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Seiichi Makino
Michio Tsutsui

Copyright O 1995 by Seiichi Makino and Michio Tsutsui
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

First edition: June 1995
6th printing: November 1996

Editorial assistance: OPTIMA Corp.
Cover art: CADEC Inc.

Published by The Japan Times, Ltd.
5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan

Printed in Japan
This is a dictionary of intermediate Japanese grammar, a companion volume
to A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar published in 1986 by the same
While DBJG was designed primarily for students and teachers of
beginning-level Japanese, this volume is designed for students and teachers
of intermediate-level Japanese. After examining relevant textbooks, some
references on sentence patterns, and authentic sources used in intermediate
and advanced Japanese courses, we have chosen approximately 200 entries
which we believe to be the most important grammatical items for intermediate
Japanese learners.
The format of this dictionary is the same as that of A Dictionary of Basic
Japanese Grammar. For the convenience of readers who have not used DBJG,
we have repeated from that text the sections To the Reader and Grammatical
Terms. In this volume, however, we have modified To the Reader slightly and
have added some entries to Grammatical Terms. Along with the Japanese
index, there is an English index that lists the English equivalents for each entry.
One difference between the two volumes is that no romanization has been
provided for example sentences in A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese
Grammar. Instead, furigana (hiragana over kanji) is used.
Needless to say we owe a great deal to our predecessors, whose works are
listed in the references. Without their linguistic insights we could never have
written this dictionary. We would like to thank our colleagues, friends, and
spouses, who have kindly answered our persistent questions and shared their
language intuition. However, for fear of omission, we would rather not attempt
a comprehensive listing of names. Even so, we want to mention three individ-
uals who made this publication possible, first, Ms. Chiaki Sekido from the
Japan Times, who edited our manuscript most conscientiously and effectively,
and helped us invaluably with her comments and suggestions. Also, our thanks
go to Ms. Came1 Dowd and Ms. Sharon Tsutsui, who edited our English to
make it more readable.
We sincerely hope that this dictionary will be useful in furthering ow
readers' understanding of Japanese.
Spring of 1995
Seiichi Makino
Michio Tsutsui

Preface ..........................................................................
To the Reader ..................................................................
List of Abbreviations ..........................................................
List of Symbols ................................................................
Grammatical Terms ............................................................
Special Topics in Intermediate Japanese Grammar ........................
1. Discourse Grammar ...................................................
(1) Mechanism of Cohesion: Inter-sentential Reference ........
(2) Phenomena of Tense and Formality Switchings .............
2. Newspaper Grammar ..................................................
3. Conversational Strategies .............................................
4. Toward Better Reading Comprehension: Analyzing Sentences
Accurately .......................................................... 1551
s . .

Main Entries ............................................................... .
1 612
Appendixes ..................................................................... 613
1. Katakana Word Transcription Rules ................................. 615
2. Compound Verbs ....................................................... 626

Compound Particles ................................................... 648
Conjunctions ........................................................... 666
Affixes: Prefixes and Suffixes ........................................ 679
More Counters ......................................................... 685
Cooccumence ........................................................... 698
Functional Expressions and Grammatical Patterns ................. 706
English Index .................................................................. 735
Japanese Index ................................................................. 745
References ...................................................................... 758
To the Reader

This dictionary consists of the following parts:
A. Grammatical Terms contains brief explanations or informal definitions of
the grammatical terms used in this book. If readers find that they are not
familiar with these terms, it is suggested that they read this section carefully.
B. Special Topics in Intermediate Japanese Grammar discusses selected top-
ics: Japanese discourse grammar, newspaper grammar, conversational strate-
gies, and sentence structure analysis for reading comprehension. The sec-
tion introduces readers to a number of important concepts with which they
should be familiar in order to improve their reading and conversational
C. Main Entries constitutes the core of this volume. Each entry is organized
as follows:

a [entry name] @ [part of speech] @ [usage restriction]
@ [English counterpart(s)]
@ [meaning l function]
@ [related expression(s)]
@ *Key Sentence@)

a [entry name]: Each entry is given in romanized spelling followed by its
hiragana version. Entries are alphabetically ordered based on their
romanized spellings.
@ [part of speech]: Each entry is followed by its part of speech. I

@ [usage restriction]: <s> or <w> is provided when the entry item is used
only in spoken Japanese or only in written Japanese and formal
speeches, respectively.
[meaning I function]: The general meaning or function of the entry item
is given in the box below the entry name.
[English counterpart(s)]: English expressions equivalent to the entry
item are given to the right of the box.
[related expression(s)]: Items which are semantically related to the
entry item are listed as [REL. aaa, bbb, ccc]. Expressions in plain type
like aaa are explained in the entry under [Related ~x~ression(s)]
(0) .
Expressions in bold type like bbb contain comparisons to the
entry item under elated Expression(s)] for bbb.
+ ~ Sentence@):
e ~ Key sentences present typical sentence patterns in
frames according to sentence structure. The recurrent elements are
printed in red.
Formation: The word formation rules I connection forms for each item
are provided with examples. The recurrent elements are printed in red.
Example(@: Example sentences are provided for each entry.
Note(s): Notes contain important points concerning the use of the item.
e elated ~x~ression(s)] : Expressions which are semantically close to
the entry item are compared and their differences are explained.
(+aaa (DBJG: 000-000)) in Formation, Notes, and e elated Expres-
sion(~)]indicates that the item which was referred to (i.e., aaa) is explained
on pp. 000-000 of the companion volume: A Dictionary of Basic Japanese
D. Appendixes contains information such as katakana word transcription
rules, compound verbs, compound particles, conjunctions, prefixes and
suffixes, counters, cooccurrence, and functional expressions and grammar
E. Indexes provides both a Japanese index and an English index. The
Japanese index includes the main entries, the items explained in e elated
~x~ression(s)], and the items covered in A Dictionary of Basic Japanese
Grammar. The English index includes English counterparts of the main
entry items.
List of Abbreviations

Adj(i) = i-type adjective (e.g. takai, yasui)
Adj(na) = na-type adjective (e.g. genkida, shizukada)
Adv. = adverb
AdvP = adverb phrase
Aff. = affirmative
Ant. = antonym
AP = adjective phrase
Aux. = auxiliary
Comp. prt. = compound particle
Conj. = conjunction
Cop. = copula (e.g. da, desu)
DBJG = A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar
Dem. adj. = demonstrative adjective (e.g. kono, sonna)
D.O. = direct object
Fml.= formal
Gr. = Group
Inf. = informal
Int. = interjection
Irr. = irregular
KS = Key Sentence
LSV = Location + Subject + Verb
N = noun
Neg. = negative
Nom.= norninalizer (e.g. no, koto)
NP = noun phrase
Phr. = phrase
P1. = plural
Pot. = potential
Pref. =prefix (e.g. 0-, go-)
Pro. = pronoun
Prt. = particle
REL. = Related Expression
S = sentence
<s> = used in conversation only
Sconc = concessive clause (i.e. a clause which ends with -temo or -demo)
Scond = conditional clause (i.e. a clause which ends with -ba and -tam)
Sinf = sentence that ends with an informal predicate
SLV = Subject + Location + Verb
S.O.= someone
S.t. = something
SOV = Subject + Object + Verb
SV = Subject + Verb
Str. = structure
Suf. = suffix (e.g. -sa, -ya)
V = verb
Vcond = conditional stem of Gr. 1 Verb (e.g. hanase of hanaseba)
Vinf = informal form of Verb (e.g. hanasu, hanashita)
Vmasu = maso-stem of Verb (e.g. hanashi of hanashimasu, tabe of tabemasu)
VN = Chinese-origin compound noun which forms a verb by affixing sum (e.g
benkyb, yakusoku)
Vneg = informal negative form of Gr. 1 Verb (e.g. hanasa of hanasanai)
VP = verb phrase
Vpot = verb potential form (e.g. yomeru, taberareru)
Vstem = stem of Gr. 2 Verb (e.g. tabe of taberu)
Vte = te-form of Verb (e.g. hanashite, tabete)
Vvol = volitional form of Verb (e.g. hanasb, fabeyo)
<w> = used in writing and formal speech only
Wh-word = an interrogative word (e.g. nani, doko)
List of Symbols

e = Refer to.
?=The degree of unacceptability is indicated by the number of question
marks, three being the highest.
* =ungrammatical or unacceptable (in other words, no native speaker would
accept the asterisked sentence.)
(A 1B} C = AC or BC (e.g. {V 1Adj(i)]inf = Vinf or Adj(i)inf)
0 =zero (in other words, nothing should be used at a place where 0 occurs.
Thus, Adj(na) (0 1datta} kamoshirenai is either Adj(na) kamoshirenai or
Adj(na) datta kamoshirenai.)
Grammatical Terms

The following are brief explanations of some grammatical terms used in this

Active Sentence A sentence which describes an action from the agent's
point of view. (cf. Passive Sentence) In active sentences, the subject is the
agent. Sentences (a) and (b) below are an active and a passive sentence,
(a) CAY^ 9% L*=T:,
(The teacher scolded John.)
(b) 7 3 9C2%&b: L*l;fLl:o
(John was scolded by the teacher.)

Agent One who initiates and /or completes an action or an event. The
agent is not always in the subject position. Compare the positions of the agent
Bill in (a) and (b).
(a) ell.b;t~-.tfBb=f.,
(Bill hit Martha.)
(b) T--tfGie)bb:LT.fLl&
(Martha was hit by Bill.)

Appositive Clause (Construction) A clause which modifies a noun (01
noun phrase) and explains what the modified noun is. In (a), Meari ga Tomu ni
affa 'Mary met Tom' is an appositive clause, and is what jijirsu 'the fact' refers
(a) $L ~ 2 %7 1 ) -75'1' ~ c : & ~ ~ : ~ ~ % ~ ~ - c L ~ & .
(I know the fact that Mary met Tom.)

Auxiliary Adjective Adependent adjective that is preceded by and

attached to a verb or another adjective. The bold-printed parts of the follow-
ing sentences are typical auxiliary adjectives.
(a) %ti73 ; / C C & ~ T C Z L L \ ~
(I want John to go there.)
(b) c o&&&~.wL\~
(This dictionary is easy to use.)
(c) mi* L ~ ' $ - - V ~ L \ ~
(I want to eat sushi.)
(d) .^;%bi~$%&l:% LL\,
(Beth seems to have graduated from college.)
(el % + t i i ! i ~ ~ d 3
: 7z0
(Hanako looks lonely.)
(f) ~~di+iik;w~;fif?,
(This cake looks delicious.)

Auxiliary Verb A verb which is used in conjunction with a preceding verb
or adjective. The bold-faced words of the following sentences are typical
auxiliary verbs.
Wf r 6.rr
(a) F I ~ ~ + ~ ~ % I / ~ T L \ ~ ~
(Bill is writing a letter now.)
(b) % f l b V T & b 0
(The window has been opened.) (= The window is open.)
L+( fv
(c) %ii@ l%L T L 3 7 ka
(I have done my homework.)
(d) %G~E%:B&&LT~~~W~=~
'(I loaned money to my friend.)
(e) LO~'/~!Z-J~-G&~S&
(This computer is too expensive.)
(f) Y s - ~ b i % $ - ~ i 5 - % & ~ ~ 7 ~ ~ \ b ~
(lit. George is showing signs of wanting a sports car. (= George

wants a sports car.))
h* b, 1
(g) 9 rnifij-hrpb-CJltf:!
(Gee! It's started to rain!)

Causative Sentence A sentence in which someone / something makes or
lets someone / something do s.t. as in (a) and (b).
ttLrw 1F ttln dl& .
(a) %&t~&~:rn+e%f I-W:~
(The teacher made his students memorize kanji.)
(b) +;~IP%:SQTYSW,
(Let me do it.)
(c) %~;f,\;.1~f Q L& 1;*1.~
(I dampened my handkerchief.)

Compound Particle A particle which consists of more than one word but
functions like a single particle. For example, the compound particle to shite
wa consists of the particle to, the te-form of sum and the particle wa, but it is
used like a single particle to mean 'for.' (cf. Double Particle)

Compound Sentence A sentence which consists of clauses combined by
coordinate conjunctions such as ga meaning 'but' or by continuative forms of
verbs, adjectives or the copula such as Vte, Adj. te and Cop. te meaning '- and.'
a I < x si ~ ~ i i + c i ~ ~ & ~ f z ~
(I swam but Mr. Smith didn't.)
iL f t., 1
% ,,-
(b) ~ ~ S ~ b i ~ i : b - ~ ~ ~ - i ~ . @ ~ ~ ~ / b : & ~
(Mr. Yoshida went to Tokyo and met Mr. Suzuki.)

Conditional A word, phrase, or clause which expresses a condition, as in
(a), (b) and (c).
It&?< L rt
(a) #%JW.ffitb:5%' ! Ia+,
(I will take it on if it's a translation job.)
(b) 8~fhlbfkj&$bk~Gb~,
(I might buy it if it is cheap.)

(c) $ ~ ~ ~ f i ~ % ~ k f i f % 7 f c % ~ b @ T ? ~ b 1 ~
(If Mr. Yamada calls me, please let me know.)

Continual Verb A verb which represents a continual action, as in (a).
(a) 49 (to wait); (to eat); %a (to dance); &R 6 (to teach)
With the auxiliary verb irv, a continual verb expresses an action in progress, as
in (b).
(b) 9 s 7129 7') -Q%->TL\B,
(John is waiting for Mary.)

Contrastive Marker A particle which marks contrast. For example, when
X is contrasted with Y, it is typically marked by the particle wa. X and Y
usually appear in S1 and Sz, respectively in S1 ga S2, as shown in (a).

Coordinate Conjunction A conjunction that combines two sentences
without subordinating one to the other. A typical coordinate conjunction is ga
(a) %g~ba2~fif, 59 2 ~ F * z * ~ L ~
(I'm running, but I haven't lost any weight at all.)

Demonstrative A pronoun or adjective which specifies someone or some-
thing by pointing it out, as in (a),and (b).
(a) {Lh/=f.h/%hl~i%~~-n.,
(What is {thisI that I that over therel?)

(b) {LCD% / ?a$ / %a)$} ti%?a>T-$,
({This book I That book I That book over therel is mine.)
The interrogative words which correspond to demonstrative pronouns and
demonstrative adjectives are dore and dono, respectively.

Dependent Noun A noun which must be preceded by a modifier, as in (a)
and (b).
h t t b*CLtrr
(a) A: s~ El EElWL&G=&i 7%CJTT&
(Are you going to meet Prof. Tanaka tomorrow?)
B: bib\, + D % 5 c l T t 0
(Yes, I am.)
(b) 4 7 F 4 C i l - k ~ ~ ~ 9 ~ b ~ b ~ b ~ f ? ,
(I expect that Sandra knows Tom.)

Direct Object The direct object of a verb is the direct recipient of an
action represented by the verb. It can be animate or inanimate. An animate
direct object is the direct experiencer of some action (as in (a) and (b) below).
An inanimate direct object is typically something which is created, exchanged
or worked on, in short, the recipient of the action of the verb (as in (c), (d) and
(e) below).
*L C B t L C . . *(*V
(a) LLlU%&biS4Bk<d3.bb0
(Prof. Yamaguchi often praises his students.)
(b) $.&?I ti-BBfZl Lf:,
(Kaori deceived Ichiro.)
(c) %~i*%?&b\f;,
(I wrote a book.)
(d) -&libi&r?I CcX2J-79-??7L,
(Ichiro gave a scarf to Midori.)
(e) W'%i$iV ~ & b \ j : ,
(I kept the door open.)

Although direct objects are marked by the particle o, nouns or noun phrases
marked by o are not always direct objects, as shown in (f) and (g).
(+02 (DBJG: 349-51); o4 (DBJG: 352-54)
f w d r ( E*'IC< khi
(f) E*ii--&lia>~~ A qEf t v 2 ,
(Hanako was glad that Ichiro entered college.)

t P : i i L
(g) b A ii+aE@%m%%b~~b~fz~
(At that time Tom was walking in the park.)

Double Particle A sequence of two particles. The first particle is usually a
case particle and the second is an adverbial particle such as wa 'topic 1 contrast
marker,' mo 'also, even,' and shika 'only' or the possessive particle no.
t') PL?
(a) ~ ~ f i > % i b & T l k f l & f : ~
(lit. From Tokyo Mr. Tanaka came.)
(b) % t i : T-S~V~&L~;~
(I talked with Mr. Miller, too.)
(c) z k ~ t i 3 5b
(This is a letter from my father.)

Embedded Sentence A sentence within another sentence is an embedded
sentence. The bold-faced part of each sentence below is the embedded sen-
tence. An embedded sentence is marked by a subordinate conjunction such as
kara 'because,' keredomo 'although,' node 'because,' noni 'although,' to 'if,'
the quote marker to 'that,' a nominalizer (no or koto) or the head noun of a rel-
ative clause.
83. e hkf blk t;,

(a) L I I B i i E j f P S j b ~ k Z ~ k o
(Yamada said that he had a headache.)
(Yamada didn't go to school, because he had a headache.)

Experiencer A person who experiences s.t. that is beyond human control
such as ability, desire, need, fondness, and emotion. A human passive subject
can also be regarded as an experiencer. The bold-faced parts of the following
examples are all experiencers.

%L 12B &wF
bfiL KIZL-

(a) ~ & j ( r .17 a -j-,
(can understand Japanese a little.)
IZ <
(b) ~ 1 2 % ; f ; " - ' ~; lJ - W & L W ~
(I want a sports car.)

(d) ~;C~I~~W~P,LT~,,
(My mother is scared of dogs, you know.)
tbf8 -PLL.P t+ B ~ > A
(e) h & C L t f 0 ~ T ~ 7 R i B t b k L 1 z 0
(My friend got his purse stolen on the train.)

Formal I Informal Forms Verb 1adjective(i/ na) 1copula forms that are
used in formal and informal situations are formal forms and informal forms,
respectively. A formal situation is a situation in which relationship between
the speaker and the hearer(s) is formal, and an informal situation is a situation
in which the human relationship is informal. The formal and informal forms
of verbs I adjectives(i / na) and copula can be exemplified by the following

Formal Forms Informal Forms

Informal forms are required by some grammatical structures.
(+Appendix 4 (DBJG: 589-99))

Gr. 11 Gr. 2 Verbs Gr. 1 and Gr. 2 Verbs are Japanese verb groups: If
a verb's informal, negative, nonpast form has the [a] sound before nai as in
(a), the verb belongs to Group 1, and if not, as in (b), it belongs to Group

2. There are only two irregular verbs (i.e., kuru 'come' and sun, 'do') that
belong to neither the Gr. 1 nor to the Gr. 2.

Hearer The person who receives a spoken or written message. In this dic-
tionary the term "hearer" is used in a broader sense to mean the person to
whom the speaker or the writer communicates.

Imperative Form A conjugated verb form that indicates a command, as in
Hanase! 'Talk!,' 'Tabero! 'Eat it!,' Shiro! 'Do it!' or Koi! 'Come!'

Indefinite Pronoun A pronoun which does not refer to something specif-
ically. No in B's sentence in (a) is an indefinite pronoun. Here, no is used for
jisho 'dictionary,' but does not refer to a specific dictionary.

(a) A: YAQ&#W& L ~ A T - + ; ~ % ~
(What kind of dictionary do you want?)
B: $ 5 bl(nW&~b>,L-r-+',
(I want a small one.)

Indirect Object The indirect object of a verb is the recipient of the direct
object of the main verb, and is marked by the particle ni. In (a), for example,
the indirect object is Midori,a recipient of a scarf, which is the direct object of
the verb yatta. It can be inanimate, as in (b). The main verbs which involve
the indirect object are typically donative verbs (as in (a) and (b)).
(a) -,%b;t&P~lG:X7~--7%-?97:~
(Ichiro gave a scarf to Midori.)
fiuu.3 **?Lo3 3 it3 L cv ~l d w
(b) 6LW;thM
! W~~:~AO;E&%%$R~:~
(The typhoon brought great damage to the Kyushu area.)

Informal Form (eFormal1 Informal Forms)

Intransitive Verb A verb which does not require a direct object. The
action or state identified by the intransitive verb is related only to the subject
of the sentence. For example, the verb hashitta 'ran' in (a) is an intransitive
verb because the action of running is related only to the subject.
(cf. Transitive Verb)
(a) & & E ~ L C & % ~ ~ ,
(Mr. Suzuki ran.)
Intransitive verbs typically indicate movement (such as iku 'go,' kuru 'come,'
aruku 'walk,' tobu 'fly,' noru 'get onto'), spontaneous change (such as naru
'become,' kawaru 'change,' tokeru 'melt,' fukuramu 'swell,' hajimaru
'begin'), human emotion (such as yorokobu 'rejoice,' kanashimu 'feel sad,'
omou 'feel'), and birth /death (such as umareru 'be born,' shinu 'die').
(+Appendix 3 (DBJG: 585-88)

I-type Adjective An adjective whose nonpast prenominal form ends with
i. Examples of i-type adjectives are takai 'high, expensive' and tsuyoi 'strong,'
as seen in (a). (cf. Na-type Adjective)
(a) gL\z
(an expensive book)
(a strong person)
I-type adjectives are further subdivided into two types: i-type adjectives which
end with shi-i and those with non-shi-i endings. Most adjectives with shi-i end-
ings express human emotion (such as ureshii 'happy,' kanashii 'sad,' sabishii
'lonely,' kurushii 'painful'); the non-shi-i adjectives are used for objective
descriptions (such as kuroi 'black,' shiroi 'white,' hiroi 'spacious,' takai 'high,

Main Clause When a sentence consists of two clauses, one marked by a
subordinate conjunction (such as kara, keredo, node, and noni) and the othe~
not marked by a subordinate conjunction, the latter is called a main clause.
The bold-faced parts of (a) and (b) are main clauses.
"* t hfrl bit *7:3 -;A
(a) hB~dH@%b~OC:W3CC~3

(Yamada went to school, although he had a headache.)
*r: t;lt TP
(b) m~wg~~~~r;$iifi~
(Kazuko is happy, because her husband is kind.)
When a sentence has a relative clause, the non-relative clause part is also
referred to as a main clause as in (c).
(c) %U&D3, F~~di17t:~~~&'~"it
(Yesterday I watched a video which I borrowed from my friend.)

Na-type Adjective An adjective whose nonpast prenominal form ends
with na. For example, shizukada 'quiet' and genkida 'healthy' are na-type
adjectives, as in (a). (cf. I-type Adjective)
(a) #$a%
(a quiet house)
(a healthy person)

Na-type adjectives are very similar to nouns. Some na-type adjectives can be
used as real nouns as shown in (b). All na-type adjectives behave as nouns
when they are used before the copula da, as shown in (c).
(b) Z i b a % & L~ ~
(Health is important, you know.)
cf. ?%&&A
(a healthy person)
LL*? bt
(I'll never forget your kindness.)
cf. QYl&A
(a kind person)

Nominalizer A nominalizer is a particle that makes a sentence into a noun
phrase or clause. There are two nominalizers no and koto: the former repre-
sents the speaker's empathetic feeling towards an event I state expressed in the
nominalized noun phrase I clause; the latter represents the speaker's relatively
anti-empathetic feeling towards an event I state.
(+no3 (DBJG: 3 18-22); koto2 (DBJG: 193-96)

Noun Phrase I Clause
Particle Predicate
Sentence Nominalizer
1: It& r trw
8$%&ct~ O/Lk hi %ELL.1,
(Reading Japanese is difficult.)

The nominalized sentence can be used in any position where an ordinary noun
or a noun phrase I clause can be used.

Participial Construction The construction which expresses an action
accompanying situation expressed in the main clause. The participial construc-
tion often involves te-form, as in (a) and (b).
$L Ci 3 - 1- Q B # b l T / \ 2 fl- K~Ctl:,
(Taking off my coat, I hung it on a hanger.)
(b) Y 7 7 -~:&TK~B&xIT:,
(Sitting on the sofa I read newspaper.)

Passive Sentence A sentence which describes an action by someone from
the viewpoint of someone else who is affected by that action. (cf. Active Sen-
tence) (a) and (b) are passive sentences.
(a) VILKLI~~~I~~
(I was beaten by Bill.)
m) ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ + ~ : & ~ w ~ o
(lit. Taro was annoyed by the fact that Akiko cried. (=Taro was
annoyed by Akiko's crying.))

Potential Form A verb form that expresses competence in the sense of
'can do s.t.' The formation is as follows:
Gr. 1 Verbs Vcond + b e.g. &? b (can talk)
Gr. 2 Verbs Vstem + l; kL& e.g. &< l; kL b (can eat)
Vstem + kLb e.g. (can eat)
In: Verbs &b &l;ktb, (cancome)

Predicate The part of a sentence which makes a statement about the sub-
ject. The core of the predicate consists either of a verb, an adjective, or a noun
followed by a form of the copula da. Optionally, objects and other adjectival
and I or adverbial modifiers may be present. In (a), (b) and (c) the predicates
are printed in bold type.
(a) ~ <G i * i ~ o
8 % AIL&
(Mr. Matsumoto sees movies often.)
(b) WO%I~X
% X P A ~ GkV,
(My house is newer than Mr. Smith's.)
1: IIL z- 1E<rv
(c) 7 3 2 CL El *%a)r;l.TdO
(John is a student of Japanese language.)

Prefix 1 Suffi A dependent, non-conjugational word attached to nouns or
the stems of verbs and adjectives in order to form new independent words.
Prefmes are attached to the beginnings of nouns, etc. (Ex.(a)), and suffixes to
their endings (Ex.@)).
$25!5"**+ h<EW - b ~ 3 tr N. LX.
(a) if4% 3. (superexpress); f4& $3 (vice-president); BR W (indiffer-


Prenominal Form The verb I adjective form which precedes a noun and
modifies it. The bold-faced verbs and adjectives in (a), (b), (c) and (d) are
prenorninal forms.

h f .L
(the newspaper I read)
(b) %L\ /~ % i P d &
(a big house / a house which used to be big)
(c) Gw&%f:7k%&7
(a magnificent building / a building which used to be magnificent)
(d) )3L\L;f3Q / ) 3 ~ \ L ? j E 7 T f ; ? - - +
(a delicious-looking cake / a cake which looked delicious)

Punctual Verb A verb that represents a momentary action which either
occurs once, as in (a), or can be repeated continuously, as in (b).

(a) b (get to know); kt;bh (die); %'a b (begin); $@rfb (get married);
p@b (stop s.t.); fkb (resemble)
(b) 7k 2 rf (drop); B T b (pluck off); if z, wck); kD (jump); Olit)
With the auxiliary verb iru, the punctual verbs in (a) express a state after an
action was taken, and those as in (b) express either a repeated action or a state
after an action was taken. (+Appendix 2 (DBJG: 582-84)

Stative Verb A verb which represents a state of something or someone at
some point in time, as in (a). (+Appendix 2 (DBJG: 582-84)

(a) %i b (exist inanimate things)); b>b (exist (of animate things)); ba
b (need); B%b (can do)

Subject The subject is an element of a sentence which indicates an agent
of an action in active sentences (as in (a)) or an experiencer of an action (as in
(b)) or someone or something that is in a state or a situation (as in (c), (e) and
(0). The subject is normally marked by the particle ga in Japanese unless it is
the sentence topic.

(b) %~'~-&&:wr;;kf:,
(Mary was praised by her teacher.)

(c) ?>2-b&?ikLl/>j?,
(Nancy is pretty.)
(d) F P ~ J L ~ ~ ~ ,
(The door opened.)
?(* *t
(e) # t f F - ~ & & ,
(lit. One table exists. (= There is a table.))
(The sky is blue.)

Subordinate Clause A clause which is embedded into a main clause with
a subordinate conjunction. Qpical subordinate conjunctions are ba 'if,' kara
'because,' node 'because,' keredo 'although' and noni 'although.' Thus, in (a)
below, the bold-faced clause with the subordinate conjunction node is embed-
ded into the main clause Nakayama-san wa gakk6 o yasunda, 'Mr. Nakayama
was absent from school.'
htf r ~ t
(a) Y ~L sC ~ B W G~ ~T P%~~ Q % L I L
(Mr. Nakayama was absent from school because he had a headache.)
The informal form of a verb / adjective is usually used in a subordinate clause.

Suffi (+Ref= / Suffix)

Suru-verb A verb which is composed of a noun and sum (Exs.(a) and (b))
or a single 'word and suru (Ex.(c)). Nouns preceding suru are mostly Chinese-
origin words. Sum-verbs conjugate in the same way as sum.

-L L r l
(a) f% B 5 (to study); #I!&b* (to clean); &hda L j-5 (to stay up

(c) %b b (to heat); %b b (to guess)

Bansitive Verb A verb that requires a direct object. It usually expresses
an action that acts upon S.O. or s.t. indicated by the direct object. Actions indi-
cated by transitive verbs include real causatives (such as ikaseru 'makeflet

s.0. go,' korosu 'kill,' miseru 'show,' nakasu 'make s.0. cry,' noseru 'put,
place'), exchange (such as ageru 'give,' m o w 'receive,' kureru 'give'), crea-
tion (such as tsukum 'make,' kaku 'write,' kangaeru 'think'), communication
(such as hanasu 'speak,' oshieru 'teach,' tsutaeru 'convey a message') and
others. Note that some English transitive verbs are intransitive in Japanese.
*LL <a*
(a) %LCiZWi4&o
(lit. With me a car exists. (= I have a car.))
(b) ~ G ~ & & F L \ ~ ,
(lit. To me money is necessary. (= I need money.))
3 * i L'< *
(c) X ~ X 2 t v C m ~ ~ ~ f l 5 3 ~ ~ 6 ~
(lit. To Mr. Smith Chinese is understandable. (= Mr. Smith under-
stands Chinese.))
(d) % L W ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 ~ i i . a ~
(lit. To me French is a bit possible. (= I can speak French a little.))
ti Sri
(e) % ? 2 t v C i ~ 3 X ~ & 2 t v ~ : 4 3 ~ , ,
(Mr. Kinoshita met his father in Tokyo.)
( f ) %Lb:biWWWLX&fi>3t:0
(lit. To me the bell wasn't audible. (= I wasn't able to hear the bell.))
b. I:*&
(g) Z~~c;CiF3*t-LL-n~W,k.?&tk0
(lit. From here Mt. Fuji is visible. (= We can see Mt. Fuji from here.))
bkLk3 Ld.L+tL
(h) %L iBCih@%&V % L fc0
(We rode a bullet train.)
( i ) % L C ~ @ K & T L I\ ~ /~,
(It seems that I resemble my mother.)

Verbal A sentence element which indicates the action or state of the sub-
ject. A verbal is either a verb, an adjective, or a noun followed by a copula, as
in (a) - (c).
bLL S d% l: *h.lri
%L Ci+%MSB 7': < 2 AM %! L tc,
studied many kanji this term.)

(b) Z D & @ C ~ ~ T ~ ~ ~ L L \ ,
(This exam is very difficult.)

(c) Z t~ia&%f 9 1 1 7fkO
(This is probably Italian.)

Volitional Sentence A sentence in which a person expresses his will. The
main verb in such sentences is in the volitional form, as in (a).

Wh-question A question that asks for information about who, what,
where, which, when, why and how, as exemplified by (a) - (f) below.
(cf. Yes-No Question)
(a) %;3"&6~ f : $ l ,
(Who came here?)
(b) %.r&4wso
(What will you eat?)
(c) Z~~:&3b3-i3',
(Where are you going?)
(d) 4
~\3%!&%3. rfiPo
(When are you going back to Osaka?)

Wh-word An interrogative word which corresponds to English words
such as who, what, where, which, when, why and how. The following are some

(a) #! (who); % (what); ? Z (where); L1 9 (when); F j LT 1 /I?
(how come I why); ? 5 (how)

Note that Japanese Wh-words are not always found in sentence-initial position;
they are frequently found after a topic noun phrase, as shown in (b) and (c)
(b) E%ElO,C-Y4 -c:c&%fl%a Lk*,
(lit. To yesterday's party, who came there? (=Who came to yester-
day's party?))
cf. %d'E%Elm-Y4 - m a LTZ*,
(Who came to yesterday's party?)
(c) ~aB LM,
(lit. In Japan what did you do? (=What did you do in Japan?))
cf. mBEl$TL3 L k &
(What did you do in Japan?)

Yes-No Question A question that can be answered by hai / B 'yes' or i~
'no.' (cf. Wh-question)
Examples follow:
(a) A: Y&S,LG&P L ~ F Z ~ J ~ ,
(Did Mr. Ueda come?)
B: Lib\, %'b:L1zo
(Yes, he did.)
(b) A: %&S,Lt&y&~.t&
(Is Mr. Suzuki a student?)
B: b\bx;i_, -?jC e b j ?%-@,Lo
(No, he isn't.)
Special Topics in Intermediate Japanese Grammar

1. Discourse Grammar

(1) Mechanism of Cohesion: Inter-sentential Reference
When two or more sentences are recognized as a cohesive sequence (i.e.,
discourse) rather than a collection of unrelated sentences, in many instances
the discourse involves certain linguistic mechanisms to maintain cohesiveness
between sentences.* Among such mechanisms, inter-sentential reference is
one of the most common ones.**
Inter-sententid reference (ISR) is a kind of reference in which an element in
a sentence refers to something or someone mentioned in another sentence.
Specifically, when reference is made to an entity mentioned in a previous
sentence, it is called "anaphoric reference" or "anaphora." Anaphora is the
most common ISR. Examples of anaphora are given in (1). In this discourse
the bold-faced parts (i.e., anaphoric elements or anaphors) refer to persons or
things mentioned in previous sentences.
Cba -c .9 rb D l ' fi/u -? L Z t vr &,br

(1) 2 hW?$%%kgi;j&%kE!& k a;"%%&&,LOMiflc@H%%pi@k

*Cohesiveness is also maintained by the information each sentence carries. In general,
a sequence of sentences is recognized as a cohesive unit when the sentence contains a
"common thread" in terms of the information they carry. For example, a set of sen-
tences is recognized as a cohesive unit if the sentences have a common topic. Simi-
larly, if sentences are put together to perform a common function (e.g., making a
request), they are recognized as a cohesive unit.
**Another mechanism to maintain cohesiveness between sentences is the conjunction.
As a matter of fact, conjunctions (or conjunction equivalents) such as those shown in
(i) create a cohesive sentence sequence by connecting sentences directly.
(i) -? L T (and (then)); -? 2 T (therefore); Ld'L (however); -77 (on the other
hand); %I2 lf (for example); 7 b l Tts 73%l; (incidentally); t0 %k
(as the
result of that)
(+Appendix 4. Conjunctions)

%jtl L T b ' 6 0
L PtH4
(&BE3, PS%% 2 %!a
(This is a story about a child named Seibei and gourds. After this inci-
dent, the tie between Seibei and gourds was severed. However, he
soon found something to substitute for gourds-painting. He is now as
devoted to it as he once was to gourds. (Shiga Naoya: Seibei and the
As seen in (I), various kinds of elements can appear as anaphors, including
pronouns, repeated nouns, and related nouns. In addition, anaphors are ellipted
in some situations.

A. Pronouns
Pronouns can be classified into two groups: personal pronouns (e.g., watashi
'I,' kanojo 'she,' kare-ra 'they') and demonstrative pronouns (e.g., kore 'this,'
sore-ra 'those,' soko 'thatlthe place').
Anaphoric personal pronouns are limited to third-person pronouns, including
kare 'he,' kanojo 'she,' and their plural forms. (1) presents an example of kare.
Among demonstrative pronouns, only the so- and ko- series can be
anaphoric. (1) gives examples of sore and (2) an example of kore.*

(Company A has decided to feduce the price of M-type word-proces-
sors by five percent. Their aim is to regain (lit. This is to aim at regain-
ing) their recently declining share of the word-processor market.)

*Are 'that'can be used in conversation to refer to something which is known to both
the speaker and the hearer, as in (i).
f W b t +L
(i) A: LLG:~=~ZWBR%, h~jab>?
(Do you know where the English-Japanese dictionary is which was here?)
vt+t e
B: hm, ~ ) ~ ~ W - L L I M ~ / ~ &1. ~-C~
(Oh, that one; Yamada is using it now.)

B. Repeated Nouns
An anaphoric noun is, in many instances, a repetition of its antecedent.

Proper nouns
If an antecedent is a proper noun, the most direct way to refer to the same
entity in a later sentence is to repeat the same proper noun. For example, in
(I), Seibei is repeated in the second sentence.
Common nouns
When an antecedent is a common noun, the same noun may appear as an
anaphor in certain situations. For example, if an antecedent refers to generic
entities, the same noun can be repeated with no modifier (e.g., hy6tan 'gourds'
in the second and third sentences in (1)). If an antecedent refers to a specific
entity, on the other hand, the same noun may appear in later sentences either
with or without a demonstrative adjective (i.e., sono 'thatlthe' or kono 'this').
A demonstrative adjective is necessary if the referent would be otherwise inter-
preted as non-anaphoric because of a lack of sufficient context to interpret it as
anaphoric. For example, in (3) the apato 'apartment' in the second sentence
does not refer to the same apartment mentioned in the first sentence, while in
(4) sono apeto 'that apartment' does refer to the same apartment mentioned in
the first sentence.

(3) i$"d
$2 1. ' ~ a ) 7 1 t -b g j k , .j3 + , $ $ P J ~ -b g w f : ,
(Isaw an apartment in Boston yesterday. John also saw an apartment

(4) #B$x 1. ' J a ) 7 / f - b % R f ; , '9 a 'J & + B + o Y / f - b ewf;,
(I saw an apartment in Boston yesterday. John also saw that apartment
today .)
In (3, on the other hand, there is sufficient context to interpret the kozukai
'janitor' in the second sentence as anaphoric; therefore, no demonstrative
adjective is necessary.
(5) s T , R R W S ~ R $ \ L ;9&E w ~ ; B ~ & ~ L T ; ~it ~ T T Lj

< ~ ~ 3 f : x2: &S % a -) %* ~ a ) @ + $ k j ' T k b ~ f ~ ~
,:t & T l dr 5, : C % & Q ~ : % @ , ~ ) ; \ % ~ : F ~ T ' Td\@i&??hQ
' PL liL5
&3 T%3T,
(&BE% r%BAt%fJ)
(Later, the teacher gave the gourd he had taken from Seibei to an old
janitor as if it was a filthy object. The janitor took it home and hung it
on a pillar in his small dingy room. (Shiga Naoya: Seibei and the
When reference is made in a later paragraph, the anaphoric noun often
appears with a relative clause which reiterates identifying information about
the referent mentioned earlier. For example, in the story of Cinderella, one of
Cinderella's shoes comes off when she runs down the stairs of the palace to
hurry home. When this shoe is referred to in a later paragraph, the reference
could look like (6).
(6) ~ > ~ F ' I / S & & & ~ ~ ~ & ~ k G % B i r K, r d% . l #) # I ~ ' J ~ T L
4 %gS-&5Lfz,
(Using the shoe Cinderella lost on the stairs as a clue, the prince had
his men look for her.)

C, Related Nouns
Anaphoric reference often occurs with nouns (or noun phrases) which are not
the same as but are related to their antecedents. There are three situations in
which "related nouns" appear as anaphors:

(a) Situations where an anaphor and its antecedent refer to the same entity
(direct anaphora);
6) Situations where an anaphor refers to part of its antecedent's referent
(semi-direct anaphora); and
(c) Situations where an anaphor refers to an entity inferred from previous
context (indirect anaphora).

Direct anaphora
In direct anaphora, reference can be made by nouns which refer to larger cate-
gories than their antecedents refer to. For example, in (7) the hana 'flower' in
the second sentence refers to the sakura 'cherry (blossoms)' in the first sen-
tence. In this case, a demonstrative adjective is mandatory.

(Cherry blossoms are the symbol of Japan. They (lit. These flowers)
are loved by everyone.)
Additional examples of direct anaphora can be seen in (8) and (9).
25:' C
7~ 9 - b 1:- k 0
@El ~11~8;3'%itaT&j:, LCE%'GL%LO&&@~~O~
(Yamada came to see me yesterday. This guy was one of my class-
mates in my high school days.)

(heard Kazuhito Yamashita play guitar (lit. Kazuhito Yamashita's
guitar). This genius guitarist won three international competitions in
Europe when he was sixteen.)

Semi-direct anaphora
In semi-direct anaphora, an anaphoric noun refers to part (or an element) of its
antecedent's referent. For example, in (lo), the yuka 'floor' in the second sen-
tence refers to the floor of the apartment mentioned in the first sentence. In
this case, the anaphor does not require a demonstrative adjective.
** ST
(10) @EI s x b ' J O ~ I ~E ~- ~ t at=&
j : LLQK+,-;,
~ f:;3'~1~\7/\"-- b
723 ?zo
(Yesterday I saw an apartment in Boston. Although there were some
scratches on the floor, it was a good apartment.)

Indirect anaphora
In indirect anaphora, there is no explicit antecedent. The referent of an
anaphor is inferred from a previous sentence(s). For example, in (ll), the
gen'in 'cause' in the second sentence does not refer to anything which is
directly mentioned in the first sentence. Rather, it refers to something which is
inferred from that sentence. In this case, the anaphor does not require a
demonstrative adjective.

(11) @&+y'=i' ,,
y&P&$Jp& j:, g g ; 3 ' + ~ ~ & q k > ~
(Yesterday there was a fire at an elementary school in Kobe. The
police are investigating the cause now.)

D. Anaphor ellipsis (Zero anaphora)

(Seibei's parents were aware that he bought gourds once in a while.
(He) had some ten gourds with skins costing from three or four to fif-
teen cents. (Shiga Naoya: Seibei and the Gourds))
In (12), Seibei wa or kare wa 'he' is ellipted in the second sentence.
Because of this "invisible anaphora," the two sentences in (12) form a cohesive

(2) Phenomena of Tense and Formality Switchings

A. Tense Switching
Usually a series of past events are narrated in the past tenses. But primarily in
written Japanese discourse that narrates a past event, past tenses often switch
to nonpast tenses. The following is a passage from a famous novel called
Yama no Oto 'The Sound of the Mountain' by Yasunari Kawabata. Everything
that is being described in this passage concerns past events. So the English
native readerlwriter, for example, expects the author to use nothing but the past

[14] L ~ ~ L % & G = L L I ~ ) @;i
([I] It is ten days before the month of August, but insects are already
crying. [2] The sound of night dew dropping from a leave to another
is audible. .[3] All of a sudden Shingo heard the sound of the mountain.
[4] There is no wind. [5] The moon is almost a full moon and bright,
yet the moist night air blurs the outline of the tree tops of the small
mountain. [6] But the trees are not moving in the wind. [7] At the so-
called inner part of the valley of Kamakura, some nights Shingo is able
to hear the sound of waves, so he suspected that it was the sound of the
sea, but it turned out to be the sound of the mountain. [8] It is like the
distant sound of the wind, but it had deep power like that of the earth
rumbling. [9] He feels as if it were in his head, so he thought it was his
ears ringing and he shook his head. [lo] The sound stopped. [ l l ]
After the sound stopped Shingo was overtaken by fear for the first
time. [12] A chill ran through his spine as if the hour of his death had
been proclaimed. [13] Shingo had tried to figure out objectively if it
was the sound of the wind or the sound of waves or ringing in his ears,
and he thought it was possible that there wasn't any sound. [14] But
there was no doubt that he had heard the sound of the mountain.)
Logically speaking, the author could have written every sentence in the past
tense. Nevertheless, the author sometimes used the past tense and sometimes
the nonpast tense. In this passage, 5 sentences (i.e., Sentences 1,2,4,5,6) out
of 14 sentences are in the nonpast tense shown by the double underline. (In the
translation the original nonpast predicate is translated using the nonpast tense
and italicized.) In other words, a switch from the past tense to the nonpast has 1
occurred in those 5 sentences.
An examination of the 5 sentences in the nonpast tense reveals that these
sentences describe a circumstance that surrounds Shingo, the main character of

the story. The rest of the sentences (i.e., sentences 3,7-14) describe in the past
tense whatever Shingo did or felt in the given circumstances. To put it in gen-
eral terms, tense switching is a strategy available to the writer to differentiate a
stage and a set of chronological events that occur within that stage. The stage
is certainly important in that it defines a space in which a drama develops, but
it is less important than the drama itself. So, important, dramatic information
is described in the past tense, whereas relatively unimportant circumstantial
information is described in the nonpast tense. The use of such nonpast tenses
has an effect of creating a vivid sense of immediateness for the reader.
A principle that appears to govern Tense Switching goes as follows:
Principle of Tense Switching
A part of a past event (often a state rather than an action) can be described
using the nonpast tense, if the writer perceives it to be relatively unimportant
circumstantial information that has no direct bearing upon the major story line.

B. Formality Switching
By formality switching is meant switching from formal style to informal style
or less frequently switching from informal style to formal style. The latter, i.e.,
switching from informal style to formal style, occurs in spoken Japanese. The
informal style is a suitable style to be used when the speaker / writer wants to
express his feeling, his knowledge or his conviction in a straightforward man-
ner. So, in a formal setting which requires the speaker / writer to use the for-
mal style, the style can switch from formal to informal as shown in the fol-
lowing examples (2a, b, c).
I: liL <I: %L,:<~L W. Lri
(2) a. ~ ~ ~ L ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ H A D ~ G

(Japan is giving foreigners an impression of a country very much
closed. Foreigners are called "gaijin," that is to say, outsiders and

they are always treated like guests. And they cannot make good
friends easily. Association with colleagues is tough. There is also
a limit to their promotion. Anyway, Japan has to become a soci-
ety more open to foreigners.)
1: lM&t&
b. 8*ii!$%-h"$Gb3T3L;ta0 El$h-h"3~%~%titLf;&?$,
ljbalf-3 <9

- A B,
8 m i i ~ lt1L-C, -w~l;l&a%&-h"?-=$a~
l r r i IT3
g ~ ~ a2, Z
-h"&;3>s0 -h"k~:a&~
- 1?7Y1b, EbaZ t-h"ttZ%Gb>fv

(There are not many crimes committed in Japan, you know. When
a Japanese is about to commit a crime there are at least two factors
that will deter him from committing it, aside from punishments.
The faces of his wife and children come to his mind. He thinks of
his company. That's why he cannot do evil things, you know.)

L A~ i
RD~~L.>QZQ G: 17 a*fv-n.,
*4Wi6 w
(mn& ~QZGL.-W-CI)
(How are you living your life these days when life is difficult in all
sorts of ways? The difficulty of living has not just started now.
From ancient times, human life must have been full of difficulties
at least for those who dealt with it seriously. (. . . omitted. . .) Our
lives are truly insignificant, such tiny things, and each one of us is
truly miserable, mundane and sometimes unbearably ugly. But

even so, we have no other place than ourselves in which we can
live. So, shall we value this irreplaceable self in this life that we
have but once?) (Isaku Yanaihara "On Self')
The speaker of both (2a) and (2b) is talking to a person in the rather formal
situation of a round-table discussion. This is a situation where a formal style
is required, but instead of using a formal style all the way, he has switched his
style from formal to informal style as indicated by the double underlines.
The writer of (2c) employs formal style all the way with intermittent infor-
mal style. In (2c) there are two double-underlined predicates in which formal-
ity switching has taken place. In both cases the writer expresses something
appendixed to what follows either in a coordinated or subordinated way. In
fact, in both cases, the sentences that are in -an informal style can turn into a
coordinate clause or a subordinate clause like (3a) and (3b), respectively.
Whatever is expressed in an appendix to the major clause is usually distanced
from the hearertreader, and therefore tends to be expressed usually in informal
style. Also to be noted here is the statistical tendency for formality switching
to occur when the sentence is a negative sentence.
(3) a. & 3 & Z k.h.'M%2a)C2, m $ 4 K & 3 97: kTCitSb10tbj9
- , 8 & b , A&bi, $2 k S , t <
k L Q 3 L~+5C:%Cf$rr.;,f:Ab:k
9-cC2, b 3 9 S,%L'?hb:R%f:$ Of?9f:C:B'd>bj !J 3*ho
b. L & L , ??&I; kb\.;,T, Za)A&, Z a ) [ l 3 ~ ~ ~ C ~Lf:%C2 ;hf:
& b b%FrCi2b>a)7'?&b9 -B[IdC!J O n & , &bf.h.'iia)tSbaBz
%kWC: Ldr jT i 2 6 9 3-t?&2ao
An extreme case of formality switching is instanced by the following
(4) ~ i ' l $ l 2 : h & b ~ > r ' z - 9 ~ 7 7 a ) . l j l f $ ~ ~ 3 -3iTf ,, = I ; / ~ ' L -
9 F .;, 7a>k&$T-if.h.', (A bee stings the speaker's head) 6 CJ , {$
b 1 / *%b>T-f}!
(Today I am going to give a talk on computer chips. First of all,
regarding the structure of the chip, ouch!)
The speaker of (4) is giving a public talk in which he is required to use for-
mal speech. However, at the point when he is stung by a bee, he automatically
switches his style from formal to informal, because his expression is an excla-
mation which is a most straightforward expression of his physiological feeling.

Although much less frequent than formal-to-informal switching there are
cases of informal-to-formal switching as shown in (5).
( 5 ) A: 842 F.74 7C:rl'ilS172~.1?
(Don't you want to come for a drive with me?)
B: % ? j h % , ? ? J L k i & L 1 ; ,
(Mm, I wonder what I should do.)
A: F.74-/C:fiL?Jk, h,
(You must come with me.)
B: & M Z , $ @ & & i ! 9 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .
(You are a reckless driver, aren't you?)
A: f h 2 L 2 i 2 & l l 3 * h o ~ k I . ' 7 4 7 d - & @ G 2 %
, L<B%L~
(Not at all. When I go for a drive with you, I will drive consider-
In this example, a couple is talking very informally. The speaker A wants to
persuade B to come for a drive with him, but the persuasion has not been suc-
cessful, so by switching the style he wants to teasingly indicate that their rela-
tionship does not deserve intimate, informal style. Therefore, he intentionally
switches his style from informal to formal.

The Principle of Formality Switching
Formal style may be switched to informal style when the speaker I writer wants
to express hislher feeling, knowledge or conviction in a straightforward

2. Newspaper Grammar
Japanese newspapers use certain sentence forms, phrases, and words which are
not common to other writing.

(1) Headlines

A. Ellipsis of particles and verbals
In newspaper headlines the topic marker wa and case markers are often
dropped. (Particularly, ellipsis of the subject marker ga and the direct object
marker o is common.) Predictable verbals are also dropped.

(1) a. & 22 k%iG&nt) $Mi:(&.a)
(Earth resource satellite goes into orbit)
b. %mm2&#4(E)&Ik7(*5)
to I i h r i

(Public high schools to raise tuition)
c. ~777%&(~)&%K(&5)I: ltLeLL~4r?
Y ~ ~ ~ Y ~ ~ ~ ' J ( ~ J ) . ) % D E I ~ A ~ ~ - ~ ( E
(Emphasis on East Asia becomes clear/ Du Pont Japan appoints
first Japanese president)
rnr <
d. %&~i~iwmmqzw~t:m
t f d. d.( B L ~ V ~ W *
9 tea) [ m i
(Government should make an effort to solve land price problems)
(For examples of wa-omission, see (4a) and (4b).)
Note: As seen in (Id), particles are not dropped in imperative sentences.

B. Ellipsis of no
The noun connector no is often dropped in long noun compounds (particularly,
in those which contain more than one no).

(Companies' social expenses reached (lit. reach) Y5,627.4 billion
last year)

(Kirin announces the world's beer consumption in '90)

The sum of sum-verbs is usually dropped.
(3) a. %(*I, 7 0 '~(%)95+(~)%$i(~a)
(US to totally abolish CFCs (chloro-fluorocarbons) in '95)

(Satellite industry begins foreign market development)

D. Da after N and Adj(na)stem
Da after nouns and na-adjective stems is usually dropped.

(1 1,105 killed in traffic accidents last year)

(Plant export to SE Asia flourishes)

E. Tense
In headlines past events are represented using the nonpast tense (e.g., (la),
(lc)). Because the nonpast tense also represents future events, whether an
event is a future one or a past one is known from other headline elements (e.g.,
(2a), (3a)) or from the text (e.g., (lb), (3b)).

F. Abbreviations
a. Country names
Country names are often abbreviated.

:e Z ^I.L.%
(5) H (Japan); 8 (America); 8 (Great Britain); (France); &
(Germany); k (Italy); $D(Canada); (Australia); '$ (China);
8 (Taiwan); % (Korea); i% *L
7 (South Africa)
b. Groups, companies, institutions
The complete names of groups, companies, and institutions are often

Note: Some abbreviations in this category are commonly used in
spoken as well as written language.

c. Special abbreviations
Some English acronyms and letters are commonly used in headlines to
save space.

(7) EC (European Community); IC (integrated circuit); KO (knock-
out); N Y (New
~ York stocks); W% (World Cup); $&' (first

(2) Bodies

A. Suru-verbs
The conjugated part of a suru-verb connective form (i.e., +hi) is often dropped.
-sun, or -shita of a suru-verb in sentence-final position is also dropped in some


and medicare expenses, which have increased by Y1 trillion every year
since 1987, reaching Y21 trillion. . . . This survey is conducted once
every three years. In this survey a total of 12,054 hospitals, clinics, and
dental clinics were randomly selected and their patients were sumeyed
on one of the designated dates from October 16-18.)
Note: Because the stems of most suru-verbs are also used as nouns, the
parts of speech must be carefully identified when -shi is omitted.

B. Da after nouns
Da after nouns is often dropped, the result being a noun-ending sentence.

9 a. ~h4 t
HH 6 L r i 6 L P L r i
p e ~ i t ~ + - ~ w , r
Q7t:b,d5( Cw Z t 3 1 J ~ i hL$<
I:*? ;b;<L*
+H$'I~_~vz z L - T % & L ~ ~ , 1993+m~
*.t a
on Y~~~;%H-F
0 :iefbi l t ~ .do? e-2
L 57 a & m

$. p ~ " ; i ~ i w s f t w ~ :Ta3 7 ~ 2 ~ 2 , mow % ~9
$k?sri%R1k;S'%.%C:?~ 9 T 3 7: Z 2 h ~!ffl@+.b~srif&d
1: I i h I f b ~ F b ~ L h b i h
( E ) .

(The Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Education agreed on
the morning of the 21st that the tuition of national universities will
be raised by V36,000 a year. The new tuition will come into effect
from April 1993. The reasons for the raise include the obvious
gap between the tuition of private universities and that of national
universities and the urgent need to modernize facilities for science
and engineering research.)
:i:i 9 ZiOb~IZ?

b. TftI,~bC:&EIO&@T@?; fi. : S I:&?hb
L > ~ $*( 312, E l 8 h + @ , $.Fl
E+hl+l:lV , b1T;kb ;@&t,m,Q ,Z$?kLt: Z 2 $:1+?5 8 , %
g p g ~r j g g ~ ~ m w m m y g 1 I:, w%k~:$?t
C t
Pi+?b. CILW

t< 627
a ~ ~ - h %LJ -dC L J ~ O # ~ ~ ~ ( E ) ~
(S$$~iW%7i312.26.9198 VJ)
("A Survey of Problematic Behaviors by K-12 Students" released
by the Ministry of Education on December 25 has revealed that
the number of cases of school violence which took place at high
schools across the country in 1990 reached 1,419, involving 490
schools. Both figures are the worst on record. One of the charac-
teristics is that there is a sharp rise in violence towards teachers.)

3. Conversational Strategies
In order to become proficient in advanced Japanese conversation it is necessary
to be able to use conversational strategies. They include (A) Aizuchi ('back-
channel' responses), (B) Fillers, (C) Rephrasing, (D) Topic Shift and Topic
Recovery and (E) Avoidance of Decisive Expressions, among others.

A. Aizuchi ('back-channel' responses)
Aizuchi ('back-channel' responses) is an interjection to indicate that the hearer
is involved with what the speaker has said up to that point of the conversation.
The most common aizuchi expressions include I i l/l 'yes,' 2 2 'yes,' j tv
'yeah,' it 5 'oh, yeah?', ?- 5 T f i5 'Is that so?', ".2 'wow,' ?- 5 T f ;la
'that's right,' lZtv 2 i (1:) 'really,' +;kT'so?', ?-;ki5b 'and then?' Exam-
ples are given below. (Aizuchi expressions are given in double parentheses.) In
Japanese the hearer uses such aizuchi now and then at phrase-final and sen-
tence-final positions. Phrase endings are often signaled by the particle 'ne.'
t It&:.'.
6 L 9 2 , %J El, ~ i ~ l :h
(1) [A male superior talking to his subordinate]
cfC2k2,eCI; Q b l t v T h , ((dkbl)) Za)$GrEP;la,( ( l i b > ) ).%l9T'd
Td:z& LT&b>T ;kCb>i5ho( ( I i b l ) )
(lit. I have to fly to Hong Kong tomorrow ((yes)), so complete this
report ((yes)) by the day after tomorrow, will you?)
(2) [A male speaker talking to his male friend] %;k$biE a)-t; El
la, ;5-x I- 7 117 0 ' F ~L - c = . & $ c ~ T((-2))
;~~, AEa)Xfi&v
Y T , % I / ~3Tr:tvr?, ((+ 1)
(lit. From the end of the year till January 7, I went to Sydney in Aus-
tralia ((wow!)) I swam under the midsummer sunshine. ((oh, yeah?)))
$05 L F
(3) [A female speaker talking to her female friend] R El k@
B 8 b ~ brf:
b h , ((i
6 0 :
A)) Z L E F ~ J ~ V ~ ~ O I:))L ,+ ; k ~ ,
((Crtvk 9 ~ ~ r
b h , ( ( 5 tv))h b t v E B L T - ? ~ E ~ I ~ ~((2-2,
~ ? bZtv2
T ~ O ~
i ?)I
(Yesterday when I was walking on the Ginza street ((yeah)) I saw
Mariko ((really?)) So I called her. ((Yeah)) She pretended not to
recognize me and looked the other way ((Oh, yeah?)))
(4) [A male superior to his subordinate] Z a)
6 k T 6'K L L.l I? 6 i .

riC h h'(i :333:3L+
( ( t r+a))
i rz$e, ,@,a 3
cF@+5- L ~ ~ L > ~ 2=m T
s r,i ~ ; e
, (;i;~i)
- = - c d r - f i / v ~ : ~ f m( ~)s,
If- Cr<
((+i L3 ~ k b l t (, ( t ah
~ + f i l ) ) ,t h T , $6 EC2R?;i6?-?&3-c i
(You know I've been terribly busy these days. ((right)) So, I wanted to
make a trip for a change. And I went to a travel agent ((yes)), but I
couldn't get the ticket easily. ((Is that right?)) So in the end I gave up
the idea. ((Is that right?)))
It should be noted that in English aizuchi (typically 'uh-huh' or 'yeah') is
seldom used. In fact, frequent use of aizuchi creates an impression that the
hearer is not paying serious attention to what is being said. Not only verbally,
but also nonverbally, the Japanese hearer nods very frequently to indicate
his 1 her involvement with what the speaker has to say.

B. Fillers
While aizuchi is a strategy available for the hearer, a filler is a strategy avail-
able for the speaker.
First, the particle ne in (5) and (6) is a typical filler that indicates the
speaker's attempt to involve the hearer. (5) is an example of informal speech,
and (6) is an example of formal speech in which ne is preceded by desu. This
use of desu ne is most commonly used in business Japanese.
(5) i + ~ i i a , 11 f i i ~ 1 1 ; - ~-~ -%=~~
: -b
-@, 7~3-=fi
/v l 5 ,
(lit. Yesterday, y'know, Tom suddenly came here from the States,
y'know, and stayed overnight at my house.)

(This is the new software I mentioned the other day, and if you have
time I'd appreciate it if you could use it on an experimental basis.)
However, too many ne's in a single sentence makes the sentence very awk-
ward, as shown in (7).

(???Today, y'know, I, y'know, went to Narita Airport, y'know, by car,
y'know, to pick up my friend, y'know.)
Secondly, the filler and is used to signal the speaker's hesitation about
saying something embarrassing, as in (8a). In (8b) and is used to signal the
speaker's search for the right word or phrase. Too many and's in a single
sentence sounds very awkward as shown in (8c).
(8) a. A: Y j LI:AT-.fjS.,
(What happened?)
B: &
,* E+&;klil~b9I:ATt,
(Uhh . . . , I forgot my wallet, you know.)
b. YZI?-3i$, & ,* fldbcAI:%b20
(Where is it? Eh . . . I mean the book I bought yesterday.)
c *&DiA28tEl, & D i , gl)i,
& a ? , '$&~.B?IT%-c,
A L,S 9 CZ, &a,
LT, &a, %!J b LIZ,
(Ah, uh, yesterday, y'know, my mother, y'know, came from
Kyoto, y'know, talked with me after a long while, y'know, and
went home, y'know.)
Thirdly, the phrase 'nan to iu X deshita ka' 'What was X called?' in (9)
becomes 'nan te iu X datta kke' in informal speech. The phrase can be used
whenever the speaker has forgotten an exact name.

(There is a famous bookstore in Shinjuku-what was the name?
. . . Oh yeah, Kinokuniya. I bought four books on the Japanese econ-
omy there.)
Fourthly, the interjection eto used in (10) is used when the speaker is trying
to remember something. Just like the case of and, too many eto's in a single
sentence makes it very awkward.

(The fall of Russian communism was, let's see, December of 1991, if
I remember correctly.)
Fifthly, the phrase 'nan to ittara ii desho (ka)' in (1 1) and its informal equiv-
alent 'nan to ittara ii ka nalne' are used when the speaker is looking for the right

(The recent tendency in world ideology is, how shall I put it? Bor-
derless thinking.)
Sixthly, the interjection ma is used primarily to avoid making a definite
statement, as shown below.
Cb+< df<irrti
(12) a. A: Z OAf C2f &%$hi.P O ('6 b\T?75',
(What's the student population at this college?)
L.$*,L z *AKA.
B: 36, - - Z 5 T - A C L ; b ~ T L h i d . ,
(Somewhere around 15,000, I suppose.)
b. A: %!tl2~%&Tti5..
(Have you been in good health lately?)
B: 36, ?-iT t b 0
(I guess so.)
:I ItL LI <
c. s$gct.,
36 Sh
36, l l i ~ ~ h g d : : * i ~ ' , M,~zlfhari
it, C:~;L\~S'

(I can eat practically all Japanese food, but natto (=fermented
soybeans) has too strong a smell for me and I don't like it.)

C. Rephrasing
Just as native speakers of Japanese know how to rephrase words using other
explanatory expressions when they cannot recall the most suitable words,
intermediate learners of Japanese, too, should start to learn how to rephrase
words they don't know or cannot remember. By doing so embarassing pauses
can be avoided. A common way to rephrase a noun is by means of a noun
modification, as shown in (13a, b).
(13) a. [The speaker A cannot remember / doesn't know the word geta,
traditional footwear in Japan.]

(You know the stuff Japanese people put on when they wear
kimono-what do they call it?)
B: hh, pgozIIf:ila,
(Oh, you mean geta?)
b. [The speaker cannot remember 1 doesn't know the word genkan,
Japanese version of a foyer.]
H$ogTii, 256, 4EJIIz9f:&e9
126, zl:&a%l:iit
Q$L<II z 5 , ~ T Z I ; ~f :$,E ~ ~ i : ~ - - ~ ~ - j - d : i l a ,
(In a Japanese house, ah, what do you call it? The place where
people take off their shoes before entering the house, that's an
interesting space, you know.)
When a word that needs rephrasing is a verb or an adjective, the speaker can
rephrase it by using more basic words or phrases, as shown in (14a, b).
(14) a. [The speaker cannot remember / doesn't know the verb hdsdsuru
'to broadcast'.]
79.7~ ~ & $ G ; ~ : ~ H R L g,
wi:f l f r
~oFM? + &6~0&j ,G&'if
a /uTt7F,
(Is this FM classic music program broad, broad, ah, can we hear
it every day at the same time?)
b. [The speaker cannot remember / doesn't know the na-adjective
nihonteki(na) 'Japan-like.']
bjoH&;t: H*A, H*A, H $ A ~ ~~.\mawdi,
bL il

13 atilao
(That lady has a Japanese, Japanese, Japanese-like atmosphere,
doesn't she?)
When the speaker wants to get the word which he cannot remember / does-
n't know, he can use - koto / hito / yosu, etc. o nan to iimasu ka, as shown in
(15a, b).

(15) a. [The speaker cannot remember 1doesn't know the verb nesugosu
'oversleep' .]
A: @, +& b & aT&&zkL?mksbla*7k
(What do you say when you sleep longer than you planned
in the morning?)

b. [The speaker cannot remember I doesn't know the adjective
gaikdteki 'social' .]
+?- I t <7 %
A: X k w a > j s i X & ~ ~ rz-.-r.btz+i
, ~c:&wrct'i<
A o z k L?l~JkZbl5Ti5.,
(What do you call a person who loves to talk with people
and goes out willingly no matter where it is?)
B: rfimml H ~ ~ w ~
(We call it gaikdteki.)

D. Topic Shift and Topic Recovery
In any language the speaker cannot shift the topic of conversation abruptly;
there are ways to signal a topic shift. Some of the most common Japanese
ways to signal a topic shift are given below.
(16) a. kCST
(By the way)
It*L +,/
b. &C&&kla *7F,
(lit. The story is different, but . . .)
c. 6 L 9 kBd"-?;k%Tjsi,
(lit. The story deviates a little bit, but . . .)
.h C W
Bld'&;h a 'if#,
(lit. The topic is going to change, but. . .)
e. Xk~2.d%/X9~(~;id%)
(Speaking of X)

When the speaker wants to get back to the former topic, he can signal his
desire to recover the old topic. Some of the standard ways to signal it are as
(17) a. 5 7 3 X 7 7%- 7 :f F S [highly informal]
(A while ago I / you said X, but)

b. S9$OSTT7F/ 593OXO~&T-$7F
(Let me get back to the topic 1 X that we were talking about a
while ago.)
C. El2t.$kEif 7: Z t Tt7F [very formal, polite]
BE r O k T T l f P [formal, polite]
(Regarding what I told you a while ago)

E. Avoidance of Decisive Expressions
To a far greater degree Japanese language uses indecisive expressions espe-
cially when the speakerlwriter expresses his own opinions. The strategy that
Japanese native speakers use to make their statements less forceful and more
humble is the use of an indirect expression at the end of the sentence. Suppose
that the speakerlwriter wants to state "Japanese people avoid using decisive
expressions," he could say or write very straightforwardly as in (18) or indi-
rectly as in (19) and (20).
(18) ~ $ ~ l i @ r g & i f( &L ) ~
(Japanese avoid using decisive expressions.)
(19) a. El$AlkAZBBlf &a) {Tdi / Ce) h rl3-@A&,
(Isn't it the case that Japanese avoid using decisive expressions?)
b. H$Alil$fZB%$lf&O { T d i / C ? I GLlTLdrjjS-.,
(I wonder if Japanese wouldn't avoid using decisive expres-
C. El$AcrtFfiZB;@cf & O I ~ l . /3 E e l ablt:s 5 a,
(I wonder if Japanese wouldn't avoid using decisive expres-
d. El$AliBifZQBGf &O {TI&/ Ce) 8756 5 a,
(I wonder if Japanese wouldn't avoid using decisive expres-



(20) a. El$-AGi.kfiZQBbf& Ir 8 b lZ T,
(I think that Japanese avoid using decisive expressions.)
b. n $ - A l A w ~ g c t ak,g,blaj- I~W,
(I think that Japanese avoid using decisive expressions, but. . .)
C. El$-AbkkfiZQBIf&a> {-Chi. / h = l Q b ~ 2 ~ k E b ~ 2 T o
(I wonder if Japanese wouldn't avoid using decisive expres-
d. El$Alkl%Qbf& {TI& / C.el h b \ + k . E , b l 2 T
/ If r 1 ,
(I wonder if Japanese wouldn't avoid using decisive expressions,
but. . .)
e. El$Abk%fBQjBIf &a)Tti.hbl+Ir,R;h;kZj- {$/ If rl,
(It seems to me that Japanese will avoid using decisive expres-
sions, but. . .)
f. %Lb:GkH$AGi.kfiZQBGf&a)TGkfsb~~k.~,;h;k&a)TT$,
b ~ + $ h 6 a > T L ~ i+,
(It seems to me that Japanese will avoid using decisive expres-
sions, but what would you say?)
In (19) and (20), in which the same core statement is made, the longer the
sentence is, the less decisive the expression is 1 tends to be. When a Japanese
speaker opposes what his superior has said his expression definitely has to
avoid straightforward expressions. There are some set phrases that can be pre-
fixed to the speaker's statement of an opposing view, as shown in (21).
(21) a. +
% 5 h &, [informal]
(Well, I doubt it. (lit. I wonder if that is so.))
b. ?-?LT~ blbl(Tj-) bfr0
(That's fine, too, but. . .)
c. ?-;kIk+-5 {Tj-/f?}IfFo
(That's true, but. . .)

d. B-t;6tv-?ik/v r-w/rz] ~frh~
(Of course it is true, but. . .)

g. E u m t w a ;t~ ~l t k a b l A - r w 0
(I don't have any particular intention to disagree with you,
but. . .)
h. && Q%T1 i TliiJTT$... [highly formal and polite]
(lit. Sorry to return words to you, but. . .)
i. @ 2 & G : k ; ~L 9 6 3 9 I?kCk,F,bl3T jSP, LeL...[formal,
(What you have said is indeed correct, but. . .)

4. Toward Better Reading Comprehension: Analyzing Sentences
Reading comprehension involves a variety of mental processes, from under-
standing the meanings of words and grasping the structures of sentences to
identifying the referents of pronouns and understanding inference. If the
reader fails in these processes, correct interpretation cannot be attained. One
of the most problematic areas here is sentence structure. This section provides
aids to improve skills for accurate sentence structure analysis.

(1) Basics
A. Structure of Simple Sentences
Before tackling complex sentence structures, it is essential to understand the
basic structure of Japanese sentences. First, let us consider the following
bLL ai4tbP3
(1) $LG;f~t$@Ega>7,\"-
I.T P ~ v e j i - ~ b s f i ,
(Last night I was watching TV in my friend's apartment.)
(1) is a simple sentence (i.e., a sentence with a single verbal). The structure
of this sentence can be diagramed as follows.
(2) Pre-verbal element Verbal
$L GA [Subject (Topic)]
%@ [Time]
E - C b ~ k
71 - 1- T [Location]
P 1/ v B [Direct object]

As (2) illustrates, Japanese simple sentences usually consist of a verbal and
some pre-verbal elements. Complete sentences in Japanese must contain a ver-
bal, and in some instances simple sentences have only verbals (e.g., imperative
sentences). Thus, verbals are considered to be the "hub" of sentences. As a
matter of fact, sentences are constructed in such a way that the verbals are
modified by pre-verbal elements. The general structure of Japanese simple
sentences is provided in (3).

(3) Sentence-initial Pre-verbal Verbal
element element

(Conj .)

As (3) illustrates, a verbal is either a verb, an adjective, or a noun with a
copula (e.g., sensei da) and sometimes involves other elements such as auxil-
iaries (e.g., (Vte) iru) and/or sentence particles (e.g., ka, yo). A pre-verbal ele-
ment is either an NP (i.e., noun or noun equivalent) with a particle(s) or an
adverbial (i.e., adverb or adverb equivalent). Verbals indicate either an action
or state while pre-verbal elements indicate such things as subject, direct object,
time, location, and manner. Simple sentences sometimes contain sentence-ini-
tial elements such as sentence-initial conjunctions (e.g., shikashi 'but') and/or
sentential adverbials (e.g., omoshiroi koto ni 'interestingly'). As seen later,
more complex sentences, such as compound sentences and complex sentences,
are composed of two or more simple sentences which have the basic structures
shown in (3).

B. Key Elements
The key elements of sentences are verbals, NPs, pre-verbal adverbials, and

1. Verbals
In sentence-final position various forms of verbs, adjectives, and NPs with a
copula appear. They are sometimes followed by auxiliaries and/or sentence
particles. (4) provides some examples.

*In terms of position, NP-(Prt.)-wa normally appears before other pre-verbal elements
and sometimes even before a sentence-initial element. However, when NP-(Prt.)-wa
is the sentence subject, direct object, etc., we consider this element to be pre-verbal
rather than sentence-initial because, unlike other sentence-initial elements, NP-(Prt.)-
wa modifies the verbal. (See 4.3. Sentential topic.)

