm. hrsJiljlm: l'Ioofa'i\iGJn!rlJl Q't torpmme iIilh::. w my o1IwJ idel1l[iIiY~IiIi!l .iJlfarnru.II:;o~,

,De!Su most COD1111 D~Y ooReSpandls [0 me Yew '~'~o 00'" in En,gli.ih. II icS Ihe non:..p~[ form ~;f what lioguiS'!s calli ,n ~mking \IIer'b-;, Plnd ~~~$ i:J1J.ed 'to 111i1ftl'!1~, de-Bue. d~rlb£ or iCfU-st:e 'Lhe sld:.J",l of me e,fi'le.nce~ [0 ,g1V~ 'truJ.slltbj,(! -t'" Imc-ation II'lIII' lime~ to ~l!ldicate'H._n action oli' 'SiomeSmg I!ke ~~at d with i1he ~ub ,Be'!.';, and to ink woros 10. me subj-eCE ill! ,R vaJic'ty' of od'll!t way •

As wid!! ~tign'lleW.s! df,!$u d,oos, nor chao,ge rOml tnr number ,or pen!'i)n all' filtillre tense, so wt GOO 00 iIlqui\l'ru.:_iflt to "am," "is," '.a;r;~" ur '~wm be," depeml!iin.!~PJn IhecmUexl. D,esrl d~ m:u clrnln~$D'.rm in M~ the ways liar fiCtiDOU verbs d~,. but it dioes ~V~ sepmlll~ fooos fo1' pliS'l C'W,1l8! wer-e") and for surmil>jngl8:ue8s~Jng ('lmight IbeJis slI,Iire!,y").. wliicb you wUl Jearn in Lessen 3. Unlike acliou verbs. d ~,1iI C'llmliOl' sf3nd 8![cme ,1t~:9I, sentence.,


• Matsu~a.~ wrHer, is busy at WDI'k, whan 'Ihe phone rifU}5.

Ma' l!J.d!t~ J\ 1 • ~'1l1 ~T It

Hal, ,MatsiMfl alt.'fu.

li'~lIo' (lIIonl!) i~~!In i~enl!J,,'lh15, '18 Mal 1J!d8.,u (fL3)

!i 1Nl'i. lill:ra Iy ·'ye"';" serves es fi "l1IeJJp'; Wil:c.fI pick.iQg [UP me pllOne Ii:) WI \Ie "WJW.

'. "'In)' 'oonm· 'nWll¥ of idcnlliying Qr iIJ!rQd,lld!\g o!iDl!l(, wltclhtr all ~h!:: plHrM~ flli illl pe~IiO'.I1, i to "hue ii:mt!'s name fon~cd by rI~'~rl •

• ' wlmt J;t!!db-lI~,CgR;pl~ pIpcr in Ihe ft.mWi Qt left ~ .jnp;tln~ nmnuscri:pt paper. knmvn US B~~illiJwi. 11m wriJ:e:r wrhes usi. 1m': kllnll or boJi ~r box m oaIi!i' ~ -, k P tile dloro.clem ,di lini,;~ 1m! ,I~g.ibh:.

D'i!'~U is pol.i~)e ad lIll'pms nLS PL3 -peeeh; its p~i.1H1l. Pt.2 equh/',a1~n~ l da .. 1),a tl:'anQ\!lI!ld clllJt'~e .lIbhlipl! IrJli even '!IOugh. 00 same'of ~~'S 'Uses W\ei ,WDBiro~dI to mille 8':peakerlS,. W(lmen ~t!fild 'lo :sp~i1Ik mora pol'iittly as Q mnlte ot' CU,SIOH1, ~dck:ing with Jesu ood "III~J'J~ forfn whg men would Ii'l;tH. E'iI'\ul wh~T11 t'hcy'w sp,WillS qui[J. infol':rJIuilly. mel' C)~l:en my liWiliy' rTom 1Iil~.;JJ mp'b-,tss of clll. p.referring to rep~a_oo d1!9U nor with dg but wiUt a ~fU:li '''ounding p-anid~, or wid\ a omnbiruuion or da plu:§; :1;1 j?llIni(!le. 'V Oil ~]1 !Jeag .about pUTil '(lIes;1l L.cSS~l'I" 2.

Mal~ sptikef"~ SI~:01lW~oo."'l W!iro rhis ~S' a ,go..a~,t~ad to forgem: aibolll~ tltsr~' _d JUS! use da'. TI1.0 ,level ,of politeness, always needs fI.o' fit 'me sllUt'l.[ion--.espc.clally till! sp Dlmr's relmlolUh~l1 to'thb Il 1:,·!1ef. No msuer yOW' gender, ~ rul" stiU ho[ds:,oosinnm'llI should. stick in til_:: po1iw Conn. e~cep[ whl!n y,QU"1ie \lery ,0- ~fi:dI3RL Ilhal being ~l.:'.ss f(,nma~1 'Wen', lei[UW~ offentic.


This boY' w,,'kes I.I,~ and i!!I[pen:s hi· , w,llndcw fiRe 0 morning IQ ftISoollEH •.

Do)': ,t'J ~ • ~ "l' !I'

1~la. ynki ,lilA.

(c\1!IiIlInm..) IiLt\W tl,

··WO\~! ll'" now!'"

-'Wo,w! n' . HOW -gB!'~ (Pl. ... )

, f ,I

• U'Itl,m IJ II:Iilulc:m'UI a &Q[l!\~ to clo.qma dl'G ... Owcl, or rm :_dulII- i

gm'~rn~ rJOI c.ufilgiljle rue fooUllIg, of M 1~~llf,mllHon. e1

,·,;It lIpc',aM:i' hen:' 1 u ~I}ru,c. but w~;IIl'n petIJIJnl! 'Ip h~ f5~lf, ~I f:a- I m tc spe.ukc'i is jlJ l ~ III«;1y I: 1!J5_ tit! mid umt;!j' '12 form:.!! - .

III mule. PCQple spetikilii_j. to IIii:mJlil.::I\f~$ iii ,oroomalhlng YOUI eM :lU!I,uy $ill,(i' *u mtm,gn. ot,'!:u if )lUU WOul!.l1l '(, rwfim1!ll'ly IiQar 'h in

I, life.

Da and dl!Jll d1fF:t<t ulliy • the 10v~II (!If pOmi~0nGSs., mDl -"leaning "f 111ot1iil!iIJ.. Th~y !flIfelJ't £llwa.;rs gl'mn_ru;1I0t~Cru]1y wmlt~"h!Jing~a'bJ.~, l you .CaJi'J! !i!'; tb.e:)I·ilR~t unless ,)'OWl're told. ,(itheJ:"Vl!'i~.

- • an what he ilSars Ellfli:l ,sees in 1he rnls:t MolfWrl,El:ij

. . . . ~!2isident or the oompany concludes lhat II1E1rcEl~ a rilfe

in hll trllurpln g. I~ b.lms out to' be GlhElM~S!e.


~C' t!-H

KajJ dtW

rlfii: (Ii

"If!; II filel I'

i !Ftif\~!" ,'L2)

Em,l~yee: * ~ Il-H 'qji (J'iJI!/

! '11irr~!'! (IPL2)

,. "ajlis wri~tc<1iI wh1il k!hllLii ~~IlI'!~l1ig "fiV'!:':" rlJild, "~'liIddiln~,'" IIIne! tfil;j ilI~;cd .:Iuly r(lr :n~~~d'"'liI·tnlid~tnh::H\ldll:1~ .

• [hI: Ch!~II(d~e1 t~, ~i!J.M.iJl l'!lilpf~s_e!'l~ ~ij !;'l'C.lgmlu~t!~. Tile p~i~idl:f!ll~ as~m~ 'i1""·.M !:Xl:hlfflJMiOJl ~f Id~rm,

• !lu}r.JI~·II~ wriUl!::1'i wi'liI k~nj~,mllitl1hIS ",cc:nnp:'Ilt]l' u!'id l~hel,ldfc:l'!ic# 1e.'1~~r'1 ~o ~ .... ,i!' I~IG m.enfl'~nil··oom,Jl8[ly lm:~iihlllll." .~tlp:m.e:!J.-e lut¥e (rndi .• tlQi1il'lllI' .iMkl~t1 '~h!lllf !oIlIIp~!1i:rn~ Iby IIH~ fmhlO'l' '1111,1111 hy :I!(lm.i:-thij~l ~tr.;:ut, ')t1l1'l!'11 hflV~ ,,(;illfll ~flI'!1!O !1!lP"'l;lIIl~!"1 mWi!lyfmm 1~~~iIi C:l;I~tOIlil.

• ~Itlt~ lip""" l1!rllri~!!l!"klun U~ PL~ ~1'1l00~1 W~U.l1iI lI~,ddll:Q di~I';II~,~ trll~~~ P~~~d~!~1 'Of !hIs enru ~JlflY.

.... ·t'll'o,,~ible lrnn~ll]jt::ionsaL'!C: g.ivl!n :FQrenctl sen~eli't'~,lt :sl.ilOll!~d 1 be djft1cll~~. for you [0 im~ginc siml.u)ons run wldch e:ilJllcr ~nil1!-olf f!ltm oUwr m6anin~s-n'ru~glwt.lilpp~y.

11.\l'.r~ dlt.~

hllf III

.hr'i!i a tMil:IrnI~Ii'.~ 1 I.j,llFhiiS hi. lilly til!t1cher,"" (fL~n

11 -elJ~"

IINa (,

1iormw 1_

-11 5l tilmlClij!J~(IIw."~ I oft ,~ii1Jl be t,om.~'f~O'W.~i~ (I~L3)

~ whl.lll1 l~lj;l fl~tl!l1.dOflliff u tlm~ wQrdlXlJ'nl~ Ito 'I111!! l\.!w~l::. dmirl~ ~/J!ml:!il"'tln "win be,"

q;- ~' j V - '" t!..,

f_'fr~(J:rellr)' d~.

~Qrj)lc i~

w~I·· 'ChtllCiIJI!;fte~~·1 ~'Tiho~" r t'1~n~!!II~t~s~jl ('[ .. 2)

~ dlfJlw;F/JW il!l ~h· ~Op~llC'&e 1't:]ltlerlug,.oi' En8ti~lt ·'doook!!L~."

f <~ 't""Ij-.

Ctakkll ,r/

",~[JI Ii'

h~rt~~ ~ s,:chuoJ.,"' I "HQ':R 01 seh~ol/~ (PL.])

, dj'Jf( ~f1:!oI' .!lII:iI1!~'O nil'QI~ 00111 ~l"ly 11i!!:U"!!I w~lom th'llI~Jecl hi ..

r:::l 'L_jl


An: fJ:dj~c[ive~~ ~nU:lfitCi: de.~el'1ibes, somemhimillg. ~Wishs~r.siIN ui!ed UJ ,hl:)Jving i1dj~'C'L~\!'~S: 'wUJ;k in two wny~; comhllg dit"-~ Ly befoFe iii noun 'Iig ~Gtiibew~i1llh~ now refcrs 10 C1t'!:i a Iu),' l~lilY", ,ilild ea:nfi it! after 'LI1}{~ "e,fb '''to be:" ~. d~cd~ t~~ \Ii~bji<l(ll of th.e s~nruncw 1(~'TIle d",y is. lJ'(ji'llmp.a~ ,aclja.c:[m~~, ,are used ~fi. IxIfl. of ~1.)S\l. '!!Vays. [00, b1ll!! 111e~ is ens ~~}I' diffcro~1ee: the ;.uilJettl\1lCJi. tll'IJm~e~ves ha¥~ the mmning: oW" I~e V~lill .kto 00" buill i u, ''[h ifio nlei;lll~ thltl an ~JJ:joctive' by .iuaU eAn fuirny,ct [h~ vclih !'3itlibflt1f!:': it mil s~Jl WCI~ as a C'omplch~' :-1I:r:l1lance just little g, 'Ii,urb. wi.lh:QIiIi i.pUea subjeot, 11)'[ i.l ,eitn have ~~ own .p:t~el~ty ~ta,~d subJec~.

Ull!Isbnnd: .;f~ ~ t. 'iii ,owi. 11I1ruIit/.ilj~

1IIISln"l'~~ In f(l.'~ (PL2)

'. ~),!nd}~,· _t J'V,e t),toj !.JIID! ~oo (I,'L1IIl!' "fj lif,li!e, " or ',ii.\ ~,'II.1W _" ,1!1'1 I~~, hI !;~", I cI:!:IU!ll'Cllt :~h~w!l a~l~ t!ut'-l~~1 ~~I ~ "~11~:' U !.ho Illul!tnild w~rre '1li)'.Rng J IlIIlmifIJe :SeNI:O:~ d irul!I'ly 10 1i]N wJf(li wLIl!!'! ~h~ ~I'u~ up ll[lll:i'. ~e 'I:~rI'le"IWOllld I~H U1~ Ih.l!~ thlllflle."~Il(J !II~~iU1i~g jll ··'\"(uil",n:: hllDl';

E'!/IIIU~allly lhQ clerk ,1';1\ 'tho InlDfmaifol'! QC'Ufiller In [he background colIs him to U~.o phorlo. Dl'lfd hf's w'Ha lells ,~Im sho "m· If'llnkM'lglV w,ent s~ralght :horne, I'tom I'orcg OII1B.b!i.

Tbe delillnltlo:nl of '~',ad,Ject~v,en 'lair ,dapllln,e,se

'h:l E.nsmis'h, U1J)" 'Woni nn,ulfy'm! '(!ir dosoribing a flClIU can he c'~Ued. M n~ec~ivc. ~ul fur' Ja.P!I.·, W[~. H"s bosl'!It1 ~Slrutt Ihe term '·n.djccH.yo" ~Q ~h~ kJnd ,of wol"tfs described uoovc. <lulled kut)'iJ'. shr ~n ~ [l'p~lfI,el'l~. wh.i.c:h oonllni n d'ie fJ,le nn'ing of ~e vdb .~ I!O I~" wi tl'Wl :Lh~m. Thefwl!' wnl!d's hiilYC 'JJu::ir ,own ,dlt101d'nL'l~ wars or c~DlI1,§iu,B,OI1Wil! whieh ,uu wi:U h~flrn nlDng~id!l': lle t'orro."lp,omllns, verb f~lill11S tn tl~.e' !iOC:~J1d1 h ulf of miheOOoit. -

run :I'hch' ~~lliu. dieH~nm-yfonfl. ~111 Hd~n~r~'vetl e~,d w~lh ~h,e' ~yUfLblc - ~"I -1 (b~l ~hiil1i dOQSlI'I't M!:i!!ilt 61\1 nlID wf)rd~.,ei1cfliu! tl1t ·i m\j; !ldjectivcs)" Lik~ 'VUIf1'b~. U1Jllc dlCl~.ufuw--y 'jf(mn of' 1Y'!.l1dJc(ltiv~ i!!'.l nrut·, scrvin,g us both pre.sent !.tlld fu~uU!' 1)CII!!re!: [-ho drucmionnry ood DlI'It~.r fllltiP fOdl~, OCI'C Ut;,efIl0 IU.llkc PU.sGlI'luC'nces" Llke vcibs. adj.cclli,vc;s, do nOI ~hUi,se [om fQr numbir or ~l.ll~~~.

l'h~'o i'-'l mlg~hlo:!'f gro'!I1tp of ~[~s!Jrjpli'vc wOlrd~ Lh8( ,al"C !i~ine~imr:'9 tuned "'n(J"DdJ~alh/e ." '~'~IUtl,~iLl!dJG~IJ~;e!!, .I~ Oli u'~'~d~<ndj~~Lives.i •. AJ~mrus, h rIJl~ir_ de,~crcii;ul"''' nUII,uN ml.lwu~ 'Ih~)' I',)fI,0J11 tifIDI~ hn~ [IS udJ~liluv~ m ,18l'11g LWBb., ~ hf!y ~ro wm I'm.l~ u 8pe~HI!~1 lit! nd (If n~1Irun ~n Jap~[u: ~e: hkQ till" '!llh~t' Iltl'hil!li, they m!!l~I, b~ ruJrnowc~ by dr~ (.mjL.2.) OlD' d~'~n (PL1c) 'to IiImtc 1.1. iC:omplell.:l ~enU::nce. VDu'lI ~e[~m meee 81~oU'1 '[hem in Lesson 7"


~-, atr:y~" i! tr~,.

,0, JjY/nlm', IWlmd,

~e.x.chllll.) l~ oold 15 !;old

"14(100, ~[iS cold. fl'O'j, ',,"$lhL"

li~HMlIOl! n,iOfji ,j;~ld !Ddt tth~f~!i' (I~l:2)



(tm IJJrul of ~u i~1 s~(!vel, ~jRl1i I'I!lLwoJ 1)1

Bound Fl:

'. ~IU!,I~ g~mUI' i!U!m~i'ly _ ~~ki.!~g II S!lI(lru'Uhl, enltUU::C b, iI100'lr" ~UI ~Iley'nl ~~~J~II II) ~uh,l~ '~!!l:ttiil~'i!J['l, tll:ll!~Ull8l1r on ,ruU~h!(O I~ko ll'ti'j; ~nn ~ U "',!I, (Dr ,~J~llm8I"nlp~1!l~l ••

Th 'pt'dite ronn of,u Kdj'ccltive, for PL3 speech" Is -'imp~y its dictionary 'form plus des:t.: IJ.soi D:~Qi de.1l'u Dnd sa~JJ.ui ~ s~ffl~d d!'3~i, As w1lth y,ems, ~his ChimgG5 only ,the ~,IfVe:~ or :rll1'litenc s, ntu I_ moonLng or IJen&e ..

Ad.din - des,. milke, ,n !Pl.] ndjecllivG-"l}'fJe sentence look ,a 101 nk~ ,I PL3 'noun~type: SORt 11(;"" Bum tl'IDill'C'S tin in:BIpO'ftru'l!t diffcnmce: 'strnoo the lldje!J~ivc jt'feU coniruns tI1~ nu:aning of '1110 verb 0. be,,"drul. in this 'cru.e s.cI'VulPlilreb W m:ise the 1c.¥c1 ofpoHmu~l'i:5; il d~n't, tid rnliY mean. g. Tin: tit m in' PL3 adjective is nut rhe Vi rb Uto be" ~rr's jWlt a poliEe 'I],'misll.

,A.,nd thD~ ex"laif'is:a ~ond iimpoOftll:!1L d]f.bce",::~~ 'lID ,cia,sll Cllfl'not be ro'p']accd w~th till. Db s not follow ,d:1roc:llya;I~e:r tan 9djiilQ,1iV'~. As . een ~n Iheexam!p,lmi' on [he ftIcing p~lg • ~.~11 Uile wut1'lerod d~ctionnry form tl1L1.'(' ,used for non-pust ,l'C:n~e in _ L2 '_lMiilch.

'_ 'Kusskabe~!I usll\g R oombo'O crush ~a clean 8: raffia woudan 11.ilb used .. n s~ m nQ. wherl Suski N~lSukQ, th 0'Wf'i8 I dBlJIght r, com br. Notinglthat no one taught him how mo lJSe Hle b,u h 11'1 '5Ohool, h eemm nls.

K_ImIJ_: IIIJ L.. ~ ~ -r,"t ..

MI" .. ltkashii d'. 8,1

II! diffilrLlh , (P'!:'IlIU:,)

lllt~s ,dlImtuU.u (PL1)

'mind _~ -; 1f ''Y ZtJI

tro, ugh" .r,WiP:, , Y 's(lund of bamboo brush}

,I 111~;a IP,loin, d~etioflW)' form Q the IJdj;~ajv, , I ' "m:.rl~~'tll but I!Y~n:klll'bc mJ'd fit1JlJ 111 make illl,lt'JRl: )ml' lie bR _ U:I ~1iC' i lijXllkiJl,g IIJ hi~ 'i:'rn:lplu~~', dUl:Ight!JlC. \\I'bnllm.ho, dnI •• eJii:lruti iii III Ill:! 'W~lh u bnmhoo bl"lJ~h-]s II~!.: Yfl~'IU:I'cd :I!~bj~I' (If til filii.

:£ ,!liV,iiO.

'p' ~n fmm of n .ndjc live d !In'1ound, qui'[£! -, ubruph .111;' no n , d.a cnmb~nll(iOl" Jo 8.

-n t~um:'3 Y'l.:ry HUh:: Qti:rferenee betwC! n lh' ~~s; IfIIl~h'~ u' - of tile two Iloliu;n~~ I V,,,1S~6_

djet:I'jyt':K. Whether you"re ~n;d:e 'OF (emwCl. yen;! w~ulcil~~[ m:,."Im.llly WI ,'Un; PL.:1 hJ'f'fI~ Willen clmmmg how, - hHl L~ nnciliitioning th. 'frmtddwcutler :~1I!l n pel r, ut YUill w ull: i_ yuur'l'DfIlis [ tee ell I' -nslred yow whllt tha 'lcmlj)er~hl _ !N,QS llke 0'01' 'id'iI.

HCIr'C IU'C a r~W commo~y OCCiJrr~nB n~j<Wli'!lJ\0i f'or;YO'l1lln learn, As wlti'h rhe Vc.rbR listed 'On ,!!II"

p. ,,111 ulf'c h, 1ft ,or,' CllO~· m'l1dom" I n mlJi~ lif, "Ill' Y would dep 'l1d on 1111 ~itufil on. To

t the d'<:~lomLrY ~orm ofl'l'r ndjct:liv . ~n lit riglu IlWa ,tu~Uln!ll, tnply remnfe

i5'~";1~l" , bllsaJ

h UillCJ111l21l1

''Tt] 'y l'l'i~ umU.'·

:ill ~ !oJ CMlifoi.

~ l'lC'~rMI!I~

~~'l'lu't' nO_ft, .10

t; .1;~ ~ 'Ill re.

,I< torAlI i~

I II' IUD \1.

t. n(~ '. NU'I/u',

i 1 .. ,__

i'lt~. ton".' '

;t:i~lL~, "'('-t.

OIi1Jti ,dr'."~.

I~ 'II'!!!)" (pq'lll )

uU·\ d,_n~luul~,t~

,~- ~l -c'11· ~

,Mrutlr I .~l ,

, k.:!d.I\J.I\~ rYUI'l" ~p 1111')

1"UI!i, -wliu1.,'~

- _-

Lesson 2:

- ~ - -

S,entence P,artlic:le,s

- - - --

8e'roli~ YDU C 1'9 learn ,aboul u bjeCts, IlJbjccl1l. mod i fiefs, ili_nd tl, Uk0 in J Il.pillI.!:!.'H~. you fin;1 "''ted ~:o 'krl,o~ abaill u spcciru all.'l" 'of words ooJ'lad pm'drles., PM~,c~es 'erve '[W,o basic pu_rp~e:;: Utcy mrik n word'" rlJnctiQn~LIilnt j,g. tIle), eM teU you wi ,~t ,Ii le the 'word is play,inS in tlU!Selill"' ronc~-{I'f lbey express ttl!i:i SpeakiU'5 fewing about whut he or she Hi, saying. Some pru:l:ides man ge ILo do, b '[h.

~mk:1 ruwiI,),!lCo,Jne riSllu aft'ct tim wofill or pl1Ja_~'e tj~e-y apll'l', t~J\Q!lI!.ah 1:11 Y t-;omeliml!s

htl'l('~' 'tI'Ung '[ 'e' Q..'UIJ mlaHer I[lf,elllln'css~on to w'hum, fOUOWi!llkll: 'Wcll. They never CI~MP fUrml ~w tense, pCrson", numl»r. cr any ether w.a on" bUl80mrC of tn-e-Ill liM uombine WILh ene -n lh, ",' ie I 'reall! dll!frerelu e:fftcLii.

t'ike tlil., 'p,lnt of H good story, a J prn!I. , e emeaee sU'J~ ihe dim '-ilhe' cru.cia1 'V~ ro, ,odie l~'fe', GIi' neun '* d llJe~u pltfu~ llh~L WU!ii)m"U. WhlIl:'81~[pP;:~Wfilg ,Ill' whut~~ whm.-for lh~ end. l!l~ Df~elillc ilhere'5, 1iIliUle bi~ ,O'~ wmp:p~n,g up '~D do 1J'f~m'W~ \'II ~h pa!licle's (-ID!d exteltsjoohi. So ,1~er.c:l·:iI

huW' oil J pun~!li" !lonlcinll,c is ,Nhll~d: -

cllm )( f,- ulrod) MOlin "lfrb, ~djl! 'I vej CII

nil un dlllrlrcUi "ltl_ -

,e \I Icpm I'It (QpliGn i) SijhJ~'cl. 'I1t~jCtlL, "til .' ~ 111\~.

nnttHIl ll!. ere, Id~ Ihe fiptllffl- +

r 1!iIlJe '[')'ru1M~ ta Idcfrllf,. IIii'

"111 k" eaeh delJlenl

Wf ,,~!I!P ~,fJP Q - ~ ~nnl",I~(~) ,tUllil C!x~u~t ~Ui


PLIflIiCit '!Ij,I'hul'!;l6JJ]1.'l ul !he ~ r1 'oud upply 10 (h0e'I1~iro ~enU.l!fll:::e. ~_nd: '.(), are C II~ed~nl~n~' p~rm.I'C:~I. "n,u p~lflidiC,Il, hlliD'Ud~ce-d in I:lIIPJWS lessen ~__ro p<m¢ro!!Uy I~d CU'Ilty iJr;;oI1rW'lU~ilU~on. nul in. Clrm!il WltiIinS.

Nt' is mi!ld~y lempJ:II.'ti'lil !)ernencc pll1t!1cl d\ E c~,1ues:sus !;OffImOH i,'· 1mg b\;:lw, 11 thepe "Ier Dnd Ii lcne. ,It mpUes thlU ttl s,peWt_ e t,pe ts u Merna t or ~mJ' Ihy rom [he Ii 'lQr,,~imUnt loa rbel:O ioa I 'Ins 'lliu(;,:JaiOIl i 11 :nlli~h: Uj.sIl'1 i t7,lt1on"l d\. y11.ri gM.? I

t dun'l you :rISIilee:?'"

, Nabcru h com up 110 Tal\yo wlLh t rrV'8100 nat ons 01 worll· Ing In ~h bl{l elly. but hi Unci, M uda (ligs, 2, 7) think' h

hCIlLJl'd go b(\!¢~ t(l hhrseouro job In K~Llshu. Tho WOp'IS~Oi 01 M UHJtila's tavoNta ba.r. ,~amon I-Iort. uggests 1.Qfll: I' a ,.Im;s, orel ar ..".a~Qlr plaeod lUnd r a, n~phlli:l tnangltIJ OClIOfi,lllttlf lhlrLV mh'lu~es, N'obc,,!:.l fJODISi hom; o1her"Nlu hOI can hOllo Jobt UI bar To Nobol'U' graat !!ur Ptise, the gIB.glow_ a m anlU I'll ~lnk wh n It! iI'1B~llll"lI r moviKiI. Thougl1lf not til rEt-8ull Noboru had . ~~IQd er hop d lor. h ae C ,pIs It nrl!cl9U IV

-'atJfu'u: .' n~' "(' t 1* ·

Klrll' _ r"'~!1 _ ~Ir

pmtljl , -lwllfuJ is, I!9ltl,l4;' ,

"U(', b· mE U'II, I iiil'i ~1~7""lP , 3)


8&50 repn:. ~n:g an 1ii;,xpJici, ft:q~est fur ,oo.ll'filrnntlU'DU, and in nl_ ny 'Such ,Das h carrie~ , the o:F me ,gGnuill"l~ q uest_iol'li! Rot merol" IiII rhe~Of:lc«l OIW. Dm leve..U tn- R i t 'e~pec~~ th ,I t!il!3ner [(') Of answer m the IlfITrU'mtive. (LCSS()11 4r ilJltmd~,ces questions lhD~ do I:ot assrliJlmc lID iNffir-

On a fill ny n1 ghl. lh is woman lis r::I. I'IIEIr way l'iome hOITl tho public baUI whB"rr iii pmarE! Investi.gator Bpproa.cnes her


I_Xl ~il.tq it eli}. r .hllt l:h ijm,Ucd subjec'l, :i!;, ",m..:" lile U!ll~I'I<i,r-: WbOifl n-qLqcslmo I sn't l'i,pc(;~Jy 1.1,

~~t_1 ,(II ~(! fiBt !:!Ifld.h;llll'ii '1'0 ,"1.lrI~~~1' Ill')'UIiI."

intJ,":,;Jkil , I _ r !-Ulfflllrl1il/,fonllily 'i1BiIf1ii!, ,flfld A,)IlIcr"i liS, her lli'oic'l~ Hiltit~. ihl: 'CU! tORllIll'Y (l)~r fC\t JIIJ~lIn~~1 !I i:l !Il.Il1VInf'!'lC: Or; t,

II is II 'puUIC' ell ffi 1III1l,11~ IIded to p~~all f1alill Md titS,CEli, qlU:ivmefil I(Ji ,~j 1~1~1r "Mr." or ·'MJIl.' TIle lIain

I J;, i U!.lei fw both IJe1tC - lU'!d r-eg~rflJl~!i' fir 1f1l:lriml S:InUls. I'I cen liie lkwd with lxILIiI: .(1 i tltl 'iIiI[ riD!': Uti

ial on. but h ·,N. ~e¥~r '!iI!i:d wi~1fI mIle'~ OWT'l Rat'lH.t,

PL2 l!~lill~""tllcII'IL of IIDlij,~ ~DtcnoC i~ Ic/lr"rlfJ~tJk~ A,VI-ilmr;',M'~ dil.r~?

• i qu sfl 1'Ih'll~ nil' J . !I.paken wJrII~ II Jia:h~~y rlSHI,Ii, blll(),fllltiO'it, Vrum w~U ~i!!II.m II li~th: III'DI'1: 000111 qUt5Lion , tllm inn ..

'1:5, 'l!m.p,hISIS

m_,_y Cat S llU!' imply p:rmridc", light frlpnas's" When if t;,IOf1g'1Ued [0 n if, It how, "Unmge ........ ¥ ........ ris, with dle fee ing, of I ~It'·s fenUy -. "iSJlOt if ~., or 'IL really i ........ , bin t r" This works "r eXlPrnuil~g .admirn~io.n" eX'Gilem~nt. 'sy:mpllthy. or di:li:ml'l)l~:r wh.en ju 1 r~nlafking on

weuUil~r_ .

KOsuk ',s. (fIg., 6) landl dy la,ktils him to help celebrate Ihe 301 ,Milrle~TJ 01 "Kih;hl~ el" a small r,!;~aura.lCI~ sp c~aI· [1'1 ,,,,,kstsu ~~pork eull'1iI1S~)' run b\' a me., named KUd11. As sill doWn at Iho' eoun~Elr~ hlillil'sels thlm with Cups ~~ !ha,

KHIJ'h : If. - '. ~ G"J L.. '\') '" ~

flDlPIi'i, lfflJ . hoi.

~C'_i!\P~~.) _ wci,orn.:

'Weleomeo.' ('PL)..4)

[.~" or"

t\ '$.JU ilu,~ ~l

Ii I'lot (Jpdll.) (co ~,Qm~. I

un's really IflDt~ ~n1t It. (I"L3)

• rHslw" or fIl'O fOirli'iIlUy ~M~.dlrJlm~ft".1!l81 polin!: Icltpre..~ .. i n hop, ecpcr.l o.nd ru Iflr nIDI woTrk"-1flI' IIJ~ '00· g~1l!'u/WC'lenmQ Cil~l{!IrnQIl'1t.

• 1, IIi m..l:8u I 1111: ptl ie [tJrm ef til Iltl.l~~fi ... _ "'s.u/ f': tun") .. WIU:ll re-

emf) ~o 'dite thiM, at.·mi i 'Wri~l£!l _. ~ i WIiDIU" crr-mgt 110L fow.iI

I,,;,vr;;r!.i ~ d' It" w:ni.Ltw~ -- r:,.),lnt;'JilV('i'!!:I![j'I, 111 !.lom-'I'lln 10 Ie'll

u wlrli(:1t I~ melli'll

P'l2 t't1111iY' ItllU or tllifl tln~ClllC¢ i~ Jh!l'U, tI~\Vllh III ,milSlf:' iII1- II)' Q~owjlllJ ,Iu: plwn" di, IJiJn~' ful'l'll, of Ihe -dj~I''''I!. Rl!m· In" ~hl: de 'j~ un ,. lIin -c 'ccli\'i) 1ft, Pl.J, !!PIlt:e-1i dnQ!l fig)!! bi::Q. Ie drl in .llpCtt.h; , [r. ttl

_, n:f!ImC' :scnneti flll:e:.! ',:alll.dis in ~f,(II~ till ne Of .tl~s.u ,l!Jtl ("is" i~IlIi~' it'~··) at III!tc ·md ,of 3 nOli n,o!l,pe \'!""t01~nA'. nte .rormm' feeling Ihis. ehr,es, .moli§; it.0~n, ~u~ulblre; ~o Ii'll ~h. A n01!!~ + nt lenience lit ~. NqUUUl oonfi1nna:Jlion 1(1 ~kc me I:!J!UD + ,rJ~Jfl ae scntenoo doot in fig'. J ilO t-nn be IIiISGd by cmrer lendu. bu~ I' tyJC or SClh:ooe lk<ied. a. .. M e·.Ic,tam n:1li OJli. as in Ihe e'lulfl1lple here. hu ~ di~l_bt(;dy 'rewlinj~ rii:ng~ 3 Il1it:de ~r 'WQiII!kI,~I'HmlJIJ kee., 11,"e tlo 'Of ,dtsu .

• TOts. ~""nlOUWr Ismd 'MlIJdng tI+Ji"~'wnen me sees a

Slue Silgllll cd .,riAl- -

Mcnbier: 9: ~. J., ,Q),,d: '5 ..

,Wd. (ulJi'u)j~,

- bul~rbur ,"~tol

iEl DQ'~. BU'11tr'bllllH!' ~ (PIL2l

I(-~ .x."l

l'lUNAI ~~"

~t;::.~e~n;t '7j'~ng:!'~ (PI..2)

•. !nidi ~ii. ~om II IQ!l!l,,· Ills«'! b)' WI,llI~W!1 i!S PfIiln"~li\'ll! ~f !.!I:pM·, 'M!i1.a~ '!i!!,;!J 'IIL"I!) rIll i11l OlMr W IY~, btu ~hey '''0I1J!d \!!tf)' ·!:!frC'cnimt~ If'~)' ~ it co' ~~p~~J.!rr!iii~ •

•. :fi~~'ltMtl (·~l;IQltttWj1jI·~JII1.ID!be ~Ii! __ ,II ofifiio~fd '!mell!Y~Il)~~, ~l~m, bln~L 'ClU'I :d~ h CQl'l~i~ 111_ U/fi' ILy~ ~fe''' w:iIb IkrJdrlt~ ,oro IU:ed. W~f Q!l'~ ,am. ,pOOE dulJtsr~ DII ~ ,.:001 'lJr a.m, ~.",!lI'!!IJiJMion.

i, Ilm.~ Ml~. eqlJ~ .... rn:l ~O' lId'" ,do n~ r'Jr- Sprill,l. iLIlO,'L i~'. 'il11c. ~ong .#1' ~!!ro",,~. JI~ r.ti~g. e.;C¢lrullll'li OI~. ~111f: ~.1J5a!I in M cxc.1.ulla.1i(l!l!. m:IJ~ ~.~ would IlOL ~;t~t}' ~, gc~ d~ .

. U ,n!l~ :1, ImaS}CUl.llII~II'IU'! .ne'

Bo~lle~. ~ Il.(!hal 'bu'~ll P.L2 und .PL3 is;peGch~ 'bu[ .~o!~, spe~n 'Ofl!;ln 'use 1fQ~II}~tcad~ ~i!IlU;)! in 'Ll ~~h. 1lu,UTC a~re lolbeI Me."i or '1~ Q0m~1'QIil! ~o Ibomlll~nd~m.. but ifs mo~lJ' rwl!i.,.'CL!~ irte ~o ue il as mhe ~ W vo1cm of a 'Iikmml'llI n_g quani(l:l1llll'llfl !!lxp!Ots. lOr snicits agrcenlc~~. lll.e ". - in 1118. 14. One im,l"'lnJll1~: d1ilieren.;.e: l.r(I'C81!l11I.'lO[ ibe u ·cd d~ret:tl.Y ancr ,3 no~n abc: wl.liy tit! is u~:d in f&1 .. ~~wl~iS*CIIi !!is.:a:n lex.c~aMabo:IiI lor rm ;] [ns q,utsli,olJ/:Mquc:i~ f01"(,'Iodmn.:lltj,QFII. ~~. COn fo~llo'wd~tlylllJ:!.1r ~ .ndjooriv.~ O1.1Ji vtrw (f,'OL" 11Jrn,'C I:DlliCl:r. ~~[onatiQn mUSI d~::i'in .. i:sb it froll! tb~ n,ti~l'jjl\'1C ooH~nlutli ~Grm ~~nn~lh!!~d iIIl fly. 4C1~ l.

&'KIiG'lll HoM Sh.:lllM ~6:saklJl of !linus I ba E: OOfrjG Co" ~a$1lNmn 1JiaRS~a","' ~ Si p1lm~ i~ !<~,01'. Oldr· eAd la~ le1s!JIl" who· 1. iniJCf Ihl company ~'11 ll\o':Sa1llO y8!.U.a Shims, QDmfi 10 Ifie£l~ liIim •

.t. ":I'. lib.. 9d ... ~., ff.'~

fCJ!. S/llm(J. .'Il~~ ~ .

:(,~) ru;,uimD m~~ b (~bj:.~

., _ ,. Sl1imnu!~ It~:s dr!e filftl. '1i.n'IC I[~;c moon in u 10000g Ume" im~1 ii~1M

14Ylo., :Sbi'ma! 11":8 bct'Il, I II]ijt ~iime.h' ' ~Ii'l U?·· (r12)

oR:t5~ 111:, ~.!l.I.!

O. l"d.chtml

~ ~tilmII!-dlmln.~

1111[e)1 l~heR.~ Tt~:-c:lbnB ~" ('Ll)

~ hUillhUmn .::limHmdU.ln:f~h11~1lI.i1ll~lIf1111nltf,MIiI!(! lfimtll'~~ !':!Ui:!i;1II li~. '11·· .. ~lmo!1'l~ I!o~ ~'" _ ~~runll W~k:~11 [I~(~~nl!: in)fl! ~iUlIC )'!i)U 1\ loI.:-n't, ~fI In !O!! wIllUll:. l.i1e "~I!~ ~wllr Il\i:I~.;'; 1'1u:: :~II(C' 'Clqu'Lypl'nm ~:r,~ ~C!u"8 '"' 1l,~dl1dht ., d~j~' ~ .. ;J..S !;I PIl11l~"c B.1J1.IJ/~flJbll" itb..l Itt' (b!YII'1 ~~I~"'.uW IliOClJJ6h·!JJu'.1 n ·~rtlili 1"Ii:fie) n~ (! 'ot'{;!!r. ,M· d~. ".~hilJf1ri, IIII by 11~;'I~boIh ~~~l'.

~ ·t:1Pn1~ b IJJ dil'ldmllliJv(' II'!tlwvuJl:~n ~ of dH po1~H: (h~1i: -f~tI f·I"II~~,~. ") 11L{l~':lI! Illllmlhc:d ~O' ~!'1!llIMlItiU1i!.~ (fig.

I.)). ~t' _ nI~!III;),I~iJ,:wly u~d wiUJ.llJillil ~:ng ·chlldnlll. bUI. WI W1(~ btl lio'lll."d _ 1M", ~l>o~ rudl!!'I~ri~n~LliJld IhUfI .l,. Ilf!!! Io'lUii1~tmlly ml~hc:d ~!l jll:f.l. 1Ju:. n~,. .~Utlbl!: ~;I" ~'I'm 'tlf II Inl~.

- _ a' fo:r smpliesis

sing I'ltI to.r·an~doDgatecll'.w} for [:'later ffiEl.mrttS, a tIS qli.U!e51UJotil is less I·~m.iredrn. m!lite:!l~ ~1lI)e ,pe~ers ,rLre 1:~~~1)' to, me' ~~ ~~ infonnil1;!91lffiGDS., .e-Sp8c,laI,Jy R'I1II0ng5~: UI!E]l1S2~Y~~ But I:x:girtning ~tw~e~:s: wllID do, b~st [() COI1:sich:fr 'Lfui~ U~~ n:rualiouU~e as well.