(He cried.)
b. %L& eo
V Aux.
(I want to go, too.)
c. gL.W-
- - tPo

Adj(i) Prt.
(Is (it) cheap?)
d. m 1 3 f 2 ;la,
Adj(na) Aux. Prt.
(It seems convenient, doesn't it?)
7 m C L ++A*b,

e. @iAbi%&f ? ~ f :-?3 fZ0*
N Cop. Aux.
(I heard that she was a teacher.)

2. NPs
As seen in (3), NPs appear as either pre-verbal elements (with a particle) or
verbal elements (with a copula). There are varieties of NP structures, as seen
below. Long and complex sentences often include large NPs composed of NPs
with different types of structures; therefore, understanding these structural vari-
ations is essential for accurate sentence structure analysis.

2.1. Nouns / Pronouns
Single nouns, pronouns, and compound nouns are in this category.
l iL 63 t? I:@$ 7Y< L liL+b, k'
(5) $ (book); LLl Bl 3 A (Mr. Yamada); iF1. (I); Z kL (this); A 5%zt%%lJi3f
(entrance examination system)

*When certain auxiliaries follow an NP with a copula, the copula drops, as in (i).
(i) E ~ C ~~ B~ h k ~ ~ l i ~ ,
N Aux.
(She might be a teacher.)

2.2. Pre-nominal element + Noun
There are several patterns in this category.

2.2.1. Demonstrative adjective + Noun
(6) Z 0 $ (this book); 0 f & (that student); Z tv B 4& (such a
dictionary; a dictionary like this)

2.2.2. Adjective + Noun
frbl). L*< Clrl
(7) % 1:li% (difficult homework); 3 B P L X (a pretty dress); &$

0% (an ordinary house)*; 2 T@$Ufb7)f- b (a cheap and conven-
ient apartment)

2.2.3. Noun (+ Prt.) 0 Noun
ti l r i 3 +r=
%~ O % I T %
(the subway system in Tokyo)
(Mr. Suzuki's father's company)
%&* 6 0+@
(a letter from my teacher)
$$&, f J 9 f J t f b ~ a > E %
(problems such as kanji and katakana)
(+no1 (DBJG: 312-15))

2.2.4. {Noun / Verb} + Compound particle (pre-nominal form) + Noun
(9) a.
1: IiL
(a paper on Japanese grammar)
b. (zo&&)T& ~=$fi9~0%%
(precautions before doing (this job))

*There are a handful of adjectives that have prenorninal forms ending with no rather
than i (i-adjectives) or na (na-adjectives). More examples:
LS 3d'
(i) 38 < 0 (distant); h< 0 (nearby); % < 0 (many); (constant); %$$o) (the


2.2.5. Relative clause + Noun*
(10) a. (C&i2)2%&9 f:~-+(f?~)
((This is) a cake which Tomoko made.)
*%If/r f 3- 2
b. %LO-%F33 a4+ FE! % ( b i d - b - 4 7 f L )
(The composer that I like the most (is Beethoven.))
(+Relative Clause (DBJG: 376-80))

2.2.6. NounISentence 2 b l j Noun
(11) a. %*kbljy!k
(a student named Suzuki)
b. H$;Bh2$bl~bla~&f?kblj*g~(l;gL{ 2bl0)**
(The idea that Japanese is an ambiguous language (is not uncom-
(+ to iu (DBJG: 486-87))

2.2.7. Sentence + Nominalizer
(12) a. 3 3 7 ~ ~e7&1b l ~ b b ~ ~ ( % h b l ~ < ~ )
((I heard) Mitsuko playing the piano.)
no3 (DBJG: 3 18-22))
C r i <
b. 'i's-;/x=i/v-nr+s%a c2 (ean~;~&3f:,)
((I didn't know) that Mr. Jones was coming today.)
(+koto (DBJG: 193-96))

*In Japanese, restrictive relative clauses and non-restrictive relative clauses are not dis-
tinguished by form. For example, the noun phrase in (i) is ambiguous.
(i) L <'W<EI $A
((1) the Japanese, who work hard; (2) Japanese people who work hard)
A proper context is necessary to make this phrase unambiguous.

**There are some variations of "S to iu N," as in (i).

2.3. Noun k Noun
Two or more nouns are connected with noun connecting particles such as to
and ya to form a larger noun equivalent. A comma can also be used to connect
nouns. Examples:
(13) a. i%+ki59553-(k)
(kanji and katakana)
(dto1 (DBJG: 473-76))

b. 3 W 4 7 9 7 f -3(9)
(plates, knives, and forks (among others))
( d y a (DBJG: 536-38))

c. %~bkfiSL&kfi
(tempura, sashimi, and so on)
d. 7%')?1, F 4 7 , 7 4 ) X Q P
(America, Germany, France, etc.)
e. fi>js.@$(js.)
(a pen or a pencil)
?+A;< Z friZ< 2
f. H W wn,
E @jZm, 3 f:lkP HZ
(Japanese, Korean, or Chinese)

2.4. Embedded interrogative sentences
An interrogative sentence embedded in another sentence is a noun equivalent,
as in (14).
(14) a. $!&F+&??TZIjs. (flkgf~~)
(Who will do that (is the question.))
b. ~&fl\/>fiCc~~fi(Q~;i6,~~d'&60)
((It is necessary to teach) how important reading is.)

3. Pre-verbal adverbials
There are several kinds of words and phrases which function as pre-verbal

3.1. Adverbs / Adverbial nouns

(15) @ 9 < 13 (slowly); +I (today)
3.2. Adverbial forms of adjectives

(16) < (quickly); k

3.3. Adverbial forms of auxiliary adjectives
.h **
(17) % 9 +-if
5 < (in an easy-to-understand fashion); % L? iI: (sadly)
3.4. Quantifiers
(18) a. ~:<s/v(&<a)
((eat) a lot)
ehxk m
b. (t--lb2)5$(&?5)
((drink) three (beers))

3.5. Phonornimes, phenomimes, and psychomimes
(19) a. (%F) 7 'J 7 7 (& ) <
((a dog) bowwows)
b. (!3*Z2)-ifb-ifb(%t.f)
((read Japanese) easily)
c. 2%Y2%Y(-if&)
((be) nervous)

3.6. Quotation + 2 **
(20) a. rm~iu&x
((say) "Good morning")

*The contrastive wa may be affixed to pre-verbal adverbials.
**A quotation can be a complete sentence or part of a sentence.


b. %~~lk(k?i)
((think) that s.t. is difficult)
(eto3 (DBJG: 478-80))
3.7. Noun 1 Verb + Compound particle (pre-verbal form)
(21) a. ~ ~ ~ 3 1 % i = g ($&)
b l - c
((talk) about Japanese culture)
B t i < Or< t i t 5
b. ( % Q ) k6GL3;kT(ZEllKBPgi?&o)
(As one grows old, (one's memory fails.))

3.8. Vte
L.3 V t

(22) $b>T (on foot); %.b)T (hurriedly)
( 6 -te (DBJG: 464-67))

3.9. Vmasu + 1:
(23) (&sc:)A~~G:
((came) to see (s.o.'s friend))
( 6 ni5 (DBJG: 297-99))

4. Sentence-initial elements
Sentence-initial elements modify the clause which follows. They include sen-
tence-initial conjunctions, sentence adverbials, sentential topics, and sentence-
initial clauses. Sentence-initial clauses are elements of complex sentences.
(See E. Complex Sentences.)

4.1. Sentence-initial conjunctions
Some conjunctions appear in the sentence-initial position.
w . ~ i = ac
(24) a. %iFK~;kl&k!7?~ Lfi>L, N&%ii&& iiTf?o
(This is truly a difficult problem. But there should be a way to
solve it.)
b. - ? D ~ ~ ~ L $ L ~ ' 1~~Ti i%X &
-$ ?LT,
tiirk 20
(That job was too big for me to do by myself, so I asked for help
from some of my friends.)

4.2. Sentence adverbids
Sentence adverbids are usually phrases, as seen in (25).
H t Lh crilri
(25) a. @EIL\L~:E, k #&O? 4 ~ O ~ P & ~ P % i t r . ~ k ,
(Interestingly, the advanced class did a poorer job.)
b. .j ;t,17c=.t, n 9 4 Q&Q -ma o 72%~1:~
(It was stupid that I forgot to bring my camera.)

4.3. Sententid topics
Unlike the pre-verbal NP-(Prt.) marked by wa, sentential topics modify the
entire sentence which follows.
Bri .
I bt,h-+ ^;A - L
(26) a. 33 l b ~ d L L~ b > ~h . ~ ~ %
(Speaking of Kyoko, her father practices law.)
d'L b, L r i C +A.
b. ;.nWBl34L-il~b, ~ A _ ~ : ~ ~ L ~ B ~ ~ & E
(With regard to this problem, it is no use to discuss it further.)

4.4. Sentence-initial dependent clauses
Sentence-initial dependent clauses are internal sentences which are dependent
on the clauses which follow. Sentence-initial dependent clauses represent such
things as condition, time, reason, purpose, and manner. (27) provides exam-
(27) a. ~~~$$hfi~%T:%hb*T?2k~~
(Please let me know if Mr. Kobayashi comes in.)
b. $L~~~?L~ZL\TLGCZ~~&%G~Q~~~.TI:,
(There was nothing unusual when I was there.)
c. $ ~ f i f % a - i l % i c . a ( ~ ~ j G Q$lf 6 b l f 1:b>fi>hb>,
(Because a friend of mine is coming to see me, I cannot leave my
' l n i A'< -iL bti
d. $LCiEI*EB ~ T ~ T c ~ ~ E E ~ *S Z& L%7 k%> 3 - F 0
(I'm studying Japanese in order to study in Japan.)
If a sentence-initial dependent clause and the following clause have a com-

mon element, the element usually appears only once. In (27d), for example,
the sentence-initial dependent clause and the following clause (in this case, the
main clause) share the same subject watashi 'I.' Thus, watashi appears only
once (in this case, as the topic).

C. Verbal Connective Forms
When two verbals are connected through an "AND-relation" in a sentence,
the first verbal must be in the connective form, as in (28).*
C S Ih
(28) a. %.d;t$flf;@Ki&Z?, R+ @ ~ 5 & b ,
(I get up at six in the morning and go to bed around ten in the
b. z a)$+S.Bd2?fi< T@8Jf0
(This dictionary is cheap and useful.)
I L t! r ( LL
c. gffl3 Ld2Z+IQT8%BT%o
(Mr. Yoshida is thirty-two and single.)
The affirmative and negative connective forms of different verbals are given
in (29) and (30), respectively.**
(29) Affirmative connective forms:
a. Verb: Vte (e.g., 2Z 3 T) ; Vmasu (e.g., E3 )

*If two verbals are connected through a "BUT-relation," the connective forms are not
used, as in (i).
(i) a. $~1dgk%&3~:.t-h'$$~f~f3~~6733~~~
(I like fish but I don't like vegetables.)
b. ~0@g1%Qb'lf?LYBfh?Pt?73~E$~lEo
(This dictionary is cheap but pretty useful.)
**As seen in (29), there are two kinds of connective forms. In general, the first kin(
(i.e., te-forms) are used when the first verbal is strongly related to or dependent on thl
second verbal. In (i), for example, the first verbal yasukute '(it is) cheap' gives thl
reason why the speaker feels that the apartment is good (the second verbal). In thi
case, the te-form is used. (eVmasu)

(i) Z07'1f- I- 12 { % < TI*%<1 b > b > o
(This apartment is cheap and (therefore) good.)

(30) Negative connective forms:
a. Verb (neg.): Vneg ts ( T (e.g., j? 2 < 7 ) ; Vneg I h bl
T / 41 (e.g., q?J1;S1tsb\T;{?&d')
(+ nai de (DBJG: 27 1-73))
b. Adj(i) (neg.): Adj(i)stem ( ts ( ( T ) (e.g., & ( h < (7))

D. Compound Sentences
If a sentence involves two (or more) simple sentences (i.e., clauses) and these
sentences are conjoined by means of coordinate conjunctions such as ga 'but'
or continuative forms of verbs, adjectives or the copula such as Vte, Adj.te and
Cop.te to mean 'and,' the whole is called a "compound sentence." The clauses
in a compound sentence are connected through the AND-relation or the BUT-
relation. (3 1) provides examples.
Z*) z <C L d.LZ< C L
(31) a. 7 ;/';;/UCi+ HAT+.&3/UCi$$E!Al?,
(Mr. Wong is Chinese and Mr. Kim is Korean.)
d. **I

b. A h h a 7 7 >xWB%-i?aiSr@,I&B-@tsbl,
(My wife can speak French but I cannot.)
When the clauses in a compound sentence have an element in common (e.g.,
the subject, the direct object, the verbal), the element usually appears only
once. For example, in (28a-c) the subjects are shared and in (31b) the direct
object is shared. (32) provides an example of a shared verbal.

* *.b%L?*<< ?A.
(32) Y32lk@@If9, - f ~ ~ - l 3 . ~ ~ 1 f ~ ~ ~ ~ T
(John is majoring in mechanical engineering and Nancy in electrical

The structures of compound sentences can be generalized as in (33). ([S]
represents a clause.)
(33) a. AND-relation:
[Sl]-[S2] ([S1] ends with a verbal continuative form.)
b. BUT-relation:
[S1]-"BUT-conj."-[S2] (('BUT conj." is a non-sentence initial
conjunction such as ga.)

E. Complex Sentences
If a sentence involves a clause which is dependent on another element or
clause in the sentence, the sentence is called a "complex sentence." (34) pro-
vides complex sentences which include different kinds of dependent clauses
(or subordinate clauses).
(34) a. Relative clauses (See 2.2.5. Relative clause + Noun):
Z t ~ & E + f l @ q 7:?-=F720 (= (10a))
(This is a cake which Tomoko made.)
b. Internal sentences before " 2 b l 5 Noun" (See 2.2.6. NounISen-
tence 2 b l j Noun):
s$ecihblabla%%7'?2bli%2liBL 8 b (=(lib)) < ~
(The idea that Japanese is an ambiguous language is not uncom-
c. Internal sentences before Compound particles (pre-nominal
form) (See 2.2.4. {NounNerb} + Compound particle (pre-nomi-
nal form) + Noun):

d. Nominalized sentences (See 2.2.7. Sentence + Nominalizer):

93-;/;;fIX.fiQ4EI%62 k&%Ub1;h;J1gI:,(=(12b))
(I didn't know that Mr. Jones was coming today.)

e. Embedded interrogative sentences (See 2.4. Embedded interrog-
ative sentences):
%$+&%-Fafid'L7E1?0 (= (14a))
(Who will do that is the question.)
f. Clauses before adverbial forms of auxiliary adjectives*
(See 3.3. Adverbial forms of auxiliary adjectives):
JAX.27FL h 2 2 &L 3 I=, 7 4 98429TYSbL
(Please use a microphone so that everybody can hear well.)

g. Internal sentences as indirect quotations (See 3.6. Quotation k):
'i'a - Y C ~ U ~ P C ~a C< bL~t:agwa.
(George says that kanji is not difficult.)
h. Internal sentences before compound particles (pre-verbal form)
(See 3.7. NounNerb + Compound particle (pre-verbal form)):
At&4%k & b=~;kTi?El'lBSX2&.
(One's memory fails as one grows old.)
i. Sentence-initial dependent clauses (See 4.4. Sentence-initial
dependent clauses):
E l m $ ~ & ~ ~ r : ~ 9 ~ b ~ ~ ~ s b ~ o
(Please remain silent even if you are asked questions.)
The structures of complex sentences can be generalized as in (35).

*The adverbial forms of auxiliary adjectives preceded by clauses are sometimes classi-
fied as conjunctions (e.g., yani).

(35) Sentence- Pre-verbal Verbal
initial element


{V/Adj/NP[s] + Cop.](+Aux)(+Prt.)
Topic Adverbial

[S]: Clause
NP[s]: NP containing [S]
Adv[s]: Adverbial containing [S]
That is, a sentence which contains at least one of the elements containing [S]
in (35) is a complex sentence.

F. Missing Elements
Such sentence elements as illustrated in (35) are not always explicitly present.
In fact, sentence element ellipsis is very common in Japanese. When clauses
have shared elements (e.g., subjects), the shared element is usually ellipted in
the second (and following) clause(s). Sentence elements are also dropped
when they have been mentioned in a previous sentence, are contextually
known, or situationally known, or when they indicate a generic agent such as
"they" and "we." (36) provides examples.

(36) a. Shared by two clauses:
8%3/v;?lr-?D~ 2 9 ~ b 1 -6
C 2 91 [%&Kl&;ihb1~7;
3 blo
(Even if Mr. Sawada asks about that, please do not tell [him]
[about it].)
b. Mentioned in a previous sentence:

@ E I X T F - - + Q & ~ k o[ji-kLd;f;l
(I had a steak yesterday. [It] was very good.)
C. Contextually known:
Yr->j5' [$LC:]+-&% -Fa? r+-Q < kL2,
(Jane gave [me] some home-made cookies.)
d. Situationally known:

Watching the hearer eating ice cream:
(Is [it] good?)
e. Indicating a generic agent:
bhfifi I, la? i b d.L l i? I
t ;bw
[ R ~ C ~ ] ~ ~ $ ~ ~ & ~ : ~ C : ~ ~ ~ @ Q L L ~ > L ;
LLGj-ndPa I; h b l ,
(In order to protect the earth, [we] must develop a new energy
source which does not destroy the environment.)

(2) Guidelines
With the basics of Japanese sentence structure presented above, the reader
should be able to grasp the structure of a given sentence by following the
guidelines illustrated below.

Guideline 1: Identify major clause breaks.
Major clause breaks can be identified by looking for verbal connective forms
(See (1) C. Verbal Connective Forms), conjunctions such as ga 'but,' ba 'if,' to
'if; when,' kara 'because,' and node 'because,' and other conjunction equiva-
lents such as ni mo kakawarazu 'in spite of the fact that,' tame ni 'in order to;
because,' and no ni taishite 'while; whereas.'
In the following examples, clause breaks are marked by "11"
ib>:( +L1L6'<L s Lub i lib' r, d.W b<*V It-ltL
(37) ~~onai;+s1r-1j5',
a> ~ Ba*, L -) ~ rEt: G
A It-HV R T ~ ~ ~ T Z , ~ B
N l - k i l o f H 5 % Uf4.f:-J +-%&~f:d', / / ~ k L d f ~ $ i ~
T, //%&!i;f;%% L L b > 2t j5'%$9 k o
(@i#f$l. 6.92 8%

Vocabulary notes:
77 ;i. b B "Planet B"
-& a little more than -
m'i* a to fly
!kg Mars
El circling orbit
6 to arrive
- b:hk 0 over
@8l] observation
~ v a to continue
38 schedule

*The connective form Vte with the preceding W(s) often functions as an adverbial to
represent manner or reason. In this case, Vte does not mark a clause break. In (i), for
example, - o mochiite is better interpreted as 'by using. . .' than as 'use. . . and,' as
the English equivalent shows. Compare this Vte with the Vte in (38).
~ 2 t3z i v h i i n
~ * ii w
z ~ E T z F ~ ! ~ ~ > 3Trz0' G ~ T
rL 15 rh L

(bEE .fEE TABT?f7'1.1L31.Dz3X9 p. 19)
(The conventional information transmission and processing have been per-
formed (lit. we have performed . . .) by using electric waves and electrons.)

-3 on the other hand
if 71. .z1/ 3 1. o 3 2 opto-electronics
ZkL3T uptonow
BE progress
& to look back; to examine
357 7 41q-BE optic fiber communication
$EBB thrust
Guideline 2: Identify the skeleton of each clause.
For each clause, identify the skeleton, i.e., the major elements, such as the sub-
ject, the direct object, and the verbal, elements which tell "who did what,"
"what is what," etc. Note that major elements are sometimes shared with
another clause or are not present explicitly (See (1) F. Missing Elements).
In the following examples, the major elements are underlined and missing
elements are supplied in parentheses. (Dotted underlining indicates elements
to be examined in the following step, Guideline 3. These elements include
constructions such as "NP[S]-Prt. + Verbal" (e.g., [S] koto ga wakatta 'it was
understood that [S]'), "Adv[S] + Verbal" (e.g., [S] to ieru 'it can be said that
[S]'), and "NP[S] + Cop." (e.g., [S] yotei da 'it is scheduled that [S]'))

By identifying the skeleton of each clause in a sentence, the idea of the whole
sentence becomes clear. For example, (40) conveys the idea that "a British
astronomy group announced something, but it was a miscalculation and akhe

planet does not exist."
It should be noted that in identifying major elements, the entire NP or verbal
does not need to be examined. For example, if an NP contains a long relative
clause, examining the head noun should be enough at this stage. The impor-
tant thing in this step is to grasp a rough idea of each clause identified in the
previous step.

Guideline 3: Identify the scope of key elements, including conjunctions,
nouns, nominalizers, quotative markers, and auxiliaries.
The scope of an element X is defined as the range of a sentence part which is
dependent on X. (See DBJG, Appendix 8 Improving Reading Skill by Identi-
fying an 'Extended Sentential Unit.')
In the following examples, the key elements to be identified and examined
are set off by boxes. "[ 1" identifies the scope of the boxed element which fol-

(A British astronomy group announced in last July's issue of Nature,
a British science journal, that [they had for the first time discovered a
planet outside the solar system,] but this was due to a miscalculation
(lit. this was a miscalculation) and it turned out that [the planet does
not exist.])

(Planet B is scheduled [to travel for a little more than a year, reach
Mars' circling orbit in October 1997, and continue its observation for
over two years.])
It should be noted that in this example, the scope of yotei 'schedule' extends
beyond the immediate clause break.

*In (43), the scope of koto can extend from "wakusei wan or from "kore wa."


(45) [-3,( % A j S I ) ; S 7 " b ~ k b3 ~ ~ 3 Z a > Z k L I T a > B E B @ k & ]
11 [ % ~ T / I . I ~ - B E ~ S I ~ $ Q B B ~ ~ : Qa~s- n
Ta- $. I Z ]
(= (39))
(When [we examine the progress in opto-electronics up to the present,
on the other hand,] we can say that [optic fiber communication has
been a major thrust (in terms of progress).])
L+Zli Li•‹?tr?i b, t d.b.3
(46) $tEfl&R T 3 8 ' 4 ) 7 5 b //[FdHa>GZ%Ii+kC:i'b 0 1
(Because our president cannot attend, it looks like [tomorrow's meet-
ing will be cancelled.])
ti $2 nlhh. G
(47) 19925?O%,~+--T--> s --TI$, [3 f & R W r 2 Y 2 P [ 2[l i5";,II 2
c:&b&] [ I $ f i L ~ \ ]m 1 ' * 9 $ u # L I : ] p - m 1 2 4 # % ~
I;] ~ 3 & & g & f i I&**
(In the Tokyo Motor Show in 1992, many autos3 were exhibited
[which contain (lit. mounted) fuel-efficient engines and engines2
[which utilized new energy1 [to replace g a ~ o l i n e . ] ~ ] ~ ] ~ )

Guideline 4: Identify the modifying and modified elements accurately when
an NP contains an ambiguous modification relationship.
(48) provides examples of NPs which contain ambiguous modification rela-

*Here, Enerugi 'energy' has a double modifier.
**When a structure is complex, using scope identification numbers may be helpful, as in

(48a) is ambiguous because {S / Adj 1 N1 no} can modify either Nz or "N2 no
N3." (48b) is ambiguous because {S / Adj / N1 no) can modify only Nz or it
can modify both N2 and N3. (48c) is ambiguous because N3 can be modified
either by "N2 no" or by "N1 to N2 no." In these cases, the ambiguity can
he resolved either by context or by the reader's knowledge of the world. (49)
provides examples of the situation in (48a).

((1) difficult homework in Japanese [X modifies "Y a) Z," i.e.,
X m a ) ] ; (2) homework in Japanese, a language which is
difficult [X modifies Y and "X Y a) " modifies Z, i.e.,
x :+:+
3 L 3 iit
0 Q,l)
b. H%K& b YBRa)
- - 9R
((1) Y High School's branch campus which is in Kyoto [X mod-
ifies "Y a) Z," i.e., X ma); (2) A branch campus of Y
High School, which is in Kyoto [X modifies Y and "X Y a)"
modifies Z, i.e., fla) a>])

The interpretation of (49a) depends on the context and the interpretation of
(49b) depends of the reader's knowledge of Y High School's location.
The ambiguity in (48b) can be illustrated by (50).

((1) the development of new materials and the marketing of those
materials [X modifies Y and Z, i.e., Xm]]; (2) the development
of new materials (for something) and the marketing (of that thing) [X
modifies only Y, i.e., a k Z])
Whether (50) is interpreted as (1) or (2) depends on the context in which this
sentence is used.
(5 1) provides examples of (48c).

((1) Yoichi's and Kayoko's child [X and Y modify Z, i.e.,
X 2 Y a) m ] ; (2) Yoichi and Kayoko's child [Only Y modifies
Z, i.e., X 2 Y a) m ] )

((1) a joint corporation consisting of P Corporation and Q Cor-
poration [X and Y modify Z, i.e., X 2 Y a) m ] ; (2) P Corpora-
tion and a joint corporation including Q Corporation [Only Y
modifies Z, i.e., X 2 Y a) m ] )
Once again, whether (5 la) is interpreted as (1) or (2) depends on the context in
which this phrase is used. There is little ambiguity in (51b), on the other hand.
This is because a joint corporation constituting two or more companies is com-
mon knowledge; therefore, (1) is the likely interpretation.

Guideline 5: Accurately identify each element's modified constituents.
Particularly important is whether an element modifies a noun or a verbal.
As an example, an explanation of modification in (52) is shown in (53).
sLLr Z t+?bl V72i
(52) COY7 t- 9 r 7 K L ~ T * ~ a ) ~ $ & i : 8 ~ 7 ' 6 & $ 0 ~ & ~ ~ 2 ~
?? b l o

(53) A modifies B
2 0 7 7 b9r7kZ.L~T B 2 T T 3 b l
(by means of this software) (please learn)
*Sa)mkK 4sts
(for the creation of documents) (necessary)
4\37ts 3&w7@i+
(necessary) (basic operation)
w=MttB B2TT??b>
(basic operation [Direct Object]) (please learn)

Note here that ni yotte is a form which modifies verbs; thus, in (52), it modi-
fies oboete kudasai. (See Appendix 3 Compound Particles.)
(54) indicates the scope of sdsa and (55) provides the English equivalent of

(55) With this software, please learn the basic operation necessary for cre-
ating documents.
Compare (52) with (56), where sofutowea is followed by ni yoru rather than
(57) illustrates the modification relations among the sentence ele-
ni yotte.

(57) A modifies
Z077 b 3 r 7 K k 6 *fa+&
(by means of this software) (creation of documents)
*fDl+& c= !Pi!.Wh
(for the creation of documents) (necessary)
(necessary) (basic operation)
3&*0#i$Q %L-cTSb>
(basic operation [Direct Object]) (please learn)

Note here that ni yoru is a form which modifies nouns (or noun phrases); thus,
in (56), it modifies bunsho no sakusei.
(58) indicates the scope of sdsa and (59) provides the English equivalent of

(59) please learn the basic operation necessary for creating documents
with this software.
&own in the above examples, misunderstanding a modified element can
lead to an entirely wrong interpretation.
(Main Entries)
Seiichi Makino and Michio Tsutsui

because of too much -; because
that involves excessive action - -
too much; so that -
(REL. sugiru]

+Key Sentences

$LM-O% &20 @bkLhd.7lz0

(I was so excited that I couldn't sleep that night.)

I Topic 1 Subordinate Clause I Main Clause I

1 (This textbook has turned out to be an uninteresting one because it I
stressed grammar too much.)

k%b& 2 0 (because of too much anxiety)

66 2 (s.o. is SO cautious that)

-mm a?.: +ria
(Akiko was so frightened that she couldn't even make a sound.)
(I was so happy that I hugged the person beside me without thinking.)
I: l t h i i l Z L.lib,< b h l r i B t i f i ~ i d w t i O ~ < Liri, Hht
(c) El$a>~~~$kBii*%4illS65A S f l n b h Z 4 %'&2a>?&i&ill@;3.GZG-
T I / > &L 3
(As for English education in Japan, it seems that because grammar is
emphasized too much, the development of conversational skills is
L h



<G ~ T L ~ ~ I : ,
(The last meeting ended up having little content because it focused too
much on formalities.)

1. Clauses and phrases involving the conjunction amari can be rephrased
using the adverb amari and the conjunction node or tame ni, as in (1).

2. Adj(i) and Adj(na) cannot precede amari, as seen in (2) and (3).
(2) $LC&I ~ ~ L ~ U * ~ hLaLv % \ I% ~ j h ; 3 . ~ ~ : ,
(I was so sad that I couldn't even cry (lit. even tears didn't come

(3) fibhi {&EUl/ *&Eal h b 1 1 % & b ! i ~ % b G b & * i ? ~
I: ,
(It looked like they were so anxious that they couldn't even eat
(lit. even foods didn't go through their throats).)
3. Vinf can be either past or nonpast when it represents a past action or
event, as in (4), although the nonpast form is more common.
The auxiliary verb sugiru expresses a similar idea. For example, KS(A) and
(B) can be rephrased using sugiru, as in [I].

However, there are some differences between arnari and sugiru. First, arnari
is always a part of an adverbial clause or phrase which expresses a cause.
Sugiru, however, does not always express cause and can be in the predicate
of a main clause. Second, arnari is used only when the verb or noun repre-
sents a psychological action or state. Thus, the following sentences are unac-
[21 *V$E - I L B ~ C &~ I~+ZB R
d r ih/;P bv:
~ W ,
(Yesterday I drank too much beer and I have a headache today.)

[3] ha$% b!%$i;3'aPo
(I am so tired that I have no appetite.)
Third, sugiru is used in both spoken and written Japanese while arnari is lim-
ited in use to formal written Japanese.
(+sugim (DBJG: 423-25))
-ba-hod0 --I$--C32 str.
the -, the-
pens in proportion to the increase [REL. hodo]

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

1 Topic I

(The harder you study Japanese, the more interesting it will become.)

Topic Sentencel Sentence2

1 - 4 3 x;Sr$cfh128L\G2tr' gLbl,
1 (At a party the more the merrier.)

1 (A machine is harder to break, the simpler it is.)

(i ) Vlcond V2inf.nonpast 1% Y (where V1=V2)
%-@l2%-b l2 Y (the more s.0. talks, the more -)

(ii) Adj(i)lcond Adj(i)2inf. nonpast G2 ? (where Adj(i)l=Adj(i)2)
&hj&l2%b>C3 k' (the more expensive s.t. is, the more -)

/ 32.2 L;3;3'21 12 P (the quieter s.t. / s.0. is,
the more -)

),( ~0i~ik&ih&3lfmc3 <
Lr ma 0 a*,
(The more you drink this sake, the tastier it becomes.)

@) k%liL G f itlfL b l l 3 PA6 od'% LblTTO
(The better the university, the harder it is to get in.)
(c) 7,f- l.ik5RC:Zhtitlf2b~Cak' (&%@) Abl,
(The closer apartments are to the station, the more expensive they are
(to rent).)
(d) %,%z%a
L;z% ~c~
PW:%+W ~:Z~S'LII/~TTL~
(The healthier you are, the more careful you should be about your

1. The construction of ba - hod0 is very close in meaning to the more -,
the more - construction in English.
2. Other conditionals tara and to cannot be used in this construction.
Thus, the following use of to and tara are ungrammatical.

(2) X%li ~fiVbl%/*filtLff%l ;3'itrEPP+fllii&,
(As for brown rice, the more you chew it, the tastier it becomes.)
3. When the verb is a suru-verb as in KS(A), it takes the form of either N-
sureba N-suru hod0 or N-sureba suru hod0 as in KS(A). If the verb is
not a sum-verb as in Ex.(a), it always takes the form of Vcond
Vinf. nonpast hodo.
8 - ba - hod0 / - bakari ka - (sae)
Bg =
4. The conditional form nara is used only with Adj(na). So, the following
% -
sentences are ungrammatical.
(3) *Z0gCL$kitr&%&itrC2PBbaL<Gb0 (cf.Ex.(a))

- bakari ka - (sae) -- Iff)' -
t) f)' ((P x) comp. prt. / conj.

not only but also
which is used to connect two [REL. - bakari d e (wa) naku -
nouns or two sentences, the first of (mo); - dake de (wa) naku -
which is s.t. normally expected (mo); dokoroka]
and the second of which is s.t. nor-

+Key Sentences

Topic Noun Noun

E I ~ K T C3g
~ 12+11751 AA sft BBB&,A,TWZ,,
1 (In Japan not only children but even adults are reading comic books.) I

Topic Sentencel Sentence:!

I (He not only enjoys looking at pictures; he also draws them.) I
- bakari ka - (sae) 9

{z&T/ 56 Lf: 1 I f $ %0 f i (not only does / did S.O.speak)

f / %-h.f?9 f:l If$.b f~ (not only {is /was) s.t. / s.0. quiet)

(84/ %4f?9
f:] If 2' 4 f i (not only {is / was] S.O. a teacher)

fit< + k ~ % ^fL$ 1 3
(a) 7%'1 75Tdi75?%Cffiri, dl, 8&,B @ k S ; i E I l Z Q % %LT
(In America not only college students but even junior and senior high
school students are studying Japanese.)
(b) & o g o i f B E I & R b l I f f i ri, f i , ii hbl/vTT,
(My room in the dorm is not just small; it doesn't even have a window.)
(c) l'kG&ZHjST%M)Gb~df2~0d.,W E % $ ? k 3 W G b l 0
(It's not just kanji that Tom cannot read; he cannot read even hiragana.)
(d) Xd&h<&a>jSTkW2 7 k I f j 3 . 9 d., ? @ B t & D h ; k $ 3 $ T - r t 0
(My father not only loves to eat, he also loves to cook.)

1. Before bakari ka comes s.t. / S.O.normally expected and after bakari ka
comes s.t. / S.O.normally unexpected. If the order of the two is reversed
an unacceptable sentence like the following results.

2. The particle sae can be replaced by the particle mo esp. in spoken
10 - bakari ka - (sae)

I. The phrases bakari de (wa) naku - (mo) and dake de (wa) naku - (mo)
are very similar to bakari ka - (sae). Among those three constructions
bakari ka - (sae) expresses the highest degree of unexpectedness
between the content of S, and Sz. If such unexpectedness is missing, the
bakari ka - (sae) construction sounds awkward. Examples follow.
[1] a. &a>Ad&.B5&
{ E I f /lifi>bGl]T(lb)Q<x;l."-';r&d:{
(He is not only good scholastically; he is also good at

b. ??zo$l&.~~b'lifi'~Ih'f~tbC:Sx~&,
(+dake de (wa) naku (mo) (DBJG: 97-100))

11. S1 dokoroka Sz, a construction indicating that s.0. / s.t. is very far from
a h (un)desirable state, is quite different from SI bakari ka SZ,when S1is
affirmative and Sz is negative or when S1is negative and S2 is affirma-
tive. Examples follow.
bit, k'
[3] %&.EI$z~'s*&
{ZL3fi' /*lffi>blfi>l,-E&BS&Lf:L
(I am far from being able to speak Japanese; I haven't studied it
at all.)
- bakari ka - (sae) / bekida 11

(Mr. Smith is far from being unable to write Japanese; he can - -
- -
even write a novel in Japanese.) -
- -

~f both S1 and S2 are affirmative or negative, the two constructions are
*A: < z
34-3SLCt.El$iiWE& {E'Z5fi>//I;Yfi>1)%1>},
(Mr. Clark is not only able to speak Japanese; he can even speak
d.1. *,
$ b > { E ' Z 3 f i , / [ffi,1)fi%},
(Jim is not only unable to converse in Japanese; he cannot even
make simple greetings.)

bekida 4 3 fi aux.

should; ought to
speaker's judgment that s.o.1s.t. [REL. hazu; hoga ii; mono da;
should do s.t. or should be in some -nakereba naranai]

+ ~ e ySentences

1 (This thesis should be rewritten.)
12 bekida

1 (You shouldn't say that kind of thing to people.)

Vinf .nonpast

(You should have come, too.)


(I shouldn't have told that to Yamada.)

Relative Clause Noun

1 (I told you everything I should tell you.) I
(i) Vinf. nonpast 4 3 :
& < 4 3 :1 (should go)
(Exception: $ b + { $ / $ b 1 43 I? (should do))
bekida 13

t l$!3%TT(&)d$7 2
(You should look after yourself. (lit. You should do your own business
by yourself.))
q, &&5<3 E p a b l ~ ~
(You shouldn't buy a house now.)
+fLl$g&:%gQ~J%< <$7?97:b,,
(We should have told that to our boss, too, shouldn't we?)
dlfi Cf?:L
(He shouldn't have married.)
$!$Ti&%L - B I J Z D W & ~rz,,

(We should be more creative.)
Eli f;LI IfLt-3
(This state should be the reality.)
5252 It, 6, firs
26 < 4 3 Z t d'&j~.q7z0
(As a result of the investigation, a surprising thing (lit. something one
should be surprised at) was discovered.)
f; 46.

< %Et..:$%z~?,
(Tanaka is indeed a despicable man (lit. a man whom one should
t:s BCa?
(There's no description where there should be one.)

1. Tense and negation are expressed by conjugating bekida. (See KS
(A)- (D) and Exs.(a) - (d).)
14 bekida

'.... B -
2. The prenominal form of bekida (i.e., the form which modifies a noun)
- -
is beki. (See KS(E) and Exs.(g) - (i).)
3. Bekida usually expresses the idea that s.0. / s.t. should do s.t. or be in
some state because it is his 1her responsibility or duty, because it is the
right thing or a good thing to do, or because it is the right state or a good
state to be in. (See KS(A) - (E), Exs.(a) - (f) and (i).)
4. Bekida also expresses the idea that expected to do s.t. (See Exs.
(g) and (h1.1
5. Adj(i)stem + ku aru bekida, as in (I), is a possible form but this form is
not commonly used.
*.he tL :* b*,
(1) @ C L + B ~ ~ T Q J L \ G L ~ < ~ ~ B ~ ~ ~ : ,
(Even if one's body gets old, one's mind should be young.)
6. Bekida is not used when the speaker is younger than the hearer or lower
than the hearer in status. For example, (2) is not appropriate in the given

(2) [From a student to his 1 her professor]
+ f i ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ : ~ & & d ~ ~ ~
(Professor, you should forget it.)
[Related Expressions]
I. Mono da also expresses the idea that one should do s.t. as one's duty,
as in [I].
if<+kbr e h l ~ i
[I] q w - aw~ a .tar:,
(Students should study.)
However, mono da is used only in a generic statement to express a
social norm. Thus, in a specific situation, as in [2], it cannot be used.
[2] ZG~%S&bS I43 / *.tOll E ,
(You should study.)
(+mono (da) (DBJG: 257-61))
bekida 15

11. In terms of forcefulness, bekida is weaker than -nakereba naranai and -

stronger than ta hd ga ii, as in [3].
- -

[3] a. Z d i & ~ k % $ & L a C f h I f & % & Lstronger

(You must study harder.)
b. ZCib T k%$&$rtKbE,
(You should study harder.)
c. z~~&T~%$&L~L%L\L\,
(You'd better study harder.) weaker
(e nakereba naranai (DBJG: 274-76); hi5 ga ii (DBJG: 138-40))

111. Ham also expresses the idea of "should." However, ham is used when
the speaker's expectation is involved. Compare the following sen-
[4] a. ~.G~LLIHSA~~"B~ETI~~"~~,
(Yamada should rewrite this report. ( = I expect that
Yamada will rewrite this report.))
b. Za>L;f;"-bliLL1H3Aj5"B3ETKbff,
(Yamada should rewrite this report. (=Rewriting this
report is Yamada's duty.))
t L.t;e%
151 a. zo%~izza>o~gri;i+,ws~~~,
(This book should be in this library. ( = I expect that this
book is in this library.))
b. za>*cizza,HPgC=.i+,&K:'Cf:,
(This book should be in this library. (= Housing this book
is this library's responsibility.))

(eh a m (DBJG: 133-35))
--- -bun 53 suJ:
for -; - worth; amount equiva.
lent to -; portion
[REL. -mael

+Key Sentences

Number + Counter

(I put in ten dollars worth of gas.)

Number + Counter
bOL 3 r i

(Today I did three days worth of work.)

I 1 I

(I'll pay the remaining amount (lit. the amount for which cash is short)
by check.)

(i ) Number + Counter 53 (0N )

(ii) Noun 53
- I?& L 5
g &ft

(the amount by which s.t. decreased)

(please get six sets of materials ready for the meeting.)
z zkM$T+f4

b, t
2 f? L~?OT??<%&~$TS~~TTS~~~
(Please leave two lines (of space) here because someone will sign there

$ ~ g c ; t i . i & K 5 3 O ~ - ~ xQ%1;->k.
(We were paid a bonus equivalent to four months pay.)
%her, T
1- 4 Y ?ZQ%a>C&$Liik,
(Three trucks-full of garbage came out.)
h V f; :;t,
ii&$fkk+%~%o>&$fQ$&&~Ic:%~ f ,
(The government sent food for 100,000 people to the disaster-stricken
d%:i b i i'r< L i p , 0 . P i ds C*CriOri ;h b,
942%Eci%&Boi9Ba%f?$?2 2% $40@kIS'~j51 2 - L dr 5 k L T L \
75 0
(The school authorities are trying to cover the increase in expenses by
raising tuition.)

Either a number + counter or a noun precedes -bun. When a number +
counter precedes, it means s.t. worth that amount (e.g., KS(A)) or equivalent
to that amount (e.g., KS(B)). When a noun precedes -bun, it means the
amount or portion of something represented by the noun (e.g., KS(C)).
Related Expression]
The suffix -mae also expresses a portion of something, as in [I], but this use
is limited to food. A number + nin precedes -mae.
111 % H ~ ~ - L B ~ A ~ ? ~ ; I S ' T : ,
(Yoshida ate five orders of sushi.)
18 daga

but; however; yet; nevertheless
[REL. dakedo; demo; ga;
keredo(mo); noni; shikashi]

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

I Sentence, I sentence, 7
/ will last.) I

1 (Urban life is convenient. But there are too many stresses.)
- -I
&info E h t , &info
U.k it4L SlLh
&OAOggil@jQl,i, f h i , '&$j$~l/\,
(His talk is interesting, but there is no content.)

bt:L +mCr dL
(a) ~ L M E ~ ~ I ~ % ?E$, ~ T& &~ ~{ ~~ ~: -~c ~ 5~~~ $: j. ~ L , h g
(I met her for the first time; but I felt close to her as if I had known her
for a long time.)
daga 19
+fbt b, LP B/r r
~$pr~&E22k:lflB&kif Q?&& k k:g;h;kfi, I:@, ? & & k d 2
2 b l b LblO
(yamamoto was told by his doctor to quit smoking, but he doesn't
seem to have any intention of quitting.)
I:$,, & ~~ o ; s ~ ~ & ~ - c L ~ ~ w ~
(He is talented, but he is not using his talents.)
$&LC, E;s',
-;h&ri T S
s - > G ~yoj % ~ j ~ . - > p ,
(I studied hard for today's exam without sleeping, but I couldn't do it
at all.)
6 121 (@$&-$& L, &' *& blb1, f:$, %#prCia-if;3.d; ( CI,~,
(My younger sister studies hard and she is intelligent, but somehow her
grades are not good.)

Daga is not used in spoken Japanese unless it is followed by ne as in (1).
(1) A: ~a>%z~~~;3.'rs;3.$l;k&~0
(That guy is really sharp, isn't he?)
B: fiAfh, & & ~ ; ~ ' ~ b l , L j ? ~
(But, he has a bad character, you know.)
In spoken Japanese it is usually replaced either by keredo(mo) or by demo.
The formal version desu ga can be used in both spoken and written Japa-
(2) A: &%G&'FLL~T
L d: i
(Your job must keep you busy.)
B: Lk, W.f l ~ b t / r l lf h F . f l , ~ E I ~ ~ , L T - $ ,
(Yes, but it is interesting.)

(3) 6 % + & 3 k < - C & % @ Q ~ ~ A T{- $T~Gl T T A f l l f h Z . f ) , $3
Z m b l f i b , qTbt-aalt,
(I'm dying to go to Japan. But I don't have money, so I can't go
20 daga
[Related ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
The first difference between daga and ga / keredo(mo) / noni / shikashi 1
dakedo /demo is the way they combine two sentences. Daga, dakedo,
shikashi and demo are always used as a sentence-initial conjunction, but ga
and noni are normally used as a non-sentence-initial conjunction, and
keredo(mo) is used either as a sentence-initial conjunction or a non-sen.
tence-initial conjunction.
Sentence-initial conjunctions:

Non-sentence-initial conjunctions:
e. S1 tif, Szo ???S1, hf Sz,
f. S1 OIL, SZO *S,, aC=Sza
(Non-)Sentence-initial conjunction:

The second difference concerns semantic difference. Ga and keredo(mo) can
be used to in two senses of 'but' and 'and.'
v$ti I t 3
[I] +R%l:&~b4.f i W / cfhz /*cnK), RZG2, TCiP,
*di ?I a-m,
(I'min Tokyo now, and I feel that Tokyo is full of energy, after all.)
For the difference between keredo(mo) and noni, see DBJG: 333-35. Among
the four sentence-initial conjunctions, the most colloquial is demo, followed
by dakedo and the least colloquial one is daga, followed by shikashi.
dakara to itte 21

However, it doesn't follow g
ing that even if one accepts a
- from this that -; But it doesn't EZZZ
premise expressed in the preced- mean that -; because of that
ing .sentence(s) one cannot jump to [REL. kara to itte]
an expected conclusion from the

+Key Sentences

I Sentencez

r (Mr. Cheng is not good at Japanese. On a test he cannot even finish half
of it. But it doesn't follow from this that he is not smart.)


able to teach Japanese.)
22 dakara to itte

- S,, (S2,, ...) F f ~ ~b Z T TS,, (where S, often ends with ihlf T i t a b ' or
gDg 2 b i R b a&>)
+h hd,
@ i & z b l , & & b f ~ b ~ I?il.L;kS->T%;iL;kLGbl
, {hIftli&bl/
(He is young. He has little experience. But it doesn't follow from this that he
cannot teach.)

(a) Y S 2 d & $ / v 0 Z k Q 6 ~ k $ ~ & ~ 6b4 ~1 1, 1 ~ 3 j t r . t s b $1 &~2
Z i , 7':jtr.L; 2 8 9 T , ~ $ ~ . 9 % ~ T b ~ G b ~ i h l f ~ C ; t : & b ~ ~
(John does not praise his wife at all. Sometimes he doesn't talk with
her. But it doesn't mean that he doesn't love her.)
(b) @li&'%&&% LTb1ZiL0 &<&~:b?jff ~ T b 1 Z iL;3.L,
~ 7':d.L; k
= T T ~, ~ ~ $ z ~ # $ ( c ; ~ Q L . ~ ~
(I am doing exercise every day. I am also paying attention to what I
eat. But it doesn't guarantee that I will live long.)
L * i PA"?"
(c) - tA,- ?$QtZil:bi'?&b:?Zi.
El$ACi%~~~djSf&3~1:k~ihkLb0 L
& L , IZjtr.6 k g ~ T @
, I A ( T % $ ~ <GbrihlfTC&$b1,
(They say that Japanese like group activities. Whatever they do, they
do together. But it is not the case that there are no individual
a+* I &:i d+f
(d) %l&k@k:blbao
L*L, 7?;3.L; k S T T , fi,lfjtr.?@<Tblk
I 6 ,+$
(Fish is good for you. But if you ate nothing but fish, it would be bad
for you.)
(e) ~~~g~~~ <$Lb1&+2gbfi60biAlri *$jgj ~#fE
gE L , +LA
dW:< C A t*
a*%&:, jzjtr.6 L - Z ~ T , f i m ~ j ~ f y < j b ~ 1 i h l j ~ t ; f ~ ~ ) ,
(Japanese is often said to be difficult. The grammar is complex and
kanji are hard to memorize. But that doesn't mean foreigners cannot
learn it.)
dakara to itte / dake de 23

a- Dakara to itte is a conjuction which indicates that while the speaker /

writer accepts an assertion / fact in the preceding sentence, he argues
that what is normally expected from the assertion / fact is not (necessar-
ily) applicable. Thus, for example, SI and S2 of KS(A) may lead to an
that Mr. Cheng is not smart. But the speaker denies that
extrapolation in S3. TOparaphrase it, it is something like: 'Mr. Cheng is
poor at Japanese and he can't even get half way through tests. So you
probably think he is not smart, but I don't think that's true.'

2. Dakara to itte often occurs with wake de wa nai or to wa kagiranai, as
shown in all the examples except Ex.(d).

dake de f2tf T phz

a phrase which expresses the idea just V-ing is enough; can just -;
that just doing s.t. is enough for just by V-in;

+ ~ Sentences
e ~


(You can just sit (lit. be sitting) here.)
24 dake de I


(I knew who wrote it just by looking at the handwriting.)

.i 3 i:L*3 *A. b%$ ? 2f,
. (a) ZO$B*C~IBB~G:-E&B?&I?~~-C"~L~,
Watering just once every other week is enough for this plant.)

(c) F~C:&
(Are you sure that I don't have to do anything except attend?)
(d) ?o%&Tl&$~iiI:I:&9 ~ k ~ z l I ? b Y T k $ 9 I : ~
(At that meeting all I had to do was sit there.)
, , <A
Cw <AS*? Lli!., t%
(e) $ $ k ~ C i -B B ~$8 @L f I ? b f T&O%%%C:BKJI:? i I?,
(I heard that Murakami passed that exam just by studying for one
. ??iiLIfV S
(f) $ 3 $ 2 x i ' L T % 9 2e&-$~?b$T~~$l/~?--$;.fl&~ { &&BY&%@
(There is a vending machine which serves hot ramen (lit. from which
hot ramen comes out) just by inserting coins and pushing a button.)
htf SLVZ1LiL
(g) R a - ~ ~ B $~ ci if ~ E & e ~ k~&3 j * ,
(If you just pay 10,000 yen as deposit, we'll deliver the product.)
(h) i # j < j ~ j~& kf o ~ ~ ~ ~ < ~ ~ ~
dake de / -darake 25
(.lust hearing that story makes me sick. (lit. It is a story that makes me
sick just by hearing it.))

not the action expressed by the verb (Action 1) was taken in the past, and (2)
whether or not the actiodevent expressed by the verb (Action 1) precedes
the actiodevent expressed by the main verbal (Action 2). If A1 precedes A2
and A1 is a past action, the verb must be in the past tense (e.g., KS(B) and
Ex.(e)). If A1 precedes A2 and A1 is not a past action, the verb is commonly
in the nonpast tense, although the past tense is also acceptable (e.g.,
~xs.(f)- 01)). If A1 does not precede A2 and A1 is a past action, the verb is
commonly in the nonpast, although the past tense is also acceptable (e.g.,
Ex.(d)). If A1 does not precede A2 and A1 is not a past action, the verb must
be in the nonpast (e.g., KS(A) and Exs.(a) - (c)).
(edake (DBJG: 93-97))

full of; filled with; covered
is covered or filled with s.t. unde- with

+ ~ e ySentences

(Mr. Smith is always wearing shoes covered with mud.)
- Topic Noun
* G*' -
- z 07&bca Em\ I? 23 C f TTo
1 (This comp6sition is full of mistakes.) 1
( i ) N1 R b C f O N 2
Z k l ? 23 Cfa)&% (a room filled with rubbish)

88Ela L"a5.E 23 I f 7: (The room is full of rubbish.)

rr ili WP 9 < i ii
(a) ~ b l z k % k e ~ ~ ~ l a ~ R~~ r~ :I bJ D
~ ~< ~, B Z Q E ~ W
7: ,
(Apparently they have not cleaned the room for a long time and the
floor and the tables were covered with dust.)
D i. .w
! d.2 tb kt: fB
(b) $3 K K ~ H S & A ~ ? @ , +0%0@b2&??23 l f E T 7 L
(When we carried him into the hospital, the man's face was covered
with blood.)
&L IWd
(c) %7'? b l f 0~r(r-h3
(Don't come in with muddy feet.)
(d) ?g&:23lf~r& ~-(rbl3-f-~
(I am living a life with many debts.)

z OW I A ~ ~I;I W < I/',
Z & ~ K
(This seashell contains a lot of sand, so eating is difficult.)

-darake is used when s.t. is covered with s.t. undesirable, but if s.t. is
covered with s.t. desirable -darake cannot be used.
(On the floor were scattered bundles of monev.)

(In the student's paper there were a lot of good ideas.)

[Related ~xpressionl
The difference between -darake and -mamire is that the latter means 'totally
covered I mixed with dirty liquid 1 powder such as blood, sweat, mud or
dust,' excluding intangible objects, whereas the former can be used not only
with liquid 1 powder but also to cover holes 1 pimples, and intangible ob-
jects, as in KS(B) and Ex.(d). More examples to show the difference follow:
[I] 7 ~ h l % *{E%Cfl f ~ / * $ A h 1 7?-,7:,
(My composition was full of corrections.)
[Z] ~ O X S ' J C{ E~ %E l f / * g & h )72,
(My pants are full of holes.)
L l i h/r
[3] $ %OI%I~.G:$ 73. { E % t f/ * $ & h l 7 2 ~ 7 : ~
(The boy's face was covered with pimples.)
[41 El5 I E G C ~ / * Z A ~OI%I B Z ~ ~ ~ B + Z L%
BL t d.h ihTh
T T; ~
, TL~~I:,
-(Igot tired after driving on a bumpy road for as long as three hours.)

de T prt.

for; per
quantity, for each of which certain [REL. ni tsuki]
+Key Sentence

- Topic
-. -
a )
-4-9 r
I- * h i / - .
= ~ m 2$&x~2~o

1 (We will pay 2.000 yen per page for this translation.)
C d./-.
< ;kaT,

(a) Z 0 7 I L l f - r ' 1- li-@Bm7TTH#L:1,3T
(They will pay me 1,000 yen per hour for this part-time job.)
3 0i (1.3b:f ilk C04< L
(b) k+H l k - E l r ~ ~ 3 i 5 ~ - ~ ~ % / v 7 ' : o
(Yesterday I read 500 pages in a day.)

(c) &<T&/~P, %KT,
z % H CL;L\T ~ f i ,
(We ate and drank and it cost us about 70,000 yen for five persons.)
DtB3 I:0+c
(d) zo Q / v r c k - w c m r " p 0
(These apples are 200 yen for one pile.)

De can be omitted if the relation between the basic amount and the associ-
ated amount is more or less fixed as in KS, Exs.(a) and (d). In Ex.(b) five
hundred pages for one day is not fixed, so it is impossible to say ichi-nichi
gohyaku peji. The same is true of Ex.(c) in which the cost of 70,000 yen for
five people is not fixed.
e elated Expression]
In the sense of 'per,' the particle de can be replaced by ni tsuki, if the rela-
tion between the basic amount and the associated amount is fixed as in KS,
Exs.(a) and (d). There is also a stylistic difference: ni tsuki is more formal
than de.
urliter's conjecture which is not [REL. dar6; mail
based on any particular informa-

+Key Sentence

I: vbw :L - ttb.3ti

~ l * k i 8 ~ 2 . 4 6 b ~ ~T ~d j~6 ~
i 0t b
(The Japanese economy will probably still keep growing (lit. from now
on, too).)

(% / 3L 7z 1 T d j 6 i (will probably talk / probably talked)
b / 7: I T dj 6 5 (is / was probably expensive)
{ /3 7 7: 1 T & 6 i (is / was probably quiet)
{ /7 7 d j6 9 (is / was probably a teacher)

m!mm I: 'k H
(a) z ~ k i a 7 ' - - & ~ ; f i. =
e EkWzI;t~b~~a&,5i.
(Such a boom will probably not happen again.)
I: LA. LII: 7 Sh:
(b) z D % : s z ai+hsC2.9&K*$ b>-P&65 k + % s f i a o
(It is expected that the next earthquake will (probably) be very strong.)
Z i Lri $b
(c) ~ 0 $i2.@&~%?&7?&55
2 5
(That negotiation will probably be very difficult.)
S D -g
(I think that this area was probably a lake a long time ago.)

= -
- --
De aro is originally the conjecture form of the copula de am, but it is used
as an auxiliary of conjecture. This is used only in written Japanese.
(+ de am)
e elated Expressions]
I. Dar6, a less formal auxiliary of conjecture, has the same meaning and
function as de ar6 except that de ar6 can appear before a noun as p a
of a relative clause but daro cannot, as in [I].
[l] %L ~ C & L . > ~ %& &ITibj3
Z 5 / *f:3 5 1 Z~~JKT?L-C@;~
-C;k;fiaCf ;km c, aL.r,
(We must be prepared for a strong earthquake, which will prob-
ably take place someday.)
(edaM (DBJG: 100-02))
11. Mai can be used to express a negative conjecture. However, it can be
used only with Vinf .nonpast. aff.

[2] fit&
Q 5 Z Z".l&b&~\, (=@Ii b 5 Z Z " . I & & ~ L . ~ T & ~
i ,)
(He probably won't come here any more.)
( e mai)

de aru T &b cop. <w>

a copula which is used in formal be
[REL. da]
de aru 31

L w a t e r shortage this year is extremely serious.) 1

(i) N t W &
St;& T63 ZI (be a teacher)
(ii) Adj(na)stem Th 6
kh1"& 6 (be quiet)

lKA.l7L *.A*'
(a) ~~iagka%~63s,
("Man is a thinking reed.")
Kit& - if& - d+S
(b) ~$&%.,~a~~la&-pi&,a k ~ .jao~rf:;gb~636,
((The idea) that Japanese is an ambiguous language is wrong.)
HBfSL, U. t 9 h Itwii~
(c) A%!SGZ-AT&& oirf:$%i~~63&~
(Using a big car for one person is uneconomical.)
*'h !! + 6'k
(d) ~ f i ~ ~ 1 u ~ ~ + ~ ~ ~ P ~ ~ f i ; 5 ' k & ~ 6 3 f i ,
(I wrote him many letters but it was useless.)
32 dearu

(el E T * S T C ~ * R $ ~ & - ~ ~ ~z&~ ~ ; t f $ % j~k - c + i ; h a ~ w m ~ ~ .
(In principle, in Japanese we do not say what is understood from con.
(f) @ b f l & & 8 b > 0 C i & # ~~ ~ b ~ ~ b ~ $ l ; T a k , & ~
(It is because they haven't practice that they can't do it.)

1. The conjugation of de aru is as follows:

Plain Form
nonpast past conjecture

Affirmative Th 6 Th97: Th65
( Negative I Tbihb\ 1 T i I TCi8$6i 1

Polite Form


Neg. ~ ~9 %+?A
i h T t i h 9 3-tSATLI: T G i 2 b > T L b5

2. The plain forms are used in formal writing, for example, in professional
articles and editorials. Although the de aru style is more formal than the
da style, the two styles are often used together. Note that the de aru style
and the da style cannot be used with the desu style.
3. In writing, the formality level of the copula is as follows:
dearu 33

4. The polite forms of de aru (i.e., de arimasu, d e arimashita, etc.) are
used in formal speech, for example, in public speaking. In
speech, the formality level of the copula is as follows: -

~nformal Formal -
4---------------------- *
gi / 72 Tt T&!l$-f

[misted Expression]
~lthoughda and de am mean the same thing, there are some syntactic dif-
ferences between them. First, N da cannot be used as the prenominal form
while N de am can, as in [I].

[I] a. f 60l'i;Sl% IT& b / (D / *f1 U%,
6 ?All cL%l%? + h<
I: B L hi

(Botchan, which is Soseki's representative work, was written in
the 39th year of Meiji.)

Second, {N I Adj(na)stem} da cannot appear before expressions of uncer-
tainty such as rashii and ka mo shirenai. {N I Adj(na)stem) de aru does not
have this restriction, as in [2].

[2] a. L ;kGLr%60%ba7: b 0 IT& b / 0 / * E l I5 LL\ / 5'6 L h
(This {seems to 1might} be Soseki's writing.)
:i ?+ r*
b. ~03720%fl5$%&
{T&b / 0 /* E l 1 5 LL\ / Lh&
(This method {seems to / might} be more effective.)
- -
(+ wa da (DBJG: 521-24))
34 dokoroka

dokoroka E'Z 6 75' conj.

far from; not just; even
s.t. is very far from an expected - -
[REL. bakari ka (sae)]

*Key Sentences

(I am far from being able to speak Japanese. I haven't studied it at all.)

I t unabli to converse in Japanese; he cannot even make 1
I simple greetings.) I

(i ) {Vinf 1 Adj(0)inf .nonpast k 2 5 A'
&< & if Z 5 75. (far from eating)
k 3 if 2 671'
b3 (far from being big)
(ii) {Adj(na)stem (G)
1 N} ? 2 6
If!. 3
Z%( 2 ) PZ 5 75. (far from being healthy)
%&. Y Z 5 A. (far from being ill)
dokoroka 35

9 s ;/'/'/3/Uci;&+j5r%ctlrbb'rz5*, T4E%bBGflrbblo
(Mr. Johnson is not just unable to write kanji; he cannot write even
x:%3/UdiEI*S-h'~lfab1rZF,~, Ei$.%T/J\$i-n'Pcf&("b
(Mr. Smith is far from being unable to write Japanese; he can even
write a novel in Japanese.)
9 4 - 3 S ~ e i $ 1 ~ & i 5 ' & 4 c ; ; k & r z 5 j ~ 1@
, &?l~h4b;k&.
(Mr. Clark is not just able to eat sashimi; he can even eat mttd.)
hoX&m~rrz5-hl,mqkg3-aa ~ ,
(He is far from reading books; he doesn't even read newspapers.)
F[&&-f& rz5*,g*r;~g$,&~,,>o
(My father is far from doing exercises; he doesn't even step out of the
'tL lffd'7 Bb
++OAR ca!&\r~ s*, %*9 j:,
(This August was far from being hot; it was cold.)
rzs*, $7: 3 9 T*.
(My father is far from being healthy; he is bedridden.)
~ D ~ S W ~ ~ V % ~! &
(The meal was far from being a feast; it was like food for pigs.)

1. In S, dokoroka Sz is used to indicate that s.o.1 s.t. is very far from an
expected state. In Sf appears a situation quite different from the situa-
tion expressed in S1.
36 dokoroka / demo

2. In S1 dokoroka S2, the distribution of affirmative / negative predicates is
as follows.

Type 1 Aff. Aff. Ex.(d) 'not just; even'
Type 2 Aff. Neg. KS(A), Exs.(a), (e) - (i) 'far from'

Type 3 Neg. Aff. Ex.(c) 'far from'
Type 4 Neg. Neg. KS(B), Ex.(b) 'not just; even'

dbmo 2'5% adv.

I don't know why but; I cannot
not make a definite statement manage to; just; from what I
about s.t. due to lack of hard gather; seem; no matter how -;
I gather that -; for some reason

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

i I Predicate 1

0 $ 6 { ;rbblo

(I tried, but I cannot understand the meaning of this Japanese sentence
very well.)

(1 gather that Mr. Suzuki wants to enter Kyoto University.)

[ (I don't know why, but that instructor's class is uninteresting.) I

Ir' 5 6 bl (no matter how one tries, S.O. can't talk)

Ir' 5 Q $4tj bl (no matter how one tries, S.O. doesn't eat)

Ir'i B 1< t s b l (I don't know why but s.t. isn't good.)

Ir'i C .e 2 b l (I don't know why, but S.O. is not good at s.t.)

(ii) I r ' i b- {V/Adj(i)]inf I6 L b l / d: 5 7 3
Ir' i b Z6-j- I 6 L b l / d: i El (I gather that S.O. is going to talk.)
Ir'i {L;Lbl/ k i f ) (1gatherthats.o.isgoingtoeat.)
Pi Q g b l {b L L ./~d: i 7':) (I gather that s.t. is expensive.)

B@;3. (5 Lbl / ;Fb k i 7:) (I gather that s.t. is quiet.)
Z o r 6 r j b$$OWF$L < Q1.ltvT-T.
dl$? %riL
(I don't know why, but lately I don't feel very good.)
& I O ~ 0 E l $ % k k ~ b? & $ K < b l o
1: Eh,
(I don't know why, but his Japanese is hard to listen to.)
(c) %&, Z O K $ @ & & f l Y j b 9 & 6 a L ~ t v T - T o
(Professor, I can't manage to grasp the intent of this problem.)
(d) Z ~ ; ' s b ~ & ~ : & + o > l i Y b$$$E,
(It is just inconvenient to live in such countryside.)

(el BT,
5 t j ~ + ~Li ~y t 4 f ~Y j %%&a Q L ~ ,
(I don't know why, but our kids are always watching TV and do not
read books.)
(f) &IO%&tiY5 b & ~ b l L5 7Z0
(That teacher seems strict to me.)
(g) Y 3 > t i . E l * $ ~ % ~ ~ O l i k ~ E$FWOIi
$, Yj 1 5 T-$o
(John is good at speaking Japanese but for some reason he seems poor
at reading it.)

33 LtiCti
(i) Xii.%4R@b L T Y 5 b7FtvKG~f:b Lbl,,
(Judging from the symptoms my father seems to have cancer.)
dWEl It 2 P A L ?
(j) WOF+%ESOYT%K$Q :7: L P Y ~&&I:Q-~:~
(What she said to me this morning in the train somehow bothered me.)

1. Ddmo is an adverb that indicates the speaker 1writer cannot make a
definite statement about s.t., because s h e cannot identify / pinpoint the
reason. For example, in KS(A) the speaker has made an effort to
comprehend the meaning of the sentence but s h e cannot pinpoint the
meaning; in KS(B) the speaker has no solid evidence about Suzuki's
domo / donnani - (koto) ka 39
entrance to Kyoto University. In KS(C), the instructor's class is boring
but the speaker / writer cannot identify the reason.
2. The final predicate is overtly negative, as in KS(A), (C), Exs.(a) - (c)
and (e), or covertly negative as in Exs.(d) and (j). When the final pred-
icate is not negative, it normally ends with an auxiliary adjective -rashii
or -yoda, as in KS(B) and Exs.(f) - (i).

3. DdmO is used with arigatd (gozaimasu) to mean 'Thank you very much,'
or with sumimasen to mean 'I'm very sorry.' Ddmo alone can mean a
very casual 'Thank you' or 'Sorry' without the following arigato (gozai-
masu) or sumimasen. Examples follow:

(1) %E122iB (& rld'k 3 c"Fb13 LI:),
(lit. Thank you very much for what you did for me the other

(I'm sorry.)

donnani - (koto) ka 2')

how (!)
mation about the degree to which [ REL. dorehodo - (koto) ka;
ikani - (koto) ka]

+Key Sentences

I Sentence I I
(HOWglad my elder brother was when he recovered from his illness!)
40 donnani - (koto) ka

E -
- 2 ~ ; frgt u~a c : ~ t , - ~ t \ t ; 2~ - 2 > ~

/ (How dearly my father loved my mother!)

?/,,a G?%LL~Z 2 -n., (How difficult s.t. is!)

(ii) ?A 2 :C -2. Predicate
F A c:%E'J~~&ICJ tb b l o (S.O. doesn't know how interesting s.t. is.)

(a) E%G~&K+C:~WB~CJ;~~.~F:%C=.~/~~
h ' I ?:A.
t $,
:kt, S/uhA. ti6

(How disappointed Hideo must have felt when Yumiko refused to
marry him.)
<A. $ 2 5
(b) $gd'@b1l?~ f:~&C:Gi~$G:~& 015'?,4,tb1c@ff$~ I:&
(For Yoshio, who didn't like to study, how hard it was to enter college!)
b * i A'(
(c) % % G ~ ? A . ? F ~ c : ~f:$31:Ltt$!
~ ~ ~ x ~ c B ~
(How strongly Keiko wanted to go to France!)
(d) f & ~ ~ t + & ~ b r~t v~a & Q{ ! g / v j X t $ !
(How strongly the students hated their strict teacher!)
donnani - (koto) ka / d6se 41

1. In the exclamatory structure of donna ni - koto ka, Adj(i/ na) or psy-
chological 1physiological verb is used before koto ka. The psychologi-
cal verbs include, among others, aisuru 'love,' nikumu 'hate,' konomu
'like' and the physiological verbs include, among others, tsukareru 'get
tired,' ase o kaku 'sweat,' furueru 'shiver.'
2. When the structure is used as an embedded question, koto is omitted, as
in KS(C) and Ex.(f).

- -
lkani (koto)ka and dorehodo (koto) ka can be used exactly the same way
as donnani (koto)ka. The only difference is that the former is a more for-
mal written style.

in any case:-anyway; at all
er writer's feeling that no matter events; after all; at all
what s h e does or how s h e does it,
42 dose

+Key Sentences
l L d: L l i V a i f l < + k b , L ItA.
&bj~-r$, Pi-+? &81?;3.b, *9I3%D@ 3 % ! 4 3 % 9 $ b j 2 b l Z21;
L 3 LP,
(I decided not to try for the Education Ministry's Scholyship, because
I'd be doomed to failure.)

I (If you make a trip abroad at all, it's better to do it when you are young.) ]

L O < t3. ht
Pi*Z/v2f:{ S , L D @ B , &$abv;3IabvM, z & z k i : L
7: L 0
(I cannot do this much homework anyway, so I've decided to play.)
X % [ ~ ~ - j - @ & a h / v f ? &&~( ; ,~ { I ~ L ~ ~ - ~ $ & ~ ~ S P ~ L ~ ~

(Since we humans are bound to die, it is no use working hard.)
Fia&Tb;kaoc:, F i LT%!o?~Q$~ D?
(Why are you following him, when you are well aware that you are
going to be dumped after all?)
Y j *&D2&
If"ZL P 1
ii%h%Yi%?kb'L0 g <$ 3 b@k3;3ILlblL0
(You cannot marry that woman anyway. You'd better give her up as
soon as possible.)
A: & L Z t v a Z 2;3I&;'sbwml ?
(Don't you understand this simple matter?)
B: r5 *%~iifaTt~~
(I'm stupid, as you know.)
5 v L w i K IiL
(0 r i r f f ; ~ ~ * - rtae.
G s toi&Ylfs;~~f ~irf.

(I'm going to Japan next week anyway, SO I'll buy that dictionary over

The adverb Mse often indicates the speaker feels helpless and / or angry that
nothing can be done to change a given situation, but as exemplified by
KS(B) and Ex.(f), the adverb can also he used to suggest finality of one's
with an appearance I style I tone 1 in - manner; after - style; g 1,
= =
manner of - -; like
[REL. y6ni]

+Key Sentences

(The yard of my house has big rocks arranged in Japanese style.)

I 1

(If he studies like that, he won't get good grades.)


Adverbial Clause

(I was often told by my teacher that I have to study harder because I am

(i) { N / Z L h /-?Ah / & A h / ? A h ) (like (Nlthislthati
that over there}, in what manner?)

@&K (in Western style)
:bQIC= (likethis)
(ii) sinf k bl i I1: (like) -
= =

& + 2 b ~ k b x i R l : ( h b l ~ b l & ) ((1hear)thats.o.doesn'tgothere) -
I S ? h L t
+;.BC27- b , B H d 2 3 2 V - l - k ~ . ~ i R (likeadateonedayand
b ~
a concert the next)

A: zk~d2r/vamb:&9fZbblbltvTt+,
(How should I hold this?)
B: ;/"2m1:~9T~Sb1,
(Please hold it like this.)
dj/v~~~:&i%"tv~~.~f~r;, 3 9 ~ % ~ E Q E , T L L j.
(If he keeps drinking like that every day, he will surely become ill.)
Z~>?JL-~~'XC~~'~FR2 G7: ,6 3 < L T % b d T ,
(We have made this cumed rice very spicy like an Indian version.)
YX: -jj.'smms&hsLf:w:tav9
9 LIZ,
(I was surprised when Jemmy bowed 6 la Japonais.)
: It*
ti, 4 a c 2 2 7 ~ ,$ t i ; t ~ nk ~ l i m i l b = , @~%;fi't?%b11:4~9
(Kyoko goes out every day to take lessons, like flower arrangement
one day and dance, the next.)
$gSty&ygG 9 fz I,> j RC;x;fi'1;gb13 Lkjj.', b~+$T-f;fi'~
(I heard that your mother has been hospitalized, but how is she?)
*i? b % < zw*h.
&BWSa>f.&Gb, < bkjg%-%->-c~brb>, 2blimi:a;kif
(I wish things could change in such a way that we can spend as much
money as we want to, if it is for educational improvement.)
1. The adverbial phrase fu ni includes the noun fii 'wind' which has
extended meanings of 'appearance,' 'style,' 'manner' or 'tone.' That i,
why the adverbial phrase {N / konna / sonna / anna /donna} fu ni in&
cates appearance I style I manner in which s.t. is done.

2. S to iu fii ni (as in KS(C) and Ex.(f)) is used when one wants to quote
s.t., as if to evoke in the mind of the listener the manner in which the
original communication was made. The meaning is 'the content to the
effect that -.'
3. S to iu fii ni (as in Exs.(e) and (g)) has a meaning of 'in such a way that
-,' in contrast to a quotation case of Note 2.
4. N, fu no N2 as in Exs.(c) and (d) means N2 with a style of N1. More
examples follow:
(1) a. 3-D y / < m ~ g g
(European-style architecture)
b. I <y /\Aa)g>g
(Bach-style music)
c. =WU--RO%
(a woman like Monroe)

hi elated Expression]
The adverbial phrase fii ni can be replaced by ybni, if the construction is S to
iu fD ni. If the construction is {konna / sonna / anna /donna} fu ni, it has to
be replaced by {kono / sono / ano / dono} yoni. N fu ni has to be replaced by
N no yoni.
tend to; be prone to; be apt to;
be liable to; be subject to; often
[REL. -gimi]

+Key Sentences

Topic Vmasu

(Tanaka tends to miss classes these days.)

Topic Relative Clause Noun

I: i%L ?:A b d*LT;vB'r> Arb,: <CL z +m
5;kCi EI$GZ$~BQB~&~EL~~~!ZIAGZ
&kl 2 3 ?

(That's a kind of misunderstanding which foreigners who stay in Japan
for a short period of time are subject to.)

I was often ill when I was very young.) I
- -



g d'&,
(Around here many people are often away from their houses during the
- -
day. (lit. Around here there are many houses which residents are often
- ~
away from during the day.))

( i ) Vmasu 75'672
5&75%7: (tend to forget)
(ii) N 75'62
;3' 6 72 (tend not to be home)

iLXL &+<
Edk??&-if& tm-d'T1;,&!Ld'%~?,
(Our bodies are apt to lack salt in the summer.)
k ljbl PblSLS<
(This watch tends to lose time these days.)
C XL 9 ri 60-t d.LP
Xck 2 & % a 2 Q ~ O $ [ ~ W N ~iW~La s ~ g ; i ; 3 ' % ~ ,
(People tend to think (about things) in a way that suits themselves.)
% I & 2 75 $!@~%~&i:g;i$3j:~
(Young people tend to think (about things) too seriously and narrow-
L*i $9
*6 i %%&ifd'%r-F,
(These days I seldom stay home even on weekends.)
a'<**, ad.
z n c 2 7 ~11 ~ ~ A O Y L W ~ L Laiq&j:,
(This is the kind of mistake which American students are apt to make.)
- 3.oe~
7 7x

(i) @&~i&@$%
(There are some students in my class who often get ill.)
KdL k 0

(She talked hesitantly (lit. with a tendency to hesitate).)

1. -gachi is usually used to express an undesirable tendency in someone or
something. Thus, -gachi is not acceptable in such contexts as in (1).
(1) a.

*b1b17d <
71' 71i q 3 b 1 T b 1 & 9 1 : R ~ \ 3 d @ 5 7 ' ? 0
(Good ideas tend to occur to us when we are relaxed.)
(It will be mostly fine tomorrow.)
2. When -gachi modifies a noun, two forms are possible, as in (2).
(2) a. flk$% I & / O l q&
(a student who tends to miss classes)
b. %%$% { & / a 1+#
(a child who often gets ill)
3. -gachi can be paraphrased using the adverbs yoku 'often' or shibashiba
'frequently,' as in (3).

4. -gachi is often used with such adverbs as yayamosuruto, tomosuruto,
and tokaku for emphasis (e.g., Exs.(a), (c), and (d)).

The suffix -gimi can also express the idea of "tend to" in some contexts. The
major difference between -gachi and -gimi is that -gachi usually describes a
general tendency in someone or something while -gimi describes a visible
indication of a tendency. For example, in [la], Taeko has a general tendencB
to gain weight but she is not necessarily overweight at the moment of

speech. In [Ib], on the other hand, Taeko is showing signs of being over-
[I] a. $$+iit& 0~,~GIz~
(Taeko tends to gain weight these days.)

b. WFiiEZk 0 $?&fL
(Taeko is showing a tendency to gain weight these days.)
In addition, -girni also expresses the idea of "touch of" or "a little," as in [2],
-gachi does not have this meaning.

[21 mi%$t; th%?i'mc-wifa
(I have a slight cold today.)

cannot; un-able; can hardly;
expresses the idea that for s.0. to difficult to; impossible
do s.t. is virtually impossible or [REL. -kaneru; -nikui; -zurai]

+Key Sentences
Topic Vrnasu 1

(What he did is unforgivable.)
Relative Clause Noun

- -Vmasu

h k3f:l.l
86 7
,E,bl~ KQ&7.650

(This trip will be an unforgettable one (lit. memory) for me.)


# E$*% l.1 (hard to believe ; unbelievable)

(His behavior is hard to understand.)
&0%t&@$ s T w : l & x & 0 f17:bao
(That professor is so respected that I can hardly approach him.)
ks %(DL :?HP P

ZOI-Dl%%l&EBZ.If Gff17:b~0
(Between these two works, it is hard to say that one is better than the
ZDYD YL 9 1~33 ~ 7 2: t&sbaflf:bao
(It is hard to say that this project was a success.)
'i - 2;C&d&&flfibaX"$7'~0
(Mr. Jones is an irreplaceable person (lit. a person hard to get).)
iqgo$#k:gT&&,j, L f l f : , , a j ~ & g ~ , j , ~ 7 z o
(We obtained an indisputable piece of evidence concerning his crime.)
(1 was intolerably humiliated by him in the past. (lit. received an intol-
erable humiliation from him.))
-gatai is used when it is virtually impossible for
for example, is equivalent to (1).

(1) L72z 2 li8*7kl/~,
(I /We cannot forgive his conduct.)
S.O. to do s.t. Thus, KS(A),

-gatai, -nikui, and -zurai express a similar idea, i.e., "difficulty in doing s.t:
However, their usage is significantly different. First, -gatai is usually used
only in written language or formal speech, but -nikui and -zurai can be used
both in spoken and written language. Second, unlike -gatai, -nikui and -zuraj
do not imply virtual impossibility. For example, in [I], where Mr. Yamad&
handwriting is hard, but not impossible, to read, -nikui and -zurai can be used
but -gatai cannot.
[I] ;i;a~~%$a,+~&d;r
{c;< L \ / ~ % L \ / * ~ P ~ L L \ I ,
(Yamada's handwriting (lit. characters) is hard to read.)
Third, while -gatai and -zurai can be used only with verbs which require an
agent, -nikui can be used with verbs which do not require an agent, as in [2].

b. ~%$a,$lik~ {I:< L \ / * 3 % L \ / * W T L L \ I O
(This wood doesn't burn easily.)
(d-nikui (DBJG: 307-08))

Fourth, -zurai is used when doing s.t. is physically (sometimes psychologi-
cally) hard on the agent. Thus, -zurai always describes undesirable situa-
tions, as in [3].

b. & 7 5 ' ~ ~ \ o > ~ ~ ~ ~ x{ 3t5 -L +\ / ~<C; & L4\ / * ~ P " ~ L c \ ] ~
(Because I have bad teeth, tough steaks are hard to eat.)
-gatai / gyaku ni 53

If the situation is desirable, -zurai cannot be used, as in [4].
f%b,X!-. b , L~ t SIT
[ql & & b f ~ * 2 -@brs ~ k ; k l % Z h
( E <L \ / * 3 ' 5 ~/ \* j $ f i ~ \ ) ,
(You will not forget vocabulary items easily if you remember them
in sentences.)

In the sentences in 131 and 141, -nikui can also be used. However, -gatai
cannot be used in these sentences because they do not convey the idea of

gy ku ni @I= adv.

an adverb to introduce an event contrary to one's expectation;
which takes place contrary to contrary to one's intention;
one's expectation 1 intention, or an conversely
action or event which is converse [REL. kaette]
to that stated in the preceding sen-
tence or clause

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

Subordinate Clause Main Clause
& f'z,- 7 -2- -'
(Contrary to expectations, when I took medicine, I got a fever.)
54 gyaku ni

Subordinate Clause Main Clause

6 I 0 , b G3&6kLI:,

. -
(I expected to be scolded but, contrary to my expectation, I was praised.)

Sentencel 1
(If we emphasize conversation, their grammar becomes inaccurate.


Conversely, if we emphasize grammar, they are (lit. become) unable to

hL L n i
L I f b 1; @ F!QL L f P 7 I : I ; , & : % % d ' 4 ~ I : ~
(I didn't practice for some time; then, contrary to expectations, my per-
formance improved.)
&-j-ga2 , z & ~ : a i ; a v l ~ ~, c : & L - c L t~: o
(If you sleep too much, you don't feel well; instead (lit. conversely),
you feel tired.)
~4%57-C-?6 $ k , R q T b l I . 6 , i!&b:*@%gbfiT L 5 9k0
( I was thinking of complaining; then, contrary to my intention, I had to
listen to complaints.)
r.9 L t i l f L 4 L . 1 L :t
-& ! !@&fk$Q L k ~ l : , 3C:@i7b:&bfiT ~5 9 I:,
(I worked very hard, but, contrary to expectations, my peers hated me.)
gyaku ni 55


(1 was expecting to fail the exam, but, contrary to my expectation, 1
passed it in first place.)
Xb:@Gb:t& Z kbk-&"x~b>blZ2f?k*g;ir;;k-Cb~&. L$L, $J
gc:.t&zk$, Zb:hQ!&bt&~k $&a,
(In general, being kind to people is considered to be a good thing.
However, contrary to one's intention, being kind sometimes hurts peo-
& O ~ b ~ ~ ~ ( ~ & k f i f bf fb ~~ ig F~ &( ~ 6("&(. k f
(If I try to be gentle to the boy, he takes advantage of my gentleness.

Conversely, if I try to be strict, he cries readily.)
b>b>$k&Q-t&l:at,1:~;1:% %LtFTG;tb>hf a b > L ~ L Zl:1l , 5
7 3 %L t FT b b>b>i@@b;t:&&tsb>,
(In order to perform well, you mustn't be too tense. But, conversely, if
you are too relaxed, you cannot perform well, either.)

1. The basic meaning of gyaku ni is "conversely." However, it is often used
when something takes place contrary to one's expectation or intention.
2. When gyaku ni is preceded by a clause, the clause often involves tam,
to, or noni, as in KS(A), (B), and Exs.(a) - (f).
[Related Expression]
When gyaku ni expresses the idea of "contrary to one's expectation / inten-
tion," it can be paraphrased as kaette, as in [I].
111 a. %5B&Ll?b, {Z6/ f i > % q T }BiFttlk, (=KS(A))
b. Pkb;k& k,R~f:Ol:, {ZK / 5 > A 7 7 1 bZ&bt~T:~
56 gyaku ni
However, if gyaku ni simply means "conversely" without the sense of "con,
trary to one's expectation fintention," kaette cannot be used, as in [2].
the -, the -; as; to the extent
extent or the degree to which -
[REL. ba - hodo; kurai]

+Key Sentences

Topic Adj(i)inf. nonpast

(The closer (you sit) to the stage, the easier this music is to hear.)

Vinf. nonpast


(Oxygen is less dense at higher altitudes. (lit. Oxygen becomes thinner
as you go higher 1the extent to which you go higher in the air.))

0 get more motivated by a harder job.)

(i ) {V I Adj(i))inf .nonpast kf lr'
5% S&.fala r (the more S.O. studies)
kllz k (the more expensive s.t. is)
$ {2 / T 61 2 k (the more convenient s.t. is)

(iii) Relative Clause + N CA k

+.M i).t hlrn r b vt
Z k f S @ % B Btl 'b A I2 k (the more logical a person's way of
thinking is)
. -
dr < $&s&T
a $&12 > (a student who studies harder ; the harder a
H g-

- student studies)

:k'l :Zk ItLiil

(a) + R G ~ / J \ I3sB ~ ~ )t Of?,
(The more you nag children, the more they disobey you.)
(b) % ~ d h 2 lY2& ~ & P ' b b 1 ~
(The quieter it is, the more uneasy I feel.)

(c) k R m < 2 a 13 &&@a< 'b a
(The closer to the station, the higher the rent.)
?A,.?? d$f %riL
(d) iE@TbI3 Y#o~+F$$c:
(The more I exercise, the worse I feel.)
If& 3
(e) jE~'b~I~Y&$!??Ljtrrfjf?,
(Stronger people tend to strain themselves more.)
(f) %a$$~ab.~c2r$+&$b1,

(Lazier people complain more.)

1. Hodo can express the idea of "the -, the -" as well as "(not) as - as -"
and "so that -." (ehod0 (DBJG: 135-3811
2. Sentences of the pattern KS(C), which involve noun phrases before
hodo, can be rewritten using the pattern KS(A). For example, (1) is
equivalent to KS(C) in meaning.
(1) %LILff~hf%LL\t3z.t.aB@ffiTa, <
(The harder the job is, the more motivated I become.)
60 igai

other than; except (for); bur;
"s.t. / S.O.other than" besides; as well as
[REL. hoka]

+Key Sentences

I (Everybody except Yarnada knows it.) 1

1 (Can you speak any foreign language besides Japanese?)

Topic Sinf
ht L
$ 1 & ' ! - 1: {q$$$lh;(l'2bl,
1 (I have nothing to enjoy other than drinking.)

(i ) N I%% (ON)
3 - t - ~ 9 (O&&.&)
+ ((drinks) other than coffee)

(ii) Sinf J43C (Da after Adj(na)stem and N changes to de aru.)
igai 61

$ $8-5'6 H91- (besides studying)
%I,,W~{ (besides the fact that s.t. is expensive)
r L li
~ $ U - P&&PA!?+. (besides the fact that s.t. is convenient)
%&-F& 6 1%M (besides the fact that a teacher)


),( +LIA 8 ~jczm.pcoi~~i&a a w,
(1do not drink any alcohol but sake.) -
- -

@ot+$-cr&f %-I i-i 1) ~ a f i o B i . & i i c a a r . . -

(At present our company is not dealing with any countries but Aus-
IfLI*? L I 1
),( 7 9 1 )8L%fioEl+L;Bk<SlUWRZ;5'%I:,
(Many researchers came from countries other than America, too.)

(d) K B l i z f i u f i l ~ g ~ b k L a b ~ ~
(I can't think of any causes other than this.)
3b,K86% 3LY?
(e) + L ~ & & U W C Z B @ E I B L . \ Z ~LBT ~ \ & ,
(I take (other) light exercise every day as well as taking a walk.)
(f) zz~&9Tb~6a%abl~
(There is nothing to do but wait here. (lit. There is no other way but
waiting here.))
(g) Zb+M$WJ+b\b~ z 273% !I a Ti%
(Is there any merit besides the price (lit. besides the fact that it is
+LA 3 86'
(h) z o Z & ~ g + o g d g ~ w6&;5', +fiuficaBrz,
(This sentence (or passage) contains a few kanji mistakes, but other
than that, it is perfect.)
C*iBki ~ X L
(i) f% % A U # ~ % & [Door sign]
(Employees only. (lit. Entry of those other than employees is prohib-
62 igai

1. "X igai no Y" refers to the referent of Y excluding the referent of x$8
member of Y. In "X igai no Y," "no Y" is often omitted, as in (1).


2. " X igai ni" means 'besides X.' In this phrase, ni is often omitted, as in

Note that if ni is followed by rno, ni cannot be omitted.

Hoka can sometimes be used in place of igai. For example, igai in the fol-
lowing examples can be paraphrased using hoka.

Note that N igai can be followed by no N, as in [la], but N no hoka cannoL
The difference between hoka and igai is that hoka can be used as an inde-
pendent noun while igai is always used as a dependent noun. Thus, hoka can
igai 63

e,, in sentence initial position but igai cannot, as in [2].
[ZI a. { ~ w / * u f i0}6 ~ & ~ . l - r b l a * t v + ,
(Are you available on other days?)
b. {HA3/*Wtl (0& o)ikk&& !I3-t?tvo
(There's no problem with the others [other things].)

c. IRfi>/ *Hfil b:m+&%li& 9 'a-@tv+,
(Do you have any other questions?)

Another difference between hoka and igai is that igai can be followed by -
- -
conditional forms such as nara, datfara, and deareba but hoka cannot, -- 1

as in PI.
[31 a. &$ r w t / * m f i > }{as/ ~ 7 t / ~~ ~5 n c~b+ C}B $ L
-rdiCf"&L o
(I will lend you anything except money. (lit. I will lend you any-
thing if it is something other than money.))
*- C*A
b. {Hfi/*(DCSfi>lI & % / E 7 k 5 / T S h l d l @JTB+?
!I 390
(I play everything except mahjong. (lit. I play anything if it is
not mahjong.))
Finally, igai can be followed by case markers such as de and to but hoka can-
not, as in [4].
d.11 6
141 a. &++G I W ~ / * D Ct~~~ t~f>iI ~ & trbKeL T~L> .~~ &,
(I make it a practice to socialize only with rich people. (lit. I
make it a practice not to socialize with people other than rich
b. ZO&& {Hfi/ *(T)MA~l
(Please do not eat in rooms other than this one.)
64 ijd (wa)

ij6 (wa) Mk(lb) conj.

since; now that; once; if ,
er / writer's feeling that there all; as long as; so long as

I should be a very strong logical 1
natural connection between what
precedes the conjunction and what
[REL. kagiri (wa); kara ni ~ ~ y a ]

Sentence, Sentencez

<A. Sri

1 (Since I came to Japan, I would like to study Japanese hard.) I
Sentence, Sentencez 1

1 (So long as you are a student, you should study.) 1
( i ) Vinf lLk(li)
1B-b / 3 L 7: I Lkli (since s.0. talks / talked)
(ii) N Th6M.tli (as long as s.o.1 s.t. is N)
X%Th 6Llkli (as long as a teacher)
ij6 (wa) 65

(NOWthat I have begun to study Japanese, I will hang in there until 1
can speak and understand what I hear, and read and write well.)

(d) & 6 9 f:LXkli, h a f : & k $ $ $ k , ~o&r.f,
(Now that you have given this to me, it is mine, no matter what you
(el %%L < ~ % ~ L T ~ ~ z L J L ~ & ,X?$O~*&ZLG~~~ ~ b l ~
(So long as you are very active, your body seems to stay strong.)
(f) X ~ % % L ~ : L X _+~;Ck ~ ?, 1 ; a l f ; k ~ m r ; a b l ~
(Once you have made a promise to someone, you have to keep it.)

1. The construction S, ijo (wa), S2 can be used when one feels strongly that
there should be a close, necessary connection between S1 and S2. The
structure cannot be used to express an objective causal relation. Exam-
ples follow:
S h L *h hh
(1) *ZB+Be$6%blfAXt, 2 T &%;k-Cbl&,

2. S, of this construction always ends in a verb or dearu; it never ends in
an adjective.
66 ijd (wa) / ikanimo

I. When S1 ijd Sz means 'so long as' as in KS(B) and Ex.(e), it can be
replaced by S1kagiri (wa) Sz.

[I] ?&Ti6 6 {Hk(Cb)/ $Bb)(Cb)}.@J$&f 4 3 72, (=KS(B))

11. S1ijd Sz cannot be replaced by SI kara ni wa SZ,if the former means 'as
long as,' otherwise the replacement is possible.

A ' W
[41 % - n ' & $ ~ v a I H + / * ~ P G C = C~~%
I,C = T ~ ~ E B B
(As long as I live, I won't let you go without anything.)
[5] #ii;tkr&k$hc~..b %kdi%r;;+h~l~
(So long as you keep drinking, your illness won't be cured, you
[6] H$Za)4'i;S%RblTblS
'5+6 r v , +
< A l i 1 4 ; T L ; + h b l T L d : ib.,
(So long as you listen to Japanese radio, your listening skills
won't deteriorate, I presume.)

ikanlmo C\fib5'C:% adv.

really; truly; indeed
er / writer's emotive conviction [REL. hontd ni; tashika nil
ikanimo 67


(From an American perspective, Japanese society is indeed closed.)

( ~ is
t snowing outside, and it looks really cold.)

(The bookshelves of his study room are packed with books of all ages
and countries, and it surely looks like a scholar's room.)
68 ikanimo

they do not do behave individually.)

Sentencel Sentence,,

I 1 1

(He is behaving as if he were buly a gentleman, but he is quite calculated.)

(a) j&o%&hibl@~: B EI*BJE,
(His manner of thinking is very Japanese.)
LriC* I LL Dl-6. ( A L L
(b) +o&Bo~n%iib~6.G:bE?+&f 897%
(The professor's knowledge is really encyclopaedic.)
ibLb'Lri LrifP<lh
(c) 7-3'4 Y FC;f;*SC%B&ogY&d'B
b k ~ bx$i:B
, 3 k L L t j l?3Izo
(David was able to get a Ministry of Education scholarship and he
looked really happy about it.)
(d) X ~ ~ G S L T ,lil$~: $ $ A t j i : ~ ~ f i ,
(My father left the hospital and became really healthy-looking.)
ilw cr 66.
(e) < , $AT,
%&&ii&h b l $ i ~ & 7 3 ll ? J h b Lblo
(She is light-hearted and cheerful, and is truly like an American.)
Bblil<< *i CL
(f) @ D A Y O ~ A ~ ~ ~ V N : B c; ~
L&< ,Gr/l- B ~ ~ f i f i & ~ & - c r / l
(A friend of mine in college appears to be truly rich, and is always
wearing fancy clothes.)
ikanimo 69

(i) bljlr.~:it&9L;ebB13~-if,
(It is exactly as you have said.)
trm -
Y X s -&&ablhbtriaa
(i, ~ ~ & i i r l $ l ht: %~'ilgS~ia;k,aj5',
(Japanese is indeed a difficult language, but it is not the case that you
cannot master it.)

(He is talking as if he truly understood everything, but in reality he
understands nothing.)

The adverb ikanimo is used when the speaker 1writer wants to express his
emotive conviction. The adverb often occurs with such conjectural expres-
sions as soda (as in KS(B), Exs.(c) and (d)), rashii (as in KS(C), Exs.(e)
and (0) and ydda /ydsuda (as in KS(D), Exs.(g) and (h)). Also it occurs
with the conjunction ga (as in KS(E), Exs.(j) and (k)).

e elated Expressions]
I. Every use of ikanimo in KS and Exs. can be replaced by another adverb
hontd ni 'truly' without changing the meaning. The only difference be-
tween the two is that the former is slightly more formal than the latter.

The adverb tashika ni can replace ikanimo when the latter is used in the
Pattern of ikanimo S1ga Sz, as in KS(E) and Ex.(j).
70 ikanimo / Imperative

[I] B + A ~ ~ + B I R B ~ % ~ ~ >l Ct aMaLs ,ARB^- L G ~ ,
ihlf T l k h b > , (cf. K S Q )


(Don't) V.; No -ing; (not) to V
mands or requests [REL. koto; -nasai; te wa ike-
+ ~ Sentences
e ~

k-+? k,


(stop it now.)




(It says here to pay before December 3 1.)
Imperative 71

(A) ~ffinnative

(i &. 1Verbs: Vcond
(ii) Gr.2 Verbs: Vstem (6[Spoken] / d; [Written]1
$f2S (Answer!)
$$ ;i_ d; (Answer.)

L 6 [Spoken] (Do!)
[Written] (Do.)
(B) Negative
Vinf enonpast 2
%t2 (Don't talk!)
A. 2 (Dont't eat!)
(ena (DBJG: 266-67))

(Shut up!)
G< C!
(Don't move!)
**'rrl.Lw Lri t< C RwCL
lh qg $1IW@%%+? dr ! [A demonstrator's placard]
(Yarnanaka must go! (lit. Prime Minister Yamanaka must leave his
office immediately!))
$09 .
Q %%Q dr [An examination direction]
(Translate the following sentences into English.)
72 Imperative

(e) &O !k$& G L $ $L; ,
~ [Anexamination direction]
(Answer the following questions.)
(0 %a ts l;&itrts, % ~ ~ l ; ; $ts,a
(If you drive, don't drink. If you drink, don't drive.)

(g) %&
I%. ts k ~ b ' - c & & ~
(It says (lit. is written) not to send cash.)

(h) # ' i : & i 0 9 3 >-i& 72 k&3fL7Zo
(I was told by my boss not to use taxis often.)

1. Imperatives without sentence particles are rarely used in daily conversa.
tion. In spoken Japanese they are usually used when the speaker is
angry with or threatening the hearer or when the speaker shouts slogans
in demonstrations, as in Exs.(a) - (c).
2. Imperatives with the sentence particle yo are used by male speakers in
very casual situations (e.g., between close friends, between a father and
his child), as in KS(A).
3. Imperatives without sentence particles are frequently used in directions
in written examinations and mottos, as in Exs.(d) - (0.
4. Imperatives without sentence particles are used in indirect speech, as in
KS(B), Exs.(g) and (h). In this case, the corresponding direct quotations
are not necessarily imperative. For example, the direct quotations of
KS(B) and Ex.(h) may be:

(1) +-8 3+- EI i T G Z ~ 7% , ~ L \ ~
(Please pay by December 3 1.)

(2) &-a 0 5'3 L-di@;h&L\P< h&L\fi~,
(Would you mind not using a taxi often?)
Imperative / ippo de (wa) - tahd de (wa) - 73

[Rdated ~xpression~l
Vmasu + nasai and Vte + wa ikenai 1 ikemasen are milder than the
imperatives introduced here; therefore, they are frequently used in daily
Examples follow:
^rA Bri
[I] ;t9LB%LaPe\,
(Study harder.)
(d nasai (DBJG: 284-85))

n. ~ o t also
o expresses a command, but it is used only in written rules and

i7BAL7 IittL
b. BEJ%$TlitZ&% L h b > Lk O
(No talking in the reading room.)

a structure used to describe two on the one hand -, on the other
concurring, contrastive actions I hand
States of s.0. or s.t.
74 ippd de (wa) - taho de (wa) -

1 (Prof. Kanda teaches physics at college on the one hand and does
research on Japanese language on the other.)

(This medicine, on (the) one hand, alleviates symptoms but on the other
hand, it has strong side effects.)

(a) ho%'ii, - f j ~ i ~ g f i ~ H~E~B&PI:
9 L T ~ \ &P, I&ZTCWY
~ - ~ L ~ ~ % L L ~ X ~ - Y Y L T L ~ & .
(That man draws quiet Japanese paintings on the one hand, but plays a
very competitive sport like soccer on the other.)
CQL '3 i i
9 O a s h , 4&TfjTfiQ b h < Fb.i$ X'c L
Lk lib.

(b) ~ k i $
f'- ,
Tb.6 kLl$@7'&
(On one hand, Mr. X is engaged in charities, but, on the other hand,
rumor has it that he is engaged in a ruthless business.)
(c) ~ grb,c.i~ f t-mimmm~-w
~ " , "$6,

CniS7 L
9 <t <
~ f j ~ i i P ! b
Wm%%i.b~Bh% b f%WL-Cb~Tcb~,
(The President has promised tax-cuts. But on the other hand he doesn't
think much about waste of tax-payers' money by his entourage.)
ipp6 de (wa) - tahd de (wa) - 75

+r(+?~ikL T L I @ ~ Q ~ ~
w?jriisZble:~asas.&*~blei, %bi.;tielaa,
m e answering machine is, on the one hand, very convenient for both
,person who calls and a person who is called, but, on the other hand,
unnatural because you can't talk directly with the other person.)

(Life in a foreign country is, on the one hand, enjoyable because one
can encounter new culture, but, on the other hand, it is sometimes hard
because of culture shock.)

The construction is used to give two contrasting facts about a given topic. In
other words, it is used to show both sides of the same coin so that the hearer /
reader can get a total picture of an action / state.
a suffix which indicates the idea of from the viewpoint of; for (the
"from the viewpoint of," "for the sake of); for (the reason); j4
sake of," "for the reason," or "in (terms of); relating to; in -ing
terms of" [REL. no ue de wa]

*Key Sentences

. -
- bilk'< ~ t ?
- - ca>%iiita _t L<GW,
(This film is not good from an educational point of view.)


1 (I keep the key to this mom for the sake of convenience.)

1 (I will skip a detailed explanation for lack of time (lit. time limitation).) i
(In terms of calculation, this is correct.)

Noun Noun

i +_
a> h"d T$S&&Z kKLk,

I (I've decided to retire for health reasons (lit. for a reason relating to my 1

Noun Noun
r&m 0 at] ab: (&tv+'~t,>,
(Read "Warnings for Use" carefully.)

P&L(from the viewpoint of hygiene)

(a) :a>& j ~ $ ~ ~ ~ & & _ t $ $ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
(Such conduct cannot be forgiven from an ethical point of view.)
z 04 /&Z;k7+6 a
C i l A.
> ~ ~ ~ k ~ ~ ~ ~ $
(This condition is extremely disadvantageous for our future business.)
9 Z j
7 9 3 '/ b:&tv~b>& AT?,
(I live in such an expensive condominium because it's convenient for
commuting to work (lit. for business convenience).)
(d) ~SO%&, ~ Z D @ % @ f i b&V K i & b ~ $ G b ~ / " T - f 0
(For business-related reasons, I cannot leave this town.)
(e) & g k b ; t ~ j7 e c b l & ~ G D f ? d 'S, & r j G & $ d & & ; 3 % 1 ; ~ ~ l ~
(In theory it should turn out like this, but it's not known how it %y
actually turn out.)
(f) ggkb;tf&7%&;t~~=.i~b 1;a b x ,
(Legally his conduct is not criminal.)

-j6 can be interpreted in several ways depending on the context. More
specific phrases can be used in place of -j6, as in (1) - (6).
(1) [Viewpoint] (KS(A), Ex.(a))
ZD@Eib&3k%? {k/ c D & 3 > % = 3 ~ 1 dr < GLl, (=KS(A))

(3) [Reason] (KS(C), Exs.(c), (d))

(4) [Domain] (KS(D), Exs.(e), (f))
80 kaette

kaette 7 7' adv.

contrary to one's expectation an on the contrary; rather
[REL. mushiro]
(Ant. yahark yappari)

+Key Sentence

Subordinate Clause Main Clause
(I took medicine, and the illness got worse (contrary to my expecta-

iif C *h
(a) A: -%~e$ b%b'T, $ h - FL r 5,
(You must be tired after swimming as long as one hour.)
Ilh s
B: b.?, $ 2 9 T Z X K ti 7 I: L
(No, on the contrary, I feel fit now.)
I: i t L Z C i i S
(b) 6C I%~ L~L $~ ~ ? 7 : b ~ f ~ ~ k ' 1 ~ t ' d & dB.bk. +%f i~q k?A, t**
XL,: -$P,
B$Ak8ZGTifd.OSLTb~f:OT7 d . k ~ T ,? + K ~ ~ T T % $ Q T
$3 LIZ,
(I went to Japan, believing that my Japanese will improve (if I go)
there, but I spoke only in English with Japanese there, so (contrary to
my expectation) my Japanese became worse when I came back here.)
L a i Lt < 2h1:h *L<LX
(c) % l O i t kTZAO%&G:7 F)<I.X% L T b b 9 k O T 3 V , 7 F
rnr+$X ,
~ ~ I ' x ~ F ~ ~ ~$kq-c,
s ~ o T
, t i 9 - c ~ ~ a L1 Pa ,
(I was given advice on job searching from three professors, but their
advices are so different that I am rather at a loss.)
kaette 81

((Contrary to your expectation) if you study at a small, private college,
you can receive better education than to study at the so-called first-rate
TS 9 r i m d.56
71b2-1~b%S&6kY, f i k - 3 7 , @ K b b b l ? - 5 jZ0
( ~ l c o h o lis said to be rather good for your health if you drink it in
moderate quantity.)

The dverb kaette is used when one describes a situation I event that occurs
to one's expectation.

[Related ~xpressiod
The adverb mushiro 'rather' can replace all the uses of kaette in KS and Exs. -
K -a--

[I] a. / @ L a ] $?js#U'p(
%$&AlZb, I-h'k.97 g 9 j:, (=Ks)

However, there are many cases in which mushiro cannot be replaced by
kaette because the former is used when between the alternate choice
between action I situation I characterization one is judged to be better than
the other, but the latter lacks this particular meaning.
121 a. ho>Xii$&kbl5 L 9h
i {@L3 /*fi>X~Tl
(I believe him to be an educator rather than a scholar.)
82 kaette / kagiril

kagiril PI3 11 conj.

as long as; as far as; while;
idea "as long as (a certain condi- the extent; until; unless
tion is met)" or "as long as (= to [REL. aida wa; uchi wa]

+Key Sentences

Subordinate Clause Main Clause 1

I (As long as I am here, you don't have to worry.)

Subordinate Clause I Main Clause

(As long as Mr. Tanaka is not here (lit. does not come), we cannot
begin this meeting.)
Subordinate Clause Main Clause


(AS long as this is the fact, he probably cannot escape being found

( i ) Vinf Pi3 11
,&b PE cl (as far as s.0. sees)
$@I: PE ")as long as s.0. examined)
&a a blPE 11 (as long as s.0. does not read; until s.0. reads)
C r)
&%b PI4 cl (as long as s.0. can do; to the extent s.0. can do)
(ii) N T {&b / C b > ) Pi34
d'< CV
f &T& b PI4 0 (as long as s.0. is a student; while s.0. is a student)
:I i i h u
T I 4 (as long as s.0. is not Japanese; unless s.0. is Japa-
? @ g & l i $ ~ * ~ t v I t b ~ " )'I i&afP9ko
(As far as I read, the document contained no errors.)
a ~ g ~ b j+ AaG Z~ 2~~ '~ ~

(While you are an educator, you shouldn't say things like that.)
z ~ @ c : % l ; a w ~ ~ ~4
x a3 G=c~%Lz~~~,
(Until you pass this exam, you cannot enroll in the advanced class.)
., h * b 1;Gb% 'I+H:/l_t@@@~ii$riJ'dti.T-rt~
3 L 6.03 h

(Until the situation changes (lit. As long as the situation doesnlt
change), we cannot provide additional support.)
7'Z 1) j5ATablPR'I 2@&~b~G&Cf 2blo
(Unless you are an American, you cannot be employed for this job.)
?;r, b6.i
%L2EG&73@% < FE 'Ii b b l I L
(We rowed as long as our strength lasted (lit. to the extent that our
strength lasted).)

(I will try my best (lit. try to do as long as I can do).)

1. Adjectives cannot precede kagiri.

(1) *% L\ PE 'I L I f 6 9 B 'I 7'2, (Acceptable form: EI8 bl 5 5
( 2......)
(As long as I find it interesting, I will continue to do it.)
(2) * " ~ ~ ~ P J ! ' ) ~ T 6 b(Acceptable
~ b ~ T . fform:
0 k4II29f:b/
TbjkLCf / 1;1 ...--a)

(As long as the person is good at it, it doesn't matter who does
2. Nouns before the conjunction kagiri must be followed by the copula de
aru (or de nai), as in (3).
id^ wa 'while' and uchi wa 'while' are used in similar contexts. In fact,
wa and uchi wa can be used in place of kagiri if the kagiri clause indi-
cates a time interval.

However, aida wa and uchi wa can occur with adjectives while kagiri cannot,
in [z].(See Note 1.)
[z] a. EZIB~~
I5%lb/Mlb/*BEbJ) %%if&-b!I??,
b. %$u~'sI ~ % M / W U / * R&~ I~ I ~ k ~ < / > ~ >jo
(It would probably be a good idea to borrow it (and keep it)
while it is convenient.)

a suffix which expresses the idea the last; only until; from - on;
limited to; only

+ ~ e ySentences

I Noun (time) 1 1 1 I
(This is the last time I am going to any of his parties.)
Number + Counter

(Tickets are limited to two per person.)
( i ) N (time) FR Q
+ 3 Pi2 Q
LL Lwi
(limited to this week; This week is the last week.)

E -
(ii) Number + Counter lra 0
vt, 2'
-$, PR 0 (limited to one time; only once)

i v 9
. :A179
z D @ a i g i i + a pi2 w%$k

(This movie house is open only until the end of this month.)
(From today on I will give up both drinking and smoking.)
(Tomorrow is the last day of the sale.)
f D$j~Rl,l 03gi;f:
(You'd better not make an empty promise (lit. a promise limited to the
& L & L~;~:--EwFE cl TT. b.?d'rxsLr9

(Check-out is limited to three books at a time.)
(You can rewrite only once. (lit. Rewriting is limited to one time.))

1. -kagiri is preceded by either a noun or a number with a counter. Nouns
before -kagiri are usually those which indicate a certain time.
p+kagiri is used when a repeated or on-going action, event, or state lasts
only until a certain time.

whether - or -; or
possibilities about which the

(J don't know whether or not I can go to Japan next year.)

(J don't remember well whether I left my umbrella at the station or in
my office.)

(i ) (V, 1 Adj(i),}inf 73. {V2/ Adj(i)~}inf*
&& /%/Vl?l 73. $&"pa /%$&Ll:I 73.
(whether s.0. plays / played or studies / studied)
88 -ka-ka

{ i i % b 1 / m ~ @ ~ r : 21
1 {3a1;a~/-=al;a@~1~1 +
(whether s.t. is 1was interesting or boring)

(ii) {Adj(na)]stem 1 N1) I0 / 729 1 ~ 1@ {Adj(na)2stem1 N2} (0 / t;'=
7): +
6%~ / @?Uf?97ZI 7 5 (%$/ ~ @ i ? 9 j Z l2 b
(whether s.t. is 1was convenient or inconvenient)
f % / % f W : l 75 t g / W ? - d Z l fP
(whether s.0. is 1was a man or woman)
(iii) {Adj(na)]stem 1 N1) {(d / l? 9 7: {Adj(na)zstem 1 N2}neg dl
(where Adj(na)l = Adj(na)~,N1 = N2)
. -
:Kg {@?O/@?OE-31:1 @@dO { c e/ T I cab>/ a@9kI @
- =
(whether s.t. is / was convenient or not)
{5'3 /597?9fZl &% ( L e / T I {ab1/a i P 9 f Z I @
(whether s.0. is /was a man or not)

F$e&T&b3 R-j-~fij&$bz~a@2 &&Tb>2+Ao
(I haven't decided yet whether to get a job or go to graduate school
after graduation from college.)
%& ~#%#&3@~&Jqf3@,
(Please ask the guest in advance whether he likes meat or fish.)
z ~ k i : c i = - u . ; l , c e & f + t a ~ , 7 3 ~ ~ ~ & & + a + a, m a
(I haven't yet decided whether I should travel in Europe or work in
Seoul during the summer break.)
b<ti U S k i 5 V
%#*?em f?9 k @ & @ E i 7 ~ 7:@,
9 5h-C L 3 b > a L k o
(I forgot whether the meeting was on Thursday or Friday.)
%&-C977 k & ~ k ~ f l l f - f?- T ? ? ~ ? Z @ , 7 - 1 b T i ? ~ k $ ,
-ka-ka 89
(1 don't remember whether it was at a party or at the pool that I first
met Tamara.)
I b,$b> *A:?
& ] ~ S ~ Y ~ A Y T # Z ~ ~ ~ ~ &8&*sm~m;tr.,
L I : ~ > ; ~ . , h9Tk.
6 -S*o
(DOyou know whether Mr. Kimura majored in economics or politics at

@I&%$, %Tab.*, **b&b>L 5 &&)Lo
(Lately, it's hard to tell whether a lot of men are men or not.)
If?ki t b s l i
&%tifl1;3.*1(7NE LTTS b..
(Please make the meeting Monday or Wednesday.)

m e - ka ka construction is used when one is not sure about two

choices or possibilities. (6 ka2 (DBJG: 166-68))
Normally the construction is used to deal with two choices or possibili-
ties, but when one lists the choices and possibilities more than two ka's
can be used as in (1).

(1) % w G ~ ,% t : ~fid#a~s
s fiw R IfL be? E r it25
< fi>, a I Z R ~
( I haven't decided whether to stay here or make a trip or work
at the research institute during the spring break.)
If the same verb is repeated as in KS(A), the second one can be replaced
by do ka as follows. (+ka (dbka) (DBJG: 168-70))

(2) %+ E $-4W *
s E 5 fi', a 7?** 0 3 +?Lo
90 kana

I wonder if -
cates a self-addressed question or
question addressed to an in-

*Key Sentences

6LCb' LX

1 (Can you figure out this problem?) !
(i ) {V / Vvo1)inf d.2

I%% / L k / 8+5 I i5'2 (I wonder if s.0. talks 1if S.O. talked I
if I should talk.)
(ii) Adj(i)inf $2
{% 3 b, / A 3 $9 f i I 9.2 (I wonder if s.t. is / was big.)

(iii) {Adj(na)stem 1N} (0/ i? 9 12 I 752
@d. I0 / t? 3 7; J d.Q (I wonder if s.t. is I was quiet.)
a& ( 0 /
i? 9 7: I 5'2 (I wonder if 1was a teacher.)
kana 91

s+roEBii r i s a ,
(I wonder what life is like in Japan.)
(d) 4 a ~ $ $ ~ % ~ i ~ z l ' 2 0
(I wonder what today's dinner will be.)
(el 71f- b ' & @ i i 8 b ~ @ h 0
(I wonder if the apartment rent is high.)
(f) 5k4ti&
(I wonder if my teacher is in good health.)
1h,6<+w $3 J

(g) -$-%%O%Rflh b A7?-lf r , ~ i & l j & i l . h ,
(There is a concert ticket, but I wonder if you can go.)

1. The sentence-final particle kana is used when one asks himself about s.t.
In essence kana is a marker of monologue question, so this cannot be
used as a straightforward question addressed to others. Compare the fol-

(2) r z - . ~ 7 3 E t f i ~ o
(Where are you going?)
(3) P;+?l;jZjfi>a,
(I wonder where I should go.)
92 kana / kanarazushimo
The questions of (1) and (2) are straightforward questions addressedto
others, but (3) is a monologue question which does not need t
O be
answered. However, if it is a yes-no question and if the addressee is an
equal or younger one, kana can be used as a question addressed
others, as shown in KS(B) and Ex.(g).
2. If one asks himself what one should do,Vvol has to be used as in KS(A,
and Ex.(b)
3. Kana is normally used by a male speaker, but it is often used by a
female speaker, too, in casual spoken Japanese. The normal c o u n t e ~ ~
is kashira. (+kashira (DBJG: 181-82))

kanarazushimo d!*TL & adv.

I an adverb that indicates that the
proposition expressed in the sen-
not always; not necessarily
[REL. itsumo wa - nai; minna
wa - nai; subete wa - nai;
zenbu wa - nail

+ ~ Sentences
e ~
Adj (i)inf

(one cannot always say that people with good memories are good at -
- -
foreign languages.) -

(I don't think that a Japanese is always a good Japanese language

!!Z,!.fLB (%- /%3b4 kd&FRbQb~
(s.o. does not always talk I s.t. is not always big)
(ii> &!.4 L 6 {Vinf l Adj(i))neg
GPLh { S L i kL Q b ) / k $ < CiQbs)
(s.o. does not always talk I s.t. is not always big)
94 kanarazushimo

45TLd {b$dl/%41 I?tliPi?r;gbr

(s.t. is not always quiet not always a teacher)

(iv) 434 L 6 { Adj(na)stem 1N} T CL ts b'
U\TLG {%i9tjS1/%4T1l i ' r b b 3
(s.t. is not always quiet 1s.0. is not always a teacher)

(a) & # L T $ J & F L ~ $ ~ ~ c kGigL2bxo
(One cannot always say that marriage brings happiness.)

(b) % B L <
*s~di!w~6?&3~& t ii~~r;tsc.1~
(People who exercise regularly do not always live long.)

(Students who have been to Japan do not always become proficient in
(d) B&LAQHL %++EG:~L L ~ W ,
(Money does not always bring happiness to people.)
iih 2 * i L4 $25 w < L*
(el &tt~:m % 8 ~ 2L BWLI:R
, ~ ~g~ati,&b~~iits~1,
(It is not always the case that an able researcher is an able educator.)
Iriac <% -p <tb
(f) g ~ c i a ~ ~ ~ ~ kgb18;5'a\4~6~3~3tri;tpi?r;a1/1,
g i d i ,
(They say good medicine is bitter, but bitter medicine is not always
Lei fh L5k'CX.
(g) &;5'bBdllf 7,2 9 7 B+lf'7, M BT~~~T~~&%$A;~
6 El$ATiiab~,
(An oriental wearing glasses, carrying a camera and walking in a group
is not always a Japanese.)

1. The adverb kanarazushimo is used with a negative predicate. Typically,
the final predicate is to wa kagiranai (lit. 'not limited to -').
(+to wa kagiranai)
kanarazushimo 95

Kanamzushimo nai is often used in a proverbial expression in which
2. the tense of the final predicate is usually nonpast. However, kanarazu-
shimo can be used with the past tense as in (1) below.

(1) a + O ~ ~ * ~ R ~ ~ Y ~ C ~ G T L I B ~ Z
(The students who went to Japan that summer not always
became proficient in Japanese.)

$ $ g T l d 2 ~ 9fz0
(The performances of the virtuoso pianist Vladirnir
Horowitz were not always perfect.)

[Related ~xpressiod
- o expresses a partial negative. The partial negative can
~ ~ ~ a r a z u s h i mnai
also be expressed by other expressions such as minna wa nai, zenbu wa -
- -
nai, subete wa nai, itsumo wa nai. Examples follow:

[I] %a&* {&ha/Z%/ T4-c)& m L \ o
(All that glitters is not gold.)

[3] &0%8a;fkC;f {&A* /Pi% / b4Tl I b % + i & L \ ,
(It is not the case that I understand everything that the professor has
to say.)
Among these partial negative expressions, kanarazushimo and subete is
much less colloquial than the rest. Note also that minna 'all,' zenbu 'all,'
subete 'all,' and itsumo 'always' do not always require a negative ending;
whereas kanarazushimo always requires a negative ending. Examples follow:

b. $Eta {ei%/*a~~.t~
F ~ T L ' ~ ~ ~ : ,
(I've done all the homework.)
96 kanarazushimo / -kaneru
c. $LG;f. { L \ ~ & / * & T LZ%R,
(I'm always healthy.)

-kaneru fP,'h b aux. v. (G,:

an auxiliary expressing that s.0. cannot; be not in a position to;
cannot do s.t. even if s h e wants to hardly possible; hard; hesitate
do it
do -gatai; -nikui]

(I am not in a position to figure out that matter, so please ask the
departmental chief.)

/ (He might (lit. can) do any stupid thing.)

Vmasu fi1;la6/ 73.hhb~

&a;l&ila 6 (s.0. cannot drink s.t.)
&k73.ilahbl (it is possible for s.0. to drink s.t. / s.0. might drink s.t.)

(Next week I am making a business trip to London, so I cannot attend
the meeting in Nagoya.)
Lrhb' Ot93
L;1.2~z~fo -rci&bf:
~ ~ e - ~LjSr.taa-wo
0 cannot handle this many documents in a month.)
" 'd'h P h
j &@c:8 cam, rEEl:~i%
0 t is a great regret, but we cannot comply with your request.)
zAa3haid 9 b, E!3*taa-T0

0 cannot accept such an expensive gift.) -
- -

@ t i $ ~ o k &e% l l 9 * t a - C b l & 15 fzo -

(He appears to find it hard to understand my feelings.)
$$#1:&11: <
b l Z 2 GOIT, s - ~ $ o & E & $ 9 #I
J L&;ta~bl&,
(It is such a delicate matter, so even the departmental chief finds it hard
to break the ice.)
arbscv, r!%v&t;ata~~
(Midori, your husband is waiting for you with impatience (lit. cannot
h w ~ ~ rA t .T2&a b l 2~eg~l*tai'bbl*1;, ~ $ & L ~ & F L I ~ ~ ~ L
(He might say outrageous things, so watch out.)
ili b i <
h09t;t:tjL 2 L ~ Z Z~ ~ % h ~ & & b ~ ~ " s b ~ ,
(That man might use violence at the slightest provocation.)
' i h 9w61<.ti E L L <
~ o + h i ~% : $~jtr.tai'b~,
(It is possible for this incident to develop into resignation of the entire
C r i 3 t i
&b&L 9 7$>taabl15 a%%Lf:lg m?9f:o
(It was such a tense situation that even a riot could have taken place.)
1. Vmasu kaneru (GI: 2) is often used in formal spoken or written Japan
to express politely that the speaker 1writer cannot do s.t. owing to
circumstance, as shown in KS(A) and Exs. (a) - (d).
2. The negative version, i.e., Vmasu kanenai is actually a double negati,
so it literally means 'can do st.,' but it actually means 'it is very possi,
ble' or 'might.'
3. The verb that can take -kaneru is a verb that takes a first person human
subject. So verbs such as kowareru 'break,' am 'exist,' kawaku 'dry up;
harem 'clear up,' kumoru 'become cloudy,' etc., cannot take -kanem. r,
contrast, the verb that can take -kanenai can take either the third person
human subject (as in Exs.(h) and (i)) or the third person non-human sub.
ject (as in Exs.(j) and (k)).

4. None of the regular potential forms can take -kaneru either, because it
creates double potential meaning.

However, there are two exceptions: wakaru 'can figure out' and dekiru
'can' (used with a Sino-Japanese compound) can take -kaneru, as shown
in KS(A) and Ex.@), respectively.

5. Ex.(g) is an idiomatic case which comes from Vmasu of machi-kanem
'cannot wait' and is exceptional in that it takes a third person subject
unlike other cases of the Vmasu kaneru. No other new combination like
o-machi-kane is possible.

6. As explained in Note 3, -kaneru takes the first person, but when the
-kaneru / - kara - ni itaru made 99

main predicate is in the progressive form, -kaneru can take the third per-
son, as in M e ) and (f).

[Re,atd ~x~ressionsl
nereare two auxiliaries similar to -kaneru. They are Vmasu nikui and
gatai. The crucial difference is that -kaneru conveys the meaning of
but the other two don't; rather, they convey the meaning of 'hard
to do ~ . t . The
' auxiliary -gatai is used in written Japanese, so it sounds very
awkward in [lb] but is acceptable in [la].
C l i i A.

111 a. 206 5 a%kcltJZ~111%~3 / C < L \ / ~ $ ~ ; L \ ) ,
(It is hard for me to accept such a condition.)

- kara - ni itaru made -- %P% --KTb d T stl: <w>

starting with - ending with -;
from - to -
[REL. - kara - made]
+ ~ e ySentence

(Mr. Smith can read Japanese widely, ranging from weekly magazines
to scholastic books.)
100 - kara - ni itaru made

&LA. B
Lr L I • ‹L l i
ao 5
Nlali %i+7

o a a & i i s a w & a r , i r ah,,
(That newspaper reporter knows everything about the premier, rang
from his public life to his private life.)
@?LA 41 C
(b) $L%EI;P-&~~?~$, ~~0ili~S/rii8%-D&%i-h.b%tIL~f
%Kg& $T, Zb:$'%;j~:
L T ;t.Lf:, <
(When I went to Japan, my friend Mr. Yamada was very kind to me.H,
did everything from picking me up at the airport to making the hotel
reservation for me.)
ti&* DL

(c) W~DA~L$LGH~ 2&O bZh%okhi:s& a ~ ,
. -
1Kg (That lady told me everything in detail, starting with her family and
. -
- ending with the worries of her life.)
L-Bri *'?b
(d) R iwzmf:s;tc:ii, ?&-h.~%wa:za a T, T~v:~ AT&
(When the president of the company arrived, everyone from the guards
to the vice-president was waiting in front of the gate.)
&?'lL r i ? <
(e) 1L-',-bt@jS~b#~~:36 aT,
WOZ % f ? ~ f : ,
(Lucie was dressed in green, from her shoes to her hat.)

The construction - kara - ni itaru made is used to express a wide range of
coverage. The construction is primarily used in written Japanese.

- kara - ni itaru made is replaced by - kara - made in spoken Japanese.
Thus, for example, KS, Exs.(a) and (b) change to, [I], [2], and [3], respec-
tively. (ekaral (DBJG: 176); made (DBJG: 225-28))
- kara - ni itaru made / - kara - ni kakete 101

Since kara - ni i t a r ~made Cannot express range of physical distance or
- kara - made has to be used in that case.
I t i t LW..~L SL E ~ P L
+fi)ljz8fi (ZT/ * K Z ~ kffiw~~~+~i)li)lz,.
( ~takes
t three hours by bullet train from Tokyo to Kyoto.)
> b + - @ Z S I%T/*CZZB&T) F - X B Ll:,,
(Yesterday morning I played tennis from 9 o'clock till about 11

through - into -; through - on
from one time I location into the -
to; from till I to
[REL. - kara - made]

+Key Sentence

( n i s summer I travelled on the Chinese continent from July through
102 - kara - ni kakete

LhLei 6 < k i
(a) + ~ l $ * i ; 1 6 ~ ~ ; ~ ~ G : f i C f d~5~, j s ' ~ & ~ ~
(This week it will probably snow from Thursday through Friday.)

(b) b % 1 $ 2 8 fir;-kfl~:64j--(r65js'%<.
(In Japan the rainy season continues through June and July.)
:i I h? C i i i L M L t i I*iL*i
(c) &%&-nr$fl%+sfil;h t[.ll:fiCfT&o & L T ~ \ & ,
(High atmospheric pressure extends from the Korean Peninsula up
through Kyushu.)

The kakete of - kara - ni kakete is V t e of the verb "kakerv" whose basic
meaning is 'to hang s.t. over s.t. else.' This basic meaning is reflected in the
meaning of the structure, that is, 'extended span of time 1 space across time/
spatial boundaries.'

[Related ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
- kara made is similar to - kara - ni kakete, but not exactly. The former
indicates a spatial I temporal 1 quantitative beginning, and the end point is
clear, but the latter indicates a spatial I temporal beginning and the end point
is not clear. So, as shown in [I], - kara - ni kakete is ungrammatical or
marginal, because the end point is clear.
[I] a.
-*A< C
+fitif~~+fi>%+&& ( 3I * ~ ~:fi>tf~~ Xgjs'Lit 0 a*,
h he water will be shut off from 9 a.m. till 5 p.m.)
1. C*< i I
b. J R C ~ ! & T ~ R ~ ~ ~ % ~ & R {ZT/??CZfi>tfTl $ % G : ~ Q T I / ~ ~

(JR trains are held up from Shinjuku through Shibuya.)
(+made (DBJG: 225-2811
kara to itte 103

ka a t
e ' 52 7 conj.

just because; even if; even
reason for s.0.'~action or for s.o.'s though
having some idea, and conveys [REL. kara; tatte; te mo]
disapproval of the action or idea

+Key Sentences

r x o r d i n a t e Clause 1 Main Clause (negative)


(I cannot forgive him just because he is a child.)

I Subordinate Clause Main Clause (negative)

(Even though I don't complain, it doesn't mean that I'm satisfied with
the present situation.)

I Subordinate Clause 1 Main Clause (negative) I

I (You don't have to be so pessimistic because you didn't pass the exam.) I
1 04 kara to itte

gbl75' I; k Sq -C (because / even if / even though it is expensive)

4 L Li i
(a) # @ L k ~ \ Ik; g 9 - C & - ~ r k k T l i G b \
(It is not a problem which will be solved because you have paid / will
pay compensation.)
C t i L 4 b ~ f i w
(b) kSJ0@*7?75'b k g 9 - C R 9 T L g 5bkj-l:iib175'Gblo
(I cannot obey the order without asking questions even if it is from my
(c) 7 3 11 W+MI; kg9-C&h:%&d'"ii+c:aa ~OTI~GL~,
(Your English will not improve (itself / automatically) even if you go
to America.)
(dl k ~.* %kK & T P ~ ~ ~ I ; ~ S ~ - CG~ ~ BL K- B C
r~Ir3 Cri t C 4 *h,Bri
~ ~ ~
(Even though he goes to class every day, it doesn't mean that he is
studying seriously.)
(e) ~ / v t i ? ~ ak 3~ = ' f i t ~ k = ~-C$GG=&%L-C~~~;~LYTG~GL~,
(Even though I tell you such a thing, it doesn't mean that I'm criticiz-
ing you.)
(f) ~ ~ 0 ~ 7 ~ ~ e G b ~ 7 5 ' I ; k ~ ~ ~ < he bbl , ~ ~ Q
(It's not right for you to be indifferent just because it's not your prob-
SL* ha?
(g) &i?fih k S 9 T @ 9 - c i i b ~ v G b ~ o
(Don't take her lightly just because she is a woman.)

1. Kara to itte occurs with a main clause in the negative form. "S, kara to
itte Sz {wake ni wa ikanai 1koto wa nai / etc.}" is used in the following
kara to itte 105

When the speaker expects the hearer (or someone else) to think
SZbecause of S1 but disagrees with it (e.g., KS(A) and Exs.(a) -
(d)) or denies it (e.g., KS(B) and Ex.(e)).
When the hearer (or someone else) does something because of
S,, but the speaker disagrees with that action (e.g., KS(C),
Exs.(f) and (g)).

2. Kara to itte can be contracted to karatte in conversation, as in (3).
(3) ~ d :2 & & , 3 t ~ 5 3 7 , + ~ ~ G G : & % c ; G< - C Q ~ ' ~ ' T L L
(You shouldn't boast that much just because you are better than

[Related ~x~ressionsl
Kara cannot be used in place of kara to itte. Compare [I] and KS(A).

[I] +Rl?;tr.r;zW;h~f b:~ib~;tr.hb1,
(I can't forgive him just because he is a child.)
The difference is that the scope of wake ni wa ikanai in [l] is yurusu '(I)
forgive him' while that of wake ni wa ikanai in KS(A) is kodomo da kara
yurusu '(I)forgive him because he is a child.'

Te mo and tatte are similar to kara to itte. However, unlike sentences
with kara to itte, sentences with te rno or tatte do not convey the speak-
er's disapproval of using S1 as a justification for Sz. (See Note 1.) Com-
pare [2a] with KS(C), and [2b] with Ex.(a).
[2] a. M4%L:$i5bb { & < 76 l & < f ; 7 7 ) %tv2G:%RT,3
z k CiGb',
(You don't have to be so pessimistic even though you
didn't pass the exam.)
b. ( L 7 6 1 L f c ~ T %itrL7EITb;fhb',
(The problem will not be solved even though you have paid
compensation / even if you pay compensation.)
conjecture which is not based on [REL. daro]
any particular information or evi-

+Key Sentence

1 (It is probably difficult to predict what one's self will be like in ten /
/ years time.) I

336 Lh
EI $ $>?Ii (s.o. 1 s.t. is probably interesting)
k 75'5 i (s.0. / s.t. is probably good)
6 5 (s.o.1 s.t. does not probably exist)
(ii) <
{Adj(i)stem (hi)1 {Adj(na)stem 1N} TCi ) ts7llij i (LO./ s.t. is
probably not -)
BE!< (12)hA>6i (s.0. / s.t. is probably not interesting)
H%T C;f: 2 2 ~ ~i 6 (s.t. is probably not hard)
f l <L +
?%TCi7's53aSi (s.o. is probably not a scholar)

iih Lr.5 rrt,hL d.Lrb.
(a) zow % B - $ T % R - ~ - & D ~ & ~ s , T % L j.
(It is probably extremely difficult to complete this research in one
k a ~107
:4 I i A C L
(Even among the Japanese, there are probably a lot of people who
oppose education without creativity.)
eLL mA+ LmiSri -6 <
&a)&5 G:*lLii$&a)L 3 7 k & 0 1 ? f l ~ ; i - C 1 / 1 6 ~ l i $5h,, d ~ ~
(Few people probably think, as I do, that culture is something like reli-
d'(ct-b, S i i L Dl-36.
7 s 11 n a > S b ~c,: ~ % a ) k ~ ~ & ~ 4 c c &s*z,
~ @t a > ~ ~
(It would probably be good if Japanese universities allowed students to
evaluate instructors as American universities do.)
ABGBki YABB'JG:$R~%L\& ~dihjs.i 6
(Nothing is probably as deep-rooted in humans as racial prejudices.)
%+ L l i $ L %
3~1 :~
1 : 6 4 b % f i ~ A l j b ~ %S
E I % F W % C%%I"hihi516
:~~ i -

(There will probably not be a big change in the US-Japan relationship
in the near future.)
I~~OIAOBB'~ < l i h d . 6 5.
h f: 0

(The relationship between the two is probably not close.)
YAFiir h kiS*i
(It is probably not unreasonable to ask for pay for overtime work.)
fk~:di711/f4i~~dj&a)7?*1;, $~~~iihi516j.
(He has an alibi, so he is probably not the culprit.)

1. The conjectural auxiliary karo is the contracted form of the no longer
used Adj(i) ku aro, and aro is the conjectural form of aru. (eye)

2. The auxiliary karo is connected only with an Adj(i). When Adj(na) and
N are connected with karo, they have to be negative, because the nega-
tive nai is an Adj(i).
3. V cannot be connected with karb, as shown in (1).

za)% HWRQ%V&

(1) *$L t ~ .jO
(We will probably continue this joint research next year.)
-- %L%dL%4?
$ Z o>%RR%B%bf& tf.5 5

[Related ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
Another auxiliaq daro can replace karo without any change of meaning, as
in [I]. Note that the connections for the two auxiliaries are different: the
ones for dar6 are {V I Adj(i)inf] dar6 and {Adj(na)stem l N] { @I datta]
dar6, whereas the ones for kar6 is Adj(i)stem kar6. (See Formation.)

Also to be noted is the fact that kar6 cannot be connected with the past tense,
but dar6 can, as shown in [2].
f:w8w Ir i r $A%
[2] a. 'i3 2 k:di B *%GltRPiki%;5.3:'7 I(E)3i / * %5~I, 3
(For John the stay in Japan was probably intriguing.)
l i ~ d ~ b ~ ? i
b. ;~t%f&to%~&d.~
:7' 5 / *@?I 5 I,
(The winter in Hokkaido was probably cold.)
The most basic difference between dar6 and kar6 is that dar6 can be used in
both spoken and written Japanese, but kar6 can be used only in written
Japanese. (cr> daro (DBJG: 100-02))
do s.t. in a - fashion / manner /

+Key Sentences

(Prof. Hayashida teaches in a strict manner.) -
- .
- ...

1 (Akira views things in a peculiar fashion.)

1 (Mr. Brown thinks like the Japanese.)


i $ 5 k i Q

(Please write in such a way that anyone can understand it.)
1 10 -kata o sum

( )
{~dj(i)inf/ Adj(na)stem 9 !Vinf 1 + ( ~ o u n0) + Vfnasu k 5 ';J- &
0 if 5 B t6 (lose in a terrible way)
2;3 9 & 0 a) Bk e -if & (view things in a unique fashion)
k < %& b # k f i B 3- & (teach clearly (lit. in a way one can under.
stand well))
(ii) N a ) k i Q + ( ~ o u n ~ ) + ~ r n a s u k ~ t &
$b!akiQba>a)%b~kBTb (talklikeachild(lit.talkina



child-like manner))

(iii) Vinf k i 2 + (Noun a ) ) + Vmasu fS B T 6
before k 5 ls)
(Adjectives rarely occur

L k B -if &
%F%&-ifb k 5 ls ii$ (speak in such a way that people
are impressed)

(That pitcher throws (a ball) in an interesting way.)
i L t! ( L $ALP' iL7L
g m ~ i ; t ; g t d ~fj~-ifz,o~&-ix
~ ~ ~ o e 1;io i ~ ~ % b ) ,
(I'm afraid of getting a ride from Yoshida because he drives carelessly
(lit. in a wild fashion).)
tt:L ^rL?iti
~cicasoY&r:&Lf:% ~ & O LLT1.16 ~ Q L 5 I?,
(Tadashi seems to study in a different way from other students.)
h t L
m : i a 8 $ $ ~ m15 l s ~ ; i f j i i & & ~ 1 ,
(I cannot think like Prof. Nomura.)
%B&$L < & a k 5 ls&;ikQ L T I ~ L ~ ~ ,
(We'd like to be taught in such a way that we (come to) like studying.)
~ 0 ~ @ ~ : 9 b l ~ $ 5i i k ~ ~ k i+;i;ik~-ifb~iig<
2 b l T L a 5.
-kata o sum 1 11

(There wouldn't be many people who think about this problem in the
same way as I do.)
( ) $$jrisoXE** < i l - w a a iQaLfi*ba.
((1) Tamura's talk sounds like he knows the minister well. (2) Tamura
talks as if he knew that minister well.)

1. -kata o sum is used to indicate a manner in which someone does some-
thing. When this phrase is used in a main clause, the manner is under

2. When a suru-verb is involved in Vmasu-kata, the noun part of the verb
is followed by no, as in (1).
(1) a. 2EE {0)/*01 Lfi
(the way S.O.drives; how to drive)
b. 1,;. 3 (0)/*@I Lfi
(the way s.0. knocks (on the door); how to knock (on the
(+-kata (DBJG: 183-87))

3. The direct object of the verb in Vmasu-kata is marked by no, not by o,
as in (2). Thus, when the verb is a suru-verb, no occurs twice in the
phrase, as in (2b).
(2) a. 7 s l.;f;-)L {0)/*;Jl El73
(the way S.O. throws a football; how to throw a football)
b. 3 L - 2 {0)/*;Jl m.ZoL7-i
(the way S.O.operates a crane; how to operate a crane)
4. The expressions like ycina hanashi-kata o sum or ycina mono no ii-kata o
sum can be interpreted in two ways in some contexts, as in Ex.(g).

[Related ~x~ressions]
I. In some cases, the manner in which someone does something is
expressed by the adverbial form of an adjective, as in [I].
[I] %HB~I~% ~<Q/%zl
c ja ma,
(Mr. Yoneda is good at teaching grammar (lit. teaches gramma,
(eAppendix 1 (DBJG: 581))
However, "Adj(i1na) Vmasu-kata o sum" and "Adverbial form of
Adj(i / na) V" are not always interchangeable. First, the adverbial foms
of some adjectives cannot be used as manner adverbs (i.e., an adverb to
mean "in such and such a manner"), as in [2].
[2] a. *&a) r 4 T - GAB8 < EGP6 (Acceptable form: ...-@
Q b > E m Q T a O )
(That pitcher throws (a ball) in an interesting way.)

(Kazuo smiled strangely (lit. smiled in a strange manner).)
Second, "Adj(i / na) Vmasu-kata o suru" cannot be used when the man-
ner can be described objectively without involving any personal impres-
sion, as in [3].
[3] a. * ~ ~ b < ' & 3 3 Q ~ ' i C(Acceptableform:
~ ~ b ~ ~ 13T
CGZ$b>'iCT;S b>,)
(Please walk straight.)

Third, "Adj(i / na) Vmasu-kata o sum" cannot be used to describe how
a person feels, as in [4].
-kata o suru 1 13

<'Xy6ni V" and " X ydna Vmasu-kata o suru" both indicate a manner in
which someone does something. However, "X yoni V" is used when
expressing an exact likeness. Compare [Sa] and [Sb].
[5] a. % L d ' S i k 5 K?&~-C-FSI/L
((1) Please write it down just like I tell you. (2) Please
write it in the way I tell you.)
b. % L d ' S i ki&?S37iBLTT3b~,
(Please write it in a way similar to the way I tell you.)
Similarly, [6a] implies that Mr. Green's command of Japanese is like
that of a native Japanese. [6b], on the other hand, implies that some
aspects of Mr. Green's way of speaking Japanese are like native Japa-
nese speakers.
[6] a. 3")-2ShIrS.B$Ao>ki~ZH*~giO.Z&.f.
(Mr. Green speaks Japanese like a native Japanese.)
b. ~11-2Shdrf.El*Ao>ki8H*ZEo>BLfSBtho
(Mr. Green speaks Japanese in a way similar to the way
Japanese people speak.)
Because of the "exactness" that "X ydni V" implies, this expression is
unnatural if it is unreasonable to expect that someone does something
exactly in the way indicated in X, as in [7].
[i'] a. ??7432S/vbrS.l\ll x~/va>kiC~b~iO.BhO
(Mr. Brown views things just like Mr. Harris.)
b. 7"332S/vda7\Vx3ho>kiCcbo>o>,
(Mr. Brown views things similarly to the way that Mr.
Harris does.)
(@ ~ 6 n i l(DBJG:
.~ 553-56))
ka to iu to B3 2 i2 conj.

a conjunction to indicate the you would think that - but
speaker's assertion that a popular (that is not right)
belief is not right

+Key Sentence

= (You would think that all the Japanese like sushi, but that is not true.
- -
Some Japanese don't like it.)

(i) - {V/Adj(i))inf 2 l k Z ? k , So
{;&j- / 3 L f: I 75.2 B 5 2 (you would think that s.0. talks / talked
but -)

b / f i 9 f: 1 2 k S k (YOUwould think that s.t. is / was
expensive but -)

{%fi / bfif?? 7: I 2. k % 5 2 (you would think that s.t. is / was
quiet but -)
I%%' / %&f?9 f: 1 2.2 S i 2 (you would think that s.0. is / was a
teacher but -)

ti d I f ~ l t L
(a) 7 5 r / v i i : $ ~ ; ~ ~ . , " : $ k i l . kt ~
, it B B ~ W B $ ~ ~ I
(You would think that cancer is not curable, but that is not true. If it is
detected early it is said to be curable.)
*Ah/*i : CriT
fl$m9-c, ,: 3+i$&bfE*zgflk+b:a&&kg5 2, + i T
& 2 b l k 5 E o& 2 9 ~ ? + b : a & z k & & & ~
(You'd think that if you went to Japan and lived there for a few years,
your Japanese would become good, but that doesn't seem to be true.
On the contrary, your Japanese may become worse than before.)
~r'vd'( 26 -tt~,($ b(-ttr.
~+d.i. C*.:i
2, 's,'~~&+i
k I5/E>,
(You'd think that a college student with good grades would be suc-
cessful in society, but that doesn't always seem to be the case.)
&'$%Be*fid&2e*&&ks5 k , ? 5 T & a s + 7i%
(You'd think that if you did exercise every day, you would live long,
but that does not seem to be true.)
S * % C & % L b ~ & k S ik , %~1:13hb>7':13$&~kd&?L%b:%~
< %b>o
(You'd think that Japanese would be hard, but speaking and listening
are not that hard.)
<b3 +b,d'7 L <A, #LlL
$% b 7Toqa LO&i%fl$@7?9k&kZ5 2 , &%+5 Tl&a$a
(You'd think that my life without a car in Boston must have been
inconvenient, but it wasn't at all.)

The conjunction can be used when one makes an assertion that a popular
belief or what the listener I reader may believe is not always true. In SIka to
iu to S2, what the listener / reader is expected to believe is expressed in SI. SZ
is often sd de wa nai or its variations as shown in KS and Exs. However, the
S2 part is sometimes omitted as in the following examples.

(1) ~ ~ A i & h L Q b L i l ' t B d . 5
k fk , &%f L B & ~ % I / ) B ~ A &
(You would think that all Japanese liked sushi, but you sometimes
encounter Japanese who don't like sushi.)
1 16 ka to iu to / (no) kawari ni
f L f
(2) 8 T B j i i < R b C ~ 1 7 5 2 Z2i, ~ ; ' ~ : l i 2 ~ b ~ ~ b ~ 8 T B j b & & ~
(You would think that comic books are trash, but some of them are
really good.)

(no) kawari ni bl CZ
((D)fJZb conj. / comp. prt.

an action / state that is expressed instead of; instead; but (to
in the subordinate clause is bal- make up for -); so (to make up
anced by another action / state for -); in place of
expressed in the main clause, or [REL. ga; kara; keredo(rn0);
s.t. / s.0. that is replaced by s.t. 1 -nai de; node; shikashi; -zu nil

*Key Sentences

Sentencel (Subordinate Clause) Sentencez
(Main Clause)

(I am going to enjoy myself in the daytime, so /but (to make up for it)
I will study at night.)
(no) kawari ni 1 17

Sentencei (Subordinate Clause) Sentencez
- Vinf. past
(Main Clause)

$$s~i:~aar tKi-ir 9 'E\T~~ ,~
rthn i; I ~
( (Mr. Yamada worked for us a bit extra, so / but (to make up-for it) we
1 paid him special compensation.)