~ OJf.lI!i~i{ il'l n'IlfldjQ.Qti¥~., S'P '1t:l !!:QJI~!C~t~ dl:~c'tly '~Q th~ plum Ib_rm (~", i~tll!"!ill'Jlio'l!: d~~. The 'PL3 etruu,i'\ii~J,r?ifbl of dti!il SlClJlt~t~ hllt,~·iIii .de.~l~ 1J.~"

.• ~! iii II ~ fwrllilinrllii!fuMm equt\!'!br o.f .~n (' 'Mr,' 'Iii.'''): tffiIo[Jgh ill i'Iil& ru)LiI~.!1.eo.n.~ m~iITCI ~f~l!jjJ th_ iilot il 'f«1 ~ a ]ill!.te too ~I!!:al to he tl"lm5!J.aW.~ .~ ·<Mr. ,. or ·'MIt !,' Anlong cllih31fCrl and pre:r'!1\, ~t"s; 'miO'J'> IUWli fo!' adcin:ll'SiIlgor ~~m!'l~LO mok-1l. b~!I Sg~ri.Ql:'oil !ll: w,nd< typitl!lIDy ~s~ h f'Or suOOd~ DlJ:J~:~ ofoo.m ,SeIRS.llne' sb._~u'fdl nev6r use :~t w1'Ull it su~or; il.' 8' !dSij l1-e'ole r ~ with Qi~·:>(i\1!l'.lii1 m~l~<

a;~1 ~ft~ [!lo'l

Jl.}'UifJ}11i ua.

iii ~1!!~pk:mUl (c(ill ph.)

~~T1hwts['l_fe 8(11 s:~sPicj.OW!i\'"

uSou.n:d:!l: pr-,e1:~y (Sus;p~cjjo'll'B tn me'. ~~ ~,fL'2;)

oro :s.p9I1:iflr;aII~, Ihe OOH SUcs-peets lanaka~kun has gon, :skllng~ and he' prl'ves JO be l"1,gl'\1, TBl'laka,kul11 W,618irs 8 full·face ski mask te avoid get1in9 a telltale sunburnl buu a bfokai!l ankle g,~VQS him ~wa.y.

" is, rut emputic pW1l:i'C'~c u:sod by ooth !iie~oo.[lliSU!li~llyh:!llS 11 gentle, &imUlly l~e_].iJJi1:c. al'uil dmL~s I!t'8:Il.C w~lb I~C e1(.amlp~es-i rtcliw~e~ '!l:ere.: b1J~ in s:mll()sihlilLiciD\Is, it CQ_n be spciken .I'n a su'O~[y gumttl:uaHvf! Of tI!9lfY ~Me iJlstM'llt 'Onl.'llof its 'common uses .1:3, ~Q"01:1J:1l'Pmlasi.m ilfllbrmalli,ol1i I'!l~:at .. peake:r U~i'llk:SI is new ~o dt:e liste:I1il!:r........e.specitilly when h,e 'th~flIlks. ""I!! list!llner pmicu~,n,r,ly ~ 'lh~t~~fQ.n:na'l1!aIl]j~ W:i 1,!'II'h~w gi v in,g u [~llItillder 'OJ;" w~mil!'!. AJlthcrllilB~ lt' s u.sed [[l~ ul1'le'Ve.hl of liten.e:ss, rhis note of .dllorill!:Y m.e.m:lS h noods ttllbe 'U1Ied with a eenain m.u)~u.MI of eauuen

'hen speaking ~iD your !iuperh~FS""-:lef;l;t you iIia{tVC'[tenUyi'l'II1iIP~Y thaL :vena: ~hink JOUI s~~erior i:s pid.

Vtl'Dch,lrr; ~?~';I J:;tI Atil'

i'!J Itc!t. (IiR1f ,~,,)

~~I:I~~ bot.,O (fiLl)

IX: ti ":l ·~t ?, I'lolirol

('b]owi!1g ,~~ WMt~thill~g ~:!YO

.' II'li! II~J tJi!Cli'!I,!~ (J_11r~ii in thi!l C08:0 wfm]~ll'll::l 'Wrri li(~n Wr.~!1 IIllI! km~ili~, if b~_ji, ''I'l'\J~ u~cd (fig. ~S);, ~ho flU ~ID'VUi"' 1c1'i11Jf:liIlhlllil!l1~IlW i~ J~ r~jd tWl'J1U yo.

SI'luatr:onaJ aUlhority


AlthQugb)l'O '~lIIjpm '!je.'!l'~ 1!h);11[ ;audtority is o:flen den.mnined mare by (he si[ufltii::m 'thmli by ~ociru slntu ,-In Ehis e:fC;am,_le. il~s Ilw' chlId who,knows mmeU'ing Lb aduJi need., ro be to~d. Im.d Ius use or jlD ,i'!;entir"]~ ~ppro;ni,l:l'te.

~~~Iv If ~I '~.

IGotum d~ ci'.

liJir::!ll/lMrutime h " ~I'lffll. I". II i lXm-aIlimei'!!'1

''1t''~t:ime t.o eeeat!'~ (Pl2)

<: "IJ\'_"


(~ffec~ of d~;.,p.,S oo1lJ!ndl~y)'


.. gtillon nl~l "cooked rice," blJil i'l i IlbJ,Q' ~1iI11 !J,C:BliJiiG '~t'.mi Ibr "wm:ml," ~l~ P,W! !llU~ ... nJQlll'Or thi ' semeaee would roo (J(Jll~' do :m )'0.

hl many cases yo simply repre. 'nh: Lh'" s~8ikcr:!isscliting, himself' tnaJie montronsl', ~hnilll i he rnllde h:i:s slatem.e:l:'rut witlunu yO!. and docs: not .impl,)!, I'LnY ~pcciu.ll a'tUluHffit)t. Here, yo.' 'UsOO in ,II vem-.yp_ .-cn.cne .

This sarad/man (trom English "Is'atary" i and '"ma.nR) ~nd OL (rrom Eng,lls,h "gf· t (j61Q"' sl'I1d ~tady~)1 aN en a dale. ,and he cHars ~IO eseen her l10me ,!J~ the' end of "0 Qvening .

• ' okrlnl/~b~l'imQ.$.14 I iU.mdly merul,li 'lilian ,." and is us-cd Wb n sciu1 inS mJIll. u mCiIleY" ~l . J'm~. I\I,)'~ 11~(j I ~!l_k ·~diMI tlfl'Cfiiolill dilliOill tldniS. Jlil)~VC , wl'ih pG(lplc'. ii, malID!l'~~/SiWld In l~rsol11 ofr' o .~~a1: lu, I,WffiQ'llJ ~_Jlme/!'l(i._I'I~~pln~."111· plntol rorm oJlh~' 1'Ilm'·, ~rnlll, Wl~ h·re [or ftli~lL\l:lleflS~" "'wm c~rI: LUm'llt • Tl1_ PU !lIuivaHC:lI! ar ttl!. .. seIU~_1ID:i WOUhil be Oklln'masl~ '0.

~ Qft.l Is n feminine illter,jl:!'!l.::lilln. Ilike "Qh_/, :m.1iId ~ " fft r.!: '? llrlSlIltl is O!l.C'Hlnhc :1Il~1 t;(I!l'UlllOn w yl.i I:Q, y "lthmlk )'I;IIJI"';~h,Qn~mli1lg mill :l1D!.l~ v,o~l ,bl.il1lC~ if Il~~ inMJn:liu.!'l. 'cruilll!tli (OOU,Io8.

'" mra,.h',,",'1l IIn& OL ('pronOllll:ero fJ· n.l mfe__r I mfillc ,md feliRale om!.': wQrkIlm. [Qsp,l'uvcly: OL m rt

sp: i I 0IIr11)' ~~-Il> [0 'n iI'Hl'tlIlliCr ' . ,(I!I'13 WfJt1!,_CiI'ii ~ho' hWi!dll m ,S~ - "'ttl:4Jri.illllmiml;l1liill!k:ll orouliUJ

I fl;C; ,()niet".

To compare IJ' ..ins (hd v r-b frolilQ :lii1.:3 Milomeru 11« Imi~f)m(ffl'Q' U" n? (ilxIth gendm) er Mitp. mer« l'U? (mcs,l~)! masc~Jil'u~) n ean "'¥DUI admit i'lf dcn',l ya'U'r' ,urnHc'U Ildim't it. won·~ he?": lbe speakcr·xpccJ the 1is~G-noll' 10 ans Cf ""1', •• tl lO:mali [l. wn ,l'eelin,glimpm sion abaUJl \\IhSL wiU ~nl,pr.:;:n .. B.)' ICOIll1rull, Mimm I'll yolmiro!1JfUnlJr!lI'I' yo' assert ,om i's ewn :pQsitioR. "l admil illl do udmit iii.," or ill~Dl'm of SOl1lleOOe el "s, "He wiU d;dn-i il/' Fur the udJccli'Je from 'l'ig. W2. f 1'i:.uka.\,hU n ImwmkQs!l!lil(!sl~ ,r (bgID &1.Hldc'rn,) or M.uzu/tasldl mil tmcl8.L1y masculine) means ··nls, ba!r-d/diffic'l1lt~ rnn"t ~l?" .[lad expects, tbe (hnem~f's agrccme:wn. while MU;[1~kQJ'llii (tit!sn) ,'0 iI so IS. "'I' 's (tOO)' bard.'·, inion • '-'-EII,·S 1iI,-._rd, you Imow.'''

¥'Ill wi:I'houl, tJalds,'Su

Iii mfbmaJ s~ecb • .DOWl-l,YiPO se]]Wro~GS (l;ifi ,eltil w:i!th j~t,a 'IDO!):!] + }7(), ,(Mtli:ni"1: tlite :inre:weiltmg dfl. The kind (If GxcJamf!1my 1i!I~~ soon ~m tlIIB e.'IU1Mple ill" (ml~D!i'He: ,W1B!1e~ w{Hilll~d say .-)'ll! 1(lar 'use, da pl,us one: of rUh!l:l malScim!line pruttc:~es m fi,gs. 25 ,;md 26).fBl.llt Ulere a_re O[~ru'ClliS~S wh-eremen eM om h tbe du, as welt

i ... T}iled hlgh-S. !Ghool gins aM ontIJsrr I II:Ii:iI wM IUliMl8 from SiQhaol w'hen ~hey I SiN MI~aal,U'le cal

!J ~



~J '.' (1/ i~~11 c~tll!llmnlio,ll ~1100 w~"i.l!'l ClJ'Ull'udd(illlllly

, :norlcss tilt' n:lllll.eJ~onl!l:whilF!g. -

'. !Ii P13 _G~lilli.vllklU oi ~~'i~f~m~nin£ !lI![I~~nec wOllild be!; A_M, ,rl'!JbJ ,(J~,'ffI- }'iO,

'liV~1 P!M'I101.1'iI10t!dw'i1lh a sJlifJItWy ris_iJi1gin~J()nail~CllflltC!ffer8 is'0.f[~ femilmtine~mphwiis., Women 1!1~~ tl':ii~, pan'ie;IIB ~ 8iill£.l~ deai in ,Pt:! ,~~-ch~m1 ordcvmo sQrtenm~~b:mpm~ss, ortll~ ,~mn ~Qmt!'i' [If 'Verb:!! and ,aiU;cc:~i'Vcs!1 or ar da ,11'1: ~he end if:J,f f1.Cllilmil-'typellelillltences {wR;ch (.''UJI'1lot 00 Qn~i~iJl:ld w~ii~n WQ is tI~ell. lUte WI'j' ill eM willi!! '2'e fir )!D)~ ~WJe, al so usc: i~ w.ith tbci'dlcrlcnl~],' much s'olFlier .. feeruing, PL3 ft'l rrns IlD odd a R(!Ime ~r 'FeminlmJ~[y.

Q .11'1 Sin Imtusuy where wo.mer1l'a 1.n'iV,QT ... · r: . mOr"lt was III'ndl11o,I"Iaily oo"sldere~ taboo;, I and s~jlU rem iii I not eli: Ir'B ntH) ~:Y r al'a" Na~l!Iu!l.e ~ II .. R JpriSad re IBlttn or q n~a braw9rv not onl~

I· l'ieafJetl b13 woman 'bUt Wl111 a ma!@l'ityaf wom.;i11 on its BI.eJilt She linoo B 'QVI6t 'MOment 10 d UI,flt'FIlhei1r S:fi}(~.



• ~hc 'U V~~tOIii (!if .M® ~1'ii1C'"C~ w(f!!lLd k O,rs.ll;U dtJM~ \i~a.

age I",Qle'~ ''rI~!: mMcu~inf~lrc.i:nifU'.l distInc· ~".,.....,-, mndein '(hi,"' b~lk ,[JI-- ~ ... I,(I- n, i~~'~r OJ'"

lwn5 -J-.,",~ '" _ oo~ __ re ""'L,o]l)_, _II j;\I~",_., d.l"

:S-Oll'ule-whelh~'r fro:r ~)lJilillllc.l~s orr for orh~lr aspects, ofl!ISilge. AlU1ous:b i,t~!ii, lJJ'I.IIIe 'lhn:t w'o:mcli c~ttmiruil)! USe: MOm :palhe fQ\ITi'l:-,j thfiillifi1J!2n (lis. '1'1), rthili:Y lloUllill1J~iy ~w~rnc~l ~o n~ore onsUQI! or ,cveflluulcu~lin!!: fOmrll'i Wil1U!fW they me tlilliflfing friOOilIi! ~md r,amUy,; Iflluny w{Jmefil ,aJ!s:D< ud()P'~ mO(iii mllls.;;:ulin " pE!Uel'ls M u,,~, !Wow ol.dof or wise to, pclsltinns "f.Ul'ItlulIl'i'l'y. Mel",,~an o'ftl.l:llIu:;,e &i!fflr1l'n~~I~ lrorml wit~'II!)UI!. sn~lnding p.orrlcu]:wr1'y eff>t'm~~ I1llW,.I1SWI.')U •. ICroSSOVtH'1) iln oo1ih dllmCl[i,lln:s urn Illn,~Uy IIlUl~ eonm:um in inf.!:nm'8l '~,M:l1l11Hans, S~j III. i~'s ,0. ,scad ~tIIe:1!i to ObRe['\l'.f~ tlrn.e d~!ltinet:ioms glv~1 hoGr-e wlilan YOU'n:: lIllit le[l._m~ng [:flic ilu~lunse. Mn:n 'l~fIt'i G~es nres~cler~m~utml: ,~U n1Ill)!" 'W'i1JJlum~' 'Ih~y W'U U ules I w~~l Dli~~m i s:e.

Comb1ining panicle:sl

You t~I!I.1·1 g~ -amund llloulbiDling pi;iJ_rtistes at mtdo.m, bl!l cenaa pmtIDdc,s, 'G:lIIIA be;~mbined wjth oormm atbe~. Th~ :remi.nine f¥Q C_ b~ cJlJmbmed Wldim. bOtllillJ,Cf aifillll ya. In suo'h C'om:l#ijmiiti~ms, t:!<'!!l WiWilJ5 Com~i$ [~,ftt

Slud.::ftd: ~. '7 A 0 O$ifll,

H'~:J',rJi ~w R1~.

Il~ If~l\le~~r ~' C'm.·~C'lIl,)q.) "You~~ clI_]'.ly. ~~"tn'~Y;OI:l'l'!i ~""I;ru,'!i'~ ~II'D,y,! ~ CPL2)

~ O,,~jl (ow o.fl~J is n vefY il'llfum!illl~s.ree;lin_g, ",H;~y!/y{jlI" !

!.I. e~ bY' mlllji.l~pt"C.illi~y Y"1! ung 1!,. J,i

~ floyrii ~iIi Wl ad~eWll;l'e for ~tlm "lbl/~':9·· ull1d'~et!ir~y:' A mrue spcllke:1' hc~. wou.ld !k~\y Htl,'t!1.1 I1lr (~ti'i'al,'Oi l1a (widS0\U ~~'(JI). 1'1ii a ~Ili:~ ~~I,I!a:~"nl. 'eJLlmr ~~x \1I!O'u:tlll ~.Y ''It!j¥Ji tlMM I,I{~~, !l Wm'!lm'l D\ghl§y I:ltzyt1i dl!ldU M'd I~\[",

Z'(J' b;, lminJ'limal,nu'lluly BumculiBl!l: pmic1e Uun ailllds suofl\gll)! 8!S:S~f[!iVe. emp!JitU;j!i. J'li,l\U;nUy fc~ls teorous~~ k!J I?'L3 sp~ch., ~O ,flU ~e~eml!y h,OOi(' i'l only in fL2 and. PL 1 ·1S~h. S~yill! llil"Jll, h '5 roup d()~fIIi~t Ilmcan i1. 1Il&Ce.~'5lrulLi~y~~~l~ belligerent ,m' qln~:ssi\l'e. ~'h~u8h;, whl::n the sl rul1[i~n .ilfio na1 oon~(mfiQus.U c.arries mOre' :(}, ~Qne of fmmi ~.1,arilJ.

J~nm Oih~ npe,a~em 'WQU I d ~~i! Z,!) oldy In '\I'\eryilllfil1nl1illl, ~,tt1il'lfti.oM. (ij' \'!iI'b~ll tip. '~g U), U~~M~{1lv~~.


I I i

Shima: 1:l.~1 ~ ~ ~ I-

o. ~/fj.J/'tll{;d'j! L:t!d I

(tlITI!3'1,.~b!:.sWW1iU ~l. ('IiffiI't,li.) I

"fJey~ IU\~' sl],ow~1 will bel~II1:!" J

~~IIt~'", Uli ~ll:OIW'~,S. pliUlg tu !'it!lifW~ {Pl2} I

'. II ~s ,f~l1l ~rwfnrm~~ ~liIle.rj~l;l~Ocq, !lJ,~ti 'W11~n !;uddllnl,>, n ~ lIailll,g IlOnl;e" J !binG, uSI!Ji~J1y lI'llplyrng. ~hIII 'Ii!j('!, >ll)i!fll_kew.~ l:lItorus~.lror Impre~r:d.

'·'Il~ PQ[ill:lUrull of lj'f4i"'!1I~ ("~~(lm,cclhi~lSj' '~u:Silll!(' i!jl hajlrmlri. fitlJ.m. 11~~.\!, verb i~ {ml,)" Wll.!t] L~ .~k ~r ,:;m:rI~I:I~~n,s t~S;I'nl!lg: ~I;l I.II.~ ~lc"'t II1!11Jml~]'!i!i rOI( '~llil veli~ ~~ed whim .II'].dng ~f '~Hlnn~fl\!J 5.l.lml:~hl!~:Gi.

~ Iii, hll~1:' UUI ~m;rj~~lii:lJi i' flO! lrutl!:) Iilillll'l it1i>e: i(j' iN 'JI,cry C'~,l"IDlmm~ i!!lJ Jl"lli!.t" '~,",~h, i!i:1.'I I'ht; ~h'I'~~,I. ,PL3 Ilql!li'l'II!Il]!l h ~l:Vh'JI~N' i~. Ih1ij· fI~I,.ifII~,..ul 'Jot

-I Wh'il0 in New yo"k on QLh91 buslnoss, Shim,a vlislls IIIiiIII 'lWO ~~rlngl 'fiifJIfile VO(j:ailj6ls: wht)f11 S!.lInlighl R~rd; ~9f1jl' 'Iharrear voi09 [r'-alnlng. They dina m Bclulb SUI1Jg9slsd ClY. IltJ.alr liIO!CB ~ach 1~,eCB,Use 9F the 'Sh'rgoe.rwhDls Dn IMe bill I he're'. 111~ 'lE!roai1H3 has jusl steglJe~. JOMafdl 10: annQU noo I no _;11'10Irt9 ,air frio sh:ow.

Ze i8 another particle dtal ,giv,eg, reugh, !n.'l:8Sc1W!1ine: ,emphasi,s. R.egm:wng USG: in PL:J speech and lJy f'en~1:1 peake!fS~ the s,ameJe,\urjcljttlul ,a.pply as for zoo

!? Kam ,~ i$ c:apta~ n Q1 the SDQC:ar te.arn at ~~ewa

i High "ScI:! 01. ll1e'rsslhmen harvs c:haJlenjed the

I!i IJnrU,\l!:IlI'lll'l!:l,'~l:! .... ",a"· to a ~m'mege In an effort 1oll~I'Dve them~

f walitihy of b~I'1'Ig ronsilllellKi fer 1tI1I starting Iin'sup,.




Kamiya: ka'~Q' H(fJim~rl~ .

w.l!1l begm {cnnpl~, I nWe're goioS to 'begi11.·o

'- 'LeI.":!! get :slmrted.'" I( flU)

• h'l,lj/rnJ,~wJi,hajlm~mum I:I'U!<illIlS "b!g'i11 LS(lmetJ:ilil:g].'· 5ml~e' U" i s . ~fdO'm IU ~ i [II PlJ ~~~dt. .'li pol L'\l: 64wvnk::m Q,I:JiI.iI;, S-e[l'I,etltlC wOlllliil 00 IItJjfmrntUll '0.

PL2 Inaunillitype sentence.s ,reqluh'l8 as'


As wi't1'l1ID fem.i.nitne pmticle "WI. im. PL2 no rut-type sentences, d'a' mu~n be 'kept IIKlfofew and ze, [t cann(i~,oo oltlilUed.

~ Writer MalSUda turn&(! dfwm a IUOrative ooo·9'~as~i~i'I~ ..,. mantln favor of g'Olng to's r,euntcn elf his gJatlQ-:,sehOCl~ c1Ia-Bs. I' to see nis former best Irliend thoro. When his; rri~nd V mazakl fells to sl:lI;1W.1hQ dlsap,pqlntetl Mat~u~EI! remQm~rs how Mf) had made Yamazaki I~romise (9 ~lbJQd.

Mol ud:a;

lKA;t.t ~~. II

:Zll~wi dt! ;:~.

ghoi~hDIc!!'n~.. Iii; (tlmJl.

"Ihis, iJ, 3Jbs:o~u~~.l leU you,'~

,ty~u gb~ot!lJj~ely hlll'\l'e to, le.nn~! 1 (PL2)



UI i .. kllh.~· (PL.2

'0 "i."hl~ i.· ,LI r~uun n!.r«rill~ (0 "!lb."QIIIiI~ I~~I! or ";nhoo]I.IJLC ceJ1ntnty.' A P l equ ville'n~ of tlllli ~rnlP e wol.d be M'uoi d~~tt .'0.

,. IiIJ i. n In orund ")!C' ," vii])' Illllch, ilkt l!J~gli~1! 'U:h,..J~U~l."

:Summslry: Sentenlce, psrllcJ,es,


n~c r'CI1'1!inl~1a W~, used on 'lD . left ~o mod 1 how the scnu,'jl!ll G p mel . j,n IhilS 1,0.5 on 'i~k to the words lh y l' Uow. You eM 're~"c W\Q wiLb n • '.If.!, YO'. ~O·. aod .ll't'-iJiOug)) llClluul usa ellrt_ by IPQlI~r n ~' level. [Ll: !lpeaJke '8 8' nde r. dl lParLicuJllf word .r fom bi:jn WIiI\ ~d. IlnvihlntioDI and, u ~Dn:h, PI!" NC and yo un~Yi you cw~ IOl'lllt au in PL2 noun-'lype "U!nl~ntc. ~ ~um· ~~eh U~!'I

W'e n'Wlst~y lerl'llininc. . -

adJe.CUV€ll-~I;Iip.a !1-SMit. ~~ ~ ~~ h~

Ch/l:~'tJl' !t'fj',

.. WtnfuJ!: 'sPll lillOI'd Is W~JUi fillii'! k l'l- I kafill, or ;) iil)j O. 'lhD! 'tw(J1 (6fU)1 Inb'ICI) mM no 01 rrer-

I ne In Inl~g or "Dillr n u.s .BWlI.

m:;'loln}·~~" :GJflI"U. I~ t.,.1t ~

AJtbim JIJ·

1JJ1 Ell "t!' I ~".

l'st.lta 11i'jjj - 'll,

~~qm:,JW " Rl:!tl, !purt •. ,

un; ,tomorrow" I'

IJ'~li~T· fJ.~.

Cliii 'at dr.Jf~ I.'tl.

~, II!llIDI \ np;yt •. l

_flt", 1.:00] m U.'l~

nOlJn1~I,!ipal sent. (a mU ,rill)

~ fl.JC. -; I *~ .t,,,

Ilmll~. "'t. f:loutl}iO.

'11IIIr/llI1Jlh I~;'c(llll' fil¢/lrulh j1.-trmph,

hit' tirU 'I 'I. JIJI~t It ,IItJ.s EI'U .~

Les son 3

-n+ D"",e"'"S""U' and 1.=1: + _JI·8,SU

~- ,:I~'-~_ Ul_ - ~" -I"'L_~~_,

Aru.n WllJildDwn o;tLhe d~nX:f!,;:nf fQrii!Il~thiliI VCfr,bs. ,u~jecliv~':h~,ld ,tJ~esn tam wUl eome luil:er, SO as no~ ~.~, mncldl;11l ~(Jl1iJr inl[rr.u:l.uGdnn ~J(D, I~he. iIrIfBisic S~TIIemriZ. ::;li[n:!lIy"Hdl~& blooD, of ~ I!f:mgu3~e. Bl.!!t in Imli~e s~'Ch. urew of [he ,~onD~ fot' verbs .and d~{}'u are nnlDin,gly si!If:l.l'tt:. ,flO:lft[D(:I, mtghil [IS, w,~n learn, 'lh ern rilgti:t Iliway"

The pa~t lloi'l1~ or di!~u i::;; (}e'ih~1d f1;T -. ~,t .. ~). wh:j,i,lh Lyp~can)' eo.rJro.:sp(u1idis lio "was! 'I'i~re" when I!.'Iscdin n~IWI~"~ym>e senteaees, (tIt IS nOI cO~l~ideJlltd good u'HItg,e mooiIJow tm ne!i~c[ive wirn dt!)llli~a, 'y (I~.]I [e(ltlll [ihepasl fooo, of {!;~jilcti V~ in U.ssll)n liM




tt :l

' ...


~-14 ~L.1Sl

!StJdQ d~i/aJ

IhLrdI W\!IlI

"1 w,a~ ~lnd h~~'AOO ." UI pbll,)lflE HlilJ:'id. ~~ (r>L3)

~: -;, . ~~, fJjt,

lilts. Wlfr~ r~ ,,""

[~~" 1 . (lg (~ll,iX!I.'

"W:iIJ'W. y,QU do U~~,p,:ro\\l,,~'i~~ ,hing:.,\j.1' ~'l'ow~ Pw~ im,p~5llJ~i.~f (PL~)

• .'1lhlt} is nl!:D'!!p~nc,.W ~d~Mf!g!ll" B!\IJJ;l~i'ih. "lhi[li'IW." W'ld ~[) tli:e l!QnU:~l or oom· 'kU iJ~W!llf$ IReus "(bird b~~e"" ell' "ihiRl 'b:WimHill;' IUlI,ll~ir~ m the btl:I;liil'lS owe r, emg:usl1i, ,/j 'l;,e@oiMlell. ~ (unv.oi(ler]) or:' 1~\lll!)i'Jt:~~ Ifll~j;[:~;m~.

I~o~ fi~y v!.Hb',roJ;nr-dl:e8:S of'l)l~~~ ,iL8 ~Ii'l~ pa~~ fu'~r~~ i~ ~.(tde byd~i:I"g1ing -1UtlSU I~'O ·mns/riui (- t..,. -")0 - ~ t. f.:..). \" O\ll 03iH lhmk erf ~iIDWS as 001"1 ~Jlk~ OidlJ,ll1g-~d~o u""em 11'0 IJWlllu.~ U pm:lt h~l~e ~n En£ll i l;ih-ext1}p~ IljUU In. J ~p,ll'ne8ellle SII~n$l:~1;i clnunge wn llllt eJ1C!w~g wart~, fOf d,U verbs. m~Dl j Q:tl,l IiegUh.'li v,@ros. SIO' Long till!'! y'o;u kno\Y~e V!l.nb's ~»l'(1SU COrrlll, you can nnake. this c(nr"",w-sio;l') (~dI [h~ othc:r poutc'.;Comru COJl'vCB~On~, in I~hi!'i Ilt;Ui~m'il) con;fid~I,lt~y for nny '!!crb in ~h(lI:l"gMl!~ge.

III Nr;Jtsl(~~ Uig" ~ 2, 2~ Is tm'm.rmln;ed to ~nJl,IIU Mer lo,~e' g tl m~he r's dream ot or! 1'lD'~nfg a l Bg9ndarlJ :s I rain or ~ rIQ"a back Into CI.lillivfttIOfli. and! 'S~{JrlIrlB w~h jiIJsl135G seedl'J, ,

9he hM' Gv,rpom., p~ mol'Ou'S .dlffiQUlttilS ,~9 n!.! rI.· life h.a.r 'fl ret I.' lBiffltf;lU CrDp. KusakabQ has 'C:Dm£l~a, IOD~ a! ~h6 ",addy Where' Ih~ gr,gll1lls, Im~sl um~y tl bn ~i1IaiVe!:l~md,

~ !l~'Im,nm~~hll'tI; i I'hr.: fU)~~le ~asr ffiform ur ~'Qlllj(Ji'ltJ~'(.fj<fb(j~r. mn.,vrl ~ "pl':il\~e\l'~relwmk b(m:II~'1w ~ I ~1iI" . !I~II ').

J,a'pane'se 'Plsl: its d1lffeirent i1rolm Enla'~ish piasl


JaplmGSe ~lImdlta rim.~ frames difiemlltIDy from En,gllish Rnd doe:s mol hay,! a pm;~ [~I.1~'\C DiS ingll i-s11 spe.a.k,em bow rut Tho fo:m'i ~a~'8 g,eMndly IIIJ!sBd I~O ::;:pcat of ~n~~t ewnts dOG&m"l a,tl~llIruly impJy PrlS~,:. },r ,j'Eplle!l c[lmpl,etion",Bec,u~ spe-d:inJ1l clfpast events ,!lJld QC'tiOllg;.......'lh:al j!l. e-\IIel[:& alld :::II;:~iQu~, CgJl~p~~~d pfio(f M (he :p~0n~ m,om~[I~:-l~' O:il:ic.o~ f~lIt mnn 's most lmport:narut ~se.s,. i~, 'B, caU~ "I'M~l~~'il,~1' e'lfi!~'h,c p~t :mnn"~ [lO,f CI~'I'I'lIOOI~wnoo. J9!ut ]['8 iiJII1P0r11'.m1:U Eo mrm;:PIbru' ~iliOl tbe wuyit~!;· used won't iIl!~.wa:y~, eorres,IW~'d! e.taet[y 'lO put te~\s:e ~n E.n~'liSh •

• When Vagi eK'~~j3:s;ses ~sel"ll'8U{ms atla',~ cultural pr,oje,0l,L'la. emllse he thll1l~ ihe !;Illy's !liaffisnds will wiR,geul any'advou1Jsil"lg Ii ,VQrUft tor FlBtBuBh~ba EJ~Slrnc, he 1s BUIPfEsed10 h~ar hr.s bess Snlma {HQ. I 11) lell h!m not to wa rry 50 much sbo'ul1tno 'oot'lti'm line"




8M1U1 ·km'M ~l.'tii- tlt!.

'~IUurU~) ~~Ijim '~~ .,~ I ._ (cuLlo".)

l'Y~l;Ii~'''{!: ,cibllln~ed~IM;r" Shlmo'," U'1I..3)

~ ,

1 ,0 ~IM"'j;UWarU~i;I ~s~ m.!l- fUnl~ pmlj f'orm. of ~c \iC:~b. ka""'tl:t1dkl~l!Ii/!Jr-lnm..iNt ~"[M!mJ!;o

f lbblll.I,.iJ.i'!.I:ID.. _ geeS"}. In ~l'li:!i. t-M. -0 IiDCi_HlliJd &!S3Ii.~ cqtl!i;~il!J0rll.' ls thil'l '11~_aW/ha.. s ..... " fo:rnm rnL~JC1i than ~he :!!,im~Xe P~l" (UJ;1Ift.

'0 ~~IitI'ten: ,n! II "~~~~1l:n" ~ -:u. alm:f1l.. ,~d 'dn: s>mfix . .,r.:h(Jmwtm~ '~hc:tlN J~mll\!~':" ~o w~:u he,l. U~G'n111I.l)' ~3¥blg II!! .. Il(m Irflli!lJIlI Shll'I~.Lli·· mllller UliM'1: "Mli. S,lmuEli.~'

I.;' h'll o~e Qr hor ~ir'9t selblioN, Nh:l~suko GknQ'heJt,the ~Fuj4J~"E! sUa . . or... elgnp0s~ 1M'ItHliad mOlf\ked tne' .rI99' ,paddy p{Qm[ceild 1Q har brQU1!'.rrlG!f 9rpwing the! ~~cJ~.I crop U!g. 2~). Tile 'Qwntl" tna,s I~:s~ ~plaJllled ~l1y he ean no ICl'ngor 101 oar tJ50lhe pood, ~@r II~a~ I=lllrpose:

Nl.d!l!lll'ko: :nt.l~ ~ ~ I.,.. ft. ~V~Jkarlm(,!LfhU~j' , 'Uf!IJ~~:oofI

"~l S~i!. n (PLl)

.. 1l.'aItMJruashiro i~ [liIe'U 'P,Ib'It IrUTln oj ll1at(li'wll~lI.ihil'h~to'J(t. whl~,~,h, i}Om.::· ~pgi1d!'l 11:1 ~np.l:M;ll "'uil1~~~t~I:~lne~d," !lr~ I.l('jU~!lUII~, ~,uhi'iil.~~111 ~tll ~,k!.l

• \&~~/~~l/glMl!!pfid:i~rnffC]'~~low ,.! u~ ~'0mc: or i~~ lotITll'iIl'l .1l~ifiI(l' O'vl,!~1 np,~ w:dh blUsh ~~'1 of"kn(liW.~·nrn:d l:!ulllc.JTh ~tuihuJ.CiS IhmCl'!'l.lwiS of "C'.1n"-i .. Q •.•

• 't:1W1II11[~~mll.ll!ld~e:lf'l1inO\\IJk.I~QiW:· T,hc P:~$I f.tlf:1IIl ~1i, 'U~~d hi] !lcWJl~c!'l'1 H~ ~1rlb '1Mw~ ll¥ the :lime Iilii.e pcf!lOn &jlCltb, thl;! II Uldtl'ni':Jrn! il1l; lit! CQ:lllr~ieh:i'.

,n • Halt~s,hloo E l'aCU',i!$c Ihas ~~'~~ a, nQW ~n\leJ' for jt51'l!h1lng ~!J!a m'. al'l~ It!'iI ~ ct-a\lllIS dmirwg tll!llaps-ol"l hiS IlrSlSpltii llUlJ-Und the U'adk. AUol' ,e msdloQl'o ilrst lap! whld1 thoy a wSlim'up,"lhQlf are leagar to !See the ,sp~tl Uh1~ on his Q6urld lap.


I' Cnw MjiIJlIi)aiJ": $l~ W* L ~ J:,~

I QI ((I J ~ ,'111 IJ 10.

',I' ~hl!~r:J, ~ _.~ IIlWl~ (~~ - - ~

I~ ~~HIC.:V~ lie-te he ~If ' (PL.3)

~ ~

I · Mma.v/dl'n i~lh: polh~ll1n~l fOn1i arth:o iMil,@/ul'lll' !{C;llh kljtuJ~-;mfJ.ri' ("mn~~·i). In ~u I ~Plll"iI:!l'h, !.."\!','_'Il 1:1'11 ~Wf' in:q.u[ffi' ",if:rbl1J (:liec. 'M'bl 1(If! [ii', ~,) ~I ~u.~'~,. [Iii!:. ~'ImW n., .. ell I m~u::r \'cms.

IIli'i O1,IIUCU co:!nIlxl~. fIIli1j_)l of these 'l,I'.ennlloon ld o:fcI)U1'8e bm' ~'mJlsJiltltli:dvefY I'rut~ftlro~ I)' 00 sim:phl: p'l[S~ u~mse ,IS[lgUsh \!i~rb~" b!lltt in Ilhe.'le. C~li:Itex,l!I!, tI~~y 'CHLnmn. SiMB ~; r~§'I'u cquh.mlen'l d~pe:nd~ (lI:nth0 ex.!i!,C[ noturo o€ t he vClfil), l'!\IJl \V'en illS, Ili'D.e contel~ un,dj 't!he ~Iilffemn!,;;es< hl how ti me Fr!!l!ffi!J.S Rn:: hll<nd~ud, no ~in~pl~ rl:J:h,l esn lbe laid eut for you ro fij~llJ·''''''' \"ou jU!Ii'l meed ~~I be ilIwore 0 the d~ffe'l"cm:es so )1"@11 wi n b:e PR[pMCd to enctnutcr liliA.'lDL

for anyljl'uW'\b.IUl pg~ile tlLlgnlltve [om} rs lna~lG, by C]lOOgmg ~m'€JSu, ~o -fl1.~{Jn .c ... £""( - -ait Ill), b~ til ~~ ex lI!Ill1I!'I]J II~. ll~'e neg:ndve lQlJD. is ~q uiv alent to, ,a pruoo'l'tHens.Q ItUil.l{lt~ve verl.llo .English i ~'dI,l~s~l'VdiuJ1"l [do 'me llctiofi]..'·

.. !tak~gawa High tUg,'2tii} lstrra~ling ... by SI point Whlllfl CfCilll:k {iQ'fuMer K~bc faikaG 'Iho ball and charges d9wn Ihe· tIGit~.l,~vlna ~lB Us.U,FlII i;:IleklJllld p,n· 'SILlcn and d~ibtlUn£llPaSI I:Hle epllOl'IliUlt BlftBT LlIlQlhe:r. As his ttlrjil'mma1~S wa~c:Il, hE) ke.e~'S efl goinG eve," attar tn.s crosseS" thec6rller Uf'L(f:

l·llur~b),"lpllaf: it * '~ ~ it Iv - ~ ~ :r'#/JJ1~iN!f'!>(!tln Ihlllihl!1J

"tIe. t~n 'oe.IiIilI~I:

ShlpWI {'U}

• l~fmj(~~'lwai'iC/i iiil tha P~:"3 Jl'Cg~ui\'.e 'ronIn 0:( raITI{l1'uJ l{iIJJ{.j·tbf~II1·S!i ('~l~ 1I01tl~1 b,i "'/£1 !jJlf~l}t;/ 'hl~"), 'l'U M)I' •• ... ll~p l~{lm~Ih~Qgr ~ql!!i!l"e~ rudl rrc ~~I'I;I vC1I'b, tOi.iu'fu/r>l'mlt"n'M .... !l',

·'lanl.hl:li.lillY. ,., W !J(I!l~ml~du_rd ~ iltl:fri~ailliy fiDIy 'll'oweli'i Uft ~mIIsllil~I1IJ:d. bl!i Ilu:: Wltwl ~fiWi llilt'

hill" ulllf'k kC~lul'l~tlm8ify ftl! e);;Il:'~rnll.llJ:i~frI,

Tire -I/1Ulr,m IfiJl1ni!1 ,of u v'arb i~ tm.liIi-pa'~;li so 'it ~li us~d f~r bo'ih pro~eH~ ( .. iclgW;.lli~dtu~·1 !d~ th~ lu:~.i,OID~ )") muJ fli!i&Uft LCJllijC ("W{)I~"[ l~tiQt~~e. ilclion]I")" U~n:: hi an ~)!,wn,11i: l){ iJ:~, use 1;'OJf\mfulle leruie~

11~1IJ a'g.[ng br-SW'f'lI"IRst£l'f allh~ S.I:'I6Ik:1 I"rewl;/lry lis jn 'ailing 1199m'!, His wHo '9J!~lmlnra to .Nafsult!~ ·Wli!tilil ~he; doctor Itas told har-Lhn(~ho 6)16 r1IO~1iI or O!rtCtl'le~ St'i ~OOI'! IMI 'M job aI's llllie:l,! !o kill h9rHtHl'~and. But Dh'o Se:lfS (;110 can't bring hQI'Sfl~f ttl 18~QP him noCBYSO :lhOKnQW& h!JW m~Gh tiD hQs 006r1"~UJ'IHMiI {OIDI b~ln8 B~lk~' W~lh,~he ~snd~fY'T~~'lninI3hlkl f,leeNalti.uKo ha$.¢I.!,I,Uvallid (ng. 29Ij,. ShQ ~B~'S Nntsuko Ii1Q~ IQ !qlil h'm wtlrn t~El' ~Qcl:cr !las :eald,

N,IIII!ldkOI II r ~, ~: 'Ii/v.

Um(J"f!I~, 'w.iiuf i 11:11

t':1 \n~q"I' 'hllll hhllll/" (Pt.],)

~ ~hl~~'i"! ~ ii'l;- PU ficsnU!.'~ . ~m: ,or rut UI!i(Jl!f~ ("'I'!tl!)'IH:I1:C)lIk/te]I")~ iu ~'!II Il'W~ 1fI .. (lt!]~I~ed ,f)"

fi'" ~tt/iIJl!

Ikl'm~J\lw JIIc.:~~

~'I "'yUI11~ I O. 'i!~

ti'/'J .. ~tf"IllUf-r'II. m;!l.l"l.Imll

~'Tt~~y ¥iftiln ~( eeme,"

f,}~1b t) tl: IIJJ;,

K Oli'.~mn~I$l"lJ. rn;)I ~h~J!~t

un d.OC,i;lDl"! ,chonfiie. ~~

tn')'l, IJ t!' ful) W(iktill'im~l,\:rfl ,

liLt! l!J!lh!lrIl.!.fl>iJl(tn!.lw

I'~ dun~~ ~~li~d>iu',~~'Und"u

Foral'Ul¥ ¥eTb~ [LSm,OU~£: n.eia:tivCl-l)a~t foui!li is, changin,g~m'(l~~ to ~nrt'lge~i deshr/n' (-3'e1' - - *tt,;~ ~ L-1t). V QU wi&lreS0gn~ze deshii,'Q M ·t~e. P~{ HORn: ,of delm (',~ S/aoo'~'Ili1uf ~1IlI lUllS:

CI5!e:~t &ewes crdy to change 'lIIe ttl'nS1e~ it dOO8 11:0t ~dd. [00 ,me~g of tll~ ve:l1ib "fIQ 00,"

'. $li'iri~!'(M(J;l ,dtJ.tilll:a if! the l~U ~~li¥e-PD.l'i1 romJl otr @linJ~hJrim(lSu.

SlTXl:l:l}I' '~pc~kiQ$. Ihi8w!tinn.e<Jl:ll~ "eQm~ 'IQ kinowR~,nrn~lIld ~~n." b:IIU in ' ~v.crw oti,Liii,fbtmH it CO'I1OO!l,cndll, I~ ~B:li:.s]~ "ktw.w",; ill.'llll1!!igu:l;l'i'~ rUI'II11 ~JOnr!!i, 1'~r:1.0t,kll!t}W'+ rutil1~!" I:hOl1 "!'lot ~(W~111,"

'. ht!i,!.othllJzyok,( :::;;; j·OOIi!Ori~1 rofH"]," trllld ~he ~t!Jffii!:. ~(!'II{j mc~~ ·'b!l.d~Oiid'e1J~: di1g. oo~"pMd:el'ice: ~D~n Jfl!p;rnRl!SC illrU1. JiI:l,gU90b,jo'b li~~tlsis ~Idi;lm ~!l~!~ bll!$~tfil<.!YfJlm.t.'ijfi 1,'l.')'I!I, be 'GlO[l~~dared muEl'llI,y ~ui'i!'I.t~~nL ~ll' '~GmJllive ed:il:of. "

~ 'III, , A young reP6r1l1r tram Hu~ Dain'tm'Vs"tils and a sill!~rli~w:y

, '. '" the Pnm!;'!! MII'JIQe':F's o.ffii SIB. w,no 'wert! Ii av~RfJ ~ll!r'l a!alr.

,,..e jllSt 1:m9~ !u(fii!l~ ~Or l'etakin91 c!«~~ned lnfnrmartiGln. aa.i. n/Mfs edUor·ln·clilr:ef asks: ,ei!clitol'i31 tloar,fj, membHiI'~' ,~r alny, of rnsrn bad PfiQ~ kfM)!wled~;e' of woat was g0~ng en.

YQl1I, ~hange tihe "m'llmr foml of a JfI!paneSeV'C'li'D [0 -m(l~h{j!( .. il1" -+ ~ 'i: t...t '5). yfi'lil ,gfl~ III tDm1 that e')\ipiIe.s®es hMe~~lonld!e~e'liln~inlm'im;~ ara dlil'Cl,"Ii~:n to do the action, nk:e'·1.1e~'!ii I[do the _ ien]" (wli1i~ml the 5:pe~er ~nd ~~ leas'l, one tHher par,Bon win nel togetnc:t) Or ul W',m,1I ~~~tdlll! '''''k r [do rile neti"" -n] OJ (\\,.1:- .. -c •. 1. .. , ,i'~, .•• i~"''''·· w~ I ~ -"l' ft I,,,,~,, ~', lin"'" \I ''''''S~:!> W"ii 'C' snl'll,clQ'l i I1Il' f01l'

•• ,_ _ . __ . ., _ ~'"'_ " u",,1]J I!JJ ... ",p~ii1!II:'i. ... rr , ll!I oRC w ... OOt m __ ... ~ ....... _. _~ ... IiIIgj 'I. f' ..

~ l'i~[ene'r). S~uce Ui!.e rl'lmllinlllp:li:e3, =lI. 'WwUfuJI dec:ii!ll[(;l:n, nOloml'!!lerIbji ImD~e; !llil"~~ mID1ll.hti~,,

• JIIJS~: raMer Kus.ak~~e has: C0ngr-al.llat~~ NIIU'S&JkG 01'1 tno ~mp9ndlng tlBil"'lflst·01 hsr TOtilUI'IE5i1ik4 crap (Iig. a9~I,Sha ~ooverl ajl!'lY h"ls~!.pn one,of the' st1)16-lInd 'Ulan ,on OO!l.Jn1~ ~~ ()!1'I'IOfS, i~Q rakes "na to 'lhe 'retfrlil'd ta"mili whQ' Is adViti,"~ '1er~ ,and ho confirms IIIBl ~he' 1"~Elcl;S,oQllJld rlJlirr1 the C!I'€lIP'. Na~sLlo f\om~Jns delelf,mlned n~t 10 1.II~!J ijln~ cnemioalsj 50 she dt.,.

... das 116 at leasl remove as .,HIIrI!I er ~h8l1,nsscts ~u~ SMa '~IlH1: ~ 'rund, I<ysak~'b'a 'Ofrtar11~ 1'!181Q.

KIU~o.m be: . ~. a J~ ~

. 'tfNl_'I/~~(JJ N{lJm'lktJ·J~.JIJ.

~'et'~ SQ " , (lllillIlc<JKlI.)1

~~:Lel~~.slJ). MJiw NBwlm,n (flt.])

flFiit}, ~ ~,

T~t.w!Jlfl~1Jla!I'1., w~J~ ~Ip

~iiPll he'll Pl. u (PL3)

• JldrlW.~~U; ~~ !lu: ~)L3 !'I~I"~"U ...... , I~"rm u {k!1UtJm(1"/~ ("gu"),

• iIl.mQI~g, jlIIoplc who II~ Q1JI, nlm~Mm l~nIllSi' tin:: ~Ul!': s;iIlfriM ~,un C'Mr.Ms:'; (I;', l'~> '!:IIf1 1~'lI!o!lQd w'irh .giIv!:.1l iI1wums: IllI \¥f:IU mi [rum'll1)!' IiUlm~s, 'll'h~ JlooMfIIB: i;'~ srm ~'ll!J~lil '~IIloIIHII. -!in h m l1lH III:wq~ lib m;m, '·M.h;~1 M:D,~lru''' wi~h 11M n~file..~ iwt I!.ntl;l~sltI. iilm K;I!ISOkllbe'~ ct'ln.~i~{ron 1~~~)jIJl~ ~owm;d 1Iti~"~1'1'1?1~~'Cor'iI d:~I.IIp.lnw K~mSo lei Cl!I~rOO' ~~ch InmlllI~il.

I' 1t'1,~~dolm(1-'/jI ii'l.I~(!' IFIUI!IJrm QhrlS~dau (",h.~liPfwW hol,·'). TIn'! lI.~d~WSU'lN! !<ubje;cl. U. "1."

22 I.ESSOB 8', CUt also be giv>0p a -·slu] ending., desflo' I ~T ~ r! L J: ?). But it bas ,BI very diI ..,rent meaning flOm, ~mw/ljj so lr's im,ponwn MO keep the disdnclloR clear in. your mind. ,DeS/t,o es~~n'~i'l3lmJy C1i.P:reI!WS III ,pGfls--"is 't:t1aybelpr"Obnbly/surely [Ilhe Sfuted thiR,ld' '; - usu-aUy :ilpeaker bas some evide:m::e/te'MO,1i!l for wh:8!t he is sa:ying bl!ll~rus, n:oL cem~:n er1ou,s,h mou~ it to s'ate 'it with the mORl mmgo.ric-ald£SlI ~'iS/Me").. YOl'l"lllerull' more ,aoout wi' form a.~'we'll _ ns p.ain equlvalem in Lesson '2~i

• The prcpneter of Le-~tlrI Hart is gelJling nJady ~o e1O'Se til) shop 0119 nighl when a jtOUflg glJita:rjs1 eemes.rn, As tile guitarist studies 1h'9 bolUes on the wall bQhJnd the bar, ~hB pro:priel'Q-!'avs hQ'd like to 'try'guessing Wha11he oustomar wants 1.0 drink.