(The former apartment had bad facilities, so /but (to make up for it) the
rent was cheap.)

1 (This morning I drank cocoa instead of coffee.)

(i) {VIAdj(i)}inf l
t;h k) : C
8 b ~ bb:I (instead of talking)

7&k)R;h4: C (instead of being expensive)
(ii) Adj(na)stem I / 7'?97': I 4th 67 : G
118 (no) kawari ni

@$ { a / f Z 9 f: 1 I f b 0 I: (is 1 was quiet but (to make up for -1)

(iii) N { 0 1 f? 9 7: I I f b 0 K
l t b b C: (in place of the teacher)
f : l t b b C:
I/>I/>%!&J?3 (s.o. was a good teacher, but (to make up
for -))

Ili tLti1.L
4 sc a ~ m ~ r m ~ t ar, c?&oi~&rm~fi,
l t b
(Today I didn't study in the library. Instead, I studied in my dom
bfi L K IiL - ,?.iI - %&
%Lii1.1. C: El*&%ji;i-c&1~f~Rb 9 eL&b.-%fin B%ji;i-ciC, r; 9 t:,
( I taught Tom Japanese, so (to make up for it) he taught me English.)
W ~ ~
&L 9 T
E m m e $ c m t 0bc:,
%ii . h
342%b: < & I / ~ ' ~ c I / ) ~ T ,
(Instead of making expensive long distance calls I often write letters.)
% L o 7 7 f - 1. ii%Rfl&b%b 9 c:, $fib:% < -c 2 -c &%$lT-k
(My apartment is expensive, but it is close to the station and very con-
A$(t?b, *LY?
%Lgo s*Ego)%!&ii&~I/~lt;h
13 c : ~ ! & o m l a l W f l I / ~ b ~ O
(Our teacher is strict, but (instead) he takes good care of his students.)
y!oR&ci$E6 * i 0 r i r, 1: &js#j &
(College professors' salaries are low, but (instead) they have freedom.)
6% * S f Lh
Xii@$$$I/q-tb 0 i & k f l 2 -c iC,&
(My father is physically weak, but (instead) he has a very strong will.)
zo2iig-n.aItb 0 K, <-c%%~$~
(This area is quiet, but (instead) it's inconvenient because the stores are
far away.)
El$EgO#g %G:I/>3iC, OLLIHfk&Ol?,b 9 C:bq2 I/> i$FLb>%&.hi
(To our Japanese class came a new teacher Ms. Tanaka instead of ofl
regular teacher Ms. Yamada.)
(no) kawari ni 1 19

a- The conjunction / particle kawari ni indicates s.t. being compensated by
s.t. else. If the idea of balancing is missing kawari ni cannot be used.
(+Related Expressions)

2. Vnonpast before kawari ni indicates an action that has not taken place;
whereas Vpast kawari ni indicates an action that has already taken place.
Consider the difference in meaning among the sentences (3) below:
(3) a. HE~BBR
9 C:&BF3
;~ B 9 IZO


(I intend to play at night instead of having fun in the
b. &%7%h?..Rb?KT@&$&
I Lk,
(I played in the daytime, but (to make up for it) I studied at
c. GiQ~7%hf2Rih
B 9 fZ0
( I played in the daytime, so (to make up for it) I intend to
study at night.)
d. @Bm7%.jW,b 9 I:R%X.l?,
(I played at night instead of playing in the daytime.)
In (3a) and (3d), the speaker doesn't or didn't play in the daytime,
respectively but in (3b) and (3c), the speaker played.
In the case of adjectives before kawari ni, whatever is expressed by
the adjective holds true, but Adjl inf.past kawari ni Adj2 inf.nonpast is
unacceptable, as shown in (4).
(4) a. 71f- 1. CkSL\It;h 9 G:Ef%Eo
(The apartment is expensive but it is convenient.)
120 (no) kawari ni
b. 71f- b Ci&L\R;h J! b:@4r]fc*~f.~
(The apartment was expensive but it was convenient.)
c. *7/f-- b t&iSfilTf.4t;h 17 C=.@4Uff0
(The apartment was expensive but it is convenient.)
d. 7 / f - b I i g f i l ~ f c l t ; 13h G:@4l]f:~fz~
(The apartment was expensive but it was convenient.)

If an action I state expressed in S kawari ni does not actually occur as in
Exs.(a) and (c), the entire sentence can be rewritten by using -nai d e or -zu ni,
as shown in [la]. If an action 1 state expressed in the subordinate clause
actually occurs and the subordinate clause is connected with the main clause
- -
= =
with the meaning of 'so' or 'but,' the entire sentence can be rewritten by
- 3
;K -
kara I node or ga I keredo(mo) I shikashi, as shown in [lb] and [lc]. However,
the choice of kawari ni will make the meaning of compensation much clearer.

The crucial difference between -nai de, -zu ni, ga, keredo(mo), shikashi on
one hand, and kawari ni (as a subordinate conjunction) on the other hand is
that the former can be used even when no meaning of balancing is intended,
but the latter cannot be used if balancing is not implied. That is why all the
following sentences would become unacceptable if -nai de, -zu ni, ga,
keredo(mo), and shikashi were replaced by kawari ni.
(no) kawarini / kekka 121

[4] ; x :C xi i sT / u e k s ~ e : ~ ~ ~ ~ : zLk ~L a~~>./L~* R ~ ~ EEI$
(Mr. Smith has never been to Japan. Yet he is good at Japanese.)

kekka %% n.

as a result of; after; upon

+Key Sentences
Noun Main Clause (result)


(As a result of the vote, the proposal was rejected by the majority's

Vinf .past Main Clause (result)
.ti f &
L , %%&~z~:GLL~&
/ (After my wife and I discussed it, we decided to buy a house.) I
122 kekka

(ii) Vinf .past $255
% L I:$&% (upon 1 after talking)

:A+\, O r i i il. 3
#SO@$;, 4Ha>Ef~7;ic&@%P.
b Z 2 1: 2 9 I:,
(After discussion, it's been decided that the planned trip will be post.
&a@%, gd&% y z :i &&W#QNZ 2fl&-*91:o
(As a result of the examination, my wife was found to be healthy (lit.
it was found that there was no abnormality with my wife's body).)
w B s &I:,
(As a result of the investigation, new facts emerged.)
A L f2
< $ , & ? & $ gg;ic2mfZ 0&973&*k **El I:o
(As a result of the police investigation, it was determined that the cause
(of the fire) was the careless handling of a cigarette butt.)
& i i o g ~ ri-~2;LI:$~%,
, T+noifiB
x K~JLI:, *w:i

(I've succeeded in losing ten kilos as the result of a special diet.)
Brid, Ls
f:@%, %&a&$%+
V < C ~ I *b+l
% L<4 v f L
L ~ C A

(As a result of using a new textbook, the students improved their per-
formance remarkably (lit. the performance of the students improved
e l . Lr- c .SA &A~:WTL .+,a
, L;7PC:Q9 I:D
(Upon taking a private golf lesson, my problems became clear.)

Kekka can be interpreted as 'as a result of' or 'after / upon doing s.t.' only
when it is not followed by a particle. Otherwise, kekka is a common noun, as
seen in (1).
5WL*i L
(I) a. 83%0S%ik%33%L;*3P.~
(I will let you know the result of the exam next week.)
kekka / kekk6 1 23

b. W F ~ M X U O Y - ~ I.' . ~ .~; ,1 : ~ % ~ 2 1 ? % & 2 n b 2 b ~ ,
(No one knows the result of my special diet yet.)

quite; rather; pretty
exceeds the speaker's and 1 or [REL. angai; igai to; wariai]
hearer's expectation to a consider-

+Key Sentence

~ 1 ~< 3
(hb Ah
Z O ~ ~ i & b ~ $2481 V 0~2 T
, L0
(This car is old, but it runs quite well, you know.)
6 O x ~ i k % lkf: h ; i & T ~ a 5 . T b , % @ $ % ? F b ~ b ~ / ~ - c " - i t ~
(He looks dumb, but he is quite sharp.)
L d-7
FIRI Z l/>i
~ DL:, ~ & ~ l i l a ,
(It is April, but it is rather cold, isn't it?)
31.1 *3
/J\Sb)I?r;'bo~:, ~ $ R L > I / ) LI-xf ;/$&&h,
(There are quite a few good restaurants in this small town, aren't
z O y $ & & i y ; ' b b ~ h j ~ , $#&:& j:$L&&
(This dish is small in quantity, but it is pretty heavy on the stomach.)
(f) %$ ~;1:HHI
E4.ti V
(Today is Sunday, but the highway is rather crowded, isn't it?)

i(rLr1 L= L r < t L
(g) 21;1:%xma~~
~ f i i ~x' a
, L ~ K I ; ~ : ~ ~ / uj ITT,
: L
(My father was an optimist, but when he lost his job, I think he suf-
fered quite a bit.)
(h) 27%?C;1:%mf..d:s, % t % % ! ~ ~ d : ~
(It was my first karaoke, but it was rather enjoyable.)

1. The adverb kekko is used in colloquial speech when something exceeds
the speaker's and 1 or hearer's expectation to a considerable degree. ~n
the sentences that end in ne the adverb indicates that s.t. exceeds both
the speaker's and the hearer's expectation (as in KS and Exs.(c) - (f)).
The adverb kekko indicates that s.t. exceeds the hearer's expectation (as
in Exs.(a) and (b)) or the speaker's expectation (as in Exs.(g) and 01)).
2. The adverb can be used with a verb that expresses an undesirable state
as in Exs.(e) - (g) but it cannot be used easily with an adjective that
expresses an undesirable state as shown below:

For that matter kekko cannot be used with any negative predicate.
B l Lh
(2) a. * Z a>%I%di$3@D3E3
QL\T.fO <
(This magazine is quite uninteresting.)
-- z003kt#R71:.lm e tbL'T9, <
kekko 125

3. The verb predicate that is modified by kekko is subject to degree inter-
pretation. For example, yoku hashiru 'run well' (in Ex.(a)), i ni motareru
'heavy on the stomach' (in Ex.(e)), komu 'get crowded' (in Ex.(f)) and
nayamu 'suffer' (Ex.&)).

[Related Expressions]
1. Another adverb angai is used to express unexpectedness about an
action or a state. Since kekko also expresses unexpectedness about s.t.,
there are cases where kekkci can be replaced by angai, as shown in [I].
[I] a. Z Z 0 f LGi, Zfigbl Lblia, (cf. KS)

However, when the modified verb does not indicate s.t. that is subject
to degree interpretation such as kekkon-suru 'get married,' kuru
'come,' tsuku 'arrive,' etc., kekko is out of the question as shown in
ht: O It9:L
[2] a. (Z9t/*%#l #50IACL%2(P?&~6L h a b l k ,
(The two might get married contrary to our expectation.)
b. I b ~ ~ G L ~ f - i i - b : l b ~ ~ ~ ~ +8&% b ~ & ~ ~ l i f ~ ,
k 0 h L, (854/ * E l l % 6 $ 6 L h B b ~ Q ,
(That guy usually doesn't show up at a party, but today is
right before the summer break so he might come contrary
to our expectation.)
C. {%fi / *%@I, & 0 % ; s i % l : % b ~ ~ b ~ & ? Lh3+?A,
(He may have arrived there earlier than us, contrary to our
expectation, you know.)
When degree interpretation is possible, both kekko and angai are both
acceptable, as already shown in [I]. In other words, kekk6 has to be
used with a predicate that is subject to degree interpretation, but the
degree interpretation is irrelevant to angai.
11. There is another adverb igai to 'unexpectedly,' 'to one's surprise'
which is very similar to kekk6. lgai to means that s.t. totally beyond
one's expectation occurs. Since both kekko and igai to express unex-
pectedness they are interchangeable when the predicate is subject to
degree interpretation.

Just like angai, igai to cannot be replaced by kekk6 when the predicate
is not subject to degree interpretation.
[4] a. It$+&/*%#%I h O S A I i % W ~ & i 5 1 hLkLQblh.
(The two might get married contrary to our expectation.)
b. bjb13Itlf-T .f --C=GiI:L.~Tb\%Qb~G?, +El Ci8B
bFDEIZL, {SVtI:/*%#$I % & f i h L;kQb14?,
(That guy usually doesn't show up at a party, but today is
right before the summer break so he might come contrary
to our expectation.)
c. I t 9 t t /*%#I, % & 0 f i ; 3 ' % ~ : ~ ~ . 1 ~ ~ . 1 & i 5L;kd@/.
(He may have arrived there earlier than us, contrary to our
expectation, you know.)
111. Another adverb wari(ai) to l ni or wariai 'a little more than one has
expected' expresses a slight gap between expectation and reality. In
kekkci / kono 12 7

other words, the speaker has some expectation about something, and
believes that reality is relatively higher or lower than his expectation.
~ e k k 6in the KS and Exs. can be all replaced by wari(ai) to / ni or by
hr) hW
[5] a. Z La)? LC&, 3J(B) kBblLbl;ta, (cf. KS)
(The sushi served here is rather good.)
b. &a>AC&.Bd&VG:E;i&TLd 5 , T $ , B j k R W l b l A
T*, (cf. Ex.@))
(He looks dumb, but he is rather smart.)
c. +El I&. s @ H G a ) K & ~ d ' B J 8 ? B A T b l ;6t a (cf. Ex.(f))
(Today is Sunday, but the highway is rather crowded,
isn't it?)
The replaced versions express the speaker's comparison between the
expectation and the reality. So, for example, in [5a], the speaker
expected that sushi served at the restaurant would not be delicious
because the store did not look good or the price was cheap. But he is
pleasantly surprised that sushi served there is pretty good. If such com-
parison between the expectation and the reality is difficult the replace-
ment becomes impossible as shown in [6] below.

kono Z 0 dem. adj.

the last; this past; this; this
indicates a time or time period coming
128 kono

+Key Sentences

$ris/vd2. Z D I I I
~ @ L ~ J P ,

(Miss Akiyama will many (this spring / this coming spring) .)


(Yamashita has been absent from class for the past (one) week.)

& *
L a)& (this autumn ; this coming autumn)

(ii) ZD Number + Counter
:D--+ (this past year ; this coming year)

&b'C k LNII'
(a) LOB^ ~ ~ : 4 L b k~, 1
(I met Mr. Yoshioka the other day.)
,*tb%L < +, d.b.
(b) zofitF'zo~o&RC=.fJaRTkJI:f?3
(I became a member of this club at this time.)
8*l<hf II.
(c) .to!% S%ESk;i &O

(Shall we buy a car given this occasion?)
(d) zoik#t$~r: 5 ~ k ; Ti T ~ P ~
(Why don't we compromise now (lit. around this time)?)
kono 129
:I 1% cr tl*i %?& it&S w i
() ~ 0 % 2 i m ~~a R) W ~ DW ~e LTWW.
(This summer I'm doing research on Japanese female writers.)
z a ) - I i ~ l l i ~ F- C~%<& r t . ' , b l f h 5 .
(1'11 be busy this coming week and probably won't be able to do any-
thing (else).)

Kono followed by a certain noun or a number with a certain counter is used
as a temporal phrase. The time or time period indicated by the phrase differs
depending on the noun which follows and the context. -
- -
- -

(1) One time in the past (Exs.(a) and (b)): -

t i
Z a) A (the other day; a while agoj; Z (last time); Z a)I: ZF (on
this occasion; at this time); Z 08%(at this time; recently); Z a) {
fl / S I (this February I spring)
(2) From one time in the past through the moment of speech (KS(B)):
Z a) %(these days); Z a)%(these days); L a) - {I
Bw7 / @ / I
(this past week I month I year)
(3) Around the moment of speech (Exs.(c) and (d)):
* f:
Z a)R (on this occasion); Z 0 2 - F (around this time); Z a)Z9 T
(around this time)
(4) A period of time including the moment of speech (Ex.(e)):
9 s
Z a) Z$ (this spring); Z a) {I
/ JJ I (this week 1 month); Z a) -
{am / @El /*I (this weeklmonthl year)
(5) From the moment of speech on (Ex.(f)):
bit 2S
Z Ob(after this); Z a)X(from now on); Z a)-{aF~/7@a/ + I
(the following week I month I year)
130 kono / ko shita

(6) One time in the future (KS(A) and Ex.(g)):
Ir3li V
Z 07% (next time); 07 El @ / / (this coming Sunday,
February 1 spring)

k6 shita L 5 L 1: dem. adj.

I a demonstrative which refers to such; like this
[REL. a shita; k6 itta; k6 iu;
konna; kono y6na; sd shita]

+Key Sentence

(We do not seem to hear about problems like this in this country.)

Z 5 L 2 A& (such people)

(a) z 5 ~ & i $ e ~50Q$&%$$< 7~ fi&#~Ejb:h@~fi~~~
(It is clear to anyone what kind of result such behavior brings about.)
ko shita 131

K6 Shitais an adjectival (i.e., pre-noun) form. The adverbial form is ko shite.
~ L L L ' ? d-?i
(1) $i. BO%%llibZ5 L T % ~17.2.
(Our activity started like this.)

[Related Expressions]
1, Kono yona and konna (the contracted form of kono yona) mean the
same as ko shita. However, ko shita and kono yona are more formal
than konna and, therefore, mostly used in written Japanese. The adver-
bial form of kono yona is kono yoni. Konna has no adverbial form.
11. The demonstratives ko iu and ko itta also express the idea "such; like
this." However, these expressions do not have corresponding adverbial
forms like kc3 shite. (See Note.)

m. So shita 'like that' and a shita 'like that' are similar to ko shita in
meaning. However, so shita and a shita cannot be used to refer to s.0.
or s.t. from previous discourse.

BniEIbZOHTIbi&,f. 9 A&tLhbad: 3
(In America, when the economy goes bad, it often happens that
big companies lay off a lot of workers. We do not seem to hear
about problems like this very often in this country.)
In general, so shita is used to refer to s.0. or s.t. mentioned by a second
person, as in [2], and a shita is used to refer to s.0. or s.t. mentioned
by a third person, as in [3].
[2] A: <
7% '1 f i -(T"tb%%jS'Ea &2 , A&%jS'A%a)%@%%
m w a c tr-nrd; < q ~ ; h t ~ a . f ,
(In America, when the economy goes bad, it often hap-
pens that big companies lay off a lot of workers.)
132 k6 shita / koso
a)HTGk&2 rl E4;Sl;kGkl.L 5 T.f,
(Is that so? We do not seem to hear about problems like
that very often in this country.)

[3] [After watching a news report on a massive layoff by an Amer-
ican company on TV, A talks to B]

It should be noted that in [3] kd shita is acceptable if A talks to B while
watching the report.

the very -; It is that -; only
word, phrase, or clause (when, after, because, etc.);
in particular; precisely; defi-
nitely; [an italicized or under-
lined word]

+Key Sentences

I (This is the very thing that we've been looking for.) I
koso 133

B: Noun

F v e r y SOT.) 1 (No, it's me who should say that (lit. be sorry).) I

(You can learn something only when you do it by yourself.)


r Subordinate Clause (cause I reason) I Main Clause 1

r 1
(We could minimize the problem only because you explained (lit. told)
it to us honestly.)

( i ) N (particle) Z f
Z 0A Z f (this man in particular)
:G Z
%$ + (to him in particular)
(ii) Vte Z f

2 z-3k-i~Z f (only when 1 after S.O. comes here)
(Gi) Sinf fib 6Z +
h b ?kb1fi. b Z f (only because s.0. doesn't know)
1 34 koso

LS?J:IISII? L e i d * L fib:
(a) A: -#- B4 b liil9 L T L l 7': /v I?O
(What on earth were you doing for a whole week?)
B: +-j&gZ+lFJ9 ~-cbl7?,4,I?~
(You say that but what were you doing?)
*X.b,L i*h
(b) Z,Lak!(c:)
(On this kind of occasion, in particular, we all have to cooperate in
order to solve the problem.)
L l t L th:
(c) 4$Z+L03!@iZ33Tk*&~
(I will pass this exam definitely this year.)

(d) +kLTZ+% 0 I J - Y-7?o
(That is precisely the kind of behavior we expect from our leader.)

L L 9 i
(f) % Z R f i 1 ; Z + Z / v t s Z k Z r g C = . ~ -/vl?k,
(It's because you are my friend that I can tell you (even) such a thing.)
l ltL3 iiL L e i
(g) & & ? ~ b b \ f i b Z + h l I/J&5fI:@BL~IfkLCf~1;hb~OI?o
(It's precisely because you can't do it that you have to practice more
than others do.)

The particles ga and o are dropped when koso follows (e.g., KS(A) and
Ex.(a)). The ellipsis of e and the temporal, directional, and locational ni
before koso is optional, as in Ex.(b), and (1) and (2).
(1) ~2 F ~ ( A ~/ z ) z & < < s r ? ~
(Lodon is the place you shouldn't miss.)
dr< L *
(2) Z O ~ $ ( I Z )z + * & T L l & 1 5 a y % f l b l & I i T 7 ? o
(This university should be the place to find the type of scholar We
are looking for.)
Other particles are not dropped when koso follows.
koto 135

(Don't) V, should (not); (not)
ought to; may not
[REL. Imperative]

+Key Sentences

1 Vinf .nonpast .aff /
(Each presentation should be completed (lit. done) within fifteen

(Do not run on the pool deck.)

(See page 23 for details.)

(i Vinf .nonpast. aff 1neg 2 k
;&'it2 k (should speak)
33 hk 2k (should not speak)
136 koto

(ii) VN 0) Z 2
0z 2 (should use)

L : 7-L
%L3C&RCPz2 ,
(Refrain from whispering.)
86 6.05
~ G L ! J W Y - Y ~ &z k O <
(Be sure to listen to the tape beforehand.)
&gb&ab'z 2,
(You may not consult any dictionaries.)
g&&&&b'z k0
(Do not walk around barefoot.)
*%(e)&%oz k 0
(Bring your own lunch.)
$ME(%) 2.
(Wear uniforms.)

1. Vinf.nonpast koto and VN no koto are used only in written Japanese.
They often appear in rules and regulations.
2. In sentences involving VN no koto, the particles ga, o, and ni are often
dropped, as in KS(C), Exs.(e), (f), and (1).
6%Li Ifkl;L T w Lea
(1) a. JRFfiP1i$A(759% ffiUlZ 2,
(The application should be submitted by the applicant in
aa b n@(c:)sE
+ti r i U Z L! t i drii6
b. 8R ( E )!$%b;2,
(Meet (lit. gather) at Tokyo Station at eight o'clock tomor-
row morning.)
koto de 137

by V-ing; because; result in;
EL. kara; koto ni yori / yotte;
node; tame (ni)]

+Key Sentences


I I (Vinf.nonpast 1 I I

I 0 try to lift my spirits by playing golf on weekends.)

(His appearance at the mediation scene complicated the situation even
more. (lit. The situation got even more complicated because he
appeared at the mediation scene.))

*Exceptions: Adj(na)stem 2 Z 2 T ; N T & 6 2 2 T

( i ) Means
Vinf .nonpast Z 2 T
138 kotode

(ii) Cause
Sinf Z 2 T
{j7 Lj( / $79 7: I Z 2 P (because S.O. will go I went)

Exceptions: Adj(na)stem 2 Z 2 T ; N T h & i 2 T
XL 0
@$U2 Z 2 T (because s.t. is convenient)
& T h & Z 2 T (because s.0. is a woman)

Clci *L*L L 6Lr3. ?$wlt2
(a) %L@+Z~F~~~)~Z~TBD~W~~%&L?:~
(The problem was solved by my paying 100,000 yen.)
+?l~bl~I.Ib~ n';i LL.
(b) @%1i 6 o > B & b 2 1 , l Z kTdL+%riM.O$B%B71;L-CL>&OTt)t0
(She is demonstrating her utmost resistance to me by not talking.)
(c) $ m ~ m m w - F a r z k m2z~
215LA~Lf<L tb,+?
m - L6 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
(You can maintain wonderful health just by taking simple exercise in
the morning and evening.)

(e) ~ & O / T - TI' - - i : $ ~ & 2 f i 9 7:: ~:T~EOA&~;BEL~:
L L17Fo
(I hope I didn't hurt his feelings because I didn't go to his party (lit. by
not having gone to his party).)
ir, Z * 6 t 3 r 3 . t ~
(f) %LCiE~7F7;+2Zk T @ k $ A B L-Cb>h0
(I am sometimes put at a disadvantage because I am poor at English.)
:,,I'$? < CL
(g) Z O B T C L + ~ I A Tz~2&~ f d ~ t )z t ka; 3 ' h a 0
(In this country there are times when you benefit from being a for-
koto de 139

a-m e nkoto de represents a means, the preceding element must be a nonpast
verb regardless of the tense of the main clause. When koto de represents a
cause, the preceding element can be a verb, an adjective, or a copula in
&her the past or nonpast tense.

[Related Expressions]
I. Koto ni yori / yotte expresses the same idea as koto de.

between these conjunctions and koto de is that "S1 koto de S T can be
used only when the events, actions, or situations in S1 and S2 take place
at the same time, as in [3a]. Tame ni, node, and kara, on the other hand,
do not have this restriction, as in [3b].

(Because I didn't study very hard when I was a student,
{my parents often told me off / I am in trouble now].)
b. %LCiY&D@rn3 C1@S8iLha.97': Ifz@CZ / D T / fi\%)
(Because I didn't study very hard when I was a student,
{my parents often told me off / I am in trouble now) .)
It should also be noted that tame ni indicates a cause, a reason, and a
purpose and that node and kara indicate a cause and a reason, while
koto de indicates a cause and a means, but not a reason.
( e t a m e (ni) (DBJG: 447-51); node (DBJG: 328-31); kara3 (DBJG:
140 koto ni naru

koto ni naru L 2 tr aQ phx

end up (with); cause; come
action or event leads to a certain mean that

+Key Sentences


1 (If we don't do this now, we will end up with an awful situation later.) 1

(If we cannot have this draft cashed, our company will end up in bank-
koto ni naru 141


Sinf Sinf *

I (Ending up with such a result means that there was something wrong I
1 with our preparation.) 1

*See Formation (v).

- -

kbl5 ZkKG60

(The fact that nothing happened this time means that the system is
alright (lit. the situation is alright with this system).)

$7< z 2 d: 2 & (end up going; lead S.O. to go)
(ii) Adj(i)inf - nonpast Z t : C t? 6
@ LblZ t: C 2 6 (end up with a difficult situation)
(iii) Adj(na)stem Z 2 1: 2 6
k Z a Z k :t G6 (end up with an awful situation)
142 koto ni nan,
(iv) N &c>-j;&GZah
%&k L 1 -j2 t dr h 6 (end up with a failure; come to mean that s.t.
is a failure)

(v ) Sinf 2 k 1: 0 6 (Exceptions: Adj(na)stem 7:' -. Adj(na)stem a ,,
Formation (vi); N I? -. N T & 6 or Formation (iv) or (vi))
i a*
BdB, TblI: 2 k Kts h (come to mean that s.t. was wrong)

jigkg Z 2 d l h A (come to mean that s.t. is alright)
-6'w:c CL
9 + a A T &25 2 t:d h 6 (come to mean that S.O. is a foreigner)

k g % ? ? L b l 5 Z k :C h A (come to mean that s.t. is alright)

mmm r. i L it& t1
(a) +,$bj~blb k 8 , @ a ) @ U r b l Z 2 E7'66 L o
(If you don't work now, you'll end up with a terrible situation when
you take the exam.)
:C ? Dtii
(b) + / v c z 2 B L I : C ; I R ~ A ~ G : & L ; ~ L ~ St II:Q~,,
(If I / you do such a thing, I / you will end up not being able to appez
in public again.)
ri ~
L+ D T < iLiL b b.
A ?hFBEH%l?f.LT hfLiig5t-$-~iHG:%T6 Z k C:a60< i b w d &

(If Company A donates one million yen, the total sum will become (lit.
end up with) ten million yen.)
bb+JL+-r, Zl?
(d) ~ ~ T $ j d < b ~ C j d % % ~ $ ~ k b l j Z k C : 7 ' 6 V d ? ,
(If everything goes well, (it means that) I will graduate next year.)
C*i Lt
(el G&&Q~&~:kblj z 2 ~ 4 f i i t . h5 Z D ~ Zf i ~ : i k & ~ , ~ b l a ~ /
(That the postcard came back means that he doesn't live at this address
any longer.)
koto ni naru / koto ni yoru 143

mx koto ni naru is usually preceded by a topic clause (e.g., KS(A), (D),
and (E)) or a conditional clause (e.g., KS(B) and (C)). This clause
represents an action or an event which leads to a certain situation or log-
ical conclusion represented by X.

2. A conditional clause before X koto ni naru can be either a tara-condi-
tional (KS(B) and Ex.@)), a ba-conditional (KS(C), Exs.(c) and (d)), or
a to-conditional (Ex.(a)).

3. In another context, S koto ni naru means 'it will be decided that.'
(+koto ni naru (DBJG: 202-03))

koto ni yoru Z k CZk Q phl: <w>

be due to the fact that; be
an event as the cause of s.t. caused by; be brought about
by; be the result of; because
[REL. kara da; tame da]
+ ~ Sentences
e ~


Noun (result) Clause (cause)
p w ~=trb> LBL If0 +, iL*iBA.
7 BDXR k
i LLBL\tr';F+%fi-;, fi z 2 k: L & 0

(The failure this time is the result of insufficient discussion beforehand
(lit. due to the fact that the preceding discussion was insufficient).)
144 koto ni yoru

I Topic 1 1

(Susumu's delinquency was caused by his parents' lack of affection.
(lit. The fact that Susumu ran to juvenile delinquency is because his
parents were not affectionate enough with him.))

Sinf Z 2 1: k & (Exceptions: Adj(na)stem a Z 2 :G k & ; N T &6 Z tI,
- -
- 1A )
'@l/> 2 t:1 k & (because the rent is expensive)
DrilfL L +2r+<
A %$$iE@C Z 2 l: k & (because the expression is inaccurate)

(His present success is due to the fact that he worked hard every day
(lit. did not neglect daily effort).)
o :A &LO ia
j ~ ra a '7&c:g
; ~toc;t~~ah& m9 TPIZZ t:c 1a.
(Their divorce was caused by the fact that their value systems were
very different.)
(His loss is due to the fact that he tried to win quickly.)
% & a ~ ~ $ Z ; k ~ ~ a T c : ~ E ~ ; k f : a o >t;Gc1
t ~6~0 & i ;
(That his talent was developed to this degree is due to the fact that he
studied with Mr. Suzuki.)
koto ni yoru 145

S koto ni yoru is usually preceded by a topic phrase or clause. S represents
the cause of the result represented by the topic phrase or clause.

Tafne da or kara da are also used to present a cause. Thus, KS(B), for exam-
ple, can be paraphrased as [I].

It should be noted that "X wa S tame da" and "X wa S kara da" can be used
for "X wa S koto ni yoru" only when X is a clause. When X is a noun phrase,
tame da and kara da are unnatural, as in [2].

Compare [2] with 131, where X is a clause.

(It was because we didn't have enough discussion beforehand that
we failed this time.)
It should also be noted that koto ni yoru represents only a cause. Kara da, on
the other hand, represents a reason as well as a cause and tame da represents
a reason, a purpose, or a cause, as in [4] and [5].
L.1 a
PI -b=&j~hjS197:oli#~jS19f: (f=&fZ/ j,'%f:/*,
2: C k 5 I. [Reason]
(The reason that he didn't come to the party was that he was busy.)
151 %&jsz1+~1. --.$&oc$$k& {f~@f:/*15>5f:
6 1, [Purpose]
(It is to see Haruko that he is coming to the party.)
(ekara3 (DBJG: 179-81); tame ( n i ) (DBJG: 447-51))
146 koto wa nai

There is no need to; not neces-
that there is no need to do s.t. or sary; there is no p o s ~ i b i l i ~
that there is no possibility of doing that; there is no chance to
[REL. ham wa nail

+Key Sentences
Vinf .nonpast

- -
(There's no need to listen to a man like that.)

I 1 I

(I think that there is no possibility that she will forget today's meeting.)

&< 22G i fb b > (there's no need to go / there is no possibility that s.0. will

(a) htvtbE'ji~:#E~= L T T 2~2 C L C ~ ~ ,
(There is no need to be kind to a guy like that.)
(b) ?h?&,/va'jiGz@~&zkGiab~,,
(There is no need at all to be in such a hurry.)
koto wa nai 147

tR ,
gjp%6 (
z thtablt,E"b12-Fo
(4 ((1) I don't think it will be necessary for you to come here. (2) I think
that there is no possibility that you will come here.)
((1) There will probably be no need for him to take the trouble to go
out there. (2) There is no possibility that he will go out there.)
() ,$ 5$8 ~i)'i)'h z t itirb>i)'l Lh3Ckh.
(I might not have a chance to see you again.)
LX/rhtL BL
(f) &3 dL$frk 6 Z 2 122 b l t EBb52 To
(I don't think there is a possibility that I will teach.)

dam -
- -

1. Vinf. nonpast + koto wa nai is used as an expression equivalent to Vinf.
nonpast + hitsuyo wa nai 'there is no need to V' or Vinf. nonpast +
kanosei wa nai 'there is no possibility that -.'

2. In some cases koto wa nai can be interpreted as either 'no need' or 'no
possibility' (e.g., Exs.(c) and (d)). The interpretation depends on the
context or situation.
3. Vinf. nonpast + koto galwa am does not mean 'there is a need to' or
'there is a possibility that -.' (+koto ga aru2 (DBJG: 198-99))

4. In Vinf .nonpast + koto wa nai, V must be affirmative.
(+nai koto molwa nai)

[Related Expression]
Vinf + hazu wa nai is very similar in meaning to Vinf + koto wa nai 'there is
no possibility that -.' Vinf + haw wa nai is used when the speaker feels that
an event is not impossible but that it is unlikely. Compare KS(B) and [I].

[ll @&rk$+B o % B B ~ ~It3%.&~\,
(It is unlikely that she will forget today's meeting.)
(+hazu (DBJG: 133-35))
-ku < inflectional ending <w>

and ; so

+ ~ Sentences
e ~


(Kanako's personality was cheerful and innocent.)


E%fl $*
<, f l 9 7 5 b L t &
(I went all the way to give a lecture, but the audience was so small that
I felt discouraged.)

-t5 Oh: i7<
(a) & ) L 7 ;s)L=7OZb;tg{, %Lil.ql:,
(The Californian sky was blue and beautiful.)
t i lri
(b) 1. L\ 0% 1. a)&&bi@ ( , &$L>,
(Tom's apartment room in Tokyo is dark and small.)

(d) rz-3 - 3 9 .f L \ ; ~ ~ ~ E f l 8 { ~, # $ $ o ~ B ~ b > ,
(The New York Times is high in quality and has many subscribers.)
< < BfS
d.U. .h
(el t l o ~ $ u i t & ifit: , L I Z ra. <
(World peace is hard to achieve and hard to maintain.)
+9a(L+ L ti SL L i d~hlt~
$ o( , a 9 i m r r 2 ,
(n h ~ w s o ~ a a i i a+
(That philosopher's ideas are easy to understand and his writing is sim-
ple, too.)
(A3 ihTL Lv-h
#o&gfi& (, $o$3$i;;3Pk2fz3
(Last winter there was much snow and it was hard to drive around.)
b f ; ~Ldiw h't
(h] g i a x a f i m ~ ( % , $~wztt&i&btab~
(I'm afraid of failure, and I can't do anything new.)
(i) $ $ j i d = A ~ b a hO&L ( , t ~ $ g 2 & J b a ~ 4 f < ~
(Yoko felt lonely living alone, so she got a pet cat recently.)

1. Adj(i)stem ku is used in written Japanese to function as a continuative
form. When the ku-form connects two predicates, the relationship
between the two is either a cumulative relationship as in KS(A) and
Exs.(a) - (f) or a cause / reason relationship as in KS(B) and Exs.(g) -
2. As the following examples show it appears that the compound adjective
Vrnasu tai cannot be used to express a cause 1 reason relationship as
shown in (I), although other compound adjectives can be used that way
as shown in (2).

(1) a. it b
~ E L ~ <L, ba < ~ $ ~ f f i ~ f $ ~ : % , %
9 0 R2ffi
IfL 5e-5 L*? lfh

(I want to publish my own research so I contacted several
(2) a. ~ o $ ' % ~ z P c ~ ~ T B&& ~%c Cc r~a ><$<&,, ~
(The writer's writings are very hard to read, and I gave up
reading it halfway.)
13 V$< , 2 T B@d\Zi,
:li+LC/rifb~ b/rlC ifgnli,
b. /I\$$ %&o>Z&O'3tSaCk53~
(Professor Kobayashi's grammar explanation is easy to
understand, and it is a great help to me.)
c. ygCk%B~TblZi5 L <, C - 6-2 LTblko
(The girl appears to be in love with someone, and looks
3. Adj(i) ku cannot carry its own tense. Its tense is determined by the tense
of the main predicate.

Adj(i)stem -kute can replace all the uses of Adj(i)stem -ku. The difference
between the two are the following. First, -kute can be used in both spoken
and written Japanese, but -ku is restricted to written Japanese. Secondly, -ku
can be used as an adverb as in [I], but -kute cannot be used that way.
[I] a. + B B Q ~ %I <~ / * < T I S ~ > T ? S L . ~ ,
(Please write characters larger.)
1: li/r - hlL.5
b. EJ$%WEQ { < / * < T I C?=T3k0
(Japanese has become interesting.)
Thirdly, as shown in (2) in Notes, -kute can be used where -ku is not accept-
able. (aVmasu; te (DBJG: 464-6711
kurai 151

to the extent that; so - that -
(almost) -; at least; the only -;
rather than -
+Key Sentences


(It is so warm this evening that we (almost) don't need a heater.)

I Relative Clause 1 Noun I predicate (neg) I

(There's no one who is as forgetful as Yamada (lit. who forgets things
as much as Yamada does).)

(I am a poor cook (lit. bad at cooking), but I can at least cook rice.)

- (He is the only person who can do this job now. (lit. The person who is
. -
. - capable enough to do this job is he.))

Vinf .nonpast Vinf. past


(I would rather die than do such a thing.)

(i ) Sinf<5 Ll (the same as relative clause connection rules)
&f & < 5 L
(to the extent that one can swim)
(%& 6 ffi % ~ 9 I: < 2, L. 1 (to the extent that (even our teacher)
couldn't do it)
6 5 L1.' < 6 1.l (to the extent that (I) am frightened)

LLI !El3 h < 6 1.' (to Yamada's degree)
kurai 153

r o Z l d t L I 5Prrbl < bbl%A,~bik.
(That house was so damaged that it couldn't be repaired. (lit. That
house was damaged to the extent that it couldn't be repaired.))
@) &z!ilmY &.,Tbl~&.,Tblbfirrbl < bbl7?9k0
(Jiro was so drunk that he couldn't hold himself upright.)
) LA,G+,
r w lfi%'*.<
b b b i ~ .
(Even ten dollars would still be too expensive for a book like this.)

h o e <b b %2
t l
(e) L&91c@CdQb10
(I have never suffered as much as I did that time.)
(f) & i ~ ~ ~ ~ f i ~ ( ~z2c) (% ~ ;~~ ~$ wfL- z
(There is nothing as painful as being betrayed by someone you have

(g) b l < b%?blfiT b 7 -T 7 - b b l 6 b 1 T b ~ T
6 LL5
(Even though it is a cheap place, there should at least be a shower.)
br ~ L L L
(h) ?A,h@~bc3~b&-Fa)ld&i'bk < bbloba)T-FI,
(You are the only person who would pay as much as 20,000 yen for
such a thing.)
b b l & b&$G~7's31ckd'd LIZ,
(I would rather be a beggar than work under such a man.)

1. Kurai can be replaced by gurai without a change in meaning.

2. Kurai expresses the degree of some state, as in KS(A), (B) and Exs.
(a) - (c). (+kurai (DBJG: 212-13))
154 kurai

3. Kurai with a negative predicate expresses a superlative, as in KS(c) cind
Exs.(d) - (f). KS(C), for example, can be restated as (1).
(1) LLlffl-2 hti%.l<%25-;ik&,
(Mr. Yamada is the most forgetful.)

4. Kurai expresses the idea of 'at least,' as in KS(D) and Ex.(g). X kurai in
this use implies that the degree of a state is such that one cannot expect
much more than X from that state.

5. S no wa X kurai no mono da expresses the idea that the speaker cannot
think of anyone or anything else but X that meets the description in S.
In other words, X meets the description in S to the highest degree
among those the speaker can think of. (See KS(E) and Ex.(h).)
6. V1 kurai nara V2hb ga mashi da expresses the idea that one would rather
V2than V1. (This structure literally means that if the speaker's situation
is such that he might V1, it would be better for him to Vz.) (See KS(F)
and Ex.(i).)

Kurai as used in KS(A) - (C) can be replaced by hod0 without changing

Kurai as used in KS(D) - (F) cannot be replaced by hodo.
kuse ni 155

although; in spite of the fact
contempt, anger, or dis- that; and yet; but
agreement about s.o.'s action, be- e el. ni mo kakawarazu; noni]

+Key Sentences

(Although Mr. Yamada is Japanese, he doesn't know many kanji.)

Topic (subject) Subordinate Clause Main Clause
LII'YC;~: a<w=+r\a I t ri: %a$ki-cc f i a b l .
(In spite of the fact that Yamauchi knows a lot about it, he doesn't tell
me anything.)

(the same as relative clause connection rules)
( i ) N@<*C:
8b < +?: C (Although - is a child)
(ii) {V I Adj(i)]inf t :C*
/ tb%I:l
1&&6 < el: (Although - can I could)
< *: C

I8$b. / $5&7 :I I (Although - is I was weak)
(iii) Adj(na)stem { 's / R 9:I I t :i
{?$'s / T;%I?9 )
:7 < (Although - is I was bad at st.)
1 56 kuse ni

dh i:b~*<*W
qmkyn09 *c:&ijbbd.0 $ % ~ T b G 0
(Although he is a college student, all he does is read comics.)
g+cA3Ey&09 + ? i : % b w > 3 7 k : & ~ T b G ~
(Although Yoshiko is still a student, she lives in an expensive condo-
i:d L
P&EIGAT+I's *i?& < T C X 2 Lk752a0
(Takashi is a bad (tennis) player, and yet he wants to play with me.)
< ~ G : & & -aFd;.~
(You are afraid. Don't pretend to be strong.)
$&GA&$Q ab1<Q G : R ~ B $ L L ~ - c ~ ~ ~ .
(Takao doesn't have money, and yet he wants a foreign car.)
% ~ ~ A % I A $ L ~ ~ T Q $ & %LI'sd.9k
Q <+?I:, $~752&$ka97&$
?in3 6 b . t
b:,%.G:gB752k 2-3 l:, <
(Before (the time I became a division chief), Yoshida never greeted me
when he saw me, but he suddenly became friendly when I became a
division chief.)
%'d z~!%%bf?~r: <
< + ? i : x $ ~ ' s g %eo
(Don't talk big! You were only a trainee until yesterday!)

1. Kuse ni is used only when the main clause and the subordinate clause
share the same subject. Thus, in the following sentence, kuse ni cannot
be used.
kuse ni 157

2. Kuse ni is not used when the subject is the first person. In the following,
kuse ni cannot be used.

(2) *%LCiEI*Aa, <
QC: 8*o~&fl&k~b~,
(Acceptable forms: %LC&8 *A {&UlC: / C:t. fi37Y9% TI 8 $
(Although I am Japanese, I cannot sing the Japanese national

3. In conversation, main clauses often drop, as in (3) and (4).
(3) m7'2, N & % ! b 2 b ~ <ecc,
(Come on! You don't know anything! (So, keep your mouth
(4) 3 6 , ao<t+c:,
(Gee, aren't you a man! (You are so sissy!))

(Related Expressions]
I. Noni is similar to kuse ni. In fact, noni can replace kuse ni in KS(A), (B)
and Exs.(a) - (f). Noni, however, does not express the speaker's emotion
as strongly as kuse ni. Thus, noni is not suitable in contexts as Ex.(g),
(3), and (4), where the speaker swears at the hearer. In addition, the
restrictions in Notes 1 and 2 do not apply to noni.
(+noni1 (DBJG: 331-35))
11. Ni rno kakawarazu expresses an idea similar to noni and kuse ni. How-
ever, ni rno kakawarazu is a highly formal and bookish expression and it
expresses no emotion. Therefore, it cannot be used in highly emotive
situations as in Ex.(g), (3), and (4). Note that the formation rules are
different from those of kuse ni, as in [I].

I & % & / Y i % k I KbjS1jS1;hby (inspiteof the fact
that s.0. can / could)
{&b~/&jS137':1 G:&jS1;3.;f?bT (inspiteofthe fact
that s.t. is I was expensive)
158 kuse ni
(ii) {Adj(na)stemlN) {0/??9f:) G-h7l1&bbf
made mo nai 159

not necessary (to bother) to; do
not need (to go as far as) to; do
not have to
[REL. hitsuy6 wa nai; hod0 no
koto mo nai; ni wa oyobanai]
+Key Sentences
Vinf .nonpast
,LkL L
- ~ a & j ~ a & t z - n ~ ~ ; z t & ~ ~ T ~ Q
(This is a simple calculation, so it is not necessary (to bother) to use a
calculator.) -
- 3
w -

(Needless to say, George Washington was the first president of the
United States.)

%Tb -r*. b Q b' (not necessary (to bother) to talk)

(a) f $ f l & ~ a l : & % ~ ; t . ~ 1 : D ~ & ~ 5 2 T b a b ~ ,
(It goes without saying that he was respected by everybody.)
(b) % L I ~ % $ C ~ ~ I I ~ ~ ~ ; ~ ~ ~ : ~ Sa -"r ;- b~a Sb l; T~L F~ {5+. <
(It is not important business, so it is probably not necessary for you to
(take the trouble to) get there.)
(c) jybfk?&$& z ~ T T & ~ % & L T<&g T % h !I %*Ao
(We can find out when we get there, so we don't need to call and
about it.)

(Needless to say (now), Prof. Yamanaka is a leading figure in this

(el +;kck%%iita2t:?c.trs<8c;;31arkfzo
(It is so obvious that no explanation is necessary.)

(f) &.=,3'r;t a < S~&dbr;fi~-c~ fZo
(My wife came back from shopping without my having to wait for her.)

= =
- - The adverbial form made mo naku is also frequently used. (See KS(B),
- =
-- - Exs.(e) and (f).)
e elated Expressions]
I. HitsuyO wa nai is similar to made mo nai in meaning.
However, the former lacks the sense of going as far as to do s.t. 01
bothering to do s.t.
[I] ~ ; k d k ~ % Q ~ t % f ? $ b 8 f - % # ~%CZQL\,
(This is a simple calculation, so it is not necessary to use a
In addition, no hitsuy6 wa nai can be preceded by a noun, as in [2].
[21 r o ~ I- x4 ~c&%(DBBM~L\,
(No reservation is necessary at this restaurant.)
II. Hodo no koto mo nai and ni wa oyobanai are very similar to made mo
nai except that ni wa oyobanai is usually not used in the adverbial form
made mo nai / mai 161

~i wa oyobanai can be preceded by a noun, as in [5] and [6].

(51 s x l : t i R ~ . ' 3 ~ t ~ ,
(You don't need to thank me.)

No wa iu made mo nai 'It goes without saying that -' and iu made mo
naku 'needless to say' are idiomatic phrases; there are no substitute
phrases for these expressions.

....~-.~ ~~

an auxiliary which expresses the will not; will probably not; be
speaker's negative volition or con- probably not

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

Vinf. nonpast

I (I will not ask any more favors of Hashimoto.) I
162 mai

Vinf. nonpast
z f i i & & {$&&-Js
&< I
(Probably no one will notice this.)


(There probably won't be many participants.)


(This teaching method is probably not very effective.)


z~c&%WI T I ~ & & ~ L \&a

(I have a feeling that this is some kind of mistake. (lit. Is this not some
kind of mistake?))

(i) Vinf. nonpast 5 L 1
f+ < 3 L ((I) will not go; probably won't go)
%i?6 b b \ ((I) will not teach; probably won't teach)
(ii) Adj(13stem < [Ad?b b b l
< li& b b l (s.t. is probably not expensive)

l i d? b
@&T b b l (s.t. is probably not quiet)
%&TI&& a 2bl (s.o. is probably not a teacher)

am= 96-

(a) y $ a > l f - ? 4 -K l i $ 5 4
7 2 bl, <
(I will not go to Kiyoshi's parties any more.)
f *
@) g&j7z 5 abl&z-3ko
(I couldn't decide whether I should go to Japan or not.)

(c) %Eli&%%O%5L k $ & < 3 b l o
(He probably won't listen to anyone.)
(d) +;kii+&a ~ 3 & & 3 i d ? 6 a bl,
(It is probably not necessary for us now.)
z a > k B I i L a > ~ @ O ~ & i : l i ? h i ~<?l i%
d%;i PWi-
(e) & &~ able
(This problem is probably not very difficult for these students.)
(f) -j' a -:/j'j5ft ~ # 8 & ~ - 3 ~ b ~ 6 0 ~ I i & 6 a b l & ,
(I have a feeling that George knows the truth.)

1. Mai is basically a written form. It is usually used in formal writing.
(edafi (DBJG: 1 0 W 2 ) ; mash6 (DBJG: 240-43))
2. For Gr. 2 verbs, Vmasu is occasionally used instead of Vinf.nonpast.
For irregular verbs, sumai and komai are sometimes used instead of
sunimai and kurumai, respectively.
(1) {Ed& $ 5 %&%JIRQL\.
(He probably won't teach English any more.)
164 mai

(2) ? i % k + / v a z t G ~ T ~ L \ ~

(3) z/va@%Gk-Et%%~\~
i: ? -
(She probably won't do such a thing.)
I lw

(Such an opportunity probably won't recur (lit. come again).)
3. Vinf.nonpast mai expresses the speaker's negative volition. Like vvol,
mai does not have a past form. The past tense is expressed by other
verbs, as in (4) - (5).
(4) %a)lf-Y4-C:Gk&jfi<bL\k.F,~I:, (cf.Ex.(a))
(I decided (lit. thought) that I would not go to Kiyoshi's parties
any more.)

(5) & i% $ ~ z ~ k M & S G t ~ \ k ~ i ~ k : & (cf.
& f :KS(A))
(I am determined not to ask any more favors of Hashimoto.)
= =
(e y6 to omou (DBJG: 569-71))
4. The volition of someone other than the speaker can be expressed by
mai, as in (6).
ljbt :
(6) %7-Gki&Qlf-Y.r - K t k & ifi<
(Keiko decided (lit. thought) that she would not go to Kiyoshi's
parties any more.)
Note that to omou 'think that' is used to express the volition of some-
one other than the speaker. Thus, (7) expresses the speaker's conjecture
rather than Keiko's volition.

(7) %7-CMmlf-7 4 -KGk & j 4T< t L l 0
(Keiko probably won't go to Kiyoshi's parties any more.)
5. Vinf .nonpast mai to suru expresses the idea of "try not to V."
(8) a i a ~ j ~t L ~~ Z ,~~i m 5~ n ( a~ ) e ~ \ t :
p 772$x5
L T ~ ~ ) Y c : B W/UIZ,
(He tried to take my bag, but I held it tightly under my arm, try-
ing to keep it from being taken.)
(& minr (DBJG: 246-4711
ma; / masaka 1 65

When this structure is used in a subordinate clause, sum is often
omitted, as in (9).
(9) $ ~ m 3 w 6 l ~ ~ \ k % % 9 ? : ~
(I hung in there, trying not to lose (the game).)

6. Vvol ka Vinf.nonpast ma; ka expresses the idea "whether ( I ) will V or
not," as in Ex.(b).

7. When ma; expresses the speaker's conjecture, its meaning is similar to
nai dare. Mai, however, is more formal.

8. Because mai is seldom used in conversational Japanese, ja (the con-
tracted form of de wa) am ma; rarely occurs.

masaka d P ?Y ad~.

I an adverb that indicates the speak- ( incredible; never thought;
er's strong belief that s.t. is not ex- never dreamed; surely not; im-
possible; don't tell me that -;
not at all likely; absolutely not

+ ~ e ySentences

I (1 never dreamed that Michiko would many that kind of a guy.) I
166 masaka


(Surely he won't show up on such a cold day !)

(Lately I haven't heard from my father, but God forbid that he might
be ill.)

1 (A: I heard that an old man of 70 entered a high school. B: Incredible!) 1

3 3 2 3 a & a k i 2 { E b c d ~ Q f /: % k T 6 k & d ~ - 3 f : ) o
({I didn't believe 1 I never thought} that it would snow.)
masaka 167

L A'?
j SiS'aJJ icg7Fp$&liTiSfab10
(It is not at all likely that it will snow in April.)

C2I%& 3 b
3 S il>l lo (Don't tell me it's going to snow.)

(I never thought that I would be involved in a traffic accident.)
L 155 L I t L 'k -
- -

a S ~ ~ E I & ~ % K - E T , ~ X & & &k iis$,5-c =ME
- =
(I never dreamed that I could pass the bar examination on my first
% b)a$9f:o
ez -


(el a s i s ' d i / v a b l ~ . > X i 5 ' n ~ & - a/v-cdizi
(Don't tell me a good person like that killed someone.)
i: 12L - *Lev
$S&$~FB$&~)%&G:~& k ~ i % ; i ~ % ~ t h f i ~ f : ~
(I never thought that he would become a Japanese language teacher.)
(g) $Sfi&OA7F?-,LGZ k B Z i C i 4 C i G b l T L b 0
(It's not at all likely that she has said such a thing!)

01) % i Z s a ~ ~ i ~ ~b~bf i, % ~ i ~ t z & a b l ,
(Since it is May it is very unlikely that it will snow.)
Ifli I:@+W L 4*i
(i) tjttn IE . e c 6 6 , -i e & W a ) e n 2 i ? 8 % t a s i t c r a ~ \ ( %b,o
(Because my mother is in the hospital right now, it is impossible to
expect her to attend my wedding.)

- B:
(Smith has studied Japanese for only one year, but he is fluent,
you know.)
3 36 (Impossible!)

1. The adverb masaka is used to express the speaker's strong belief that an
action or a state is not expected to become or to have become a reality.
The action or the state is usually s.t. that is not desirable for the speaker,
but not always. Take Ex.(b), for example: no doubt it was a very desir-
able thing for the speaker to have passed the bar examination on his first
attempt. The adverb masaka simply emphasizes that he did not expect to
pass it.
2. The final predicate is either a thinking verb, a conjecture expression
dar6, or an expectation expression ham, (wake ni wa iku) mai, and all
take a negative form, as shown in Formation.
3. As shown in KS(E) and Ex.(j), masaka can be used by itself as an excla-
mation meaning 'incredible!' or 'impossible!'
4. There is a set phrase masaka no toki, meaning 'the time of need.'
(1) s s tPnGi:&!kTj+%?? ~T$5b~k%%~b\1
(You'd better provide against the time of need.)

elated ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
The adverb yomoya can express the same idea as masaka. The difference
between the two is that yomoya cannot be used as an exclamation.
[I] A: -f;fa)%
C b ) l A;3'&@G:A7 k A I Z 7 TO
masaka / mashida 169

Except for the two examples above, all the uses of masaka in KS and Exs.
can be rephrased with yomoya.

mashida % L:f adj. (na)

better; less objectionable; pre- ----
- -

I S.O.I s.t. (or some situation) is not
satisfactory it is better than s.0. /
ferable; might as well
[REL. ii]

+Key Sentences

1 (If this is the salary, it would be better to quit.) I

1 (This new Japanese teacher is much better than the former teacher.) I
170 mashida


(Isn't there coffee that's a bit better?)

z & Q E p c : z , < L;b>GL;,&& L p f j - h ' a LIZ,
(I might as well work as enter such a college.)
m&~b~Z&Tif <
bblts b , & / v ~ % f l L
aE O
(It is better to die than to lead such a life.)
< t , b l ~ t , & ~L Y T & $ T ~ ~ ~ : * ; S 'L~I:,
(It's better to watch TV at home rather than going to school.)
z ~ ~ a $ % > z - g & < i f { L;b>Qb:$&&<tsb>3-h'b>!,l0
(It's better not to eat anything rather than eating such an untasteful
&@LX F7>d;VZ@LX F 7 > @ 3 7 F 5 L E 0
(This restaurant is better than that restaurant over there.)
ti l r i
z ~ @ @ b $ i b > T T - h ' ,R%DW.l V 2 L T T k
(Summer here is hot, too, but it's better than summer in Tokyo.)
% D2Fr b~& > i j ~ , ga,d; "IL E ~
(My car is also very old, but it is better than yours.)
l w i o ~ i I: $ h i &
$ $ $ 4 t i I Z H T b , 2 b l . l V a LIZ,
(Although the salary is just 20,000 yen it's better than nothing.)
&hEb~t:S9-r hf;L
- r 6 ~ a , @ ~ : i h :b y 9 2 a L T T L .
m i

(You say your house is small, but it is much better than our house, you
b ~ t s X P $ ~ : t s 6 ?2 % 9 ~ ? r l / l a ~ ~
(1 am thinking of becoming a slightly better person.)
mashida / mata wa 171

Mashi is an AdXna) which is used to indicate that s.t. / s . ~ or
. a situation is
better than SS. / S.0. else Or another situation even though it / he / she is not
As for the use of mashida, it is exactly like any other Adj(na).

[Related Expression]
Mashida in all KS and Exs. can be replaced by ii, but the former always
implies that S.O.or s.t. is not satisfactory but better, whereas the latter sim-
ply means that s.0. or s.t. is better.

mata wa % f z lb conj. <w>

or; either or -
choices or possibilities expressed -
[REL. ka -; - ka - ka dochi-
[raka; soretomo]
172 mata wa

+Key Sentences

(Please pay either in cash or by check.)

Noun Noun
A (fi), at:ti B ort;r;fi 4%7~+723~>,
I (Select either A or B.) 7

Sinf Sinf

(I guess that either I misheard the phone number or this number (lit.
phone) is no longer in use.)
( i ) N (&), a I : l i N
1: Ifh, -
El $& (d.), 3 I: h i % & (either Japanese or English)
(ii) Sinf f i , b I: ti Sinf

ggg ?f & < f i , b 7: Ck Z%4 f 6 (either write a letter or make a
phone call)

<h *h:
(a) %(75), b I : t i 8 0 S - ) k d ~ 4 @ 9 ~ ~ 3 b ~ o
(Please use a black or blue ball-point pen.)
mata wa 173
s-LDLk, d. B r i i l D l < + h i & r. d. lflb&
@(7!P), 3 7'zdkEi 7 S i = J H T 0 ~ & ,
(Irn~risonmentup to three years or a penalty up to one million yen.)
g~i&ik*&ti7!~6, &F$J-xQ&~~!P, gS~E ~
8%rb, S r i L

(1 have to work during the day, so I have no choice but to take a night
course or look for a tutor.)
~:~aibaLbi b t L D L r
;~EIR~C:&L ~ ~ C W D F I~ W ~ ~~ ~ c : &+~cmg+-hra
~ ~ - c ~ ~
b f WiVLSr<
~S;kl:~, 3 7':dk@ff ~7$7$;i1:07'?6 5
(A letter that I assumed was mailed two weeks ago has not reached the
addressee yet. It is probably that my secretary forgot to mail it or that
the post office made a mistake.)

When mata wa connects two noun phrases, ka after the first noun phrase is
optional, as in KS(A), (B), Exs.(a) and @).

[Related ~xpressionsl
I. Soretomo is similar to mata wa in that it connects two possibilities, as
in [I].
[I] S % t 3 B M 3 B k I z 7 ! P , {&?-kt / tht&l B 5 L a Z B i k
4 $ 5 k ~ ; k T b > h b a 0 7 ' ? 6 5 . (=KS(C))
However, soretomo can connect questions whereas mata wa cannot.

121 &&33?F7!Po {?ht% /*%t:ibl, h$?&T63 3%7!P,
(Will you go by car? Or will you go by plane?)
( 6 soretomo (DBJG: 421-22))
11. N (ka) mata wa N can be paraphrased as N ka N, as in 131 and [4]. N
ka N is more informal.

131 33% {(fi5), 3 / fi51 /J\.L%I%Tk;$Lb17;S b10 (=KS(A))

[4] P {(fi5), %f:lb/ a>,,)
Ra>6-1~fi'JB@~T7;Sb1~ (=&.(a))
( d kal (DBJG: 164-66))
174 mata wa / -me
Ia. Sinf ka, mata wa Sinf can be paraphrased as Sinf ka Sinf ka, dochi-
raka . . ., as in [51 and [61.

a suffix which represents an ordi- ( -th; -th one

+Key Sentences

Starting Point Number + Counter
bt:L (bb c t:r.
-A 8 T-$,
( (My car is the second one from the right.) 1

Starting Pt. Number + Counter Noun
i5. k?
?;kik 1 $6 E3 kl 0 f l 3 & ~K ~ ~ T

I (It is in the third drawer from the top.) I
r ~ m b e+

r Counter €I
(the fourth (person))

m;pasitma.c:M~, %%cZXeDXr0
~*6i+3/.4r, f i

(Mr. Yamamoto is the person third from the left in the second row.)
(b) -Fa ~~EE~Lc,
(I failed the first time.)
I: 13 h, 2 :tL Z h L
(c) ZOH$%Y~Y~L\~&~~TZP:~C:&&,
(This Japanese program is in its fifth year (this year).)
(d) ~ ~ ~ ~ l ; i a f # ~ ~ j b sa t 'o z ~ ~ ~ i : ~ ~
(From the fifth week on Mr. Hayashi will teach this class.)
(Miss Ueno will perform first.)
r. 6
(f) A: +Dlf47i-11 2 1&& ~ - 3 % ~
(How many violins have you used so far?)
5 (
B: f;QBT$,
(The present one is my sixth.)

1. -me in this use is always preceded by a number and a counter.
2. The counter -tsu changes to -ban for numbers larger than nine, as in (1).

(1) . . . , L a , '27~~ +-%a,
+%€I, ...
(. . . , eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, . . .)
-men / miseru 177

fiZIi g&,&, &gj&jl&% { & ,,>b>o
(She does not need to worry about language (lit. the aspect of lan-
page) when she goes to Japan.)
(11 kd. Orid.
(f) < 8QS;kf:,
(This car was highly regarded in terms of performance.)

1. -men is typically followed by the case particles de, ni, and kara, and the
topic marker wa. Wa may appear alone or with other case particles (e.g.,
KS and Ex.(e)) with the exception of ga and o.

2. Men can also be used as an independent noun and has the same mean-
ing as the suffix -men, as in (1).
IfL $mi
(1) %ED@ i K R C i b ~ 5 b ~ i j o f i T & ~ . ~ 8 Q Q %~l f ~ 1 6 ~
(His studies have been rated high in various aspects.)

miseru &-I? am. v (GK2)

can manage to; will definitely
to achieve s.t. for others to see do; am determined to

+ ~ Sentence
e ~

(1will definitely write a novel and get the Akutagawa Prize.)
178 rniseru

&,4,~hb&(I will definitely read it 1I will show you how to read it.)

il.r.L? L?Cri
@liZa>2?tOR EK27 TA-t?&.
(I am determined to become the president of this company.)
(I can manage to marry that handsome guy.)
LL as c Wf C *A.
r 8~-Va>$Q-@Bn7T%,4,Tk-t?&Q0
(I will definitely read a 300-page book in one hour.)
LeiL 3LlL
$ ~ Z + G ~ I ~ ~ ~ * C . B ~ ~ E G ~ - ( ~ A ~ ~ .
(This year I will definitely finish writing my M.A. thesis.)
fib H Dr< C r i b.3Vri ItL
-gikE% - b )be+ - $>T~!ZT-C&-&~~
(Kazuo managed to run 100 meters in 11 seconds.)

I. Vte rniseru expresses primarily the speaker's strong determination to
demonstrate his 1her ability to accomplish s.t.
2. When miseru retains the literal meaning of 'show' a particular action,
the tense of rniseru can be either nonpast or past as shown in (1) and (2)
below, but if rniseru does not retain the original meaning, the tense of
the verb cannot be past, as shown in (3) and (4) below.
(1) ~ L G ~ + o ~ ~ Q % L~ -T c&~~ ~; ~T c~z ,
(I drank up the sake in one breath for others to see.)
(2) -%Gi.B%- b)bQl--$>Tj!Z~-Ckek~
L k 0 (cf. Ex.(a))
(3) *#diEa>%?ka>$*EC:G3Tke%

3. Since V t e rniseru expresses the speaker's own determination to do
something, the subject can be neither the second person nor the third
miseru l mo 179
(5) *~o>I=?fo>?tEC:ts~~k~dTj5~,
(Are you determined to become the president of this company?)
(5') * ~ ~ S A l i ~ o > % ~ k ~ ? f ~ 1 : & ~ T k 4 % t ~
(Mr. Yamada is determined to become the president of the com-

(6) ? ? 8 9- b l b % + - @ T % ~T k - F % t &
(Are you determined to run 100 meters in 11 seconds?)
(6') ??X< X S i L l i B 9 - b ) L f ? + - $ > T % ~ T & ~ % - 6 ,
(Smith is determined to run 100 meters in 11 seconds.)
The reason why (6) and (6') are better than (5) and (5') is that in the
former miseru partially retains the original meaning of 'show' as a
volitional verb. In fact, (7) is a good sentence.

(7) 8% - blL%+-@T%7Tk-@T ;k3-$L7F0 <
(Won't you show us that you can run 100 meters in 11

mo 5 prt.

also; too; (not) either; (not)
else is also (not) the case even

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

(Although Mr. Yoshioka is seventy this year, he runs one kilometer
every day. He occasionally swims, too.)

(This book is beneficial and, on top of that, it is also interesting.)


~ o ~ ~ <ca k a~L, m
ik'd' HbLh
$34: B
(This movie is not interesting and not particularly educational, either.)


g ~ g
H(f L
4L- L
4, fi$ T 6 &Qo
(Mr. Okuda is a lawyer and also a novelist.)

9 b %b,SLhi +
~ i j ~T~&f
~ ~ $ ~ * i - c i ~ % r;k%3 6 Labx,
(Recently Yuriko does not (even) look at me even if we pass each other
in the hall.)

( i ) Vmasu 6TQ/ 6 Lab>
S&& f Q (also read)
s:Lk& Lfb (do not read, either ; do not even read)
(ii) Adj(17stem < b h 6 / < b a1.1
< 6h 6 (s.t. is also cheap)
< b h+sLl (s.t. is not cheap, either ; s.t. is not even cheap)

T 6h 6 (s.t. is also convenient)
@$lJT6 8 b ) (st. is not convenient, either; s.t. is not even con-
b h6 (so. is also a teacher)
g&T6 C b1 (s.o. is not a teacher, either ;s.0. is not even a teacher)

(a) $ i f i 9 ~ s $ ~ ~ f $ z ~ f E 5. b l ~ t a ~ ~ ~
(Apes also laugh if something is funny, right?)
~~tihiw43~1~2~&~f1:ilr', T L-C, k?
(I,) %arif;~i&$a$~~:~
v & La$9I&
(Ken'ichi didn't go home for three days right after their marriage, but
Kazuyo didn't cry. She didn't get mad, either.)
(c) dj07/2- t- ~ E ~ T C ~ ~ W il aha,
L $ <
(That apartment is not convenient and not inexpensive, either.)
LwiMiltL I b.2k.ra
(d) EJ B%hiE$lJak,kW9-F% & a o
(Excursion tickets are convenient ; on top of that, they are also eco-
(e) &~stvatv-c%$$~&
c ~ ~ o cPi
: , L-C-?rLaC: L-c&Vaa0
(Mr. Taguchi is not even a friend. How come you do so much for him?)
(f) % < &CbaOb:, Pi L ~ T t v ~ 6 0 BtvT.f$. ki
(Why are you going to buy a thing like that which is not even cheap?)

1. Verbals with mo embedded in them (i.e., Vmasu mo surulshinai,
Adj(13stemku mo arulnai, {Adj(na)stem / N} de mo arulna0 are used in
the following situations.

(1) A is X and A is Y, too, or A is not X and A is not Y, either.
(Here, X and Y are different adjectives or nouns.) (e.g., Q(B)
(C), Exs.(c) and (d))
(2) A does X and A does Y, too, or A does not do X and A does not
do Y, either. (Here, X and Y are different verbs and Y is not
accompanied by a noun with the particle ga, o, e, or ni.) (e.g.,
KS(A), Exs.(a) and (b))
When the second verb is accompanied by a noun marked by the particle
ga, o, e, or ni, mo marks the noun instead of the verb, as in (3).
(3) a. $R 2 tYti++k+%I?fl, ++uA;k&, %3%&&10
(Ga is replaced by mo.)
(Although Mr. Yoshioka is seventy this year, he can run ten
kilometers. He can also do judo.)
b. $RSAck++-t;+8I?;5$, @El--+nR&, BWrpok?
3 X &-if & , (0is replaced by mo.)
(Although Mr. Yoshioka is seventy this year, he runs one
kilometer every day. He occasionally does aerobics, too.)
C. snst~ct+?++gr..$, @s-+usa, Q ~ Y
4 IC=/fil &%&o
(Although Mr. Yoshioka is seventy this year, he runs one
kilometer every day. He occasionally comes to the gym,
Compare the above examples with (4).

(4) 6R$~la+A$&+%I?fl,@ E l - + u ~ & ,L!$k ( 7 4x z
WkAkI ~irjv%+a.
(Although Mr. Yoshioka is seventy this year, he runs one kilo-
meter every day. He occasionally dances {at discos / with his
wife], too.)
Here, the verb is accompanied by a noun marked by de or to. In this
case, mo must mark the verb rather than the noun. If mo marks the
noun, the discourse becomes unacceptable, as in (5).

(5) 6~ 3 /v~;lr++-t;+&~~ifi', @s-+usa, gk I * Fxzl ~
T S /*&AI:Sl I&.
(Although Mr. Yoshioka is seventy this year, he runs one kilo-
meter every day. He occasionally dances {at discos, too (as well
as other places) 1 with his wife, too (as well as other women)] .)
( e m o l (DBJG: 247-50); mo2 (DBJG: 250-53))

2. Mo sometimes appears with no specific reference, as in (6), a typical
opening in written correspondence.
I(5 fik
(6) & 0 @ ?& & f F k ~ & v dZ O Z " ~ T * $ , b > f F i f i ' % & Z " ~ ~ - f

(How are you during cherry blossom season? (lit. Cherry blos-
som information is also heard these days. How are you?))
In this situation, the mo indicates that other things which herald the
arrival of spring are implied while the cherry blossom news is being
3. Mo is often used in double negative sentences, which can be para-
phrased as nai koto mo nai, as in (7).

b. ti03i z ?~;t;&+r;tb<G ~ L W ,% % ~ L & ~ G L > ,
(=. . . %fFL;&L\;. I:&&L\$, . . .)
(It's not that I don't understand what he says; I just can't
agree with it.)
- -
(d mo mo (this volume; DBJG: 255-57))
a structure which expresses the -
be enough tolfor; if at leas+.
idea that a certain amount of s.t. is - -3

if as muchlmany as -, it will
be enough to

+Key Sentence

Number + Counter Vcond 7

(Three hours are enough to see everything in this art museum. (lit. If
you have as many as three hours, you can see everything in this art

Number + Counter b Vcond
x ILL <
5 A b %;kl% (if five people come, it will be enough to -)

:C tLiA
x ~ ~ b & - ? r $ + c ~ 6& va L d r~o
(20,000 yen will probably be enough. (lit. If you take as much as
20,000 yen with you, it will probably be sufficient.))
fS.C r i s ;
F - I L C ~9'-x
~ b & ~ ~ 8 b f h f k ~ k E ~
(As for beer, if we buy two dozen, it will be enough (lit. we will be all
L>T Lei d,&
- ~ ~ b t h ~ f ~ d t 6 ~ i3kt o
: j b ~
(It will take no more than a week until you can walk (lit. until you
become able to walk).)
:1 BLdw Gus?*. ;h
I, zm b &cfW
(Listening two or three times is I will be sufficient for understanding
most of it.)
- rno - tara can also be used to express this idea, although it is less common.

both and -; neither - nor -;
also; (not) either

+Key Sentences
Vmasu Vmasu

(Because I have a backache, I can neither stand nor sit still.)