~~~~--~~~~~~ a


ti ,


is 11

............... 1

'L,.. ""' ~'I' .,.



Here's a Qwck refct1,mce; l1Jibte for Ule new fOIDI~ ~lllLh1 duced in thts lesson, foUowed Ib~ ill tab le I~sting each of 'I:hose fOmIS for a few of the 'l'em-s you have seen. Pmclic~l:be can'version& by !tiding ,aU but 'the first column with a sheect of paper" referri,og as necessmy Ito Ii-e Quick fefeoolllce: '[able ..


1_I"t -elAt


de. " ,d':'f.'nim


non-past 'C"Ware/\\iU be,~' ,P!i!S1 (' 'w,aslwem")

@1Iile~~ (.ipr(l,bab~/surely e{')


- s:: l" t:


- ~ 1tlv T L-t..:

- :1;1. .. J:: -;,

-111€lSU ~m(lsJlila ·masen

·m'tJ'J:lGtl «(lakiN ·ml1xlVi

nee-pas ~ ;1'dotdo~'o'Irill, do" plfE e'dad do")

ne\!!:o:livo ,(l'dlUlIll'lldoosn' tjwon 't do") !;;t t'(lwdo"t do;') ~l.erminati0n ('~li!l['iilI'UJl [lilint rll den

non"lpas'L past l'1IegiS'tlva negalive ·,past ~le~'sJni - ~
f_;: G1J J;. * --r t: (f) b '£, ttO)b~itN .JJ. *it'fu ~ L t=. Jj.,;t L..~"5
ral,!aminw,s(J tat{OflJfJJf(J.fhita IaJ'fOlfJJ'nl'tUf" I'QJ/Qmiml15lli1' de~lJJfa IQi1umirtmsll'(J;
requClIt reqll~!1d dOCiln'l/wou '[rnql!~1 flioo"l mlllt:,I.'1 let' 'Ml'Oea'!
~"~£1t ~li! ~) i!'2 1t Iv ft e: 3: itA, 1:' tAt ffi!3e'l .. ,t ~
~ki/JlffS1j ildfflOshit~' iff'TrNl3.'.el1 ikimasl!ff tl1!311ild ikiuU.l,flili
go Wlfnl dooSIlI'r/Wru.l"I,I'O dh:lu,'1 F Il!tc·s.s;o
~,"t i!-z L,. t:;. -S'*it,/u * i: 1t At 1:' L- .1;: *"_L-,t ?I
kllllo-,.11 ti'illQ~Mfl kimll:.~~N .kimtit#/! m;~Ma kb'tlll.'iM
nl~ cnltlill ~'I/W n't:c;om~ ~idn'~ ,oom!: I[el' CI)1I1c
tt:f'{£1' t:«~l,..t.: t.:~*ttlu :t\; -"{ ~ it IV""C' L,.. t: At.;t t, ,J; ?
ttll.iUJlturS!t l(lbelfwMlj1r~ f(Jbrn,!fJ~Jj' 1(}~'Ii:l'(1$r.m de.tilit~I' ,r(J,l;,m,fjrM/!lJ
am me d~'IiWDl!,'t~1 rJl1l1.1l!'I"1i:!lI let' CIt!
b"t.~~7 iJll,'l.* t,..t;: tJ),~l~1t Iv ·1I,-,*1t lvT L.r~ ~~;t l,.."t, ?
ktll'mmm ,kal"lJJshll(J ~inmMm kmmfl,5en ,rli8~llla ,kLiitlUl!';llfJ
bu,), 1ruliliBbI ~m'I/wOl"'11 bu)' dldn,'tny I"t'll bulY
~~C~~1" ~t [; ~ j; IL,. t.:. tit. Lab ~ 1! It.- ~ ~ *' "It /\1"(1 lr It ~16£LJ: ?I
tzujiflUUn.a.Wl 'ktjIOONtlfl'$i1i'~ hnjV~WI1IU "':l'~ , JliijimurHOJ{!,1I dtMi't1 iMljlmcmt1B/JIJ
berin, ~ ~1I\I.'onn ~8in III dl'1l't be8in h!l' btl:8Jln linter,iecti'ons

~ trw ~ 11 UJU.lOO r~m1'~l I.y¢f," ~hrul e. qQ~!!i ICS~ forHna~ d.iktii '' '.1. and 11, Ii, ,IIi, ili.l1d Ill'! f ure ~I! u'lhL!"r Wti,)l !(! ~i1i1C:!iS ~]re sam!:' rt'llt~UllifltL Ii. ky UiifrClrttllCt from UIl,' gJ]Ifil~ ··,Slilli." I_~ IbIlI ull [h~ wurd~ L'tlrlfif[1I il1- llr&l"'1OWi :tnn~ntil1l.,\iu If 111-=1 ~ ~'po~~fli ill re~lOn~e 't~ il 't1~l'Iti¥e s.r;e:!lllnllnL, II~~' Wi'l~ YIp l~rilLfI,g ~(luJ"'l(IlIl'IIU ('m! "no'I':~n Bnr ~n~h. ~Q: "'VQI!! WU!'\Tl cuff' A: "¥t,~ Il WM'lr,")

~ lraiis ;ll:so l!SCid ll~ "h'!l.le" when btruu.Hng; 50m:tlnmg [0 ~u«rne!)ll~. m ,:vel! II:; wb'i!YI 1~!icPIl!]-d inQ. 1\1 L\ ftl'il I.lIIU (~1I1 I! deesa' ~ raeen '1~1re" [Jig ialflillT MlU >tl'jqnr-;J

~ iii' I];' ~. fIDITIll.L1L .. tlU' i (thl: eOIJ 1'I,~Il~ilrJ 1!4l li{Ji~, ,ll'l,tlIYfj .I:!; II Ic"'~ ,~(mu~l rqtUi''''l.!~!1tfll. AI{l~iu, !'~u~k'~ u h,~y diH~~I\~c from EIllI]i.8h ''IIIo'': ~hl! bnsic mt::-:mins o.f In"'1l~ W1ln'l~ is [0 ,"'lrrllrl,i~il=~ I'lit! FlJIi'i'WU!i" t; 80 iJu:'), ~'i111 l!I'il\d up bod Llr,g 1:1.1'11'1 "'11~~ll~ 'ri.l ")li: !ii" i'D 8.ogli~h ~ 'Q= ., '(!J 1<1 WQIl' t u~? A: .'i'l.j) II "' .. M II. ")

~ iya j!! ul~[1 flflC..n 1.J.~cd !1ild~~) IL~ a hllli'l LlOlli ~n at ';illLljlllll I.! P IMlfiI Hke "Wt'II"' ur •• ~ uu"nn." wi,lhlltlil ~r st!'fJ.l,1:l Ofl1l!g;i' ~!('I"n; lll1 dllTlJigu[£cl ~yii rml')' :<illllpJy r"p',clSl.1l1il '11 I'QW!gtf r~e~.11 ;Jr~:(}n'tllli';il'I~-lJ!r, er h ~;t,I'mlm(~Il~ lin c>i~~.II!li;ilinl1

,. mfjl ~.~k"JII a.<1 .11:1 ~ltcl[ll1lttli~rI i~ 1I remil'liul" "~'f-'IN,,}lilln l'hf surprise, wl'lll.lliwr L!l1 l1lfIml or d'~BgL1l "Hili m}lI/M~ gtloo~IJlJt-tll' mt:1" S'jiIoloon I1l(1rl'i"~ C~W!~ b, either sex, ;aft or ,ml 1i:;1U~ hi: Ilk.,:: 'fAlnw/~(Ir:!fIe IWW" w~n n~in~ I~ U~t!4l\ rtfll riD l'i~'m\lIItUlg: h IO~~III ~hClW Ildl!gJec nl Rt~rYn~ li"nJrellueHtl1~/'ulnCCH1.1li~Uf ~~tliun ..whiw!' fhlll i'lp-i!uker h $;1l".lnJ.l~ ~l IlM ~ ~,,(:d. to "~ll!fll.lJJ'· !~!r i.:'l\prcSt;~Ol~ r_"~ l1n t1I'lil1im,; t"lr i1IWll bI: tI Wnn'liH~r l~f fll!Ul!if' Wll'lln.llh[ll lI~inrl'~ ~i Ll11~ bI"Llt~dJ)' I'bl I1i ~hJ:: I,:"Orl[~ i'll: "l m~~ill!y~J u. km:'!w/RIllll)'/ 11n!i'w .. yf~r C!llll'!iI:'!,"

'0 m: mui. ~1 llRl arten usc.d to l);"ll\Oll\l:lJ!''il'i!i I!n~ IU I'PIa; mnh: ... peLlklm. bl>:~ U"iiC 11f1 nr nit 'I'flr Ih!!.~~I1~l:rntipl:\'«!'.

~ ",,I t:)ij.pI\l'N~ ~ !l!,uprlMl' ~r '!;udd!:~. UW:INd!lIi:"II, wllh jnlllp P,OIl iIlll h . .lHc.~ .tt :I'OIl~ l' i~ an ~)jcl~ I~mli [)Ii ~I: npP"D'tJJlI t~r .11n'lU~(, UWI vi

• W 1'1!i IlIU 1I~1'lIpt "N'iAY'" til· "'\'1,.1,," Hl geL 5O~m:on'::'!I" IIll~11 !1f1n.i ~ hlllJ:1i It,l Mlllll; Ih~ ~11t!.'n 11 m~ '1 riU1mIWI1~ rl,Wl'h~ r pwu.~. ~ ,fJliw i~ U'kl! ·'u~ ~ll\II, " Yo' lile ~I Hn: ~I'N I r rctJ.fil-l,l hI! l, ...... ~U .. I 1~n. ... 11;' II. lII'khiuk~, Uf b tU 11 Wit' IlQrf!c of utuki"~ .~ tnl~lI~; vlli'illli(')Iit'S illd~I~IL:l fIltiltl" onano, lfl'~tj,

I. w~ m;, UJ~l,\Id lin tlg. l{) ~iln'l!f'~ 'rcj!~~~ll':i!I ~"',r U('h(1Il. Iml 1111 ft'plr m~, ~IINtlnlln ~11I»i.~it'·!I!~~ mll.:crl.dmy ~~r i~tI~Jf"Hn\:1: ,I~~n 111I1l lI~1 ""'IH'i "llllJinI/II'~ h:l.hl 10 ~,.~'I ~~tI~!I"1 ~n IW.n

mlcrjet:li'm~ On~" OCCllf'tU we begmning of a sentt'D'CC', Hd me, o.<lintde~h (jJ grem deruJ 'abouL [he lI,prak"' s frmn~ Qf mi Ill! UI]:(i whe re I he s-ellih3l11ce is loing.

In fig- 38, Su,ur.i·1!l, (1 is i!'lef[~l a fully ~o~ceil sigh: ~t can mtprus~ r al ig IJI#WU'an'i nit,Ii,." as w,eU as 'i~mil )'/\,.00., SClI if you Il11aplPQllleiJ ,.., bc wi'm rtll.~'I". you would pl't!btl~lY ppw ~he's.tired even b~fo!-e

High schooler Su.yurl ~ trying 10 study. bu~ shu's havIng a. tpugh tJme k$8ping ~~r e.yes open. She deoides tD lum 00 the ratllo and reachl;iS' 10f the SiWlto~.

Sr~!!!I;1 ~~'lJI' 1;,:. ...

~ Illfmm' nO,

(in~~JL1.1lHr,eeI!lY (~rnrh.' L UI[!JIOlrn~ J 'Ill SO i!l_'leepy.u (PLll

Sound FX: l't,;:f f>aelll

CI~ I~ radh" 8wih;::l1r)

.' m.'mui Uli an I!dji.~ l.iw I'qr ":>h.l!L"PY,'· ~ ,IS nol ~tl ~I r~. I 'S, 1Il~lhJ:'l ria f~r !oIlllph l[:.~i ~ I I'I~ t I il11ilucl In rum h: ....

she says, she's sleepy, 's~~ in rlg.c 39' can leIe used ehhct Ii'ltc' "well now,fuli I.i~hl" as y(j~ y6lm·:~Jr mov Imn ud~tln. u:r ~ Ike "c(.lmc. (1R" lO urgt: ~our li~l .. m!J1I' Illtl(:lhln •• '::P' ~( L:Xpru!lt;~!-l Mrs. Nr,)hl4!l'lJl'! t n gc~ ! I:1~O [It~ Pl1Dt

til rii!U~ lift. r[rlm.:h 1)1 whm an inl'0rJ'~(;[io]l ttanvey&. ill in the "ilJleukcr 's tene illlld i nne er ion. so you ullin of tern gel an I n Sit~U1ll f!!lel ror whnll the '\liord ~'lIle~lhs, cvc:n jf j["~, ymur nl's~ cm::oH'I1't!Jr.h!l a beok, W'hif.~'FU you ~U!l1'·l hcur ~he iIlpej:k~r'_1<i voice .• you h~"e '10 rely on the ru~t ~f rh~ ~~IU~'H~.r= :Iud Ih~ ~mll~~1 In h,~I'lI jI'DU g~t t! rc:lr,~ tnl' ,he word'!I usage and ~mlc.

lio!" the nm::n"t part you ~n ~~II'1lPfY learn inllltJi3'0lioml as nTh~Y C0Ji11L: up, Em ill's wO.l'lh (~k~nl ill;: ~(~('ltk iU Il nmc.'\vhul Oll'i~ii .. mH~Y lI(l~octio'n h~I'~, ~~Ih NPI!~~iU,~ I~mpbllsi!-; ~~

tl1tl:-:~ Ilhill I.'I~n hi~~e o;.~\1,.,:rul dirl\:II.;,,'1 IDll<::lJtl1tFlg!l Qf - furm:..,

Mrs Nohara has brought Sf),n-<lhan 10 the CIty poo1 As l.lSual the pr&oCclo4,s boy taUSBS enD delav aller another rn lh, dreaslng ~I but now everylhlng Ie. tinallv under oon1to1

, '. Il'd ~llJ!&'I li;Ie irOl Ll ~~,~! tJ~ d j~ilfi!l)'/w.".. ("'~1l1!S l'r]J~ur~1! ") Ii,,",

III 11R. ~ •• 1l!1l'!un'~I.H~t.I,~ It'illr! ht' u :-:11:1,11 uf 1'11l{!l!iIVIi' (L\~, f(JrC'xnmplc. WhCli11(1111"I'al!<iflkiI1ll'~~~~~ in~n LIII~hll "ub). ~~.~ 1~1!1~' I~~I!:~I wh\i;rl 11h;I(H11IIIM. lu H!i~~!;;JlI: IllId YUI.I'n: ju1lh~lllJ ~14~lIT fhl.t ~p:nli:l" i~ <!Iifill$; mldlln~h:: i'i:F~I!kIi:I"l U'lO h U~ lU:( In'f~I"fIlI~I"Y~'lh," A ~~I1"Q.',(Ih!'("'IM,h: ~f'I'l'Inktlm. ~\l!u ,(f1wt) 1lI!li.,Prc~!leli ''iu"rl~e ~)r ~ucl~bUl O\~I~ssJ'h:~~~II(irulfw.i;'OlIec.::lilili1. H~ "0111"; il ul!i.lI I<1:l1'V c ... .a~ fin ~lIIl'nll1lll [I], .B:~Cl:r 1I~8 ·.wh!ill~ l'11l! I ~JIIl 1[l~'1J .. OFIWt1nl: ()!l ~J'll:' IiIft~H, lI~e "Ol~, ~HI"

• llrt''I. IflTil'l (-fcnll,li1i,I'1~1. ll!ld l1f'!Ja ~"prc~~ ~ull'il'llfi'f<ic! u~ 1l~~c:rt[I~l!W~willl~l)lI~m III II<llnllll1lntt bI'~lr~fl.l:l.::lL!d.

• Lin !I.'i~ijJ~~tilC"td can n~~lIn "ym;"; il !luI'! 'huJi Wltlm-np • t)\lo~,{f,t~.rt.lgimul1i mtWil-"I··~w]lul

Y,·.Uf(~ ~ t.k~ "\", Id 1/II.lf' ~ ~'Ii'U" (l~g1 i 1111 ill!, r.:: i ~ j.II,l lit!] !le- w ,11 ~w 1111," Nf;n;hLl H~~m Illy lr~ I:!I'

l"mllc~ If 'l'~: <1:'11' il mliy ~n .. ~~l)' hl' u ht'l'lIH.lI~n., "UHIJ1l1, .. ~~"" IJ""'~ ljI{~1I NWj~n," W'Ulht CUll·

I' kct' '''u~liIn~1lI 'A lih!!ln rt~ Wtf'~ Ih~ Imt~'llIliij1(U1 ur It fl'm"lll'i. DUI l'h~ liunl~1I1 Ilmkh

~,l!Il:'Ist M (j<;'iC~~iU 1'lll,soIIIm11i1~Ii:'-I'I. [,hl! Jl.1lk:"~krrr d,i~"I nOi "~J,.'"I'~ ... wtlW1r" m ]l11ttlpn.ltr nIU~\'i.~fll~ In IQI !l ... r~@!CI~ '1~1: might WI!'II ~!I"'I,;

IIlI:!arl;l~~nI'11{"lIuh?lWhlll'ri~ nr II he fli ~I h(,~U"Gh:.arly, ~:Jid ~rll?\'n~mr'Hh(),~ iU1lbll'! :;t~lnrl~lfll] l~itl' t'lrg. ~fIi).

lJ~,Llh(' ,~~ "lIliPri~ethu Pllz'l.ll!d by whm ,h(! hJl~ Ih\liLfti. • .1",J I~ II n1()~~1y llul~ll~in(! r~n~.ttll: or 1l1nphn-:i~. bUI! rl'm~~k ~Ji"~alk"n. t;l4<l1 ~I~ ,~l

IHl ~1{lj1ir,~IIC'.d n W1Hlllh!! inlli')lljll~vl'~ (If II '11.I1!~~IMII ~ll~~ Ii,.~ w~U jim !nttH"l11111 !.iltlllli~m .

~t~,!;!\I(lH,~ ~~II~r iiurrmSO 111' !I~lpriiMishotlhd. ~ ~;.mruUy. III l1(Jl!~n'i u) ,!('Iur dvwn !'iljn m lh"! "'~r)llllf!U 'r~l!TIr


Mrs, Nuhurn

.::: ill.l r~< -t,~

.'J,'/j I fJ\'fJ,LJIi 'Ill.

~H YI.~ir wlfl~ .. ""im ItomplQ '';AI[ r,~~hn, v,.~IJ11,,! ['umMy] go,jng [(! S\,1'i In. ,.

u J..\ ~r I'Jg1d! Lc r ~iI1 i!iwbn!" Wl2)

Lesson 4

Sirn'ple Questions with fJ\ Ka

In. Jap$l~Se, a sentence can be tumed Into a yes-or-no question simply by putting the. sentence particle 1J\ ku at the end; There's no needro switch words around or add helping words Iike <do' or "did' the way Ellgli.Slb..r-eq:l!Iires. AlL YO.Q have to do is-put ~ at the end-s-like-a verbal question mark. (You'll learn abant using question words like 'what?" and "who?" ill Lesson 17~)

Ka usuallY't.eplaGes other sentence particles, but it canalso be used in cembination with ne or yO---in which case it comes immediatelyafter the verb, adiective, or desu and. before ne or yo. Also, exeept in special instances involving indirect questinns, ka is Dot added ttl'da in a PL2 noun-.type question; it replaces da instead. as seen in this example:

The question of iintonation


Ge.nki L&u:J

wellJlrealthy (7)

"Are you well?"

"Huw've you been?" (PL2)

SWma: 7L~

II;; '" :i


~ ::>






~ genki is a neun referringto good ~pirlt:s andfor to a ~

vigorous state of healillenefgy. The.quesrion Oenki g Ita? (pLZ)pr Genki desu ka? (PL3)-liler-aUy "Are g YI,lIIJ w~U'r'----€lft~n serves as thtl equivalent of "How . are. yO!!? /How have yell been?"

Plain declarative sentences in Japanese end with the last few syllables at a low pitch and the final syllable, even lower. Quest.ions, on the other hand are asked with a rising intomuion as ill English. But there's an important difference: in English, the rising pitch often spans several words at the end of a sentence; in Japanese it occurs only on the final syllable. (fh0 ne used for rhetorical tag questions [fig. 14] i:s,als,os;poken with. a slightly rising intona:tioD.. but notas much as with ka). Here's another example of at noun-type question-s-this one inPL3 form.


* ¥:1 ~T fiji?l

E? Honti) desu lMJ

(i.l1tmj ,) trutb/tme is i(?)

"Wllat? Is that the truth?" ,aWliat? Is that true?" (PL3}

• ~? spoken with theorising intonation of a question expresses urprise: iIWbat·?IReully.'7-" it can also be elo!}ga.ted for ~tronger.effuct r~_ging from pleasant surprise to dismay/protest.

• strictly spe.aking.hontois a.noun for"tru~n," but followed by daki.esn ir most freqllently cOrresp_oElds to the Bnglish adjective "true." Withou.t ka on the end, Honto dlMiU- is the simple PL3 . ta~eme.nt "It is true, The PL2 equivalent of ttUs statement is· Honto d£l; the PL2 question. HOlltij ka? Cd".is replaced by tel).


e subject is often "you"


. usly it depends on what the speaker is talking about, but a good first guess-for the subject the listener ("you"), just as a good first guess, for the subject of a declarative ~~rent is the. speaker ("1"). The listener is the subject in the verb-type question seen here:



Fis,king Cat: 1!fl5 ~ Ku~ l&uJ

cat (?)

"Will you eat if?' "Want the rest?" (PL2)

BonoboDo: '5 fuo U12.

"Uh-huh~u (PL2)

is an informal, masculine word for «eat"; since tile word is iaherY Dllll.llIl al, it's uor very often heard. in its :polite form, kuirnasu; but -.. equivalent question lin PL3 speech would. be Kuimasu ka? The =- der-neutral equivalent for "ear' is tahemltiihemnsu, and the same ·0J] using taarverb would be Taber» ka? (PL2) and Tobemasu tal (PL3).

e form of the verb makes no difference

question particle ka, like aLIl other sentence particles. can be added t10 any form of the verbpolite, past. negative, and "iet'sjJ Il ........ • forms as weU as others you will learn in the second of this book. Here's an example using a.polite past verb:

ound FX: jj 9 -!9 'Y Gatasa!

(clatter of chairs as reporters Jeap to their feet)

Reporter: tIt:gttJ ~ I_.. t: liI\? I

KimOJimilshita ka?

clecidoo (?)

·'Was [the new VP] decided? ''Bas tbe new VP been chosen'?" (PL3)

iimaruikimarimasu is the verb used ro say "[something] is decided' or "ill. decision occurs" and kimari'7UJshita is its PL3 past form. The verb for "[someone] decides [something]" is kimerulkimemas14. There. al[G a number of verb pairs. ill] Japanese that have similatlioundl5. (sometimes OD~y a slngie vowel sound dilIers) md dose1y related meanings. See figs. 2S, 26 3119, 33 for 'other pairs; kawonl1kawarimasll ('"lsamething) changes") in fig. 30 also has a counterpart, ktieI'IIJ1:aet1la;~u ("'Cb.ange [s_omerhing]',,).

Sound FX: j:j 71- Gacha

(rattle of door knob/latch)


,An adjective-type question

In informal speech, ka follows directly after the plain, dictionary form of an adjective as it does witbthe.plain form ofa verb: Muzukashii ka? =:: '<Is it difficult?" In politespeech it follows,desu as it.does with a polite noun-type question; Muzuka-

hit deSI1, ka? Here' s an example of a polite adjective-type question:


~l1,;'l?JT 11O'!i?1 Tanoshii desu. ka?

is fuli (pol.) (?)


"'Are YOli ha'Ving fun'?" (PL3)

~~--:J 2: v~ T < tl J.: 0

Hottoite kure yo.

leave be p~eas('j (empl1.)

"Leave, me alone." (PL2)


• (a1'lm:hii is an,adj~ctive meanin~ ·'fum/eI1joyabLe." The PL2 0quivaleJ1.t of this ~luesthm is Tan?~hii ka?- { though. as noted m tli1!l·.Il0Xt ,example, women would nennally drop the ka and Just say Tan.oshn?

• houoiiexs a connaction of hatte cue which comes from h6ue Qku.jokiifrtaoSU (,::ie,ave bell), You will team !

about the -te fonn and some expressions that use it in Lessons 19, 2:5 and 3 .1. ~


C" ". D ~ ..

'Omtttin.g ka

In colloquial speech, ka is in fact often omitted, and the question is expressed simply by raising [he ,intonat1cm~just like "You will" ill English can be turned into the question "You will?" For example, Samui ka? --'I- Sctrri:Uf? elAre you celd?"). The omission occurs' among speakers of either gender; for females it can be considered pretty much the norm; since ka feels quite abrupt and unfeminine in PL2 speech. Ka can also be 'dropped from PL3 verb-type questions-lkimasu, ka? - lkima.~U?("WiU you go?t')-but not PL3 o.OUO- Of adjective-type questions, The PL3 usage is mostly feminine.




• the polite form of dekimasu. The PLJ equivalent of lhh q ues- ; tion would be Dekimasui The question is indicated solely by a rising : intonation on the last syllable. g !>


• in the f.iIst sen~nc'e, uie noun alene is spoken 'with the inlomlclion of a qucstioa on the,final syllable. In this case, the equivalent PL3 question would have to include ka: J(jzai des» k(J?

,j tashika is a noun meaning "certainty," hut in actual use it airen corresponds to the English adjeeti ves "certain" and "sure."

Rhetorical questions


Since 1m can be omitted in this way, you could say that what really makes 11 sentence into a question in colloquial speech is the rising intonation" In fact, without ihat riaing.intonation, even I.ISing ka does 1'101 make a true question-only a rhetorical one. ln the examples .on this page, the intonation would be flat or falling on the last syllable. The implied answer to the rhetorical question depends on the context.

e Tna. man WMocSime ,in ftqh1 Shevellng ShOW iii fig. 11

! has warmed up, H~. h$$ had. din nsr anq' takel1 a, bath 1 and is now readt: for hed.

~ { a


Sal'. ner« ~

(:1I11'elj.) ~leep/gQ to sleep (7)

'!We]llhen. shaIJ I go to sleep? [Yes 1 shall . .l" ~~WeU then] think Pll get to bed.' CPU)





;; • smq or slUe is all int rjecl:ion used when the speaker is about to do ~ something, like "well now/welllhel1.'·

~ • the polite fbnn of mltu ("go to sleeplbecl") i~, nemas»;

!" • when the hnplied answer 10' the rhetorical question is ,u:lllrm.urivc, as here, lt's essentially Like silying "Is it -? Yes, it certainly is ........ (ln the case of nouns rod adjecriv s), or "WillJsbaU I -7 Yes, I oerrainly will/shall ........ (in the case r)~ a verb),

~. Sayu asks one of his cow(:)rl(ers ~o look • at a growth on his face, and then wants 10 know this:

SUlyfi: L...oQ'l Shlrml die?'

-wnn die'lu (PL2)

Coworker: L-1iG. I '/J} ":! 'I

Shiml kn!

tlie 0)

"WilI, you die? [Hardlyl]" "Oo.n t be r'idicul()lIs!?~ (PL2)

• the poJil0 fOl'm o( ,~/u:nu ("(lie") is ,#lil!li1'l'l,{ISll. Note l'hUl SayO'fl question is a genuine qU~!:ItiClll, indlcnted by hi~ inl!!lI,1~1Holl even though 110 does not use k«.

• the cowerker'aquestlon is rhetorical; when 111:. implied answer to II. rhetorical question ill negative. mi hero, il is os, entlally lik· saying "Is ii/Will you ....... " Hardly'!" ....... "Don't b ridiculous/Glve me u break!"

• th sum!] WI after ka indicate' that the coworker say il very Illmrply/foroefulJy.

; •• A,t the cash register, this man asked the clerk to sean

l hls oomb'Qvljlr with the handheld barGode s6anner.



Chin Blocp

Man: 10Fg ~J~'''I '. a-en ka.:

10 ( )

i "Ten yen, huh?" (PL2)

f · 11 Is the symbn] f()r Ihe Japanese mQIII Lary unit, "yen," In recent

.. years, 10 has b 'en 1'c>uShly cqivalcn:l to a dim ,

~ • her' the ka makes n rhetorical ta quesilcn. ' 0 it's ....... is it?'·.As in this case, the form is often used to eXpre!l5 disnppointmel1t-lhough

: it can ulso 'be II more neutral .re~pom-e to (or acknowledgement of) whatever the speaker has learned.

10 F.I fJ~

• •

28 LES50N4

A colloquial variant: fp~. \ .. kai

In colloquial speech, kai is sometimes used instead of Ita to' mark a question, Most cemmenly it has a softer, friendlier feeling than the abrupt ka, but the right tone of voice in a contentious situation can make .it even more forceful than lea.

Shop'keeper: rI'5

K"IU /tail

buy (?')

"Will you buy it?'"

"'Wa1l!H3 buY it?" (PL2)

Kusuke: jt? ?


huh?/wha.L'? '~HI1h?" (PL2)

• the polit(: fonn of imu ("buy") is ka;mf1$Il ..

• a short e? spoken wirh the cis,ins. i'n,loflllli.OID of 11 question ell,pl'e:ss~s mind surprise, Hk.e "Huh?/What?/Oh1" l~ '5 abo used when you're not !'lure you heard clearly.

Quesllo.nswilh 1J\tJ, ka na

The particle combination ka na impHes something of a, guess. Aftel!' a noon or adjecti.vcHype sentence, ir's like "ls he/shetH perhaps """'1''' or "E wonder if he/she/it ~s """"," Aitel'a verb-type sentence it's like "Does/will be perhaps [do the actlon]?" or "I wonder if he [does/will do the actienl?" This usage can, be considered mostly informal and somewhat masculine (fig. 52 shows the feminine equivalent), In polite speech, guesses tend ['0 be expressed in 'Other ways.

III, K5sUke W.8. ke~ up with a [eadie'n feeling in his head ~ aM sneezes w,tlen he looks aut tlte window. Lying .. ba6K (Sown on the Ullatnl (~h9 tradi1icn:lil JagaMse floor r cuverlng of thJel<, firm s1raw mats c:ovi3r:ed wltn a wayan ~ rush facing), he wonders if rre's coming down with a 'Cold, ,




.;" ..




• Jr-aze refers only to rbe kind of cold yQLI catch, $cl.fl'mi means ii

"cold" when lalking about weathe r!eI urH:I!:e/amblclJI' 'l!smperu.'lure and how you might feel all over (fig. 11); 1,Sumel(Jf 111Iean.s "cold" whe:nt talking about drinks, foad, .'Iom~111ing Gold 00 the touch, or how n parliculaf pari. of )'O'l.If body (!lantis, feet, ete.) feels,

• there lsatao <I hOlTIoP;Y1n kase lha~ means "wind' (fig, 317), but the comext tells us that'!! not the milanlng here.

GltZU gUIlt

(effect of feeling stuffed up/groggy)

Questi~ons with "/Jl (..,; kashira


Women ean use ka na informallyand when alone, but if they want to sound.femiaine, they use kashira instead. Like ka. na; this Rarti.ole can be used with polireforms, but it's, raostly .mormru,; m polite speech, other forms tend to be used to suggest a guess or uncertainty.

HirokQ: 1L '"'J Tatsu

'. the polite fi;l;rm of tats» is tacbi1nasu. Tats.u. ka? (PIL2, masculine). T(ltst~? (PL2) and Tachimasu k!)? {PL3) simply aSk, "Will it standT"Ull]ng kashir« makes it HI wonder if it will stand?' ; the masculine equivalent of this PL2 question is Tatsu ka na?

ummary: Sim:ple quest'ions

quick-reference, here are some model questions showing how ka lea na and kashira (the er two imply an element of guesswork) 'are added to each. of the three types of seerences,

verb-type question

adjective-type question

noun-type question

v~ < i;).?l

lk-u ka?

:fi 'i! ~ "t 7:p. ']2

Ikimasu ka?

wil1go (?)

"'Will you go?"

jf1t~ iJ,J?l

Tai ka?

C S li~ -r:T "'/J)'j2

T6i ka?

is far/distant (1)

"Is it far?"

it, t: '1J'>. 71

Kuji 1m?

9<. *- -e9 i)l 't~ Kaji de:su Ia:i? fire is el) His it a [ae'?"

1 In PL2 speech, female speak em would normallv omit ilea afld~xprlls:s the question by lntornatiol1 alone ..

~ In PLq 5psBG'h. k~ can be omitted 0nly lor verbAypa questions, dOing So is mostly fermimifle.

t: j;)'4 !t,) Ttiktli

ip·tJ.? ka ntl?

*;,:" iJ~·tJ.?

Kim, kq na?

<~ tpL~?

Kuru kashira?

witi come 1 wonder if "'I'wonder if she'll

come!l'~ .

rl§J It l 75'" uS ?

Tnk;ai kashira?

is' expensive 1 wonder if

"I won~er if"tb:ey're expensive?"



jj'\iJ.1 kan~?

note on the question mark: Since ka erves quite well all by itself to indicate questions,

apanese writers did not traditionally feel the need for a separate question mark symbol. In recent times, though.manga artists and oilier writers have found the familiar "7" imported from West handy when writing coJloqui:aldialogue in Which qaestions are assed "W'ithout /ca" and y append it even when ka is used. For the sake of consistency and as an aid [0 the Ieamer, transcriptions in this book include question marks for all true questions.

~lNC:? 7J~l,.,b?

HOlUb kushira?

1ruth J wnnder if it is

"I wonder if it's




C<aution: Falling objects

Here's a complete strip from the, fo.ur"friflll1:e, g~ f\lsnga ~ series Ojama' Shimasu (UPardC1ln the Intr'tsian" ,

W FX: I~ ';J

Do! Zoom

Worker: 3;";\:7J: ~J t A.bunail

is dangerous

"(('s dangerous!" "Look outl" (P:l2)

• do'! represents the ,effect of something h'4rgc/hcavy moving rapidly .

• abuna! is an adjective meaning "dartgerolis/perUO'"uil.' When spoken as an exclamation directed at another person, it's .equlvalent to "Watch nut!" It can also be used as a baJf-,spoken lCxc:lllll1lm.tiqn when you .catch yourself on the verge of fin accident ()T mistake C!Q()ps!/Oh no!1 Yikes!") or having barely escaped one ("lhat was close!" ,



xzt> ZllBon Klonggg

m1J:: f±m

Zujo CMi

overhead caution

Watch out overhead Caution: F'aJling objects


Worker: .td,~)?! *:t,;J:!: "/J? '?!

Oil DaldtJ{)u ko?!

(1tnterj.) all rig111/snfe (1)

"Hey! Are you all rigid,'?" (PL2)

Sign: ~J: 1:t:l:

zuje; Chai

overhead caULil)J1

Cautio~n: Falling objects

.' oil is an abrupt/tough "Hey!" or "Yo!"for geUing someone's Il.ltention. '0 dol/obu means "all right/okay' in the sense of "safe I.Ind secure/no cause for concern," Using it as It C1Licstion implies there is cause for COIlC@Tn; "I.~ it ull right/safe?" or "Al'C; you all right?" Bul don't gel the idea. you can use daijObuanYI'ime you'd say "all ri~h.l/(}kay'" in En8;]i~h. The word is not used 1,0 xp(e~1i willingness ("Okay, I'll do W'), nor when beginning en.action ("AU right, here goes"), nor !IS an exclamatory i'AII rightl" whom you win (he lottery or llit II: borne run. {,~ee fig. 140 rer what you would exclaim instead).

Sign: ~J: ~;§:

Zi.JiO . Ch!1i

overhead caution

Caution: Falli.lg objects


The 'pl"QPtietol' s~ys c}(aclly the same th,ll1g in bQJ:h Qnbe hove extlll1ple~, but in the first, case he 'is statIng whether .omething ~x:ists ar all, while in the second he is 'Stating vherher sQm~thing exists in his pas¥ssion/proximlty. Be-

Saekd earns rUnlil:ftg ,to te" Natsuko fnat bQf:trce (trap 15 $lartlng to form ea~sof grain.

Sound FX:

/\ l' /\ '1: }\'Y,j\ '7 IHi lid Ira hri

(.eFFect or bre~tbing hard)

. (/), Jil·r·el\l, r~l?l*fl

.1.110, N "ts'ikv~$afl Ua.w.l'U? J

(il1[fjl"i.) (mul'l -poi.) L:itlliis/is 1lr'0~CI11

~ttrro, ~s Miss Natsuko here? ; (PL3)


• (1110 onwrl is tl wrtm1.UI[l(he$LL~1I1()11 word similar [0 "uhh/L1Il'l."

• »i l\lal'l,<s the ~}ucdof f;\'xiSl:@n¢~il1 !hi ':case.the pl;u;e whe~e be's asking wheth r Ilnm~hi-j1g lbus1.S .

• for using rro to Ds.k.'ah InfoMul qtlclltion,'lictl ~SStlll8,

< 1-

cause he is talking about bevcnlges, which are inanif.fla', he uses arlnY1S[f: he carulof'Us imasu. TheJoJi9wiltg e ~ ample. on lhe'Olher hand. requilr1es t,ru or imasu because Saeko js asking about" the presence of a person,

Lesson 5

DOling Things withT~ Suru

You could caH 9" i5 suru the single most importan; verb in Japanese. It's one of just two irregular verbs: and its polite form is shimosu. The word basically means "de," but jt is used in countless special expressions and two-word verb cam binations where j t often corresponds, more closely to English words like "occur," "make," "have," "fee],." "go," "change," and stillothers,

SUI'U can be. added to many nouns to turn them. into verbs" commonly referred to as snra verbs, Most often, the word is added to a noun that refers to an. action or activity. and it creates a verb meaning lIdo that action/activity"; sometimes itean be added to other kinds ofnouns, in which case the meaning becomes "do the action associated with that noun." For example, dO'robtJ is a noun that can mean. either "thief" or "thievery," so dorob« suru makes the verb for "steal"; kakeoc.'hi means "elopement," so lcakeochi suru is "elope"; ami tenisu. is the Japanese rendedDg, of English "tennis," SQ' tenis« suru means "play tennis."

• the standard! Japanese cet sounds are <lUyii and l1yan. but them are m~j'y variations based 011 them. The manga What's Mfchflle/ ls particularly creative in irs vatiatloes,

.' uiltho i~ ~[ fi,Ollr.l for "Can) arrest," and sWW!tMfi1J1,fll! il a verb, ·"atrest/apprehend!tru..c into police custody," When u Japanese law officer says Tuillo sun: 10 the person he's arresting, it's essentially equivalent to an American law orf,ic.ei' declaring, "You're under !II1'esr."


Michael: " -"\" '::"\+' .::,. ,'Y

U,,~ya Iwa Ilr}la! f

''Meow·yow"yI)W.H ~

FX: 'tf', Sal

(effect of qulck, ~gUe mcvem ent)

Man: Ui3~-:;.!

Muo! '"l1rggghhh.';

FX: I~ ':J 'Ba)

(effecl of sudden, vigor- 01:1S action)

Woman: e: ~ ~i£~ 1,1 Do'tob6.1 ~"Tltie'I'II" (PL2)

Policeman: llif:. fIT} 9 ~:m l.tmho .WJ;Jll

lll'l"CS[ do/make I~I arrest. you!"

HYou're under' arrest]" (PL2)

Man: 0.':) I Nil r~AiiiP'

The Chinese oonnection


Hi storically, a great many of the nouns that could become sum verbs were loanwords adopted from Chines". When turned into verbs, the noun part is usually written in kanji-the oTiginaJ Chinese characters-c-aud the appropriate form of suru (non-past, past, negative? etc.) is added in hiragana, (Today. most new loanwords come from languages other than Chlneset see fig. 64.)

g .,.In 1'~26r·whe.f:tflttha,Kiku.ets<YOl;tngfatherdl~s;,;tha,Saek! f~mily : ... pa,tnaroh de~ld~:S to~eRt:l'1h""glW:$, mother. Moe, l:Ja'aKto'.he(parf !\l~ts' horns sD'they can arrange a n~w tnarri~e for,h:e ; KIRue slayswitfl ~ thlirSaekis, howeVer,Ai:t,be rais.eo oy he! Unc.le ar:la Mrs wifEkKikue ~t first .ll. does not take to her neW mother,. Natsu (9~andmo~her9.f Nat~ukQ. s~en 3 In fig~ -. 23','29, and Q-lhers) "but,I.;Vhen they finally taecome klends, Klkue ~ wants Na:tS,p: to prolll'ise none:) 1st her·forgef her rial m!?1h~r,

:N'atsu: ~-9* L." ~ g- 0

Ya./(usoku .\·himcMM.

'promise do/make

1'1 promise," (PL3)

• 'Ytlkusoku is u noun meaning "promise,' so yakusoku $wru can b thought ot'

Literally as "make" promise" '(to promise." The subject "I" iis understood.

A useful expression: Shitsurel shimasu

hir.surei is written with two kanji meaning "lose" and • politeness/rnanners," creating a noun (hal m ansrrudecess'' OJ" "a lapse in manners. ... Adding a form of suru turns it into a verb rha IHerllllly moans 'commit D! rudeness." The PL3 form; Shitslirei shimasu, serves as a polite "Excuse me' when entering someoue's office, walking in front of someone. or otherwis intruding on their space: in informal situation or when speaking from a position of rank, the PL2 equivalent for this purpo is a plain Shitsurei, without sum, The polite Shitsurei shimasu is also used when taking leave of someone, especially a superior, as well as to say good-bye on the phone; in less formal 'situations or when speaking from a position of rank, the PL2 Slliumre; .wru or a plain Shit'uud can serve as a more abrupt "Excuse me/l'rn leaving!G(') d-bye."

.... ~he ~~ad of KaIi RY,Osuke's election committee Is viSiting KaJi tcr the first .. time I n his ,new digs In the HOUSEl €If Representatives Office Bulidl n.g. Kall's secretary E;lnt'8:~s with tea.


*=*L 1_,,~-9@

Sbttsure: sMmasu.

rudeness will do/c;ol'rll:ni~

"'Excuse me," (Pl.3)

• in ltuatlons like Ihi~, the exprea ion means "Bxcuse me for 'illitTuding •. " and it'll used for politeness even when one has specifioally been summoned.

• The angry client in fig. 4 spits out his good~bye;

Client: ~*L

SIIitsurei surutt

rudeness will do/commit

"You·U have to excuse me!" cPL2)


The PL3, past form of: suru

You lye j ust een in figs. 58 and 59 that the PL3 form of sum is shimasu; which tells you that th polite past {om of suru bas te be shimashi~a (review Lesson 3 if you don't remember why). I also tells you that the past form of every s.uru verb has to he something shim:ashita. so the past 0 shitsurei suru is shitsurel shimashita.

The polite, past Shitsurei shimashita serves as a broadly appl icable apology for anything you have done wrong or that might have caused otfense-i-burping/sneezing, creating a disturbance, misunderstanding a re,quest/ordet/situatio.l1, mistaking eomeone'sidentity, and SQ forth ln mformal situations or when speaking from a po:s1t],Qrt 0f tank, a pl~jn,,).S'hits,urei can serve the same purpose.

Yamada: ;R:;;:L


Shitsul'ei shimashila Sake -hakasel!

rudeness did wine/spirlts professor/d.oolo[

"1 have done. you a rudeness, PJOfe:ss.0T Drink!" "My apologies}, Dr. Drink!" (FL3)

T :


• selke call refer spepwcally to the riQe wine for which Japan is famous, or more generically to all varieties of "alcoholic beverage."

• tiakase (or flak,uShi~bol:h pronuuciations are.used) of{kiaLLy- refers to anyone with a doctoral degree, but,it's sometimes used ptayfulty wil.b people who rnlght be.termed "walking encyelo_pedilts'" in English.

The PL3 negative 'forms of sum

If the PL3 form of suru is shimasu, then you also 'know immediately that its PL3 negative fo is shimasen and the PL3 negative-past form 'is shimasen deshita.

Natsuko: t, '5 mum

Ma muri

[low/already overexertlon won't do

"I won't overexert myself-.any longer."

UI won't posh so hard anymore," (PL3)

• rna canmean either "more" or "now/already" when follewed by a regUe lar verb (see figs. 14-75) bUL when followed by a negative it irnpli "no longer ""/not ....... anymore,"

• mun, written with kanji that literally mean "without reascrmer reason-

able" is a noun referring to something thatis iraposslble-e-cr that is a.1 least beyond wha:ton.e can expect reasonably to 'do/aocomplish. Mlln shimasen is the Pi_] negative form of the 'Verb muri ,yU1'U, which essentiaJ1y means to cverexer; oneself or pu II oneself too hard ettempting the impossible.

The PL3 '~.Iet's/l'n/I think I'U ........ ', f'(nm of suru


Completing thrs mini-review of the polite verb forms introduced in Lesson 3, the PL3 "let's/l 11 ~ ~ form of Guru! 'skimasu is shimLtsho. By itself, shimasho implies "let's DO" or "I will/I shall/I think I~11 do" the-diction that we've been talking about (or that is otherwise uaderstecd from the conte-xt) .. When combined with .a noun to makea sum verb, it implies "let's doll think I'll do" the actron indicated by .or assoeiated with that noun.

Yamamoto: 1IWm MUJ;l!i ignoring/dIsregarding let's do '-Let's-ignore him;' (PL3)

• mt,t~hi~ written, with kanji meaning "without a look/not tooking, U .is a noun referring to the act ofignorlng/disregarding/pa~ing nc attenriouto someI:hing, but ir more often occurs in irs verb form lnustri SU"Flt ("ignore/disregard").

Some more suns verbs

Here are several more surf:t verbs. III each case, the PL3 form follows below 'the PL2 fonn; and the first line of translation gives-an equivalent English noun + "do, • the second gives the corresponding English verb or verb phrase, and the last treats it as a single verb sentence with aE1 arbitrarily.chosen subject. (Although these sur« 'Verbs are almost ~w-ays wrltten with kanji,

orne are provided in kana here for kana practice.)

-« /v 1t: J;. '5 -g~e ~~ T~~ '"5 NT. Iv 9-'l5 D ~~ 't~~
Blmkyo suru. Ktmsha SUf/J" Utiten suru. Denwa SI1l:U_
5tll~' L~To 7JlJv v~ L, 1!'9 Q Jm,~ 1..- *9. "C'Ju:b l-~To,
Bel'lkyo shimasu. Kanslfa 'Sflim4S:u. rTnten .\'1I1ItU'.lsu. Dlmowa shlmasu.
sl:lldywg: do gratitud~ do driviug do te~ephoJle do,
"study" 'be gratefu I " "drive'' "make a phone call"
'We will study." '''I amgrateful, P "He will drive'." "Lwill call." Manyregular Japanese verbs: have suru-verb counterparts-cthough the exact range of meaning can be somewhat different, so you can't consider them interchangeable, For example. both taber« and &hokuji suru correspond to Heat" if you're talking about eating a.meal, but you can't use the latter if you're only talking about a snack or about eating some particularitem ina meal. Also, the suru verb generally sounds more formal than its regular verb courrterpart, and this can make it more likely to occur in writing than in speech. Here are some suru verbs that can be considered synonyms for verbs you've seen before.

'k..« if;; Itaberuleat GJ:<C' 9,0.

Shokl4ji sum ..

d5 ~/aru/exisU"

~itJ/tanQmli/request ~~G"'~ g~"

Irai S(lI"U .



1\. G£g"


meal do

"eat ,:1 meal" "I win eat."

.:c Iu ~fv~ L- *'1"0

Somai skimasu.

existenee do


"It exists."

fftjJi L- ~ '9 •

Irai shimasu.

request do


'He will request it/'

:il '5/kali{buy

.7\ "t~"

Konyti. sum,

;: '5 ~:: I¢I -J L- * g'.

K61lyij shimasu.

purchase do

"make a purchase" ~'1 will buy it. '


The Euro.peanl and 'English connectio'n,

Beginnmg in themid- to late-oineteemb century, a flood of new loanwords carne in from the European languages and English, and most cftheseare wrlttea in karakana, For nouns used a: sum verbs. the foreign part is written in katakana and suru is written in hiragana, .

• I~ .the ,gag S,triP .Ojama Shi'!lS,$u,,' a man and his dog a:r~ praetieing kara.te. rna man decides he has, one 100 many·tJles.

Man.: J;I&. r:ri/"i!;"- I.. .,.. •

Jcllimaf I .r~l'a:umfo sW'u U,a,

I count pro.renl 0 ma e (colloq.)

"I'Ilrnake you a present of one tile. ,.,

~'m'u gi\'€ ene oHbese to you. (PL2)

SFX: i:J7"-"t' Koelle

Chu:k '(floun.d of HIe hitting tile)

Watch out for' falsefiriends

4 iclli- means "one," and -mal is 01 CQl,IIleer sulfi,x used when counting objcds thai are nal. Yeu'llleam more aboutceunter suffixes in 61.c next lessen.

• purereruo is: tl! katllknna. rendering of the &gl1shword "present," and adding SW'Il makes it a. verb for "give a pfesemjgift."

~. na is the mostly masculine celloquial particle ua, which expects the listener to agree/approve. Using katakana to write this particle is a way of addling light cmphrulis.



[f)"Whi mlp'er'"



Words borrowed From English may seem famiHru: to you at a glance, but watch outl The Japanese rneanlng of a. word can bequite differen! from the meanin.g you associate with it 0]' the wor-d may be used for only 0.116· of several. l1I1e(ilninB;s you are accuatomed to using it for-s-and tlID is true orin Ioanwords, not just SU1'U verbs. Be sure to pay attention to exactly how each word is used in Japanese. as well as jl:$ Japanese pronunciation-which can also be quite differeEl't from the original pronunciatien, Here area Few more English-derived words to give a taste of whal you'Il encounter,

kana romaji E.nglish
~l/11"¢ pure! sum play -)
:l ~-TQ kbpli suru cop}' -~
171'799 {aipu suru type .......
"!.t1' /lt~ sain sW·(J sign -+
j..:c"tQ memo suru memo
tJ /=/~T¢ Kmmillgu sum ClIIfl11lillg -+
:t-:f)-T.Q OPlU1 sum open .......
:t'~/'\~-r Q oM MU'Ii over -)
7 y :1't~ appu sur« up -
«» /-~~~ daun sur« down -+
ti"-1:: A 1t.Q sabisu suru service -+ meaning(s)in Japanese play sports

make a photocopy

type OJ] a ty.pewri:ler!computer

sign a dOCllltlent!autognlJph; (oaly in sports) give a hand signal

makea note/write sOIl'Ielhing down cheat on an exam

launch a new busi.ness/branch/sbop; open shop for the day

go over the limit/exceed

go up/rise

go down/declinezbecome depressed siv,ea special discolllnt/de,al;rhrow in for free; do something special for someone

Special expressions with suru


Sum appears in many common expressions, For example, a noun follewed by the pattern rti suru means "make 'it linto] ~" when speakh:]g of changing something from an old state/use 'to a new state/use. The same pattern is used to express a choice, esseneianv implying "I'll make my choice , .. _-}, -'~I'nchOQse ...._, .,"

Making humble verbs

Shin~chan: C ~, EE;ij''_

Ja. kegQ,tli

in tl1al Cil~e/Uleli hair crab will Tnake it

"In that case, 1'[.n make it a hair'crab." "Then Pll be. a, hair crab. U (PL2)

• ja is a connecting word meaning "in that case/then."

io litegoflj' js:.n c>dmbmatiol) of ke C'hair") and kant ("cri:ib"); in oenrbinatiens, the'k ill kcmi changes to g for eUiphony .

• ni i!) one of the mOst versatile "phrase partieh~s~'-par!icles that mark the fllnoLion'Qfwordll nnd phrases witi1msenteiiccs: One use 18 'to mark the endl'oil1tor result of !U1 action-in this case, the result of a choice. You'U learn more about ni and other phrase particles as they ceme up. as well as in Lesson 13'.

SUfU also plays an important role ill honorific language, (PL4) , which includes a wayof turni ng many regula» verbs into humble verbs. When'Speaki,ng to superior in a formal situation, you use humble verbs to refer to your own astions and exa1ting verbs to refer to yOW' listener's. (The sidebar on the next two pages tells you a little more about l10110ritiC language.)

The humble form of a ,o;,;erb is made 'up of an honorific 'Ii!reth fJ- followed by the verb's pre~ masu Ste~11; plus Sl~"'U 0f'shimd.8u (or the past, negative; or other form, of suru as called for by the context). Unfortunately, this doesn't work Withjllst any verb, so you can't begin transforl11ing verbs at random. But: once you 've learned to recognize the form, you can begin payiug attcruion

10 which verbs it does work with. .

r _' The day ;afte~Sh.' irna handl~sa .. ~ llnus~alstocRtrade fpr t r l:-IaliU~thlb~. 'CllTe:c10. Usqml, t~e n.ews" at napn r~~rt'$ ~ tha ~t$cusl:l~6:a C. fIirman Y:o~hifiarer bas died e!f~ h~.a;r~ atf_ ta!ii)~, Sfflehlrig,a rat, S.tllma Mas a trusted privatiH~Y:S (nen,d ih~ vesti'~ata and confirms that h~ n'as, unwitiinSIY'particlpa.ted i'n - an il:ls~er trading'schen!.ije that brought tJ~mj 3 QfOfilot *50 I mlllloD. WheOL)$arni !1!.n:d'shim~$ own ~t:lp$ttment~ead FL:l~U~ da sum,moo l'lim td glye him j'hlsshare" oft~,El pmfi1s. Shima is ~ IPrep~rsd with a s~lft answe.r, Usamk and· ~ukuQa are du mb~ founded, ',' .


Shima: ;td r1»T I:) L" "£ "t 0

O· kotowari sMmasu .

.(hon,)- n::dfusQ/dcclin0. Own.) "[decliine.') (PL4)

.' 0- Is un honorific preij'K, kOiowari is the pl'e~ma.l'l~ form of the verb ko,towol'tJ.,lkotowarimasu C'refuse/de.,"j. and shima.s.1l. is the polite 'form O'f SW'l!, Since thismakas tile humble form of kalow,/ri{;, you CM think of it lheeallyaa "I decline," but humble forras are used much more widely in Japanese than'sueh locutions 'are in BlJglish.

US31ini & Fukuda


H'onorific speeCh

one w~ to hunor er sbaw $peeial po liteness to someone j& to place honorific prefix,ea betol;'e(J1Quns ~frefell' ttl lhlngs ,Ilelonaing to or associeted with LhU:l person. M6~1. Words ,t!f0 the prefi~ 13~ 0-, m:J,n~ Qtbers'I;URe ~- 8tJ- and a lew take ;tj;- ri'lf:", The flrefixes' arc usually writien in hiragana todaYj bul when th~y ure written In kanji, the ~flm$ kanji is ~hseQ fpr all ~htee: 'fd'~, AS!l rule, I he three are DOl inL{;m;;hang:ea\1lc,; only e perienc~ will tet4 yQU which should bk; ~f.!e'(I (Or how, ~~ ne,er:!s to be rea~I'~ with apartlcu,l{ll' word, Al$.c. SOme, words C1J.I ~H.)mtLri Iy get '3 prefix r~gardl6s~ of >the pollt~m\;:g.s le--vtQ, While others never get one; agah1, Qftly ¢x]Jel'lcnce can tell you y;.rhich :wrQrd~ liaJ I into lh.~se categories. (Even though they're called "hcneri fi(.;,," 0- and $.10> are ~IIS(ll \lsed in humble fotrtUi! As seen iH, tlg~. 66 and (59, and lin eertuln COl!' ventlonal expD:~~si('ln::; or fbrWll hes of paJititnuss at aU luvcJs of speech),

AnOlhel' Mlt1Y to hu n 01' someone j,s to usc honorific, '()rt!X~t1(intt~ verbs wh.en rcf'ort'ing to.thut person's at:lilms, With some or the most commorl verb~; an enlIrely new V';)'rh can be su bstituted for tho rl:g~11ar verb, For example •• 'Itltu/shi· U1frSIJ eldo"~ becomes I:1{J,S,{II'U/1UISl:li· m'fJSlt: IkIJ./.ikiNI(MU C'go'~)! kwu.!kinlaJJ'u' {"CQ'Tl'Ie"), ltnd IPl(lim(~,~'f.I C'exi!>:ts",[lOf. people and ~)ther animate Lhlngs) all hecome i"(J.,\'~'h~ J'u/il'tlsb~'halm~Nn:alid hi/' it'l7!fJ.\'t~, C·61ay") bOC(~rnCfi' (J,I{.!1i1'4iW/(J,,\'shai· 'm'l,P!. For most verb!), th()u!,l;h~ hont;niH~ equlVUlen(s art) formed by, altering, the usual verb. For example, klrtWi'tdkifll~'~ 17t(i(~tl ("de:t.:icle"') bct.:om,e$ kfmfll'(Jrt'ml ki'f}1(Wcr.I·ttIJU1~'t' or o·f,'lttIB ni mmdntlri~ fII(}','fH~ kafJ}'ulkallfin'f(Jstt C'go home") becomes'(~}'N1f1(;Nm or (i· ni ,zar!ltlf(f;I'inl:a-,~'u.. 0'1' y~( agaln o~ /a~efli dfJ,ldt::'ill. Nfile t'hat even (hough these Words all hclon,g. to an inhe.rently highCt h:vcl of peliteneas, each of them stil] has both ::I 11:>1'J1'1 and U P01.ilj.! -masu form.

0' ,,~a~'U i.~1,iletutl:y )'lUl!l-Il/v lsi- .

tor/ ,anti IS ;iJ:sOIol~ d for (',Il"~ l!. toroe.r;.;JCnent!> ~'ir a bu~inel:l~ III :When dlreSfly ~lddres:sing 'custdihcr. tllC hQnorific Pl'l:lifl.7i €I" a'n'l11h~ pqJjie :iuff!)/. .;,VQ'. <'·'MJ',/MIl..'\5 iii Hlwfl)"s used

even in Jess polite speech, ."

'. normre m'0an,~ '~11am~,'l and slrrec he is asking for tim nam ' Qf'UIC P{;)'PlO!l he is ad~(eS8i!ig ho adds tim ,p'1'sfix D, to honehhn, HI! Woul<;l'llt!¥cr usc {,·in .spll:;t'kin~ Ijf hi~ OWllIlIDIiO'.

• WO ('~a:g for") here ~r~u,tes ..

shorthand .fur '~A:s :fO.l1 you Maille. what is h't' ~ou'lr103m Jlbplll th ill particle it!, Lesson 11.

The boss ~ndurQs Ii' bone"chllling waJkto the station, a hot and crowded ~~_ commuter train rIde, and another card waJk from station to oitles, Then he finds thFj offloe ovarheafed Wh$n he ~rrlves,


• y~rt'y~,~,'c il> !Jl. ¥c.rbal (z.od 5ig;h of (l1!igl1(~ .• ~,x~tliperatl()l1, or I'C- , lilif~h!Zrc (1l;ol1ib'il1flt>j~n 0 the fhlSt two,

- j t 1- b i" I \

• //10 1M Ell lIC'Vcr mean 11g, II· ,

1~Q.dy. >t' '~e LySS<'!!l fl,

• t,\,ujMlI'(!j~ 'Lh(!prC~r!Jl18!.' Iorm ? of Ihc velL; t,"[lkCiI'(+lfllit,\'uka,rt- j' masn ("bqcom~ lkcd/wOTll out'), and Q- is an huqt.1l-ifk p~ufik_ She UIi~S m~ hlJnorif~t fol'l'i'J, becl.I.l1il.12 stu:: I~ ,spe!1kin~ 10"b¢r SUPOl'l!!Jl' and ~'er~rrii1g 1(1 Ills s[~I'~I!iel'ion, F~,r Ilii,S verb o,./~wk(J,1'(,· )11 mlnt! il(~rjrtiQ,~u i" lhc Iwnurifjc form ft,11' "be<lorn!; IjN~tl;<' whHo (J.r.\'Mkor, d,.ldl'.\'I,i,rnpliel'l "h"~/h~v't!' !:HlWJl Ilred", 1J1- "i~hlfq warn 0\11,'" Adding .Itt', I'1J df.s,~ nmkes

II Ih~ ~IU~~lr'II1,' "Ar~ y~1l1 worn OHf?"

Suund J"X: -r-»

tJ /i/l ,

Whi"rr (hum or heater fl!lI1)

nOs1f rl' II' tJ: 0 ~n ~~1.0"

Msui na, YI'l1'llIycrre,

Is hul (cOBII'!.[.) (ilt~h)

~·n sure is hot. BQY oh boy," (PL2)

ot .. ; :t "5 ; -rTI iJ~, llm:lH

Mil d-"su' d'1?~'rJ ka.Rrrcllll?

Illrcady (h!.Hl'J.f(lliguc E/"re .('J) to:~I.'II('lli cljl~r

·'Are. au worn out alr(~ad)(~ Sir?~' (fL4)




• sot$um,d is a rt~l1I'l m~utlhlg "ex pl9.l).a~lM .'fand it can b~ mncl'€, into till! »uru

V":erl1 ~'f·J.\·uflU!i SI~!'11 (Jillltally."'x;lClI;l.I1 e~mi\~I!l:lI(lli" -li+:'''t,'l''\.plah'l~~ ,

• itaJ'IiIJitQ,\'hirnc!"(i/¥ i s 11. humble equlv,alent of suru: se ,,'e"~'/;/ml!" iu,uhimnSlI 15 eX!\!!U~rthe ~l\Irte m~~ming as ,WI.(.\'umei"rtitf;l-f)nly ntQr4.polirl3!.

• in tbi~~II.s{:l1uddin& tbe ~LOJJorij'ic J'i'sjlj'jl go- is nprlonal, rhollgh it wmIla usuiJIlly b~ Irl!:;h.1d(ldi tl1.C: klVGl pr p(mtefle~s i$ sligh,ly tligher wjlh (llhan WJLO'out.


The head clerk; at'the :SaaKi Rrewerr ~r"I6WerS the ph.MIiI,

Plead Uliw\t:

~~ It , , 1{i is rl;(U~i

flul, ${.t.!ki SMleN

y~~/h0tIG SlIllki ~l\)n::/brGwery

l-r x: ~f\t~ ~ -y-~ I tJl' W)zt#OI(),\·t~.

J~ ," "

loRello. This is the Saeki Brewery}' (PL4)

• in, it~ JHlrrQW definition. shlilen refers to a 1!ij(tliJ bmlnl;ts~ sclHng ~l:'i.(:rch:ll,u.iil>e in u ~lorClfl'(m(~ bUI the t~I'ITJ. is also used ~ a ,genoric label, 'for OIOlQM an..~ Ji.inu 'oj" KUlal1 bUI-li.lH:iS!i. In I~Lis case Ihl)'htl~illes!l j~ l,j ,\lltke hr~W0IY.

'. {Jii a{)~l.dJ1tu,~"~ it> II 11l11'Obio cq lJivl;llont of I((!SJI (»ii~/:IJ'c"), Tuke cnre 1:(n:li~tina.lli'!lI. 11 fl'Om plilin ~t.J ... ailllf,/SU (fig. 70), whLcl1 is (lq),jj~ulcI11 to crra(til'illIaSI!.

Ona hi,g'ht a h6wte:qstb~~ , com$s~lr"lto the boSlr L~mon Hart and a§ks t~ro~rjetor jf he has PlattsVaJley corn W~isk$y.

~ e1)tahl~'a~'iI is,~ \'IuniblIJ eql.i~vtil,an I ul' aruiarimasa C"exhH/be iu a pillcl' ~Ol' in!l,)lllmatl1l ~hinBS~.

Formal speech

The \:Vord~l in Ihls calegor~ neither humble the speake( nor exalt anyone else', Rather, theyrepresent a more gener~lquulhy of po1itl!lnlt1ss,fol'mnlily. and tefincment. 'fhe tie,£uRlld -mast: [!)rms l~~l1 chafacmrize pL3 speech are aCli,Hllly part of {l'tis Qal~gpry'" but OiL variety of other ,s'Ub~tituOoO.1j ()C:CI.IT' '11 the P.l4 J,~ve1. For eX:a01'ple. (J{lliql'im(J,w (··ex~ i~tti/be in ~ p.lac~" for ina,nil11ate things). beeornes aiQ'la"l,IhJ()Zi:Jinu.'I.'i/L~, f(j~ben~ (':'eul'l), becomes ;ui(ia~ ktt/1t'ati&kjl'fraSu.;aesa l;ecomes, 4(' g(ral'l.{}eie ~/)z,r,d~ nU;tm, and the ~\djectjvc ii/yo; ("gMdlflne/01("; see fig. 76 note OJ'!. yo!i:u) bcc:'Of"i1CS ji(),I·(Jshi,i (d(!.'~l~),

·Addlti~nql notes

U's useful to know I hat an hOnl)rific or hUl'nble yetb often pr0v1t1~~, It!'! OWl.} subject. in el'feel. If ill conversarion bt3tweelt tw® poop,le IS only ~l,b()lIllI1e t,,,¥O people present, the.I' ill I hOI1~.,tirie varbR rnus] relcr to the j islerier':s actilH)s, ;;in,co ~I ripcak,cr never uses $ulih vel'b~ 16.81' nk of his own ~li:;t101~8; COnversely, all huruble verbs must refer to lHe spmlker's actiens, If nhe conwrsuHonin:vtllves u third per$9I)j' either as a spcaeer/Iistener or tt$ sonh::tnlCl b~it1g spoken about, thing~ get more complicared. '

In lillY. gi veri ccmexr. rhe two most import,ant factors in determining; the proper level 01' politeness <lIe (a) tlw r~h'1:lve social posltlons of the speaker • J lsterrer, the persan baing stloken of (whQ In muny casc~ ,1:;1 tlw speaker ur listener), and (bJ their ~tOllr idelll1th~s. Though different gruupp. ~Rve ·dif .. l'al'em ex:pCCtaiinnR regarding degree ot' fb.rll1.nlH.y, tl~ 1\ gcnCftll rule, within H given grOl.lp, plain PLl forms '<Ire rcscT.Ivotl for peer~ and,rd inal:e.:o, and polir,U,rornts are' Ll~~e,1 when spcakiog r.t1! or llbO,u[ ::ILl'" pcricws--PL3 for rl1mre closer in the hier'acl1y. with vtlrying doses of PL4 hon,otil'it; forms fot those higher up. :\VhotJ18pea[dos to somsoue outside the group, however" the outsklcr and hl~ aetlens, regtlfJless of his MHtlul:I, receive PL3 OJ' ~ trentmen], whlle hurnlile Ic~ngl:ll\ge is u~~d fQl" relt),I'r1ng to those b~h.")nging to the $pea)cerl:s own grc:)u.p-evon if they rank nira"bove the speaker Or Hsnenor,

Lesson 6

Modifyi1ng Verbs, Adjectives"& Desu

A verb IDary be lllodifled-i.e.,. described or characterized-by one Or ltJiDre ad:.verbs, Among other thhlgS. adverbs express the manner (how), tinting (when)} and,ee or extent '(how much, how many. how far •. how long) 01' ani action. An adverb a}xyays precedes the verb it modifies .. In the sentence here it comes directly before the verb,but in Longer sentences it may come earlier 111 the sentence, separated from the verb.

&I Michael the cat has been lured into a hostess club by a 1etc]:]ing .chinchilla Re:~laF' standin~'9utsfd~. She accompahf'9S him In, pours hi,m &;~Jin~, a.nd the,f\ eli]". .appears. te be replaced by.a ftightful-rookIng hostess wno finishes 6ft Italf a dozen app9tiz.$rs a1 his expens'e and offers him "speoial s-ervices" tor ¥20,OOO mars. Michael declines.

~,~, [;'5'71 ~Q J:.

IY4. sorOjjoro kaeru yo.

no .. ~."~. and 1:l:ypow. go home/hmve (em:pb.).

"No, ru be gomg on home now.'~ (PL2)


• iyo is an infofillal word for "no"; the rnote .fomnal equivalent is: fie ..

• so.rO.'fQro is an adverb imp,l.ying that 111<: action is: impending: "by and by/soon/any time now,"

• Lho pollee form oflhe verb kaeru ("return home"; fig. 4) is k(;mil~·u .

Adver'bsmodify adjecUves

An adv01'b can modify an adjective, limiting or qualifyin.g the description in gives .. whethcrthe adjective in turn modIfies a noun within the sentence or stands alone at the end, The adverb a·[~ayscomes before the adjective modifi,oo-- most typically right before .

.. K6s'uke's g.irlfriend Hlroka invited hilmQut for dinner, and he .wants to iron his goodpanls.. ;c .-.:II He goes 10 borrow his I'andlady's lren, which was custom-made in the era when an iron's I elfeotllJsness, deper;rcled largely en its sheer weight a



Landlady: r; i "J ~ I ~In' .1:,

lQ~o toomOI ):'0.

a !,it le Is ne.avy (()(llpl1.)

"[I!s a Jlittle heavy:'

'fIt's pretty lleavy.'; (pL2)

lFX: "f' L, ";;) Zllslli!

(effect of somethim.g being/feeling heavy)

.. ii' ._

i: <::




• dlol/o li'h~rally means "a Utile/a bil,"bu{ when modifying i

adjectives it's ofleJil. more Hke "quile/pooHy -." ;.

• since mlloi is an adjective, rhe PL3 equivalenr of the sen- f

renee would be Clu)lio QliiQi de~'t y.o, t

Adverbs modify other adverbs

Adverbs can also modify other adverbs. When two adverbs occur in at row, the first adverb is the modifier for the second. Adverbs do not change form for difiFere:t'Jt levels of politeness.

D ;;:;:


.It ~





.. If.

Kosuke: ::B!Im 0 tJ: ~~n ) 0

O·kt;;r)ascd. (~~tiilg)

~~Wel c-olDe hack," (Pl2-3 )

~? 1> L- t./),,) V ~-ro

Mo $ukoshi ktrkorima.tu.

more a Iiule will take/Jlequire

"[This] win require ,m, tittle more [time]."

"It's going to take me a llttle longer." (PL )



~ • o-kaeri nasai, a form of the verb kU',-ulkaerim,(J"m ("retLlrll horne"], is used. as ~ 11m standard greeting for welconwg a person back home from work! choQ1/an .. errand, Or back at the office from an errand Of business trip, Informally, it's

often shertensd to just o-kaeri.

• when mo comes before 11. number Qr quarttity, it usually means "[that many/that much] more."

• ,r,ukoshi cen be eichel' a noun or anadverb meaning L'a.little/s few," so mo sukosM = "nlltde/few mere." Ail an adverb. sukoshi expresses the extent or degree of the verb's actien: "[do/lien a. little/a few times." SlIkoshi and dtotto (fig, 73) can be coasidered synouyms, and either could have been used in this case (as well a in fJ.,g. 73), but they're Dot always itHerchangcabl : chotto feels quite a bit mol" informal.

• kakarimfJ.SU is the polite form of koktll'lI ("'I'akes/rcqlJjn~s/coslS"). The situation makes clear Wtl( the verb's tense is futut~ ("will take/is gOlrtg fO take"), and lti> is th work Kosllke is doing.

Dodur & patlenr

Adverbs modify noun + da/desu phrases


dverbs can also modify noun + daidesu phrases in the same way. Whcm an adverb precedes IJ OWl + daidesu phrase, the adverb (including any of it' own modifiers) modifies the entire hrase, as in this example. To modify just die noun, an adjective or other noun modifier is ually called for. YOlL will Iearn abeut modifying nouns in the next lesson.

As he reads something at hlsdesk, Uzuralani sudQenly feels h9t In the swc::atsnirt hEl'S, wearing.

Usuratanl; t: tJ:.o

su LI nats« dr~ na.

L..:;t).':':ow::"'~,-e'"'"a.",.)!-"::s'::;OO~L1;_1 summer i~ (coUoq.)

"Very soon now it is summer,isn'llt?"

HI guess it's almosr summer •. " (PL2)

• when it's nut U8 d with III numb r or quantity th adverb m6 S 'en in Ii, '. 74

often m ans '·l1ow/alre~ldy.' This ame use appears in fig. 68.

• sugu is an adv rb hhat iJ:11pli.e- close ill time 0,11' space -. "soon/immediatelyl ~ just ahead,"

• ....... da no. is !LteraU>, loll's ....... , isn't if]"; when making M observatlon, il can feel 1 ikc·,"lL must bell guess it's/I 'II bet if'S -....."

erminol.ogy note: Some Japanese adverbs can in fact modify individual nouns. In Bnglish, uch words would simply be called adjectives when they modify nouns, but in this book the "adjective" is reserved for the narrower definition tared In Lesson l.

Jl":B ~!II ~, f)




A few more adverbs

- -

Here are some more adverbs in sample sentences:

iVtl m~ L.*9"<>

[MQlgj denwa shimasu. !I~ telephone w;ill do i'l'l1 call again," (PL3)

T'? 7J~ tJ ~b tJ, * Ltc :Qo

likkari kawan'mn,shita lIe,.

c,>mple,ely 11JiS cJ1angcd halm '1 if?