Vmasu Vrnasu

~ 7b
b tz,6
ifb. (
~ t i # ~ . ~ r l & j $ $ ~ , d ; < &A eta,
(Loving haiku, I read them a lot and I write them myself (too).)
(That apartment is neither good nor cheap.)

( (His writings are interesting and also easy to read.) 1
= = (El
Adj(na)stem Adj(na)stem

(Her English is neither particularly good nor bad.)



(He is neither a relative nor a friend.)
( i ) a. Vmasu 6 Vmasu 6 t h / L a b 1
36 6 6 3 6 Jp 6 (both read and write)
36 6 k 3 6 L 2 b (neither read nor write)
b. Vmasu 6 I L / - i f & L / t l ~ l % Vmasu
) 6 9 6
% % 6 ~ L / ~ b L / - i t ; l Z l % l k 3 6 - ( t (readandalsowrite)
c. Vmasu 6 I @ T / L 2 b l L / LDlfkLtfI Vmasu 6 L Q b l
3 6 6 I @ 4 / L 2 l / l L / L2lflrllfl 8 3 6 L a b s (donot
read and do not write, either)

(ii) a. VN 6 VN 63-6 / L a b 1
brio ti C
#F! 6 %!% 6 % 6 (both cook and clean)
$+B6 %R6 L Q b l (neither cook nor clean)
b. N 6 IL/Jp6L/tl~lf)N6Jp&
$4E 6 { L / -$- 6 L / -b ;k l%l 6 Jp 6 (cook and also clean)
c. N 6 t @ T / L 2 b ' L / LhlfkLlfl N 6 LQbl
HE6 (11-4 / L Q L L~ / L 2 d f d ~ l % R
l E 6 L2L.l (does not
cook and does not clean, either)
(iii) a. Adj(i)stem <6 Adj(i)stem < 6 h b / 2b l
i k L L < 6 % ~ < 6 6 6(bothhappyandsad)
5 fl L < 6 ?LF L < & Q b l (neither happy nor sad)
b. Adj(13stem <6 I 6 0 / 6 6 L / h h d f l Adj(i)stem < 6h6
i f l L < 6 ( $ 1 4 / h b L / h l ~ C %%
l L< h h 6 (happy and
also sad)
c. Adj(i)stem <6 I 2 < / Obi L / Q lf l ~ l % Adj(i)stem
l < 6 Ql/l
188 -mo-mo
j ; k L < B { h </ h ~ \ L / h l f f ~ C %%lL < G a b \
(not happy and not sad, either)
(iv) a. {Adj(na)stem 1N} T 6 {Adj(na)stem 1 N) T B h 6 / 2
^ih. ifw F r ~#r
@$UT B #$$gi%T B h 6 (both convenient and economical)
@$IT B %&TJT B h b l (neither convenient nor economical)
b. {Adj(na)stemlN}T& {hb / h & L / h ; k C f )
{Adj(na)stem1N} T 6 i6 b
@ 8 T B {&Il / h b L / h ; k l f ) %%i%T%bib (convenient
and also economical)
c. {Adj(na)stem 1 N} T B 1h / < bl L / h lf ;kG%l
{Adj(na)stem 1 N) T 6h b >
@$Or& { h / h ~ l /Lh l f ; k ~ f J %%EITB hb\ (not con-
venient and not economical, either)

ma ~ . r m a l ; ; w 1 t % ~ 6 i m ~ .
(When it comes to German, I can both read it and speak it.)
I r i r ) , LI ti?%
Z CSW9IS4E L T d 6 *4? 3 L T ??6 +W,t; r i P b l b l ,
(This textbook is not too difficult and not too easy, either; it's just
; ~ ; ' ~ O % P A G M ~Wa !c~f ; k c m ~ gLGP,
(Bob's wife does not cook and does not clean (the house), either.)
zo% bcAE3~3< 6 h l f kLb%%;31 L< B2blo

(This story is not interesting and not funny, either.)
%<I: L <LC L
m m a + & k ~ e h ?~+ ,& ~ b h b .
(Mr. Okuda is a lawyer and also a novelist.)
if? Br< t,
?o~&o&&C~&$! Bf1b)k LEB~:6 &'blfij~."$&g%;31b2~7
r; ,
- mo - mo / mono (da) 189

(1 checked the word in the dictionary and also asked my friend, but I
didn't get the meaning after dl.)
Dt hPf
& ~ ~ c i s i i ~ b > ~ a ~ / \ > v p~i ~&~
& si tGj:a~ j~5L '~,L > ,
p a t man is smart and handsome, too, but I'm unable to like him for
some reason.)

1. As the rules in Formation (ii) show, when sum-verbs such as benm-
sum are used in this structure, mo follows the verb stem (i.e., VN)
rather than Vmasu (i.e., VN shi), as in (1).

2. As in KS(G), Exs.(f) and (g), when a clause contains a noun other than
the topic, mo marks the noun rather than the predicate.
- -
(e mo mo (DBJG: 255-57))

mono (da) %a> (ti) n. <w>

(is) that which -; (is) some-
create a sentence structure which thing which -; (are) those
which -
190 mono (da)

+Key Sentences

Topic Relative Clause

(Most of the present computers are those which are called (lit. things
which are called) the von Neuman model.)

(C Company announced an experimental model of an obstacle detector
for the blind.)

1 Topic 1 Relative Clause 1

Sentencez (cont.)

Relative Clause (cont.)

r % m i b k a1iKLI: ;to ( T ~ s ) ~
(This device enables (lit. is something which has enabled) blind people
to recognize (lit. feel) obstacles ahead of them through stimuli to their
mono (da) 1 91

(same as the rules for the relative clauses)

(The content of this book generally applies to any society (lit. is some-
thing general which applies to any human society).)

(D Company has decided to reduce the price of M-type word-proces-
sors by five percent. Their aim is to regain (lit. This is to aim at regain-
ing) their recently declining share of the word-processor market.)

(The first meeting of the Study Group for University Entrance Exami-
nations was held at a hotel in Tokyo yesterday. This study group was
started for the purpose of reviewing the present university entrance
examination system which is criticized frequently these days.)
(el za,WEi~&h~&fi~rb%~:&%~fia a,k 3 l ; f i 7 ~ ~ a ,
(This problem is expected to solve itself when the time comes.)
192 mono (da)
+d.w iA Z drri t < LA IP
(f) r v 3 I-n=3~0&%b&+fdbb~Ba&%B%Cf'ilI/~<
(It is predicted that the world of electronics will continue advancing
rapidly from now on, too.)

Mono (da) is used to change the structure "X wa VP," which describes
an action taken by or received by X, to the structure "X wa Np da;
which is used to present a characteristic of X. Compare the two sen-
tences in (1).
(1) a. %GOJ~VL-POI~~AP
2.CI&4~~~2 t t ~ J k q
(Most of the present computers are called the von Neuman

Here, (la) describes what happens to the referent of the topic (i.e., most
of the present computers) while (lb) provides a characteristic of the ref-
Mono (da) as in KS(B), Exs.(c) and (d) frequently appears in newspaper
articles. It is used when a sentence provides such information as a pur-
pose, a reason, a cause, or specific information about something intro-
duced in the previous sentence. The copula (e.g., da) after mono is fre-
quently dropped in this usage.
Mono followed by the quotative to, as in KS(C), Exs.(e) and (f), is used
in general statements or opinion. This mono could be dropped without a
change in meaning. Note that the copula da does not follow mono in
this use.
(+mono (DBJG: 257-61))
How -!; What -!; -!; I wonder;
&ich is used in informal male I wish

+Key Sentences


(He eats a lot!)



(I was so impressed by that (wonderful) movie. (lit. What a wonderful
movie, I thought.))

I Sinf / I

/ (I wonder if I can still make it in time.) I
(I wish Kawai would come soon.)


@7F ct57k

(I wish I had a car. (lit. It would be nice if I had a car.))

(ii) Sinf il.825

fi 1/ 1 $1 i'd h

(I wonder if it's expensive.)

(iii) Vneg .inf 75. Q &
< kLtbl/)illi'dh (I wish S.O. would give me st.)

(a) <
1 i k ~ ~ t b h ~
(We drank a lot! / Did we drink!)
(b) itjo>v~a>%i-ni~ (get%
L ~ C G ~ ,
(I'm surprised that that stingy guy Yoshida gave money.)
(c) &7)&Ll/)Qifio
(I want a house so badly.)
(d) 383 A , gi Lk%Gl/)&Gifio
(I wonder if Mr. Yamauchi is not coming today.)
(I wonder if there is (lit. isn't) an interesting movie.)
(D &fz, L L ~ t
Zc t T r ~ l b a ~ l f i a a .
(I wonder if she will (lit. won't) get mad if I say such a thing.)
PW-x, sair:abafioa,
(I wish the Tigers would win today.)

1. Although it is frequently used by female speakers (particularly, young
women), na was originally male speech. The female version of nB and
ka na are wa nB and kashira, respectively. The formation rules of wa nB
and kashira are as follows.

3 fiblb:& < bh2 (How beautifully S.O. writes!)
- .
~ b l hb%

(It's expensive! I How expensive!) =N$

- -
b. {Adj(na)stem 1 N] h 2 (={Adj(na)stem 1 N) Ebb 2 )
-rb i)
@$Jh2 (It's so convenient! /How convenient!)
3 fib1 hi? (The stars are beautiful!)

Bd0 7: T 7: b h 2 (It was so convenient!)
3 f i b 1 7kEE 7 7: b h 2 (The stars were so beautiful!)

& < f i L L; (I wonder if s.0. will go.)
Gblfi L b (I wonder if s.t. is expensive.)

Ed0 ( 0 / 7'2 9 7: I fi Lb (I wonder if s.t. is I was con-
~ f i L 6 (I wonder if s.0. is / was a teacher,)
%!& {0/i ? 7:)
(akashira (DBJG: 181-82); wa (DBJG: 520-21))
2. Na expresses such positive feelings as happiness, thankfulness, and
admiration and such negative feelings as unhappiness, envy, pity
ridicule, and contempt. (3) presents some examples.
3 ; k b l f? 8 h , [Admiration]
(It's beautiful! / How beautiful!)
Bi 0 ~9 7: 8 h , [Happiness]
(It was great! / I t was fun! /What a good time I had!)
Lht, 161
%d;f$-+?%l?8 25, [Thankfulness]
(What a lucky person I am! / How lucky I am!)
'&b >8 h , [Unhappiness]
(It's expensive! / How expensive!)
blbl8hl 5 6 9 % L b \ 8 h o [Envy]
(I'm envious!)
&4&?8& / f i b b > + 5 m h 0 [Pity]
(Poor man!)
.&&7: 8 h , [Contempt / ridicule]
(How silly! / Silly man! / You are silly.)
U . r b \ 8 h 0 [Blame]
(How terrible! / It's terrible! / You're terrible!)
3. Na may appear with the quotative marker to, as in KS(B), with such
verbs as omou 'think' ; kanjiru 'feel' ; kanshinsuru 'be impressed' ;
akireru 'be astonished' ;kinodokuni omou 'feel sorry.' In these situations
nB is used by both male and female speakers.

4. Ka na expresses the idea of "I wonder . . .," as in KS(C). (+kana)
5. Nai ka na means either "I wonder. . .," as in Exs.(d) - (f), or '4
wish. . .," as in KS(D) and Ex.&).
na / nado to 197

6. conditional sentences with ii nB, as in KS(E), express the idea "I
wish . . ."

7, Sentences with inverted word order are common when nB is used, as
seen in (4).
(4) a. % ~ & 3 f z ~ ; t j ,; t j ~ g t i ,
(We had a lot of fun in those days.)
b. <
L %$&C&, %%X0
(We both worked so hard, didn't we?)

nado to a2 2 comp. prt.
(things) like -; - or something
an approximate quote of words or like

+Key Sentence

(There are people who say things like Japanese culture is unique, but I
don't think so.)

( i ) {V/Adj(i)}inf ifr rl:
%'a r2 ((say) s.t. like s.0. talks)
198 nado to

EJ % L; 2 b>OY 2 ((say) s.t. like s.t. is uninteresting)

$u (7: / 723 7.) h Y t ((say) s.t. like s.t. is /was convenient)
?4!z (72 / 729 7): O Y t ((say) s.t. like S.O. is / was a student)

(a) % Z F ~ ~ > ~ P EL I; ,$ + & < G Y ~ ~ > ~ Z ~ ~ ~ S T T ~
(I don't have money, so ideas like going to Japan are just dreams.)
L>I-$~A?? Lo? _C FA
(b) &$IE~$~L~GY~C~ZL>Z-~~A~PL;, BC--, ~ E ~ S , ~ I L ~?-jT
(I'm not saying you should exercise everyday, but why don't you do it
2 or 3 times a week.)

(d) ~->?:%I~AF!$$~TT < h*
&&7265 ~ ~ k ~ < ~ ~ T ~ ~ b

(Don't think indulgently things like people will help you when you are
in trouble.)
'I*i d'( +%B= ~$%i
(e) E$+2YLLLzfJLTk>&?YbSAIi, 5%<E$O&i%C3K
(Mr. Kent, who is about to go to Japan to study, is worried about things

like whether he will be able to adjust to Japanese life.)
(f) d i - A h j 5 ' B a ) ~k ~ 4 73 * O ; f i ; f i 7 " 7 ? ~ ~ k ~ - > ~ b ~ & L ~
(Everybody is saying something like you are the hope of our club.)
(g) &&LTklZ-$, 7 2 Y k 8 j h & 6 k & & ( S b l ,
(When I am told that they respect me, I feel embarassed.)

1. The particle nado to is used to single out an approximate quote of s.0.'~
speech or internal monologue.
2. Usually nado to occurs with an explicitly negative predicate as in Exs.
nado to / nagara(mo) 199
(b) and (d), or with a negative implication, as shown in KS and the rest
of the Exs. For example, Ex.(f) sounds positive on the surface, but the
speaker is saying the sentence with some sarcasm. The only case where
a negative meaning is missing is when nado is with a noun.
(1) a. ~F's/ve&fi"is/vacjSPika LIZ,
(People like Mr. Tanaka and Mr. Ogawa showed up.)
b. - + ~ ~ ~ / v s a e 8~ h f i e, a
(I ate stuff like sushi and tempura.)
(dnado (DBJG: 267-68))

3. When N of N nado is a person it means humbleness if it is the first per-
son pronoun, as shown in (2a); if not, it is a derogatory or downgrading
comment, as shown in (2b) and (2c).

b. & $ ~ * ~ l : z o ~ ~ ~ ~C~; ~$T ~j S. P; ~3L.\ &
, -

- -
(There is no reason to believe that Mr. Suzuki, of all peo-
ple, could understand this problem.)
e b L1Z
c. &IF&?',& e f b k \ d ; ,
(Stuff like raw eggs, I won't eat, you know.)

nagarqmo) QfF%( 6 ) conj. <w>

although; even though; never-
normally in written Japanese with theless
[REL. ga; keredo(m0); nonil
+ ~ Sentences
e ~

(Although his room is small, it is comfortable.)



(Yamaguchi kept silent, although he knew about the matter.)

2-n'~; ( 6) (although S.O.says -)
%$3 T b ( 6) (although S.O. understands s.t. / s.o.)

(ii) {Adj(i)inf / Adj(na)stem 1N) h$L; ( b )
A 3 b l h 2' 1;( 6) (although s.t. is big)
R+h$ 1;( b ) (although s.t. / S.O. is quiet)
2 2~1;( 6) (although S.O. is a child)

mwms Dt hi,,
(a) Wa>At;li2?bll'b$L; ( b ) , hA~hA%#I?,
(He is young, but he is very capable.)
(b) %&o>-tr'~ t;li&!Lb>8$1; ( b ) % & k ~6-n'8$31:,
(Although my professor's seminar was tough, I learned a lot from it.)
(Becky's Japanese is halting, but I was able to figure out what she had
to say.)
(a* t <
( 6 ) . o h m < , a%$ei i b e 0
(dl ;olia;i.lm-e
(This area is inconvenient, but there is little traffic and the air is clean.)
Chhh h L f: Hhdr<d%~
(4 y % + w b , m ~ o i f ~ g i : & e f ~ r ~ ,
(To my regret, I cannot go to tomorrow's concert.)
(I) ~ l t d i i d f l # ? 2 d ' b ( 1 ) , .L <*%%?lo%~i.
(Hitomi is just a child, but she says things very carefully (lit. after
thinking hard).)
(g) :o@i$J&$b ( 6 ) .L <&lo
(This car runs well, although it is such a small car.)
f=hLh 6. :lh
(h) ~ [ * o ~ m ~ o ; -/ I ~
11 - ~ & Lj ~ G ~ L( 6; 1 , 2&~j:h~?&l
(Japanese white-collar workers who have to leave their families behind
for work transfers work for the company even though their lives are

&) s#'~;tf:< ~ A % ~ k 9 ? b ~ G ($6 )b, $ L & & , L ~ b l G b l ,
(My younger brother has bought many books, but he has not read any
of them.)
p nh r
(1) 4&eilqE& E[$-%T9-clJ>G$b(&), E I * % $ $ L & & ? G ~ > ~
(Although he has been to Japan many times he cannot speak Japanese
at all.)

1. The disjunctive conjunction nagara(mo) is a subordinate conjunction
that is used to express the meaning of 'although' by combining two sen-
2. The conjunction is normally used in written or formal, spoken Japanese.
3. When nagara is used as a disjunctive conjunction, the disjunctive mean-
ing is emphasized if mo is used. There are cases where nagara and
nagararno are used as a temporal 'while' and the disjunctive 'although,'
respectively, as shown in (la) and (lb).
(1) a. 4&l&@;kQfif% r"2 I. )ba);l S%%flZ 5 k L k o
(As he fell down, he tried to pull the pistol trigger.)
b. ~ & l 2 @ k L Q f ~ ~ % 6I.)ba)3lS&B3lZ
r"X 5 2Lk0
(Although he fell down, he tried to pull the pistol trigger.)
(+nagara (DBJG: 269-70))

4. Probably because zannen nagara 'to one's regret' in Ex.(e) is an
idiomatic phrase, mo cannot be attached to it.

The crucial differences between nagara(mo), on one.hand and ga, keredo
(mo), noni, on the other hand, are: first, the latter can be used in both spoken
and written Japanese, whereas the former is normally used only in written or
formal spoken Japanese, 'and secondly, the latter has no restriction on the
choice of the subject, but the former normally takes the third person as the
subject, apparently because it is usually employed to give the speaker's
observation of, or opinion about, a third person. Thus, Ex.(l) cannot take the
first nor the second person pronouns.

b. {@/&a7':/@1
i2B$-mEhqT;iTb>& {tJf/Lth2/@
I:}, El$.;gF$L $%-eh~/>~
(+ga (DBJG: 120-23); keredo(mo) (DBJG: 187-88); noni (DBJG: 331-35))

However, there are cases in which the first person is used as in Exs.(e) and
-nai koto rno/wa nai 203

it isn't the case that - not -; it
make a conditional affirmative - -
is not that not
statement [REL. koto wa]

+Key Sentences

1 (Don't you read Japanese newspapers?)

(I do read them, but very rarely. (lit. It isn't the case that I don't read
them, but very rarely.))

8( 2 z k ( 6 /,[A } C b l (s.t. is expensive I high, but -)

(a) A: <
z o$IA$$$L G ~ ~ L T T + ~
(Isn't it cool around here during the summer?)
204 -nai koto rnolwa nai
B: we, j g , ~ < a b l z t : e a ~ l / v ~ ~w ~, ~ l r < $ i < a ~ 1 2 - d - ~
(Yes, it is cool, but sometimes it gets terribly hot.)
(b) A: k~;s~~&&$~.Ta~>~~g-O
(Isn't your father in good health?)
IfVbr? t
B: bl?, z "C
m . ~ a b l kZ 1 2 7 ' s b l A T t f l , ltl.Efl$L'&b>k jT

(Yes, he is healthy, but his blood pressure is a bit high.)
H*~~CP@L< &I 3 b*AjS1,
(Isn't Japanese difficult?)
~ ; i ~, ~ < a ~ l ~ k e a ~ ~ r c r B" *- w
B ,O B L L I ~ ~ S
kLt3-Cbl6 k%b>2t:ko
(Yes, it is difficult, but it seems that the difficulty of Japanese is
ai r +?L, c dc( L I
- - (d) A: LLIH~AC~~&Y%C?~~~AT:..~~,
- -
- -
(Mr. Yamada isn't a political scientist, is he?)
bl?, & f g y % L + T a b ~ Z k e a b ~ A r c r " t frl%, b 7 - P k b l 5 k
(Yes, he is a political scientist, but he is more of a politician.)

(Japanese are said to like group behavior. Certainly, they do behave as
a group, but there are quite a few Japanese who behave individually.)

1. The phrase -nai koto rno/wa nai is used when the speaker wants to
mildly acknowledge 1confirm with a proviso that s.0. has just said or
written. The phrase is often followed by n(o) d e w ga.
2. The phrase expresses a double negative structure that is virtually an
affirmative statement.
3. The phrase is an expression of repetition that repeats the same verb,
adjective or N + Copula which has just been used in the interlocutor's
-nai koto mo/wa nai 205
question. So, the phrase cannot be used as a discourse-initial sentence.
In other words, one cannot start conversation with this phrase. So, for
example, in a drinking party situation one cannot utter (1) out of the

Someone must say something like (2) right before (1).
(2) BCi@k3t:b1?iLe&!13-@/v;3'o
(I heard that you don't drink sake.)
4. The difference between -nai koto mo nai and -nai koto wa nai is that the
former is weaker in assertion than the latter. In KS, yomanai koto wa nai
asserts "I do read it" much more strongly than yomanai koto mo nai.

e elated ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
- i

The predicate phrase -nai koto mo nai and koto wa share the same charac-
teristics of not giving an unconditional statement. But the former is used in
response to a negative question, whereas the latter is used in response to an
affirmative question. Compare [lA] and [2A] with KS(A) and Ex.(a),
111 A: EI +mmimima;r a -wO
(Do you read Japanese newspapers?)

[2] A: Z o)ZCSZ%L~/\/uT.fd.~
(Is it cool around here during the summer?)
B: ?iTT;ta, I Z L L \ Z t l d Z L L \ T t / * S L < & t \ Z t S &
L \ A T b l $, @ h v r < g < t : ! l a - $ ,
(It is cool, but sometimes it gets terribly hot.)
(+koto wa (DBJG: 206-08))
206 nakanaka

nakanaka ah'ah' adv.

quite; fairly; considerably;
speaker's feelings that s.t. is im- (not) easily; pretty; (not)
pressive or his annoyance at slow- readily
[REL. hijd ni; kanari; kekkd; taj-
hen; totemo]

+Key Sentences

:1 IIL Z LriT
1~3>3LktEl$&F tbiPc$ LPTb its,

1 ({Mr. Brown is I Mr. Brown, you are} remarkably good at Japanese.)
q,J; (B)


:a>&bf%U. tbiPG61 $$E &L$-C&&~

1 (This flower arrangement is done quite nicely,) I

(It will be a long time before the cherry blossoms are out this year. (lit.
This year the cherry blossoms do not bloom easily.))
nakanaka 207

r (That guy does his job quite well, doesn't he?)

(The wife of our departmental chief Yamada is quite a beauty.)

(i ) h il.h d.Adj(i l na)aff
h $2 (quite interesting)
h 75 2 $8$~
f? (quite convenient)
(ii) hitrb2$Vaff
2 & 2 dl? (s.o. performs s.t. quite well)

(iii) 8$h 6 Vneg
B j5.h db%j(r.CJ 2 b > (cannot understand s.t. easily)
(iv) 2 $0 $1 Adv.
2 $2 dlkFl:~if-F (s.o. speaks quite well)

(a) z 0 8 b i i t i 2 d ~ t ci t~ b~ >~ ~ - ~ h ,
(This garden is quite beautiful, isn't it?)
208 nakanaka
t r< &lri?W
Z D & D P ~ ~ E L ~ ~ ~ 5~ ~ % E + L ~
(This math problem looks quite difficult, doesn't it?)

(e) ~ O E ~ bZb kX ~ - - 7 7 ) ~ 1 . ? 2 t i - $ ~ $<$<.
(That pianist plays Mozart quite well.)
pE%hlr L*i
(f) a$a$k+~:e
T = X C ~ B H L . ; TL - W & D C : , b t b ~ l t v ~ t ~
(I am practicing tennis every day, but I cannot become good at it
(g) ~ ~ D & f ~ C : a ~ T ~ ~ & f l a $ a ~ ~ & a d ~ 3 7
- -
(The meeting time long passed, but my friend didn't show up for a long
- -
time, so I went home.)
(h) & D ~ t i r t v a G : $ % ~ T b , %0$5 Z kfladb2$9$bhblL 5
(No matter how hard I try to explain, he doesn't seem to understand me
(i) k $ i ~ ~ ~G~~ ~&D $ET ,Qb T ~ L~ T&- F ~
(I'm having a difficult time, because my cold won't go away easily.)
(j) 7 ~ & $ T<, t s $ t s t & ~ b t ~ ; t r b ~ t v ~ ~
(I am scared of blowfish and cannot eat it easily.)
(k) ~ ~ Q % ! & k a d ~ a $ ~ + & & % & r . f
(Mr. Nakamura is a teacher who (lit. can talk with us) can understand
(1) ~ D ) L - L -, ~P Cifb$fb$(D)@ $&%T, $a;htbbl,
(My roommate is such a hard worker that I cannot compete with
nakanaka 209

1. Nakanaka modifies only adjectives with positive meanings. Thus,
nakanaka in the following examples is unacceptable.

(3) za)Y=xc&It76 l * & t J ~ & f P I% ~ h ,
(Your tennis is quite bad, isn't it?)

2. When nakanaka occurs with the negative form of a verb it indicates the
difficulty or slowness with which s.t. desirable reaches its realization, as
shown in KS(C) and Exs.(f) - (j).
3. There are cases in which the affirmative form of a verb can be used as
shown in KS(D) and Ex.&). Notice that in these cases one could say
that the adverb yoku is understood. The deletion of yoku appears to be
allowed when it is followed by a verb that already includes the meaning
of 'well' like dekiru of KS(D) or hanaseru of Ex.&). So, if a verb
doesn't include the meaning of 'well', yoku cannot be omitted.
(5) ZO&&&%P& I & < /*#I & ~ f - m & ,
(This picture is well painted.)
4. It is not the case that any N can follow nakanaka; only those nouns that
include the idea of an adjective or adverb can be used with nakanaka.
For example, bijin in KS(E) and benkyd-ka in Ex.(l) come from
utsukushii hito 'a beautiful woman' and yoku benkydsuru hito 'a person
who studies well.' Even the loan word purei-bdi can be used with
nakanaka, because it means yoku onna-no-ko to asobu hito 'a person
who habitually plays with girls.'
21 0 nakanaka

Nakanaka can be used with adjectives that have of positive meaning and
with the negative verb when it implies slowness or difficulty. Observe the
following examples which contain six adverbs of degree: nakanaka, totemo,
hvo ni, taihen, kanari, and kekkd.

When nakanaka is used with an affirmative predicate, it can be replaced by
the five adverbs: toterno, hvd ni, kanari, taihen, and kekk6. But when
nakanaka is used with a negative verb as in [lc], it cannot be replaced by
either of the five adverbs. The crucial differences among the five adverbs are
shown in [2].

b. & O ~ l d ! . ; f i . l f b : ~ b ~I,C f 7 L i /fi>&bJ / ? ? 2 7 % / * A
21 & h a m
(Despite his appearance, he drinks quite a lot.)
nakanaka / -naku 2 1 1
ti $
& fi:g B l c i l L C*i L B ?
c. R ~ i i E+l Z + - L E $ & " I { ( t : T 6 / / 2 / * C f 7 : , ; /*JY
721) 1%hf.,
(In Tokyo it was 37 degrees in the daytime, and it was very hot.)
The sentences in [2] show that kekko and kanari indicate a relatively high
degree, wheareas, toterno and taihen indicate an absolutely high degree.
Kekkd and toterno are more colloquial than kanari and taihen, respectively.

-naku a< inflectional ending <w>

not - and; not - but
written Japanese (to indicate a rea- [REL. -zu]
son I cause for what follows if nai
is attached to Adj(i 1 na) and con-
trast if it is attached to N + Copula)

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

(The Japanese final examination was not very hard, and I felt relieved.)

(My research area is not modem history, but ancient history.)
(i ) Adj(i)stem < 2<
3 <Q< (s.t. 1S.O. is not big and -)

(ii) 2
{Adj(na)stem1N} TI&. <
@+Ti22 < (s.t. 1S.O. is not quiet and -)
=Tti 2< (s.o. is not a teacher but -)

@0$&,3 I I ~ <a < , $-IT- d?,Z & ~ ; i l . ? h + ~ ~ : ,
(It wasn't very cold this winter and we wore our overcoats only two or
three times.)
l o i n fhd'
ll$s~f:@~d&c:3E < a < , #$T&-c ~ 3 ~ 7 : ~
(The movie I saw yesterday was so boring that I went to sleep during
$ L G L ~ & . B $ ? Q)j5I$@~C;fa
~B~ < , A5382 L k O

(To listen to Japanese was not easy, and I had quite a difficult time.)
@Zk@&f:8d&.?fii3 &L < 2 , %€I!+ < &%%
(I was surprised that I did not feel so sad when I parted with her.)
$Li~B$$g??&$ji;i-C fif:a)d&.El$ATG&.h < , 7 >'I i5Af?9f:,
IL I 1 L C L

(The person who taught me Japanese was not a Japanese but an Amer-
< 9 .r~ae,
(What I like is not Japanese cuisine, but Thai cuisine.)

1. Adj(i)stem ku naku and Adj(na) de wa naku are used to express a reason /
cause for what follows, as shown in KS(A) and Exs.(a) - (d). But the
reason 1cause there is not stated as precisely as in kara 1node-clauses,
just like the English conjunction "and".
(+kara3 (DBJG: 179-81); node (DBJG: 328-31))
-naku 21 3

2. The -naku form is used in written Japanese, whereas -nakute can be used
in both spoken and written Japanese. However, note that the negative
continuative form -naku cannot be used with a verb except when naru
follows the naku form, as shown in (1) and (2).
$ { ~ Q t b < ~ / * ~ ~ ~ < lB&LT-$,
(Our child doesn't read books and we don't know what to
g &a< 7/ * m a < I B.n'9~~>%
t o
(My husband doesn't drink much, and it's a relief.)
(L=> nakute (DBJG: 279-80))

i % o F C S Q % % t b <Q 9 3 Lk,
(Our child doesn't read books any more.)
~ A l k @ Q R Q Q <Q b 3 L ~ L ,
(My husband doesn't drink any more.)
3. If nai is attached to N + Copula, it indicates contrast. But, if a noun is
a Sino-Japanese compound ~ i t l l ~ aadjectival
n nature, such as akusei
&E) 'malignant,' kdhyd ($f 8 ) 'popularity,' it indicates a reason1
cause for what follows.
(3) a. ~&&FE~WQ < , 1 2 9t L?:,
(The tumor wasn't malignant, and I felt relieved.)
b. % ~ l r . . * m m ~ a< , ~ 9 . nr)' LIZ,
(The book I wrote was not popular, and I felt disappointed.)
4. The following chart summarizes the negative and affirmative continua-
tive forms.
Affirmative Negative

(+te (DBJG. 464-67); Vmasu)

The -naku form is connected with an Adj(i l na) or a noun, but it cannot be
connected with a verb except when naru follows the -naku form, as stated in
Note 2. However, Vneg zu can be used in written Japanese. Vneg usually
takes a potential negative form, except when Vneg means 'without doing
(+naide (DBJG: 271-73))

H$%D#%@%&T, B 9 k 0
(I was not able to read Japanese newspapers, so I had a difficult
CaiLr K'LblfLZJ tlL5< K' 1
fE f i & ~ % % T & & f i > b TW
, wYi%Gzfi9k o
(I didn't know the address or the telephone number, so I was not
able to contact him.)
,hkL L2bL
@X$QRB~~K&$;~ ${~fib>k,
(I couldn't answer simple questions, so I felt embarassed.)
nandemo 21 5

nandemo HT6 phl:

I don't know for sure, but
er's uncertainty about s.t.

+Key Sentence

(I don't know for sure, but they say that Mr. Yamamoto has separated
from his wife and lives alone.)

O t r i fib
me G z o&awmmt t:~r>+i e-3-L
11 61

(I don't know for sure, but they say things are expensive in this neigh-
r n e ~ ~ o X i a if iwe :~i~~-~ e ~ ~
+L fib, l

(I don't know for sure, but he appeared to have earned a lot of money
through stocks.)
fiwf< I v ' r W < La? L
r n e ~ & h ~ ~ k l~ +i e ~ ~ ~* kj d5& y 6 + ~ & ~
~ 7
b '>: 1 ;
T-3-L o
(I don't know for sure, but it seems that Mr. Toda's son received an
MBA at the University of Chicago.)
I: ~wwh. - L b& 0 -3 s bviicl
b%k7% 1) ~ ~ E ~ ~ B ~ ~ P ~ ~ c ~ ;
(I don't know for sure, but there's some talk that they are developing
an airplane that flies between Japan and the west coast of the States in
about five hours.)

1. The phrase nanderno indicates the speaker's uncertainty about some-
thing. It is used at the beginning of the sentence and the final predicate
21 6 nandemo / nanishiro

has to be either a hearsay expression (as in KS, Exs.(a) and (d)) or con-
jectural expression (as in Exs.(b) and (c)).
2. The sentence remains grammatical without nandemo, but it cannot
express the idea of uncertainty.
3. Among the conjectural expressions, dard l deshd cannot be used with
nandemo, because the speaker is sure about s.t. more than 50% but less
than 100% when he uses nandemo, whereas he is at most 50% sure
about s.t. when he uses dard l deshd.
bfi O I -ZX.
(1) *4Wb & D I A C ~ ~ @ ? & P L:J 3 h,
(I don't know for sure, but the two will probably get married.)
+ m T b &DXAIi%fi€W& { % LL\/ & 3 / ? 5 1 T ? k
(I don't know for sure, but the two {seem / appear / have been
said} to be getting married.)
(+dare (DBJG: 100-02))

nanishiro fFlL 3 adv. <s>

an adverb that indicates the speak- as a matter of fact; no matter
er's emotive feeling about some what; believe it or not; you
extreme state of affairs may be surprised, but -; in fact;
[REL. tonikaku]
nanishiro 2 17

+Key Sentences

(My father is obstinate. As a matter of fact, once he says he will do s.t.,
he never changes his mind.)

fl(Cb%( CL CL*W

--Al?;Sl$ h,
(A: I heard that education at this college is good. B: Yeah, you may
be surprised, but the instructor-student ratio is 6 to 1.)

I Sentence, I 1 sentence2 I

I (Because my boss hollan at me all day long, I'm unbelievably stressed.) /

(a) & O ~ ~ A ~ & ~ LT~ T~ >L Y ~% % & & & Q T ~ > & L T * ; S ~
(He is rich, you know. Believe it or not, he has three Mercedes Benz.)
@ L a , tD&btsl,>io%$g
(b) @ a ) ~ G i $ ~ G : ~ $ ~ ; S 1 3 7 ' : T t 0
Gbi b b l T L l z - h l b h ,
(It snowed a lot this winter. In fact, there were less snow-free days than
snowy days, you know.)
21 8 nanishiro

(d) A: bTd&.~$@b>jfak
(Japan is crowded, isn't it?)
B: j A, { @ L S , %41&.79
'I f ~ a ) 3 - 5 5 3 O - Q O b : , XEd2.:
4:t*'): Xh.

53O-7'?73 b jfao
(Yeah, as a matter of fact, the size is one twenty fifth of America
but the population is one half, you know.)
(el ~ L S :jF~~l/vrz,
, & a & f i ~ ~ ~ ~ t v ~ ~ ~
(I'm unbelievably busy. I don't have any sleeping time, you know.)

1. Originally the adverb comes from nani o shim meaning 'do what you
2. Nanishiro indicates the speaker's emotive reaction about some extreme
state of affairs, so if an unusual situation does not exist the adverb can-
not be used.

(1) Vii tiJXa~-?f.=;~.>,
M L ("&%&;k+
~ j K%L> / *tj 1
k@$%b>I OTO
(Please let me take a day off today, because (I have a severe
headache I I have a slight headache).)

(2) <
, K ~ ~ L -Q
L {~p " ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ $ ,/ &
c ~ I / ~ L > ~ . .M
, ~ -
*R$ZZT%%->TL>ZI] d.6,
(Don't worry, because {there are as many as 20 policemen
watching 1I am watching you] .)

Nanishiro in all the KS and Exs. above can be replaced by tonikaku. How-
ever, tonikaku has a meaning of 'any waylat any rate' but unlike nanishiro it
does not indicate the speaker's emotive feeling. In other words, nanishiro is
a speaker-oriented expression, but tonikaku isn't. So, the latter can be used in
nanishiro / naranai 2 1g
highly hearer-oriented request or question sentences but the former cannot.
[I] a. I L : C Z ~ P </*.fiil~31&416:4~7;2b',
(Come and see me, anyway.)
b. I t E f i > < /*.fiilL31 ? % d Q & ~ f z Ir; i T T ~ ,
(I'd suggest that you send a letter, anyway.)
c. {L:w< / * w L ~ f)i i c w b t , a . t t j . ,
(Are you going to quit smoking anyway?)

1 a phrase that is used to express cannot help -ing; irresistibly;
1 insurmountable psychological or unbearably
[REL. tamaranai]

+Key Sentences

,%& a I; ak'o
(I'm very much womed about my sick mother. (Lit. I cannot help
worrying about my sick mother).)

1 (I'm dying to know Japanese history more deeply.)
220 naranai

: k ~ T & ~ T , , l & gkjS%[Z
(I cannot help worrying about my mother who is living alone.)

( i ) Adj(i/ na)te B l;Bb>
j kL L < T i's l; h b l (I cannot help feeling happy.)
f @ T h 6 i's (I cannot help feeling sorry.)
(ii) VteBbhbl
~jS-&blThl; i'skl (I cannot help feeling pressed.)

ti-t t;LL/r b IZL
kjS@if-A&lELTbl&OT,$$L< Ti's 17 1 + b ,
(My husband has gone alone for work and I cannot help feeling
htb =AT<
1 h l 2 ~ % % 1 f i $ t 1 35Th, L < T B b B b l h i I ? ,
(The couple have decided to get engaged and they look ovejoyed.)
$2$% B O ~ J . < 7 8 r; 8 k l 0
I1Lrira tibLh

(The mystery novels by Seicho Matsumoto are irresistibly interesting.)
tb'l V i
R O % a > x t V ; S j S w + 1L < T B r ; B k ~ ,
(Our neighbor's stereo is unbearably noisy.)
+* i2 r L Q m
~~\~fk&jS~a>~$??~O &T a ,3 %j%2TB
~ : 8 & l;Qk>,
(Since Prof. Yamada is going to quit this university, I cannot help feel-
ing disappointed.)
x g a ~ b d<i T h r; h b 1 ,
2iSri ba

(The summer in Tokyo is awfully hot.)
naranai 221
*bv%" b.+
(g) , @ a > ~ , % ? ? g b r ~ h f =:k&
b ,F ~ LT a, <
(When I rushed up the stairs at the station, it became unbearably
painful to breathe.)
A g ~ ? i t : c ; r ' a ~ a > ~ ~ ~ - n ~ ~E( $*&@7 ~f ai 6~a~5 h~7b ~ ,
7: ,
(I got really mad because the TV set which I just bought got broken
right away.)
L =t
(i) egfl?9 < & 7 - C b 4 G b 1 0 ~ ,s f l & X 7 - C ~b a b r 0
(I feel helplessly depressed because my business isn't going well.)

1. Naranai is used to express insurmountable psychological or physical
feeling. The form is connected with Adj(i / na) of psychological or
physical feeling as shown in KS(A), (B), and Exs.(a) - (g), or with V of
psychologic$ feeling as in Exs.(h) and (i). If Adj(i / na) is neither a psy-
chological nor physical feeling, naranai cannot be used.
(1) ??%Lo%&$<
T Q 5 QL\, -
(My house is unbearably small.)
(2) *Ei$a>%&?bi%<T Q % Q L b E I $ a ) ~ Q b & ~ b ~ Q ,
(Prices in Japan are unbearably expensive.)
However, there are some psychological and physiological adjectives
that cannot be used with naranai.
(3) a. ??XLLQC L Y ~ F > T L I : ~ ; ,,WF~<TG-~Q$~I:,,
#,L wf;

(I jogged after a long while and my legs hurt unbearably.)
b. *&a>%&b&%~bv.+b,1~8T-a 6 a b ~
(That teacher is strict, so I hate him badly.)
c. * & O X C & ~ : T ~ ~ ~ ~ ' B iLkP ~ $ ~a; 1, ;a~,
(He is very considerate, so I like him a lot.)
When V is connected with naranai it is usually an idiomatic verb phrase
of psychological feeling, and not of physiological feeling. Thus, for
example, (4) is unacceptable, unless naranai is replaced by tamaranai.
222 naranai

2. The subject of the naranai construction is normally the speaker I writer
or whoever the speaker I writer is empathetic with as in (5).
* + 3 :
(5) ~ % n ~ 1 2 0 2 & 0 & % P 5b-?a L < T h b h b l o
(Machiko cannot help feeling envious of Hitomi's beauty.)
If the subject is other than the speaker / writer and the speaker 1writer is
not empathetic with the referent of the subject, it is necessary to use
expressions such as ydda, rashii, yosu da, etc, as in Ex.@).

Tamaranai and shikata ga nai can be used with any Adj or V of psychologi-
cal or physical feeling to express its unbearableness, whereas naranai is
much more restricted in that it has to indicate psychological feeling when
used with V, as shown in Note 1 above.

The difference between tamaranai and shikata ga nai is that the former
expresses the speaker's feeling of intolerability more strongly than the latter.
(+tamaranai (DBJG: 44547))
- nari - nari 223

,nari - nari --&11--&1)

a phrase to indicate two represen- - -
or (for example); like -
tative choices / examples or-
(REL. - ka - ka; - -tari - -tari;
- toka - toka]
+Key Sentences

(If you don't understand grammar, ask me or Professor Suzuki.)

(As for kanji you can't read, find out the reading either by looking it up
in a dictionary or by asking a Japanese.)

( i ) N1 h 0 N2 Qll{;59/ 81
t: **<h
H ~ Z B 3 ~ 8 Z B r(;59/81
l (eitherTanakaorYamada)
(ii) NI Prt. Q ll N2 Prt. B 3 (where Prt. = other particles than iF/ 8 )
+i iA
LLI- B 3%". B 3 (to the mountain or to the oceans)
H +Z b= B 3 LLI H Z G= B 3 (either to Tanaka or to Yamada)
(iii) N1 Q ll N2 B ll Prt. (where the Prt. is, : G +, 2, T , &b)
224 - nari - nari

(iv) Vinf .nonpast a rl (Vinf .nonpast a V )

%+ 2 9 , &< 2 V (reading or writing)

(a) ~ ~ t s ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ a ~ j 5 ' ~ % i : B ~ i : ~ g b f ,
(Either I or Yamada will go to the airport to pick you up.)
(I,) ? $ ; 3 ~ % % t a z t : j 5 ' h r l ~ ~ f : 1 ; % & a ~ 7 T . ; r 3 x a v ~ s $
f 0

(If you have something that you want to report, please do it by tele-
phone or by fax.)
(c) %$larl%%a"I=&~-C,Q~ < Q ~ L ~ : V / ~ T L
(I would like to see my parents or a close friend, and talk leisurely.)


- (Right now I'm so busy that I can't make a trip, but I intend to make
one during the spring break or summer vacation.)
(e) Y ~ x i F L k ; t r . ~ f : 1 ; , b . L h r l . f ~ - 1 ~ ~ 7t :' L
sfr: lb b 1 b \ T L ~
(If you want to play tennis, why don't you play with Tom or Charles?)
m d ~ m =<&a 9 , $ % a > Z % ~ b
(f) I- B$L
7 1 f - !TV& ha 6 ,
a V L k b P5 Tf7k
(If you are looking for an apartment, you should go to a realtor or look
at the newspaper ads.)

(g) &&+afs rl , %?av , ~;tr.%%~ L~G$~~'L~WY-
(You'd better do some exercise, like taking a walk or swimming.)

1. - nari - nari is used to present two choices as examples. The speaker
makes a subjective judgment that his 1 her choice is a reasonable and
proper one. That is why it is frequently used in sentences expressing a
- nari - nari 225

command I request as in KS(A), (B), and Exs.(b), or a suggestion1
advice as in Exs.(e) - (g), or an intention I desire as in Exs.(a), (c) and
2. Usually nari is repeated twice, but it may appear only once in Vinf .
nonpast nari Vinf .nonpast nari.

(1) %&c:~T<
&I) LT, & g k g & b t ; / v k L~':I;P~T?&
(Why don't you go to the barber's and make your hairstyle

3. The main predicate of the structure in question is more often than not in
the nonpast tense, because it expresses the speaker's current will, deter-
mination, desire or habits as shown in Exs.(a), (c) and (d). But the main
predicate can be in the past, if the predicate expresses a habitual deter-
mination as shown in (3) below.

(3) %~lk?%?o)~k%;~~%~b
Gblk!I&, %&a?I B$hG )3 Izk7 <
d: i: I Lk,
(I've made it a rule to ask my teacher or a Japanese when I don't
know how to read kanji.)

- - -
I. The structure - nari nari can be replaced by the conjunction ka ka,
because both can express choice. So, KS(A) and Ex.(a), for example,
can be rewritten as [I] and [2],respectively.

- -
The crucial difference between - nari - nari and ka (ka) is that the
latter is an exhaustive listing of choices (i.e., 'either or'), but the for-
mer is a listing of representatives out of more possible choices.
- -
(+ ka ka; kal (DBJG: 164-66))

11. The expression - -tari - -tari can replace - nari - nari. For example,
226 - nari - nari
KS(B) and Ex.(f) can be rewritten as [3] and [4].
(e tari - tari suru (DBJG: 458-61))

- -
Both - nari nari and -tari - -tari list representative examples, but the
former sounds more assertive than the latter. (i.e., the speaker feels that
his choice is the proper one). So in a situation where the ~ p e a k e r ' ~
assertion is due, - -tari -tan is not used.
t Lt3.L
[5] 53*r;ed.9r:c;,H P @ T (i<~*b)/*S<f-bJI, &&
C: {W<&b! /*ML\ebJl L.51,
(If you cannot figure it out, do research at the library or ask
your professor.)
In [6a] and [6b] nari is ungrammatical, because Vinf.nonpast nari
Vinf .nonpast nari cannot be used with the past tense predicate.
[6] a. ~ d l i f {~L k2V /*bQ&b))
~ C D 9 (i?!l'$~~\kbI
* M < & b J I Lf:,
(Yesterday I did things like playing tennis and listening to
b. 749 { & ~ f P/*f?.TC&blI,
l &a (B3fLbl/*%3&
6) I, t -c B % ~ $ 1 k
9 ,

(Doing things like drinking sake and singing songs, we
enjoyed very much (lit. was very enjoyable).)
Tari in [7] is ungrammatical, simply because it cannot be connected
with a noun.

In [8] tari is ungrammatical, because tari expresses X and Y (and oth-
ers), whereas nari expresses X or Y (or s.t.).
- nari - nari / nari ni 227

nI. - toka - toka is also used to list representative examples. - nari - nari
can be replaced by - toka - toka: the former conveys the speaker's sub-
jective judgment that the choice is the proper one but the latter doesn't.
- nan nan in [9d] is unacceptable because it cannot take a verb right
after it.

(I don't like things like politics or religion.)

t in a way 1style that is proper to
s.0. I s.t. I in one's own way; in one's own
228 nari ni

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

Noun Noun
aa)X it i
b j
m avi: 1& & T v & ~ L w ~

(He appears to think hard in his own way.)

(Animals are capable of their own communication.)

YLkitYnts !I:b -
(students in their own way)

(ii) Nl It N2 ts !ID N3 (where N1 =Nz)
%&a !Ia)%,%. (teachers' own idea)

(a) Tkl/\y$(t,~\sb\kYa!I1 : ~~ $ i f j & ~
(Small colleges have their own merits.)
(b) %tm!I I:, A&RB&TV~T,
(I have my own outlook on life.)
I: T h L + G r i Lr
(c) $G@Ci$$j;@7'bOb:,%~@c!IC:, Efi, %$fifl&&,
(A bike and a car have their own merits and demerits.)
(d) $&&hhit@@~~tb !II:, '&6:&B31f 7 : z $ ~ l ~ 1 ~
(Healthy people had better take care of themselves in their own way.)
nari ni 229

(el $~di%&~z~a 17 C=F&-% L & ~ & & & B??o
(I like a society in which old people can enjoy life in their own way.)
1.13 IfL41.lIt25
(f) $ L l i ~ L h 1 3 6 : - 4 1 ~ @ < ~ B 1 7 T t 0
(I intend to work very hard in my own way.)

(g) z O k % 6 = 9 b q E w a 17 O%?.e++9-cbaa .x 5 TT.,
(My father seems to have his own idea about this issue.)

(i) Z$&t;i i & + +a~17 o~$A$& a OR,
(Rich people have their own suffering.)

1. The particle nari ni is used to express a way or a style that is proper to
S.O. or s.t. The phrase N wa N nari ni is used when the speaker wants to
assert s.t. about N. For example, in KS(A), the speaker wants to assert
that he thinks hard in his own way.
2. Along with the adverbial phrase N nari ni, there is N nari no N as in
KS(B) and Exs.(g) - (i).
3. In both N1 wa N2 nari ni and N1 wa N2 nari no N3, Nz can be replaced
by the pronoun sore if N is an inanimate object, as in (1) below.
(1) a. d.3 bak%Ck?kLa 17 :b 1375'&&, (cf. Ex.(a))
(Small colleges have their own merits.)
b. 'i?.XB%Ci?kLC 17 O!W75'&6. (cf. Ex.@))
(Jazz music has its own charm.)
230 nashi de wa
nashi de wa L TCt comp. prt.

[REL. ga (i)-nakereba;
nashi ni wa]

+Key Sentence

(Without real talents one cannot get along in the society.)

%&aL T l i (without a teacher)

h21.a L T I ~ & $wbfa~1,
(Without you I cannot keep on living.)
s e a ~ ~ i i b a b 1~% c $rib'<
~ ~ G s ~ ; ~ L Q L ~ ,
(Without money we cannot receive good education.)
(Without leisure time life will become dull.)
&$a ~ ~ c i Z E e & & a ~ l o
(Without a job one cannot live a life.)
I t ltL hi 6.6'< li?'rL
&L@ LTIi~+YdiWELtbb~,
(Without basic research science would not develop.)
L T I i f j L 9 k$%$E,
(Without a car it is a bit inconvenient.)
nashi de wa 231

1. The compound particle nashi de wa is used to express a conditional "if
s.t. / s.0. is missing."
2. The particle nashi de wa usually appears with a negative predicate. The
predicate can be implicitly negative as in Ex.(c).
(1) a. * & h f z & L T i b 4 2 T L > 1 f b b (cf.Ex.(a))
(Without you I can live a life.)
b. *%a&L T l b ? & O + B B ; k b O (cf. KS)
(One can get along in society even without real talents.)

[Related ~xpressions]
I. Nashi de wa can be replaced by nashi ni wa in KS and Exs.(a), (b), (d),
and (e), but not in the other Exs. It seems that N nashi de wa is pre-
ferred in a context where N is used as a means of achieving something; ed
whereas N nashi ni wa is preferred in a context where the meaning of a
means of achieving something is weak. That is why in Exs.(c) and (f)
the original nashi de wa can hardly be replaced by nashi ni wa; the free
time is regarded as a means of enriching one's life in Ex.(c) and a car is
regarded definitely as a means of transportation in Ex.(f). In [I] below,
the same N "w8puro" is regarded as a means in [la] and not as such in
[I] a. 7-;PU ( & L T U / ? & L C = U ) L > V ~ $ % F & ~ ~ ~ L > ,
(Without a word processor one cannot write a good paper.)
B&V= 8 S i i d./rdc
b. 7-;Pu {&Lt;:ib / ? t b : L T i t l X $ W % C & 4 R b ; k t s ~ > .
(One cannot think of writing activities without a word
11. The adverbial phrase nashi de wa can be rephrased by - ga nakereba
or by - ga i-nakereba. Thus, for example, KS and Ex.(a) can be rewrit-
ten into [2] and [3],respectively, without changing their basic meaning.
232 nashi de wa / -neba naranai
The only difference between the two versions is that - nashi de wa ver-
sion sounds slightly more formal probably due to the archaic form

- -
However, ga (i)-nakereba cannot be rephrased by nashi de wa when
the sentence is a question, request, command, suggestion, or volitional
sentence. Examples follow.
[41 { t t z + m ~ f h l ~ / * t m & ~L
~ ~
u S < IZS
b>/t%LI:br5T$7P/t%L3 L L ? l o
(If you don't have a job, look for one / please look for one / why
don't you look for one / let's look for one.)
E X L 4L*i5
[5] I%&#L\&Cf hlB/*%!k& L T l b l $%T% % L a S b l ,
(If there isn't a teacher, study by yourself.)
[6] { ~ & h f Q k t h C % / * ~ & & L T t t r?
l , LI:bblbrT.f$,
(If I don't have money, what shall I do?)

-neba naranai taiga 5 ph,: <w>

must; have to; should
[REL. -nakereba naranai]
-neba naranai 233

+Key Sentences

(In order to know Japan one has to go to Japan at least once.)

(Japan has to open its market wider.)

Vinf.neg hdf8 6 8 b h
% 3 ;faif8 b 8 b 1 (s.o. has to talk.)
kxhifa 6 8 b 1 (s.o. has to eat.)
-@bC%th l;Qbh (irr.) (s.0. has to do it.)

IjL3*3 9-3
(a) $&~Ee~~a~cf;fawr;;ib~.~,
(I have to continue the same research from now on.)
CLL*-.Ll L
(b) h @ ~ k ~ 8 < 3 ; t a b f 8 r ; h b ~ ,
(We should get rid of racial prejudice.)
dv ?r 8blLi % <: -lZLL+ W:<
(c) 2%0t4?Sa%~&$?f
1:ssi~-@htf8 1;8 ~ I..,3
had to report the agenda of the conference to the main office after
returning to my country.)
+?A It -
h ~ w % a 8 i i + ; f a m r; ~ c L > ~
(We have to voice preservation of nature.)
234 -neba nafanai / ni

(el - FwarflLs 17 I*L,
(From now on Japan has to lead the world.)

1. Vinf .neg neba naranai is used in written Japanese or in formal public
speech to express obligation, duty, or necessity.
2. The neba naranai form for the irregular verb sun, is se-neba naranai.

The only crucial difference between Vinf. neg -neba naranai and Vinf. neg
-nakereba naranai is that the former is used normally in written Japanese, but
the latter, in spoken and written Japanese. Connection-wise, the way -neba
naranai and -nakereba naranai are connected with adjectives are different.

ni CZ prt.

presses the speaker's feeling of
+Key Sentences

- ~-

Scond Sinf

@s%htf % P c = & Ra~
L O i (
1 (If you had come here yesterday, you could have met Natsuko.)

1 (It must be lonely for an old man to live done.)
(i ) ( V I Adj(i)}inf {TL a 3 / 7'26 5 1 1:
I%-if/?$~l:} { T L a 5 / 7 ' 2 6 i 1 l i (would talklwould have

7 T 5 7 ' 651 (would {belhave
been} quiet)
blbl { ~ / % L k 7 ' ? 7 7 : 1 { T L r i /7'?651 :C (would(be1have
been} a good teacher)

(a) ~ ~ - + c ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ c z ~ j~bz0 ~ : ~ B
.&tr,%hL I: if^

(If you could stay in Japan another year or so your Japanese would
become more proficient.)
&$js."t: <
~ / v i f j n ~ i z ~ . e % ~j ~I f: i~i ; i a ~ ~ ~
(If we had a lot of money, we would be able to buy this sort of house.)
a 3 : ,.!:?fI T
~ c : L ~ L ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . " & Q ~ : I ; % ~ +5sKO
(If I had had a good job I could have married Michiko.)
O . : i ;1 d % t L _,-
~q~g~6cfirw'mgi-jrL ~ Aj aj K ~ I:.
( I f you go by plane, you could easily get there.)
Bj S LL3li
m:aa&x, &&ts~a~6 j i:,
(If he uses his money a little more carefully, he could save his money.)
&O% 0 7 1 f - b ~:&/vf.. ~ $ $ u T L L I:,
(If you lived in an apartment near the station, it would be convenient.)
:?6 *2 l CbW<
+@BIAbk~~:~T;51~QOG:i&~&-h";51;516TL L 5 KO
(It must cost a lot of money to send two children to college.)
% $ ~ # o G & a e <L-c, S ? 3 Q f : z k T L L 5 K O
(You must have had a difficult time when you lost your airplane ticket.)

1. If the structure is "Scond, {V / Adj}inf.nonpast (deshd 1dard} ni,"
the entire sentence expresses the subjunctive past (i.e., supposition that
is counter to the current situation) as in Exs.(a), (b), (d), (e) and (f).
"Scond, {V /Adj}inf.past {deshd l dam} ni" expresses the subjunc-
tive past perfect (i.e., supposition that is counter to the past situation) as
in KS(A) and Ex.(c). In both the subjunctive past and the past perfect,
the entire sentence expresses the speaker's regret. But if the subject of
the Scond is the second or third person, it expresses the speaker's sym-
pathy for the second or third person. If Scond is not there, as in KS(B),
Exs.(g) and (h), the entire sentence expresses sympathy.
2. The sentence-final particle ni always follows deshd / dard.

"Scond, {V / Adj }inf (deshd / dard}" can be rephrased as "Scond, {V / -
Adj} infnoni," as shown in [I] and [2]. (6 noni (DBJG: 331-35))
ni / ni atattelatari 237
[I] E
6 El %hdfE%C:%;iIzUlCL (cf. KS(A))

[2] %&75'I: < 3 AibhCfZ tv82ZT$E;i&0CZ0 (cf. Ex.(b))
The desholdaro ni version indicates uncertainty, whereas the noni version
does not. Comparison of [3a] and [3b] below will clarify the point.
[3] a. #C:b~b~B$lsrib~I:I;KPa"+3LIr.~%~%I:ff33C~o
b. %
:~IJ I;%@%Z tvIr.%Uffi%I:UlC:..,
(If I had had a good job, it is very likely that I could have mar-
ried her.)
[3a] expresses uncertainty, meaning 'I guess I could have married Michiko,'
whereas [3b] doesn't express uncertainty.

a compound particle that indicates on the occasion of; at; in;
occasion of doing s.t. or of having before; prior to
done s.t. in formal Japanese [REL. mae ni; ni saishite; sai
(ni); toki]

+Key Sentences

(On the occasion of new employees' entering the company, the presi-
dent threw a party at a hotel.)
(On the occasion of graduating from college, Kazuya consulted with his
academic adviser on his future direction.)

$&$G:I / 7: 3 T / / 7: 0 1 (on the occasion of the marriage)

(ii) Vinf.nonpast 1: ( 3I: 3 T 1 %1: 0 1

(On the occasion of my study abroad, my father told me about his own
c It/, I k . 8 ~ liL *mi :orl.W t L r 6 . L 923 -2

(b) E ~ $ @ ~ % B W R T ~ C ~ % IB: %
~ TH,P % T & N ~ ~ Q L ~ : ~
(Before I did research on the Japanese economy, I collected materials
at the National Diet Library.)
L*-J+?$ +<Qi? *vs
(c) && 7 I.& R W ~ : 9, M B ~ % R B LIZ,
(The Premier had a conference with cabinet members before attending
the summit.)
L ~ i t ?A. L: f i b , a$ L
(d) G:/?: 0 , + o B + ~ ' ~ o E ~ BL~ <$ # d 7 ~ ~ ~
(Before writing a historical novel, the novelist did an in-depth survey
of the history of the period he dealt with.)

1 . ni atattelatari is used to indicate time when one faces s.t. formal. The
formality of the compound particle can be shown by (1).
(1) a.
L e i L& LziQii gk* gT& B~g;gCz
% L i 2 R $ 3 K 3 k ~ 7 9 E 0 @%
(It is my custom to drink a small amount of foreign liquor
prior to going to bed.)
b. * $ L C ~ & & ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ T T ~ ~ X + - % ~ ~ I I . ~
(I drink a glass of whisky before going to bed.)
Both (la) and (lb) express a similar situation, but (la) is expressed in a
more formal way than (lb). Thus, ni atatte is acceptable in the formal
sentence (la) but not in the informal sentence (lb).
2. The compound particle is primarily used in written Japanese. When a
verb precedes it, the verb is often a Sino-Japanese suru-verb as in KS(B)
and Ex.(b), because the Sino-Japanese verb is also suitable for written
3. The tense of the verb before ni atatte/atari is always nonpast regardless
of the tense of the final predicate. The nonpast tense expresses an
incomplete aspect of an action indicated by the verb. Thus, for example,
in KS(B), when Kazuya went to see his academic adviser, he had not yet
graduated from college. That is why the phrase can be translated into
English as 'before' or 'prior to.'
4. The difference between ni atari and ni atatte is a matter of style; the for-
mer is more formal than the latter.
5 . There is a prenominal form - ni atatte no N used as in (2) below.
(2) %A?kW0A?*E ( 3 7 ~ 7 /7* 3 k t l l D l $ - f 4 -bi?tE&
aR L I . ,
(The president attended the patty held on the occasion of new
employees' joining the company.) (cf. KS(A))

I. Toki is a basic noun which indicates the time when s.0. / s.t will do /
does / did s.t. or the time when s.0. / s .t. will be / is 1was in some
state. It is clear from Note 3 that toki cannot be replaced by ni atan/
atatte when the preceding verb is past. (+toki (DBJG: 490-94))
240 ni atattelatari

(Mr. Tanaka joined a company soon after graduating from col-
Toki can be used to express any time, be it formal or informal, whereas
ni atattelatari is used only in formal style. This contextual difference is
shown in [3].

b. @a { s r f / * t Z l k ~ T / * K ~ t ; '/-r'7-~&F&,
(Before going to bed I take shower.)
11. The conjunction mae ni and the compound particle in question are
semantically very close. Both of them allow only Vinf.nonpast because
an action indicated by the verb is incomplete. Yet there is one crucial dif-
ference between them. Ni atattelatari means 'before s.t. signijicant takes
place,' but mae ni means 'before s.t. takes place.' The difference can be
shown by the following examples. (dmae ni (DBJG: 231-33))
1 *
[4] %+I&@& {at: l * C Z I f ; - > T I f L F B ~L
(Nobuko watches TV before she goes to sleep.)

111. There is another time expression - (no) sai (ni) 1 - ni saishite which is
used to indicate a special occasion on which S.O. does s.t. The crucial
difference between this time expression and - ni attatelatari is that the
latter indicates an occasion in formal sentence, but the former indicates
ni atattelatari / ni hanshite/hansuru 241
a special occasion. Thus, in the following formal yet non-special sen-
tence the time expression in question cannot be used.

Practically all the uses of - (no) sai (ni) 1 ni saishite can be rephrased
by ni atattelatari, as long as the sentence is formal.

$At% 5%
b. El*O%l-E4kO@% { E E L 7 / D E E / E%f:7T / E
% r L b ) H*OH%D%%%$U~
) Lk0
(At the time of research on Japanese modernization I used
the ~ a t i o n aDiet
l Library of Japan.)

ni hanshite/hansuru CZE L 7 / ET 3 cornp. prt. <w>

against; contrary to; in contrast
to; in violation of; while;
[REL. ni hikikae; ni taishite; to
gyaku nil
+Key Sentences

(Contrary to the majority's expectations, an unknown runner won the
Tokyo International Marathon this year.) 1

I (In our company, in contrast to the increase in sales of TV sets, t q

(It is said that to enter good universities in Japan is difficult but to grad-
uate from them is easy.)

(In contrast to this, in America even good universities are relatively
easy to enter, but students must study quite hard to graduate from them.)
Noun Noun

i i c:kji.ta % ek~~~l;;kf:.
(Taeko was forced to marry. (lit. A marriage which was against Taeko's
will was forced upon her.))

Gc E L T (contrary to expectations)
(ii) Sinf 0 C: LZ L T (Connection rules: the same as 0 R)
k < $8 5.4 t a 0 C: LZ L T (in contrast to the fact that S.O. studies

(iii) Demonstrative pronoun 1: LZ L T
Z ;k d: E L T (in contrast to this)
(iv) N C:Eji.t6 N
It7 d.
7?Jb:LZji-if 6% (a result which is contrary to s.o.'s expectation)

USL O l i L L 1 t b 1

(a) ?~c~~A~>B@C:ELT%@Q&IC*~; J ~73 e:I's37'&
(Contrary to his parents' wishes, Hiroshi became a chef after finishing
high school.)
(b) Tiii& % o & , ~ , ~ : L z L T ~ & Q &~a
G ~ &f:, ~ T
(He was forced to accept a bribe. (lit. He received a bribe against his
Cqilti W L lit5 If db, ba? ii. C i i TV L
(c) ZO&~:LZLT?$%
~ Q m * * f . % e ~ i - * E o g % lYltc:aao
(Your business will be suspended for one month if you work your
employees in violation of these rules.)
LnCL fi<$ o t r l f lfw
~ l0k ~i & ~ f l % ~ I ' s ~ C : E ~ r ~ % ~ / vLf l hP - @
(d) % $ ~ ~ ~ a)%
(In Okumura's family, whereas the husband is quiet, the wife is very

(The principle consideration of elementary education in Japan is to
provide students with knowledge. In America, in contrast (to this),
emphasis is put on increasing students' creativity and individual tal-

(The election this time ended up with results which were against the
general prediction.)

1. Te in ni hanshite may be dropped, as in (1).
- (1) ~ 4 D 3 E m ~ Y7>CikkDPEEEL(T)%%D%%$Q
k% L f: , (=KS(A))
2. When ni hanshite connects two propositions, the propositions are in
opposition, as in KS(B), (C), Exs.(d) and (e).
3. Ni hansuru modifies the word which follows, as in KS(D) and Ex.(f).
e elated ~x~ressions]
I. When ni hanshite connects two propositions in opposition, it can be
paraphrased as ni hikikae or to gyaku ni, as in [l] and [2].
ni hanshite/hansuru / ni hokanaranai 245

a. Ni taishite can also replace ni hanshite when ni hanshite connects two
propositions in opposition, as in [3] and [4].

[3] %ftd'?kCiF L V D g ; k ~ C f l $ $ V T b 1 & 0{ K E L T / E ~ L
7) % - 7 4 % % & D ~ ; k ~ ~ ? I ; 3 s T $ ~ T (=KS(B))

The difference between the two is that when ni hanshite is used, the
connected propositions are in opposition but when ni taishite is used, the
connected propositions are contrastive but not necessarily in opposition.
Thus, in 151, where the two propositions are contrastive but not in oppo-
sition, only ni taishite is acceptable.
%&Ski C*iL
[5] A ? ~ ~ ~ % B E % Q ~ B L {EMLT
T L ~ /*C=BLTl
~ D B 3i
t i~ 7 - r -E&'$~,X;~TL~~~
(Company A focuses on products for education (lit. puts im-
portance on the education industry) while Company B focuses
on products for leisure (lit. takes great interest in the leisure

be nothing but -; be simply -
that an action / state mentioned in [REL. ni suginai]
the topic phrase or clause is noth-
+Key Sentences

(His words are nothing but flowery words.)

Topic Clause I I I Sentence (reason) I I

(The reason that I am studying Japanese is simply because I want to
work in Japan in the future.)

Topic Sinf
1E*c< :9F< L*3 . d.LI +f; PQ
fimw 812 C ~ W D A z : 1:~32.2 1;a b l ,

(Foreign language learning is nothing but learning about the ways
people .in other countries think.)

8<0 C&$3gfl& L b \ fP I; I: 13 $ 2 1; 2 b>, (The reason that we
work is simply because we want money.)
(a) *- 7 7 IL
BLd'< TL L
1.a > p w i x ~ a > % t : ~ a f i a 6 a k a ,
(Mozart's music is nothing but an angel's voice.)
I~?:L u r b .
(b) iPi4?!6bih&a>l%G:12&abjb~ao
t i , ~f

(Marriage is nothing but a graveyard of life.)
ni hokanaranai 247

I: :* h C L
(c) ~ E ~ > W C ~ Q Z E ~ l=
j a .b aCo Z ; ~ ~ ~
(His speech and behavior are nothing but self-advertisement.)
BB '
(d) %dr%R??%!L LCJV&a>di~R??%~Tb~~;3~bC:lZ&abitrb~,
(The reason why parents discipline their children strictly is simply
because they love their children.)
d.o)tr lr<
(e) @&$$$~:&->T&QDc~#??$Y~~ f z b a * ~ ; c:~+tc bG L ~ ,
(The reason why she comes close to me is simply because she wants to
use me.)
C i ? fi-
(f) H$%$ZkLGZ P k ~ ~ f . a > d & . ~ $ a > ~~a$>~ a > ~ & a > . k j & C ~
bLB-haa b a b 1 0
(The reason why my Japanese made such progress is simply because of
my college Japanese instructor.)
(g) Z a > ~ ~ a > ~ & a > ~ j g . " b ~ b ~ a ) ~ i ~ ~K$Gl Z; ;l ?kI bawo
~~ D
b ~ & b
(The reason why the student quality of this college is so good is simply
because the selection is tough.)
(h) @jS#a>lH
L A',
CLAv I t *7
Z t 1: G2&a b a b l ,<
(The use of nuclear weapons invites nothing but (lit. is nothing but to
invite) the annihilation of humanity.)

1. The phrase ni hokanaranai is used to express that X is nothing but Y,
248 ni hokanaranai
where Y is either N as in KS(A) and Exs.(a), (b), (c), (f) or kara-clause
as in KS(B) and Exs.(d), (e), (g) or koto-nominalized clause as in KS(C)
and Ex.(h).
2. The phrase in question is used in written or very formal spoken Japa-
nese. The final negative -nai can be replaced by the archaic negative
marker -nu in formal written Japanese, as in (1) below:

The phrase ni suginai which means 'nothing but' sounds very close to ni
hokanamnai but they are quite different. The former means k t . / s.0. is noth-
ing more than what is stated, in terms of amount, degree, status, signifi-
cance, etc,' whereas the latter means k t . / s.0. is nothing other than X.' The
former often has downgrading nuance, but the latter lacks this nuance.

[I] a. ?;kb2%k & b & ~ \/ ha& 5 &L\],
(That is nothing but a rumor.)
LL t
! -wl% dab, cb%
b. ~ H ~ ~ F J L ~ ~ &{Bd&t\/*C%h>&%&~\l~
(Yoshida is nothing but an average white-collar worker.)
Another crucial difference between the two is that ni suginai can be used
with a quantity expression but ni hokanamnai cannot, as shown in [2] and [3]
ZD* < i h .
[2] R O 7 1 k 1 t . f l-%bi5i3 N 6 { B ~ &/ L \
(The hourly pay for my part-time job is merely 500 yen. (lit. The
hourly pay for my part-time job doesn't exceed 500 yen.))
tVAh. I: d . L
[3] %~a)EE[l~$~dcih, 5 4 ~ KIid&~\ / *C%ha&%&~\l~
(I usually don't get more than four to five hours' sleep. (lit. My
sleeping hours are only 4 to 5 hours.))
Connection-wise, ni hokanaranai is attached only to a noun / noun phrase or
a kam-clause, but ni suginai is attached to a noun, a quantity expression and
ni kagirazu 249
ni kagirazu K BE 5 b" camp. prt.

not limited to (but also); not
only (but also)
[REL. - dake d e (wa) naku
- (mo)]
*Key Sentence


fi&l,l$&G;f C:iil;y d2$o>~T$*$ihhT~1&o

(Arranged marriage is not limited to Japan; it is practiced in other coun-
tries, too.)

c ek-r
El $i%C: $El;f (not limited to Japanese)

B A: ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ~ Y ? c : P ~ ! c ; T ? $ T B & s ~ . ~ ,

(Talking about music, I listen to any music, not just classical music.)
C L * ~ hbv?
(This bar is popular not only among men but also among women.)