''It lbas cnmplelely changed, J'a~m't it?~' (PL3)

Adjectives can become adverbs

TfJt t!. ¢J ~o

Mada kodomo da wa lie.

still child is (jem .. ) (colloq.)

"He~s still a child,- isn't he?" (PL2)

Totema muzukashil de: U.

very much is difFicull-(pfll.)

"It's very dlfficuh," (PL3)

ilili \! ) J:.

Kanan' raked yo.

.fality/quite hi. highle~pensive (em_ph.) "U"s, quite expensive." (PL2)

~ ii;v,,-eT;;

~ yQsui desu.

more is cheap-Ipol.)

"It's cheaper [than that}." (PL3)

Besides. the "true" adverbs introduced above, adverbs can also be formed from other parts, 0 speech, Adjectives can be made into adverbs by changing the final - v·~ -i to - < -ku. As wi "true" adverbs, there is no separate polite fOlID.

.. A word to the wis.e: The ~ku form of an adjective Is Important when: learnIng adqilionaij ~orms. so it's- well worth getting this simple Iransfoffilatian down cold right at the start,

adjective f11=' \r) hayai fastfearly oishii

rJS ty Id~li eio UIl




:f.H~ L- <


dedciou sly

adverb form

modifying a verb fi-\b < k«~

hayaklJ taheru.

eat quickly/eat early

:e,lr~ I_, < :t«~ ()i~l:!iku taberu.

eat delicious,ly/eat with relish

SF:X: ofj y -if l' 'if 7 Zil Z'Ci ZQ

(Sound of 'steady rain)

Man: iJ::<1 ~~ ~7.

Yoku furu na.

iI. 1(11 precipjtaLe~/J"i!l.ins (emph.)

"It sure does rai.p a lot." (PL2)

• yoklt is the adverb form of an adjectiye that occurs in two £OI"O.lS, if and yoi; the fi(fi~ of these can be considered 1110 more common fenn in general use (fig. 82), but you'll .need to pay attention to when yoi is used rather than ii. The basic rneanmg of the i!ldjective is "good/fine/okay," but it also bas< a variety of speclal meanings, dependin]; 011 eontext. The adverb form is always yoku, based OIl yol, and It, Loa, has a range of meanings; ·'[d.othe action] we]1!tborou,gbly}carefully/frequentlyla lot.'

• Lhe verb fun4ifurirnasu refers to abe ailing not just of rain but of any klnd of precipimtion. including snow. bail. leet, etc .. and sometimes other things that all from above as well. Here, the context; Illustration, and sound effects make 111e meaning clear.

• the small katakana a elongates the colLoqui.a..Il na adding emphasis and feeling.

Some nouns can become adverbs


Some nouns can act-as adverbs, either by themselves-or with the addition of I:: ni. Ni can be thought of in this case as a particle that indicates manner or extent. Whether n.i is required depends on the particular noun, and some DOLIDS can be used either with or without. The descriplive "adjectival nouns" intrcduced inthe next lesson require Iii as a group.


Adverbs with nsru


~ Shima:

5: .... rrl .....

til \- '.J',-

~ KorytJ honri} ni ahunai zoo Ha /ia ha ha,

.. g~ far ~hi~ truly I~e in dUllgerldangerous (eJll[1n,) (laugh)

~ "Based on this, you really are ill danger. Ha ha ha ha." i "Now you really know you're in trouble. Ha ha ha S ha_" (PL2)


'" ~

~ • k[n'yci (lit, "as for this") refers to Kashimura's hole in cne, with the feeling of "to judge from what has just happened."

• iltmt6 ("truth") appears as a. noun in fig. 41, but here it's followed by {Ii to make it an adverb! "truly/really,"

• ahuna'i is an adjective meaning l'dangerou;IJ/pen1oLls" Cfig, 53), and is also used to speak of something/sOIilleone; being, "in dilngc;:t/pc.i'll."

• the hand to tne back or the head is II. gesture of ernbarrusamenr-c-iu this I;;USe, happy embarrassmeur a,t hili good fortune.

Adverb' typically indicate tbe manner, timing. extent, or some other characteristic of the action of the verb, But with the verb naruinarimasu ("·become"). adverbs formed from adjectives and nouns (figs. 76-77) indicate the result of the action. For example, the noun kind means "cleanness/prettiness' (fig. 13), and kirei ni is its adverb form, so kirei ni naru ;::::; "become clean! pretty"; 6kii. is the ad!.iecH~e for "big,' and Okl'klll."l its adverb form, so okiku naru = "become big.' (Often these would actually imply "become more ........ " ..... "become cleaner/preHier/b~gger"),

When Shima ls dispa10hed from Hat$l.IshlbE! Electric to carry out a reorganization of Its struggling afflllate, Sunligl'lt Records lie arranges to haveoHQshi Vas~o transferred to tile accounting dapartrnent l! ther:e-t(1l q.u:ietly., keep on eye on 1he (:ilompany',s ,accoun~ing praQ1ice~. } Here Hoshi arrives at the bar W, here he and Shima periodically meet ~ after WCllrk to, difii,CUSS what h~ h~$ learned. ,.


Ho.sM: lim <J t.t 19 ~ G t.:..o

O.\'!!f!u narim(J.I'hito.

III.~MQW beclU~lC

"1 became l'l'~e. •

"I m sorry to be late," (PL3)

s • osoku is the udv to form of the adjectiv osoi "late/slow"), and lIartmashita is the PL3 past form of narulnari'ma,su (·'becom~"). The expression osoku narimabfhita is oft III used! ann impl!cil apology when one anives late or a mel:liting er s-ubtnitr-;/deli.vers a requested item Iaie,


nother adverb can be added before such statements to express a characteristic of the action.

For example, haya.ku = "quickly' (frOITI hayai. "quick 1), and yoku == "well' (fig. 76)1 So lwyaku voku naru = ' become well qttickly/get better quickly." In th'.g particalar case. hayaf....7J modifies the combination of yoku naru. but in other ca ses the first adverb in the sequence may modify

my the second adverb, For example, motto = "more," and motto (J. oku naru = "b come later' of "bee m even tater."


R:elative tilme adverbs

NOUDS indicating relative time (' today/yeslerday/mn1orrow' ; "this yearllast year/next year' are used a adverbs without any following particles .

• Omachi Aiko is listelnilng as her daught,er Kumik,o ,leaves a messaqs on her answering machine. She is unhappy because Kum1ko walked out on the yu;n6-a ceremonial ex- ichange of betrothal gifts between theiamiliEis of a newly engaged c{luple~for the' marriage she .. had ~tranged for her. After apologizing" Kumlko explains thai she realized she could not marry a :II man she cUd hQt Ipvs, SinCe her mother does not pick up, she promises to call again. ~


IR.elative timle table

i1.: iJJ!.~ L *- '9 " -e ~;;t I (".1',/ y) ~

malo rem·okn shimaslI. De wo.' (P'li,su!);

tomorrow again will conr.aci Il:Icl1/bye click ?

, [PU} be in touch again tomorrow, Bye! (eli k!)" " urn call tornO.TOW. Bye!' (Click!)'" (PL3) 7

• a.,,'hila (the noun "tomorrow" serving as an ndverb} and :;muta (Ole adverb "again") both modify the verb renraku shimas«,

o rCllrllkll is a noun that baslcajly refers Lo a COMe tion, j,ncludiing COl1nection leontca IS made by phone., Jetter, or orhe r mean;' of communication. Addling sltnllshima,w maxes it IJ, verb for "conI8cl/get in touch.'

• de wa is literally "then/in that case," but it serves u.s an informal "sood-bye,"

Her are tome relative time word commonly encountered in call quial speech. In many ca - there ar one or more additional forms, but those given hel' are go d one to start with. The zer row in the center represents lhe pre em.

Relatlv;e time words
n JIM Fj :V 'WI l~
hi: nklii ~1d1 tSllk;; glUS14 tQ.dli; m:II as« hUll
tlllY Wllok J~'(~~lh year mqrJlingl lliglW
-n1:(] ~~Il 9f;1l fi ·n1!~
-2 olfJ(nj sellS(!IIsirtl :,','usrngt.'l.'ftl ot(Ji&wlu
tla~ before YI: '1~fi(Jay week hctlli'C llUi.I monll1 bcfo~1.' Ir.JSI )'·ellr befcm: last
~? c? U1:;l?1 Jtii ~fI i:~ 11~
N(~kki kimJ Sl'nsJ,l; ,~eti~l/,Jr .. m kyomm f:liUI!
d while agel yesrllJ'd~IY ltl~t Wdillk 111~(monlhi Infol yCI.ll' 1St Jliglll
!j- !to #~! "'" f~ 4':£F ~IM ItP~
hll{J ky,) /f(Jhsln1 Iwn'tt~U ~(ltoslti ke$u ~a.llhlm
now wU"Y ",iii ~ctt thjN'.., nth lhi yeur lbismQming (mighl
(1; C:. ~~ Un IJ *)1& *f1 >*¥
+1 aJ(l de (J'~hila mislnl. I'oigetstl' raincll
1(1II;r lU111!iI'tOW iteM wee!. ne>:J nlomh ne I )lear
iI§ (.! ~J l ~*ii c .f! ~*4::
+2 a,w~W: s(Jr(Ji,~/lIl ,wll'(~ig{/fsU san/bw"
dn)' lIfter IOmOI1"0W wl.lek .. ft'er ne~a month IlI;l:U yl'!llf alter 110).1
1~11 1IIiJIM mf-J 1fj;~ fJi':u1, 'WI®
every rmli"i'lli mai.\M muilsuki maiUM'llt maiasa mui1uNI
'Overy clay every week every month "Vel)! year every morning ev~~ nigbt I for the empty morning ana n[ghl slots, add no Elsa or no baf! to Ihtl relative day words-e.g" kln~ flO asa - "yesterday tfIorril'ng" a,nd s.slJltEl no bsn • '1omcrrow night."

a for ssf<kl and alO de the 191'1gll'1 Of time removed from 1M present lis relatively brief but not a. speclflo urnl1 of time.

Tile extent of the actlon


When sukr;shi ("a little") modifies a verb like taberu ("eat"), it indicates the extent of the actlon=bew much the person will eat-in general terms .. Words that express a more specific quantity or number also as adverbs. to indicate the extent of the action.












. As is. true of other quantity words in Japanese, hitots« ("one") can be used as a noun, but here it

is an adverb that indicates the extent of the verb's action: how much she will give. This is typical of quantity expressions in Japanese-« they modify the verb rather than the related !lOUI), even when the quantity expression precedes anexplicitly stated subject or object. The structure for nouns modifying' other nouns that you'll learn in Lesson 7 does allow Japanese quantity words to directjy modify subjects/objects; but such use is relanvely uncommon.

WhencolJ.nting 01' saying how many in Japanese, lite number i,A customa.riIy given a "counter" or'·Lclass~'fie.r" suff.ix that expressesthe shape or nature of'the objacts im question. The'se suffixes are sirntlar to words llke "sheets' when YOLl say "ten sheets of paper" or "cups" when you say "tltr~e cups of Ooffe'eJ' in English, but ln Japanese the system is pervasive rather than beIng used only for certain I'.ielect items. There are dozens of different counters, some with rigidly restricted usage, others with a broader range.

The counter in flg, 80 is·::> ·lSI". Because it can be applied to almost anything except people and other animate. things, it serV(lfi as a kind of generic counter lhal: you. can use when you don't know widen of 'the more specific counters is appropriate; It's 3[::;0 often used for stating the age of small children. Thisgenericcountlng sequence goes only to ·10, with the su~'rix sometimes changing to"? :J ,tlsu, and with 10 getllng no suffix at aLL.

If the complete series only goes ['0 lOy what do you do after that? As a matter at fact, it gets easier In rhls case, because you can then just say the number by ltsel f and have ,it mean 1011 items," "2$ items:" "50 items," and so Forth, The more complete number series is inteoducedon the next page.

The corresponding word fOI" asking "how many?" is ~~ < "':J ikutsu. This word is also used to ask "l'!i:o,w old are Y'ou)is she?"-especiaUy when speaking to or about a small child, but also for older foJk,'I.i as well (with

whom it afton becomes o-ikiasu, for politeness).

~ I.". ~hile taking in the !Strsfh stene In,;Shlbuya,_ a Irene&' seci. I" tlgn of Tokyo, ~osuke and h.iEFglrrtrien. d .HlrOK.O $. tQP m at',SL." l .m~ll.ooflee 'Shop. 01') 1M way out! Hlroko buys two,b8as ott w· i KillmanjBfo q:offee and gives one ts Kos.uke.





q.B~I'U Mia,.

one will give (fern. colloq.)

"I'll give you one [bag]." "One's lor you." (PL2)

c51)i01 Co


'iT,hanks." (PL2)

• the pOIH(l form oragem ("give [away J") is agema.sll.

• ariaaso is a cW'Ula I "thanks ,n. seen in .. fi g. :2 L The fonn for very forma.1 situations is ® IJ ;Q~ t: ? :: i!v l £ 11- t'll'lgafo 8o~abnas!t.

Counter suffixes

--.--~-- -- -

A gen8.lI'lo counting sequence

Jt,j;. .:y I~"" ") B;, .. ,) "?

~. "'J -~ "'J ULl "':)

htIPUI~ "\11,1

lllltU'~li iwq

yorts(I fOIll'

It 1";)")


fr.~'l#slf ,1I1{t:


mittsu ihrl-l~




~'<-:::l ~!j)*9~ iJ'? :-:;1 1:t~~-ro

fkrm'~i (l,1'i!nrM'I.! kaP PutW,l'tl t(11:lf'fiui~'IJ,

how Illl1ny Ilxi~inlUV(: (9) '2 c(Jllol will till

·'Row· many do YOIl hn'Ve1U (PL3) 4~[,ljent twe." (PLS)

11) < -:J:} «:» -e::r 6

lkr.ucicrJ? It;~'lIISI,t tf~,!'!.

how old ~ y~~. Ij,ltIrl>

"How old are you?" (PL2) !~l 'Jill five. , "(PL:3)

yqtt.Vl,( eight


,A more comprehensive counting system

The generic counter -tsu attaches to numbers in a nativ Japanese counting system whose use' now quite limited. Mos counters are 1] ed with another number ystem that dedv~ from Chinese. It's this econd system that people u e for the vast majority of tasks involving calculatio and numerical value; math, ratistics, finance, science, engineering and so forth.

I jel,; + Il(Ii = ikk(IJ'

2 ui -+ lial = m'll.ol

3 .n", + kui 0= smrka'{ 4 ,011 + ko; = Y(HlktlE

go + koi =- goka;

6 1'0'1<11 + kat:: rokkui

"1 11(1110 + kai ~ lI'(mtlkai

8 !taclti + /«1 i = Ita k k(J; 9 kyn oj- kai = kYllk(Jj

10, jii + kkuf .. jukkai or


The numbers

This man IS tIVing tq,Jeach Michael the cat to fetch like a dog. Not s'Urprisi,ng'ly, Mi'chael Is u,nimpreS"se:d, but ths man decides fo 't~y again.

Man: J:- L-. :e-t1.G~, t>? I-iEil V~' < -c'

yosM. sore ja. 1110 lE!gJl ik« tolt

"II ri hi then more one lime go/lyiIJ go emph.)

"A1! rdgbt tJin~lI. here goe one more time! ' (PJL2)

'. ya.vlii or yoshi is an interjection used when about (0 b!:lgio an action, and i:

usually carri II II. feeling of determination "OK!/H re goesljLet's go.

AU right!" ~ SOl' ja i used at the beginning of sentences as a conneettng word. Ijkr ~

'''thenlill tbm case." "

ii lifO before a quantity or number mean "[that Inucl1/UuU manyl more."

0; ikkai i a comblnadcn of tchi ("'one") and -kai, the counter suffix used for "lime Iocca 'ion lrepclili ns."

• th adv rb m(J modifies iklwi (m6 tkk(li = "'one more time"), and thai cornbinlltion modifies.the ",arb ik~dikinlQ;N ("go") to tJldio3.Le ibe clI.temn of the action.

The Chinese-derived number' work very much like BngHsh numbers with the largest unit coming first. For multiples 0' ten' hundred', thousand. and ten-th u ands, the multiplier preced the unit: 30 = san ("3") xjr1. ( 10") -' sanjii, and 200;:; IIi (' 2") x hyaku ( '100") - nilryaku. values of the next largest unit. follow in ~sequence) finishing with the ones, so 230 ;:; nihyaku ~ safrjt( -;. nihyaku-sCllljii, and 235 ;:; nihyaku-sanJll + go (' '5") - II ilr:yaku-sClnjii-go.

EUL ther 's one big difference. Japanc e has a distinct "ten-thou ands'' place, man. TIru means large num > 1"8 are grouped by thou rands instead of by hundreds. After 10 mall com 1000 rrlm1 befor moving on to the next group starting ail 1 ok« then 10 ok«, 10 oku, etc.

How units are combined

The basic numbers and units
Arabic Kj3Inji KanalAomaji
I ~~ is ie'll;
2 t: ui
3 . ~ Iv 1'(1)
4 Uq ~/v .'1011 r L- s hf
5 Ii. _.
L go
6 J.- .:s < l'ORU
, ....
7 t tot tJ, fI~iul or L- -; s'hkhi
8 J\ ~tI:. "f.:; luu·1Ji
9 )L 'a! $ -; kyll or < ku
10 + r;; 14.'1 ? jtl
100 £1" o < hyukn
1,000 l' ttl..., sen
10,000 J .£ iu mall
lOO.()()O OOU fi ;t".3 < (Jku I: . -=+ rlCl+ /,
Jit.it1!11 nOli ycmjii..r(}ku
11 20 46
A;I~+ )1 I?Er I\S-+t
/l 'tIkll-k)'iijll-kYll' J(mlI.valm happ)'tlkll~ tmjll·/uHlQl
199 400 IB1
-:If ;f.\"f /\ l; I-
,wm:en~ l't)kWJt!'tJ ·""M IUl.~.~t' II-toll juk 1I-lI{majil~
:\.000 (l,OQl 8.S7(J
H 1'1'i aJJ . F71
ie/timan jilmoll hWlkrwlOlI iS~I"1malil
"I UIfJII" "101/1,111" "lflOnllm" "1000 meu"
10,000 HK>.QOQ 1.000.00(1 I'O.OOO.OIlO I a IIlll1lltiple of (lne Is not exp!lclUy stl.tled for tens and hun.dreds, and is stated !or Ihousands, only in numbers over 10,000,000.

2 SQI.mei changes are quite ecmmon whel"l combining numbers: ichl ... sen .ISS6rl (only In verylarga numbers); san 1- hy~ku. s:snlJyaku: ,san sen ... sanze.rl;. roku ... hya'kl"l. rOPPY:EiKU: l'iaOht'i" hyQ/(u. Ilappyaku:

hachJ + san. hassen. >

Another genericcournter


For the Chinese-derived system, the most versasile counteds,11 (-ko or -kl«J, often written 'with a katakana_::J as ill t'hh\ex:ample),: Ka is used for a wide earietyofobjects, usuallybut ner always relatively small, that don'thave a more specificcounter; it can be thought ofas meaning "items" or "pieces,"

Shop 'Lady:



~ 5 I:i I ~«?J n~ v~?

Mo' '(;j, tabel'u, ked?

mare 1 pjOC'G will eat (1)

''WUl you eat one more?"

""Would yom Ilke another?" (PL2)

:0 ~ 1;~ It~ --r't" <i

MfJ ii desu.

now/already 'goodlfjneb:mo1Jgh is "It's already enough."

"Pve had enough, ,thanks." (PL3)

0( tt"2£'~""



"Excuse me." (PL3)

• ikko is iehi ("oael') plus the cuunler suffix ·/w, whioh ci1IDlges to ·k.-/co when combined with iihi. Sound changes like those noted on the facing page f-or combining numbers also occur when combinlng nnrnhers with €;ounter $uffixes.. You can see 'the other sound changes for .ko at the right.

• the polite form oftoberu ('jeat") is tabemssu.

• kat isa friend:Her-feeHng, ceUoqui al version of the question, mtlrker ka (fig. 50).

• /riO appears here in both. orits meanings, !'more" and "!lIre-ad)''' (figs., 74-75).

• ii is an al temative fOrill of the .. djeqtive yaf ("gQoCl/fim!jo.luI,y"'; see Jig. 76 note 011 yoku). M(} ii desn (Ill. "J am/il i~ ~llreu..dy good") is an expression for "I've had enough."

• kudasa! meum; "please/please give me," and can beused Hire 'this 10 get a store clerk's anendon.

I lc!l( + k(l O!:i ikM 2 III -I-- ko = liiko

3 ,~tm + ko .,. sonko 4 yon +- Iw ~ ycmko 5 Sf) + ka = goko

~ rcrku + k() = rt!kko

7 lUI/ttl + ko =. HWIa.ko 8 '1It"!zi + kG =' /lak!w o kyl1 + ko = kyiikQ

10 }!! + k'(} "" jllkku 0[' jikktj

Some other common counters

Listed in the box: below are a few of the more common counters. Except as noted, simply cornbine the standard f0i111 of tho number with the standard form of the suffix, The question. mark indicates the form for asking "how many?"; when no special

form is' indicated for questtous, freque",tly used covnters

combine nan- with the standard form of the suffix.

Yon is generally preferred over shi for 4, in part because 5hi sounds the same as: the word for "death." Nana and shichi for 7 are usually both acceptable, but In many eases conventional usage favors one or the other, so you '11 want to payattension to which seems Eo be more common among native speakers, Wherever jtf~ for 10 changes tu 3. shortju-, jl~ is also acceptable

e.g"jipptm: instead ofjuppDn).

48 LESS@N6

Fun with dates

The gag In this four-frame SLAp. hinges in part on relative time words. The strip also offe good opportunity to introdnee some basic weather terminology, as wellas Japanese d.ale;;. which are treated in detail 'on the facing page,

10 c',. lSI t. ,6 'J e

III·· On' Octcl'ber 5, ~he ~irl Tana~~.~UM h$'S bElEH~·g!iting:·out witt- ~ \ells'h!in that .sbEl~S in IO\lE!, wifh somedhe else and wants tc ,breakLi~1 H~ is deVas.traj,9o.

II] In Diary: lOfj 5 B ~d:h OJ 15 m

Jugat.tl4itsuka kare nochi ante

lOtAl monthlOcfober 51h day fairlSUllJi~ later min

"Odober 5 (Clear skies" then rain)"

~ E! ;k:f&~ 1... a: L- tto

Kyo shits/!.1'l!rI shimashita.

coday lose love did

"Today I lost my love,"

'"1'oday my girlfriend dumped me." (PL3)

• in Japanese, toe months 011' rne year are simply numbered from I to t 2 an::: given the suffix ml!,Cl£$U. The suffixes for (he day~ of the month are irreguhtr, as shown 011 the facing. page,

• hare refersro 'lfair/elearhmnny" weather; X nochi Y (lit.. "X, later Y") b· tbe standard pattern for reponing how the wcarher elranged during the course of the day-or for forecasting: how it is expected to change.

• shits'Ure1i, written with the kanji for "lose" and "romantic love," can re.f'Ct to various siruations in which one's love has been dlsappclnred/uerewarded/ulll-equitccl/thwarted/brokc!.1 up. Shusuren suru is its verb form most commonly meaning "be dUn1ped/jHted"; shttsuren. shimosu is verb's polite fottn,and rt!zitsur(,jn shimasMta IS i~s polite past form,

rn III Diary: 101-.1 .Jug(l!su. I1wika 10th montlnl0c1.oiJcr 6th dily "October 6 (Cloudy)"

lliF S ~~H/ ~ L-t.:..

Kine shltsures: shimashita.

y~slerday got dumped

HYesterday IDY girtfl'iend dumped me," (PL3)


< ttl I, Kumar! cloudy

1~31 In mary: lOFJ 7 f:l ~1.n 0')'; < 't> tl

Jfigatsll,. nanoka Hare Plochi kumo.ri

[Orh month/OolMer 7th d!lyfulr/.nll'my later cloudy !'October 7 (Ctear skk:.s, then CloU(ly)'~

j3 c.c It) *~l..- ~ L-t;: ...

OtDtoi shtwl/';elt fJ'himasllifCl.

d'!1 b~rore' ¥e~Lar""l;I,y gn! ,dum~d

OIlJay before ye.sterday~ my girlfriend dumped me," (J?L3)

@] ]n DiaFY: 10)9 8 D < ~ ~ (J) "f5 ~j:n

Jligat,"r~ yiJka KHFlipri l!Dc,'h.i IlaN!

10.111 .. m.OIl.lh/OGIO.bll.I . 8th day.. clolld~ I;.t.ter C.hlllll'l~LlIlIU)'

"October' 8 (Cloudy, then clear)"

~ ~ :t~ t. t J., ~ ~,P.!H., ~ L tc..

Sakl·ot(,iro! s{,Usu.rf:lIl.\·hf'f/Ulshita,

3 diu y s ago gOl Olll1'fled

h'rhree days ago my girU'riend dumped me." (PL3)

'. s,aki .. "be-fore," so stlki.o~ot(Jj is literally !'the dny before (JloWi" or lithe dillY before the day before yesterday" --"Lhree d<iy~ age,"


Lesson 7

M d·f I. N

__ 0 _Iyllng _ ou


Nouns can be modified by adjectives, ther nouns, and verbs-as well as by oertain adverbs that cress over to become noun modifier .

As with adverbs, the modifier alway comes before the noun it modifies. In English, you 'can say either "the delicious chocolate" or "the chocolate that i delicious," ana both mean the same thing; but in Japanese _you don't have the second option-not even when the modifier is more complicated as in "the chocolate that her husband gave her for Christmas last year.'; It doesn It matter what kind of medlflers are used. or how long or short they are, or how many separate modifiers there may be. The rule remains: modlfieJl'~ a,~ways COOle- first. (Thi rille does not overturn what you have already learned about adjectives being used like verbs at the end of a Sentence. Such adjective are not being U led as modifiers.)



Sound FX: '!f~ Za

(souad of heavy downpour outside)

OL:: D~-, Z:J.cV~ j$ffi!

i-Iyti, hid i arne!

(exelam.) terrlbllll/horril.1lL~ rain

'Yikesl [It's] a terrible rain!';"

"My goodness! What a downpour!" (PL2)






~ ,._


;;r< .. ...

• thls is a noun-type sentence in which the main/Ernul !lOUill is mod' led by an i

adjective, and dQ, ("i")-or dawa, since the speaker is emale=-has been ;; omitted at the end. Da is quite cemmonly omi ned 3!~ the end of noun-type senrences in colloquial speeca=-especially in exelernetions, lil.nd especially among 'Female 'spea:Ji<ers.

A plain ,adjective in a pontle sentence

Adjectives that modify nouns are always in the plain form, even within a PL3 sentence; des« never comes between an adjective and the noun it modifies, A sentence's politeness level is determined primarily by the final verb adjective" or noun + daldesu phrase (the sidebar on pp, 38-39 notes some other factors) and is not affected by-plain adjectives being used as modifiers.

S~tman oK.aji Ryuntlsl!Il(:e offers congrattll~ UOTfS' te Asami TsunetarlO when he relurr'ls from taclng the press for the ffrst time after being

selet:ted prim~ fil"Iini$ter.

M:1m 't: L, t: !

el'l.zet$u dl!~hitl1!


.. tlie'cme statement of thesentence is ell! entsll de,s_;b.itQ. ('<[it] was a $peecJril'); witlf! 'the adjeotive lub(J'f(U,Ilf.i (i'woRiJe:cflll/fanrastic") modi:fymg-the main noun. en,zeJ'Su, H becomes ''(It] was a wqru:le:rfut peeeh," ilI'he PIt) ag:J(;lciiv,e subarashii desu woUld never oocW" as a

mQdifier-'~hO!,lgh. it often occurs as 'teRce,

.' the present-tense eqclvalent of the seatenee," t is a wonde1'fill speec·h,;' Would be SlIbllT'ashii ,I!1I=ersu tk~J. (PLJ) or SldJarashiienzetsu da (PL2).


Miodi'fyingthe ,adjecliive that modif,ies a noun


An adjective that is 'mQdIfymg a nOUD can in tum be modified by an adverb. Since modifiers always come first, an adverb precedes the adjective, it modifies" which precedes the noun it modifies.

~.' , In looking over the personnel flies for hi,S n,ewly formed sectlon, ~ ,tli ltIa eosel'Ves not _Gnl~ th~t his s!~P4l¥. chief Slpeaks several ill' lihg,41age.s anI:! bas wan the HaislJs!n,lba Pr$sidEm"S Aware! 1hree time~,

f p'utthat he is twl1J9 dlvorc~. ,


tot -il ~~c:" G~m'11 v ~ ~iJ1 L. ~ ~ l1j tc ts 0

Naruhodc.' I KekkQj isogashli otoko da fla. ..

I sile/flh-Imh quite blllsy mao is (colloq.)

"Ah-hah, He's qultea busy man, isn't he?"

uAh-hnlh. Sounds Uke be"s quite a blllsy man." (PL2)



~ • //art/hooo expr:e5ses understanding of,or lnrerest in" what one has heard/ab~ served]expetienced: "ah-hahll see/indeedIiIHe]'el>~ins." It's rnost commonly ~ used to respom~d to Who,\ anoLher person has said .

• kckkQ else OC.OI:i.tS as an, "a~jectjva1 noun" (to be in,l:OOdllCed in fig. 93). 'but here it appears as an adverb, modifying the Ildjcclive isogasltN. ThecQmbimauoo kuldw is{)1J(Js/IJi ("quite. bU5Y") in tum modlifie.'i the noun otoko ("manl male pceson") - "quite bus)' man" - "quite a Dtisymallli!'

• a PL3 equivalent of t:hls sente.nce would be Kekllt} i.'l(},gcrsirU oloko desu nco Th(J dq. at the end chtlillges to (le.~t!, but the nl0difying adjective temalns In plain form.

NoUtns modifying nouns with Q) no

The particle (J) no between two eouns makesthe fust into a modifier for the second, and the first can describe the second in a, wide v.ariety of different ways. Whenthe first noun is a personal name or any other noun referring toa person, U nlosttypkaUy describes the next mentioned item ,~~ belonging to that person-that is, it mdlcates possession.

AS ~ treat for the Icao:>enters' tea brt.'ak, (fig. 6), KOi suks's landla.dy has left some klnton.a confection £ made from maehed s'!{IIeer potatoes aAd ohestn,uts.



! I 5

Ii c:

Sada: ry ":? -1


Uma! kill/orl des« ne.

goocVtnS!y Hru()l1 is, (colloq"

"This is Good llinton. ' (PL3) .

*~ ~ Iu I05l r9 ~'~ -c'1- 0

6ya-san I no I jtkllsei desu.

IMldllldy-Cpo,I.) 's homemade is

''Its mylandJady's homemade. ' (PL3)


J . ,r~ma;.h. al1l.adjective modifyi~~ kimo«; when mmli describes a !1'C!od Item, II mClll1!! "tasty/delicIous,"

;; • ~san is tlstlo.lly added for poliJeness when speaking of one's aya

f ("landlord/landlady",). .

~ • jikasl'i,. writtel] willi kanji meaning "own + bouse + made," is ;1

'" noun in JaptlJl(;}Se.

Even when the noun does not refer toa person, it's often eaalest to (hink of the Japanese noun + riO combination as showing possession,

~*-t m *l:.~

kailJ'ha no sluJ.aM

(:Qmpllny '/I president

tile companyts presi"dent

:b ~ (J) Ltilv

neka liD go.1um

ell! ; s ioodlmeal

the cats food

~ [I tJ) 11 7'7-

ash ita ItO kuras»

!OTi10rrmV's clnss

tomorrew's clas

9< (}) ~~~

koji {If) lk/of

fire 's inl\ell~i()I

Ibe fire's intensify


No can s·imply show direct modificatiDn, or be like "ef"

No = "in/ontat"

In many cases, X no Y is simply equivalent to XY in English-as with the "four-leaf dover" in the first frame here. In oilier cases, no is better thought of as equivalent to ' or'~as with the "sign of good luck" in the-second frame. Be careful. though. Inthe Iatter case, the word ordens the opposite of .English: X JiO Y in Japanese is equivalent to "Yof X . in English .

... A you.nQ co~ple ~e: out for a lelsur~ly stroll in ~ .. the countryside Vlh'erl one-of fllem dlsrovsrs.a g. k!ur .. 4eaf clover. ~


~ ~ i-

t !5

.. 5.




Woman: .d5! 1m -:J~ r05l !7 0 =r: ~ ..

A! Yotsrdm l.!!Q.] Imr{jbti.

(mterj.J four-leaf (mod.) clover

"Ob! A rOM-leaf elover!" (pI.2)

lO5l L- G 1.,. tt.o

K.inm ~ shinlsili da.

good fortune of Sign is..

'It s a sign of Rood luck.: '(PL2)

~!W Man: ~m::

.• yoiauiJa is II: compound noun formed by combinrngyotts.u ('four') and ho. ("leaf"; me sound changes to haiIllcmnbinations).

The noun marked by no may indicate the location of the' noon tihat follows, so it can be equivalent to Bnglish words like "inlon/af' that indicate location. In this case, too, the word order is the opposi te of English, so Japanese X no equivalent to "Y inion/at :X" in English.

SoumfFK I::Hii

Bz.zz (sound of-alarm buzzer)

It! I~I ~jr; ~;

first floor on loilel/restroom is - £lIt'S the· restroom OD the.1'irst Boor! ' (PL1)


• i··klwi is a combination of ic1l1' ("one") and (he COLHlteT suffix -kai used for floors/stories in a building. This counter sounds the same as the one- used for ··timesfoc:cas.iol1S/rep~ etitiens" in fig. 81, but it is written with a difi'emnt kanji In spoken language. the difference has to be understood from. the COil text.

,. in this case, "the first-fleer restroom" works j\lSl as: well in English as 'the restroom Oil the m·t floor, '. but that won" alway be true when the morufyingnounindicates a Iocation,

C'Jfyou feel unweD 'press this bntton."


10 many aa'8.u·, .iitLindicates'ih'at the ttwo nouns refer to the Same: psrs:Qnor tbi:ng, ettrr~di'Ri "'the caE Michael" at like "Mienael, who-is-a cat' (n;ekd no Md£kltru). Again, it's im:p6rt:ant 10 femel1:'J.ber thatin the.Iatter case, thewbtd erdeds the-reverse ofBnglish, Pamcles don't ehangeJor tellse,S0J10 can be "who is/that'is/'''who was/that was," or "who will be!t1i~lt will b(it'deperld ... mg on t1W. ten~;e mfta®: v'e.rb~adje@tive, or di1Jdes.u nt the end of the s~ntellc·e'·.

Mother: !A [.,))\ I:J r03l A;f-- te b.

Hisashibur! l.!!o2J. suki! i:lll. wti.

first time in lOIIg lillie. titatJs s1cl/skling Is (jiem.) "This is skiing that 1;;. the first tLmtl in a long time. "

t'l'his is our first time skiing in. longtime." (PL2)

." Ilismihiburi is a noun referring to an event that ooeu 1'.9 fOT the tir~tr H me, 'in a long time, so hj,9(,'shiburi no Sukii = "!:lkiing th~t isthe flrSltirne in a long time .. " The use of hi.mshllmri as a-greeting appears in fig. ] 7.

odlfying the Imodif'ier


"be medifying noun can in tum be modified by another. placed before it. Theoretically, there is -0 Limit to how many nOUI'1SCall be strung together with a no between each noun.

! Frh![1ds of tl1ebrld'a seated together at'a wedding dinner arls gGnmg @cqUalnt~p.

, .,. :Jj. 'EsT ro5l ~tJ: rosl "/J~tt L"9 iJl?

Michiko I!~ k.aisha .~.. kata ~eS1J: ka?

(name) I> cOmptUlY of/h:'onl pi!r~ol1 IM;t,re (,1) "Are you a person from Michlko's company?' "Are you fro~m Micbilko's work?" (PL3)

~ ) }t , Cl0 0) ~ 9ft ~E [0)1 P¥i' I05l / '\' 1 r 1[11 ~.~ 1:' 9' o·

le, ano, gaklb~ei l~Q toki IJI£I haitllllakat1la tleSI~.

riO Ulil eol], :,Itud. (mcpa.) time of/'frOrn stud. job friend nm

"No, 11m, I'ma studuntjob friend from hercollege days." uNo, urn, I worked 11 part-tnne job ."vUIt! bel' in college." (PL3)

• kiJ.ta is a formal/polit(l word ['Qr "person' The more neutral word is buo.

• in A's speech, the first no shows possession and the secnnd is like "of' 01' "frena" ~ "person of/from Michlko's company." J~pa.nese speakerli often usc kaisha ('~COlTlp~ny")when BllgH~h speakers would say "work" or "the office."

• gakusei mesreemmonly l\efers to college undergradui3.res.-though H can also include srudents at Qther levels. When loki C'tlme") ismodifled like thir;. illiYpicaHy means "the ti.rne/days/eJ(1l when" the specifted action occurred or when the stilte/lliwnlion existed: /:{.rkusei '1.(/lokl = "time when lsomeenel was a stullcnf'l .... "student days."

, whenlhree nouns UI'E: iinkC(] wjth not the fiJrSt two may combin(Ho modify the third, as in ~o(1l cases here, Of tho flrst may modJfylhe eomblnarlon of the 'Other two, Wi'1111onger ~trings of nouns, various grouplngs can appJ;y; c.ontext usually. tells you whst.the groijping~ should be. .

• baho is short for the loanword an'(b(li~o (from Ge.r:m'I\uArbelt, "work/job"), which in Japanese re.fbr!l to jobs done alongside ane~smaiT),ocCup'Mi(lin" such as student job~. J11.()()nllghcing, andheusewives working pan time for t1 little extra cash,

Omission of the ·m'odified noun

It, SOll1ltrhnesthe noun being .f.uudified ts lilJJdersl!PoclandtlIeJerore, omit-

? t¢O.Jn:the 'exrun:pte: here, th~ 11@indi:c>ateS' 'P"",sses:siQfl,,,bO;t'1ne s~~e omission caneecurwith other uses; 0;[ no as well

T'osliiliilko: Iv?


buh?/"'i'hart "W'llat's'tbis']H

~o) t;I;. I05l e.

Am) anna: l!!Q], ria"

that gfrl 's is ,

HIt's th,at g;irPs.,t <11:2)

• the full sentence would be Ana anna no g:ak>U'8ei-shiJ da, but'Wl1ku8e'i-sh6 ("student Ifs") is understood &0 it is omitted.

The ways one noun can describe another are virtually limitless. To help zero un on the intended meaning in any giv-en case, start by placing English equivalents of the two ]JOU:ru together in the same order as the Japanese nouns (as, with the four-leaf clover in fi~,a8).th:en adjust the first word to give it a descriptive form that fits the context For example. if you see or hear kxu« and think "'Tokyo person," the context should q.uick18 ten y0:U whether it means "personwho lives in Tokyo," "persongoing to Tokyo," "persen who Callie from Tokyo," or a person with yet some other relationship to Tokyo.

On the other hand, when you're the speaker, knowing that a single particre can serve ferall those meanings makes things wonderfully simple: you don't haNeto Iearn.different expressiens for each; you just put the modifying noun first and follow it with no.

Some neuns take tl. na

Most nonnsrake no to become modifiers, but there's a special subgroup that requires nifl inswdd. They are all descriptive nouns, which typically correspond to English adjectives. and because of this they have variously been called "na~adjectives:' "quasi adjectives," or "pseudo adjectives," but this. bonk calls them adj~ctivaJ nouns. As the main noun at. the end of a sentence.jhese wofi!l$:,r0'~uite:da or desu jnst like other nouns (when used this way instead 'of as a 'modifier. they ~omJltimet:;rorrespotl:d; toBnglish verbs rather than adjecttives).


Sound EX: )v iv)v


lliisband: "';..- (} -1 ,fit) !

Hentai -me!

e:rett .(ft~in)jg,).

"Damu pervertl" (PL J)

• kitto can varl.ously mean "maybe/probably/surdy:'

• han twtinen, ~ in kanji) is an.fidjcct:1val noUn that;, \V1'lGl'l 'fbllowe'd by na, geaerall y eorresponds to English adjectives Ii k<:l ., ~tnm:ge/()dd/tlbn('ml'1 al, " ·itazura Is i;\ fl'Ol1f1 :fut:'~mischi'ef/al'tiek/a prank," nn.d c1enwCI can refer eirher to the telephone itself of 10 it phone l1l.aJ1~b.@rc full latter. ltazura del~w4 is an cstablished'CompQund rr()unfQl"'~'crank call."

• -me is a derogatory suffix exp'i';~s3ifig contcffipt/anger mw'Strd the person named.

Don't be fooled by a final -i


Some, adjectival neuns.end in -i, like adjectives, .and because they are descriptive, they translate as adjectives In English, but that doesn't: make them adjectives in Japanese, They require na when modifying another noun, and at the end of a sentence they require da or desu like any other noun. (As. with other nouns, daldesu may be omitted. in exclamations.)

e S i











7ll 0' c.

'" '"

i !,t){:>~,

[ya, ki- kata desu n,e.

(lnle.Jj.) (stammer) pretty pernon is/llere (colloq.)

"Ubbh, y- you sure are a pretty person,

"Ubhh, y- you're avery pretty girl." (PL3)

Poppo; ;C,

So- senna ...

(stammer) that kinde of

"Gr- gracious me •.. 1 (PL3 implied)

.if Nt;! ...

Hen: are a few mom adjectival nOUDS used as modifiers. Foreign adjectives generally enter Japanese as adjectival nouns.

tif~tl A

fluki fla hUo

lilted person

the person I I1ke

til v ) tJ: $: ""'~ kira: lW labemo1io disliked food

a food 1. dislike

uef'jtJ: ~W

henri na ji.sho

handytusefu.1 dictionary a bandy dictioaary

Some adjectives can a.I'90 modify with -na

• iyd is a warm-up/hesitation word~like "well/that is! uhh" spoken while earcbing for what 1'0 say or getting up tire nerve to say it.

• kind is an adjectival neun for either "pretty/beautiful" Of "clean"-herectearly the fonner.

• sonna here is' Poppo's wa.y of modestly brushing ofhhe compliment, essentially implying "That's not true." It's customary in Japan to deny aoompliment rather tban thank the speaker. Somta has no PUlire.DCSS level of its own, but ifPoppo bad completed her sentence here, she would have ended if with II PL3 form,

r. /-tr .b. tJ. ~

liansamu na atoka handsome mall a handsome moo

.. Another key difference of acljeCUV31 nouns is thaI, they cannot be modil'i:ed by adjectives or the other usual way.s of modifying nouns; they are modified by adverbs.

For most adjectives, using the plain form ending in -I IS [he only way to modify a noun, but a very small number have an alternative form: the final-a can be changed to -na. Of the adjectives introduced so f:n,'chiisai (",smaU' ) can become cliiisantll,. and iikii ("'large") can become okina. Two others that have al ternati ve forms are okashii ~ okashina ('~strange/funny") and yawarakai --'I- yawo,rak'afl,Q ("soft"). The -na forms of these adjectives cannot be used at the end of a sentence, only as modifiers.

® ~

.. '



~ ~

~ Dog:


. ., Q


; • Writing ak1tbi 10 katakana is. merely the artist's choice;

"Tl the same is true wirlllum, ttazura; and hentai on the fac-

t ing page,

~ • ehfum (or ehen; is a self-saf sfied ci aring of the throat

!" sound.

Su:kku (effect of standing up tall)

r :t:
r. i
Ib tj.
"t .,
z:. ,t.
..... ..
:::.. X-Y""-/o

desJHta.. Ehhf!1t


56tESSON 7

As seen with baito flokama ("student job" + "friend") in fig. 91 and. .i'tazuT'U denwa C'<miscbief' + "phone call") in fig .. 93, certain nouns join other nouns to fOID1 compound nouns without ,any 'intervening no. Sometimes it's aU right to add, the no anyway, but dependingen the parrisular word, it may sound unnatural or even alter the meaning, so you will essentially need to learn such compounds one by one .. Here is another example.


J;:" l
yo. t
J Husband.: ;f9o O. (imeTj..)

uA.n right." (PL2)

.' hint means "noon," and goh,u~ means "meal," so hiru-gohorl :::: "noon mew" -+ "Lunch," Si.mihltly" (1..'id '" "morning;" and ball "" "evcI1111g/night," so asa-gonon = "morning; meal" - "breakfast," and b(;Ill,-gotu:m "" "evening meal' --+ "supper."

• the honorific o· is commonly added to him or hilw~ll.Qhan even in PL2 speecli, especially by female speakern; it is never added to aSQ'g.o/tml' 01" b(.lJl~!Joh(Jn,

• Ihepruti.cle yo often serves all by Itself as dayo or dcslI yo ("i~/aJe" + clupbasili). ~ the iaterjeetion tJ here acknowledges that he heard and expresses approval,

Verbs can Imodlify nouns, 1100

If 1 apanese adjectives can act like verbs, perhaps it won't be teo much of a surprise to learn that Japanese verbs can act Ilke adjectives. Place any verb in front of a noun, Iike an adjective! and the verb becomes a modifier for the noun.

• At their f)-mig;" fopPQ'a,s'b Shinnostll!:.e what his fa .. ~ v()fire r:>astime is, and he says it's to race vigorously. g. about file fields, When Shinnosuke l'Ietfurns the queSli&n" 1 the diffel'1ences: in their tastes begin to emerge: ~


~ ;l;






Pappu: lti!¢1 L. t: ""eTo

LN't):Q.' koto des«.

to .sleep thing/activity is

"[My favoritepastim.e] is me activity of sleeping;"

f''llik.e to nap.t' (PL3)


• !'be polite fonn of' nf!l1fl, ("to sleep/go to bed") ls nemasu, l !"

• k;otorefe1':S "(Jan itilLa!1gibl~ ''thing'' such as a "qucgtion/facl'/mntl-

ter/e\le!'lt/s:iru:aliolllp~rPQ:;eJacLivity," so nem /rol'o is lilcrnliy "the ac~ivity of steeping."

In Japanese, almost any verb in almost any form can be placed before a. noun to modify It-past,. non-past, and we-nag, the other forms Introduced in the second baH of this book; the one crucial qualifier is that the polite ·maSII forms aren't generally used this way. By comparison. relatively few verbs in relatively few forms can do the same in English, so the frequency 'With which verbs modify nouns in Japanese can take some getting used toO for English speakers. But once you've picked up how it works, you'll find it a v,ery efficient al'ld stl'nlghtforwcuu means of expression.


Lesson 8

- I


anatory 0) No

Many sentences in Japanese get a special extension consisting of the particle no plus {fa ot desu. in the "wrap-up" position where sentence particles optionslly appear (see p, 10). Bec:a.Qseit occurs when giving or seeking explanations, the particle is ca1led explanatory IW and no da! desu is called the explanatory extension, The feeling can be Iike.Bnglrsa gxp~anations that begin, "It's that ">:" or, "The s;ituaiion/explanation is that .......... " But the form also occurs. in sentences that English speakers won't think of as explanations and someamesall ilia] the 80- called explanatory no does i add emphasis.

This scholar began by describing the flehrnen ~ reaction in Gals in relatively tormal SGientifit 100- gguage. noting that It is associated with the lnhatanon of m odors and iha stimulation ot1the olfactory organ, andso ~ forth, but then he boils it dQwn to its essence: ~





OJ" <>






• his core statement is !he one word adjective-type enteDceKusai~ but he adds the expbmatory exten ion ~

beeause he: is explaining what is going on when a earmakes lite face: known as-a :Iilehmen reactiaa 1"

Scholar: <;! I.rl_ ~

Klmli ~

is weUy (explan.)

"It's that [something] is melly." 'Somethlog stinks." (PL~)

Combjning with sentence particles

The extension can occur together with tae various sentence particles iotroouc-ed in LeSSOD 2; any such parti:cle(s) included are placed after lJO da or no desu, not before.

As seen in this example, explanatory no can be shortened to 1'1 changing the extension to 1'1 da or n desu. This OCCOIS very commonly :in 'bofh PL2 and PL3 speech. lin fact, using the full 110 can sound quite stiff: althouglJ. no desu in fig. 99 simply reflects the formal. academic tone of the scho]a_r's entire speech. in most situations, it would! sound stilted


_, K6suk~'s landlady grows hechima (~Io()fab,") vines 1ft lJ~e tm;~ ~ la:&ileave.s nra folk remedy for rbeumausm, SlfIce theJjqlIld ~at :'flows from the' vine whenifs.cutis valued as aeosrnstic ~otiOf\ she f ,asks KQsuke to help draw it into botues. Kosuke asks why -sme wants ;} to collect-so much,· ~





~ s

~ ;

• l.injo literally means " _p1aoi" - "neighborliliod.h-riciJJiiry," but it1Jf~ ~

te-n refers In the homesJfu:milies/resfdents oflhe neighlOOrhood ___"_"nei-gh- ~ burs," ~


• .lummbtbe target of the action: "10:' s:

• lire PL31()mi ocf J::u~ (,"di.stJriblltc/band OI1l") ilit-kllhqrimas.u, ~

• Kil1jo ni kubo1"ll--is a complete sentence ,1 will distribute it to- the nei'ghbor~ i hood") withouli.he extms.ion. bill 11 au yo adds the :feeling €If "The ex_:p1ana~ ~ Don [for why I want te collect se mDCbJ is 1hat --. ' In English. the explan:aoory feeling is implicit from the :situation. but in Japanese an explanation like iliis sounds funny without the extension,

LandJady: tim ,;: IE ¢

Kinjo Iti kuharn n dtl 'Vo.

neighborhood tD/among win dislribm:e (.eivlan.) (emph.) "I'm going ~o. disttfbllte ilL 10 the neighborhood."

'~ m gc()i:ng to share it with tbeneighll J"S." (pL2)


Fo:r noun",type sentences

What comes before n(o) da or n(o) desu can be any kind! of complete sentence" but it usually ends in a plain, .PL2 form. For verb- and adjective-typesentences, this simply means the familiar dictionary form, or the PL2 'version of any of the various forms [0 be introduced later. For noun-type sentences" however, the final daldesu is replaced by na, and Uris is followed by n( 0) da or n(o) desu _. ....... na 1~(O) da/ ........ na n(o) desu. Na,essen'tially servesae the verb "to be" in this pattern, and it does so for all nouns (i.e., it has nothing to do with nouns that require 11.a when

modifying other nouns), Here's a noun-type sentence with a PL3 extension, -

Doctor: "PJeas'e ask your wlfe to watch the salt in your djet." (PL3)

Patient: ~# tJ.A/7:!'iFe


slnglc atn-(cxp1an.)

'Pm single." (PL3

., without fbe extension, the patient'scomplete sentence would be Doku.~hlil' des«. The final des!~ in this simple sentence is replaced by /1'~ and then the extension II desu is attached (ill PL2 speech, n da would be attaohed, as in the next example).

• H10 patient adds the extension because he is explainjn~ that. his circumstances are a little different frern what the doctor has as sumed ,

A noun-type sentence with a PL2 extension


The politeness level of the sentence as a whole is determined mostly by whether the speaker uses cia or desu in the extension-not by the politeness of the word that preced sit. Her s another noun-type sentence, this time with a PL2 extension.

~ ~ ~

I, Kosu.kc: ~. Is l/ii;J!ji

A, jitensha 1'/(.1 n arl.

(jllled·) ~ioy'(;1 j~!WIlH~l<.pltm.)

i '~Oh, I came by bike." (PL2)

] Sound ~X: I 7J 71'

:0; I Or/f.·/!c!

J . ,(ta.ttle of b~jk~ lock) . . ' fop ... ,

• the bUSIC s.onlcnce if!. Jttensb« da, winch orten would simply mean "It's a \like,'; bUl heru Imphes "'M), menus ()f O"llnspo,·t' tion] 'j~ 11 hike" -+ "1 carne by hike." Kflsuk • uses the Ita /'I aa extenslnn bee' UN h '1'1 ex,plailllllg th clrcumstances that determine how they must proceed from here.

@ II!IIII K~$uke's €Ilrlf lend HifQ"f~l!l had pu1 her name an It f IIIKIi\1 pottle of high C!uality Scotch::at rrer ravodte bar and I invl,ted Kosu~e to Join her,for a ddnk, He knows his limit Is ..-I 'one d~ink. ut he Shjo)('s the gOQd ~cotoh so much he c~n't ~ re:sis.t having a sec(lnd, ahcJ' afterwa.r~s Hlroko has to prop

• him up as, tHS;Y rtllilks their way horne Oy tr~,in. When they ecme out of fhe station near his ~partJ1', KO$uke rsrnembel"s'tt:lat he borroW:ed his n:elghbQr's bicycle 10 c,om~ to 1ne statlon.

You w ill learn as you proceed (bat the da and desu in the explanatory extension can change form in all th ~ nnne ways that any noun-type sentence changes form.



""Ur,rrmph." H"UrgfJgh."


Omitting da

In infermal speech, no (never just n) or na no- (after nounsj-can be used by itself, without addjng da. This practice is more-common amengwomen and children, but it's heard among men as well. Ending a: 'sentence with no or nano uSually sounds 'q uite 'a bit softer than ending with. n da or na n (ia, so long as the tone of voice is benign. But nb/n,(J, no Can 'also. be used very forcefully. as in this example where both speakers try to get their way by "'explai,nmt' in no uncertain terms what they wa11t/intend to do.

e <::

,~!it!!iW.k:'; 6. ~

"' "..


Shin-chan: f

J3$-f" ::J~7~ ~: 11'< 1

O-kashi ktind nl iku ".0.11 '~

candy/snack (<;lod earner rc wIll. go (elcp an.) '"

l'We;!r'e going 'to the candy sectionP' (PL2) '~


Mother: ,~

fA :J-:r~ ~,: fT< ~O)!~ ~

Sakana kona ni iku not! p:i

fish . corner tg will go ~exp.loo,)·

uWe~re going 'to the seafood sectionl" (PL2)

• o-kash! refers to sweets ami' snack feeds of: all klnds=-eandy, cookies, cakes, pastries, crackers, chips, etc.

The 0- is honorific but almost always used.

• kOllij" from English "corner," is ofron used to refer to a secllon/cleps.rtment/rusle in a store. '. ,~i martQ: the deSlination of' a movement.

• Ohashi /rona ni iku and Sakana ki5'Ua n! lku are both complete sentences ("We will go to the ca:n.dy/fi::m section ') without no, btlt mother and Shin-chan both add no: because they' re ex,pla)ning their aCtions/intenticns.

A plain no with a particle

Adding ne or yo to a 'plain no or na no (without da or desu) tends to sound more distinctly feminine=-theugh this emit be considered exclusively female speech either .

.... fS the lre.wes~ meriY6er of the HI~h!3peCe,r ~ tiar;n; tiJshi~{ko h-@.s beeM ,asS:!~hed t~a.sfi,onlf~s 'Whil~,tl1's'\jpp$rclassl7fl~n take a,day off from practic~,.Jus.,tttten 8nclQ ~9ow~,up,t~ t\S'k If s~",~~gb§l1hete~m man age-r. ~h~n she realizes TOShll'liRo bas beEtn ~eft to do thc;i tau ndriWh'J,~ the o~Her-$ an~ qfftakihg 1:1 ,Eia.{!i~1 sne draWs har Own cQ!1olusion~

Endo: J::? .~~ C <t: rti05l Q.g

Yoppoclo heta ~ ne.

:§Teally!considerably ~llCki~g; il1sl<iIll M"c~~~x,plan.) ~oQlloq.) "It's th~t you are co[]shder.abl,y Uf.lSkllled [at soccer],

isn'nt,?~1 .

~'You must be a fea.lly lousy player." (PL2)

• y(}ppado is ~ colloquial variation of YO)lOdo C"co,nsidel'ably!gr>ea.l;ly/ very' much").

- heta is an adjectival noun that refers 10 bolng ·'awkwllfd/clunHly/a.1l thumbs' at a partiClJ.lar skill-s-in (hi::; case, lit aoecer .

.. the maln sentence. is Yoppoao heM da ("You ate consider.,bly unskilled"), and she uses the explanaroey extellSJOll because she thiaks she has round the explanation for the situation she observes. Since hew is rt neue, the plain ex.te.nsi6tt Is IU~ Ji('); adding t1ie 'p:ilrtjcle ne, which seeks confirmation or agreement from the lisheril:lf ("right?! isn't that su?) give:-; rhe feeUng (hal she's gli!~l!l1i!1;g/l>!.!nni.'li!'lg ("You must 00 -") rather (han staling a definite conclusion ("You are -").



A.sking for an expl:anaUon politely


When asking for an explanation in PL3 speech, lea follows the fun extension. including desu, so the extension ends with n(o) desu faa? or na nio) desu ka? After a verb, this essentially asks "Is the explanation that "'1''' or "Is it the case that """?" (with someone's/something's action fitling the blank). After a nounor adje-ctive, it asks, "Is the explanation that j['s/l'm/you 're/they"re ....... ? .. or "I. it the case that it's/I'tn/you're/tbey're "....,?" (with a name Of description filling the blank). Her ~ are a verb- and noun-type sentence.

I~ • Wben KS\ii stops. hi's camp~Jgn, val1 iii fi~: ',63,. , he says he would welcome a debt:lte but qoes not think th~y should have it right there an the street ;>;; His opponent Tanizaki immediately questions '~I!Jl1 i abo!Jt a filler the.llihks him wlt,l1 underworld 'ffgures. Kajl denies the link and relte.rates, tha1 th'is is r10~, lhe plaos to debate such groul"ldless rumors. When he gets back into his va.n,"Tanizaki calls after him.





ij T • 'Id" I';) .a.mZ3, "

__ ,

)mfflc; s: ~~f Q Nr::T 7J)?

Kaji.sQT/, niger{J I:! do,m ka?

(aame-pol.) run away (expllul.) (1)

'!Are you running away, Mr. Ka.ji? ' (.PL3)

• the polite fonn of nfgeru. ("flee/run away") i:-l nigemas«,

II'!W!Ilto runs, into Ms, Yoshida from he aelUll c~"Jnting departm~ril at work as he COmBS out of a video rI;mt~1 store.

~ I~----------~~~~~~~--~~~~~~--------'

~ s;:.~.'.f- ,,~,

,<; .t }Ij if') , I.. 0) i;

~ "~~ ~~

; ~~'~~: 't~.: ~~~~ 1-

!, ~""-.jJj ~~~~F-fl





~ • he uses the t;lx-plunatory extension b~cuul'le be's to effect seeking an explanati:on J tor why he should rim uno her here.

Ito: ? -;, ~ OJ:ill -r::t- 7J).?

Uchl, 'kono heN 110 n desu ka? home this vicinity is.(oxplllll .. ), ('i) "Is your home around here?"

uDo you live around here?" (PL3)

Yoshlda: "Vh.huh. Up the hill just past Hlkawa Shrfne." (PL2)

Asking for an, explanation info:rmally

When asking for an explanation in PL2 speech. ka replaces da in the extension; (na) no da (na) no ka? (You will recall that ka' also replaces da in making ordinary PL~ noun-type que ~ tions: see fig. 40). (Na) no ka? sounds quite abrupt, and can be considered mostly masculine, In the example here, the speaker asks raj" an explanation by adding no ka? to fill adjective-type sentence,

~ Cat finds Dog Howl'il19 at the moon-or at least he

~ 'thinks ~hat's what Dog Is doing. He wanders why I

l so, hE) asks this qLJe$tion. Dog's allsWer appears "ii1:fig. 95,

i Cat: ~tFt-~, III ~'?I

i Sobl,o,'JdI lICO?

1Ij. ldnuly (cl\pJun.) ('/)

~- "II; it thAt you're lonely?"

t 'lA;re you h01wling because 'you're lonely?" {PL2)


~ ~ Lh PL3 form of this qnestlon would be Sobi.~llii !I(a) desu kat

, • a stl'aightfol'W1U'd abiShii ka without nQ, weuld be simply. !tAre you 10I1ely?" Addlngthe explanatory extension gives l.L Ihe feeling,of "ls it because you're Lonely [thai you're howlingJ'l"


t.< ••

_ L

.,. "'.




't\sldng for an explanation with, (h(1) no ka?:sounds very abrupt, so when women are spming informally, they IJBuaily use-only no? or rut no? with the.intonatien of a que.&tion,0M:ittmg ka.

Natsnko:: u.t !!

SuJd ,Iffl no?

LilreJiove(cxpJ.l'tn.- 'f)

"Do you love hlm?" (PL2)

• sukt is an adjectival noun rather than II! verb. so strictly speaking it refers to a state of liking/fondtles~ rather than to an action, blllt it's much easier to think of the phrase suki da!desu as equivalent to me English verb "like," ill laterpersonal relatiOI'llSltips" suki da/deslt ofteil impUes tlie more intense emotion of "love." Because sllki is a neun, daJdesu changes to na when the explanatery no is added: SIl}d no no :::: '''ir's that I love b:iJill"; with the lntonarion or a question, the same SilIf\tcmce becomes, "Is it thal you love hlm?" -- "Do you love hlm'l"

Not limited to women

Asking tor an. explanadon with just no? or na no? may be more common among women and children, but it's also heard a good. dew from men in informal speech.

II1II WI1~n Kosuke !floes next do[)r'lto borrow .sorhe ~ IIaiI butter, he,ds his rr1end, a college student. f putting on his jlaoket. ~.








1~~;:1~: I ~~ I

go 0\]( (cx-phln.·1)

HAre you gming out'?" (PL2)

lt1 l- "1."1"""


13aim desu.

r.arHime job Is 'It's .my part-t.ime job." "1'0 work." (PL3)

• d~kake'n~/rJl!'wkema,'fU means "J()~ve rlls house/office (to f

run an errand. s~op, go 01'1 a date. etc.)," "~

• ha.i1o is mort for (w/lthail'o ("part-Limo job"; l'i:g, g I). I

Some final notes on no da/desu

N(()) daldes« is used a great deal ma-re in Japanese than locutions like "The explanat ionis that ....... a or HIt's that/It's because ",,-," are usedin Ertglish, so when going from Japanese to Bl1glish, jt"s_ relatively rw'e that you really need to use such phrasings; tile context 1$ usually e,noug'h to provide the eXplai1.a~Qry impact in English. On the other hand, w~en goIng the other way, n(o) daldeeu is often required in Japanese when you'd never think oflllsirlg locutions Like "The explanation 1S that --" or "It's thatlIt's because .......," m English, So it's importarrt to keep,yoor ears tun~cl 'to actual Japanese usage and bot rnerely rely GHI translating from your Engli$h rhollSht. .,

Japanese also has son'l,e partides that speciflcally mean "because," .;vhich are.intreducedin Lesson 14, But in many cases, only the nCo) dalde,\'l,J, 011' na fl(a) daIdesu extension is needed when malting anexplanation,



• go marks the srubL j¢c1 una S¢nteno:::

See nextJla~.


-i$fi-::F1 ~ cr} 4Jl? liY-tt-'":{"-o

AT K~ no shas1ull? Alii-sete.

{i1;!!tt,j~) i;I#liim fJl PhQlD' &b.ow-(~~

'1jhl IS tbaupic~~~Df1rim? ShQw hre!" ','Ob! Is fhat a picture 'Df ymrr boyfFiend:? Let, me-see i.t!" CPU)


Lesson 9

- - -


Th!¥. sU'pje.q.t -of ~ sensenee-tells-ycu.whc or -what the-main V'f}yb. adjective. Q-J'UqWl atlhe end is ta_lkin_g u\ilout. In-all butone (fig, 111) of the examples you've-seen :8:0, fa~,! the subject .was 'already ¢1ear,enough 'ffom the context that tl1es:p~_akers did llgd:e:etl thttr nee:ded to ~tafe their &lJbiects'e.xp ikjtly. B ut that's: eertnin ly no.pd.ways- tb¥ ease; -When rue;$. u1;lject df.-e~l1~¥d te·lle

sp~ned out, it's 1115U\\ll1;y matkep ,with tht}parttc:leiftgq. .

A v~rb-type'S'ent¢:nc:e fells 'Qbm action, and gi1.mal:~s wh~. 'or:what ti@es/did/will dO' that :' aetien,

t)'zuratani: '~£~, t;1 ~.~ '£9'" d:;:.; ~

Kachl'), watash). ca •.. --Pdrint'{;/.,~u yo_ K sec, chief . su ,) .I)Q/WiH do (emph) ~

"Bpss, I~ll d;o t,haUt{Pl$) ~.

. ~

Boss: tn h, V~V"" l--

~, ." ...

:if :5"

:;;, 9

, gO' tn:arks. wa.tashi ("I/me"'),_as,me Sl!bje-ct~ttr~d~t'.r

• ?tarn/yarw!a.m means "do.' 'Yam and snru are sometlmes ~,ihtetchangeable,a~ they are in this case(-"'> Watashi ga ~ shl1rursu YO), but in ma:n:y eases the-usage is a: matter of ~ cl!Istom- and t:lj~, cannotbe sub.sfit'uted. When they g: am interchangeable, ydrufeelR less formal than suru. 9'

• ii is. au adjective mcanin.g "goM/finMokay," but whe.n used in response to 'au' of'f~r. Ii ~or li «esuJ/i yolli Wei:) means. "'That 's '{)ka.Y!N ever mind."

Ii, ii.


"That~s okay ,tbt's okaY"'" (PLZ)

Subject of an adje:etive .. typesentence

Smce..Japanese adjectiv,es Lia:v'e the meaairrgof the verb "to be'; built ill, the subject- of an adjective-type.sentence is the subject. of tfre-adjedtiv,6 its-elf, liet of a separate verb.

An ac1ljective-rype senrenee describes something. and gCt marks who .or what itdescribes.

• g4Jllatk$;,«tu~nn ~"the sti'bj~€t:-wht!:t imidescribes.

• it4t is_an:.adiieouve~i1 i,tt~'~(is)±iainfu.l:·~;bll;r1t~"u¥6 'WM .lJ su4j!'tct ottfll%);6.f1feSP0U4s m'Ore~ matJ;Jrally ta the English '~__"';;;;-hwJ:t8-,u or the:w;tpt#~ff;Jn "ha~~:ft:-~~e." .

_. the FlL3 eqph~ren E of t:llls §'en~e11@ -IS' A 41FJ1u,$'cl it(ti desu. 1f res""" d1'!lf\:tcj''ii1e':t.jj.!%H'oh "V0har:g',;;~t f:l'<r7~-~;qti tvi.)uld

. ·_f.''''P: _ /8.. .. 'I .', - _... , . , . l;I ,e>._ C r

add the-'€*planatory e:'Rtension;'A'ialnu ga irdi n dald-&su,.


Subject of a noun-type sentence


A noun-type sentence names or identifies somethi ng, and go, marks who OJ: W bat It names or identifies. If the main noun before daldesu at the end of the sentence; is an adjectival noun the sentence is usually describing something, and ga marks who or what it describes .

.,. \' ~ "r * I) :,.t »1 it

~. t.,

J: ;

Omitting ga


~tlHJ ~ L, J: ;; 0



let's go home now $U J .. ) chance

"Let's go home. Now's our chance." (PL3)


• lwer.imar/!tJ 'is 'the. PL3 "let's/['ll -" fonn of kaerulkaerimasu ("relurn home"). See fig. 36 .

• the relative time word ima ("'now''') is used as at noun here, with go m!IIking it as tb.e subject. The sentence essen ~~aUy identifies "now" ail the moment of opportunity,

ocfhal1su is tho Japanese rendering of the English word "chance.' Desu ("is") has been omitted !It the end of the sentence, givill.g11 an informal note-though in cases.Iike this the PL of the first sentence tends to carry over

to'rhe second. -

Even witt! the subject explicitly stated, you may find that you still need to turn to context to till in some of the details. In fig. 114, context reveals that it is the speaker's bead that hurts ("my head"), but in another situation (e.g., in a question or as part of a longer sentence), atama ga itai could refer to the listener's or someone else's head hurting. Similarly, in this example. the context reveals that Matsuda is talking about a chance for himself and his friend ("our chance"),

Even when U1e ~peabl' deems it a good idea to specify a subject, he or she doesn't necessarily have to use sa. In colloquial speech, the particle is often omitted when the context 01' structure of rhe.senrenoe makes if sufficiently clear which word is the subject.

~Osllke: ~-, Ib -) .. ~ ~~ V~ ~.

A, mo mU'ichQ nurul ya.

(interj.) (Ilroadyar ey tea i~ lukewarm (emph.) "Oh, the 'barley tea i~ already lukewarm."

"011 well, the mugic1la isn't cold anymore." (PL2)




~ • MilsabO's o-nigir! is partly covered with u sheet of dried seaweed called

-, IlQri.~farnfljar to many as the wrapping used for sushi rolls.

• mlwicf~(I is the subject of the adjective .nUT'!{'i ("illjU;kcwarlll"), which te:fers to

. when .~olJ'letbil'lg I.'.i,ther i~!'l't as hot as desired or isn't OS cold as desired.

, • ya i$ a mildly emphatic sentence particle that carries a note of di-'lspPOlnlml:ltll or resignation, used QL1.)ly in inferma! speech .

• arel is an into je<;t;,ol1 of '~I.nlIIilie OJ' bewilderment; "Huh,?/Wllat?/What the-?" An elongated ari feels like a dismayed "Wha-a-at?/Oh no-c-ol/ Dar-r-rn!"

Masabo: ,t,~1..~o


"Darn." (PL2)

A modlfled subject

The subjeot of a sentence is always a. noun ernOiln substitute, and it can be,mODified in any of the ways shown for morlifying nouns in Lesson 7. In this example, the subject's modifier is another noun.

Aide: :klii, aa~4i:Ji ()) tC:'o)1;~J:;L-t,:!

D~i/i/1, kiJhakaiken no iU tOloru;;imasllital

nnmsier pre,~~t;C)n[ere'llCe 0 'prepii.riR1Qn~ S!;I ~.)llITaJ:lted!corl1pleted "Mr, Min:i.ster, preparations for the press conference have been completed I"~

~'Mr. Min,ister,. we' :ready for the .press conference!" (PL3)

• Qa.ijill refers loa cabinet minister, The Ministry of Foreign Mfrurs iscalled ?~~~ Gaitnu-shIJ. lind ~:m*!£ g«imu d:a~ii" is the full title of the person who heads the ministry .

• kisha means "repOlter/jollrnallst;" and kcliicen means "interview/audi6nce" --. kisha kaiken = "press coufeaeuoe."

• "Of()1'Ioimashita is. the PL3 past form of t()totl(m/tototit)imasu. ("lsomethil1g] is arranged/set/pur in erder," or in the elise of preparations, "be completed"). yol-/l(1. tototlo.fmashiEa = "'P'repatatloi1s have been completed" - "'Everything is readyI'Wc're 1111 ready,"

Mixed modifiers

This example includes modifiers both for the subject and for the main verb. Although some adverbs can modjfy nouns, and therefore' the subject, most of the time an adverb that comes before the subject modifies the verb, adjecttve, OJ:" noun + daidesu phrase at the end of the sentence; or it modiftes 'the entire rest oJ the sentence as a whole .

• ' Hatsushiba Ele. ctric has , planned ~ spacialQ9ul'1tdown event att~e Tokyo TOwer tor New Year's EVB,·and tUrrlOut has been eV81;] better than expected, A1 m~dn[ght, the struetute's Usual ligHting Will 'b~ex. lirtguTshed so (hat the lower esn be bathed in.8 rainbow of color,

Yada: o:t L, * p)(;;1j til

Yoshi, dai- .~'eikIJ dat

good/uJ1rishl big, success is

"Great! It's a lu~ge success!" (PL2)

t? "t -: 15' '7 t)) IT~ P)~. 1J~ ~~~ ;t ~ ~!

Me) ,mgt! I'CfIovrl 110 shlJnwi'a Menl zol

now ~OOl1l' tower ~~ iguis (SlJ .J gOO'll! (cmpb.)

"\I,e)'y soon now the tower's Ughttl will go out!" (PL2)

~ ]os}u' is an iuterjectory form of ihe adjecrive iilyot ("good}fil1e!oltay"); arnnng iis several uses, it can express satlsfecricn with the way semerblng is gotng,

• dai moans "bigllar,g;e"; as a noan prefix l,t lrnpllcslarge .eitl1er in size ~)r ill dleWilllil,

• m{i ,fugu ("ve!')' soon now"; fig" 75) is an I:ldverb phrase modifying the verb IUent/kiemnsu ("1'1.1 lighl/ril'ej goes oui'/is extinguished"); modifiers like Ntis can also appear between Ih~ S.UhjMl Iilld the verb: e.g., Talol/,(l

!l0 sll(;mei ga mf) sug" kieru .'tr.'ll. - .

• the particle 110 makes tffii:!t1 (from English "tower") a noun-modifier for shortIe! (,'l1glns"), which f{El marks as the subject-what will do 'the action,

Subject of aru/srimasu


The subject of the verb of existence ami arimasu (figs. 54-55) in Japanese: may in fact be what you think. of as the direct object (see next page) in English. as thisesanrple 'i llusrrates.

sa s6, o-mi 'fE.!e Q aru. no.

that's, r.ight on, -gnt (sllbj,) ~xi8ts/bllve (explan.)

"That's right. I have a present [for you]."

"Ob, that t'eminds me. I bronght you a present." (PL2)

W. &

~ - ..

~ • so so is used as an in erjeeticn like 'oh yeah/that'S right" when remembering

F! semething, .

f · o.miyu?11 (the honorific prefix 0- is ru.most always used) ~~ten~ to a gift:, 01'

'5! souverur brought back from a trip/outing, or to a "housegilt" when

~ someone a visH; other traditional gifts have their own special names. find birth-

~ day and Christmas gifts are usually calledpurezerllo (from English "present"). ~ • ga marks o=miyage as the subject of arU/a~'bnasu ("exists"), so the sentence F literally says lOA present exists"; out in this context it corresponds to "I have II

present for you."

Thesubj'ect of suru

Sometimes the subject of the verb suru is exactly what you would expect: who or what is doing something. But there are a number of expressions in the pattern -.._. 8i1.suruin which ga follows a noun phrase describing a kind of sensation 01' feeling. To make the phrase work as fue subject of the sentence in English, suru can be translated as "occurs": fum na oto == "strange sound," and Hen na oto ga suru = "A strange sound. Deem: .," But often it's more natural to think of the phrase marked by ga as something other than the subject: e.g, lilt makes a strange noise," or "1 hear a strange noise," or even "It sounds, strange" (in tbo last case, the sensation noun has been turned lruo its corresponding verb). Let context help you determine the best English subject=d.e., what is creating or feeling [he sensation ..

iilli II!P.Il<ostJk~ IS'ElatinQ .~i's annual S-~i<fJra.frlodh".(flg, ai},T~. .••. IDI:I cherry-leaf wrapper, salted and preserved since' thiS III same tlrna last yeqrl glv~s it a "Jerydh!ltil')dtiv$' aroma, Which

f K6suke .SSOCia~ with SPlI"g·

Kosllke: '1'.1' 0) :r-.f t) '/:/t"9 .Q •

~ (rhinkillg) Haru no kaor! go suru,

.~, s~lins of s!;'tlnt/Era_g;ra:nc0 (RubJ,' c:Ioe'S!OCCllfS

1, • The scent of spnng occurs."

I '~rt smells Uke spring. ' (PL2)

~ Addil~OllRI examples:

~ • oishli « Uta 'ty/deHcious ' and nioi is another word for ,i "smell/aroma," so Oishii nioi ga suru (lit, "A delicious smell I occurs") might mean "This place smells deli ious" if the

I speaker is wEllking pasi. a bakery; or it might mean "I smell something. good" if the speaker is merely sitting in her apartment when a tasty, mell of unknown origin wafts in through th window,

I iya no. is an adjec'Uvhl noun meaning' unpleasant/disagreeable," and yokan = "premonition, It so /ya na yokar: ga suru :: "A bad premonition occurs" - "I have a bad premoni-

t;~ftr'1 ~t

I Lesson 10 I

f: 0 Marks the Dlrect Oblect

~.ny verb-type sentences include a word or phrase known as the direct object which tells wp;a[ or whomthe action of the verb most directly affects o.F acts Ujp0til.. For-example, if you begin a"g{[ffie (fig. 26), the game is WRat gets begun; if you eat a fish (fig. 42), the fish is what gets Yii.14n~ if you ignore a rival (fig. 63), the rival is who gets Ignored. In each of these previous e:xawples, Uile,Japanese sentence does not state the-direct object- -what or who is affected by the action-s- because the situation provides- mat information. BtU when that information isn'talready. obvious and needs to be spelled !Jut,jrs usually marked-by me particle 0, written t: (see note On: k3:ria usage below).

Since -... 0 phrases te1l what is affected by an actioaand actions are expressed by verbs. ~ a phrases cannot link up with sentence adjectives or noun + daldesu (though as you will see, this does, not-mean they never appear in adjective- or noun-type sentences), Also, not all verbs take ........ ,0 piIta:ses. so you will need to p7ay anention to which ones do.

The word or ]pibrase that 0 follows is notalways exactly the same as the direct object-mn English, but for most purposes irs convenient to speak ant as the direct object.

Customs Agent: I NrpQ. ka- ~ .. ] liil.:t.r1bb ~9!! ~2--c.·,

.' v _ tashikamt!UrQ.Ht!! ~

insidejc.(mLecIill; (obj.) will I:)hi!Ck16t.amimefi!erify 'i

"[1] will check the inside," ~

"rm going to inspect ~be contents." (PL3) ~

fl, p


/'\'Y BaJ

(Effect of flipping lid open)

r) =i' '="t' =~ ~

UIi}'tJ nyll hyii "'Meow-yow-yow,,"

~d:, fd:(6 ...

No- hit ..

(stammer) yMJokny no_ 'okay •.. 'n (PL3)



• nQ,ka is a npUrl "imide/the iJa!;itJe, "and iI'S often used 1:0 refer [0 "contents."

• t(JshiJWtnema:su is. the polit:e form of tas!ii7wnferu ""check/examine/ verify"),

• Ita is a very tent:a.Liv·e/untertain bai (''')I,es/okay''), giving th.e. feeling that he is a bit baffled whythe customs agent bas suddenly become So eager to inspect Jus llllggage.



A direct object with modifier

Direct objects, like subjects, are nouns or noun substitutes, and they can be modified in all the same ways as any other noun. Here the modifier for the direct object is an adjectival nOUI1 ..

II!I!I Whe,n Nalsuk?'S~9randfa1~$'r ze,' nZi5' returtnldrom the o!ty to take' IIIiiIiI ,Qve(the.t:aekl Brewery after his older brother's death In 19281 me !mmedla1ely s.ees the limitta.t1ons of th'i!l rioe-polishlng capabilities,of tlii~ sak:>9 brewery'~ wa:terWt'lMI·d:riven mill. Hl;!ra ile tells hi~ young wife that ~ejntends to br'lr:1!J e~eGtriclty to t.he village sri.d to the brewl!I~.

Zenzo: :c l./""C 3l.YRtJ: t1'1*~ ~ An.ifJ"

So~hiie. r~,1pcr na .I't!imai·ki 0 irer«.

Ul1d/thc:n rUlO powcrruI nc,e-clean IiiiffiiiC'IlIleO l:J. pL11 injl:JlsLllll

"And then ftll install a powerful rice miller. ~ (PL2)

• soshit« is a cb.nnecting word meanlng "end/and lhell/and as a result."

• ripPtJ us an adjectival noun corresponding to.BngMlsh adJ!;1ctives like "impolSing/ grtll1d/fine/powerl'ul/wOl'thy ."

• seimai i~ !I noun ref~rring to the I.)leaJ1h~g!poH~hing of brown rice into while rice, and -ki i~ ll~UI'f1J\ meaning; "machlne."

• the polite fOlm of ireru ("put inJinsI1IU") is tremasu.

An adverb be'fore the direct object.

Although some adverbs can modify nouns, and therefore the direct object, most of the time an adverb right before rhe object modifies the verb or the rest of the sentence as a whole. Adverbs can also come between the object and the verb.

@ • As Nat;5"l.lko, tenqs her ~ first small crop.o! Tat$u· J nis'hlki riqElJ she calls a· meeting

of haig:hborlng farmers, to ask ~, them to 'grow the rice ne'Jct year, §- Ushl!;! t~!!I' gr~in she will harvest ~. as see~. The meeting :grows , con~enti9uS when discl,/sslQn

turns, 't6 the' viability ot the tir~ ganic methods Nats,ukb wants ~ them to use, NatSuMo's fq_th@r fU deoldes nothing oa,~ .ae gained

!?y pr'O']onglng the meeti~g.

Father: C"? t; ct5 !:J;61'c -3 ~~"~~~ Gtt.

pi,/mp(f)'igat6 gozaimashi7'O.

~M)ph,) th!tnk you: (hon.)

'Th.ank you ver.ymt1ch for coming." (PL4-)

(,~-rn ~ 8>t:~-c ~fi t:@rut~To

lzul"e af.atam:ete kaigou I 0 hirakimasu::

ln time agai(l/anew gathering (obj,) will open/hold

"We'n call another gathering sometime later." (PL3)

• domo is an intenslfier like "jndeed/guite/very much" that's used with expressions of apology, thanks, and gl'e.eung .

• I:ZlIre Is an adverb meaning "in time" - "eventually/sooner or later/someday/some other time/one of these days"; it .implies the action will rake. place after some time has passed-not necessarily a long time. 1 [ere the word modifiesthe rest of the sentence .