(My preference for fruit is unlimited (lit. not limited to something); I
like any kind.)
$ CITfTjZ 2 flY$jj?,
L zt * b ~ b,
(Whatever you do (lit. Not limited to anything), it is important to do it
with sincerity.)

Kagiram is a negative continuative form of kagiru 'to limit.'
250 ni kagirazu / ni kagitte

- dake de (wa) naku - (mo) is used in similar contexts. In fact, KS, Exs.(a)
and (b) can be paraphrased using this structure, as in [I] - [3].
~ e w m am:ct-mcz)a<
w ia.n'osTsfi'i;hit-rwa.(~f.KS)
(Arranged marriage is practiced not only in Japan but also in other
countries, too.)
8%d235'/~3T~CfP(lt)~<~ilT&M ?i3TO
(When it comes to music, I do not listen just to classical music, I lis-
ten to anything.)
2 ~ l d2%tWtf
f - T(ib) <
k,EDWK.fAB-nl'a&,a.(cf. Ex.(b))
(This bar is popular not only among men but also among women.)
- -
However, dake de (wa) naku (mo) cannot be used when an indefinite
noun is used in front of ni kagirazu, as in Exs.(c) and (d).

ni kagitte C3R77 comp. prt.

(X) of all (X's); only
only X is different from others

+ K ~ YSentence

1 Noun I I I

(Our child, of all children, would not do such a temble thing.)
N C:FE-3?
#!I 0 : C PETT (only on that day)
dj 0x b: PE 9 T (only that person)
ni kagitte 25 1

BP 01 .tlLrbl ItL L e i L= L t i
PwL&i2f:b>-cb%f % SKb>b9L? 60K, +El KFE9Tb>b9
(Prof. Nakano is usually in his office, but today, of all days, he wasn't
%%&9 T&GL> El ~ ~ ~ T%fl&&
619 LT$ h
(Only on the day when I don't bring my umbrella, it rains, you know.)
W t t *
B C @ ~ : I E ~ - ~m;lca'sjJaa7maw0
(Of all times, when I am in a hurry, the bus doesn't come for ages.)

~azM#!I6@~:PE9-c, BEaz kfl%&
(Only when something unpleasant happens, do other unpleasant things
Lri.tl2d. +
Z 0 + 8 @ a > f b>f:9,0b:pE9T, 9 3 b?'sb)&0i2ab1,
(Only works written by this novelist are never boring.)

1. The phrase ni kagitte is used to express an exclusive focus on topic item
X. The predicate is either explicitly negative as in KS and Exs. (a), (c),
and (e) or implicitly negative as in Exs.(b) and (d). An explicitly afflr-
mative predicate cannot occur with ni kagitte. Examples follow:
TL * tc IfL L
(1) -?a> El E W 9 7 {??b~b~X%R7 :/ ???% Lda9 7:' / ? ? % % f ? ~
(Only on that day {the weather was good / it was cool / I was in
good spirits}.)
2. The phrase is the particle ni with the te-form of the verb kagiru 'limit.'
ni kanshite/kansuru CZH L T / HbB comp. prt. <w>

concerning; with regard to;
about; on
[REL. ni tsuite; no koto]

*Key Sentences

(With regard to the sales tax, the opinions of the leading party and the
I opposition parties conflicted.) I

(Concerning human language acquisition, there are still many unknown

(Last week a conference on superconductivity was held in Tokyo.)

( i ) N KWLT
L m t i Ir?-crt
2?# 0 %%bz R L T (concerning the Prime Minister's visit to the
(ii) N K M T a N
E# a)%Xb= M-if 68% (public opinion concerning the Prime Min-
ister's visit to the U.S.)

mmaD ILHd. L i
(a) ??a)%%T??~&a>%&h=M
L T ~ <
m e r e was a lot of criticism concerning Mr. Yoshioka's presentation at
the conference.)

(A report concerning environmental pollution was submitted to the - -

1. Te in ni kanshite may be dropped, as in (1).

However, the te in ni kanshite wa, as in KS(B), cannot be dropped.
2. Ni kanshi(mash0 te wa is used for topic presentation, as in KS(B) and
3. Ni kansuru modifies the noun which follows, as in KS(C), Exs.(c) and
4. The polite form ni kanshimashite, as in Ex.@), can appear in formal

I. Ni tsuite can replace ni kanshite, as in [I] and [2]; this usage is less for-
mal in tone than ni kanshite.
254 ni kanshitelkansuru / ni kawatte

Note that no is necessary after ni tsuite when ni tsuite replaces ni
kansuru, the prenominal version of ni kanshite, as in [3].

11. No koto with a particle and ni kanshite express the same idea. However,
no toko is informal, therefore, it is not appropriate in a formal context.
In addition, no koto does not have a prenominal version, as in [4].

ni kawatte C Z f W 7 7 comp. prt.

in place of; replacing; on behalf
replacement or substitution of a of
[REL. kawari nil

+ ~ Sentence
e ~

vt i 3 o l e rLrw
nmm3#r 1Ab3T, &.%&P&TY-~ 9 f.,,

(In place of Prof. Yarnada, who is ill, Prof. Suzuki taught us.)
ni kawatte 255

(After the war plastics became available replacing glass.)
L = - F ~ : R ; ~ ~ - c c%D %W <
~ ~K- C, & L h9r..,
(In place of records, CDs have become available, and the sound qual-
ity has improved a great deal.)
bkL *?? ,
/ ~ B B L G r..,
iwxtL~;h :&~
(In place of my father, I went to the airport to pick up our guest.)
R O @ % K R ;a~L-C,
~ I ' % Z % $ ~ B % < S @ T ~$9,

(I am very sorry that the president was unable to attend, but I have
come in his place.)

1. X ni kawatte is used to express replacement / substitution of X by s.t. /
S.O. else.
X ni kawatte which can be used in both spoken and written Japanese.
But ni kawari is used only in written Japanese.

elated Expression]
The crucial difference between N ni kawatte and N no kawari ni is that the
former cannot be used when on-the-spot substitution of objects is expressed,
as shown in [la], and the latter cannot be used when 'replacement' is
expressed as shown in [2].
256 ni kawatte / ni kuraberu tolkurabete

[I] a. r 3 1 < - 3 7 X ~ b & i ) ~ 4 ~ 0 %{&a R b c ) L / * ( = f e b 7 ~ ]
7 7 x 9 30h23;fi'ttlZJ.
(In economy class they use plastic wares instead of glass

The substitution of S.O. by S.O. else can be expressed by both N ni kawatte
and N no kawari ni.

ni kuraberu to/kurabete CZkk4.a l: / kk4T comp. prt.

compared with I to; when com-
pared with I to; in comparison

+ ~ e ySentence


(Compared to (the situations) in Europe and the U.S., the housing
situation in Japan is extremely poor.)
- s*&a%c:~<a
ni kurabetu to/kurabete / ni mo kakawarazu 257

%7 1 : 4 IfL r
k Z c i ~ . ~ f - s z ~ . s ~ i t a & ; i ab: i ~ t t ~ ~ z ,
(I can speak Japanese fairly well now (lit. I have become able to say
things in Japanese fairly well) compared to my level before I came to
+&i&+i:J~<-c&l 6
$gbl i r.z0
(In comparison to last year, we seem to have more rainy days this
+ +$$a$b
C*i h L i i
LG:Jk<& k 4 O g b ~ l i ? & : - f ~
(Compared with our life ten years ago, our present life is heavenly (lit.

is heaven).)
i L L ILlfWfh
~ ~ % ~ b l >
( V
t =l - 9)+?1Ldi, &\+jlLk.!k4~j&.nf~$M
< a-Q-cb~Bo
(When compared with the older (computer) model, the operation speed -
- -
of this new model is three times as fast.) 'N

1. Ni kurabetu to and ni kurabete are interchangeable.

2. The particle to can be used instead of ni before kurabem tolkurabete, as
in Ex.(d).

ni mo kakawarazu % b" comp. prt. l con.. <w>

although; though; in spite of;
despite; notwithstanding; nev-
2 58 ni mo kakawarazu

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

I Noun ( I
(In spite of his strenuous efforts, Ken'ichi failed the college entrance

1 (He is fat, although he exercises a lot.) 1
- -

BLfia~f; (0) : C B i5.&bb4, .L < &$k0
1 (Although the exam was hard, I did well.)

I (Although winter mountains are dangerous, Ichiro left for the mountain.)
ni mo kakawarazu 259

(iii) Adj ( i ) inf (a) bT
: G & &A>b

Zb&&(C-0/ T&a)c=&&&bbT, +02di3f.?&hTblab'~
(Despite the inexpensive price, that house is not sold yet.)
UhL k *
~ i i s ~ g % ~ ~ b ~ r : ( o ) i :E&i $
i h&b~~f ,: ~
(In spite of the fact that Hiroshi loved Mika, he didn't many her.)
L o i +1+
@El di@@LT%&&Lf.:(a)) C:&&&ihL;T,%%Gittl%tb+~I:,
(Although I studied all night last night, I didn't do well on the exam.)
I : L t :1 ItL
. 5 ~ ~ ) L G i B $ G ~ 3 ~ & ~ ~ T l . ~ f : ( a ) ) C = B$&Lkj&
- t:bnL

(Although Carol lived in Japan for three years, her Japanese is very
B*Ogv bL< C ItLCL
\t&Bdi%<i ' s 7 T b 1 & (a)) CZ&$&bb4,El*hiif ;kg
(In spite of the fact that the Japanese economy has become strong, the
Japanese people cannot feel the effects.)
2 60 ni mo kakawarazu

(g) 7&7,7,+ i- i= 6i!Pi!Pb bT, & & m w 0
(My apartment is spacious, but the rent is cheap.)

1. X ni mo kakawarazu expresses an idea of 'in spite of X,' where X is an
action 1 state.
2. The verb (i.e. Vinf) and Adj(i)inf can be connected directly with ni mo
kakawarazu, but Adj(na) has to be nominalized before it is connected
with the conjunction, as shown by KS(D) and Ex.@). However, if the
Adj(na) is followed by de am, use of the nominalizer no is optional.

- -
elated Expression]
The conjunctions noni and keredo(mo) can replace ni mo kakawarazu with
proper adjustments of connections.

The basic difference between noni 1keredo(mo) and ni mo kakawarazu is that
the latter is used in written or formal spoken Japanese. The choice of ni mo
kakawarazu over keredo(mo) 1noni implies the stronger disjunctiveness, that
is, the former means 'totally contrary to everybody's expectation,' whereas
the latter means 'contrary to everybody's expectation.'
based upon
[REL. o moto ni (shite)]

+Key Sentences
G:&+blT &?$$LL$-$~
I (I will givs you the facts. (lit. I will talk on the basis of facts.)) I

CDs<?aLfi LOri

(This is a study based on historical documents from 500 years ago.)

(ii) N 1: {3W < / &+b>?:l N
A&: I&+ < / &3'bl?:l %% (a report based on a survey)

(a) ~a>ggCA7275%??'?5"-$<TJIS G Z & 3 ' b l T ~ $ t ~ h T b l & 0

(Although this product is made in America, the design is based entirely
on the Japanese Industrial Standards (lit. is designed based entirely
on . . .).)
262 ni motozuite/motozuku / ni naru to
DlOv Ifh. < +
(b) Z O V I ~ ~ L ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ B ~ Z O S 1E ;~ ~; ~ ~ : ~ ~ L ~
: ~
(This building was (built) based on a famous architect's design.)
ii5:< stt2h.*a
(c) LO@%bI&+ f?;k;k7?7 29- 1 - ~ 2 ? 6 : ~ ~ b ~ T & &&;Ok 7
T '&~
z 0

(This report was (written) based on a (questionnaire) survey conducted
last year.)
0 t5 L :iiL eL%l hAe.4. S r 3 v < pith.
(d) R l f B O X X I I R O 1 - t + M D & B * P ~ c ~ ~ < &bT%&;tb:

(Mr. Nomura's lecture was based on his 20-year teaching experience
(lit. was a talk based o n . . .) and was full of suggestions.)
8 hh.
(e) L; k ~ 1 ~ ~ 0 K & c : g + b 1 j : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
(This is a discussion based on a hypothesis.)

. -
Ni motozuku and ni motozuita modify the noun which follows, as in KS(B),
: =

Exs.(d) and (e).
elated ~x~ression]
Ni motozuite can be paraphrased as o moto ni (shite). The prenominal form
of o moto ni (shite) is o moto ni shita.

when it becomes; when it
when an uncontrollable state or a comes to; when; if
+Key Sentences

(In summer (lit. When it becomes summer), there are many days that
exceed 30 degrees Celsius.)

Noun (non-time)

(When it comes to the matter of food, my father was very particular.)

( i ) N(time) &:a62
If3 L:
AE%K2 6 2 (when it becomes 8 o'clock; at 8 o'clock)
(ii) N (non-time) 1: O 6 2
m:t O6 2 (when it becomes rain)

L $r2rrd. -6 s<5
m a w x a a t , z a i m t 2 ~ ;k~c:&3
3 b-ifO
(In this area, in the middle of April, the cherry trees bloom beautifully.)
t ? l l <6 It?
-=.-.I 29-77 ~'ti$;h;kar911
fiamwoii, % ~ at a
g%FtT it 3 ;kb1T.-if0
(In the north-east area of the U.S. called New England, tinted autumn
leaves are very beautiful.)
ht* L t 5
wmt-+w:aat, a-nrmm<
btL XZ C*lV$
(At about 11 p.m., my brain stops working.)
264 ni naru to
hriLL II<
(d) %b3, 3Zb:a& 2 , T @ W C ~ # % $ C = & ; ~ T ~ ~ T ;kk0 <
(When I was a child, in summer, my parents took me to the ocean.)
fbW< *v
;kqw1i3~i, % J + G = Q & ~ , L<B?+~L~:~
(When I was a college student, I traveled a lot during vacations.)
(f) q E i i 7 y b;f;'-~ba;f$b:~&tr#$j?,
(When the topic of the conversation is football, he is totally absorbed
in it.)

Le4ri trtll Llt ht
(g) 4kEiiBDZtG:ts&k, A P Z ~ J ~ ~ : L ~ C = W < ~ ~ & ~
(The president becomes lenient as if he were a different person, when
it comes to the matter of his daughter.)
(h) r c z a a 2 , ZDZ&L
(When it becomes snow, this airport is often closed.)

1. Regardless of whether the noun before ni naru to is a time noun or not,
the N ni naru to as a whole is used to express the time when an uncon-
trollable state occurs as in KS(A), (B) and Exs.(a) - (c), (f) - (h) or a
habitual action occurs as in Exs.(d) and (e).
(+to4 (DBJG: 480-82))

2. The phrase in question is a subjectless construction because the sen-
tence simply does not have a subject. When the noun I noun phrase that
precedes ni nam to is a non-time expression, ni naru to is used either as
a subjectless construction as in KS(B) and Exs.(f) - (h), or as a non-sub-
jectless construction as shown in (1) and (2) below in which joyU
'actress' and ham 'spring' are not time nouns. Note that the subject of
naru is watashi for (1) and kisetsu for (2).

(1) B & Z C : ~2 ,~m m i % i ~ ' & d a $~ ; k - a * t v ,
(If I become an actress, my parents might not like itJ
* t7 It&
(2) +287FFC=a& 2 ~ & & k k :RseCGiTtvT
; &. <
(When the season becomes spring human heart becomes sponta-
neously bouncy.)
ni oitelokem 265

comp. prt. <w>

at; on; in; during
cates the place of an action1 (REL. de; nil
event, a state or time

+Key Sentences

I I Noun (place I time) I I I
(Next year's general meeting will be held at the Hilton Hotel in

(Computers will probably spread to almost every household in the near


(place I time)
QL C +b1

+<L? I!. dl

(Many scholars from all over the world took part in last month's inter-
national conference in Tokyo on environmental protection.)
266 ni oite/okeru

( i ) N K%baT
7 % 'J 73 :C .$b . 7 (in America)
(ii) N K B C f N
6r< %bl*b.d.=
7% 1) 73 I:% lf 6 %!&!&ti3 (student life in America)

1992 %0;511 7 P Y 3 i i ~ i ~ - t rt n~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ E k k s k ~ j . ,
(The 1992 Olympiad was held in Barcelona.)
& & K B L . . T G ~ Z Oa L~ ~k ~ k i t j 3 II~$EG:~~;~-,I:,
(Such things were hardly considered to be problems before (lit. in the
Za>+$ftGi?&C:a;ba-CG;t&;f II BmVBGiaba,
(This composition doesn't have many problems in terms of grammar.)
DO9 I:Lw,.3
(The ratio of male students to female students at this school is 2 to 1.)
tr l i d * b, CLd'< I L bs L1
% $ t ~ + t . i ~ ~ z ~ ~ : ~ i f ~a -kc ah r~ ; tt ~ - ~ w a .
(Dr. Kimura is known as an authority in (the field of) genetics.)
&@o& #~G&C:3-if
dh z i*ti
6 L b l Q D T i t j k~ o
(His achievements during the past five years were truly remarkable.)
L@+dr=h 3 I : K 3
4-B + S E l b:BV & @ 0 7 7 ) 1 T 4 ~ & ~ ~ - c b ~ i t r b ~ ,
(His alibi on the twelfth of October has not been established.)

1. Ni oitelokeru can be used with "non-physical" locations, such as fields
of study, as in Exs.(c) and (e).
2. Ni okeru modifies the noun which follows, as in KS(C) and Exs.
(dl - (g).
3. Ni okeru cannot be used to specify existence, as in (1).
ni oitelokeru 267
(1) * 7 0 1 1 Y { U l / C c & j 6 / * E 8 C f 7 i ' . r X = - 7 - ) b F C i k ' 7 C
$ X$$$&j
(Disney World in Florida is very popular.)
4. Ni oitelokeru is a highly formal expression. Therefore, it is rarely used
for personal activities or trivial events, as in (2) and (3).
bLL 3 0 5 % w fl + A
(2) $Lbi%8 Y 3 2 5 ' 3 2 a ) @ B % { T / ? ? ? E & L \ T I EkBB&I:,
(I saw a movie at a theater downtown yesterday.)

5. When ni oite indicates a time, it cannot be used for a specific time, as in
(4) ?a)$%%bi1991~{CZ / *CZ&L\TI K$hk,
(The conference was held in 1991.)
- -

This restriction, however, does not apply to ni okeru, the prenominal
form of ni oite, as in (5).
(5) za)%~ii991+t=~~f~7'i7W%a) GNP B ~ L T W ~ ,
(This table indicates the GNPs of Asian countries in 1991.)

I. De also indicates the place of an action, an event, or a state. Thus,
KS(A) and (C), for example, can be paraphrased as [I] and [2], respec-
tively, using de.

Note in [2] that with ni okeru, the prenominal form of ni oite, no must
follow de.
268 ni oitelokeru / ni shitagattelshitagai
De cannot be used when ni oitelokeru is used to indicate a "nonphysi-
cal" location, as in [3] and 141.

Unlike ni oitelokeru, de can be used for personal activities and trivial
events. (See Note 4.)
(ede (DBJG: 105))
II. Ni also indicates time. Thus, ni oite in KS(B), for example, can be para-
phrased as [5] using ni.

Because ni is replaced by no when N ni modifies a noun, ni okeru in
Ex.(g) is paraphrased as [6] using no.

Unlike ni oite, ni can be used for specific times. (See Note 5.)

7 / %L\
ni shitagattehhitagai Kg-> comp. part. / c o d .

as, accordingly; in proportion
occurs in accordance with some to; in accordance with; follow-

[REL. ni tsureteltsure]
+Key Sentences
Subordinate Clause Main Clause

Vinf .nonpast
1 W b w 9r < I: I~L-: u<t*iL +
I: 136.
&.a C:P-&~T/@VI,s ~ m y g ~
$ 2 3~
(As Japan's economic power has become stronger, Japanese language
leaniers have increased, accordingly.)

1 (In accordance with the contract, your tenure shall be three years.) I

(i ) Vinf.nonpast : G {@9 T / @blI
+a)!&~&+b: {@7 T / @ b > } (As s.0. reads the book)
(ii) N 1: {@9 T / @b)l
1: 7 T / @ b ) 1 (in accordance with the instructions)

(a) 4 X A $ % 4 k & t : @ 7oT
bk94$ f&f i ?%
(As our income increases, our expenditure, too, increases.)
(b) @ 2 & bC:@b>, $$A?PWK&~
(As you grow older, your physical strength declines.)
(c) 3%d&~:@~,
(As civilization progresses, human stresses increase.)
$$ UziS 6.w6.<
(d) bflf:~b:@qT, Xa>%~iiH@LT 3 fz0
(As the days went by, my father recovered from his illness.)

(e) ( b:E3 T,$ & ) S F &r&F.h."3 fz0
(As the sun went down, the temperature went down rapidly.)
L?3 Sh, ba9 If9 Z
(f) %&EP, 4:: &~--dhjgqg& ~ 7 : ~
(In accordance with the promise I returned the loaned money after a
L+f r l Db>fiv
(g) ?tEa>&+bcE9 T , %&iif:f.% i c 7 = 7 bc&&f?,
(In accordance with the president's order, he flew to Manila immedi-

1. Vinfanonpast ni shitagattelshitagai is used to express that s.t. beyond
human control takes place simultaneously with s.t. else that goes on.
The verbs in both main and subordinate clauses do not express a
momentary action, but a continuous process. The following sentences
are all ungrammatical, because they use momentary verbs and the two
events do not occur simultaneously but consecutively.
6.q lib,
(1) * % e h v a ~ r g = ~ ,
-- % B A V ~ : ~ ; ,~ L W E W A ?if:,
(As I opened the window, a cool breeze came in.)

In the case of N ni shitagattelshitagai, Note 1 is not applicable. In other
words, in this construction what occurs can occur momentarily or non-
spontaneously. So in KS(B), Exs.(f) and (g), what is expressed there is
nothing spontaneous and gradual.
2. Shitagatte and shitagai are originally Vte and Vrnasu forms of the verb
shitagau, respectively, which means 'obey,' 'comply,' or 'follow.'
3. ni shitagattekhitagai cannot be preceded by an Adj(i / na) or Cop.
ni shitagattelshitagai / ni suginai 271

(= da 1 desu). And V before ni shitagattelshitagai must be Vinf .nonpast.

4. The difference between shitagatte and shitagai is stylistical. The latter is
usually used in written Japanese whereas the former can be used in both
spoken and written style.

[Related Expression]
Vinf .nonpast ni tsureteltsure is an expression very similar to Vinf. nonpast ni
shitagattelshitagai. KS and Exs. can all be rephrased by the former without
changing the essential meaning except KS(B), Exs.(f) and (g), because the
pattern is N ni shitagattelshitagai. The difference seems to be that
Vinf.nonpast ni shitagattelshitagai is more of a written style; whereas
Vinf.nonpast ni tsurete/tsure is more of a spoken style.

S.t. or S.O. is nothing more than nothing more than; not more
what is stated in terms of amount, than; mere; merely; only; just;
degree, status, significance, etc. as little / few as; that's all
[REL. dake da; tada no]

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

(This is nothing more than my personal opinion.)

(The sales increase this term is as little as three percent.)


&6h'~~(~z~?)~;hX L L~\ B
~ ~ k (Ebf)C:$lgfsba0

(That man is not doing more than what he was told to do.)

(ii) Number + Counter C$l: 3 a b'
r C L
: '3 fs ba (as few as five people)
(iii) Vinf (??Cf)C:Bgfsba
ni suginai 273
(What I've just told you is nothing more than my hope, so please don't
take it too seriously.)
L*ii:*i t?Li: 6 L
(d) %Lo4X Aii7'1b1W b % h ~ . -& c% 3 3 ~~bk:%$Xab>,,
(My income is only $20,000 even if I include my side job (income).)
(el $LQ%LT <
t t ~ X ~ i h % g ~ t At +~ Z&E ~
ZL%i l:L+bt
i -S G ~ ~ ,
(There are no more than about 50 people who support me (lit. The peo-
ple who support me are no more than about fifty), even if I include my

(g) W ( ~ ~ E ) A ~ ~ & & L v
V ~W ~ (w)
(He is doing nothing more than echoing other people's opinions.)

(His speech was nothing more than the reading of a prepared manu- -
- -
script.) Iq g
- -

96 0 L LltkllSL
( i ) % ~t tk~ ~ ~ i i a ~ m o k!@a%$$%&
!, L?: ( E L ? )

(Mr. Yamano and I did nothing more than exchange simple greetings
when we first met each other.)

1. Ni suginai is not commonly used with adjectives although the patterns in
(1) are possible.

To express the idea that someone or something is X and that's all (where
X is an adjective), dake da is usually used, as in (2).
(2) zo%iix3b~f:~ff:,
(This house is big and that's all.)
(* dake (DBJG: 93-97))
2. In Formation (ii), the quantifier can be either a number with or without
274 ni suginai

a counter, or a word with no number, such as sukoshi 'little, few' and
wazuka 'few.'

I. Vinf ni suginai can be paraphrased as Vinf dake da, as in [I].
[I] & 0 % G i ( f : f 2 ) 8 ~ ; k f : Z k Q L T b ~ & t f C f(=KS(C))
(The man is just doing what he was told to do, that's all.)
(+dake (DBJG: 93-97))

11. N ni suginai can be paraphrased using tada no N da, as in [2].

Note that tada no, however, can also mean 'ordinary' depending on the
following noun. Therefore, when tada no N is interpreted in this way,
N ni suginai and tada no N da are not exactly equivalent, as in [3].
:+:+ *L*b,
[3] a. %EGi&@0%4C3!4d&~\~
(He is no more than a high school teacher.)
b. ~Ebif~t-a&@D%&tf
((a) He is an ordinary high school teacher. (b) He is only a
high school teacher.)
(+tada no)

III. Quantifier ni suginai can be paraphrased as tada no (or tatta(no)) N da,
as in [4].
[41 +fYl0%17kC70l$tF'C;t
: 3\'-+7bt;*,
(The sales increase this term is only three percent.)
ni taishitehaishi tZM l 7 / %itl comp. prt.

toward; to; in contrast to;
compares, or shows interest in whereas; in regard to; in; per
regarding s.t. / s.0. one opposes,
compares or shows interest in

+Key Sentences

1 (Up inti1 now Japan has taken a closed policy toward foreign countries.)


Lu,$< t w 3 dr<
A L a t,jtr].L-C, 7 9 '1 ka*yb*g
I r i
%-F&Ofl% L b > , ,
(Japanese colleges are hard to enter; whereas American colleges are
hard to graduate from.)

Noun Noun


(In America attitudes toward divorce have greatly changed.)
( i ) N I:f$LT
%& G:;rf LT .(towards one's teacher)
(ii) {V I Adj(i)}inf a> Kt$ LT
(8-F/ 3LI: I : LT (s.o. talks I talked, whereas -)
a> C
( Z L/ ~%$-> 7:) 0 KfQLT ( l was young, whereas -)

. -
(iv) N :G {;r;fT&
/HLTa>l N
- -
&%1: (PQT / H LT 0 1 @ 2 3 (one's view of mamage)

(a) $$AStvri%t:;r;f L-C $YSE,
(Mr. Suzuki is polite towards everybody.)
(b) B mwz~ ~=;r;fLT$$Q B 2 K%-F<
3 E,
(Japan should open its market more widely towards foreign countries.)
fltL +V.C
(c) m i i w ~ : ~ LT~~L~&L$&~~
(I have a strong interest in politics.)
T * 023 &*LiL
(d) + & ~ t i - m c : ; r ; f ~ ~ % ~ ~ t ,
(The commission charge will be 500 yen per 10,000 yen.)
(el ~~G~?&G:;~;~LIc$$( E%LTL>&,
(The citizens are strongly opposed to the tax hike.)
(f) % L ~ i & @ & ~ h~$0ff&G:;r;fL-C!$&$&3
b, k0
(Since my high school days, I have had an interest in Japanese culture.)
(g) g$i~
rfi3kDb:WLT, 4+bikZ&g-3f:,
2 tL I ; ~ ~ ~

(Last year there were very few car accidents, whereas this year the
number was very high.)
~ l $ h b i & t b b ; k f i 9 , k < TktvTQtbblJ k g i , Z i t b c H L ~ ,

7 % 1 ) 5 5 h b i k ri&,V$kjI k g ? .
(When Japanese get compliments, they often say "Oh, not at all." In
contrast to this, Americans often say "Thank you.")
(i) %~Eo&&I~ EI&TE I~
D. I . < r l t ; d .
$ ~~~ o K ~ + L T%, % T I ~ E ~ N ~ L ' .
(Women's position is still low in Japan, whereas in Europe and Amer-
ica it is relatively high.)
<I:CI: XLL* I. 3*3 =<f i b . h <
(j) F 3 - n r 1 f O ~ . b # ~ i : { ~ b : h f i 3 T b l & a ) b : i r f L T , i+ B k E k
AL % g t i ~ ~t G { i~ k ~~~ ~ 3j lEa,
astern European countries are progressing towards democratization,
whereas Continental China and North Korea appear to be slower in

S3;i j3d.f
(1) ~ E ~ ~ H H C : ~ Q L T % $ I Lf:,
(The departmental chief made a remark in Okada's favor.)
l?b,Sb,'#< L+
(m) ?O%RY%O%~: {%-if6 / W L T ) K%bi~db3?:,
(There wasn't a counterargument against the enonomist's thesis.)

1. N ni taishite is used to express s.o.'s attitude / action toward s.0. / s.t. as
in KS(A), Exs.(a), (b) and (l) contrast/comparison
, as in KS(B) and
Exs.(g) - (j), confrontation as in Ex.(e), interest as in Exs.(c) and (f),
and the sense of 'per' as in Ex.(d).
2. N1 ni { taisurv / taishite no) Nz means 'NZ in regard to N1,' as exempli-
fied by KS(C) and Ex.(k) or 'against' as exemplified by Ex.(m).
3. Taishite can be replaced by taishi in written Japanese or formal speech.
278 ni taishiteltaishi / ni totte

4. N ni taishite and N {na I dearu I datta I deatta} no ni taishite are differ-
ent in meaning; the latter means 'whereas,' but the former does not, as
shown below:

ni totte CZ 2 77 comp. prt.

to; for
[REL. ni wa]

*Key Sentence

1 (For us this is a problem which cannot be ignored.) I

%LC:k7-C (totforme)

(a) ZOY$T& b t ~ za k izi%~i:k 9 - ~ & 2 1 ~ % ' &z t2s T * ~
(Being able to teach at this university is a big honor for me.)
ni totte 279
' f ~ vtvt :i t t l -.we
U O A k GL k 3 T Z O I %DR$!$C&~&BCI~EE
(For people in this town, the shutdown of this plant is a matter of life
and death.)
& i ' $ t ~ ~ ~ b : k 3 T ~ k L ~ ; k L I . s L . ~ ~ G jo
(Today will be an unforgettable day for us.)
* I:*lCwB< E ltL 3 F r 3
$ & O 7 9 111 5 a > % ~ & ~ t i ~ $ & % b = k - s , T ~ $ f b f i @ b : I . s & ~
(America's policy on imports this time will be a big blow to Japanese
:L+W 6%4w
+aOgljt:c&&fl$$1:k 3 T & d r l & i f h b . ,
(There is little benefit for us (lit. for our company) in this merger.)

b~GlfL*L-zL If L L
Z Z tiBi: k 3 T-%eQI.s%fi7f0
(This is the safest place for you.)
$$$~tvdi%LG: t 3-C%L.~$f&Lz~l:&.
(Mr. Imamura is a remote relative of mine.)

Ni totte cannot mark a noun which represents the experiencer or agent (i.e.,
the semantic subject). In this case, ni wa is used, as in (1).
(1) a. Z@&$C&%LILCb / * E & - > 7 1 t t l g h b l ,
(I can't do this job.)
b. k
&O+bi%L {LIZ / * K & 7 7 1
can't see that character (word or letter).)

(Related ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
Ni wa can replace ni totte, as in [I].

[l] a. ZfiGiR-fi.6{CZkt / K t 771'&
b. Z O A Y T R R ~ ; ~ L &{ L
t z ~~/ t~E L~ : T T I & f i r % %
I.s Z k T-F0 (=Ex.(a))
Ni totte has a prenominal form ni totte no, as seen in [2], but ni wa does not.
280 ni totte / ni tsuite
6.h .RL+fL&-Z
[2] {Ek~TUl/*ElbUll
BWii2, ~ & 7 5 ' 8 % ~ 6 7 5 ' & ~ 1 j t s b ~ ~
2 7Zo
(The problem for Taro is that he doesn't understand English.)
In addition, because of the particle wa, ni wa gives a sense of contrast in
some contexts while ni totte does not. In [la], for example, the sentence with
ni wa can imply that not for others but for us, or at least for us, this is a prob-
lem which cannot be ignored. The sentence with ni totte does not have this

ni tsuite C Z 3 L \ T comp. prt.

about; on; concerning; regard-
ing; with regard to; of
[REL. ni kanshite; no koto]

+Key Sentences

1 (I am doing research on the Japanese political system.)


(Mr. Smith asked me various questions about his going to Japan for study.)
ni tsuite 281

(i) N 1:3b>T
fb W <
A%:l 9b >T (concerning college)
(ii) Sinf Z I: lZ9bl-C

&F& < Z I: C:3b>T (concerning my going there)

(iii) {N,
1 Sinf Z k ] b:Tb>Tcr) N2
L i t ? ?iriW<
a% :b 9b >T cr) &,$$ (an opinion about elementary education)
8 $-8qt Z I: 1: 9b1-C cr)Fn7#B,6 (problems concerning studying
abroad in Japan)

- PY<
&@BG:~L>T% ba0 LTYS
(Please talk about your family.)
$ ~ c : ~ ~ > - c R < TAT$*,
(What are you investigating?)
ggcr)g&:3b>T&b>* ,$ l,>,,>-p$-*,

(May I ask you about your daily life?)
El$b=h&%C:,E l $ l C 3 b > T r A ? ' s 4 3- ~ % & 3 ~ b > 1 ; L
3 ~ b 1 3
(What kind of images did you have of Japan before you came to
~ ~ 2 & % & i ~ : 9 ~ ~ 7 4j % ~ ~9 . ~e b >~l
7 : ~
(Our teacher told us to write a composition on our own country.)
LL lt9:L
~ 2 7 - 119 ~ ~ 1 : g ~ g t a z ~ ~ : 9 b > ~ % # t j $ i i i ~~;
(I talked with my parents regarding my getting married to an Ameri-
LmiSri d.LV +I; +b,k ' t L
s$Acr)$ c r ) b!&j.
% l : ~ b ~ ~ c r ) ~ ; i f i l 2 F • ˜ f $I:hCid.?'s
(Japanese views on religion are quite different from those of Westem-
282 ni tsuite

(The newspaper company asked about my views on the problem of
hiring foreigners.)

(There have been heated discussions as to whether it is right or wrong
for Japan to send its army abroad for peace-keeping purposes.)

N1 ni tsuite no N2 means 'N2 concerning N1,' as shown in Ex.(g).

The difference between N ni tsuite and N no koto is that the former means
'about 1concerning N,' but the latter, 'things about N.' Compare the follow-
ing three sentences.
[I] A: h % S ~ % h g T b > 3 T i P ~
(Do you know Mr. Tanaka?)

(Yes, I've known him for many years.)
[2] A: EElqS L K 3 L \ 7 % i l ~ T b ~ 3 ~ i P o
(Do you know about Mr. Tanaka?)
&%A k
B: 22, f T % L T , 2UgTb>3T0
(Yes, I know of him through books.)
[3] A: E a ~ s L a ~ ~ 2 ~ 9 T b ~ 3 - i f ~ 0
(Do you know (things) about Mr. Tanaka?)
B: miP&9~:LTTiP0
(Did something happen to him?)
ni tsuite / ni tsuki 283

[lA] is a straightforward sentence of 'to know s.t.' In other words, [lA]
expresses direct knowledge. [2A] has 'N ni tsuite' and expresses more indi-
rect knowledge ; [3A] concerns knowledge about circumstances surrounding
N (i.e., Tanaka). So, the following combinations are all very awkward:
*[lA]-[2B], *[l A]-[3B], *[2A]-[lB], *[2A]-[3B], *[3A]-[l A], *[3A]-
(ekotol (DBJG: 191-93))

ni tsuki C Z 3 3 comp. prt.

a; per; for; on; to
expresses a rate or ratio [REL. atari]

*Key Sentence

Number + Counter Number + Counter
I: 6.h

L o&&;f -HE' ?c & bka0

(This job will pay you six dollars an hour. (lit. You can get six dollars
an hour doing this job.))

Number + Counter C= 93

--@AG:9?c (perhour)

b>~2- V?<:t*iih i' 4 1 5
(a) -#G:9 3EE+ HO& #& ll2-if0
(A hundred and fifty yen is necessary per copy for postage. (lit.
Postage of one hundred and fifty yen is necessary per copy.))
284 ni tsuki

(b) F+BG:~$D+BOF&+~QL kAC*l Tt' l r l

(We place a forty-yen service charge on five thousand yen.)
zmt, ,p ss I: lab> b114b1
(c) 8-15 Y ~ " G - 9 3 , L d 7?&k3 C160%Bet:L3To
(The ratio should be two tablespoons of soy sauce to a cup of rice.)
P 1 S
(d) gf+l&-hG:9
D t r )
(Please limit it to three tickets per person.)
f6dr Dt v=TLlTLTL
(e) BdZba-~ t : ~3 -,6i&,6 L 3 TO
(1'11 take one point off for each mistake.)

1. Although in most cases the number which precedes ni tsuki is one, any
number can precede ni tsuki, as seen in Ex.(b).
2. When the number before ni tsuki is one and a noun does not immedi-
= -
ately precede that number, ni tsuki may be dropped, as in (1).
n N= ZOI?E&&-%A ( l Z 7 3 ) k F I L & l; 26, (=KS)
r-- (1) a.

If the number before ni tsuki is not one or if a noun immediately pre-
cedes that number, ni tsuki must appear, as in (2).
(2) a. 5S-E! ( E 7 3 / *01 P4+NO%B+tBb~f:ff 3 3T0
(We place a forty-yen service charge on five thousand yen.)
b. ZOBP~~~?%BE'J +
( C C 7 d / *01 r l L & 6 La,
(This job will pay you ten dollars for three hours.)

3. Ni tsuite can be used instead of ni tsuki, although ni tsuite is less com-
ni tsuki / ni tsurete/tsure 285

[Related Expression]
Atari also means 'per.' The difference between atari and ni tsuki is that while
atari can be used with a counter only (i.e., without a number), as in [I], ni
tsuki requires both a number and a counter. When atari appears with a
counter only, however, it appears only with certain counters.
[l] a. E@BdW f; 1) 5 l=)b (five dollars per hour)

b. + u 3 3~(two thousand yen a kilo)

Atari is also used in the structure - atari no N, as in [2].

[2] a. E@Bd%f; 11 a)&% (wage per hour (i.e., hourly wage))
b. 4 37~1) a)%$& (wholesale price per kilo)
hL+Ltlh L r i D D r i
c. %&AS f: 1) a)%HXPR R f (annual per capita rice con-
sumption (lit. annual rice consumption per citizen))

ni tsurete/tsure CZ7h7 / 7 h conj. /cornp. prt.

as; in proportion to; with
change occurs in accordance with [REL. ni shitagattelshita-
gai; - ba - hodo; to torno nil
+ ~ Sentences
e ~

(As my Japanese became more proficient, the number of my Japanese
friends increased.)
1 (Culture also changes with the change of the times.)

&+ K9hT (As one reads s.t.)
(ii) N KQhT
b SL
%%a)@lk C= 9hT (with the change of temperature)

&&a c:Q;~T, wmt b < tba,

(As people grow older, they lose their physical strength.)
(c) El$a)~&F~<Q61:.=)kLT9
(As I've spent more time in Japan, I have come to understand the good
and bad parts of Japan better.)
1 <P
(d) El$a)@%~$~&~b1:9hT,
E l ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ T 3 f :
(As Japan's economic strength has grown, Japanese language students
have increased.)

(el $&A$<
tba c:~&T,%3$i5~?ih~~i:tbT~3
(As we've moved further into autumn, the colored leaves have become
more beautiful.)
:Fb +V8ri
(f) Fl%d&EkEtb C:9kLT, %$\b@hTba < .
(As children grow up, they become independent of their parents.)
(g) ~ a > m t c : ~ ; K$hz;hao
(The scenery also changes with season changes.)

(With industrial development, pollution also increases.)

1. Vinf .nonpast ni tsurete (or its more formal version Vinf-nonpast ni
tsure) is used to express two simultaneously growing changes.

2. Since the conj. / comp. prt. expresses change, the verbs used in the
tsurete/tsure clause and the main clause have to be a verb of change /
process such as jdtatsusuru 'become proficient' and fueru 'increase' (in
KS(A)), toshi o tom 'become old' and naru 'become' (in Ex.@)),
seichdsuru 'grow' and hanarete iku 'become independent' (in Ex.(f)).
Unless both of the verbs indicate change / process, the sentence is not
acceptable, as shown below.
- -
(1) * E I $ E Q % L & E ~&~ . kT
~&, Zka>%~Ed'S3.d.~7':~ =N
- -
(As I have taught Japanese, I have come to realize the difficulty --

of the Japanese language.)
L 2
(2) *?a>,J\ 3iCizGK~hT,&F&Qjz0
(As I keep reading the novel, it has become more interesting.)
In (1) and (2) both verbs in the tsurete clause and in the main clause are
verbs that do not indicate change, resulting in unacceptable sentences.
Even if the main verbs are replaced by verbs of change / process, still
the sentences are unacceptable, as shown in (3) and (4).

To make the sentences grammatical the verbs in the tsurete clause have
to be replaced by the verbs of change / process like the following:
elated ~xpression]
All the cases of Vinf. nonpast ni tsureteltsure can be rephrased with ba -.
hodo which indicates that in proportion to the increase of extent 1degree of
- -
action or state, s.t. happens, as in [I] and [2]. However, ba hod0 can be
paraphrased by ni tsureteltsure only when the former expresses some change
or process.
EI*ZWkBT;kIgT& C 3 c , EI*AOZB$4;iI& (cf. KS(A))
(The more proficient I become in Japanese, the more Japanese
friends I made.)
%%Rfii%%&C3~?, #fJPG < (cf. Ex.@))
(The older you get, the weaker you will become.)
El*m-&;i;kid'a;i&C%Z, &;i&ZkO%LL$%;filQfi.
(The more I have taught Japanese, the better I have come to under-
stand the difficulty of teaching it.)
+*El$-%Q&f &CZ7hT, & A & ZkO%LL$%;fil~k,
-- El*ZQ&LTbl< E T h T , & A & Z kO$&LL$%da~T31:.
%O/J\RIi%biX%+C3EP$$&-> 7:.
(The more I read the novel the more interesting it became.)
-- *?O/JSM%QrE7hT,R$&Q k , (=(2))
-- %O/J\Rii3W%+CZ3hT, Ri5'BT 3 k0 (=(6))
There is another fundamental difference between the two structures under
comparison. In front of ni tsureteltsure comes only a verb or noun, but in
front of - ba hod0 comes not only a verb but also an Adj(i / na).
- -
(+ ba hodo)
niwa 289

ni wa E conj. / cornp. prt.

to; in order to; for; for the pur-
to indicate a purpose for doing s.t. pose of -
[REL. ni; tame ni; no nil

+Key Sentences

Vinf .nonpast
&&gB 26 :c Ck
I 6-5 fw~t,

(In order to lead a rich life, health should be your primary concern.)

Noun -
n 4 k-lkk? n-f+>9 Elk $&3Eo
1 (High-heeled shoes are unsuitable for hiking.)

( i ) Vinf .nonpast b: Ck

6< :1 Ck (for going there)

&$I: 12 (for one's work)

(a) ~ F Q C~L CHu~~& 1: It&

(The best course for getting to know Japan is to study the Japanese lan-
C,Ltk' *fi
(,,I *&%e&i:~~~:12~&%f:<s&&9Z2flx&7?o
(TOenrich your life it is important is to have many hobbies.)
(c) X O & & ~ ~ &< c:c2?i?~~$l%Thfl!lZSftO
hd. C?8311< 031'1

(In order to see through a person's personality, one needs to have deep
< -)I
m i
(d) W360~~naGca~c:ii+0~i~.r-r<
0 f l -
t ~5 ~
(The best way for developing one's proficiency in a foreign language
would be to go to the country of that language.)

Vo maintain world peace, exchange among the general public rather
than exchange among elites is essential.)
(f) A%L$- I.$%<1 : 1 ; f 7 - ; P n ~ k ; J ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~
(A word processor is a must for writing a term paper.)
. -

(g) & 0 ~ 2 ~ &i:l;f&f&fl&&bO
T h
- -
(It takes time to persuade him.)
w r k t t i 09x3
(h) Z 0 3410~~1:tb&b:li~~0k~~~fl!lZ~~
(In order to become a member of this club a member's letter of recom-
mendation was necessary.)
(i) z o ; ~ a i ; ~ ' / v ~ ; f %i2%Arz0
(This bag is suitable for a long travel.)
IfL P w i
(j) Z O W ~ ~ : C ~0 ~ &~ G~ ~ d $ f l + f i ~ ~
(This research needs a considerable amount of time and money.)

1. Vinf.nonpast ni wa is used to indicate a purpose for doing s.t. The pred-
icate often expresses the necessity for or importance of using a specific
niwa 291

2. Vinf.nonpast may be nominalized by no, as in (1) and (2) below.

There is no difference in meaning between ni wa and no ni wa.
3. Ni wa can take not only a Vinf.nonpast but a noun as shown in KS(B),
Exs.(i) and (j). A noun here is a noun of action which can take the verb
sum. There are two types of such nouns: one is the stem of the so-called
sum-verb, such as kenkyu of kenkyii-sum (of Ex.(j)) or the direct object
of sum, such as nagatabi (of Ex.@). If a noun is not a noun of action,
the sentence does not express a purpose, as shown in (3).
(3) a.
L*l l1
% i : i d ? ~ P~ VBB,TV>~-+~
(On weekends I watch TV at home.)
(+nil (DBJG: 289-91))

c. %$i:ib$@dff L > T &7 7'zo
(On the blackboard were written kanji.)
(+ni4 (DBJG: 295-96))
. t L*
d. &%%i:i2#hwQ$17k0
(Nobody was at the office.)
(+ni6 (DBJG: 299-302))

c. F $ ~ : ~ Z ~3La TL I Z~, T
(To Tokyo I went alone.)
(+ni7 (DBJG: 302))

e elated Expression]
There are at least four similar purpose expressions in Japanese.
b?L d%:< Z .iLlr 3
[I] a. %LC;f.@HSOI@%i:@H-1'i7 7zo
went to Korea for the study of Korean.)
292 ni wa / ni yotte/yon'

b. %~i2@@%%@5&Lt=%@"?T-'r:o
(I went to Korea to study Korean.)
c. wmazam.wa t ~ t w z ~ a - 4r~7 ~
(I went to Korea in order to study Korean.)
d. +LCmElzBBS&tba Iocc /*[:I %@.2?T3 r:,
(I went to Korea for the purpose of studying Korean.)
[la] means practically the same as [lb]. However, the latter construction has
a restriction on the main verb ; that is, only the verb of motion can be used.
The difference between [la] and [lc] is that the latter has the stronger mean-
ing of purpose. [la] sounds more casual than [lc]. [la] is different from [Id]
in that the latter puts more weight on the way the speaker learned Korean. In
other words, [Id] implies seriousness of the purpose.
( e n i 5 (DBJG: 297-99)); noni2 (DBJG: 335-37))

ni yottejyori CZ k 9 7 / k b) comp. prt.

according to; due to; owing to;
because of; depending on; from
cause, agent of passive sentence, - to; by means of; on the basis
of; with; by
(REL. ni; de; no tame nil

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

I (We examine unknown kanji with a Chinese character dictionary.) /
1 (Teaching methods are, of course, different, depending on the teacher.)

1 (We lost our father, owing to the war.)

1 (This research institute was established by the Ministry of Education.) I
Embedded Yes-No Question
LL+V< SL r w <l:a?rl*<
!%%&fr'%%X6tP rij5.Kh9-C k+h+Q&di,3$,
(I will decide my entrance to college, depending on whether I can get a
scholarship or not.)
Embedded Wh-Question
I AZi I 2 5 f i b ,
EE&T5h> Kh9T k&%%Ci&bb.,

I (Our health condition changes according to what we eat.) 1

1 (We can expand our horizons by reading books.)

rv a
iFkRh: k 9 T (by the government)
{VIAdj(i)]inf $ P i :C$ {k 9 T / h 17 I
I ? k b / & I z l $.ri$h: { k 7 T / h 1 7 1 (dependingonwhether
S.O. comes / came or not)

{ % ~ L ~ / E F I Q $ Q I ;daPi$l:
I { k 9 T / h 1 7 I (dependingon
whether s.t. is / was interesting or not)
(iii) {Adj(na)stemlN) { f l / I . ~ k I; 3 a r i $ C : { h g T / 1171
{ $ & f l / % $ ~ l 2 9 f i 1 dlr3d.h: { h 7 T / h 1 7 1 (dependingon
whether s.t. is / was quiet or not)

(iv) Embedded Wh-Question: G {h 9 T / k 17 I
hd7Lz;S. :C I h 7 T / h 17 I (depending on what s.0. ate)
%%b $a:C {h 7 T / k 17 I (depending on who comes)
I b,
Z0,"6di+g + & c L ~ Q T ~ $ ~ ) ~ ~ - x Q F L F T $ ~ Z

(These days we can watch world news on TV via satellite live broad-
6 3 CLk6
(b) B%t: L T P ~ ,
~ ~ ~ ~ i i ; b . r ; 3 . a )1 TE"~
(The old people are living on little savings.)

(c) +a)'$$ti$$L&a b=d: Q ~ g E t t l % dbi f 72,
(We should be able to solve that problem by means of negotiation.)
(d) XG:h3T, ~ a ) k ) ~ h P B i .
(Depending on the person, the aging process differs.)
(e) % I ~ + o ~ o K & G = L Q T~i%
, $+$i$ 3*o
(Depending on the day's mood, I listen to different music.)
(f) a+iiA 61v
(Retirement ages vary from company to company.)
.ttV.hL f *< CV L*h. C SV 3 D
(g) ?a)s+dii%%i:h9Ts B@R&T L 3 97&
(The young man lost his adolescence because of drugs.)
2.h aLVr i Z w $ a, O i
(h) ~E~~%%G:~QTRW$~~EG:~Q~'Z~
(He became unable to come back because of the difficult disease.)
(i) ~ ~ & i YG:L ~ f i
(This picture was painted by Picasso.)
(j) ~$~J~~X@~~~~'/YX~:LQT%HS~LT:
(The American Continent was discovered by Columbus.)
% + a ) z t m ~ ~ < & ; b - > - rz*,
C 1% 5b1hL Itb+( tgk
(k) ~~+$+~fa-n.ri-n.c:d:Q-c, $
(Depending on whether or not I cin go to Japan, my coming year's
schedule will become totally different.)
3+ l3LL
(1) ~ k k @ t t l % a ; 3 . ~; i~ . ~ = L Q ~
T , a ) ~ a%%
% ,P R ~ ~ A T * ~
(My fortune will be determined by whether I can many you or not.)
I: IiL-Z dr< L e i L r LL ll
(m) Y O H $ . ; ~ D % & K ~5 $ K 19 T, Y E 80BtkPB5 iiTEo
(The learner's progress should differ, depending on which Japanese
language instructor he learns from.)
%a I t < L%LL~+.-,
(n) % ~ & G ~ T ~ $ K L ~M TL , B T ~ ,E ~ % ? & S ~ O
(The same musical piece sounds different, depending on who performs
(0) 7'91) fiTii&~2&~<&bh36Zkk:L9T, !i%??&.b~Zk
P f f i % b o ) T C i t s b > l 2 65 $,
(Would it not be possible to reduce crimes in the U.S. by maintaining
strict control of drugs?)
C ? Lr p h L A
(p) ~d@o&&b: L b & 2 o g i i a + q 2 ~ b ~ b ~

(The number of the people killed in automobile accidents is increasing
every year.)
(q) & ~ t : L b F & ; k C i k < & b Z k r ? ,
(Belated treatment due to misdiagnosis is a matter of frequent occur-

1. The particle ni yotte indicates the means for doing s.t. (e.g. KS(A), (G),
Exs.(a) - (c) and (o)), dependency on a situation / s.t. / S.O. (e.g. KS(B),
(E), (F), Exs.(d) - (f) and (k) - (n)), cause for s.t. (e.g. KS(C), Exs.(g)
and (h)), and an agent of a passive sentence (e.g. KS(D), Exs.(i) and
2. When ni yotte means dependency on a situation, the preceding element
can be an embedded Yes-No question (e.g. KS(E), E x s . 0 and (1)) or a
WH-question (as in KS(F), Exs.(m) and (n)).
3. When ni yotte means a means for doing s.t., it can be preceded by a
clause norninalized by koto as in KS(G) and Ex.(o).
4. -
- ni yotte can be unconditionally replaced by ni yori when it means
dependency on a situation / s.t. / LO.,as in KS(B), (E), 0,
Exs.(d) - (f)
and Q - (n). The difference between the two is that ni yori is used in
written Japanese.
(1) a. El$%O%&OWZii%&L { & 7 T /??A11I Bb>3T
(The teaching methods of Japanese teachers differ depend-
ing on the teacher.)
SS.5 .*I%? 3;.5La
b. ~ l ; i ~ t w a % k e c i a m cra77
r / ~ U @a&.
(The Japanese language pedagogy differs depending on the
In (la) ni yori is unacceptable, because it is used in spoken Japanese,
whereas the same comp. prt. can be used in (lb) which belongs to writ-
ten Japanese. The replacement is also possible when ni yotte means
an instrument with which to do s.t.

However, when the instrument is a concrete, tangible object ni yori can-
not be used as in (3).

When the particle means a cause or a passive agent, ni yori is not used.
Thus, the following sentences are all marginal.
(4) a. <
??R9CZ&1) X%C L k o (cf. KS(C))

5. In the prenominal use of N1 ni yoru Nlr the comp. prt. expresses cause
as in Ex.(p) and (q), or a means as in (5a) or a passive agent as in (5b).
(Even in the humanities field research using computers is
Cri k i L e 7 C L ' I L
b. -3- H B L & ~ ~ A & + S & ~ L T

(In New York City murders by habitual drug users occur
In all of these ni yotte cannot be used.

I. The particle de of means can always replace ni yotte of means, as
shown below: (+de2 (DBJG: 106-07))

However, ni yottelyori cannot always replace de of means. Examples

ii $15 ii?' ?L d.L
b. & % 0 4 7 11- 7 2 i i 2 #k02&1~
(7" / CZ&=-CI
(The urban white-collar workers are commuting by public
[3] a. $ L t ; f 7 - ; P {~T / * C Z & 9 7 } + ~ B Q I / ~ T V ~ ~ ,
(I am writing a letter with a word processor.)

(Document preparation is handled by a word processor.)
[4] a. Kg277 7 3 ; ~{ T / * i Z & 7 7 )
-if&4.b-tf.lUfl, g9-C
(Could you kindly send the manuscripts by fax?)

(These days, it is common practice to communicate by
In [2]-[4], ni yoffe is totally unacceptable in the (a) sentences and
acceptable in the (b) sentences. The crucial difference between (a) and
(b) sentences is that the former belongs to spoken Japanese, whereas
the latter belongs to more impersonal and formal Japanese. The imper-
sonal and formal aspects of the latter are accented by the use of Sino-
Japanese words. In short, the basic difference between de and ni yotte
is a stylistical difference; the former can be used in both spoken and
written Japanese, but the latter is usually used only in written Japanese
or very formal speech.
II. The difference between the agent marker ni and ni yotte is grammatical
and stylistical. The sentences in [5] show that when the subject of the
passive sentence is inanimate (such as 'research institute,' 'painting,'
'American Continent') the agent has to be marked not by ni, but by ni

[6a] and [7a] show examples where ni is chosen over ni yotte.
[6] a. 7I)Xi&?3 'J { C Z / * C Z & 7 7 ) lj4.b3kLlz0
(Alice was deceived by John.)
3 k-- 7%
b. 7*kb;f.&d!?%
{CZ / K & 7 T ] 2#~kLlzo
(The demonstrators were dispelled by riot police.)
@ i i % € 2 r n$43 I K / *Lk971 & 3 t L k o
(I got my letter read by my parents.)
L X?LL&bI d(*,b 60
iiWRpTiO@bf RBfibBO% IC: / CZk7T1 Z3

(We got our secret document of the research institute read
by unknown outsiders.)
%LiiEl$ZO%& it: /*C:k771 ~ $ 2 h L k o
(My Japanese teacher corrected my pronunciation (lit. I
am annoyed by the fact that my professor corrected my
$1 +b, $ r ittb.
&WZii&!~b~El$~&!3 it: / Kk971 %BEE23
(The students had their pronunciation corrected by their
strict Japanese instructors.)
Sentences [6] - [S] show that ni yotte/yori can be used in (b) type sen-
tences which have impersonal and formal written style, but not in (a)
type sentences which have personal style.
(+rarerul (DBJG: (364-69))

In. The particle ni yotte/yori of cause has the related expressions de and
no tame ni. KS(C), Exs.(g) and (h) can be rewritten using de and no
tame ni as shown below.
(+de3 (DBJG: 107-09); tame (ni) (DBJG: 447-5 1))

[9] a. R 9 { ~ / a ) ~ @XLQ' tl < L I Z , (cf.KS(C))
b. ? O W 4 i i R % IP/a)t=@El3 W $ R 2 & 7 T L 3 9
k 0 (cf. Ex.(g))
c. %&ti%%IT / B@Tf;8Bb:tb
9 k , (cf. Ex. (h))

As shown in [lo], there are cases in which ni yoffe is unacceptable for
some unknown reason.
[lo] a. &% ITlcDktbE l*C:k77l tTb$&~l:,
(Because of my work I got very tired.)
b. gg {TIa)f;&C: /*Czk~Tl
(Because of illness, I took a day off from the company.)

c. $$$&{T/a)r-mz/*C:&TTIj ~ ~ a ~ t ~
(Because of the power failure we had a difficult time.)
The crucial differences among de, no tame ni, and ni yotte are: first, ni
yotte and no tame ni are more formal than de. That is why abstract
Sino-Japanese words go more harmoniously with the former as shown
in [lla] below:
I b%$Wi9TL
[ l l ] a. El$OkE4%b {a)k&E/E&=T/??Tl
(Because of Japan's economic progress, Japanese lan-
guage learners have increased.)
b. El$O&@O%b El$%YB
- -
- -
In [llb] de becomes acceptable, because the inserted no makes the sN I
= -

entire sentence less formal. Secondly, de can be used to mean 'cause'
rather loosely, but ni yotte can be used only when the focus is sharply
placed on a 'cause,' as shown in [12].
[12] a. &D~Lii%3 (T/??a)k&tZ
/*E&=TI% % t V t v ; ~ x ~
(Because of money problems I quarrelled with my friend.)
b. 9 a b a k 1 Z k {T/*a)fL&EI*Cz&TT)
i a0
(You are suffering because of a trivial matter, aren't you?)
302 no kankei de

no kankei de CDMf%T phz

because of
place or does not take place [REL. no tame (ni)]
because of s.t.

+Key Sentence

Noun 1
I I 1

(Mr. Hall has gone to Tokyo on a business-related matter.)

~ ~ A G & & ~ ) E E ~ B T%~ $B%abl+i
c ; ~ : + 12,
.F3C r i c 3

(I heard that Suzuki cannot graduate this year because of insufficient
credits / units.)
&?$DWQT, %%T-if;3",~ S ; L a;%~B%3*tv, <
(Because of the time limit, I am sorry I cannot go into detail.)
L L m ? K L k> t i ?
& ~ ~ % S D W ~ El , kt2~!$~c'B%3*&
(Because of the size of the room we cannot invite more than 40
bb z
HERA~~~WDW ~ ~ T , i IZ i I.,
(It seems that Momoko was not hired because of her age.)
d w w L*-&r?
LXII -b2%?fa)WfiTdr <%Mi: B @ $ 6 6 LL\,
(I was told that Leslie makes frequent company-related business trips
no kankei de 303

(f) &@J
abroad (lit. makes frequent trips abroad because of his company).)
3 i2@3p%Aa)e3a)WRTn 7 F7 G
(I heard that because of her husband's work Miyuki is going to live in
London for 3 years.)
(g) B&DwRT, tO;PmYx? bb~$.&t:tb71~~
(Because of the budgetary situation, the project has been cancelled.)

N no kankei de is used to refer to causal relationship in a very indirect way.
In fact, the noun kankei means 'relationship' and the particle de indicates a
causal relationship. (+de3 (DBJG: 107-09))

[Related Expression]
The following sentences are saying virtually the same thing, but they are
slightly different from each other.

Among the five choices, N no kankei de is the most indirect reference to
causal relationship, because it does not need to be specific about the cause
(i.e., (lack of) budget funds in [la] and [lb]). N no tame (ni) is next most
indirect about specification of the cause. Exs.[lb] and [lc] show that the
preceding N can be a neutral yosan 'budget' or a negative yosan-busoku
'lack of budget.' N de, kara and node all requires a specific cause. In this
sense they are markers of direct reference to causal relationship. Among de,
kara and node, the latter two are markers of more direct reference to causal
(+tame (ni) (DBJG: 447-51); node (DBJG: 328-31); kara3 (DBJG:
304 no koto

no koto OIL- 2 phl:

about; in terms of; related to
[REL. ni kanshitelkansuru;ni

+Key Sentences

1 (I'm going to talk about Japanese culture in my lecture tomorrow.) I


0 (2 Q~ ~ ~ L ~ F . ~ ~ L \ ~ ~ L .
1 (You'd better forget about her now.)

1 (I'd like to talk to you about studying in Japan.)


%, WS&& 0Lk CLTj-flo

(Actually, it's (=The reason I'm calling is /The reason I came to see
you is) about tomorrow's meeting.)
no koto 305

Z 2 (about an I the exam)

S o i h h b
FFEIK#S/~~.'~O 2QZ b~3br.4hb~'iCb~I:~.
(Miss Arai asked various questions about you yesterday.)
~?vfl<W+q H6
L S - bbi~l$.Dkf&@DZ2Q&Zi 2,F,~'iCb>6.
(For my term paper I'm thinking of writing about college life in Japan.)
+&'9Z 2 bi~~d.'W&t; a.t,
(I'll take the responsibility for our children (lit. for things related to our

:/r+w CI L*? i2w-b. * t,
CHCW~ 7 2 0~ ~t i j ~ ~ II~a LIZ.
m - a
(I owe you a lot in terms of my internship this time.)
TL t, hb. L n i
& D i , k;%z&Ll:Dli, %3!0,\"-74 - D Z 2 a / v T t 7 F 0
((The reason) I'm calling (is to talk) about the party next week.)

1. No koto literally means 'things of I about.' Thus, X no koto o kaku, for
example, literally means 'to write things about X.' This phrase often
appears with a particle to form a compound particle meaning 'about,' as
in KS(A) - (C) and Exs.(a) - (d).
2. X no koto (nan) desu ga is used to introduce the reason for phoning
someone or visiting someone, as in KS(D) and Ex.(e), or to introduce a

(1) A: =,
topic to the hearer, as in (1).
L$- b @ L t t b A T b S o
(Professor, I'd like to talk to you (lit. It's) about my term
B: %T.t&
(Yes? (lit. What is it?))
306 no koto / no koto da kara
b.*I:6 0,

A: & ~ & o B - B B c ~ L T B ~ ~ ~ L ~ T L L ~
(Could you give me another day? (lit. Could you extend the
due date by one day?))

because - is habitually I usu-
which I whom s.t. is habitually the ( ally I often that way; because

+Key Sentences

fi Noun
m Rd.C*
Pg 0 , ~$$;if:f&kLT&&1?5iO

(Because Nakajima is always that way (i.e., comes late), he will proba-
bly come late again today. (lit. Because it is a matter of Nakajima (who
habitually comes late), . . .))

Relative C1. Noun 1
(Because tofu goes bad quickly, you'd better put it in the refrigerator.
(lit. Because it is a matter of tofu, which always goes bad quickly, . . .))

h'd. f
FJ H S A 0 E 2 f?jSa 6 (because Okada is habitually that way)
- 3 0 kj?fpb,
~ &<&C:d&f
C*l l L I
no koto da kara / norni 307

~ y ~ b . ,
(Because it is summer (when foods go bad quickly), please be very
careful about what you eat.)
1: IiL C L
& $ & ~ ; ~ E I * A o z ~ I$z9~ ~ , - ~ d b a - + d : ~
(Because they are rich Japanese, I'm sure they will buy them even if
they are expensive.)
2 7 $ ~ 0 & 3 a % Y s A 0 z k j Z & b ,% b . % & f : b ~ 4 9 2 @ 3 2
b.AC.edj 0 'b*A7Po
(Because Kinoshita loves karaoke, I have a feeling that he will not let

go of the microphone once he starts singing.)
# & 3 0 % 6 0 ~k f . . 6 b , ~ 0 i ~ 2 f i j : b & 3 ~ C : d & f $ b ~ b ~ j ? 6
(Because Yamada is a sake lover, if he sees this sake, he will probably
not leave until he drinks it (lit. without drinking it).) -
- N

1. Using X no koto da kara, the speaker presents a reason for something,
based on what habitually occurs with X.
2. When N no koto da kara is used, the main clause must represent a future
action, event, or state.

nomi 0 ) k prt. <w>

only; just; alone
imposed upon an action, event, or [REL. dake]
a state
*Key Sentences

1 (Please tell me just the main point.)

1 (I have told this only to Prof. Yoshida.)

1 (I don't know whether I can win or not, but I will just do my best.)
( i ) N 0 k (Prt.)
@a) k (#) &l. (Only students came.)

Y e 0k ( ??) (invite students only)
(ii) N {Prt. a)&/ D k Prt.]
$%k{: C D k / a)k I: I ;&-if (talk only to students I talk to students
(iii) Vinf D k 72
{ti</?797':1 Ddkl? (onlygolwent)
norni 309

(Only I know the answer to this.)

(Write your surname only.)
(c) +~iijzj23;hk~jzzk~faahjz,
will just do what I was told to do.)

(d) k72&%&SOh(12)~
(The only thing we have to do is to put it into practice.)
(e) ~ & C & ; h ~ j z O h ~ a 7 ' f ~ 3 - h ~ ~ i ~ & ~ C ~ b 1 ~ b 1 i f b b ~
(We've just finished the exterior and haven't started anything else yet.)

1. The case particles ga and o are optional after nomi. Other case particles -
such as ni, e, to, de, and kara appear either before or after norni. m1
2. When the particle de appears with nomi, the meaning changes according
to the position of the two particles, as in (1).
i: if!. - *.34*>t
(1) a. + L I~~ ;iprf~~a>h~saffi&a~
(I can explain it only in Japanese. (i.e., I cannot explain it in
other languages.))
b. $LCi El;iprZa>ATRsBffi%S0
(I can explain it in Japanese alone. (i.e., I don't need any
other languages but Japanese to explain it.))
e elated ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
Dake can replace nomi without a change in meaning. The main difference
between the two is that dake can follow adjectives and quantifiers but norni
cannot, as in [I].

[I] a. gba {Ecf / *a>&]j?(s.t. is cheap, that's all)
b. gd.2 ( E t t / *a>h)72 (s.t. is quiet, that's all)
31 0 nomi / no moto de

Ll t
-9 IECf / * D k I gi (buyonlyone)
Note also that dake is used in formal and informal speech and written Japa-
nese while nomi is used in formal speech and written Japanese.
(+dake (DBJG: 93-97))

no moto de VITT cornp. prt. <w>

under; in; with
trol or influence of S.O. or s.t. [REL. -ka de]
- - - ~

+Key Sentence

1 (I finished my master's thesis under Prof. Suzuki's guidance.)

d'<l$rl L S
Y%f D f 8 % D T ; T (under the direction of the dean)

+b>+b>L$ Bte
(a) I AI t v~.a%ih~m+wmk~f~~
(The opening ceremony was held in (lit. under) the brilliant sun.)
(b) Eijifitij~ 7-r ; / D T T W & Q % I L
(He studied conducting under (Herbert von) Karajan.)
< A W L bkL*$ 0 "
2 twlJ9
(c) # F & + ( D ) & % & ~ ~ D T T ~
sDL %%$~!XL~~
(Our divorce was agreed upon in (lit. under) the presence of attorneys.)
-(e) ZDI' 2 7 ~ a ) ~ ~ t & % ? ? f i tB&&$ab1,
(With this inflation there's no point in saving money.)

1. When this phrase refers to physical space, its use is limited to "atmos-
pheric space," for example, the sky and the weather.
2. Some nouns require the particle ni rather than de after no moto, as in (1)
and (2).

(1) %..I& B 5 W & W kb l 3 %%UI-Ft:zo&& LTblZ,,,
(I'm doing this job with the promise that the profit will be
divided in half (and one half will be given to me).)
2 CI+L++w 3 ;d, C=I?LL=
(We are using this lab with Prof. Taguchi's permission.) -
e elated ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ] =

-ka de, when combined with some nouns, means the same as no mot0 de, as
in [I].
[I] a. -a)#BTT 6.
(under the direction of -)
b. -DEtR-FT (under the supervision of -)
312 nouede wa

no ue de wa OkTlt comp. prt.

as far as is concerned; as far
as goes; from the view-
point / standpoint of; according
to; in terms of
[REL. -jb wa]

+Key Sentence

za)zt;+aci & O Y T C ~H ~ Q Pj +12,
(There seems to be no problem with this plan as far as the documents
are concerned.)

0 SL
PB%a)kTCi (in theory; on paper; as far as the theory goes)

I:*?< tLiL
(a) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ T ~ ~ ~ B z ~ H c ~ ;
(According to the calculations, we are supposed to make a profit of
(about) two million yen.)
(b) Z a ) ? n Y r ? b C r t ( f $ a ) k T C i j ~ < { ~ ~ ? j f ? f?$k~<%87'.2,
(Although in theory (lit. As far as the story is concerned,) it looks like
this project will work out, I feel somewhat uneasy.)

(c) %+a)kTCdiT&a)3flgEtI1 b j I& Ti?
(Statistically, (lit. As far as the figures are concerned,) Kawano looks
stronger than Kurata.)
*+3 m L Zt 6lL.ELLw % L* L Cb+?
(d) A@CittSa)kTCi%&E%%I?jjf, $L&%Cif?1; Ljfiftbba,
(Ohno is a perfectionist at work (lit. as far as his business is concerned)
but messy in his private life.) :i bl IfiJI9

(el ~ ~ ~ , i Li 15~S G~
a ~ > .~, ~ ~ ~ i $ j
(There's no way to punish his conduct legally (lit. from the legal point
of view).)

No ue de wa is not the same as no ue de. (+ue de)

[Related ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
-jo wa is used with some nouns in the same way as no ue de wa, as in [I].
t r i
[I] a. St$$+Cb (as far as computation goes; in terms of the calcula-
b. E%klt (in theory; on paper; as far as the theory goes)
c. &@klb (legally; from the legal point of view)

It will be 1was - when I that -

* ~ Sentence
e ~


(It was in May 1985 that I last met Mr. Yamada.)
Sinf 0 la (the same formation as no da) N 0 Z k f?
3L 7': 0 Ci&4 0 Z k 72 (It was last year when S.O.talked . . .)
ti* brhh.

11 lih - S6L5
(a) B$~~O@~S~~."&~~~%@~:OC;~:Z<&%OZ~R,
(It was only recently that I began to understand how interesting Japa-
nese is.)
I%&,<+# h & E w : i Ifh.
(b) $-#$%7ebU$~ b~~;kf;0l;f:l960~~t~&~0ZkTdia0
(It was in the late sixties when genuine robots came out.)
(c) ~9~~~~&&&0~i~~0&;h110~kG~7eb~f24,~
(It will be around the end of next month when we get galley proofs.)