• artuamete is ocn adverb meaning "again" or "anew/afresh," here modlfyil)g' hirakl'me/su.

o 'f) mark!: kaig6 ("a gatherhig/meeting'!) as the direct object of hitakinmsu, which is the poHle foni1 (If hjraku ("opelll," 01' when 'Speaking of cerrain: events; HcaJ'l!organize/hold/cQrlvenefcommence").

70 LESSON 70

Even when the speaker needs to specify the object, the particle 0 may be omitte-d if the context makes, it clear what the word or phrase is,

'111!111 r.h~ hela.d.,· prl~st,of th~ Iqpa.Le~ed.,IlI$t t~I'JIPl~ h~~,$$,kedKo ~e tQieli~e! l!,~a!1Q~~tulat~r¥! f ~"g~ft to aim!low gsrlest:wpo ,rnq.s ~~en newly aep.erf;1(~~~O IfEl5ga.templ~ on thtt:' IsJlrW qf ~ Sh1I<oktrfl) W~$terh Japan.. ~pauke @x.pe13!s tp s(ay th'e~'e Qw:HIJ~ ~P'fJS +"hro:kq S(;if:S Rim tiff at the ~

!?tation, 'S~e tel 5 him ,s:~9ltl write.' '><,'" 1 ;1; _. , >. !,_

1IIT"i'"-~~r;-:r-----,<;:m Hiroko: ~t: < b.:fJ" fT? T 6 ':) L- ~ ~~. ~

~ kaku wa ne. ittel'(lssha.i. ~

'c. ter will. writ<e: (fern, eolloq.) gu and come .J:

tEE "I'Il write letters. Have a nice trip." 'a,

• '1"11 write. Have a nice trip." (PL2) ~


*' '0 she omits the particle o because lt's obvioas that legan'!i (l.Icuer·l) ls the I

,g direct object of kakulkakimasu; ("write"). J Iii J apaaese you l,ltuSI speoi.£y it: tho e direct 0. ~ject when spe,llking ,O,f writing [e~ters;. you C-~tlllot jllst $I:!Y ... §:' kaku or IUlkuna,nl the way you can say "I'll write" III Bnglish, 'i!

• immushai is the standard phrase used to semi off sOll1.corie leaving for ~ work,. school. an errand, or !lny otberexcursiol'i/t'rip :ft-om ,willen the pe.r, .. "'Ii S, 'em .wiU ultimate, lyreturn hom. e, so depeudl I~g o~. the: silUIl.ti, uri ~t'~~n ~e equivaleet to "have a nice day/see you later" or have: (111106 (nfl. fhe exprCSSi0l11S actuully a ceetractlen of the .PL4 verb phrase Ute lrct,ssliai (Itt "go and come"); but it's used in PL2 and PL3 speech W'l well without changing the form,

~~Nolrmall" word order is subject .. object! .. v1erb

A.s the longer sentences ill the exa:mples are 'finally beginning: to show, the crucial verb. adjective, or noun. + daldesu phrase tbat tells you what'1S happening or what's what comes last in a Ju,panese sentence (except for the optional "wrap-up" items). Apart from this one rigid rule, word order in the "development" part of the sentence is quite flexible' and can be adjusted according to what the speaker wants to emphasize. But the "normal" order-the most likely order when allother factors are.equal-c-issubjecr-object-verb. with modjfiers fOIi each element prcoedifJ,,B that element,

II!'IIII When Saeka comes ~ running 10 tell N~iau. 'k(l iha1 her 'Tatsunlshlki .ctop i$ formlM.g ear's of (;H&~n In fiQ,'~ $6 this is Wh~~ she says:

Saeko: iJIIe.11l ; :mt l~ I !±I L.. *- L it ~

1'a,iSlmi.~lIiki h()' '" dlMhlnwshillJ"

{Ilmrue) (~J l ellrA/heods (0' J.) PUlOU't

"The Tatsunlshikl has put out ears." uTh.el'ac:sunish:iki is forming e~n·s." (PL2)

• ho refers to "l'lllr,~/heads" of grain,

~ ·c/.astlima,\'hiYQ is the polite pastt form of dll.~~!ld{J..'fltimasll, wbidh can mean eithet "put I ~U!'F!ot'li.!1g.1 out" or "take I.something] out" dlilpendill.g Dolhe ocm.tex.L and the perspeerive of the i-IPQa.ker M subj~ct.

o can mark a star1in'9 point


The particle 0 can mark the point where a movement begins. For example, deruldemasu means "to exit" or "come/ge oue" so ..._ f!) deru means "to exit (:from) ........ " or "come/go out of -."

Man: IIi

1(uJ'lIma () orima'I'hita.

Gar!rnxi (rom got off/out

"He got out of the taxi." (PL3)

o can mark" where a movement occurs

The particle 0 can also mark the place in/on/a.cross/through/along which a movement takes place, For example, kaidan = "stairs/steps," so, using the verb seen in fig, 126; kaidan 0 oriru » "descend the stairs. ", In this case, the movement takes place on/along the stairs miller than starting fromit, 111, the example below, the movement takes place on/along the sidewalk,

Toshihiko: 1tt.J ~ ~ ts. cl!I!

Abunai nfi!

i-s ,;im~gi.m:I\J.q (emph.)

"That's dangerous!" (PL2)

~ '0,;. ;t I iE .:Q n J:: I

lito: ; ~ hashiru na yo!

sid.~wa!k on/along don itt :rui'l/rido (em,ph.) "Dontt ride on the sidewalkl" (FLZ)

Kenj;i; ..1::.8, f"-y! $'1~·m ~!_.v~ tJ'7

Yo, Toshl! Bukat.!o'u tanoshll kGr?

hl:l~ _ (name) . Cll!b ~\Gtivity • is fun/enjoyable (7)

•• Hey there; TeshilIs practice fum?"

''Yo, Toshi! Having "00. In practice?" (PL2)

• hashir» na 'is the negative command form ( .. don't ...... ") of fJa~:hirl,ilha~·hil'imasu ("run [on foot] "; or, when speakmg of motor vehicles, "'ride/drive"}. o 'marks hotlij ("sidewalk") as the place alongwhich the tiding OCCurS. Command foans are for1llAlly lnrrodaced in Lesson 27.

• ycJ is an infomml-wee:ling like "lJi IfH.ey!lYo!" used -by male ~peaker8 .

• in ah,lgh schoe], b« refers to a :S.tuden~activiLy group, i'l1c1uding the athletlc teams as well as a wide varieryorcJul:!~,. -Kmsu is short for kat~udO ("activities"), so bukfJtSII refer~ to whateverthe club does tIS agroup. In the case of an ataleuc team it typ.icnUy means "pn;u;tic-e," but Ita190 Includes ttny other Qjfi,c,ial' team aC,tivity. (TIle particle wa, to mark this as the "topIc" of the sentence, has been omitted; you will learn about wa a:!ld serttenectopics in the nexr Iesson.)


I:.: nl may mark the direct obJect

With some verbs. ni is used instead of 0 to mark what English speakers may think of as the direct object of the verb. In many cases, this ni win mark the end point/destination/target of a movement or action (in contrast to 0 marking the starting point, as in fig. 126).

New OL: J::. Go ( ~ < )

y oshi. (Gola~)

1aJ] rigbt (gulping px) U AU rIght.! l6li1p)'

J~ f? ij I ~7t f;::

(PL2) ~itST·~

1'orihiki-saki ni defJWa sum 1.0,

client (obj.) wilIL telephone (emph.)

"I'm going to calll the client. J (PL2)

Book: '7:!ub 0) '7{;-~

Denwa no Mana

telephone (mod.) manners

Telephone ManDell's

.' Joslii is oftea wed when die speaker thinks the Di:ght moment bas arrived foraction, Here it earnes a feeling of rletemrination. See fig, 118 for another use,

I ni marks toriliilti~stiki (,'client") as, the !pIlII}' she is going rccall=-ia essence the target of Iter action.

• zo is U rough masculine particle (see fig. 25), and in conversation it tends to sound even rougher when coming from a woman. But females often use masculine forms when peaking to themselves, III thi ease the zo emphasizes her determination.

tfi ga may mark the direct object

M already noted for andarimos« ill Lesson 9 (fig, 119), with some verbs, gQ is used instead of o to mark what English speakers may think of as the direct object; One such word is wakal1ll wakarimasu C'undersrand/comprehend"), illustrated in this example. In addition, some of the verb forms introduced in the second half of the book require the object-marker 0 to be replaced with ga (see Lessons 23 25, and 28) ..

• This ~lafymaf1 has come across something he doesn't ~ __ . . understand in a dODtll1'l$nt;he 1$ workJlI1g On. ~




S e.l




F1IH? ~'J;QH? ~1tIu!

Kud!a!, w(lktJrima:~fm,l

Silc.ctJ1ef her pace O. ' deu't understand

"Bos!ll~ I d,ontt understand this part!" (Pl.3)

h t;: L. t> ,bi,}). r; ,Ai!

Waltl5hi mo lValwnm.'

lime ~ falso II n't understand

"I don· t understaad it, either! (PL2)



• as you've seen before, kochiJ ("s ction chief') does not nonnall}' have en

a small tsu on (he end; ILhe small b'U indicates mal: he says tbe word ~ crispJylShrurply.

• wakarimasen is the PL3 Jl.egative form of wl1lmrulwa/wrimlM'1t ("1I1lde:r!ll1:at'id/compl'eln~nd"); tlui's verb requires ga instead of o 10 mark what is understood (or in this cuse, what Is net understood).

• wakarau is a ceerraction of wakl1I'(lJIuj. the PL2 negative form 0 1~!Clkor"j 0 its meaning j the arne a wakal'ima.ten; only the politenesa Level j differn!. You will learn I~bol,lt P1.2 n giinve verbs In Les on 20 .

• mo marks something as being. in addition (0 'omen.hing else, so watashi ma = "J. 100." Wataslri 1110 wakaran = "l too, d 1\'[ understand il" -'''[ don 'I undcrstsnd it. either,"

\; t> de rna may mark the direct object


When offering food or drink as well as when making other kinds of snggsstions or invitation, speakers may mark the object with de mo instead of o.ln this use, r-rde in6literally m(li.a:t:ls~·"""'" or something." Often, as here, this simply adds a note of casualness; in other cases it can 'be used for poH1teness. since the Japanese generally consider it more polile to express them.se1ves indirectly or to leave things a little bit vague. (De rna can also be used in combination with certain 'other particles to give meanings like "or someplace." "or sometime." etc.).

Neighbor; [:to~. 3' t: I itrZ¢7J~~.~?

(J·kashl de mo. taberu. kai?

(h~On.)-swee~s/snack fotlds OT scmething eat <?}

"Will yea eat some sweets or something?" "Would you llke a snack?" (PL2)

Silin-chan: '~1t..'1.



"Sure." (PL2)

~ the PL3 form of wb·eru ("eat") is tabemasu. The sentence is es, entially equivalent tOI O·leashi u taber« kai? r-wm you eat some sweets?")

• ho! is an iaterjection that goes with putting out one's hand; here it alse refiectR his. eagerness to accept the offered snack, without any polite reserve,

SUfU verbs and 0

As you learned in Les on 5; suru verbs are made up of a noun followed by sum and imply "do the action associated with that noun.' In essence, [he 110UD in these combinations is the direct object of the verb sura, and you will in fact often see the noun and suru wirJt the particle 0 inserted between them. But the meaning is basically the same either way: denwa = "telephone," and denw« Sum = denwa 0 sur« (both mean "make a phone call," 01" just "call"); unien :::: "driving," and unten sum == litnten 0 suru (both mean "drive"),

~ With baby ~~ll~~tE)ir FfamliJ(11i ~@~chin'~ the ag.4i e~'Qtieatet

j mobility, il:f1chael1he eat's oW~~r~ ~11I have; lhQlT nanQs l II keeping her away from Mjob:a~ltgf'food dish and litter. box,



~ ~



rt ~ • hai/wi is a babytalk noun for "crawling.' based on the verb haul ~ haimas« C'crawl"), Whether ill the form haifu;(i suru or, /1ailiui (1 suru, t the verb Cfl;!ftted with haihai usually m an "3 baby CnlWI.5."


t.: ~~, ':H~ I.: /\-1 /\1 ~

Tamami. Mu; ni /ulihai 0

(name) . finaJJy crawling (ob].

"Tarnami finally does crawling." "Trunruui finally ceawls." (I'Ll)

So lOng as the noun part of a suru verb is not marked with 0, the verb can often take a separate direct object, For example ~5!l1- Q ben kyo SU1'1l ("study") can have a -- a phrase stating what is being studied' f:I;zjs:~§~~Nm'to Nihongo 0 benkyo suru == "study Japanese."

When the noun part of a 5Ul'U verb is marked with o, as in tW.I~~-g~ btmkyo 0 suru (lit "do- studying"). that noun becomes the. object of the Iudependent verb ~iU1'lt ("(10") and them cannot be a second ........ v phrase to go with the same verb. In such a case, the way to indicate wha: is being studied (or whatever the activity in question ll1ay be) is, to modify the-direct object; if the chosen modifier is a noun (such as. Nihonl/e), it mu t be marked with no (see Lesson 7) Instead of 0: *nli C')~MJ: t--t ~ Nlhongo no benf(yo 0 suru = "do studying of Japanese " -t' "study Japanese," Of course, benkyo can take an adjective Oor verb as a modifi "r as well, in which case n particle is necessary: tr1"i,]\ L-ltl~~.m.a;1'-.Q muzukastu: benky6 0 suru = "do difficult studying" - "study something difficult,"

Lesso,n 1i 1

An important part of Japanese sentence structure is something called the topic, which is grammatically distinct from the subject There' no, real equivalent to the topic in Engfish, but the bas'ie concept should be fairly ca y to grasp because it s exactly what the name suggests: the topic of a entence is a word or phrase that .says what that sentence is fundamentally about.

As with subjects and objects. once the topic ha been stated it's generally not repeated in subsequent sentences on the same topic, and. context can often make it unnecessary to state the topic to begin with" But when it is necessary to state the topic. it's usually marked with the particle wa', written ~j: (see note 011 kana usage below).

To approximate the effect of the Japanese topic in, English, you can translate wa: as. "speaking of "'-,II 01" "as for ......... " But when you're actually translatmg 'into natural-sounding English, these phrases usually disappear,

• Aosl;Igi Kanji is only In his second term In It!> the House of Representatives .• the lower f ~ut mare pOWI;)n1~1 chamber of Japan's Diet, but m he is hi~hly ambitious ana has !already caught the ;0; iattehlion of.t~e prime min~ster's c6~rcl$. NoW he i. h~s ~ee~ aRPoin1ed, a min stsr without perldllo to ~ ~f,!earhead electrnral refn{rn$i,. Hii intends to use filS new PQsitfon to really shakEflhings up-as wEill! .,. as to launch himself to the top, I

~ m



ore ga tOI'U!

l'le Wot country us or lAne (5U j.) ,\l1IJ take

"As for [power over] the country.I am going to taKe ill"

"J'm going to rule!" (PL2)

• tl1'1lktl is litenlily "under heaven," ilnplylns "all Ullder.heaven" -+ "illl 'the: W\l,rl.'dlLh¢ entire c untry," and toraltortmasu means "takel eize." Tile expression tenkao toru "take/sei,ze the wcnd/courury": 0 marks tt!nka as the dirccu obje ~ f lorll) refers to b coming the supreme ruler of lbe known world (in early times) or of a country (in mer recent times). I'll e pre 'sian harkens back to the era when it Implied fdzlt'lS power by force of arms, bUI in spite f th sword in Aosugi' hand, that is not lmpll d her ,

• in this xarnpie, wa marks tellkci as Ul topic of the sentence: "As for th mire cournry, ""."

• ore is an ,infoJmal/rtlugh word fur "I!me" used by male.$.GCI. m~I'rl<.s lhis us 111 subjeot of the verb 10/"14, Not th~tt Ih topic and th subject are: separate elements in thls sentenc .

Kana Usage Alert!

In hira.g~M\. jhe sound l1'a has. lllwaysbee:1 wJitte11' ,~" untll pow. You 'tie seen It ill word Uk!;}, n t)~ '0 ~ T wukurlm€I,\'U C'undet&tand"; figs, 31, l' ), and in the ferninil't' 8~'ltt;}l~' pal'!.i le ~) W(1 (fig.', 23.24). But the topic market' wa is all ~Cepl\bn: it's wril.te,n y;f. Whel ~1 upp· urs af'lywher lse, it's l-.ead ha, tlS in ~.,l) hal ("ye,"; fig, 70). hllt M ~\ topi r!1il1keJo itlU'ttd Wa.

In r-¢aai~,g~ y u never' have to puzzle oVer n; il'!'; always ro*~d "Va. 'But WflB11 you CI1CCHin· tl!r a ~j:; youl1a1v" to detentrine whetHer it ~ marking the topie (rcad It '.V(I) Or ii'S pa'l'i ol' enother

word (read Jt 11(/'), '

In writiug, you rever have tu WQOciol' how to write tho sound hd: il'l) ilht;4tY.~ ritten ,~~, But when yor Wi\1ll ~o. write ~'a~ y()u have to distinguish bot ween whether you're u:ing it us a tupic marker (writ: t~) Q' i,' somethit iii cis '(W11te ~)).


The topic can be the subject


Much of the time, the word or phrase that's marked with wa is also the subject of tbe sentence, as in this example. But as-you have seen in fig. 132, the topic and subject may be eemptejeiy separsre. In faet, thetopic can be virtually anything-whatever the central focus of discussion in tbe ssneence is. Ali1d since the focus oftne sentence is not always the subject in Japanese, it's very important to keep the topic and the subject separated in your thinking.

When the subject is also line topic, wa replaces ga rather than being added to it

Sound FX:

Obaiarioll shin'ya terebio miru. mid .• ~g~d women as for late nighl TV (obj.) WMC!J "As for obatarians, [they] watch late-night TV.~'

'Qbaiarians walch Iate .. nigbt TV." (PL2)

~ =¥.:L;"- r: =¥ .:r../ J'\:"-) ~ ;.-

pogyzm dOg)lL~fl Ball ban.

(sounds of gunfire)

fi< ~,1i)'l"'o

Iku zo, lriya,

will go (emph.) (name) "Here we go, IIlya.'! (PL2)

• shin'yo is lil'ecally "deep night' and uweb! is sbcrtenedfrom terebijon, the Japanese rendering of "televislon." The cemblnstlcn makes a compound noun mell_niflg "late.night TVj" and 0 marks, llhat 110un as tim direct object.

• the polite form of miru ("sec/wlltch") is mimasu.

Napoleon Solo:

Ways. ga

There's no simple rule 'about when you should treat the subject as a topic and replace 'ga with wa. But it's worth keeping in mind that using ga generally focuses attention on who or what does the action, or on who or what is being described-that 'IS" 01'1 the subject itself: U zuratsni in fig. 113 is focused on who will make the tea, and the man in fig. 114 is focused on what part of his anatomy hurts .. By con tras t, using \>Va focuses attention on what is being said about the subject-« that is, on what the subject is, is like, or is-doing: the wa in fig. 133 focuses attention on Obatarian's action (what it i that she does) rather than on who does that action.

When wa is used with verbs of existence (aru/im; figs. 54-56) the attention is not on who or What exi ts/is present, but' on whether the person or thdng exists/is present. In this example, the issue i whether the magazine in question exists in the bookstore s possession/stock.






~ Man: 'tJJ.!ttt!vo rilit1ll1'fJt~~! ~ IJ *1,· 7JV?

i Sumimasen. "SM8hoku 'aha" wa arimasu ka?

<;! surry/e euse me ( name) as for exist/have (7) "Does 'Employment Classifieds' exist [in your stock]?" "Excuse me. Do you have 'Employmen.t Cl~ssitieds"r~ (PL3)

:.7E I:) -IJJh '1:""9 ~

Urikil't desu.

sold out is/are

"Ittssold out." (PL3)





r Clerk:




• sumimasen is a polite "excuse me," for getting someone's attention to ask a qu scion; It's also used for apologie (''I'm sorry"),

• Englj, h makes the magazine the direct object here, but in Japanese the magazine is the sl1hject of the verb arularimasu, With the same verb in fig. 119, the emphasis is on wiuu Hiroko has, so she uses ga [0 mark

o-rniyage ("present" as the \Ubjecl; here the eblpha 'is is 011 whether the 'store has tile magazine. so the man treats the subject' as the sentence toplc, and uses WG instead of gao

76 LESSON 11

The topic can be the diirect object


The topic isa noun or noun, ubstitute, and it typically comes at-or near the beginning of the sentence, This means that when the topic is also the subject, the "normal" wo-rd order remains the same as the order noted at fig. 125 (so bjeet-object-verb). But if the topic is the object=-as it often is .• including here and in flg. 132-the so-called "normal" order of subject and. object gets reversed (object-subject-verb).

When the object is also the topic, wa replaces the object marker 0 rather than being added to it.






~ ~


r. ~

"'I will set the price!' (,PL2) ~

• l'Ie~{Ul ("price") l~ both the topic of the sent~nce and the direct f objecr of tbe verb kimert~/kt111emasu ("Qecl(le/chollJse lsome-

thltns 1").. ~

• ga marks watashi ("1") as the subject' of Lhe verb. ~

• At a s8r:ond",han9· b00R~OIre 1t'1At he freqwJbts, KG. 'suke o't:o~stonaJly.' watches. t:ns. store .wl'ijle ~h'e OW$:JerroJ'lS errands.{Of1 thls ,day, a man comes 11"1 wanting 10 seU Qne gf:hls' books. It is KOsuKe's. 'first time HaVing to dea,1 With. thlaki nd of ustomer. b~. tlte man applaFshtl9 kl10ws tHe: oWr:l~r a a ~gels . .the owner WQultl; agree t~~i!19

prtoe e a!1~~. ~'. .'


The topic can be a time


In this example. the topic is a time-indicated by the relative time W I'd kyo ("tocluy"; ee p. 44). Relative time words used as adverbs don't. require a particle, but when they become the topic, they are aelilng as nouns; S·Q they are usually marked with wa. Absohn time words (e.g .• "Tuesda~/1'loou/three c'clock") can also be used as topics in (he same way.

"Heyl That's' my wallet!"

IIIJI!I Uz.uratani and. his colle age SayQ often eat lun¢h to- ~.' II1II gather, and UZUl'a1~nlls apparen"y f ellng. goner·· ~ au'S today.








U.uralru!l: ~ R 1~.j3tl;l1 H. -;

K a wa 0,. ga harau

to .ay ns h:II' I (ubj:.)o Will pH Y

•• As for rod ay , I will pa y ." ~~PII get.It today.'? (PL2)

Say«: .:F.s ., , i;'~? < t. '-I

01 Kakkn ill

(ioterj.) coo1jhip

"Hey, you're cool!" "AI'en'tyou <.:,uoUn (PL2)

• or« is an iofcmnal!rough "tIm ," used by Inarc • and ga marks it as Ih sllbj~f of IIm'tJ.Il.

• h(mlillharalmtlSu means "rfO] pay": this verb val<: $ lin o phrase, but here it does not need to be slated because It's obviou~ ~hat he'lI talking about til bi II . or tho meal tl~cy have juS( eaten .

• kakkll it 1~ a variation of kakko li, a colloquial xpresslon for "10 k go (tid/co I/hip." II. 0 ten ,refi&fS to how one is drcs,sod, but also can ref r te I'1'S, actions, Ue iJ1 'this cas. Sh.owing his generosllY makes Uzur.ttlu~i aool-£xcepl it Ll1l11/J nul that he's payinS' wi~h hi~ colleague's wa]I!lI:. (For a. note on Sayil'$ respense, see fig. 32 .)

The topic can be a place


To illustrate just one more of the many pb-..~sibilities, the topic of the sentence in this example is a place. But the important point to remember is that the topic can be nearly anything: a s itnation, a condition or state. an activity, a quality or characteristic, an idea, a feeling, a hope, and 51!) on; and sometimes it will be the subject or object of the sentence as well, while at other times it will be neitlrer,





A: J1fi'~~'i!! 0 :f~)v ~i =f#~ iJi ~~) .fJQ

Yiienchi nQ'-u;-u wa kodomo ga of ne.

amus, J?ark (1'110".) poO as o[children, (~lJ,lbj.) are many (colloq.) uAs for amusement park pools, 'the children are many,

aren ~'t tlwy?"

"Anrusement park pools reall~ bring in the little ones; don't they?" (PL2)

B: 'j Iv ..

Un. yes

"Vh-hub." (PL2)

=t- -t' ~

lCya (scream/squeal)



Wa (crowd noise)

• no makes yuenchi ("amusemenlpark;') a modifier for piin« (from English "pool"), and wa marks the phrase as the topic of the sentence .

• flo marks kodomo ("children/kids''') as the subject of iii, which is an adjective meanlng "i~ a lot/are nlunel'OlIs"·---'jo kodomo gt~ tJi = "children are numerous.'

Multip'le particles

The first wa here is another example in which wa marks a place as th topic, but in till cai e the wa follows and works together With the particle n.i, which indicates the location wher something or someone exists (see p, 31). Although wa does not combine with ga or 0 (it always replaces them instead) wa can indeed combine with a number of other particles. and when it does, it always comes atter the other particle.


z z (}) ~ I ~ rr:T~1~.t":> C ?.Q E ~~ rtJ . tJ v~~o

Koko no to.l'hokan ~'I1~ru chotio ~msCJ.i f/li.~~w c,a, . lru. ,

here (mod.) Ilbrat'}' at as lOr 11 ,liltle MISy/fussy IIhnman (~ubJ.) o'!mu/tberslll

"As for at the library here, there is a somewhat noisy [about overdue books] Ilbrarian.'

"The librarian here is II bit f'ussy.n (IPL2)

Slgn: '*S

Hosjitsu wl'l kyaktJli. ,\'hi'

today as fOt will ,dOli€)

Closed today. (PL3)

• the adjective urusa: Literally means "is noisy," often implYlnglhe person "i~ a ::;tickler/ 'fussy" about sOJnethtng. Chono modifies uruso'; which in turn modifies "~hr~'h();

• the verb i1'ulirrU:UJIi means "c'Xists/be in a place" (for people and otheranhnare things), and ni marks tOshokcIn t'l ibrary") as the place of existence, Ga marks .~hisho ("Ubrari lin") as the !01!lb:iect.-lhe person who il< inlrtt thal place.

• honJiM'U Is a formal word for "today," used mosrlyon sigm, or advertising 'fliers and ill public announ ements, Wa marks this,Ij,S the topic of the sentence on tho I'ign.

• "'yukon . himasu i the polite form of kyilkall sum ("close/will close/will be closed"); /cytlk(ll,l 1:'1 written with kanji meaning "rest" and "111;\11," and is the word for "closed" used by lfbrari .meeting haJl~, theaters, and oth r public buildings.

78 tESSON 11

More than one topic

A sentence is not necessarily limited to a single topic. If two phrases are marked with wa, the first establishes a broad-topic and the second narrows it down to a more specific case Of defines asubtopic.

Rf~,~ili fi #;~ te.

KG WeI bukat;su wa yasumi ria.

t '111 3S, fQf' club temn !l.CtJ,VJHcsas tOT day off i~/are ., As for today. as for team activiti.e.s, it's a day ofJ." "The team doesn't practice today," (PL2)

Omitting we


• for bykaj.~'u ("Club activities"), see fig. '127 .

• yasu.tni ls the stem 01" pll'e-masu form of the verb yasUlJIl.(,/yasumimasu ("rest/take time off"). W,ithmany verbs, the pre-masu form can be used as a noun (see p.57).

Like many other particles, wa can be omitted if the context make the topic word or phrase obvious. In this example, omae ("you") IS the topic of the sentence, but the wa 'to mark it has been omitted.



t::. ~


• KOSUK'E! has,corne t~ the-~aGhlnko (Jap~nesepinp~,r) g parlor with a message for thEf Qreel7lgrod'er'$ eld~rly t mother. Herao,n w~ts her to oQrna hom'a and: he1p with th$ j)i siane. ~Il1Slt after ,~osuke·91v9s her, the me5~age, Grad'6y hits g. th!i,lackp'Qt. '" . ,>. '". , ~





!i\" ~ ~

f I

SFX: ~- /' :J'V '7 :) '\"1 ;7

csu« j(Jr,,-j~lra

~in .. niing Rattle rattle (sound of ecn rollowed by pachinlso hullS rousing out)

Granny: ~ ':J t::.. '-'!!

YaUti!! did

"AU right!" (Pl,2)

:to. ~-x:l 1til .0) 11P t!. td !

Omt1~1 juku 110 kami d" ne!

you good fOTl\IIIe 0 f god i, '/:II'C r colloq.)

"You're the god of good fortune!" CPL2}

• Y,tJttat ls a common exclematien of joy. similar co ".AJI righl!" Of ~'Hooray!"1't iis the plain past form oi'yo.l'tI/ y'~rim(;l.m, Elf! informal word or lido,"

• omae is an informal word for "you" that is best considered maseuliae, Menus omae to addre s one another familiarly among friend$, but the word feels very rough when u ed with pe~p~e cth r than l'rl bds. Womell's use is generally r 'tricted to a Idresstng their husbands or children; the toll can range from cndca:ring to rough; some older women will also use It with Cllber close acquaintances. gener,ruly Willl a Lon of amiliarity/en d earmear,

• bmw) is both topic and subject in this case, but if a particle wen" Sl1\led, it would b wa lnst ad of IlG because the focus is em what' s being atd about, and not on who ~11" god f good fortune IS (lice J'iS. 134).

A topic by itself


To add a new twist to the Jauanese eencbantfer omittin . carts of sentences it's sometimes

" '" ,p", p " ' g p .~ , "

possible to state just a topic-and omit the rest of the sentence. Most commonly ,the staad-elcae topic isa question=-rnade so by simply raising the. intonation on Wa'. It's like saying "As fur """', please answer the obvious quest:i:Qll I have a:bout it."

Besides when the question is.ebvtous, this kind of topic-only question can be pressed into service when you aren't quite sure exactly how to formulate your question, It allows you to ask generally about the status, condition, nature, location, and so fo:rth, of the topic-c-leaving the 'othe.r person to determine which specific aspectis) should be addressed in the response.


Friend: :::I ~ l::: -.


"Coffee." (PL2)

Tanaka-ken: ~£ < tJ •

Bo/at 'frio.

lime nlsc

"Me, too." (PL2)

• eM/llOn refers to UI1i "order" for food or merchandise. Gois I'ionOfi11c.

~ the particle mo llTlplie~, "teo/also."

Wa= "a.tleasl'~I'

When wa follows a quanity, it means "at least" that much.

~.' As soon i3i~ Hanba orders hi$ bowl Of noodles, he im-

i. .. mediately breaks apar] his djspos~ble ahopstiGks

and ,himself a1 'the r~B;dY;, as If he!3xpaqts the, food to t s,rrive i ns~aJitly. The waiter thinks maybe' he'd bette~ set him ! sfraight,








/~='f Paki

(sound of breakingchopsticks apart)

~O) ...


AnD .. , (Intc".) "Umm ... "

• ...tun is t:he ceuntcr SUffil<: for "minutes," but a SOllUW change QCCl.l1'S when combined withjl1. ("ten") ...... ./UPpUIl (see p. 93).'

• ~ura{ (Of /.:urai) ,ufter a number or quantiry indicates it is an Ili'" ,Ptoxitm3tiol1: "about -1- Or so."

'. kakarirnas/J is the polh", fom ef-the verb kakaru ("to take/r<lo qui role on s ume/cosr"),

80 LESSON 11

Adv,erbs can come before or atler Ihe topic

Adverbs modifying the verb, adjective, or noun + desa phrase at the end of the entence may come either before or after the topic. In the first example here, an adverb follows the topic and modifies the verb that comes next; in the second example, an adverb precedes the topic, but it skips over the topic to modify the adjective at the end of the sentence. Adverbs may also modify the subject, object topic, or another element instead of the sentence's final starement=-as seen in fig. 138, wherechotto. modifies an adjective that modifies the subject Context must be your guide.

Zenzo: JE ~-;t

Ash; wa mada iraminUlSu ka?

fuot/leg as for si ill hurts n)

"As for YOLII foot, does it still hurt?" "Does your ankle still hurt·?, (PL3)

II! ~d:?

Koshi war

hip/back as for

"How about your back'r" (PL3)

• ash i can refer 10 any part of the leg or foot Of both: 00 text reveals tnat it refers to her ankle in this case.

• ita.mimasu is the polite form of itamu ("Iuut/acbe/be painful"). The adverb m.ada ("still") modifies this .... erb,

o koshi refers to the rear midsectien of a person's body. roughly (Tom a 1 iUle above the waist down threagh the hips, What English speakers typic all)' think of a rower back pain isatlribl1led to the koslti in Japane e .

• T!1~pet.·lqd froJl1AP~il'2~-tmoUghMay 5 eAloh year tS calle. d ~Qlden Week I~ ~ap:al'l because ~ Mrkflr::; can-soIDetlmes get as many as .1en UQntlmIO~S dayS off by combining a couple' of ~ vaca~ion d,,!}ls with wefJk~nd~ three national holidayS. May Day, for which many companies ?1 610&e down. But' som~;wQrkers fiqd the time off more exhausti~g than being at work. These men ~ ar ia~ at Work on rv1W~. ~

Narration: 5 fo.I ,6 8

GogO{SU mr4ika

May sixth

May 6

A: !t. ~;6~;l9 d:o



V' V' tJ: cJ;"

ii mi.

r (colleq.)



• the polite form of ikikaeru ("come back to life/be reborn") is ikilcaerima./Su •

• yappal'i (and the more formal y.a/wri) implies Ihat a s.ifuation/oulcom~ firs one's expectations Or common sense: "as you might expeet{.after allrm the end."

• the adjective il basically means "good/fmc/okay," but sometimes, ail here. aying .. _ i; good implie

•• ...,_ is b tter/be.sI." -

The wa-ga group


As figs. 132 mad B5~37 show, thepattel'n..A I-VO B.gaC is very eormnon in Japan¢s-e" Mo$tQfthe time, wa marks A as the. topic (it may be a direct object, place, tim~.ora,nything t,]!sea topic,.cati beexcept a subject) and ga marks B as tbe subject of C.

For a few word's tbatappear in the C position-of thi~ A wa B ga C consrruction, A repres:,eU.'fs the subjeGt and B tepreseats what Bnglish spe.ateris tWiIk of as die dIrect object. These. words can collectively be callea. the- wa"'ga group. Most .oneil, tl'1.oll-gh by no means always; A is a person, and B ga C_~-ptes8e~" that peirSon's abilt-ty, how hefee.Is (as in the. example here)" ICJr wh~t be-warns,

Menlbef!ld)f the- w(,,~a group indu(Je v<l!riJ'a. adjecftves~ and adjeCtlvaI nouns, For the latter two, you can usually see that the word :Or phrase marked \Viitb ga is structurally the subject 0.fthe adjective or adjectival noun in Japanese" even if it turns into a direct object in. the English translaaon, For verbs, it'seasiest just to think of ga as marking the direct object lin this pattern.

'@I" 6 It:

;t> ;.:;-:




~ 5 <:I)


,8$ .~



~ • following the.eustomary preference (see p. 6~). Shingo uses his listener's

name when an, English speaker would use "you."

• suki is an adjectival noun for "I ikinglfondness," but it's usually easier to thinkof suki da a'S equiealentso the English verb "like." Wa marks the person wlrto dees thclikmg;, and ga marks the object of affection, TI:ltWPPOsire of fi'yki ia !Iilt.~) kirai {"-dislike''). which also belongs to th'e,wacga group .

8hingo: S,.,\tL, < ' I ~j;" I 1l,tJ, , ~,,!U ;f;Jf.

Ore wa Nat-chana

IJllle as for (-name-dimln.) (~U~.)

"4$ forme; ] like Nat~cbaIl."

''1 Uke you, Nat-chan," (PL2)


.~uki da. like

.some usage notes on wa

Here are a few other thmgs to remember about the use of wa:.

'. When you're confused about whetherto use wa or ga, one way out is to simply omit the particle. But don't let this become your permanent escape. Even though native. spe~k~rs of tan omit particles, they don't do it at random, Omitting the wrong ones will make. your Japanese sound! forever foreign.

'. Wa is generally used to s-ingle outthe chosen subject, object.etc, among previously mendotted {or impliedj items in the.conversatiOll-n0t to iI'ltJ:ioliucenew items. This should be.easy to grasp -if you remember' that one of the suggested 'traaslatlons for wa ls "Speaking of .-."." A typic-a] p.'nttem is fOll" a subject; tJbjeetj thne. place, etc, to first appear under the ptevl DUS topic with their usual parttcles matkirlgiliem, then get smgled out as the 11e'wpdn:mry· topic-of discussion !.Ising wa. For example, liiht~g(}hanlVa C!-ntgiri o te:f1emasu ("As for lunch, l>®catriee balls"; hiru-,golta'KJ; is the. topie, and! ()~JIligiri is~ the-direct object) might be followed by O-.nigiri -W11 oishii desu flO ("£peakihg office balls; they ate' delicious, aren't they?"; o-nigiri is the new topic).

.. Once a topic has been irnroduoed, it 's not normally repeated in stil::rse.quel1l,t sentenceson the saml~ topi«; only when. switching to a new 'topic or subtopic is another wa phrase used, On the other hand, it j s not uneommon for new topics to appear several sentencesin a row depending on the nature of what is being said.

'. Since wa is-used for i\ingBng out, its effect is often like "Speaking of this item as opposed to other i~ems"-·th:at IS, it a contrast.

.. Irs wbrth en,grn.viij;g in your mmd that the structure topic + wa + discussion represents a fundamental pattern underlying Japanese expeession=-even when the topic is notexplicltly stated. It is how Japanese-tend to structure th_i_ngsin. their minds as they put their thoughre into words. 'When going from Japanese, to English, knowing this will help you understand why selltences come out the way they do.and why :English translations need te be restructured if they are to sound natural. When going the other way, .. keeping this in mind will restructure your English thoughts into more natural-sounding Japanese ..

Ko-so .. a-do Words

Japanese has a number of pronouns (words that stand in for 110Ul1S) and modifiers (words that describe other words) occurring In groups of four words that are alike except for their first syllable. The first syllables are Z ka, .Jf so, lID a, and l!_ db, so tog-ether they're caned ko-so-ado wO.rds.

The .:.- ko- words imply close to the speaker

The k9- word in offo!Jrimplies cleseness to the speaker, Kortn:;orr:espends to fue pronQuns Hthisp·:or "these," and re~rs to an object 01' objects close at hand (context tells whetherit'a-siagular erplural). In fig. 73, for example, the landlady could have said Kore chouo omoi yo e'This is pretty heavy"; PL3 equivaIent: Kore wa chotto 01'n;01\ desu yo), Here's another example:



~ ~



~ ~ i. ~ :8;

W ~


• wo, to mark kore as the.topic of the sentence, ha::; been omitted. ~

• Hiroko omits no no? (informal) or desu. ka? (polite) at the end, and asks her question using "I

only intonation, ~

• anata is 'a formal wordfer "You," used withequass or subordinates'. Adding-ee makes it ~

show possession: "your." f

~ P'

Hiroko: ~ ;:.tL iro ts tc. Cl) EI ~1j[?

Kore anata no jitensha?

this . you ' s .' bicycle

"Is tl1is YOUi' bicycle?" (PL2)

Kosuke.: V~{:>6 Iya.

''No~'' (PL2)

The ~- so, .. words imply close to the listener

The $0- ward in each group implies di.stance from the speaker and clOSeQ~8S to the listener. Sore corresponds to the pronouns "that" or "these." In fig. 50, for example, the shopkeeper could have asked Sore, ka« kai? ("Want to buy that?": PL3 equivalent: Sore 0 kaimasu lea?), and in fig. 112 tile OL could have !lCudA, sore, kare no sha~h:in? ("Oh, is that your boyfriend's picture?"; PL3 equivalent A, sore wa kare no shashin desu ka?).

Like their English counterparts, kore and sore can be used to refer not only to concrete objects, but to abstract things, such as ideas and actions. As seen here, sore often refers to what the other persqll has just said.


Raccoon: ~ I ~J:. ~l\Wi.,·· -c'"9 0

Sore wa 1l&/t!ltsu desu.

that lIS for st<qret is

"Tha:tts a secret." (PL3)


The d!>- a- words .mply away from both speaker and listener

The a- words in each, greup of four implies distance from beth the speaker and the I i,&'1:ener. Ai'~ will most often translate' into English as "that" or "fhose," but its full meaning is '''that/thos~ over there! away fronrboer of us," so it's imponant to distinguis.h its usage from sore.

He: ta: r;, ~ fl· w·m (J)
Hare, e ga Honkon. no
look that (subj.) Hong Kong 's
lOOn I~)v (J) ~fJ: ti J.:~ hyakuman.-doru no yakei da yo,

million dollar (mod.) nlg11tS'cape is (emph.)