Ihvt, t L : 'r+k
(f) &&-k$d~j5."($&< $b>-Cb>& kI ~~* 6L % f i f : 0 G ; f : 9 b > ~ $ > g i 3 ~ m
t j b o ~ c i , , r ; ~ i +j$fj'k~f.kb>
, jz&fz0
(Although it was only (about) a month ago when I saw Ken'ichi and
Toshiko walking together intimately, I heard they've already split up.)

This structure is a special form of - no wa - da and is used when a particu-
lar time is under focus. - -
(e no wa da (DBJG: 33742))
-nu aux. <w>

negation [REL. -nai; -zu]

*Key Sentences


y u - , c ~ ~ a & i " % ~ b~EGSQ?$?;~Z,;~GSC=.CA
&~z L h,

I (In the global age we cannot think of our own country alone.) I

1 (When you don't know something, it takes courage to admit it.)

Vneg h (N I Aux)
% CI ah (KO.doesn't know s.o.1 st.)
%U 6 ah (a person whom s.o.doesn't know or s.0. who doesn't know s.t.)
% 6 h 6 Lb> (it appears that S.O. doesn't know S.O. I s.t.)
-@a (irr.) (does not do s.t.)
& CI a (irr.) (s.o. does not exist)

dl% *I:
(a) @~-ilqQhb>-ch,% U C I ~ ~ L & & R ~ ,
(No matter what I ask, he answers only that he does not know.)
l:l*LtL i w -
W I H ~ A ~ H & F & ~ ~ L 5 7~~ 7z0
(That Japanese did not seem to understand English.)
t & d : < & L 7 ? $ O7Z0
(c) @3C&%&1:!4%&3h z7
b lF
(seldom drink these days, but I used to drink a lot when I was young.)
z 0213&%
1: I f A
(d) ~$z*;;*&%i& hao
(In this area there are not people who can speak Japanese.)

1. -nu is an archaic negative marker that corresponds to -nai, but is used
only with verbs. The archaic -nu is used in very stiff written Japanese.
That is why there are quite a few proverbial phrases in which -nu is
used exclusive of -nai.
(1) $22 {&/*&L\l %o&
(Prevention is better than cure. (lit. A cane in advance so as not
to fall.))
(2) %b {&/*&L\l gK
(Ignorance is bliss. (lit. Not to know is to be a Buddha.))
(3) Z b {&/*&L\l 73%
(Better leave it unsaid. (lit. Not to speak is a flower.))
2. There is no past tense form for -nu. See [la] below.

I. -nu is an archaic version of -nai. Except in idiomatic phrases mentioned
in Note 1 -nu can be replaced by -nai, but the reverse is not always the
[I] a. ~0%i&38< I&L\/*&I~
(This book isn't interesting.)
b. @r&&.-x { & L I T / f ;t / *&T / **I:)g@(\{+-.3
(I went to school without eating breakfast.)
(e nai de (DBJG: 271-73))
-nu 317

The difference between -nu and -zu is straightforward. The latter can be
used as a continuative form or before ni to mean 'without -.' The for-
mer can be used at the end of a sentence or before a noun, auxiliary or
a conjunction.
{ f / *@I h:&g%L l L
(I worked without eating my lunch.)
+e W X S ~ R ~2%~:
S ~ T~, W {T P / *a}, ~T&-cL>J;,
(I felt a cold coming on today, so I stayed in bed at home,
without going to work.)
$4 B
Qi caEb (a/ *TI,
(I don't think so.)
gab { @ / * T ZI ~ B % ~ - C~ LS> ~~ T W C ~ ~ L ~
(You shouldn't say you know what you don't know.)
[REL. o ni naru; rareru]
speaker's respect for someone
when describing that person's

+Key Sentences

(Are you in a hurry?)



$ %

#& 0

73-F 12. %5$k3*~~

( Y o u n i i n g e r use the card you have now.

( i ) 2 Vmasu I?
%&% I? (s.o. is waiting)
(ii) C VN I?
.-"ti8 %I? (s.0. is doing research)
(iii) % Vmasu a) N
&$%r$rl 0% (those who are going back today)
(iv) =.' VN a)N
C;fiff%a)w& (a problem which s.0. is doing research on)
i $ $ s ~ & aOFT,
(Everybody is here (lit. has gathered) now.)
f&J,+ gg71fk;&vF-ifko
(Mr. Kono, the Section Chief wants to see you (lit. is calling you).)
2 V-Ii h i 9&sirFf da,
(Have you already finished copying?)
(What kind of person would you like?)
h b Z+L,
(The guests haven't left yet.)
~ ; & V F L ~ F : ~ , Z D ~ ~ & F L<I6iZsirYs1/1~
(If you are tired, please take a rest in this room for a while.)
a IL ~/ F>ZC~ ' ,: ~
+ B B I / > D ~ - Y U I ~ L ~ ~ ~ ;0&

(When did you buy the word processor you are using now?) -

(What are you researching now, Professor?)
T/rO'),.Vd. t i & & (IICIL
Di rEzW- w s ,
X ~ ~ D - ~ . " L ' ~ B ~ ~c
(Which countries is the Emperor going to visit?)

1. 0 da does not express the aspect (i.e., progressive, perfect etc.) of a
verb explicitly. Aspect can be determined from context, as seen in (1).
(1) a. k;%@-n."h5 9 C%% b TTo (=!%a)
(The guests are leaving soon.)
b. 4 ~ ~ % & s i r ~ b l 5 ' ,( = % A T I / ~ & )
(What are you reading now?)
c. 2 V - - C i h 5 ~ % s i r T T ~ ~(=%A??)
(Have you already finished copying?)
320 o- da / o hajirne (to shite)
2. 0 - da cannot be used with two-syllable Gr. 2 verbs (e.g., rniru 'look at,y
iru 'stay,' kiru 'wear,' neru 'sleep') and irregular verbs (i.e., suru 'do3
and kuru 'come').

3. As Formation (ii) shows, for suru-verbs which require the polite prefix
go-, go VN da is used rather than o Vrnasu da. The sum-verbs which
require the polite prefix o-, such as s6jisuru 'clean,' denwasuru 'make a
call,' ry6risuru 'cook,' and sentakusuru 'wash' are not commonly used
in this pattern.
D t ll
(3) a. ? ? % ~ ; ~ ' S - A T ~ E B S %(Acceptable
~ I ~ ~ form: & 4
flS-AT&BE%@ELT {&%ha / 6\59 L ? 6 l 0 )
(The teacher is cleaning the room by himself.)

(+o- (DBJG: 34347))

0 - da is not as polite as o ni naru but is politer than
- passive honorific
(+Politeness and Formality (DBJG: 36-44); o ni naru (DBJG: 358-60);
rarerul (DBJG: 364-69))

o hajime (to shite) 2
.j l t C @I ( 2 L 7 ) phr. <w>

a phrase that is used to give a pri- -
starting with; not only but
mary example dm-
[REL. dake de (wa)naku - (mo)]
o hajime (to shite) 321
+Key Sentence

*??L 44 $. ?'<+?Lb%
L T i , 2 i tL ~jE?R;z$-~#&3ff~

1 (In my family, starting with my father, all of us like sports.) I

i C & ( t L T) (starting with the teacher)
%!& Q C

c ItL L <
(a) +-r-i-ti, -+ifL'frcke*k LT, E I * l~ ; % ~ $ 4 i e a ~
(Starting with sushi, Cathy eats any Japanese cuisine.)
d*Llrt6 l i i 3 * &C+
(b) 4 % c & k t ~ c i ~ & ,
(This year, starting with Osaka, the rainy season was short in all parts
of the Kansai district.)
L+ 4 r i L??vLv%Pi Sf2 LI< P i
(c) z&%,it +t~ ' f12r C& t LT, + ~ - i g m qC& ~ TE~&B&
(At this company, starting with the president, all the employees eat
lunch in the same cafeteria.)
C*ixL f2-t 313 &
(d) <
~ o @ k t k , % & ' f r ~ i c&, % O E EW%~P!F RQ%LIG
(Not only the police but also the nearby residents showed a strong
interest in this incident.)

1. N o hajime to shite literally means 'by making N the beginning (of s.t.),'
an idea very similar to the English phrase 'starting with.'
2. N o hajime is an abbreviative version of N o hajime to shite.
3. In conversational Japanese N o hajime (to shite) is not used; instead,
dake de (wa) naku (mo) is used.
(+dake de (wa) naku (mo) (DBJG: 97-100)) -
322 o hajime (to shite) / o - kudasai

All the examples can be rephrased by dake d e (wa) nakute - (mo). In fact, as
noted in Note 3, in conversational Japanese dake d e (wa) naku - (mo) is
used instead of N o hajime (to shite).

o - kudasai 43-7; P 6' phl:

please do s.t.
polite request [REL. kudasai]

+Key Sentences

1 (Please wait a moment.) I

1 (Please order by phone.) 1

2%L T S b' (Please talk.)
o - kudasai 323

Z*@%T S b1 (Please contact (us).)

(a) z 042 2%f$baTS blo
(Please use this pen.) ,

(b) ~ @ d ~ b9j a 9 ~ - ~ A . O T ~ S T bSl o
(Please hurry because we don't have much time.)

(c) c*%g7;bl,
r j Fkj&$$G:
(Please feel free to consult with us.)
(d) %
VJE&$h B%Q c * $ 1 ] ~ 7 ; S b 1 ~
(Please use excursion tickets, which are convenient and economical.)

1. 0 - kudasai cannot be used with two-syllable Gr. 2 verbs (e.g., miru
'look at,' iru 'stay,' kiru 'wear,' neru 'sleep') and irregular verbs (i.e.,
suru 'do' and kuru 'come').

(1) a. *%j$,~ s b10 / *%&Ts baD
(Please look at it. /Please go to bed.)
b. *% L T S bl, / * % & T I ba,
(Please do it. / Please come.)
2. The suru-verbs which require the polite prefix o-, such as denwasuru
'make a call,' ryorisuru 'cook,' sojisuru 'clean,' and sentakusuru 'wash'
are not commonly used in this pattern. In fact, the examples in (2) are
(2) a. ? ? c * b % T % % k ~ S ~ (Acceptable
~~ form: ZB;laTBP2
ILT/a-3371 T S L ~
(Please clean up by yourself.)
b. ??&A& 3 $ i T % % % T S b l D (Acceptable form: &A& % %T
m?4 I L T / a - S 3 T l T S b 4
(Please wash in lukewarm water.)
324 o - kudasai
The sentence in (3), however, is acceptable. This sentence is derived
from the sentence in (4) ; in (3) the direct object marker o has been
(3) ~ ~ & Z % T S L \ ~
(Please give me a call tonight.)

3. 0 kudasai cannot be used in negative requests.
(5) * z o > ~ ; . i k k ; @ k ~ h b ~ ? I - T S ~ ~ ~
(Please do not use this pen.)

0 - kudasai is politer than - kudasai. While there are some verbs which can-
not be used in the o - kudasai pattern as mentioned in Notes 1 and 2, any
verb can be used in the kudasai pattern.

(Please look at it.)
b. LTTSb'/*%LTSbl,
(Please do it.)
c. t$%T I % R L I C T S ~ ~ / % R ~ S Q T T S ~ ~ / ? ? % % R
(Please clean up by yourself.)
Note also that - kudasai can be used to make negative requests, but
o - kudasai cannot, as in [2].

In addition, kudasai can be used with auxiliary verbs which require verb
te-forms while o - kudasai cannot.
[31 a. B T ~ ~ Q T /T*%RTbl
S ~ ~3TSbl,
(Please look at it before you go.)
o - kudasai / ornowareru 325

b. k4-cL 2 9 -ns b) / *%&4-Lc3 b T s baa
(Please finish eating.)
(e kudasai (DBJG: 209-10))

omowareru I ; b h 5 v. (GK2) <w>

seem; appear; apparently
speaker / writer feels spontaneously
or his /her hesitation about assert-

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

Sinf -
- .
- ..

5vhL ItwS S6

(It seems that the business conditions of the coming year will be better
than those of this year.)

vri 1 3 9 ~ 3 z'<W? IT?
Z D 630% % Iba-aafl haAa6 2 Bb;kbo
(It appears that the treatment of this disease will take approximately one
I month.)

(i) (V/Adj(i)} inf 1 5 l=,Rbh&,
326 ornowarem
< 1
{g& / %?: I k 5 CE
: ;h#I 6 , (It appears that S.O. is coming /
(gg b1 / Q ~ 3 tz 1 k j C: ,F, 2 ZI (It appears that s.t. is I was
(ii) Adj(na)stem {O/t.7?<1
;rtgii { a / j?3 j:) k j b:,F,;h #I& (It seems that S.O. / s.t. is / was
healthy / sturdy.)
(iii) N{D/?z~fz)
d'< CV
$& {~/7?3tz]
kil:,F,b#I&, (S.o.seemstobe/havebeena

(iv) Sinf k ,E,;hkL 6 ,
3L < a b1 t ,F,h #I& , (It appears that s.t. is not right.)

1: I t L *LO? :L -
s l o l Y i ~ & + & b i db&tF'?2b1k5 LRihkL6.
(It seems that Japanese exports are not going to grow so much in the
:t% 0 ii I i L C b ~ i Vd' *Li<+l
~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ e r e ~ ~ m t : a~i LF,;~#I&.
t F ' ~ ~ ~ ~
(It appears too simplistic to relate children's delinquency to crime
EbW< br?v< ? ZilW t<
k 5 t:lihh&.
La>A%DR Rt&@.I%d'BKbl~.r
(Education at this university seems to be particularly good in science
and engineering.)
1:h5 b - ~ vl tt? 155 +2 ihw Dt: S r i ?i*bl
3- -t&Rt&f4j@ff3$3 k @ i L ~ ,t&$d'-~D% FJ$$b:ts66.7
5 k,R;hkL&o
(It seems to me that in the 21st century society will become more infor-
mation oriented, and the world will become one community.)
H$&$& -
1: IfL
(When you learn Japanese it seems better not to use romanization.)
omowareru 327
(f) & ~ & & ~ ~ i i ~ ~ l ~ + ~ j ' ~ b ~ a3 )%~N~7 ? ~ 2t, ~a ,ab h)&7 ~5 . + ~
(To look after your health, it is apparently effective to exercise for
about 30 minutes every day.)

1. omowareru is the passive form of omou 'to feel; to think,' but
omowareru in the present entry does not have the meaning of passivity;
rather it has the meaning of autogenesis, i.e., what the speaker / writer
feels /thinks spontaneously. The fact that omowarenr is different from
the real passive use should become clear by the fact that the former does
not have the true agent, but the latter does.The true passive by definition
involves an agent (= actor) and the agent is marked by ni in passive sen-
tences. Thus genuine passive sentences should be grammatical with a
ni-marked agent. That is why the addition of a ni-marked agent to
KS(A) and (B) as in (la) and (2a), respectively, will produce ungram-
matical sentences. (lb) and (2b) are grammatical, because here ni indi-
cates not an agent 'by' but an experiencer 'to.' Compare (1) and (2)
with genuine passives of (3) and (4).

b. %Lt:tt%+a)E%bi4+h rl b h5~:,F.~~IZI~
(To me it seems that the business conditions of the coming
year are better than those of this year.)

b. $LtZtzZa)%%o&%ii&-fi~fl&&a t E b h a 0
(To me it appears that the treatment of this disease takes
approximately one month.)
(3) ? t v g Z k B L k C , ~ C Z i f & l ? 2 , R b h 1 ? ~ ~
(If you do such a thing, you will be regarded as a fool.)
328 omowareru
(If you do such a thing, people will regard you as a fool.)
(= Active version of (3))

cf. 9$HAiLH*02k~T,E,%aH?2k,B,~Tb>&o
(Foreigners consider Japan to be an enigmatic country.)
(= Active version of (4))
(e rarerul (DBJG: 364-69))

2. The difference between (5a) which is identical with KS(A) and (5b)
cannot be captured by the translation, because both sentences come out
the same in the translation.

Since y6da is a conjecture based on the speaker's reasoning process, if
it is used with omowareru, a marker of autogenesis, the combination
sounds more indirect and even humble.
3. The experiencer of the spontaneous feeling of omowareru is usually
the speaker 1writer, but can be a third person, if the tense is past.
L Zt fiL41i
(6) ~ ~ i ~ i ; f . ~ ~ $ O ~ ~ 7 5 ' & ~ i L , E , b k L ? : ~ '
(To Yamada the company work seemed monotonous.)
3, k :
(7) fi~~~~~~;f.%i&i~~r:D~d:ii:,~,;t?k~~:
(For Kayoko marriage still seemed like a dream.)
Suppose (6) and (7) were sentences in a novel in which the reader can
empathize with Yamada or Kayoko: then, the nonpast tense is accept-
ori 329
ori h 1) aux. v. (Gz 1) <w>

be and -
(REL. ite]
*Key Sentence

b.0 CI, L%3Frib>L+?Lki ba?lfL Llt
Co),AUdi%%Ar$Hb: &TT %b, -~o)h~2~Z$l;d;f:~;k2b
(This entrance is for employees only and other people (lit. general peo-
1 ple) cannot enter from here.)

Vte $3 b
6 LT Q (be speaking and)
- -
- -
0;i 5 -0;
(a) @filk8$$;~7*71~fil:&3~$5Q,
(He is crazy about plastic models these days and is assembling model
planes whenever he has free time.)
C tr * l i b , < L1 I: 0 9
(b) !I, ~ ~ ~ k k ~ ~ ~ / V ~ l O
2 P tczb',
(In Japan compulsory education is very thorough (lit. prevails thor-
oughly) and the literacy rate is almost 100 percent.)
2 i : i e L 0 3+?w +L!$s<+2w CW*?
(c) Zo)~~l;f:&& 9,%Q ~ & @ ~ ~ ~ B T & % L T ~ >
(This high school is a boarding school (lit. total dormitory system) and
all the students live in three dormitories.)

1. Vte ori is the written version of Vte ite. Although ori is the masu-form
of the humble auxiliary verb om, when Vte on' is used in the writing of
documents, articles, papers, etc., it does not express the writer's polite-
2. Vte on is more formal than Vte ite or Vte i.
3. Vte om, the informal sentence-final form of Vte on, is not used in writ-
ing in place of Vte irv.

Vte ori can be replaced by Vte ite without changing meaning, as in [I].

o t6shite % ;Wi L 7 comp. prt.

through; by the medium of; via;
indicate a medium through which throughout
s.t. is done or time through which [REL. o ts~jite]

+Key Sentences

(I became acquainted with the pianist through a close friend of mine.)
I (I go abroad about 5 times a year (lit. throughout the year).) I
%& Q B L T (through my teacher)

&k;p$ T ,& O L ) ~ I ~ % C J I ~ ' T 3
G : ~ L ~ ~ ~ : & % % B L% BVLf:,
(I knew of you through the books you wrote.)
?O$($OZ 2~~%%O$Z+%BLT%~T~>~.~
(I knew about the incident from newspaper articles.)
C w
E d. L* Li?
~ ~ ~ m % 3 L T ,
(That politician approached the Prime Minister through his entourage.)
< a9-cb>9f.o
V & V %BLT%L
(Through an exchange of letters, the two became close.)
*A:< i3?
(Both radio and television programs are broadcast through the nation-
wide network.)
Cbld.9 I Wlth.
* f l & % O k % % B ~ T b > 6 b > 6 7 L h Z2 %$/Lf&
(I have learned all sorts of things through my life in foreign countries.)
~ - ~ ~ ~ i @ ~ T ~ ~ O ~ + $ j k ? . ~
(What was inside the room was visible through the curtain.)
ti I: DtVt
L ~ L ~ ; D ~ % B B L T ~ ~ O A ~t:$&&a. O & % ~ ~ Q ~ ~ ~ L
(Through these photos, we can relive the lives of people in those days.)
332 o tdshite

(i) wums ; ~ & & ~ L T $ ~ ' X - ~ . . & J ~ L I ~ ~

(They found the criminal through the fingerprints left behind at the
scene of the crime.)
$$ b.9 Lti vh Y ti Pri
(j) xi&--~ B Z L T ,- - E B R ~ B & ~ :~LC G L \ ,
(My father has never left Tokyo in his life.)

0 tdshite means 'through the medium of -' or 'through specific duration of

Tdshite can be replaced by tsujite in all cases except when the medium is a
concrete, physical medium as in Exs.(g) - (i).
an auxiliary which expresses the I keep -ing; have been -ing;
I idea that s.0. or s.t. keeps doing leave
s.t., or s.0. leaves s.t. in an im- (REL. mama; tsuzuke da; tsuzu-

*Key Sentences

(The Shinkansen was so crowded that I stood all the way (lit. kept
standing) from Tokyo to Kyoto.)

1 borrowed money from a friend of mine and still haven't paid it back.)
(I /

Vmasu 9 1Pa L
d 0 9 df h L ((vi.) have been sitting)
9 Gf 9 Cih L ((vt.) leave s.t. on)
(a) ~ * ~ - ~ ' I L Q I I ~ L - S.-.f-4bi&d
IL a ~ j i $ % ~ iLaI Za ~
(Brazil's volleyball team hasn't lost a game up to now. (lit. Brazil's
volleyball team has been winning up to today.))
(b) 4 8 ~ i @ . n \ ~ ; % &IdI b caa ~ 7 ; ' ~
(The telephone has been ringing since this morning (lit. since morning
(c) ~a-h.6L e < 13 9 LT%&&\,
(I have been talking since this morning and my throat is sore.)
7JtllA. t*i
(d) &9-*~ F 4 . 4 1. B-E$i + ~ b 9f I i % L ~ Z ~ ~ Q I T I ~ Y FT-)
(Because I left my car headlights on all night, the battery died.)
(e) %%&B& L 9 !fa L T E ~ ~ z ? $ ~ T % L T ~ ~ & ~
(Mitsuko is talking with her friend on the phone while leaving the
water running.)
1 (f) ?!FI&-wA,B> ~ ~ : - h . k f ~ dLC:
J fh L T & T % ~ ~ . ,
- -
- -
'- p s-
(Shigeru went out somewhere leaving a kettle on the stove.)
- (g) bef ~ 1 2LQI%-~.I;&W..
2 <S A , X ~ T ~ ~ ,
(Many mosquitoes came in through the window which was left open.)

1. -ppanashi is derived from hanashi, the masu stem of the verb hanasu
2. The meaning of -ppanashi differs depending on the kind of verb which
precedes it. When the verb is intransitive, -ppanashi means that S.O. or
s.t. keeps doing something (e.g., KS(A) and Ex.(a)). When the verb is
transitive, -ppanashi means that s.0. does s.t. to X and leaves X as it is
without putting it back to its original state, which is not the proper way
(e.g., KS(B) and (C)).
3. -ppanashi behaves like a noun; therefore it is followed by the copula da
(e.g., KS(A) and (B)) or particles such as de, ni, and no (e.g., KS(C),
Exs.(f) and (g)).
e elated Expressions]
I. Mama expresses an idea similar to -ppanashi. In fact; -ppanashi can be
rephrased as mama in most cases when the preceding verb is transitive,
as in [I].

However, because -ppanashi with a transitive verb implies an improper
state, -ppanashi cannot be used in contexts such as [2].
[2] ! & i 3 ? 2 ? z ~ f Z B {TLtlkQB /*T6t)7if&Ll E 0
(He still isn't smoking. (He used to smoke but gave it up.))
Notice also that in [3] mama has no negative implication while
-ppanashi indicates that the speaker disagrees with Haruko's manner.

When the preceding verb is intransitive, mama cannot always replace
-ppanashi. For example, mama can be used instead of -ppanashi in
[4], but not in 151.

This is because mama focuses on the state after a single action (i.e., an
action described by a punctual verb) while -ppanashi focuses on a con-
tinuous action.
Note also that if the preceding verb is intransitive, -ppanashi cannot be
used in an adverbial phrase, as in [6].
[6] I E ~ Z T ~ /I*Q@ " ~ t f & L ] T?&LT?sL.~,
(Please remain seated while talking. (lit. Please talk remaining
-ppanashi in [7] is acceptable because it is not in an adverbial phrase.
air hrle
[7] EbaBd {@T k b b / EjZkJ = I f & L I Tk;%;3'%~)~
(I've been sitting for a long time, so my bottom hurts.)
(emama (DBJG:236-40))
11. Vrnasu tsuzuke da also expresses the idea "to keep doing s.t." and can
be used in place of Vrnasu ppanashi (with intransitive verbs), as in [8].

Vrnasu tsuzuke da cannot replace -ppanashi when the preceding verb
is transitive.
111. Vrnasu tsuzukeru also expresses the idea of "to keep doing s.t." and can
be used in place of Vrnasu ppanashi, as in [9].

Vrnasu ppanashi (with intransitive verbs), however, does not express
the actor's volition while Vrnasu tsuzukeru does. Thus, Vrnasu
ppanashi is not acceptable in [lo].
Conversely, in [ll] Vmasu ppanashi is more natural than Vmasu
tsuzukeru because standing or sitting was beyond the speaker's control.

apt to; easy to; -ish; -like
some distinctive characteristic or [REL. fU no; rashii; -yasui;
an attribute identified by a noun, y6na]
an adjective, or a verb to which
the suffix is attached

+Key Sentences

(A yakuza-like man wearing sunglasses was standing at the comer of
the street.)

I (If I remember correctly, I believe she was wearing a blackish sweater.) I
Vmasu Noun

@I* C3h 9GTba & T, P a k a ~ b i & 3 ~ : & 9 ~ ~ 3 5 ,

1 (He is apt to fall for women, and falls in love with practically any
I woman.)

(i) N ~ l T b 1
%!&1Pb1 (childish)
(ii) Adj(i)stem 9 G9b1

$$9/9b1 (cheapish)
(iii) Adj(na)stem Q CTb a
8t~9 ~1 (pitiful)
(iv) Vmasu 9 CTb1
g k L 9 19b1 (easy to forget, forgetful)

(During the lunch hour, this restaurant becomes crowded with men
who look like salaried workers.)
(b) & & @ t i ~ K k 9 d T b ~ & b f i b I?,
(I like the actress, because she is so womanish.)
(c) z /"a29l 9 4 % , & @ a b . 4 ,
(Who can drink such watery sake?)
(d) haj:, Z/"a~~lTb~777%&9~$1rPi.f6~?
(What are you going to do with this cheapish sofa that you bought?)
(el ~ ~ $ D ~ ~ F G : E E 3~~I C 9 ,~ ~ ~ \ g t ~. iX tPj~~&9$ L - C L G ~
(Sitting on a bench at the park a foppish man is talking with a coquet-
tish woman.)

(f) j t j ~ % + k & ? i 9G T ~ ~ A%
V. t
T ,$ b ~ - ~ W L Lt.~e tZa A T ~ ~ S P ,
- 9 2 L-c, $ D t : a b a b \ t v T t L O
(Our son gets bored easily, and he tries new things one after another,
but doesn't get anywhere with any of them.)

(g) <
5 7: b 9 tTblA9 T,!$Ttb0
(I don't like a person who is distrustful.)

1. The Adj(i) suffix -ppoi is usually used in highly informal speech and
writing, meaning something like English "-ish."
2. The suffix -ppoi is an Adj(i), so it conjugates exactly like other

Z9 tTlt hI2 (if s.t. is blackish)
W 9 lTh33 ( T t ) (s.t. was blackish)
3. The nouns, adjectives, and verbs that can take the s u f f i -ppoi are not
unlimited, but quite productive, especially when it is connected with a
noun. The following is a list of nouns, adjectives and verbs most com-
monly used with the suffix.
(merchant-like), 5 B 7 GP b1 (delinquent-like), zl7 1% b1

(adult-like), GPb1
%%7 (geisha-like), 'g7GPba (dusty), b1fzf

7 CPL.1
(brownish), % 7 CPb1 (feverish 1enthusiastic), ,&& 7C

b1 (peevish)

(3) Adj(i)stem + ppoi (restricted to adjectives of color and shape
except % 7 Gab1 (cheapish))
Lh I b'h
$7 dPb1 (whitish), $7 CEl.1 (redish), 3$7GPb) (yellowish),
37 CPb1 (roundish), 7 lPb1 (squarish)
All the examples except yasuppoi can be also grouped under (2).
(4) Adj(na) + ppoi
& :7' 7 GPb' (coquettish), 3 F 7 GPba (affected), $& 7 tPb1
U. I:< Y<
(sarcastic), Ffim 7 GPbl (cynical), Cf .f 7 CXbl (vulgar), #7 GPb1

: =* 6.h
% b 7 Gab3 (quick tempered), &kL 7 GPb1 (easily tired), 'KT 7
tPbl (apt to lose self-control), U)'j5"&7CPb1 (apt to feel victim-

ized), #7 C9ba (dumpy)
The last example shime-ppoi is actually an irregular form, because the
expected form is *shirneri-ppoi.

e elated ~x~ressions]
I. N + ppoi can be replaced by N + no ydna or by N + rashii, and N + fii
no, as shown in [l] below. Here, the choice of -ppoi expresses that the
man is manifesting the distinctive character of a yakuza. In that sense
it is very close to f O no which refers to s.o.'s or s.t.'s style. The expres-
sions no ydna and rashii are quite different from -ppoi and fO no in that
the former are conjectural expressions, whereas the latter are not.

There are cases where the replacement is restricted as shown in [2] and
[3]. Here, rashii is acceptable, because it means 's.o. or s.t. is like the
ideal model of X.' But no ydda and fOda which mean 'to look like X'
does not make sense in the context. In [3] the meanings of rashii and fa
no do not fit in the context, but ydna 'like X' in the sense of 'taste like
water' fits in the context.

[2] ib0kQciWc-k { 7 C 3 L \ / 5 LL\ / *Ok5f?/ *rnf?l 5.6
H-3 E0 (= Ex.@))
[3] ZAG* I7C3L\/Dk5& / * % LL\/*WJll a, &tbaba
T o(= Ex.(c))
The following N + ppoi cannot be replaced either by no ydna, rashii or
f O no, because the meaning is very specific and fixed.
zoku-ppoi 'vulgar,' hokori-ppoi 'dusty,' itazura-ppoi 'mischievous,'
uwaki-ppoi 'Don Juan-like,' rikutsu-ppoi 'argumentative,' iro-ppoi
'sexy,' haiiro-ppoi 'grayish,' chairo-ppoi 'brownish,' netsu-ppoi 'fever-
II. Adj(i 1na)stem + ppoi can be replaced neither by no ydna nor by rashii
nor by fO no.
In. Vmasu + ppoi can be replaced by Vinf .nonpast + yasui as in [5], but
depending on the verb with which -ppoi is connected, the -yasui ver-
sion becomes marginal, as shown in [6].
[5] a. $LIi@2ilrT&%B~{ 7 W < / F b < l 7277k
(These days I became tired easily.)

[6] a. E b i % ~ 2 = T ~ b %{b7 E </??Pb<lh 7 k 0
(My father has become short tempered since he became

(+rashii (DBJG. 373-75); -yasui (DBJG. 541-43); ydda (DBJG: 547-52))
for; in; since
(s.t. has continued up until the [ REL. -buri; irai; -kan; mae
moment of speech or s.t. has never kara ]

+Key Sentences

1 (Tom has been studying Japanese for the past 20 years.)

(This winter is the coldest one in 50 years.) =

( i ) N (duration) %

z++% (for the past 30 years)
(ii) N (duration) %a) N
hh C L L
(the strongest earthquake in 60 years)

m3lmm hR *WLo
(a) %z++%, wCH~E%&TL~ZT,
(My father has been employed in the same company for the past 30
(b) %ZDW -c3 3 Lk,
(I've been continuing this research for the past 10 years.)
(c) &Y%D%fi9, i9 < 1$-3
7: 13 7Zo
(The rain which started after midnight appeared to have finally
(d) 54 2 El%2 12Ef$%D2%Zo
(Okada and I have been fiends for the past 40 years.)

(el ++D%CAA++%D~S I?+ i 72,
(They say that this summer is the warmest in 60 years.)
(f) z ~LCAZ+$%DT&%
(This is the heaviest snow we have had in 30 years.)

1. When -mi is used to mean s.t. has continued up until the moment of
speech, the final predicate takes Vte iru as in KS(A) and Ex.(a) or Vte
kurv as in Ex. (b).

2. X wa N (of duration)-mi no Y da as exemplified by KS(B), Exs.(e) and
(f), means that as for X, the speaker has never experienced Y in the
specified duration. When Y is a person as in Ex.(d), -mi means X has
continued to have the status of Y for a certain amount of time.

I. -mi is used with an expression of time duration. The following phrases
are all ungrammatical because the nouns used here express a point of
time. To make them grammatical phrases -imi has to be used.

b. *I990 $% (cf. 1990 $U% (since 1990))

d. *%&c (cf. Q+U% (since last year))
e. *Q$o%% (cf. &$D$kN% (since last fall))
+A, L*i
f. *% 3 % (cf. %%U% (since last week))
g. ??%&% (cf. %3%UJR (since the end of last week))
h. ??xg%(cf. %A UJR (since last month))
i. ??%%% (cf. $%US (since the end of the year))
However, there are exceptional cases where -rai can be used with anon-
duration expression as in (2):
[2] a. %E% (since yesterday) cf. %Eu%, *%d %
b. %&% (since last night) %&US, *&%%
c. %$% (since last year) cf. %4U%
d. A@&% (since year before last) cf. -@4M%
11. When -rai indicates continuation of an action 1 state, it can be replaced
by - rnae kara, or -kan, as shown in [3a], [3b] below.

(= Ex.(a))
- -
-mi can be freely replaced by rnae kara and -kan, but not vice versa, -
because the latter can be used with an expression of both relatively
short and long duration; whereas the former can be used only with a rel-
atively long duration, as shown below:
L: 6%
[41 a. / =~W%A3%
/ *ZE+W%l ElzP;BB%5&L
(He's been studying Japanese for two hours.)
b. {M/%tP%/*%I g$p&9TbG0
(It's been snowing for two days.)
When -rai is used in X wa N(duration)-rai no Y da construction, -rai can
be replaced by -buri da which means 'after the lapse of -,' as shown by
[4a] and [4b]. Note that Y cannot be a person as in Ex.(d).
rei no BJO phr.

the (in question); that (same);
erent of the following noun phrase the usual
is definite and that the speaker [REL.wa]
expects the hearer to understand
what the referent is

+Key Sentences

I I Noun / I I
0 1 IUijr9E I I If YiOlfLkd,
(What happened to the project (in question)?)

(I heard that this year's year-end party is going to be at that Chinese
restaurant again.)


@Ia) (the problem (in question))
reino 347

(a) LS- F i&&&aL?:$,
(Have you finished the report (I requested, you mentioned, etc.)?)
(b) flu03 v-d'ktma L?:L,
(The copy (you asked for) is ready.)
(c) @!la)~47'&0%, ~~?<&QT&L??L~
(Ibought the book about Princess Diana (everybody is talking about,
you recommended, etc.) right away and read it.)

(A student is coming at one.)
B: aa, @!la)~ 4 ~ $ & # ? : 4+&Tfh0
(Oh, that student from Germany (you mentioned), right?)
(el A: F ! ,ds 2 6 ?
(Can we meet this evening?)

(Then, (let's meet) at the usual coffee house at six.)
IL E Crl EL Eh h6
(f) ~ ~ 3 ~ ; 3 ' a ? : ~ a ) ~ ~ 2 ~ 9 ? : d ' ~ 9 , % t 3 ~ $ 9 ? : ,
(Mr. Yoshida told us that (same) joke again, but no one laughed.)

1. Rei no is used in situations where some information is shared by the
speaker and the hearer. For example, when A utters KS(A) to B, B must
have talked to A about a project at an earlier time. Similarly, when A
utters KS(B) to B, A knows that B understands which Chinese restau-
rant A means, from their shared experience.
2. Because rei no is a device to remind the hearer of something experi-
enced or mentioned earlier (although not in the same discourse), rei no
X can be used without having mentioned X previously in the discourse.
348 reino
Thus, rei no has the "force" to make the hearer recall the referent of the
following noun phrase.
3. If there is strong situational and 1 or contextual support to indicate the
referent of the following noun phrase, rei no can be omitted, as in (1)
and (2). (See Related Expression.)
(1) L$- b d;lr&%Z Lfii51.
(Have you finished the report?)
(2) 2 F - f l & % b L?:Lo
(The copy is ready.)
However, if rei no in KS(B) is omitted, for example, ch0karyBri-ya does
not refer to a definite Chinese restaurant, as in (3).

(3) ++az+&d2 b 7: FHtBEf?? 5 7?o
(I heard that this year's year-end party is going to be at a Chi-
nese restaurant again.)
e elated Expression]
The topic marker wa marks known information. Thus, wa and rei no have
some commonality. As a matter of fact, both X wa and rei no X are used
when X is definite and known to the hearer. However, wa alone does not
have the force that rei no has, a force to make the hearer recall the referent
of X. Therefore, [I] might be too abrupt in some situations where KS(A) is
perfectly acceptable.
[I] ;P~Yr9bI;fF5~9ZLl:&,
(What happened to the project?)
Note also that the referent of X wa can be generic while that of rei no X is
always definite. Compare [2a] and [2b].
[21 a. $i2$41:&3,
(Books are useful.)
b. @Jol$ik%%:230
(The book (you mentioned) is useful.)
In addition, X wa is a topic phrase, while rei no X is a simple noun phrase
rei no / Relative Clause 349
and can appear in any position where a noun can appear.
(+wal (DBJG: 516-19))

Relative Clause

+Key Sentence

Relative Clause Noun


(There isn't medicine which makes you smart.) -

1: ItL -
B ~ K ~ ~ c <= aa%m
%$ r) %w,
(Is there a book that will make you strong in Japanese?)
H&*< a:: LT
m 3 ag%f:,
(Baroque music is music that soothes the mind.)
CkLCi E l $ O ~ ~ ~ . h f d&iP&$T.f.
r <
(This is a book which enables us to understand Japanese management.)
(Please recommend any exercise that will reduce my weight.)
< hZ#?d7
n~-bfl&a 3f;L>~.f~
(I would like to listen to hear something that will cheer me up.)
~ k L ~ ; f ; % ~ ; 2 ~ . > 8 $ $ + ~r. fj&Tbk, < SX/~LE~~QTTSL
(These are non-fattening cakes, so please eat as much of them as you
ahrw - a
44 < 2aBMXt2."
(That professor's lecture is a lecture that will make you sleepy.)
350 Relative Clause

1. The example of relative clauses given in this entry are all different from
those of ordinary relative clauses in that one of the two source sentences
includes a topic marker wa which carries a conditional meaning. Take
KS, for example: it apparently comes from (la) and (lb).
(1) a. Ab;fQbl,
(There isn't medicine.)
b. ?a)%MBfi9.1 <
(If you take the medicine, you will become smart. (lit. As
for the medicine, one will become smart.))
(lb) is a grammatical sentence, meaning 'if you take the medicine you
will become smart.' So (lb) is the same as (2) in which the conditional
conjunction ba is overtly used.
(2) ?a)%%&&i&3w.l a a o <
(If you take the medicine, you will become smart.)
Because the verb nornu is missing in KS, it looks as though medicine
itself becomes smart. The same explanation is possible with the other
example sentences.

Since a Japanese relative clause can contain a conditional clause within
Relative Clause 35 1
the relative clause, sentences of (3) are grammatical even if Vcond is
retained. So, the following sentences are all grammatical.
(4) a. @@UZ&F k <
ts&%Ckab\,(cf. KS)
(There isn't medicine which, if taken, will make you
b. B@t%B$%C:S& <2 &$d.'i&, 9 3Ti% (cf. Ex.(a))
(Is there a book which, if read, will make your Japanese
C. ITn r 3b%~iRaltt5L@%3 &$?%I?,(cf. Ex.@))
(Baroque music is music which, if listened to, will make
your mind calm.)
2. Exs.(f) and (g) come from (5a) and (5b), respectively.
(5) a. 2k~~;t.(%%T-%~A.&&47&kb tsb>)$%T-~3%6,
P i TI: < S /vG L k d . ' ~TTSb>,(cf. Ex.(f))
(These are cakes that will not cause you to gain weight no
matter how much you eat them, so please eat a lot of them.)
b. i&,o%&a)%%ii(%%%W< t, Et < ts&)%%Ifh,
(cf. Ex&))
(That professor's lecture is a lecture that will make you
sleepy if you listen to it.)
- ...
In the process of relative clause formation, the noun in the parentheses
identical to the head noun (i.e. o-kashi of (5a) and k6gi of (5b)) is
deleted, but the bold type parts (i.e. donna ni tabete mo of (5a) and kiku
to of (5b)) can stay.
(+Relative Clause (DBJG: 376-80))
352 Rhetorical Question
Rhetorical Question

forceful statement with no ex-

+Key Sentences

I (I could never do such an embarrassing thing! (lit. Could I do such an I
1 embarrassing thing?))

1 Sentence ( a m a t i v e )

1 Sentence (affirmative) I
1 (What is there to hide now!)
Rhetorical Question 353

$ 6 bcfilf Qb>L?aba(ila),,

I (There is no reason that she would come to a place like this.) I

r , 7 ~re$.rbla a(&).
1 (Oh, you're watching N!)

1 (Do it quickly!)

0. - 3 1 d

(a) ZAG BO~F$$$%K&-~~-~~;S.,
(How could we serve such a thing to guests!)

(b) h /v Q%'t:@d'ttl%& (B0 ) &O [male, informal]
(What can a man like that do!)
bkL 3 b
(c) w ~ m ~ j f i z &/vil~c:&*6
~ ~ ~ a it / v ~ - i f & ,
(You never understand my feelings!)
(d) Z / v Q C % i l ~ Q Z k . ; , T & 6 T L d5ila0
(How can such a ridiculous thing happen!)

(el p i L - C - W L & ~ I : W P ~ ; ~ ~2Z 7 ~ ~ 57 (&I,
(How could he not understand it!)
Rhetorical Question

(f) @C:-?Aa%f~blz 2#3$bC;tT75'i+bb>Ceab>($).
(How could you expect him to understand such a difficult thing!)

tLP6 Ht
; t r , A . 2 , A
< W L ~Q
(The man shouted, "Open sesame!" And look what happened: the rock
(lit. rock door) opened with no sound!)

1. Rhetorical questions take various forms, as seen in the Key Sentences.
Typical endings include potential verbs (KS(A), Exs.(a) and (b)), mono
desu ka and its variations (KS@), Exs.(b) and (c)), dar6 ka and its vari-
ations (KS(C), Exs.(d) and (e)), (nai) de wa nai ka and its variations
(KS(D) and Exs.(f) - (h), no ka and its variations (KS(E) and Ex.(i)) and
nai ka (KS(F) and Ex.(j)). No matter what form it takes, however, a
rhetorical question always uses falling intonation. Note that in Japanese,
genuine questions always use rising intonation.
2. Rhetorical questions in some forms are equivalent to their correspond-
ing negative sentences in meaning. For example, KS(A), @), and (C)
are semantically equivalent to (I), (2), and (3), respectively.
(1) -?/va8bT;t)>Lvz 2 Ii&%ab'o
(I couldn't do such an embarrassing thing.)
(2) %B &AaAG:$3&aA$G?sa b > o
(No one would lend money to such a person.)
(3) +sI;liil$k~tz2b~ab~,
(There is nothing to hide now.)
Rhetorical Question / rokuni - nai 355
Note that rhetorical questions are more powerful than their correspond-
ing sentences.
3. A simple negative question can function as a strong command, as in
KS(F) and Ex.(j), and is often used for intimidation.

not sufficiently; not satisfac-
that s.t. animate does not or cannot torily; not properly; not well;
do s.t. satisfactorily / sufficiently 1

+Key Sentence

(On the plane I couldn't sleep well.) =


3 < 1:&48 bl (s.o. doesn't eat properly.)

(a) < 2 3
3 1:@5$.6 L ~ ~ ~ T & & Q & ~ S ~&%ffl5kGd'-7z0
*L*L C

(Itook the exam without studying properly, so it was a disaster (lit. I
couldn't do well at all).)
kCd* r;b18w
(I,) ~ w v ~ ~ r z ~ tf $:%ak t a ) s~< , t:bna-nx3rz,
(It was such a short stay in Paris that I hardly met her.)
356 rokuni - nai
&$!f7?~xoztilrh $ I , ~ ~ ~ w c L . 1<
c =< B~TI.>~,L
BiFU < .
(He hardly knows about France, but he talks as if he knew a lot about

(I went shopping, and got as far as to a department store, but I came
home without doing much shopping (lit. shopping properly) because I
felt sick while shopping.)
B o A i i 6 < CLZ&
I%( wn ITV
(e) Lfdb10
(My dog hardly does any tricks.)

Along with rokuni - nai there is another structure similar to it; i.e., rokuna N
- nai which is used to indicate that s.t. animate does not or cannot do some-
thing decent / sufficient / satisfactory. Examples follow:
(1) a. &d$jZi23< & & b > 3 = &L Q t \ ,
(He doesn't give us even a decent greeting.)
b. 5-72-b23< a+$$.&%bf&t\,
(Nancy cannot write even a satisfactory letter.)
c. & o y $ b i 3 < QXQB L T b > Q t \ bL L ~ ,
(It appears that they are not eating decent meals.)
d. &oRi23<&R3B & ~ T ~ > & L \ ,
(That dog is not eating decent food.)
e. ~oK&ii3<
(That professor is not a professor to speak of.)
If the prenominal form rokuna in all the examples except (le) is replaced by
the adverbial form rokuni the meaning will change. The rokuna version indi-
cates that an action does occur but not in a satisfactory manner; whereas the
rokuni version indicates that the action hardly takes place.
rokuni - nai 357

(2) a. b j D % C A 3 < E b j b > l ~ $ L t ? b > , (cf.(la))
(He hardly gives us even a greeting.)
b. -f;/2-Ct3<cZFff&P1fi'sb>, (cf.(lb))
(Nancy can hardly write even a letter.)
c. b j D A g l A 3 < E&%b L T b r G b l C j L b ) , (cf. (lc))
(It appears that they are hardly eating meals.)
d. <
b j D R l A 3 K k Z % & e T b > t ? b ~(cf. (Id))
(That dog is hardly eating food.)
sa P prt. <s>

you know; sure; I tell you
highly informal speech by male [REL. ne; tomo; yo]
speakers to express different de-
grees of assertion ranging from a
light touch comment up to opposi-

+Key Sentences

1 (A: I wonder if I can get a job. ) 1 (B: Sure you can.)

(A: You cannot read ~ a ~ a n e sright?)
e, (B: Yeah, sure I can.)

I (Life is something like a long journey.)
I (How come I can't drink sake?) I

{-&<a / &<k 1 3, (s.o. eats / ate it, you know.)
{?3Lb>/-?3Lt~37:1 S o (~.t.i~lwaseasy,youknow.)

(ii) {Adj(na)/N] {0/7?9?:1 S
IfL #
{ Z % / Z % 7 . 9 I: I 3 (s.o. is 1was healthy, you know.)

/ +&7? 9 72 1 3 ;., (s.o. is 1was a student, you know.)
(iii) Wh-word - 03
yj L T & < ~ L . > o ~ ,

(iv) NP 3
z ;kbLEi%S o (This is tea, you know.)

(a) A: qi-'$
OI H $ ~ O I F X c~~?LL.>~~I,
wonder if today's Japanese test is difficult.)

B: b>-?, @L< a'4>so
(No, it's not difficult, I tell you.)
(b) A: ZOX-Y.L/-X, &T~;J%
(I wonder if I can carry this suitcase.)
B: %Tb3,
(I'm sure you can.)
(c) A: ~ $ $ ~ d $ ~ & i & ~ f i t t b 1 ~ ttO
(You don't have money to buy a car with, do you?)
B: blJP, &&So
(Sure I do.)
Lltbhz. s
(d) A: 3--3a)--h$?i~&ttb~f..~i~
(Walking alone in New York City must be unsafe!)
t3.e r i r
B: 'dl?, kXkSO
(No, it's safe, you know.)
(el A: Z D K $%, t : ~ & i t t t b > k s i k , t;6

(I bet you can't solve this math problem.)
B: t L t t & a ) , JPS Lb'So
(This is a cinch, you know.)
(f) h & k C i Z L t b & a ) S ,
(Such is life, you know.)
L Lrt L?lfV
(g) fkSGcB%ti93&a)So
(Work and failure go together, you know.)
(h) rj~ - c ~ ~ ~ t b ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i 4 h ~ i
(How come you don't understand such a simple thing?)
f b W < -)A
( i ) A: ~ b & k f t L ~ < a ) 9 & ? i b ~ 1 : k 0
(I've given up the idea of going to college, you know.)
*E b.
B: N 9 B 9 T b 1 b a ) S O
(What are you talking about?)

1. Sa as a sentence-final particle is used usually by male speakers in very
informal speech and it expresses the speaker's encouragement as in
KS(A), Exs.(a) and (b), or his assertion to negate someone's challenge
as in KS(B) and Exs.(c) - (e), or his light touch comment as in KS(C),
Exs.(f) and (g), or his irritation about s.o.'s words or behavior as in
Ex.@) or opposition as in KS(D) and Ex.(i). Sa is also used by both
males and females to draw the hearer's attention to something. (See
Related Expression III.)
2. Note that when a Wh-word is used with sa, the predicate part has to be
no-nominalized. The non-nominalized version is totally unacceptable.

(1) E 5 LT%B&LC?b>Gff2blI*P /(DPI, (=KS@))
(2) ABS7Tb>b I*8 /(D81, (=Ex.(i)-B)

I. All the uses of sa in the KS and Exs. can be replaced by yo.

Note that [3] and [4] will change to strictly female speech, because yo
is attached to a noun or to a nominalized clause, respectively, but other
than that the crucial difference is that sa is far more informal than yo.
That is why yo can be connected with both informal and formal forms =
but sa can be connected only with informal forms. 18
[S] a. A: %%kT$&*Q,
B: B%$T { & / * $ I ,(cf.KS(A))
b. A: B;GiB$%, %tbQblk;ta,
B: bl?, ?%tb$TI k / * P l , (cf.KS(B))
c. A&tkEb>Ea)k 5 Q & 0T.f I& / *P I, (cf. KS(C))
Wh-word yolsa is always connected with informal forms, so there is
no contrast between yo and sa.
II. Another sentence-final particle tomo can replace sa when the latter
expresses encouragement or assertion to negate someone's challenge.

B: / ffi%bTl 295, (cf. KS(A))

[6c] is an acceptable sentence, but the use of tomo presupposes s.o.'s
insistence that life is not like a long journey, whereas the use of sa does
not presuppose it.
111. The sentence-final particle ne is fundamentally different from sa,
because the former indicates the speaker's request for confirmation or
agreement from the hearer, whereas sa indicates a male speaker's
assertion. But both can be used in a non-sentence-final position to
draw the hearer's attention to something as shown in [7]. Sa used this
way can be used by both male and female speakers in very informal
speech and sounds much more informal than ne. The excessive use of
such ne and sa in a single sentence leads to vulgarity.

(Yesterday I went to see a movie, y'know, and there was power
failure, y'know, and I had a bad time.)
sae 363

sae $2. prt.

even; if - -
only; if just; as
expresses the idea of "even" in -
long as; The only thing need
non-conditional clauses (or sen-
tences) or the idea of "only" in (REL. made; mo; sura]
conditional clauses

+Key Sentences


(She can read even classical Japanese, not to mention modem Japanese.)

Noun Prt.

(Researchers even from America visit this lab.)
364 sae

Conditional Clause Main Clause


ZZC: &\7i~s3 S f -f&.LCf& . Z Z 0 ~ 7 j ~ ~ f
? 3 ~ <

(If you just leave it here, the people in this place will take care of the

I Conditional Clause Main Clause


(If we can only finish (lit. If we only finish) this work, the rest will be

N S f
L1). 'r
d S f ttl b (even deer appear)
3 L 63 f kd b (eat even sashimi)
(ii) N (Prt.) S f
77 15 (+ / C:) S 2-69f i (went even to Africa)
(iii) N Prt. 3f
Z/vGUC:Sfdjb (existeveninsuchatown)
$L C: S 2- &+ b
bfi L
(understandable even to me)
73%- '

% @ T S x&?. b (teach even at school)
32 3 f %& (play even with a dog)
8*i Z <
9 H;fi'CJ 3 2-%& (come even from China)
(iv) N(Prt.) T 3 k
E$ By %T 3 2 %-@ I; G b> (even professionals don't understand Oit.
one doesn't understand s.t. even if he is a professional))
%&$TIi?&<Gb> (don't eat even fruit (lit. don't eat s.t. even if it
is fruit))
$L;fi' I;T 3 2 6 CJ ;k ?'s (don't accept (s.t.) even from me (lit. don't
receive s.t. even if it is from me))

% ~ ~ 3 2 b > G b(havenotevenread)
$T 3 A%-@ ;?'s bl
I (don't understand even by looking at)

(vi) Vmasu 3 i? % &
&332t& (evenwrite)
(vii) Adj(i)stem < Ii? dj &
8< 3 2 & (be even inexpensive)
(viii) {Adj(na)stem1N} T 3 2 &
^(A. 0
@$IT 3 2 dj & (be even convenient)
dr< L T
YZT 3 i? & & (be even a scholar)

(a) @ki6 i a ; d ~ D 3 ; i 0 l s ' Q $ $ i C J G d l ~ I &
(He was no longer able to eat even porridge.)
(b) $LbL+05BQ%Ab:bL6 %StvT-RC: l ;iR-@;t~,
(I showed the picture even to kids, not to mention adults.)
(c) ~ ~ i t ; f ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ Z k Q ~ Z i k l ; i L G b ~ ~
(He doesn't even try to listen to me.)
366 sae

(d) 36b=.s;i&+fitvl2d.~;%b:Bffi%ad:.
(Even Yamada could do it, so you can do it, too.)
(el a ~ s ~ z o K E G $DG=IE+W
< I:
C *A.

(Even my teacher took (as much as) two hours to solve this problem.)
E*3 d.W
(f) 3 L P r FYJ- FI.'R&hb%k1QTBhGffl%3T0
(You can join our club any time if you only have a credit card.)
(g) ~~;i%$~~T<;kj'.b$f c Z O ; P ~ P ~F -%3% @ b ~0E0
(As long as you agree (to our plan), we are planning to begin this
project right away.)
eAS;5 L lfA. fib, t r i b:
(h) a L@GLBS&
LT s j i k > k L b % % % d & k X kEo
(As long as you study seriously, you'll do okay on the exam (lit. the
exam will be all right).)
(i) F ~ h ~ s ; i t ; k ~ ~ - i f ~ W6,& ~ h t v ~ <
(If you just raise your hand, a policeman will rush to you.)
(j) %< s;ij'bv;kti&;kaG&TIL
(It should sell as long as it's not expensive.)
(Any location will be fine as long as it is convenient for commuting.)

1. As the Formation shows, the particles ga and o do not appear with sae,
the directional particles e and ni optionally precede sae, and the other
case particles must precede sae.
2. When sae is used in a conditional clause, the clause expresses such
ideas as "if only," "as long as," and "the only thing someone needs is,"
as in KS(D), (E), and Exs.(f) - (I). In other words, in "S1 (conditional
with sae), S2)' S1 presents the only condition that must be met in order
for S2 to be true. In this structure, the ba-conditional (e.g., KS(D) and
Ex.(f)) is most commonly used. The tam-conditional (e.g., KS(E) and
sae 367
Ex.(g)) can be used but is less common. The nara-conditional is used
only in limited contexts such as (1) and (2).
(1) EPR@%I(L-C< ~ ~ ) Z C % + T C Z D Y I~ - YQ ~W- ~~Q
b 11 72, (cf. Ex.(g))
(As long as you agree (to our plan), we are planning to begin
this project right away.)
(2) &%P R&&tb%f&d?P bL.>L;GL.>,
(As long as my family is all right, I ask for nothing else.)
The to-conditional is unacceptable.
3. In conditional clauses, sae can appear in various positions. The focus
changes according to the position, as in (3) and (4).

(3) when no auxiliary verb is involved:
a. E kL P 2 I & CB (if (you) read only this)
b. E & % I &P XTkLiB (if (you) only read this)
(4) when an auxiliary verb is involved:
a. =IkL P R I A T L d 2 (2 (if (you) finish reading only this)
(if (you) finish only reading this)
c. zhameXL3Arf
(if (you) finish only reading this)
d. Z k L B I A T L 3 b a P RTkLiB
(if (you) only finish reading)
The pattern in (4b) is not commonly used.

I. Made is also used as an emphatic marker and can replace sae, as in [I].
368 sae

In the case of sae in KS(C), made replaces both the sae and the de.

Made, however, cannot replace sae in negative sentences and condi-
tional clauses, as in [3] and [4].

II. The emphatic marker sura is very similar to sae but sura is more liter-
ary. Sura can replace sae except in conditional clauses.

III. Although it is weaker than sae, made, and sum, the particle mo also
functions as an emphatic marker in some contexts. First, mo functions
as an emphatic marker in negative sentences, as in [6].
sae / sai (ni) 3 69
Mo can also replace sae after de, as in [7].

As a matter of fact, de and mo are often used together as an emphatic
Mo in ordinary &rmative sentences does not function as an
emphatic marker. Compare [8a] and [8b].

b. Z O@REb: 12 7 % 'I j5 t~'b&@fR%fl%a
(Researchers visit this lab from America, too.)
In addition, mo cannot replace sae in conditional clauses.

sai (ni) ) :C n. / conj.

when; on the occasion of; at the
time of
[ REL. ba'ai; ni attattelatan';
ori ni; toki ni 1
370 sai (ni)

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

1 (I will tell you the details when I come down to Tokyo in August.)

(This is a word processor which my father bought me on the occasion
of my college graduation.)

(I feel much obliged to have received such an unmerited gift on the
occasion of our wedding.)

( i ) Vinf %l (G:)
f K 5 / W 7 k I l%( K) (when S.O. buys 1bought s.t.)
(ii) N 0R(C:)
L It&
1%():1 (at the time of an examination)
(iii) N b
: LT
A f :C l$2 L -C (on the occasion of entering a school)
(iv) ( Z O / + O / & O ) R

(on this occasion)


86. L ti lri
S 3 A R %G:ELf&

(When I transferred to Osaka I left my wife and children behind in

% ~ b a ~ # % - T & ~ b : C ~ $ & ~ @ f l ~ ~ f ? ~
sai ( n i ) 371

(When you engage in strenuous exercise, you need to do stretch exer-

nese views on balance of international payments.)
L*o if3
Ltl %ORKC&, hFhF%&%!lb:&-Cb>kf?3, & 9 Pk 5 ZFb>
I Lf:,
(Thank you very much for taking the time to see me off at the time of
my departure.)

(When I go on a trip I always take my camera with me.)

ZOR, $LPE@$tEl:%LT&3-To
(Since this is an important occasion (lit. on this occasion), I will talk
directly to the president (and see what happens).)
7 2 1) -O%%S/vfl < ; ~ ~ : ~ R M T - T ,
t', 'C ltbl
z ; ~ ~ & ~ o R 1.7
(This is a wrist watch which my host family father gave me when I left
for home.)
372 sai (ni)

1. - sai (ni) is used to indicate a special occasion on which s.0. does s.t.
So, the phrase cannot be used on common occasions as in (1) and (2).
(1) @ & 3 2 W/*EI E f l & 9 7 &
(When I got up in the morning I had a fever.)
1% SA29 L+
(2) a. BPfi8~jT91: (@/*El$-B-W6V:,
(When I went to the library I checked out 3 books.)
b. @f%gB% b,9T!3EH$%!&%~??97: ( @ / E l ,$-??
y:w,s & Lpo
(When I received research money and went to the National
Diet Library I checked out a dozen books.)
Notice that the occasion of going to the library is far more special in
(2b) than in (2a). That is why sai is acceptable in (2b) but not in (2a).
2. Only Vinf or N or demonstrative adjectives kono, sono, ano can be used
before sai ni. Vinf . nonpast and Vinf . past indicate incompletion and
completion, respectively, in relation to the action in the main clause.
Kono sai as exemplified by Ex.(h) can be used only when the occasion
is special.
3. The particle ni of sai ni may be dropped. When ni is dropped as in Ex.(i),
the focus shifts from the occasion to what is described in the main
4. - sai ni is a formal expression that is often used with Sino-Japanese
words, as shown in all the KS and Exs. except Ex.(f). Notice that in
Ex.(f), an honorific-polite Japanese verb is used. In the following sen-
tences in which neither a Sino-Japanese verb / noun nor a honorific-
polite verb is used sai ni is unacceptable.
sai (ni) 373
5. N ni saishite is more formal than N no sai ni. When the former is used,
N has to express a very special occasion as in KS(C) and Ex.(g). If N
expresses an occasion which is not so special as in Ex.(e), N no sai ni
cannot be replaced by N ni saishite.