"Look. Th3t~S. the iJ:fJiUio'lil"doUar nightscape, of Bong Kong." (PL2)

She: -E'tl~~ i!d~G

Kind ni.

pretty (emph·.)

"It's so pretty!" (PL2)

• hom is an interjection for calling the listener's attention to something,

• n'c with a long vowe] at the end of a sentence is like a mild exclamation.

The e .. do- words are for questions


The do- words in leach group of foar makes an associated question word" Dore corre rponds to "which?" or "which oners)?" and is usually used when there are three or more alternatives from which to choose. (For selecting between just two items; see figs, 152-53.)

-ttL ~iJ:: m:tJ~) 1:'.,- co

Sore wa abrmai de.w~.

that Ik'i for is dan, [l.crous ~JOn

"That is dangerous," (PL3)

~ t1:. 1::. (J) ~:t: c tL "r -; iJ?

AIUltcl 110 1<1 a dore de /.I kCf?

you 's as for which is m

"Which one is yours'" (PL3)

Here are some more examples:

l:n ~ tb '5 -":J

K ore 0 /nO hisots«

this/thllse (obj.) more J C'Oi,lnt

I'Pd lUte One more of tbese.'

< t;:c! 1-). kudasai. p10i1s0 give me

(PL3) .

Are go. watashi no kuruma

that over !here (s'Ubj.) lime 's CfU'

uTbal [C3I'] over there is my car.' ' (PL3)

1."9' "

desu. is

knre "tltis/llJese"

sore "thaillhose"


"thllt.!l'hes(l" over there"



"wbjc.h foJ" mnny]?"

Friend: ~'"(c

(The plural slrllix -ra is

s metimes added !(J kore, sore, urad are, bUI it's usually not nccessary.)

Sate to Isugi wa

now 'then Ilt)X( as for

"Now then, as for next

EtLJ ~ :~ts?

dore (ill ,iQItIfd ?

Wille (obj.) will drink

"which will we drink?"

"Now then, which one' han we try next?' (PL2)

<: sate 1'0 (or just sate) is us d WI'LUJ1, cOl'1teml'laLing or beginning an action: "let's see/well now/well then,"

• [he polite form of nomu ("clrulk.' ) 1 nomimasu.

84 LESSON 12

/w,nfJ' "this/these .... "

sortO "thaI/chose ...... u


"mal/those""'" Over tnere"


koitsr~ "Ihis guy"

s'ultslt "rlwt guy"


"lIlI\! guy over titlaJ' "


"which guy'?"

(For plurals in this set,

tb 'sl.lflix. -ra is usually added. Konsu and soUSIJ, are also used to rofer In things: "Ihis/tlmt one," r wit J) sl;J<lllldng mQre

rc ugh ly, "this d 11111 n thJng/lllat Illlckcr,"1


"this place/here"


"tnat place/there"


"Ihue plaee over f11.erc'·


"which p[']"

The kare group words are stand-alene pronouns meaning ~Ithis/d]at" and OItheselthoseH; the kono group ate modifiers that can only occur together with a now] or noun substitute: "this/these ........ " and "that/those __ .n The a~ word again implies "over there," so ana ,..", is literally "that/those '"'over there."

w~ 33 0)] Ji'li 1?'91 W tJ t::?!

Ano neko desu! Nani?!

thai t:a1 is what

"It's tbat cat! '(PL3) "Wbat?!:

lIJl ®~ ~ -C''9 ~! ITJ 35v'\:J t.:-!

4n, otoko desu yo! Altsu dill

t11at 'TUm is (om ph.) that gllY is

(PL2) "It's that man!" (Pt.3) Ult's that guy!,' (PL2)

Aitsu in the above example represents another, mostly masculine ko-so-a-do set. which offers a casual, often rough way of referring to another person: koitsu = "thi guy," soitsu = "that guy," and aitsu = "that guy over there." Depending 011 the situation, the feeling can be quite rough I rude/derogatory, like saying "this knucklehead" or "that rat/bum" or worse, so these words should be used with great caution, The words are pronouns, so no mu t be added when they are used to modify .a noun: e.g., saitsu no ,..._, ~ "that guy's =-."


The koko group are pronoun lor ed o indicate relative place: "here, . "there," "over th re," and 'where'?" Soko refers 10 a place that is near the listener but away from the speaker. Tile (2- word ill this set is irregular and gains an extra syllable: asoko. Because the words in this group are pronouns, no must be added when they are used to modify a noun (koko no ........ SOko,,1O ...... , etc.) .

• With his friends h~lplng from'tne .Sidefli.neSI 11'19;' ~ blindfolded man tries 10 hit the watermelon. He m_ 'strikes SQmething SQllc:l, but It turns Q1JHI;l be the head ~ of a bwrl'Owlng Barpvafk. ' ~'

11 i





pC 11i1?1 tb'? C 159

Suk(}~'hi mae! Mott() mlgl.

II little front/forward mON righe

"A Iitt,le forward! Mere to the right." (PL2)



Mokn moka moka (burrowing effect)

Friends: ..t L "J , ~ tt. ? !

Y(Jshil IJol~qJ da!

gVQcJle 11 ri-itht lhm place/there is

"AU .l"jr~t. it is there!'!

"That 5 goodl Right there!" (PL2)

• the ~mall ts« ufi r mae, yoshi. mild dcl'il1Clioat thut I'be words are spoken shllrply/foroefuily.

Direction, formal

TIle kochira group are-pronouns that indicate direction: "this way/that way/over that way," and "which way?" Byextension, the words are also used to refer to relative place: '~hel"e/there/over there,' and "where?" Both uses feel quite poIite/tonnal,. and usually occur in PL3 or PIA speech.

Three of the words are also broliLgllt'into service as polite/fbrn:uU personal pronouns: kechi- 1'0, ~ "I/we"~,s(}chi;'a ;;;; "yOU."; and aehir« ~ "he/she/they.·r Similarly I dQchirtJl-sama. ( -sama is a more formal eq~livale:nt of the, poJite. suffix, -san that's attached to names) is used to politely ask "WhJDf?" On the od'ler hand, dochiru (without -sama) can be used to politely ask "which?" When there IS a choice between two itel'us/alternatives(cont.r~st this> with dare, whi:ch asks "which -[of many itemsjalternatives]?").

The words in this group are pronouns, .so no must be added when they modify a noun (knchira riO --, sochira ne ...... , and so forth) ..

Wholesalel'; JC[OJ~lHJ~5' y!J ~'1 l: ~ ~~?

Sono lu'nJ tOflku Iva doko n,j?

thai Itname'llarrk as for where at

"As for that enamel tank, where is itT "Where is the enamel tank you mentiion.ed." (pL3 implied)

Zenzo: ;: "5 S ~i~ 0

Kochl/'a des«.

this way . is

i'lt's Utis way.H (FL3)

• SORO' hi)r{j tat~kliis literally "that enameltank,' implying "the enameltank you spoke of."

• ni marks- the place or existence [loathe verb '1rIJ, ("'exi~l:s") is understood, so -- wa doi?o IIi? implies""" wa doko ni arimas« ka? 0:: "Where does -- exist?" -. "Where is r-T'

Direction,less formal

The kociura gr-oup sounds quite formal, so they generally feel out of place in informal speech. The kotck: S1'DUp has essentially the same meanings and uses, but feels ,much less formal; they are the words of choice for il1dicating direction. place" person, or "which [of two]?" in PL2 speech, and tiley are often used in Pl3 speech as well.

; .... 'This strip ,inclucdBS rn\ny'gags about 1ryirig to )';let to ~ IIi:ilI sl'ee'p b~ ,CQU~tilig $he~p: Qver feflc$~.11l :t. this case, ,one sheep kS9pS ruri'lling and runging, but he ~r\avar rea:Qnl1JS a fericetq lwnp OVef, Finally anotber s]1eep i poi nt~ out v,vbat his problem Is:



t::. -:;t!. -_; t: ";) f.::. ""=J t: "':) TattatofaUuUrJ!

(effect of running .swiftl,y)

-r" ~J;~)v ~ 'I,r ~*ml

" I" H " II hJ .1 ""IJ • "" I" I· I" "' "'. "-

~ ,

.. '" '"" " .... , \ ;'3 ,':t. ill.' :Nit t=n~~~ , " ,. ",.

·'1 II' II'

Sheep 1:

Zuibun loi saku. dl'l fla,

V01'y/(lwfully ~ar/dlllm!U f(moc is (eelloq.) "JL'~ an awrully distant fence."

"It sure is a long way to the fence," (PL2)

~~~ ~;t [ t; -:> ~I t:. 3 <>

Sak71 WCI Cltelli dtl yo.

fenca 118 for ove-r ·Ul:\l W Illy is {ernE_h.} ~',[,befe'ncei$ over that way.'" (pL2)

Sheep 2:

• zll/hull is an adverb meaning "'quite!very much/exrl'em.ely/aw. fun)!," hero mocllfying the adjeetive tot ('tfm:/dis'tunt"), wbich ln turn mcdlfies saku ;("fcncc").



"this Wlly/dir6l;riotf'

"here" ""I!w0"


"tJ;tat w1IyJdlrt:ction" "there'



"over th,\1 way'' "ever there" "h:e/she/th.,y."


. "which wlly/directil)ri'l" "where?" .

"which [of LWO]"


··thj~ way/dinH':llon" "here"



"[I lui way/dlreot! on" "m'.?re"



"over Ihfil' WIlY" "overthere" "Ile/I;htlth~y"


"which way/d.ire.ctctm']" "where'?"

"which I of twe I"

86 tESSON12

B;.:iJ ..; '/ 1J:l M: I,,~



kon« yli ni

"[do somelhil1g] this way" "[dn something] like this"


SOrlO ,yo rri

"fell:) !lometllingl tl:i3twa)i" "dQ SOl1l~thing] like filar' "yes"


I1iUJ yii ni

"[do something] that way" "[do something] Hke that"


dEmo yo ni

"[do something] in what way'!"

"t(fQ~omethi,l'lg] how?"


The kOgroup are adverbs indicating manner. No is used when the speaker tsactnally demonstrating an action or showing its result: "[do something] this way/like. this." So is used when speaking of mote "distant" actions, such as the-speaker' a past or future aCfions" or actions done by the listeneror others; "[do it] that way/like that," Ii (the a~ is simply elongated instead of adding an -0) is like so,· except with a feelmg of greater distance. DlJ basically a'Sks .. do it:! in what manner/howT-but you will also learn about some exceptionson the facing page.

The kana yo ni gJ;oup also function as adverbs that indicate manner: Their meanings are the salle as the /(0 ,group, but they have a sornewhat.more formal fee] ing.

Proprietor: ::JJ ':J :J It ~ It ~ :W\ J;;.15 ~;t

Kakk» ii nomi-kata wa

cool looking way to drink as I'or

"As for the cool-looking way to drink,

rtr:J C "F 0) 15 ~ fiji':) 0

mouo shita no /to 0- motsu:

more bon-om (mod.) side/direction (obj.) hold

"hold [the glass] more toward the bottom."

''It .aoks l1lore suphlstlcated to hold the glass farther dawn." (PL2)

Ma'liiuda: I;: j 11 {Co?

this way/like.this 'fLike thisc'?'" (PL2)

Proprietor: [-{-5ol --ttl -r v~v~"

sa. Sore de ii,

tha~ W3.yj_yes that with is 8000jfine

"'Yes. Tha.t's fine." CPU)

• see fig. 136 for kaklw ii, which here modifies nomi-kata ("way to drink": nami- is the pre-masu form of homulnomitnmm, "drink") --'> "eoel-Icoking,), to drink"; wa marks thls entire phrase as tile topic of the sentence.

• when added LO the pre-m'asl!t form 'Of a verb and I'e&d -katct. the kanji 15 means "melhod/way lof doi ng the action],' but when it's used as nn independent noun and read ho, it meane "side/direction."

• shita = "bottom parr," so shi ta no h6 ~ "the direction of the bottom part' ~"towmd the bottom," Motto is an adverb meaning "more," so motto shita no ho:::::: "more toward the boftomlfurther down." 0 marks hij (and it'! modifiers) as the direct object.

• the PL3 fOI1il1 of motsu ("hold") is mochimasu.

• 'besides meaning "in that way," so is used to mean "yes."You will Jearn some other special uses in figs. ~ 59-161.

Raccoon: [ C:J -s tJ '5 (j) tt:.tJ:~

Do fihigau no ka na? ~

in wIlat Wlty/how differ (explan.) 1 WOl1dCl'f "In what Wil will i' differ, r wonder?' -t 'tRow will i be different; do you think?" !(PL2) ~


• chigau is a verb for "differlbe different." Its- polite form is chigfJimC/'"~tI.

• no is the explanatory no, amI ka na asks a question like "I wonder wh IWhar/hoW ..... 1" bUI in this, case both can be thought of mainly as soften r , to make his questicn-cwhich is actually 1111 indirect way 01' asserting lhat there is 110 differeJilG~feel less abrupt,

e~ do is sometimes '''what?''

Sometimes do can be equivalent to English "what?" instead of "how?" For example, the, line-in fig. 155 could also have-been translated HWhat'B the difference?" You will encounter other cases where good English equivalents can be formed using either "how?" or "whar?"

There are also a number of expressions in which the only namral.English translation of d(J is "what'?" Here are some examples:


Asami: ~ Ji!!.-:' 1

Kaji-ku!i, l__@Jot'nou?

(name-fam.) how/what th.illk

"What do you think, Kaji'1" (PL2)

• DcJ omou? (or in polite speech, Do omoimasu ka?) looks literally like "How do you lhlo~ '7" but it's equivalent to English "What do YOIl rhinla'

~ e N~tsuk'Q~ brotfl9r If{'M h1l{nal'9'ing day,·toIII . ,J day GP~'r:atiQ~a Dbth~ iSa~rKl ~rEl'wa:~ W 'ell f e tHad'l At h~waIM;iI; the owner Qf,tt~e r"e~ghboriflg ~ l<ufol'WY:.a Elrewe:ry,as,k&,Na;t~J,I~o.'s,parant~\o/hat1heir I pla.ns :are;~bf< tftle future Wlt~ ~heir son gatle.

~ Kuroiwa: L 11 iJ~; j c '51 1"" Q tl'1

J Korl! kasa do SUI'II ,1'1 ~?

I From now Ilow/what do (colloq.

. "What will you do now?" (PL2)

S jJ' ..... -~ -:!I- ::l!? c.. _.{ ~ '<>}

Do SII,rl~?

how/what do

~'What will we do'!" (PL2)

• the pronoun kore ("tItis") plus the particle kara ("from/beginning with") can simply mean "from this," but most often it Implies "from this timeforwurd/from now on." The other members of this ko-so-a-do group are shown to til right.

• suru means "do.t'so Do suru? looks literally like "H w will you do'!" But if you recast that as "In what maDTI 1" will you a r/procoedl?" you Can see a little better bow it comes to mean "Wha1 will you do'!" The polite form of th'is ex.pression is Of) shimasu ka?

• Saeki ecbo~s the question with tho feeling of "What will we do about what?" because at this point it's not yet clear exactly what Kurolwa .1$ :wking about.

II1II 'These two. san1utai gu@rrillas are makingtH if III:i1I way throu!;Jh the I,i1l1derpr~~h when the G'!1~ In the leaa StDPS to ponde( something:

Hachi: , c '31 t, $ t. t:.. . ~J!l7t'?

Do . himashita, oyabun?

how/whot did boss

~'Whut's the matter boss?" (PL3)

• silimashl't(1 is the PL3 past form of sum ("do"), so Do .~l1ima.rhlta? look.'! Literally like "How did you do Ii.t]?" but it's actually an expression for "What's the matter?! What's wrong?" The PL2 equivalent is Do .~Mf,a?

It's important to 1· member, though. that do still basically means "in what manner?/how?" You win learn another word for "what?" in Lesson 17, where- other kinds of question words are introduced. These examples merely represent instances where Japanese and Engllsh usage do not match.


"from lit! '/(hese"' "~ginni!'ig with lit" 'Ithcse" "from this tim lorwa,rd" "firUlTl now on"

sore kaJ'(l

"from, t1mtJlhos" "afler thai"

"from ~hl'lt tune 011" "MId lhen/~ince then" "nllxt/ln addition"

ar~ ham

"slnee ~IJ III l~me" "since ~hCO"

do, . kal1£J.

"beginning with which?" "from which?'


Special uses of t,? $,"

8oaiso has some "ipeci:a1 uses.that diverge' (OJ at least s:ee,mto) from its'iJasic me-ailing ot' "in that manner/that way/like that" You have seen one :such fig, 154, where so: serves as "yes." It's wO'tth Doting that ~\'O (or its polite equivalent, stHl.esu) can be used quite broadly to mean "yes, "even when th.e quesnon has norhingtc do with '~how/:in what manner" the action occurs.

There are far too many variations on the uses of so to illustrate them all" but here ate a few to get you started:

s··· 1 _z. ~ 1 -:tl'* i», ~? i: Nk~.

that way is {'l)

"1 see," (PL3)

• spoken with the rising' intonation or a question, this sentence literally asks, "Is it that way?" and i$, like the English "Really?j[s that tree?" But when irs spoken with It inUing tntonation at, the end it"N a[l expression of compreheasinn/understanding, like "I see." The CO.ntext and look of grim. acceptartee on Shi,ma'~ face showthis is a case-of the lsuer.


Shima: [~:5l t;~! !

S~ J katt

thaI WHy (?)

"I get it!U (PL2)

(:.t1~;,t m r.:!

K 01'11 W·(l walla tin.'

thi~ liS for trap is

"Thls is a trap!" (lPL2)

• So kct ?'-can also be a C!;uestion ("Is mat righI/true?" or "Is it reruly that way?"), but: here it expresses 11 sudden unde.rstanding/realization: "So that's .it!/Oh, I ~et It!!fh{t[ explains it!"

. Bonobpno th'€j otter and his ftial'ld13·arS trying'to figure out what 'they: can do for. seme ' '$uCl(jBnly pas an idea.

Benebonn: It; ':;l • rBl

AI, ~

011 mat way is

uOh" I knew!" (Pl.2)


• SiJ do ls literally ;'h is ~olIt is that way," btu it's often used like ~'Ohl, I kntl,wIlOh, thilt's righl!/Oh, ;y;eflh" when you have a sudden thought/idea, Or when you remelTlb~r something YOI,J jll~e:llded/ n?eded to do. Y".' hen (he phra~c e~presse~ this kind of suddel1lGl!a or recolleetion, ll'S often preceded byan 'Inuetjection lilter (II


The k6 iu group are noun modifiers indicating nature or kind: "this/that kind of ....... ," .. ...,_ like this/that,'! or "such (a) ---." They must always be, fallowed by a noun or 1l01m su bstitute, As you would expect, do iu ....... often asks "what kind of ........ 'Z" (as illustrated here), But in other situadons, do iu -.,. can also be just a roundabout (and more polite) way of asking "what __ 1>;

Reporter: .p1:p.~~H-~ 1:' L, t:, tJ~?

~ f, slu)nen jidai deshita I{(~?

wbat kind of boyhood, was (1)

HWhat kiad or boyhood was it?"


Another set of '!'lOU1} modi fiel's that indicate nature or kind is the kana yc'} ria group. Thei r meaning and usage is the same as the kd ia,group except that the kana yo ria group j(3el~ ,a little more formal.

Natu're/kind, lessf,ormal-and even pejorative

The konna group is distinctly less fomral than either ko iu or kono yo na;, above, but it covers essentially the same ground. In. addition, in some contexts and depending on tile tone at' voice, the konna group can take on a belittling/pejmativ,e tone, in which case they are like "this stupid/ lousy .-...." lor "that shrpidJlousy """'." One exception: the question word donna docs nat take on this negative Feeling regardless of the context.

1@.Attheir a-miat; ~Her iearning th.~t p.:oPPo .likes.' to spa. n~ .. her clays ~laEij)if'l,giQstead Of ga;mb9'llng, eneril'eth~Ej.ny .; abou~ tHle fleld$ {,f,iQ •. 97). S:hlnnosuke ventures tQ ask P'Q~j'jO J ab0111 her taste ln men,


if, .it :t1:Z:, J:l~ 'Y' 7~"2' Iv t'i

So- sore de, poppo·san wa

(Slummer) so (name-pol.)/you us fIJI:

<45· SO. us for Miss Poppo/you,

~ iCtil ~',I':f 'lJi tt}~ '"C"1I'tJ)?

li0'1i1It1. dunwd Na konomi desu kn?

wJUI1 ~ind of nltlle/I'flll.n (~~lbJ.) pref~I'flI1O('\ is ('1) '~what kind ot' marr is your preference?"

~~s· so, kind of man do you like,. Miss Poppo?'" (PL3)

• sore at: is often used us a connecting word at the beginning of it sentcnee.Hke "1>0" OJ' "and ::;0,,"

• 'Shinnosukc uses Poppo's name when an Bnglish speaker would SHY "you."

• dansei refers: to males; i;('i'1 [ose! is the 'corresponding word for females .. Por children, the words -93f d(MShi lind t;(f jooslii are also used.

• l?oPPQ gives her response ill fig. 220_

k{)i" Hmwyiina k-rmllll

"this kind of-" ...... like this"

somJ yfi fI(l somUl;

"that kind or ...... " "- like thut"

anti yo lIa t:J1I1Ul

"limt kint! of .._" .. .._ like thar"


dono yO Wl dm,.,m

"whol k,.Jnd of -'I" ,, __ like what?"

90 LESSON 12

"this lilll1l.y/much."


"that mii1ly/muc!t"


"thllt milO y!rnuch,"


;"hCfW ffiuc11'l';

"to wMt- .;&re.nt?"

kore kurai kono Il.Ilrai

"about this 1I1l1hy!rll~lClf'

~''Ore kurai

BOlIO kflroi

"about thai many/tnuch"

aro kurai

at,,,, kurni

"about tlnn many/muo;h"

dQrIJ kurrd

dono Imral

"about how much?"


The konna-ni group are adverbsindicating amount or extent: "this many/that many" or "this mnch/that much." They modify adjecth;r'es and verbs; and usually imply that the amount/extent is quite large: I~SO many/sb much."


~ ~ fiI



" Q

Goto: ~w.1i t;{ ~~IiJ? t T /\1\/\/\ f

O-sake ga geijutsu? Hya /1(1 fla ba ha ~

(Ilon.).sak~ llmhJ.) . art ~l{]ugh) it

'~Sake's an art? Hyuk hyuk hyuk!" (PL2) ~

Hirooka: ~n~ L~:l n\.td?

okashil Ita ne?

tb~L much _ limN {?-colloq.}

"Is it that funny?"

~'You think if's that funny?" (PL2)

·okasllii is an adjective that m.eans'Cfl.lnlfly"~ejfue'l' in the humorous sense or the strange/odd sense, depending on tile context. Here it. is ,quite c1eady:the former. in other oontexts. rt~ meanings range to "impl'o.per/illog"it:a]ju:Ili'e33oila.b 1 e!prspostero us/wfon,g."

• asking a question wJth ka ne' is racstly reserved for males, and fur superiors speakingto subordinates. Using only ka sounds very abrupt, and no has a softenilngeffect.

App~oxi':mate, am·Qulnt/extent


The kore kurai and kono kurai groups indicate approximate amount or extent: "abourthis m~nyl that many" or ('about this much/that much." The words in these groups can function as adverbs, to modify adjectives and verbs; or they can function as pronouns and be made into noun modifiers by adding no (km'e kurai no ....... , sore kurai no -...., and so forth).


;:0)< I;l;~ 0) "If-1t<,

!YI!!Jj_kurq,i tUJ: zeiwku, R

iiooUt 1J1is li1~ich Ol oxL:tilvl:\gance f:

"[As for] an extravagance of about this much,

t: *1;: ~j:, ~~ v~ b J: .tl ~

lama 1'Ii IVa Ii Wei yo ne. ~

occil~:ionally '~for l.q flne/okay ,trern.) (omph.) (colloq.) ~ "as for occasionally. n's fine, fight?" F' ~'This much of an extravagance ls all right now

and then, I"ight'l" (PL2)

• the standard way of writing zeitakli ('le;xtraVlliljanoe") in hiragena is tf ~ ~ t: < . Wa to mark 'Zeifakll as (he overall topic hal; been omitted.

• tama r!I' means ,"occasionallY/l1ow and then"; We.! t'lif\rks ihls us a second topic; "allliD1' occasionally."

Lesson 13

Some, High·,Traffic Particle's

There aren't enough pages in this book to devote entire Iessens to all' of the' particles used in Japanese. But now that you know about the all-important ga, o, and wa and have a basic under'standing of bow particles work-by marking whatever precedes them-you: 'should. be-able to pick up on the basic, usage of others simply by studying the examples and notes whenever they happen to appear. U&'e the index to find other examples for com paris OJ • and you can even begin to get a senseof the gradations-and subtleties of nuance. This lesson is designed to give you a running, Start on "the best of the rest"-a, f'rw 'Of the most versatile and freq uently used parth::lcs-by giving them more focused attention than a take-them-es-they-comeepproaeh allows.

The :first part,tele tha:t,deserv~ -a bitt, of 21 closer look 1S ni, which has already popped up'quite a few times, In fig, 6'5 it marked- the choice made; in figs 100 and 128, the tv~et of anaction; and in flg, 103" the destination of a movernent, Consider these ex amples 'cl esely, and you will see a Common thread: 1'2i marks the endpoint (of a decjsi(,')l1, s).1iil\Gtion, a movement): But you have also seen a completely different use for ni in figs, 55, 138, and l52"where it marks theplace of existence, and this lesson will show you. a few mote. Hi is ill fact one of the most versatile particles around, and you win continue to discover new uses for it as you proceed with your study.

I:: ni marks purpose

The obvious endpoint of a move-ment from one 'Place to another, represented by such verbs as iku ("go"), kuru ("cotne") or kaeru. ("retumh0I11e"), is the destination. But as the Engli h eJII.pression "ends and means" implies, the purpose or aim of a movement can also be con idered an ' endpoint-what the movement is intended to accomplish in the end-and indeed, w;tb verbs indicating this kind of movement from one place toanother, ni often marks the purpose: "for the purpose of/in. order to ""_'," or simply .. for/to ........ ." The purpose itself is expressed with a noun that represents an activiry (e.g .. , kaimono = "shopping" -----+ kaimono ni iku ;::0 "go to shop/go shopping"), or with the ~re-ma~'~ form of a verb; as in this example .

Cllent: ~~, @/'I./6~A..r"

fa" Yun~t:h~n.

hi ()1(,ljlllm.)

HHl~ Vl'( n -ehan." (PL2)

Yun-chal1: ~lfti mH't ~ @I * L-t::o

ZlIme n todok« llliJ 1cirrUJ,~·hi U/ ,

drawlngs deliver (purpose) came

"I came to deliver the drawJngs.' (PL3)



Doboku ·ka

civil. enSrl£l.!b. works l>i3cliol1

Public Works Sect jon

• yli is an il1formall'hi/hello"" used by male sileukers:. .'

• lOdoke ill theplie.1n~su fonll t11:'ehe vel'1l) rodokenJ.ltrxi()ke)~IOSll (,jdeliver"), and h.i marKS tJtis us the purpose

of corning, .

• kil"lll7shita. is the I~3 ]?Mt form of k.ul'lllkimaslI ('·~Oll1l1i'·).


Hi marks absolute time



As noted in Lesson 6, relative time words such as kiM C'yesterday"); kyo ("tocta)"'), and ashita ('~tomorrow") do not need a particle, but if an absolute time. word is used to indicate when an action takes/tool( place. it is marked with the particle fit. This is true when indicating a specific hour on-the clock. as in theexample below. as well asfor other kinds of time references: niohiyabi ni :;;;, "on Sunday"; Kurisumasu ni '" "at Christmas"; natsu /1';i = "in the summer": dai~gaku jidai nt:::; "duringmy college years."

~ 111-' 'Usaniit ~xe~fjtiv£! direCfd.r of 1~e lhlatsushiba£l#6fr. i6S:a. les,mViSibn., l'J • ... ~:Ia~iJt·· ~~& dhair~g,f:t qe,tt1i~'J30,jd.,:¥~J~ihara'1ln;'a'_',t;1IfSJ!leSE( i ~~I.teV»01f~·,. l5ar. i Ii:Sfijo'~!eiye\the,y ~efjaa~~rr'SnQ;111l:rif~ r~r·al:?lan~

i. 'l1etif g~lfcol.Jtmfll~e rr~xt\ daY" ' ,

~ Usamk ~'j:.v~! -r~~, ff:JEI IOn¥! ~I

~ /fai! De wa, ashita jiiji lB.LI

r yes/okay in t11al alSo/men tomorrow 10:00 ar

~ $)!TUt 1::#= ~ £Tc

•~l o-mukae ni mOlnma,m.

~ (hcn.j-pick up (purpose) will CODle

r "Y'OS &ir.! WoUthen, I will come to pick you up at

~ 10:00 tomorrow." (PL4)

• de wa ill' the beginllinl! of a sentence literally means "in that case/if that ts the ease,' bUl it often corresponds 10 word!.! lika "lI'Jen/well theil/SO" a1 the begimting of EngU s h se ntences,

• Iji nlllrksjt(ii ("1 O:OO") as (he time whenthe actlon will take place.

• 0- is honorific. and mukae is the pre-masl~ form of flwkaerlllrnuklJemallU, which implies eilher gOlng or corning to "meet/receiveswelcome" someone.

• mairimCl.'w is thepolite form of maim, a PL4 humble verb thai can mean either "go" or "come" depending on the context, so Q-mukae tli mairimasu here is a PL4equivalent of mukae ni kuru (lit. "come to meet/receive rYOl1]" - "come ro Plck you up").

Taltlnn ti -_ ..... gme

Hours and minutes:

The hours of the day are indicated with a number plus the sLilftix:lm -n. minutes get the s·ufi"u it -fun (which sometimes.nhanges to -pun Or -ppurz); and. seconds get the suffix ~.P -byo. As in English, the hour is stated first, then minutes, then seconds. The times arc given in kanji ~t the top here, but today It's more common 'to see Arabic numerals, as in the examples at the bottom (the suffixes remain in kanji).

When necessary, LfAA .gozen precedes the Gillie to lndlcate "0,.111./' andL:p.f~ gogo precedes the lime for "p .. m .. " (they occur both with and Without a trailing no). AII'Cl (no) (-'in the morning"). hirt: (no) ("in the afternoon/da.ytime"), and ydPU (no) ("m the evening/at night") can abo be used,

The half hour can be indicated either as -jt sanjuppun ("'-"" thirty") OJ:' by adding the

ffi h>" ("hal"") "h ("half" ... ")

su X· san ,'1 : -ji-nan ... past r- "

The suffix -kar: ("period/timespan") 'Used to indicate durations of years, months, weeks-and days (p. 49) is also used for shorter rirrtes.pans;.-jikan ;::;; .• '--'" hours" (jikan i,s also the word for "tune" in general}; -fun-kan = H", minutes"; and -/Jy{:}-kcm = ;' ....... seconds." The suffix. is always requited wben lridicatihg hours, but optional'for durations ohhitl.'iites aad seconds,

94 LESSON 1,3


Nimarks a source

In statements about. something received, ni can mark the source, With the verb karirulkartmasu (,'borrow") appearing in this example, ni marks the source from which the borrowing bikes place. Compare this with fig. 100, where-tile verb is "distribute" and ni marks the target of the distribution. The- natureef'the. verb determines which meaning it mum be.



'{m1!rm!tiW ~ i'l §

Natsuko: mPff (J):S U ~ l ~ Iv rEl {1I!'J * L tr, ~

Ki"iJ'o no o-iiisan lclJ karimashita.

-.J 5

neighborhood of (hon.j-old mall from borrowed

i'l borrowed it (rom an old man who lives ~


nearby." (PL3) ~

Sound FX: 9"" /'\::; "F)'{ ~'

Jaba jaba (gentle splashing in flooded rice paddy) ~

~ within the family, o-jiisan is a polite word for addresslng or referring to "Grandfather"; outside th~ family, if's used to addres» or refer to any elderly man. The he-noli fie 0- 'rends to be kept even in informal speech because dropping it can sound too abmpr/rough and impolite,

~ karimashha is the PL3 past form of karirulkarimasu. ("bOJlfOW"). The SOl1fCe from which borrowing takes place can 'be marked either with IIi; as here, or with kuru ("hom "; fig. 176) ..

Ni marks a, surface

Ni can mark the surface on/against which an actio-n. takes place" such as writing or drawing 011 a sheet of paper Ikami ni kaku, from kam; = "paper" and kakldkakimam ;;;; "write/draw"), 01' refleeting in a mirror (ka:gami ni utsuru, from kagami == "mirror" and utsurulutsurimasu = 'refleet"), or setting something an a shelf (Carla ni oku, from tuna "'" "shelf' and okulokimasu = "set down'). As in fig. 100 and others cited above, fit can be thought of as marking the endpoint ef an action in these cases.

• bOzu is an informal, sometimes even de-

rogatory,wurdfbr"pril,;lgt!monk," NEWS NEwS NEWS 5:0'0 c:==:::::.;:1

• ni marks byqlJ/~ ("folding screen") as the surface on which the drawing look place .

• jiitu ni ("ski1WuHy") 1S the adverb ferm of-the adj otlva] nounjozti, which 111 the tbrmjoim daldes« typically means "is skillful." Josu ni here modifies the verb kakimashiw, the PL3 past form of kakulkaklma~u ("''Wtite/draw''). Whe ./(l;U d(J,ldes,u l\ppe'-I[!'s in the sentence final posirlon, le -follows the 'I1'a-ga coastruction (fig. 145).

• chukei refers to a live broadcast or report. The word is 1101 nor,mall)! followed by -san, but adding il here creates 11 generic stand-in for the reporter's name.


Tsugi no 11yUStl desu,

next (rnod.) newl> is

"N~n\' the next news." (P'L3)

~ B,;J9i.:e '/.}! It.t '5..$~ rr:l v.t j 1",::

Kyi), btJtu ga by{)hu l!ill jozlI ni

today priest (subj.) folding screen Oil skillfuily

~9A (J) ~

bezM no e o kakin u:tsllita.

priest I s picture (Qbi.j drew

"Today a priest skillfuUy drew a picture of a priest OJ) a l'Ulding screen." (PL3)

4iX,'illl~ lu.

C hf't.kei'·san.

llve repor!er'(pol)

"M!'. Live Rep rter."

"Let's go to our reporter at the scene. ' (PL3)


Ni can also be "and"


Y QU. will sometimes see and hear ni being used like "and" to connect nouns, Often therewitl be three or mere items listed. and the items will belong to a set of some kind~i1her of Hire items, suchas-the hot drinks in this example, or of unlike items that have been assembled for some commmrpurpose (!e.g., .. items in a pieeicbasket). Ni is also used as "and" between pairs of items that always ge together, such as gohar: ni misoshin: (".rice and mise soup"), The particle to, coming' IIp in fig. 179, can abo be used in these cases, but ni tends to carry a stronger sen e of the items'@~P1l,'gingwgefuer.

@ :<>


sr c: z;



~ OL: :::J~t::~ 4? ~ Ui; ..:::.? IE1 ry-O:/Jk td.

~ K{jhii YOtlfIU lmJ Mcha .fufat~1I In.£J aroncha rze.

lit cotfee 4 CI,llllllt and black tea 2 count and oolong rea (u."oolloq!.)

.§" "SO that's 4 ooffees aDd 2 black teas and an oolong tea," (PL2)

9-1' 9-1

:>: 0< ... O!

~ SFX: !'l

Wai wa;

(olamor/chatter of large group of people.)

'fJ " n 4 :II IJt~l tJ ::. ,: t:

;<1'"':) 1 It,t:

• though written wlth kanjl meaning "red/crimson" and "tea," kiich« refers to wb.atBbglish speakers know as "black tea."

" e marks dlrectlen/destlnatlen

The particle A.... read e (see note ou kana. usage below). marks a direction or destination: migi e iku = "go right"; Nihon e iku = "go to Japan." It's also used with certain verbs to indicate the target or recipient of the action: gakkO e denwa suru = "telephone the school." In all these uses e is generally interchangeable with ni, but ,€ primarily emphasizes the direction. while ni emphasizes the person/point re-ached.

Noboru: i!&~. [-:jlJ& ~ *9g

ltimi c

hometown to will return

"I'll return to m:rh.ometov.'Il." "rll:go home." (PL3)

• when wrinen with this "kanji, /ami refers to one's ·"holtw.t-own!natlve place/birthplace," u.suatIy when. ODf; is aWllY from it. Kuni can, also mesn '~ctnm.try/nation" {referring ID the whole of Japan or-to other eoumries oHhe·\Vorld), in w.hlch caseit's written Ill.

96 LESSON 1'3

'"'C: de marks where an action occurs

When speaking of a place in English, ,it doesn't matter whether it's the place where something is or where something occurs, but in Japanese you have ro make a distinction. You've already learned that l'Ii marks a place of existence-where something is located (figs. 55, 138. 152); for actions, the particle de marks the place efoccurrence-e-where the action takes place. Words like "i;l!t/o.n/in" work as English equivalents for both particles,




Narration: &i!: ~~ !1lrF r!) ii~ ~ f

Him wa C/lika IlO s/lokuda 11k.I

llol)ofluliCI~ tiS for basement ~ltlod") cMelerill 31 ~

300 P1 (J) lE~ t:: :a: <"{ ~ 0 ~.

,fClnbyakU>-fJl1 no tei.shok'll. o taber« ~

¥300, '!11a(i~, ser meal (obi,) e~l g;

"As for noon, I eat a ¥30{) SoL meal at the cafet ria ih th rt

basement." I "For lunch, 'I go lo the cafeteria iu the basement and eat lit: oae of their set meals 1'01' V:300." (PL2) 1

* hlrIJ.1Berally means "noon," but it's oftenllU'~~l(Jl to Im;:~n "noon ~(l/a.l/Junch.." " l. ~ shoklJd{; can refer to' a variety of relartve y mexpenswc "eateries rcstaurillH~ ; ti when it refers to a room within Ill. larger bllHding i,l means "dining roorn/I.:nf'ete- J ria.' De In arks this word as the place' where Kosuke eats. - - teishoku refers to the tradhional Japanese "set mea;" of steamed rice. mlso or

oth r soup, ('\11 entree, and pickles. The PL3 form of taberu ("eat'') is lah('rlll:t~I'14'.

~osuke has bean gOifl9 to, the lib,rary periodhsaJly fO read ernest Hemingwa.y's Islands In the St;esm. It looks liKe he'll finish it today, out he taKes a 'break for lunoll~

De can mark 8. 1001 or means

The particle de is also used to mark a too] 01' mean»: "with/usinglby means of'->.' In most cases whether de marks a place or a tool/means wil I be obvious from the nature of the word it marks, bot sometimes the. marked word can be either a place or a toollm.e.al1s; in such cases. the naurre of the verb and the rest of the eontex] m ust be your guide. To take kusuma ("ear;') all! an example, if the verb is neru ("sleep"), you know kuruma de ref rs to the place of action=-" 10 p in the e r";if the verb 1S kuru, ("come"), you know kuruma de refers to the rneens-v'com by car."

Igarashi nes deold,ed to marry Stella, a dancer frpm the Philippinea. He has Jus't told Shima @ about his plans anp Introduced him to her. Shima asks Stella If her parents know about her f w8c;fding plans. (The horlzM1al script is interide.tQ, to $~OW that she's actually speaking entirely in ~ English,)' . ~

I ~



Stella: HOh, yeah."

2;;l3 fJ Ni1 , ~lj; Ii ~ 1~;t ~ L- t: •

Nikagdsu drl/H'I'Q d.t! tsiaeemashlta.

'21110R. before/ago phone ),}' ~old/lnformed

Hi told them by phone two months ago," (PL3)

OK V"( <;tL~ G,Tt.

iJki! shtte ku.tel1lt.uhitcl.

oktl)' dId for me

"T hey okayed it for me."

"They gave t.hei.r consent." (PL3)

2-.Ji!lfI]r tR""'t;' ii:l ~ t- t:

OK L'(

< fLi lA.:

• .taR ttsu is the counter suffix for counting months (p, 49), so n,ik'1geMu ::::I "2 month!'!"; mat! dter a dmespan

means ["HUtt much time ~po/" Ni to mark this as the l!im ofacL1o.n hus been omitted,

• de mark" dCf'Zwa as ~le tool used in doing th 'action .

• tJOIllULmasi1iw1s the PL3 past form of' Isutauru/rYllraQma:,'u ("t II/inform") .

• OK j. also c mm 1Il1iy wrltten in kutakana: ;::t-?"--, OK shite kuremashlta is R PL3 past form coming from the sune verb, OK suru ("to okay"); the -Ie. k~#·eruJkurfJmQmukl~rl1mashitQ. fcrm of B verb is fO~llly inrrodnoed in. Lesson 31; it Implies [hat the action is/was doee for the speal er.