e elated Expressions]
I. Sai ni indicates the time when s.t. special takes place,whereas on ni
indicates an occasion when s.t. ordinary takes place.
SL? k %V
[I] a. H ~ F c = L ~ LI );J ~~/ *LK+
I ~
(If you have a chance to come to Kyoto, please let me
bi? A * .
b. {B& / *)Jil
~~~ii%%?!&F& $JDWTQ&TL~Q~.~~:,
(When Bill got married he hadn't obtained his parents' per-
For the difference between toki ni and sai ni, see Note 1 above.
(+toki (DBJG: 49044))

11. There is another expression ba'ai, 'case,' which is used in the form of
Vinf ba'ai or N no ba'ai.

b. %PF& :7 e
/ / *RI din4 7 + TCP$ZT-F~
(If it rains the hiking will be cancelled.)
c. AKD {a+/@ / EI c a r ~ . - ; - ~ - ~ T & b i ~ b ~ . a

(In case of fire please don't use the elevator.)
Ba'ai means 'a suppositional case,' so an event that precedes it may not
take place. So if the event is a real event, ba'ai cannot be used.
374 sai (ni) / sasuga
[3] a. {If$$/@/*%&] l Y>=ILG:&=~;,
& q , f l l b:7?~k
(When I went to Paris last year, I met Michelle.)
e*3 kv..
b. %m
I%Lk / @ / *%*I K%&Eb:*T <
(When I was hospitalized, my friend came to see me.)

sasuga S bfif adv.

as might be expected; after all;
speaker / writer's strong feeling it is only natural that -; natural-
that s.t. has turned out as s 1 he ly; truly; really; indeed; impres-
+Key Sentences

- -
Main Clause
- I: 1% BLhL O * l f < I:ltL- C L ~ +
- -
- %ILY 2StvG;f.B$G:Z~2 Y L T b a k D T , Sf P :b EJI~:~~I~&FTT~

(Because Mr. Nelson has studied in Japan for three years, naturally he
speaks Japanese well.)


(After all, they are Hiroshima oysters. They are really good.)
I-+$ x*- bag$ EGf Ih9-C / I:), g&b>b>o

(After all, he is a former boating man. He has a fine physique.)

I 1 Subordinate Clause I 1

(It is only natural that he is well versed in things French, because he
lived in Paris for 10 years.)

(The great teacher that he was, even he'had a hard time answering the
difficult question.)

S Tif;3rI:, &W:, (It is only natural that I got tired.)
(ii) S-if$(l&) NR

S-W(C&) 8$0
.($12, (After all, it is a Japanese car.)

S-wA < a/$$.L?}.'
{%I t'.bj { h 9 T / I:)
(as might be expected from the fact that S.O. studies / has studied hard)
376 sasuga

1 { & - T / /:I
Sf75.' { g 8 b > / m ~ f i 3 k??If
(as might be expected from the fact that s.t. is I was interesting)

(iv) 3-W {N ( 0 / f?773/Adj(na) (a / 7?77'$1 EL? { & 3 T / I:]
33-75.' { % b ~ ~ / & > ~ E f?V~ {k &l - T / I:]
(as might be expected from the fact that s.0. is I was a young person)
f t d F { $ k L b > a /$kLb>??321 Ebf { & Q T / l:]
(as might be expected from the fact that s.t. I s.0. {isI was} beautiful)
(v) 3-ifdTa)N b
3-if75.'0%% b (even a genius)

301 C*itd.L ILTL
? , f 'ifjtr'b:$!ZkL%LIZ,
%El l i - k F $ ~ ~ ~ & ~L$kZD? T
(Yesterday I drove a car for 10 hours, so I got tired, as might be
%%&b LLWT, & e c i f f i v ~ l m c ; ,~ ' i f i & ~~3 ~ =f:,
(It is only natural that I gained weight, because I was just eating with-
out doing any exercise.)
1 / > 9 $ ,C D T % ~ Q # ~ L ~ T I C > Z , ~ ~ - P2'9~-~ I-
~ ti3-w~:
(I'm always listening to music on CDs, but concerts are good, after
3'if,F(ii)%3a)4 9 1) 7% El$a)4 9 1) 7 8 4 ~ li%75.'&
(After all, it is authentic Italian cuisine in Italy. It tastes different from
the Italian cuisine in Japan.)
7% d'< L? d%e= th.?
3'if,F(li)3+e3%7'& B%75.'$$b>o
(After all, he is a scientist. He makes sharp observations.)
Z59t 015 hL ?k
s ' i f , ~ , Zb>R~Llbc% TWY.VC:, $-P~~E,FSW~
(As may be expected of a person who used to climb mountains in his
young days, he still has strong legs.)
sasuga 377
2L Y lZ*1baL
S.ffl&it, +E~hEb;t:ZI:;iI:dr 5 R,
(Even on my father the recent hospitalization seemed to have been
S-iffl0%&L:6, &8fl&*bafil3I:,
(The great teacher that he was, even he couldn't figure out the solu-
fbl: 13
{i&$j&7~dr 5 -72, ~ 3 a z 7 - + $ ? ~ i t ~ b ~ ~ I : ~ i i s .
729 k,
(He seems to like meat a lot and it was impressive that he ate two large
9 s 2i;t:S.ffll2h0 ~ ' - I L $ ~ % $ & , L T L ~ ~ I : ~ : ~
(As might be expected of John, he drank 10 bottles of beer.)

Sasuga expresses one's strong feeling that s.t. has turned out as one
expected, as shown in KS(A) - (D), Exs.(a) - (0,(i) and (j), or that s.t.
has turned out to be contrary to one's expectation, as in KS(E), Exs.(g)
and (h) as one has not expected.
In the structure sasuga wa X da, wa can be omitted.
Sasuga - dake may take either atte or ni as shown in KS(C), (D) and
Ex.(f). -
- -
In the case of sasuga no X mo, the speaker wants to say that s.t. has -
occurred contrary to what one can expect from the characteristics of X,
as in KS(E), Exs.(g) and (h).
Sasuga can be used like an exclamation in conversational Japanese.
L 15.) L l t L vi ? 1
( 1 ) A: ~ ~ $ I C ~ E J & ~ % L : - J B ~ T ~ . *7?dr0
(I heard that Yarnada passed the bar examination on his first
B: PbS!
knew he would.)
378 sasuga / sei
[Related ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
Another adverb yahari / yappari is similar to sasuga. For examples, sasuga ni
of KS(A) - (D) can be replaced by yahari 1yappari. However yahari does not
express the strong feeling of fulfillment of expectation that is expressed by
[I] ; ~ . I L ; ~ ' J S A I ~ B $ G : ~ ~ @ % L T ~ ~ TUt)EI$&Fk%T
To(cf. KS(A))
(As expected, Mr. Nelson speaks Japanese well, because he has stud-
ied in Japan for three years.)

[2] Tqi$bJKEOd.3f?, % b c $ 3 b ~ L b \ , (cf. KS(B))
(After all, they are Hiroshima oysters. They are really good.)
Also to be noted is the fact that yahari does not have prenominal nor pre-
copula use, as shown in [3].

a dependent noun expressing a because; due to
cause which brings about an un- [REL. okage; tame (ni)]
desirable result
sei 379

+Key Sentences
2% $ 2 3 <A*
;r\% 0 -11-1.1 T @fl&$k)&kLfbbl,

I (Because of the depression, cars are not selling well this year.)

(Because of lack of sleep, I suppose, I feel weak (lit. the body has no

1 (It is because of him that I failed.)

I (I am dizzy today because I drank too much last night.)

( i ) N 0-11-1..( T / 75 / etc.)
&%a>-t?b>T (because of overworking)
380 sei

(ii) Sinf *b> ( T / @ / etc.) (the same as the relative clause formation)
#I! 3 $ ? i k @ - b 1 T (because s.0. worked too hard)

su,Sh?hP. K +< fir, C*?
~ x g d $ ~ a + b a T #S $ & A ~ . . ~
(I've gained weight because of lack of exercise these days.)
64 t< h <
i=$j$+2$9k * b T + + i i ~ $ $ f $ E . ? 5 Eo
(It is reported that becaue there was little rain, we are going to have a
bad crop of rice this year.)
A i: < < 2
ga*w$@x~$bz 9 f&
(Due to my age, I suppose, I cannot hear well these days.)
*fir, t 3 I X 1 6.
~ L P ~ ~ ~ M : ~ - C * - ~ P .t3+jllE&3a~a3$q3+-h.
E ~ ~ 'h ( aw,
(Maybe because I have moved to a new place and the water is differ-
ent, my stomach is uncomfortable these days.)
v31:3 t * j
i$E<a97?abi-EI+2xL-9e7&97&g72 ~-Cb>&*b>
(It is because you work with a computer all day that your eyesight has
. .u L-Irw

@bh i h53a%&~~a+ba~:$&~
(He often blames others for his own failure (lit. claims that his own
failure is due to others).)
z ;kbi$o)+b~T 6
(This is (due to) no one's fault.)

1. Sei is a dependent noun; therefore, it needs a modifying word, phrase,
or clause.
2. Sei de is used only when the result is undesirable. Thus, (la) is accept-
able but (lb) is unnatural.
(1) a. ~%FW&~T
I, a 17 & & t s ~ a ~
(Because she is here, I cannot do a lot of work.)
sei 381

b. @&flb1&{a%% .tts$d:<
(Because she is here, I can do a lot of work.)
Sei ka, however, is used whether the result is desirable or undesirable, as
in (2), KS(B), Exs.(c) and (d).
(2) a. < B%ao
(I think it is because she is here that I can do a lot of work.)
3 rv -.
b. $i&flx%$l1$%$~8~r:+?~\a~zg8&fl%d:o 3k~~lb:
, a7k0
(Because the emission control rules have worked, I sup-
pose, the air has become cleaner than before.)
~&LE~;&o+?L\& ~Edsd: ( ts9 f i ,
(I feel a little better after taking medicine, although it might
be my imagination.)
3. Sei de is used when the speaker finds the cause of an undesirable result
to be beyond his 1 her control, as in KS(A). Thus, if the cause is within
the speaker's control, sei de cannot be used, as in (3).

Sei ka has no such restriction as KS(B) and Ex.(c) show.

4. Sei cannot be used to express a reason. The following sentences are
382 sei

I. Okage and sei are similar in that both express a cause. The difference is
that okage is used when the result is desirable, as in [I]. Note also that
okage implies that the person who attained the result is thankful for the
bWt, kt
[I] a. a~)bb~&fi>(fT@flrttld~-31:o
(The safety belt saved my life. (lit. My life was saved
thanks to the safety belt.))
b. @kflFIZ-3 T < ;k7':&fiW'lrf~~~flg< g&11:~
(Because she helped me, I could finish my work quickly.)

(Because I studied English hard when I was a student, I
don't have much trouble with my life in America now.)
Okage is sometimes used with an undesirable result for the purpose of
sarcasm, as in [2].

El., b
b. S ~ f l & & fz
h2 2LT < ;kk&fi>(fT$+j@fl&@LG:@

-3 ?z0
(Because you did something unnecessary, thanks to you,
our plan was ruined.)
11. Tame (ni) can also express a cause (as well as a reason), as in [3].

Unlike sei, tame (ni) has no such restrictions as those in Notes 2 , 3 , and
4. (+tame (ni) (DBJG. 447-5 1))
semete 383

semete adv.

at least
speaker / writer's minimally satis- [REL. sukunakutomo]

+Key Sentences
Number +

(Iam not saying that I want to get 100 points, but I would like to get at
least 80 points.)

I (If we had a pan, at least, we would be able to cook rice.) I

I (I wanted at least my parents to understand me.) I
( i ) +?dTNumber+Counter (("bb1)-
E C +L
+tbT I @ W (" L; b 3 (at least two hours)
(ii) -&&7N { C b b ~ / ( f ? l j ) T h }
384 sernete

h T#% I C b b>/ ( E l f )T b 1 (at least a newspaper)
(iii) - & h T N P r t .
4b T % K (at least to my wife)

W3hL te d.
*hT-qb:+Ei C b b ' , W&75'&;k& k b > b ~ t v T - w ,
(I wish I could take at least 10-day's leave each year.)
i%i~~lz,~h~iz, *~~)T~&cL;I/~~~&L~G:&TY
(Please come and see me at least once while you are in Japan.)
$%XTG { T &b>b>hf?, * h T , vgb ~ b ~ ~ & k $ & $ ~ j : b > ~
(It's alright if she is not a real beauty. But I would like to marry at least
a cute girl.)
i: it& : +" *L$
EI$GL{+< Xll?dlb, * h T , El$SI?lf i
$ & L T & ~ :5 2 2 3 . ~ -
(I am going to Japan, so, I'm thinking of learning at least Japanese.)
gtv3i:3 b.
+ M T ~~ j ~ - - ~ l ~ ~ ~~ O~~ ~G Lj ~: ~r G; L, ~ ; ~ J ; I J ) G : ~
(If my father lived at least one day longer I could have been with him
when he died.)
&t,GG=Eb>%TG < - c b b > b ~ hP,
f -&bt)Tb
Llt - 9
5--68E&& k b > b > a )
(don't need that spacious house, but I wish I had at least another
6 Z%%GL?2& t v T * d l b , * h T , <bbai22*-n2blo

(I'm going to stay at your house for a month, so please let me wash the
dishes, at least.)
:iG t t l + r l h
*hTEl$%?TEl ~ & ~ & < b b > i i & & & 5d :K G 0 J:blTB,
(I would like to become able to engage in daily conversation in Japa-

Sernete indicates the speaker 1writer's minimally satisfactory level; he is
semete l shidai 385

well aware that he cannot realize an ideal state. Each sentence ends in a
direct or indirect expression of desire, such as -tai as in KS(A), (C), Exs.(c)
and (h), (to io n desu ga as in KS(B) and Ex.(a), noni as in Exs.(e) and (f),
-(sase) te kudasai as in Exs.(b) and (g) and -yd to omotte imasu in Ex.(d). Of
these, noni of Ex.(e) and (f) express counter-factual desire.

[Related Expression]
Sukunakutomo is another adverb with the meaning of 'at least.' The crucial
difference between sukunakutomo and semete is that the former focuses on
rather objective lower limits of number 1quantity; whereas the latter on the
speaker's strong desire to realize a certain minimum level of satisfaction. So
all the KS and Exs. of semete can be rephrased by sukunakutomo, but the
following use of sukunakutomo cannot be rephrased by semete, because it
does not express the speaker's desire; it merely expresses the speaker's esti-
mation of numbers / quantity.
z D k W l ~ & & i &{$a< 2 -6 /*%@TI 5$7?6 5
i%ld'< *<.ttk.t '

[l] a.
(I guess that enrollment at this university is at least 30,000.)
PLV?< 3 L t L
b. Z O ~ G & {$a<2-6 /*+!@TI 3EZiFJbWaE6i.
(This car will cost at least 3,000,000 yen.)

(This semester I'm supposed to have memorized at least 1,000

shidai R$!! conj./n.

as soon as; depend on
that an action indicated by a pre- [REL. ni yoru; -tam sugu]
ceding verb or an action implied
by a preceding noun is a prerequi-
site for another action
386 shidai

+Key Sentences

(As soon as I get to Osaka, I will call you.)

( (I will send my manuscipts as soon they are completed.) I

(as soon as S.O. has read s.t.)
(as soon as S.O. has returned)
jjj+ "I%

r/\ (j -3 L .e ?I &% (as soon as S.O. comes 1 goes there)
-3 L .e rl%% (as soon as S.O. says it)
ts 3 9 &% (as soon as S.O. does s.t.)

(ii) VN %%
shidai 387

(as soon as S.O. comes back to his / her country)
t 3 6*<
FIJ (as soon as S.O. / s.t. arrives)
(iii) (X i i ) N & % ? ? / T
o i ?t;i +A S
( % ? (Fanning depends on the weather.)
$k #&ST (depending on the salary)

$92 L Z t
(a) klmW&;h17 &%, gl$$ 3t if$$% L 3 -$o
(My husband comes straight home every day, as soon as he has fin-
ished his work.)

(b) &;tr.;zgp&, 17 &$ &I, $.if,
(I will go to pick you up as soon as you call me from the airport.)
*LFL+?A+?W Sb
(c) LLlW%!+7Yb'r;3 L 9 9&%, ~ & 9 % & 7 ~ . b ' 2 . ~ , b ' a t ,
(As soon as Professor Yamagishi comes here I'd like to begin our
t i f v 19Fii S L ,?v
~ ,?bw<b~L I:*? fl<
(d) RA%$ % %%, JZ ADAWEKA $W&q& 17 %7
(Upon graduation from the University of Tokyo, I intend to enter the
Graduate School of Kyoto University. )
i@i~k$& $fj%%%,TBBEQ
L ~ G P $. ~ ,
(On the matter you have inquired about, I will inform you as soon as I
find out.)
+ l p i O ; i I f %L+v
(f) L-+ZY>3 'Jda f$ T&%, & @ ~ % % & a - $ ~
(As soon as the reception is finished we will start the dinner party.)
(g) 8% ii=;i.&%-rtbc,
(Finding employment depends on connections.)

fi) ~ & % D & & & ~ & % ( ? Z2) I ~ z 25 ; h ~ & i ~ ~ - ~ a - $ ~
(Do you know the proverb "Even affairs in hell depend on money" ?)
6*i bh
(i) t'@*&ST, P~~~&TBY$&BL~-$~
(Depending on your orders, I will cook you anything you like.)


(Depending on the employment terms I would like to accept that job.)

1. Vrnasu / V N shidai and N shidai dalde mean 'as soon as' and 'depends
on / depending on,' respectively. What is common to both cases is that
an action or state indicated by the preceding verb or noun is a prerequi-
site for another action or state expressed in the main predicate.
2. The Vrnasu of Vmasu shidai can hardly be sum-verb, probably because
it will create a sequence of shi-shi which is hard to pronounce.

3. As noted in Formation, as far as Vmasu shidai is concerned, the Vmasu
forms of honorific, polite verbs such as irasshatu, osshatu, nasam are
not irasshai-, osshai-, and nasai-, but irasshari-, osshari-, and nasari-,
4. For the shidai structure, the main clause cannot be past tense.
(3) a. ??kIAb97F%;k
?XR, @El 3 7% C%& L 3 Lfz,
(My husband came straight home every day, as soon as he
finished his work.)

b. *eRd.r;%%PbI1j&%, a;ib:jT7 l:,
(As soon as I received a call from the airport I went to
pick him up.)

e elated Expressions]
I. There is another structure -tam sugu with the meaning of 'as soon as.'
The crucial difference between Vrnasu 1V N shidai and -tam sugu is that
shidai 389
the former expresses a planned sequence of two actions, whereas the
latter can express any kind of sequence of two actions. Examples in [I]
and [2] show that both forms can be used to express a planned sequence
and those in [3] show that Vmasu shidai cannot be used in a non-
planned non-controllable sequence. In this case -tam sugu is much
better than shidai, but slightly marginal and should be replaced by -tam

b. f$U.k%b: {fT9k%H&tc<
(As soon as he got to Japan he got ill.) -
- --
N shidai da in KS(C) and Exs.(g) - (j)can be replaced by N ni yoru, as
shown in [4].

But not all cases of N ni yoru can be replaced by N shidai da, because
the former has a wider meaning: N ni yoru indicates 'cause' for s.t. as in
[5a], 'means' as in [5b], or 'source' as in [%I. N ni yoru cannot be
390 shidai / shika mo
replaced by N shidai da in any of these, simply because the latter lacks
these particular meanings.

*v t 7 $ L * b L
b. @3A&t6Hqm { L & 7 T / * R % T l ,~ O ~ T ~ ~ L 7 - . .
(He succeeded in this world by means of his political
c. $I$ s " i ~ & ~ + i ~ ~ ,
7 ~ i j - C{:~ Q L : / * R % T
(According to the radio, it will snow tomorrow.)
(+ni yottelyori)

shikamo La>% conj.

moreover; furthermore; be-
provide additional important sides; on top of that; what's
information more; what's worse; more
surprisingly; at that; neverthe-
less; and yet; even so
[REL. omake ni; sono ue; sore
de ite; sore mo; sore ni; (sore)
ni mo kakawarazu]
shika rno 391

+Key Sentences

Topic Commentl Commentz
(The tape recorders available these days are compact and light, and on
top of that, their sound has improved greatly.)

Sentence Phrase / Sentence


(He bought a house, and more surprisingly, a house with a large yard.)

I Sentencel I 1 Sentencq I
(He studies till late every night; nevertheless, he gets up earlier than
anyone else.)

(i) {V/Adj./N+Cop.} te L @ h
%k$LTbaT, L a 6 +%ZTba& (S.O. is married, and what's
more, s h e even has a child.)
< T, L 6 6 1: 12 7'2 (S.t. is interesting, and what's more, it is
free of charge.)
>Sf k T , L a h &%&%72 (S.O. is handsome, and what's more,
he is rich.)
392 shika mo
L-SliC*', V r ? ti
5 % @ T , L 73' b d %j? (S.O. is out of work, and what's worse,
s h e is ill.)
(ii) Vmasu L-hlb
L < 'Ws , L $ $ $$ $ Q ba (s.o. works hard, and yet (or
nevertheless), s h e does not complain.)
(iii) Adj(i)ko L73l b
<, L$ by&? (S.t. is cheap; futhermore, it's durable.)

z a ) & % C i ~$ b l , L g b $.k $b'~%lbl, (This job is interesting. On
top of that, the pay is good.)

dmCl V CL 7% L P<*tba tr 6*i
(a) @ k l 2 % h T L$ b%$blbaO W3YEkflf +b:tb& a)b khb2tbblo
(She is pretty, and what's more, (she is) smart. It is natural that boys
(lit. male students) should be crazy about her.)
I I & k L XrLB? by*, eh,
(b) E I * & G ~ & B ; ~k' ~BEf ~b 7 L*Eb%Lbl, L$b, El$Zt:bid
(Japanese has entirely different vocabulary from English, and the
grammar is also difficult. On top of that, Japanese has kanji.)
z L r <
(c) mokx b 3 ~ / O Q * C ~ B P L-c2wr
< ~ - h l b ,11) =-i\$ma
$ r ; y ~ k ~ g ~ +1 ) f-7
5 j/ b:X&~m a.
(That restaurant's teishoku (set meal) is good and reasonable. On top of
that, it is substantial (lit. it has volume), so it is popular among students
and young white-collar workers.)
(d) ~ & f i ~ i ~**.a ) ~ ~ a ) + ~L$b,
& d l %b&l:-Tb:,
(He went out in this heavy rain, and more surprisingly, without an
(el ~EI~$$&G&~LT~a 3 7 ' ~L +~ & , ~+%5jc6,
(He was late for the exam, and what's worse, as much as thirty minutes
shika mo 393
k.4 <: Z Ith If-< Z t, L1
L& h , ~ ~ - C & ! Z J % %b:&j~ I

(She speaks four languages besides English, and more surprisingly, she
speaks all of them like a native speaker.)
% & S i s % s " ~ ~ - cL~&a%~, jX&azam%Ei:~~
caught a cold, and at that on the day before an important exam.)

@ c & P A ~ ~ ~ L ~ B o T ~ L,$ $L~& Th , z i$k#GL9b>Ti3&a)
j~ : + ~ ~ ~ ~ t s ~ - ; , 7 ~ . ,
(No matter how hard the job was, he did it quietly, and what's more, he
did not complain about his salary like the others did.)
4Ei$kC&?+%-P7Til,"iiB~, Lfi.6, f a ) % $ ~ ~ l t b & S t c b a ~
(She is good at everything, but even so, she does not show off her

1. Basically, shika mo has three uses. First, shika mo is used when one pro-
vides additional important characteristics of s . ~or
. s.t., as in KS(A) and
Exs.(a) - (c). Second, shika mo is used when one adds special informa-
tion to a statement about a rather uncommon action or state, as in KS(B)
and Exs.(d) - (g). Third, shika mo is used when one provides informa-
tion which is rather unexpected from the preceding statement, as in
KS(C), Exs.(h) and (i). -
2. In the second use, additional information can be provided with an inde-
pendent phrase, as in Exs.(d) - (0, or with a sentence, as in Ex.(g).
However, the version with an independent phrase is more common.

elated Expressions]
I. Shika mo in the first use described in Note 1 can be replaced by sono
ue, omake ni, or sore ni, as in [I].
I . . Shika mo in the second use described in Note 1 can be replaced by sore
mo, as in [2].

111. Shika mo in the third use described in Note 1 can be replaced by sore
de ite or (sore) ni mo kakawarazu, as in [3].
shika rno / shitagatte 395

shitagatte L k fif 77 conj. <w>

therefore; accordingly; con-
cate that a result I situation follows sequently
necessarily from the foregoing [REL. da kara]

+ ~ Sentence
e ~

I1 I

(The budget is insufficient. Therefore this plan cannot be implemented.)

S1, LfifF9 T SzO
g$l { &ao ~ f < f 1 ~ 9 ~ @ p ~ k > ~
(It rains a lot. Therefore there is a lot of greenery.)

t*3 ? <2 3
(a) +am~ w E ~ ~ @ ~ ~ % ~ LT:;~~.'.;,-c$FS
T ~ & ~ 2~3 ~1 ~L7 L ~
(This week the executives are busy attending meetings from morning
till night. Therefore they don't even have time to play their favorite
3 96 shitagatte
(b) %&2-F& 2 , = + l b ~ - % & Lfzf19Tkh&b>o
(If you do exercise, you use energy. Accordingly you don't gain
K l t L (hl t L l i f<
EI$O@biifk@fl$Gb>., Lf:fl~-Ck ~ Z
< ; k & ~
(Japanese cars have fewer troubles. Therefore they sell well.)
(d) f i Z i i ~ ~ $ & g $ & / v ~ ~ f~: r~z ; 3 " 9 ~ ~ 1 z i c o z t <8 Sdh: Q r b >

(She lived in Japan for five years. Therefore she knows a lot about
$%Y* - lilt80 Yb S i i w(
(el m-mixm;f:ak,a
11% ~ = ~ >La l~j :>~~~ ) ~ = - c ~~ 8B d& : ~~ o
a z 2 t:az0
(In Japan fathers are seldom at home. Therefore mothers are in charge
of their children's education.)

1. "S1. Shitagatte S F is used to express that S2 naturally results from S1.
The focus of the conjunction is more on the result than the cause.
2. Shitagatte is used either in written Japanese or in formal speech.
3. If what is expressed in S1 is a reason for what is expressed in S2, shita-

(1) a.
gaffe cannot be used; da kara has to be used.
ItLf '
*~&a>X&&d~~z~ L~S~TW~ERL~
b. ~ ~ ~ O A f l E E L fEh>%%L$BRLfz0
(The majority of the people agreed. Therefore I also

The conjunction da kara can replace shitagatte in all the KS and Exs., but
not vice versa, because the former can express both reason-action and
cause-result relations, but the latter expresses cause-result relation only.
(See Note 3.)
shitagatte / s6 ka to itte 397
Lr Or5
[1] a. $ D % D + i r i f b & ~ l : . {Es%
/*LkF7TI % i f f 7-C
(The review of this book was good, so I bought it and read it.)

a structure which expresses that but; yet; even so
the speaker I writer cannot easily [REL. (s6) desu ga;
accept the corollary from the pre- keredo(rn0); shikashi]
ceding statement owing to some
circumstances, although he feels
; like accepting it

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

(I hear that fish is good for your health.)
(Land and housing are less expensive in America, but we cannot
easily immigrate.)

( i ) A: Slo

B: +i$kZ->T, 8@l~&~&A~b~&b~f~:bb~b3@AL,
(But you can't read just comic books, you know.)

i5iiBibkEi8baP.fdT, + i f i k S q T , j@@lf&IIS/vTb>&bGfC:
b ba b 3 -@ X. L o (Comic books are fun, but you can't read just
comic books, you know.)

(a) A: $ & b T & T ? ~ b a k $ 3 T b a 3 LI:L,
(He told me not to bring anything.)
B: 5 j& L Z Q T , % ~ & ~ ~ $ + f i ~ ~ a ; h . ~ f ~ : i t b 1 j; 3ia,. ~ b a ~
(But, we cannot go there empty handed, you know.)
(b) A: &fs"a>&&lkkTb-?~ L b 1 5 j ~ - f k ,
(They say that tomorrow's examination is very easy.)
B: 5 j & k $ ~ T , N b % % L a b a b G f C : b b ~ ; S ~ Q b ~ T Lido
(But still, it can't mean that we don't need to study at all.)
s6 ka to itte 399
SW L e i hh3*3
(c) A: % B m E # R d l b , %3 t h o
(There are consecutive holidays next week, so we can have fun.)
B: + id a k g g - C , 97'1k76fd117LTb>&bCfG~&bai31Qb>h~
(But, I cannot just play golf, you know.)
(d) A: 7; t f Z bi#b:Eb>T-F dr
(Cigarettes are bad for your health, you know.)
B: +ii31kSgT, 7 ~ ~ f Z G : k b & & d ~ & 3 i 3 1 b h b ~ ~ ~
(Even so, I cannot find a substitute for cigarettes.)
(e) A: gsz+a<1 ; b & U t a kb~b>+iTtifo
(They say that it's good to exercise for about 30 minutes every
B: + id l k g q - ~ ,+ ~ L E G ~ O & ! % I ~ &L&,LQL\
(But it is next to impossible to make that amount of free time, you
(f) ! $ $ ~ & . = , k ~ f Q ~ f k L b f G b Q b > ~ b i $ d l - s , ~+bj >d b. k
~ ,s g
T , z%?b%i31 17 B k ~ b > b b M &b>dlQb>,
(I know I have to memorize more kanji, but even so, I cannot memo-
rize just kanji.)
PV L bdl 7Wd.W L*=it 3 :tb
(g) Z&TkXUkLbObi3bb>P, - T i d b k B = T , Za)&fl ffi CZQBJfbb
Gf tc & b>d>Gb>,
(It is painful to leave my wife and kids behind, but I cannot excuse
myself from this business trip abroad.)

1. S6 ka to itte is used when one is inclined to accept what one's conver-
sational partner has said as in KS(A) and Exs.(a) - (e), or what has been
mentioned in the preceding sentence as in KS(B), Exs.(f) and (g), but
this inclination is accompanied by a realization that it is impossible to
accept its corollary due to some circumstance.
2. S6 ka to itte always occurs with an explicitly or an implicitly negative
predicate. It often occurs with wake ni {wa / m o ] ikanai, but there are
400 sb ka to itte
cases where an implicitly negative predicate is used as shown in the fol-
(1) a. Z n @ i & c ~ b G b l / r ~ s f ,- F i d . t t q T , f l Q j & - j - ~
kt.$fP'fi'fi"Q Lo
(I don't like this town, but it costs a lot of money to move,
so . . .)
*tLDt9 t*
b. % b c A ? L ~ \P,
V +?j * ~ ' STQ
, @-Ab=B+27dj'Cfb
fi%' ?
(We are busy, but how can we leave the work to him
The predicates kane ga kakaru 'it costs a lot of money' and makasete
okerukai, a rhetorical question in informal male speech meaning 'we
cannot leave it to him,' are cases of an implicitly negative predicate.

Sb ka to itte used in sentence-initial position as in KS(A) and Exs.(a) - (e)
can be replaced by disjunctive conjunctions such as keredo(mo), shikashi,
(s6) desu ga. The same phrase used in non-sentence-initial position as in
KS(B), Exs.(f) and (g) cannot be replaced by such conjunctions.

Disjunctive conjunctions such as keredo(mo), shikashi, etc. cannot be
replaced by the structure in question unless sb ka to itte satisfies the condi-
tion mentioned in Note 1 above. The following example sentences all
explain this point.
[3] A: <
Za)7/\"- b i s T b l b ~ b O
(This apartment is spacious and nice.)
sd ka to itte / soko del 401

[4] A: :8imb=L<aL.>Lo
(Alcohol is not good for your health, you know.)

rsl i p a a z h o a X P r . { L ~ P/LC ~ ~/*t)t~tz=~),
-EBL h k % $ W 0
(It is tough to memorize kanji. But once you have memorized them
they are very useful.)

soko del ?c T conj.

so; because of that; therefore
situation presented as a reason and [REL. sore de]
an action taken because of that

+Key Sentence

(My friend told me that something simple would be fine for supper. So,
I ordered a pizza.)

S1o % C T , Szo
d.k. L cr-3
&&7Fgz?2 { a3ko % C T , &@Th%&b*%-Th C k b:~?:~
(The conference room has become unavailable. So, we've decided to have
the meeting in the cafeteria.)
402 soko del

s t v & Z , o b : ~ 7 F & ~ $ , ~ f : ?~ Z T , 3'93-~&<;?
1: L f L
(I had a lot of baggage and it began to rain. Therefore, I decided to go
by taxi.)
1) - ~ - ~ 3 6 ~ t v ? & b t L a < t?=k0 ? Z T , ' < -5+4 27i&&&
@ F b B k a <h ~ f : ,
(It has turned out that our leader Mr. Yamada can't come, so we have
no choice but to postpone the meeting.)
6 l&&e T$$&,y-
. f l l S t ? < t?qf:, ? Z T , CLNII,
CL b
N o B t,&bf b~Z,&hb\T&f:,
(I got injured and couldn't go to school on the day of an exam. So, I
called my teacher to ask if I could take it another day.)
bkL bh
% E i & - F < T $ L f l Z 7 h f : 1 5 csb+e L f z 0 ? Z T , + L & E ~ T W ,

fit? <a 9 T , $b% ~ 7 : ~
(He talked as if it were all my fault. Therefore, I couldn't hold my
tongue and I talked back.) >
Sk~hL7?Wdr< i w -' 67P +
T b > 6t v F Z ~P , %~
& b W & a t v ~ ? ; 3 ~,~~1:%3%&~+?9
, ~blf:f?bj3-@/vs,
(My son is going to college next year but he is not good at English (lit.
and has trouble with it). Therefore, I'd like to ask a favor of you. Could
you teach him English?)

1. Soko de cannot connect a cause and a result, as in (1).
,?u C L L
(1) a. + f - ~ ' ~ 7 ? ' J ~ % ~ . r C ' A ~&
LW . ;tr'&=f:~
t&tLf:, (Acceptable form: {?Ulf;65 / ?hTl !&$hJfl
(There was a big earthquake in San Francisco. Because of
that, many buildings collapsed.)
soko del 403
D3 4Pt
b. ~ ~ ~ b ~ . t d i c + - ~ I : < S L & 3 3 ; *?LT%;b&
< T k b bhhba. (Acceptable form: {?Olf;
%L / t h T 1 4 8 13.

(I was forced to drink a lot of cheap whiskey last night.
Because of that, I have a headache and cannot get up
(~ tame (ni) (DBJG:447-5 1))

2. In general, when soko de is used, the situation presented as a reason is
a special situation. For example, (2a) is acceptable, but (2b) is some-
what odd.
h t bb ?? tr* L
(2) a. Y ~ & H S L O ~ % T I ~ - F ~ - - ~ . ' & ~ 1 T. ~ O ? ~
-h.'r.:< s c v h a k ~ a j .~ L T % , LB~T~:(z~c=L~:~
(I heard that there is a party at Morita's tomorrow and many
of my old classmates are coming. So, I've decided to go,
b. N 8 & H S I v O j % T 1 f - ~ 4 - ; 5 f & & t b ~ j .???LP,
%L%qT<Ztb:Ll:o(Acceptableform: ? h T , %LB...)
(Iheard that there is a party at Morita's tomorrow. So, I've
decided to go, too.)
3. In "S1. Soko de, Sz," S2 usually represents a controllable action. Thus,
in the following examples, (3a) is acceptable, but (3b) and (3c) are
somewhat unnatural. -- s s=

(3) a. - -
I ,
R 9

T&3 7 k
(The fur coat was on sale at fifty percent off. So, I made a
big decision and bought it.)
b. ? O % E O 3 - 1. C&+-ILP*%~?~I:~ ????LT, %LB
EbaI: h 9 T 3 I : , (Acceptable form: ? h T , %L%.-)
(The fur coat was on sale at fifty percent off. So, I wanted
(lit. began to want) to buy it.)
404 soko del
(The fur coat was on sale at fifty percent off. SO, I could
buy it.)
4. In "S1. Soko de, Sz," S2 cannot be a command, a request, a suggestion,
or an invitation, as in (4).
(4) % J 8 % E f P A Q , i t ; ~ / ~ - 7-4- f l h ~ T 8 0 3 7 x % - P75y:
SA*$-F, * ? Z T , &GI:& ( Q ~ ~ % T Y ~ L ~ / L ~ L
?7I:L;tr'iT-F75'/ k'1;7L?L1$@A@). (Acceptable
form: { E + I a % /TB+13%l &GI:&--)
(There is a party at Morita's tomorrow and many of our old
classmates are coming. So, {pleasejoin us by all means. I how
about joining us? I would you like to join us?})
(+da kara in sore de (DBJG: 413-14))

Sore de and soko de are similar and are interchangeable in many situations.
Some examples follow.

In addition, like soko de, sore de cannot be used with a command, a request,
a suggestion, or an invitation. (See Note 4.)
Sore de, however, differs from soko de in several ways. First, sore de can
connect a cause and a result while soko de cannot, as in [2].(See Note 1.)
[2] a. " f 7 7 7 7 3 X ~ T k f & E d " & 7 f : , { ? h T / * ? Z T } $Z@W
fz S A @ W & (=(la))
(There was a big earthquake in San Francisco. Because of that,
many buildings collapsed.)
b. ~@&%L~S~I'X+-BI:<S h . @ k Z S t ~ f : ~{ ? h T / * ? Z T l
4 8 i2Bd5%< T W 3 1;kLGb1, (=(lb))
(Iwas forced to drink a lot of cheap whiskey last night. Because
of that, I have a headache and cannot get up today.)
soko del / soko de2 405
Second, sore de is used to mean 'that's why.' Soko de cannot replace sore
de in this use, as in [3].
0 * -€
[31 a. @ E l b k ~ % B $ 1 3 3L k , {?hT/*?LTl% @ B & w E C ~ T
t o
(I had a cold yesterday. That's why I took a day off from
b. A: @Elbk%~-3kk~Tffl&d'djcl$LTb,
(I had some business in Osaka yesterday.)
B: &&, {?hT/*?LTlb a b 7 L . t . b G ~ 7 1 : / v T . f b o
(Oh, that's why you were not here.)
Third, when sore de is used, the situation does not have to be a special one,
as in [4]. (See Note 2.)

Fourth, when sore de is used, the situation does not have to be controllable,
as in [5]. (See Note 3.)

soko de2 =f L T conj.

then; at that time
event and an action taken at the
time of the event
406 soko de2

+Key Sentences

Subordinate Clause Main Clause
b tL
L : b , ?ZT 8 3 % L~ T Y s b b o
1 (When I wave my hand, (lit. then,) please clap your hands.) 1

1 (He might offer you a drink. At that time you mustn't hesitate.) 1

( i ) S1, ? Z T S 2 ,
taiTL lit
z o q >-P75.'9bb?:b, ?ZTjtE Z B & b T T f b',
(When this light comes on, (lit. then,) start charging it.)
(ii) S1, -? T S20

nt, c I)*&
(a) + m ~ : ~ r . ~ ; % ~r.eb
fi J t&tt+r;, - ? z T % <O B . ~ @ - C
& E c & b ~ - c ~ ~ b ~ ~
(In an hour I will say, "Stop!" Then, stop writing and put your pencils
(b) $Ld'Z&B L k b , ? Z T % 3 t v % 3 - t ; E b ~ t - i f O
(When I give you a signal, (lit. then,) you will all stand up, please.)
soko de2 / soko o 407
I Hb
~ ~ f : j b k , ~ ~+f ~:~~&;i ,t p o e - = ~ 6 a < $ ~ - i f ,
(If you think you are intoxicated, you should stop drinking at that
:?b t*
X s ~ ~ ~ m cL -=T ~. Qk w L ~ ~ : - T L ; w+~~. ~ % i ; f l i t ~ ; a - ~ l k
(Little children sometimes get into unbelievable mischief. Their
parents must scold them then.)

(Prof. Yano scolded a student. It would have been all right if the
student had apologized to him meekly at that time, but the student
talked back (instead).)

1. In "S1. Soko de Sz." S1 represents an event and Sz an action at the time
of the event.
2. Sz is often a command, a request, a suggestion, or an invitation.
3. Soko de may appear in mid-sentence position in S , as in (1).
(1) a. %Lfis&HeL k b , B S L - ? Z T ~ 2 % ~ B b ~ 3 -(=Ex.@))
b. 4 \ s b ~ ~ R c i @ c : Lk T b a-blblf:Tb e-ifao%I&+ZT
Pkb fhblk blCf j b (=Ex.(d))

SO~O ;f. C f conj.

a conjunction used to indicate that
in spite of the negative situation
mentioned in the previous part of
I but; in spite of that

the sentence 1discourse some pos-
itive effort is made
408 soko o

+Key Sentences

(Tom is small for a football player, but he makes up for it with his swift
legs.) 1

i v Cr5d.h
ZhJI:l.1:e&-Mv b=.iibl*ab>b;.

(I cannot loan you more money than this.)

(But, could you do something about it?)

Ph h t f
(a) %EiiGBCi+hb%Ed:abld',- ? Z Q & % T @ ~ ; ~ . T ~ T ~ > & ~
(He is not that bright, but he manages to get along on his efforts.)

(b) +oZ@iih iV&eii-i?z kii&&abW, +z %2Tmk&?:*
(The actress cannot hide her age any longer, but she is somehow pre-
serving herself with her arts.)
(c) $FLI/>~GG+C-~-W, L*l .tt*
+ z e m k + f f i ~ ~ ~ b > ? ~ f z c f a b
i So
(I know that you are busy, but I wonder if you could possibly attend it.)
(d) A: Z / ~ Q F & C .%,
+7 Sii
~ ,+%T3fbb>b;,
(With such poor grades, you cannot graduate, you know.)
soko o / -s6 ni naru 409

B: ?t 9, g&,r j G:dbLTbakECSG-I/>TLd: j fib,
(But, could you do something about it, Professor?)
(e) A: ttv&&dk:8$$9fi6 ;~GSI:~;~:I/~&G-L~G-~
(I cannot allocate a budget for such a project.)

(But, chief, could you give me a chance?)

1. Soko o is used to express some positive efforts in spite of some negative
situation mentioned either in the first half of the sentence as in KS(A)
and Exs.(a) - (c) or in the interlocutor's line as in KS(B), Exs.(d) and
2. Soko o is often used to push one's request in spite of an initial negative
reaction, as shown in Exs.(c) - (e). In this case, the sentence often takes
the form of Soko o nantoka deshd ka.
3. Soko o can be replaced by soko no tokoro o without changing the mean-
ing when soko o is used to express the speaker's beseeching, as in
KS(B) and Exs.(c) - (e).

happens [EL.
rn6 sukoshi/chotto de
- sum tokoro (datta)]
410 -& ni naru

+Key Sentence

(While walking in the cold rain without using an umbrella, I almost
caught a cold.)
- - -

Vmasu ? 5 G: a6
S i k ? 5 GL l's 6 (s.0. almost forgets s.t.)
$6.11 ? 5 I: 2 b (s.0. almost understands s.t.)
% %k L
+ 5: C 2 6 (so. almost loses his 1her job)

- rb
7=-lbTE5 < %IWL+?5 Kl's9 k
%~i&+wlk$, Z 2fl&bo
(When I was a child I almost drowned in a swimming pool.)
~ d + , 5 % ~ 9 2 ~ ~ ~ : 0 dG% z f b+9 7?L5
(Yesterday I almost got run over by a car.)
&&&a>gt3.9&&? 5C:g~j:~
(My house almost got destroyed by an earthquake.)
go&>&&Fgj&&L+? 5 G : f t 9 jz0
(An old pine tree in the yard almost fell down in the typhoon.)
y d & k A a g o y T , % & B ~ b & + ? 5K 2 9 k 0
(Today in a crowded train I almost got my purse pickpocketed.)
-Mni naru 41 1
lilt Vr 3 s
(g) +gkh%+{i~f?jC:Qg?:@l:, @t.71'fi5,bL8~-cL331:0
(When I was almost able to go to Japan my mother got ill.)

1. Vmasu sb ni naru expresses the idea that s.t. almost happens. As shown
in Exs.(a), (b) and (f), Vmasu sd ni naru is often used with an extra
adverbial phrases such as ayauku 'narrowly,' and md sukoshi/chotto de
'a little more, then -,' which reinforce the idea of 'almost.'
The verb is restricted to non-volitional verbs, that is, a verb that
expresses s.t. that is beyond human control, such as (kaze o) hiku 'to
catch (a cold)' (KS), oboreru 'to drown' (Ex.(a)), tsubureru 'to be
destroyed' (Ex.(c)), taoreru 'to fall down' (Ex.(d)). Since passive and
potential forms are regarded as a non-volitional verb, they can be also
used with sb ni naru, as shown in Exs.(b), (e) and (g). If the verb is a
volitional verb, Vrnasu sb ni naru cannot be used if the subject is the
speaker himself 1herself.
(1) a. *%L&~gB&&=f [:& fZ@, gg$l;@$$$g
-c 3 7 k
(When I was about to eat my lunch I received a call from
my friend.)

-c b7'& -
b. 7 f ~ @ ,8 9 3 LIZ,
* @ - h ' ~ & B & = f . j ~ ~ & @&<
(When I almost graduated from college, I lost my mother.)


However, if the entire situation expressed by the whole sentence
expresses a situation that is beyond human control, a volitional verb can
be used even if the subject is the speaker himself as shown in (2): in
both (2a) and (2b) the action is not the speaker's choice. What (2a) and
(2b) mean are 'I was almost forced to eat that poisonous bean-jam bun'
and 'I was swindled by somebody to use that counterfeit paper money
to purchase things.'
b. ~ t & $ i % r ~ k ~ + O ~ ~ T f i b 1 & ~ ~ - f 5 ~ Z
(I almost bought things with that counterfeit paper money.)
If the subject is S.O. other than the speaker, Vmasu sci ni naru can be
used, even if the verb is a controllable verb, because whatever happens
to the third person is considered to be beyond the speaker's control.

(Because a small child almost drank sake, the mother
hastily took it away.)

(Because Yamada almost quit the company, his colleagues
retained him with great efforts.)

All the examples of Vrnasu sci ni naru can be replaced by rnci sukoshilchoito
de suru tokoro datta, except Exs.(f) - (g) in which Vmasu W ni naru is
used in a dependent clause. The latter expression focuses on both the
impending aspect of something and the point of time at which s.t. occurs,
Y but the former focuses only on the impending aspect.
- [I] a. $Lt&3ROF%,Y-lLT65 ( 9 L / 4 ~ 7 t T%1;C%&b
I t C
b f i 7 fz , (cf. Ex.(a))
-xini nam / sono ue 41 3

As mentioned in Note 2, the verb of Vmasu sd ni naru is restricted to a non-
volitional verb. But md sukoshilchotto de sum tokoro datta is free of this

c. 8 3 I$L/B&721 Tffi~~'r62C-3~:~~;5"~->T&
(When I was just about to leave, a friend of mine visited me.)

sono ue 30k conj.

on top of that; besides; more-
additional, emphatic statement over; furthermore; what's
more; what's worse; not only -
but also
[ REL. omake ni; shika mo;
sore ni; ue (ni)]
+Key Sentences

1 Topic 1

(He looked for an apartment with me, and moreover, he even helped me


(This job pays a good salary, and what's more, it offers opportunities to
go abroad from time to time.)

(Bananas are cheap. On top of that, they are nutritious.)

(i ) {V I Adj. 1N+Cop.} te -?Dl
b >T.~6 @ T, ;i+Dl, @#i? (You can use it any time, and on
top of that, it's free.)
kj L.> L < T , %D k , %%fl& b (It's delicious, and what's more,
%@T, % D l , &%fl%b> (It's inconvenient, and moreover, the
rent is expensive.)
@&?%T, % D l , T4-'i'dTC;f39Tb~b (It'smadeofpuregold,
and besides, it has a diamond (lit. a diamond is embedded).)
(ii) Vmasu % D k
CSdt)l;kL, % D l , CZ 5 V 3 T b l;9 7
: (I was praised, and what's
more, I was given an award.)
(iii) Adj(i)ku % D k
Is*L fiBLh
sifi f l m h < , % D L , & & ? F b > (The story is interesting, and on
top of that, it's easy to read.)
(iv) S L, % D l

% D b $ b ; f ~ 357'sb>L, % D k , $k#d%~.> (The job is boring,
and what's worse, the pay is bad.)
(v) So % D L
h ' t h +57? h C lmi
% bDI l ?, ~g d z % b > , (The old man is
% o ) & ~ l ; f ~ f l ~ ~ E
disabled. Furthermore, he is hard of hearing.)

aWCt u th -
(a) ~ E ~ C ~ S A %DL,
T, &$T~~L.>L>*L J+L~G:&MLT~/>L
(Everybody loves-her because she is not only pretty but also good-
natured (lit. because she is pretty, and what's more, she is good-
m) Y&oi3 c : p L ~ ~ w a c : a 9 7 : l ; ,
l i > h ' i > hFif-lxer>f:r?b>
T, %DL, ~k'aT~"%%iC:a91:,
(When I went to my professor's house to consult him about my job, he
gave me all kinds of advice, and on top of that, he even served me
'J s 20 j - t ; d & ~ i : f i 7 f i r ; , % a > e > + & ~ B T I Z ~ S ~ LTOJ-,
(C) LN *
(When I went to see John at his place, he got me to help him paint his
house, and what's more, he even got me to mow the lawn.)
(d) ~ 0 7 1 9 - P IG&$c:%$JT~~~~%<, 5 0 m~f 3 - m a o
(This apartment is convenient for commuting and the rent is reason-
able. Moreover, it even has a parking space.)

(The structure of Japanese is considerably different from that of
English, and on top of that, it has kanji; therefore, it is difficult for
Americans to learn.)

(f) Z@$5@ikba,,>%&&G {Ed%& { &b>,, + D l , g&'&+@
(This school does not have many good teachers and the facilities are
not good, either. And besides that, there is a lot of juvenile crime.)

Sono ue is used to introduce an emphatic statement. Thus, an emphatic
marker like made often appears in the added statehent, as in KS(A) and
Exs.(b) - (d). (See Related Expression 111.)
- elated ~x~ressions]
I. Ue (no can replace sono ue, as in [I].

11. Omake ni can replace sono ue without changing meaning, as in [Z],
although omake ni is slightly more casual.
In. Sore ni is similar to sono ue except that the added statement is not
emphatic. Thus, this statement is often supplementary information. In
the following examples, [3a] and [3b] are acceptable but [4a] and [4b]
are somewhat unnatural. The reason is that in [3a] and [3b] the second
statements are not necessarily emphatic while in [4a] and [4b] the
second statements are emphatic as the emphatic marker made shows.
418 sore demo
sore demo ;t'hTG conj.

nevertheless; yet; but in spite of
pressed in the preceding sentence that; even so
(REL. (sore) ni mo kakawarazu;
te mo]

+ ~ Sentence
e ~


(The parents are opposed to the couple's marriage. Nevertheless, they
seem intent to marrying.)

*L11 3
(a) ~ L ~ o T E E ~ , @ ? ~ - . ~?~hcT~6 I3TI .F$ ,$ & ~ I : ,
(It was so hot that we turned on an electric fan, but it was still hot.)

(c) 20%i;tk T &%b>a)K,F h T & b > b ~ $ d . & i 1 <
, &TL>6,
(This book is very expensive, yet it is selling well, because it is a good
sore demo 419

(e) A: 20%-I<-, &blkako
(This overcoat is expensive, isn't it?)
B: S ~ L T ~ &3 ~ ? Q B
(But do you intend to buy it?)

Sore demo means that in spite of the circumstance expressed in the preced-
ing sentence something surprising or contradictory takes place. So if this
basic meaning is missing sore demo cannot be used.
(1) &dbkk%~b, {T.f/ CfhZ.f / LaaL/*?hT&l $$a"b;f%
(I have work to do today. But I can take a day off tomorrow.)

(3) &ihw-ho IT^ / [ t w a/ L ~ >/*tnralBkit
(I do exercise a lot. But my younger brother doesn't at all.)
e elated ~x~ressions] -
I. (Sore) ni mo kakawarazu also means of 'in spite of (that)' and, in fact, it
can replace sore demo in all the KS and Exs. except Ex.(e). The reason
why the replacement is impossible in Ex.(e) is that (sore) ni mo ka-
kawarazu is used only in written or formal spoken Japanese; therefore,
it doesn't fit in a very colloquial use of sore demo in Ex.(e).
[I] A: Z0;5-1<-, &b.kaR,
(This overcoat is expensive, isn't it?)
B: ~?hT.f/*?ht:&~a~ab%-d'l WiQhb?
(Do you intend to buy it in spite of that?) (= Ex.(e))
420 sore demo / sore dokoroka

537 IAbi%@-if&99, W L b a ,
(The parents are opposed to the couple's marriage. In spite of
that, they seem to intend to get married.) (= KS)
11. Sore demo can be rephrased by te mo as in:
[31 a. Ri%ijrXAa>%%l:EkkLTb~T6, IACi@@f Q Z J 9,
!I EI L L a , (cf. KS)
(Even if the parents are opposed to the couple's marriage,
they seem intent on getting married.) (cf. KS)

But Wh-word - te mo cannot be rephrased by sore demo.

sore dokoroka ?$
ttE I
L 5 h' conj.

a conjunction that is used to indi- on the contrary; far from that;
cate that the level / degree of a as a matter of fact
fact or a situation expressed in the (REL. dokoroka]
second sentence is far above or
below the level / degree of a fact
or a situation expressed in the first
sore dokoroka 421
*Key Sentences

(Mr. Smith cannot write kanji. As a matter of fact, he cannot write even
hiragana satisfactorily.)

(Shall we go to the (No way (lit. Far from it).
party tonight?) Dad got hospitalized.)

% < a bl. -? kL P z 5 ;3.%~. (It's not hot. On the contrary, it's
(ii) k. So

A: $;kk b, (Tired, aren't we?)

(a) $a>Xct%<ith~a-tl-tvd:O+;krzbd>,B % S A , & X ~ L ~ ~ L ,
T-if L o
(She is not young. On the contrary, she has as many as three grand-
422 sore dokoroka
dlh vo-L'l. L+= 6 L
(b) %&b2-@B&b3+?/vo ?kLFE6&, I B & T ~ L L T ~ ~ ~ / ~
(I don't have a penny. As a matter of fact, I'm suffering from debts.)
(c) ' ~ k ~ i ~ ~ & D ~ & j ~ &+ k# L$FiZ'Ss&b, ~~ ~& ~ f s b j b 1 3 j34i
(Jim cannot speak Japanese. In fact, he cannot even make simple greet-
ings in Japanese.)
(d) A: k&%f~b'f:/vf?gT ?
(Did you have a cold? (lit. I heard that you had a cold, but is it
B: ?kLFZ6&, % ' % K f s = ~ , A R L T b > k / L f ? o
(On the contrary, I had pneumonia and got hospitalized.)
(e) A: &&g-&&E -j& ?
(Shall we go see a movie?)
B: -WLFES e p f s b a k o F%~28&~fs1fk~t;ta~i's~>~
(Are you kidding? (lit. Far from it) Tonight I'm so busy that I have
to stay up all night.)
(f) A: $8,+723-c < fib ?
(Kazuko, can you help me?)

Vf L*< fib.
?kLFE5L::.e8blOb:, + @ I P K L < - c ,
(No way, I'm busy doing my homework, you know.)

(g) 34-32/v~t3$$~Zc;.1;;kb~ ~ ~ r t ~ i & i ? a ~ ~ c ;.1;;k
(Clark can eat sashirni. As a matter of fact, he eats even natt6.)

Sore dokoro (ka I de wa nai Ija nai} can indicate a flat rejection of an invi-
tation 1request / command of the conversational partner as in KS(B), Exs.(e)
and (0. Sz gives an unusual circumstance which makes it impossible to
accept the invitation 1request / command.
sore dokoroka / sore ga 423
[Related ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
Sore dokoroka can be replaced by { Adj(i 1na) I V}inf. nonpast dokoroka or
N dokoroka, if the negative predicate of S1 is switched to an affiiative

sore ga +htlf int. <s>

well (contrary to your expec-
the speaker is going to provide an tation; I'm afraid to say this,
[REL. sore wa; tokom
* ~ Sentence
e ~

1 (Does it look like you can get a scholarship?)

(Well, (no,) it looks difficult.)
424 sore ga

L lth
(a) A: %jeR,PjF37:?
(How was the exam?)
B: aw, f:lvrzo
(Well, (I'm sorry to say this, but) it was no good.)
(b) A:
~MX. I: MA,
H&T@ lvT-ifhO <
(You're going to work in Japan next year, aren't you?)
B: WJP, W L W & G S Q < a9-c
~3 9 r : l v ~ - i f 0
(Well, no, it's turned out that I can't go.)
(c) A: &$K&3~$i!~i?lvi?6 5
(You met her and talked to her, right?)
B: e3r
+tw, ~ 2z ue3
r . l v r w P , &&I: &eS;ia <
(Well, I did meet her, but when I saw her face, I couldn't say any-

1. Sore ga can be used with or without an interjection such as iie, ie, or iya.
When an interjection is used, sore ga follows it, as in KS and Ex.(b).
2. Although sore ga is often used when the response is negative, it can be
used when the response is positive, as in (1).
A: %%, 7'?&29r:h'r?6i.
(You didn't pass the exam, I bet.)
B: bl?, ?hiif,B3l:tLl?h0
(No, (the fact is that) I passed it!)
3. Because of the nature of the situations where sore ga is used, it is often
pronounced with a somewhat hesitant tone.
elated Expression]
In, contrast to sore ga, sore wa is used when the speaker provides an
sore ga / sore mo 425

expected response to a question.
[I] A: @Rikt:bblkblT Lr i
(You want to see your girlfriend, don't you?)
B: =fhlt,% b l f Z b l T - $ - L ,
(Yes, (naturally,) I do.)
sore wa)

sore mo =f hit conj.

what's more; what's worse; at
more specific information to infor- that; furthermore; moreover; on
mation about a rather uncommon top of that
[REL. shika mo]

* ~ e y Sentences

AdvP, AdvPl Verbal

, +fib SET B ~ f i f .D
.PL<L t,
~ T 2W3@bh@91:, -
- -

(Because he spoke (lit. I was talked to) in English, and what's worse,

rapidly, I didn't understand anything.)


first-class ones.)
426 sore mo

(Because she has as many as five children, ahd moreover, they are all
very mischievous boys, Mrs. Noguchi is extremely busy every day.)

(i ) AdvPl +;k9, AdvP2 (Verbal)
, ; k& { L 6 (It is written in Japanese,
and what's worse, in flowing style.)

(ii) AP1 +;k b AP2 (Noun)
4 , 4 (Itisadiamond
ring, and a Zkarat diamond ring at that.)

(iii) Clausel f;k G Clausez
K%T, + ;k G I
; 5% 2 b1 3 %$u
:l%Q dj a. (It is newly
built, and on top of that, it is conveniently located five-minutes
from the station.)

(a) T&!I~+D&T, F~LG%%T$?.= <
7 w..~
(He paid on the spot, and what's more, in cash.)
i h@ 13 L
(b) B&:, fhG iil2LT~~~.,
ran in midwinter, and what's more, barefooted.)

(c) +a)&hkXm,~ ; b%tj 3 It/rL?
~ G % ~ R # O - ~ ~ ~ : : ~ P : ~ ~
(The bank built their headquarters building in central Tokyo, and more-
over, on the best spot, in front of Tokyo Station.)
sore mo / sore ni 427

(d) %&*Ci&&!E%, ?;k%Y Y Y ~%sosE%C:fi9$9T ~3 9ko
(She was seen by a magazine reporter, and what's worse, a reporter
from a gossip magazine.)
6 L-
f 3

KLL\+M~C:. -~;~~%K$o&~~&IIEEc
%;<+=L T 92%

3 &I:,
(I was asked to translate a letter when I was busy at the end of the
semester, and what's worse, just before the deadline for my term

(Because it was one hundred thousand yen in coins, and what's worse,
(they were) all ten-yen coins, it was terribly heavy.)

1. The phrases or clauses before and after sore mo are connected to the
same noun phrase, verbal, or clause which follows, as in KS(A) - (C).
2. Sore mo usually appears in mid-sentence position although it can appear
as an independent phrase as well, as in (1).

sore ni +hK conj.

(and) in addition; moreover;
additional item or statement furthermore; what's more; on
top of that
[REL. omake ni; shika mo;
sono ue; sore to]
428 sore ni

+ ~ Sentences
e ~


(The "morning set" here includes coffee and some toast; in addition,
there is a boiled egg (lit. it is accompanied by a boiled egg).)

(Even if we bought a car, there would be no place to park it, and more-
over, there would be few occasions to use it.)

- - - - - - -- -

(I make it a rule not to discuss business at home. In addition, I'm very
tired this evening, so could we discuss it tomorrow?)
sore ni 429

( i ) N1 (k/G:/,l N2 Ik/G:/,l -5;ki:N,
F L Y , Z F L ; S , ?kLb:V7f j5%7
(a TV set, a stereo, and, in addition, a video camera)
(ii) S1 L, ?W: S2
r i bb

?a).ff$bi3$b tsbl L, 5;kG:#&d.'~bl,
(The job is boring, and what's worse, the pay is bad.)
(iii) S1, ?fib:, SzO
h ' U L 'IOi
5a)&~t2@ft%b!W..~ +;kt:, %d.'%bl,
(The old man is disabled. Furthermore, he is hard of hearing.)

btLf;%Li b i rib h t h
%Lo5-bG:t&%L F1,3?Rk3R;sCA, 5kLb:;i. 2 k 4 xd.'?Ef c ~ b l & .
(My family consists of my wife and me, and two children, and in addi-
tion, (there are) a cat and a dog.)
ILltL f-i
blbl.ff$fltsbl L, ?kL1:3Ab H$a)W&-&2 7?d.'3 7 b l & a ) ~ ,
~ $ 4 56k%=7b>&.,
(We are thinking of going back to Japan because there are no good jobs
here, and what's more, my child wants to go to a Japanese school.)
r " 7 / ' t s A f t ~ ~ ~ - ~ b %&b t$ t<s b l ~ -?ht:5
, %c$$~~DTE<
Ed.'&!I$*Ao -
s =

(Even if we bought a piano, no one would play it, and moreover, there
would be no place to put it because our place is small.)
C071T- b t i # $ & 7i@7.,, 5kLt:&&&dao
(This apartment is light and clean. Furthermore, the rent is reasonable.)
~ tbrj b ~ ~ $ ~ ; : l a P + a r z ~ b ~ ~ ~ U ~ ~t #t l$~~ ,: ~ ;

F P V E ? & % @ ~k + € i + o k % ~ a f t ~ b ; &k ~b&*&,,
(Unlike the old days, we can easily talk with people over the phone
these days no matter where they are. Moreover, if we use a TV tele-
phone, we can talk with someone while watching his or her face.)
430 sore ni

1. Sore ni introduces an additional non-emphatic item or statement. (See
Related Expression.)
2. When sore ni is used to introduce an additional statement, the patterns
(ii) and (iii) in the Formation are commonly used, as in KS@) and (c).
However, {V / Adj. / N + Cop.}te, Vmasu, and Adj(i)ku can also pre-
cede sore ni, as in (1) - (3). (Vmasu and Adj(i)ku are ~ s ~ a lused
l y in
written language.)
~ W C I 19-L
(1) a. % & k b & % L - ~ l r > ~ ,; f h l Z 3 % & B & a o
(She is married, and what's more, she has children.)
b. 2 5 .Lb2%?< 7, ?hl~%%7F&&,,
(Tofu is cheap, and in addition, it's nutritious.)
c. 2071T- b I&&?, ; f ~ h l Z ~ ~ @ ~ l r ~ ,
(This apartment is inconvenient, and moreover, the rent is
d. $LCA%&T,; f h ~ # $ , 6 $ ~ ~ ~ 7 ~ . 1 6 ~
(I am near-sighted, and what's more, I have astigmatism.)
(2) ~ ~ ~ ~ Y $ T B $ & ~? h lZZ E~l $ W
I: liL '
T B $S
ILhL+L<L lli
Q L~
k 2L ,
(He studied Japanese at college for three years, and in addition,
he worked (lit. has worked) in Japan.)
+ Lri+
(3) % & 0 % < lJ\ -
%biz1. 'I - 7 F W < , ? h l Z & k ? - i f l r ~ ,
(The novels he writes have interesting story lines, and on top of
that, they are easy to read.)

Omake ni and sore ni are used in similar situations. The difference is that
omake ni introduces an emphatic statement while sore ni introduces a non-
emphatic statement. Thus, in [I] omake ni is acceptable because the addi-
tional statements can be emphatic.
sore ni / sore to 431

However, in [2] omake ni is not quite acceptable because the additional
statement is not as important as the initial one and, therefore, cannot be

When omake ni is used to introduce an item, an emphatic marker like made
is necessary, as in [3].

[3] L L O ; E - - ~ ' J 7 + v I.biJ--k--K I.-% I., h'blflZ9Tkbc"
I b T /???#I W~-Cb\&.
(The "morning set" here includes coffee and some toast; in addition,
there is even a boiled egg (lit. it is even accompanied by a boiled

sore to ? f i t conj. <s> -
- -
and; also; in addition; as well
additional item or statement [REL. sore kara; sore nil

+Key Sentences

Nounl Nounz Noun3

7 t 7 , +ht, / ~ t t t g * ysw,
(Give me three apples and two oranges, and three bananas, as well.)
(Speaking of sports, I play tennis and golf.)


I (In addition, I played ice hockey at school (lit. in my school days).) I

F-1b2-f-X, - ? ; k t , s 7 - P - f ~ Y (beerandcheese,and
potato chips as well)
(ii) S1, -?;kt, SZ,
*>~ A
: i t ~ - 9 xL Q T b a 3 $ , -?;kt, %&G9$71b- P ~ 5 ~ 9 4
3 L k , (Speaking of music, I am a member of a chorus. In addition,
I played flute a little when I was a student.)

(a) F I E S L , X ? S L , Y ~ s A , , W L ~ %
, # S L % ~ ~ % , ~4 K
(Mr. Yamada, Mr. Kinoshita, and Mr. Ueno are coming. And Mr. Taka-
hashi, too.)
d4r: < r
(b) M@git F4 Y g K 7 9 an,
K 1% - It*
-?;kk, E I & & ~ W L S W ~ T ~
(Talking about foreign languages, I can speak German and French, and
a little Japanese.)
.b ; t 6 m 3 4366
(c) @ - ~ + I = L L I $ ~ , ~ L ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s L ~-?;kt,
~ B % & $ & ~ %8
(There were calls from Mr. Yamamura and Mr. Harnada while you
were out. Also, a letter came from Mr. Yoshida.)
sore to 433
$AS*? BAfV CAQw Vt
%ddOB8E3bi%!+kB P j t & d r t w jZ t T t , f h t , 9 , j L 9 ,
# f ; 7 0 ~ ~ m i % Y ; i ag 3*k0
(How to get a teacher is the urgent problem. And, for another thing, we
have to think about the classrom problem.)
z o n a P ~ 1~~ ~qa r 1<-fia?
LIZ5 6
c h, tfit, W H ~ T

sw..mmv$i&, %fir: ?
(Could you type this letter by noon? Oh, and did (lit. could) you get the
air tickets I asked for yesterday?)

Sore to appears only in spoken Japanese. It is often used when the speaker
wants to add an item or statement which s h e has forgotten to mention.

[Related ~x~ressions]
I. Sore ni is similar to sore to in that both introduce an additional item or
statement. The crucial difference is that sore ni is used when the pre-
ceding clause I phrase and the following clause I phrase are closely con-
nected while sore to is used when this connection is weak. Therefore,
sore ni cannot be used when the speaker adds an item or statement
which s h e has forgotten to mention.

(Give me three apples and two oranges. Oh, and three bananas,

On the other hand, sore to cannot be used when the preceding clause
or phrase has a continuative ending such as {V I Adj. I N + Cop.)te,
Vrnasu, Adj(i)ku, and S shi, as in [2] - [5].
61oc1 I ?LA
121 a. z ~ ~ ~ G ~ ~ % L I c L ~ T+
{?htz/*?htl , #&ha,
(She is married, and what's more, she has children.)
T L I;*
b. z07,\"- 1. C ~ F & T{?hE
, /*?htl%&FBL',
(This apartment is inconvenient, and what's more, the rent
is expensive.)
434 sore to / sore wa
ih.h i?kw< P&h&dl&4& C r i
[31 @ 3 2 % 9 ~ 8 $ 5 ~ 2 f+Bd% % L , ( t h E / * Q h 1t B$T
88%L T ~ Z2 &&a,
(He studied Japanese at college for three years, and in addition,
he worked (lit. has worked) in Japan.)
[4] ED/J\RGixl.-~)-P%Lij<,{?hC=/*?h(I1

(This novel has an interesting story line, and moreover, it's easy
to read.)
P*i)lzi bh
[5] ?DttSC293 r ; Q b > L , I;fhCZ/*?h(Il
(That job is not interesting, and what's more, the pay is bad.)
(esore ni)
11. Sore kara can replace sore to without changing meaning, as in [6].

sore wa ;f'h lb int. <s>

(yes,) naturally; (yes,) of course;
the speaker emphatically provides oh, surely
[REL. sore
sore wa 435

*Key Sentence

(I bet you want to win (the game).)


(Aff. Int.)

I ((Yes,) o f course, I do.)
(a) A. &%~)13,'2,g,5Z
~ S ~ Y )
(Are there times when you want to go back to your country?)
B: +;kbih!laf 1,
((Yes,) Of course.)
(b) A: Z O & I Z ~ I : ~ & L G & ~ T L Lia,
(I wonder if they would buy (them) for this price.)
B: FtvamwiiRi%~;ia*/var;~
+;kti~~a'ififk, -
- 3

(They surely would. They could never buy them (anywhere else)
for that price.)
?in? r i C ,
(c) A: % 7 ~ & + S B L . ~ % ; ~ .L' L j~ I? , ~ T
(You would prefer a higher salary, right?)
B: ? Y) -v (h)F i TTS-a,
(Naturally, I would, but. . .)

1. Sorya(a) in Ex.(c) is the contracted form of sore wa.
436 sore wa / sorezore

2. Interjections such as hai, ee and un can be used with sore wa. When
such an interjection is used, sore wa follows it, as in KS and Ex.(a).
3 . Sore wa in the following examples should not be confused with the sore
wa presented here. As a matter of fact, sore in these examples is a
demonstrative pronoun. That is, sore in (1) refers to A's idea and sore
in (2) refers to A's giving a gift.
(1) A: & Z ~ ; f % s & ~ l i c t h ~ f : a > ~ a % .
(Perhaps she doesn't love me any more.)
B: ;fhl&5L0
(That's not true.)
(2) [When giving a gift,]
A: ZkL, 36bth~16DTTif;JP~
(This is nothing special, but . . .)
B: ;fhlbzy!&c,
(That's very kind of you.)
Note that sore wa in these examples cannot be preceded by interjections
such as hai and ee.

sorezore ??h?h adv.

/ each of two or more things / per-
meimei; ono'ono]
sorezore 437

+Key Sentences

1 (Yamada and Suzuki bought fruits and cakes, respectively.)


(Each of the novels I read was interesting (in its own way).)

H, %&+, E%Ii?-;k?;k+~%, -I-G%, %%T%
t*ic'8*.1 C*i 8 L

(Yoshiko, Mihoko, and Nobuo are 15,13, and 9 years old, respectively.)
xrm 2 t: I:,
+,+, b t L bWt
? - ; k ~ ; k-, - z H o ~ Jfir:,
\%L~~ <
(Father gave me and my younger sister a 10,000 yen allowance each.)
t Lr+L <&$ti
+,; k ~ ; kwzi,
4 C;~&D$L&T,% I W ~ P T g
(Tom and I study in the dorm room and at the library, respectively.)
S 7 I i 4 X 2 , - t I i Y r < 2 , t ; k Q ; k & ~f:, ~ f
(Bob and Kazuo went out with Beth and Jemmy, respectively.)
t b liifiw
% L ~ R &&~+;k~;kE5.
(We are brothers, but each of us has different interests.)
+,i5 L L *LLi
(Each of us has our strengths and weaknesses.)
ZO-?.?.~ ~ ~ X ~ ~ $ $ I i ? - ; k ? ; k h ~ ~ d j z i .
(Each of the buildings of this campus has its own individuality.)
43s sorezore

(h) L X 1.7 ; / ~ c i w ~ ; t z t &ts%~&-'.a
?i LIZ,
(At the restaurant we ate what each of us like.)
(i) h~~~~~~-w~;ka)%~=.B~~r:~

(The judges took their respective seats.)

1. Sorezore is used to express an idea of 'each' or 'respectively.'
2. There are two types of construction that involve sorezore. One is the
construction that is a condensed version of two or more co-ordinated
sentences as in KS(A) ahd Exs.(a) - (d). For example, KS (A) is a
reduction from (1) below:
(1) LLIHS t v l ; t % % B R ~ T ,% * S / U C ; ~ % % ~ B E Q ~ : ,
(Yamada bought fruits and Suzuki bought cakes.)
This sentence can be condensed either into KS(A), (2) or (3).
(2) LLIBStvCiRYS1%, %*StvGi$GWB!331:0
(Yamada bought fruits, and Suzuki, cakes.)
(3) LLIBStvb~%CQ,%*StvGiB%3B, ?h?'hE-k,
(Yamada bought fruits, and Suzuki, cake, respectively.)
The other type is a construction that is not a reduction from a coordi-
. -
nated sentence as exemplified by KS(B) and Exs.(e) - (h).
. -
- 3. Sorezore can be used as a pronoun as in Ex.(i). In this case sorezore is
used in a combination of sorezore no N. Two more examples follow:
(4) $ - ? X b~Giih~h(D&~B&3Tb~&~
(Orchestras have their own respective sounds.)
CTLL* ti:?
(5) ~ G ~ = ~ ~ Q ~ ( D Q S ~ T B ~
(Students come to school on their own bicycles.)
4. Sorezore can be used as a kind of noun as shown in (6) and (7) below.
$03 ItL $,A. 11.<
(6) '&~bli?h?'h~~,S'Slf i ~ , S ' S ?i&Tbl&,
(The stars of the universe are each pulling others by gravita-
sorezore / sugu 439

(7) ~ 0 7 4 'JOFGL~L~~~KB~F ~ Y E & L ~ T L . > ~ ~ ~
t h ? h & b 4 ~ & Z k&&a*h,
(In these wines are mixed both French wines and German
wines. Can you tell the respective wines by just smelling them?)

[Related ~x~ression]
Meimei and ono'ono are similar in meaning to sorezore.
SOSO )5~)5b,

[I] %L3W5!,%EC, BR6' {Qh?h I & & / $841 B i a (=Ex.(e))
But they are distinctly different. Meimei and ono'ono can refer only to a
human, but sorezore can refer to anything, as shown in [2].

Furthermore, sorezore can be used in a condensed structure as in KS(A) and
Exs.(a) - (d), but neither meimei nor ono'ono can be used in this structure, as
shown in [3].

sugu bC adv.

at once; soon; right away; im-
physical distance mediately; readily; instantly;
easily; right
[REL. mb sugu]
+Key Sentences

1 (Iwent to sleep as soon as I got home.)


(The bank is right in front of the station.)

$3; i dwL+
avwmxji < 2.f C,
(The departmental head started to work as soon as he arrived at the

ii%i&f: 6.f C, % & L T ? S I , ~ ~
(Please call me as soon as you come to Japan.)
(c) Z&Lf:b>jS\b, - i f ( " % - C T S b ~ ,
(I want to talk with you, so please come right away.)
(d) % I , \ ~ L Y B % Q ~ : ~ -$~k ~ cT ,L 3 b > 3Lf:,
(I bought a cheap TV and it broke right away.)
(e) if 35
d i a j ~ h b ,~ b l ~ ,
(He easily gets angry so I don't like him.)
t'?< &Afh
(f) ?a)&+ DFWb&.f Okbf f:,
(Icould solve that math problem easily.)

(g) %D%b&.f C5z Tt,
(My house is right there.)
@)I BE ~ t ~ x - / f - O(.'$T$,
(The post-office is right next to the supermarket.)

1. Sugu in KS(A) and Exs.(a) - (f) means 'without much temporal dis-
tance,' whereas in KS(B), Exs.(g) and (h) it means 'without much spa-
tial distance.'
2. - taralto sugu is used to mean 'as soon as -' as in KS(A), Exs.(a) and
(b), if the main verb is a volitional verb. Ex.(d) cannot mean 'as soon
as,' because the verb is a non-volitional verb. Another example follows:
(1) ? ~ s t Z % & d k % bC%k;h-h~3%<
, th~iF:,
(I got a stomachache straight after eating that shrimp.)

e elated Expression]
Mo sugu as in [I] is used to mean k t . is going to take place very soon since
a triggering event has already taken place.' Sentences [2] and [3] are unac-
ceptable because in [2] the triggering event (i.e., a telephone call) has not
taken place and in [3] the triggered event (Smith's coming) has already
taken place.
111 x:xs/vcazmLiF:+r;, +,~~c&adc,
(Because we have called Mr. Smith, he will come pretty soon.)
[21 *x :xs/vtam.t;kt%, tcsa dc.
(*If we call Mr. Smith, he will come pretty soon.)
[3] *x:xS/vt&%SLiF:b, & i b C W &
(*Mr. Smith came pretty soon when we called him.)
tabi ni f'U.'CZ conj.

every time; each time; on every
time s.o.1s.t. does s.t., s.t. else occasion; whenever
[REL. itsu (de) mo; to itsu (de)
mo; toki (ni) wa]

+Key Sentences

Vinf. nonpast

2 %+ &< 7:~l"b: RLW: 2 &A,T#V %to

(Each time I go to Japan I come home having learned something new.)


%I* & a, IZO~: B W ~ P Q A . > - C;ka.
I (On every trip my father comes back with souvenirs.)
( i ) Vinf. nonpast 7: Tl" I:

7 : ~ b : (each time S.O. eats s.t.)
B G6T 6 7: VC: (each time S.O. studies (s.t.))
(ii) N a)I:Tl"C:
L 1t.l
%%a) 7: 7% (on every examination occasion)
(iii) VN a) 7
: b:

B S 6 0 7: Vb: (on every occasion of study)
tabi ni 443

mlmzm :a ?2z
(a) &a>~k~.ff:Uc'C=~i~i5~~~k3~~
(Each time I talk with her my heart softens.)
(b) z O % ~ & + ~ ~ V G Z ~ L La.& $ ~ ~ ,
(Each time I read this book I make new findings.)
t i P ~ ? _ , -
< f:VG:!%&O&??%$a6
#iiR~C-n- z k GZ LTb\&,
(I make it a point of visiting my professor's residence every time I go
to Tokyo.)
bkL *r ""
(d) + ~ 0 g i i 4 j f : ~ ~ ~ a u ~ ~ k ~ < ~ 7 ~ b > a ~
(My grandson is growing bigger than before each time I see him.)
(e) E-.;1 ~ I ~-OG$%F&<
L f:~~:~gss;5.t=a~~:ks.ta.
(Each time I listen to Mozart's music I feel my life is enriched.)
kh, C r l D
< ha*,
~ ~ H O ~ ~ U ~ ' ~ ~ & ~ C ; ~ : I ~ ~ O ~ B E ~ T
(On every birthday my husband buys me roses.)
(g) 5 3 ~ i k ~ ~ ~ E l O f : ~ PC~ ~' J ~T k% a& )B~L x~ %
(Our family eats at a restaurant in Ginza every payday.)

1. The meaning of 'each l every time' is emphasized by inserting goto
between tabi and ni.
(1) a. B$+f7<f~SZkt:%Lb~Ct:BYLTR113.f,
(cf. KS(A))
b. Xb2%j'iOf~tT;,"kI:%kF17BB3T 3 T < h a , =_/
(cf. KS(B))
2. The tense of the verb that comes before tabi ni is restricted to nonpast.
3. The particle ni of tabi ni cannot be dropped.

I. Sinf tabi ni, N no tabi ni and VN no tabi ni can be paraphrased by Sinf
444 tabi ni
toki (ni) wa itsu (de) mo, N ni wa itsu (de) mo, and VN suru toki wa itsu
(de) mo respectively, as shown in [I].

The paraphrasability between the two structures does not always mean
that they are synonymous. Since the tense of the verb that comes before
tabi ni is restricted to nonpast, Ex.(e), for example, is ambiguous as to
whether the speaker feels his life is enriched while listening to Mozart
or after he has finished listening to it. The two readings of Ex.(e) corre-
spond to [2a] and [2b] below.
[2] a. +-~rlLba)G%%W<$G:tiba9T9,A&;3'f$K?'h
9 t:X;3'-if 5.

(When I listen to Mozart's music I always feel my life is
b. *-'Y 7% I ~ D @ % % ~ L \ ~ c @ C Z G ; ~ $6:~ ~ ~ ~ T
(When I have listened to Mozart's music I always feel my
life is enriched.)
Such two-way interpretation is also possible with Exs.(a) - (c), but the
interpretation is logically impossible for KS(A) and Ex.(d).
- (+toki (DBJG: 490-94))

11. Sinf tabi ni and N no tabi ni can also be paraphrased by Sinf.nonpast to
itsu (de) mo. The original and the paraphrased versions again mean
practically the same. Notice, however, that unlike Ex.(e), [3] is not
ambiguous like [2] above: it means only [2b].
tada 445

only; just; simply; that's all
idea of "only" (REL.tatta]

+Key Sentences

(His only (one) defect is that he is not punctual (lit. he is slack about

/ (She didn't write me even once (lit. only once).)

I (He has no one else to rely on but his lawyer.)
(I just talked with her over a cup of tea; that's all.)

(i ) 1: I? One + Counter (0N)
I: 7 ~ 2 ~,&
x 0 (the only son)
I:???& (with only one shot)

(ii) I: 7.0 One + Counter 6 Verbal(neg)
I:I?o~'$ b %&I? t 2St?bl (have not taken even one day off)
(iii) I: I? N I? i f (Prt.)
I: IZ~@I?1$ ( 4 ) 2 ZI (remember only words)
I: I!$I? ~f ~ @ K - &i f (solve s.t. only with force)

(iv) I: I? Verbal ( 2b l j ) I? I$ (I?)
1 I: I&& I? ( 2 bl j ) E l f ( I?) (S.O.just read it; that's all.)
I:I?&l(2 bl 5 ) I?Gf (I?) (S.t. is just cheap; that's all.)
- =
- I . {
/I 2b 3 1 I I (S.t. is just quiet; that's all.)
$ 4g

- -
rva( a r i
( I )2b 5 I ( I ) (S.O. is just a college professor ;
that's all.)

(a) @iiiI:I?--AT?7T 3 I:o
(He came over alone.)
(b) $L & F ~ Q ~bbI:%, 81f <
T ;kI:%b;fI:I?0-~$ blt?73\3 I:O
(Not a single person helped us when we were in trouble.)
tada 447

(c) j:jf+filflfOZkT~~B~k:~j:tv~.fd.,
(Did you fire him only for that reason?)
(d) f:~f&mt:~ ktf~f~e~~ba~%ggi;
(There will be no progress if you do only what you are told to do.)
(el * ~ i ~ j z ~ E 3 2f 2i tLz T~ ~ ~ Z I ~ I ~ ~ Z ~
(I am just doing what I was asked to do; that's all.)
(f) &O%i27?7?3 CkbjZkbaj E l f jz0
(He is just serious; he has no other merit.)
(g) % i : X ~ f i & & i 2 ~ ~ a t v ~ wftj
~ j t r '2, k h ~ ~ - c a j : ~ ~ f i t v ~
(It doesn't have any special meaning, but I just wanted to ask.)
SbLh Iig+j
(h) t:r.%wj z 2 ~k$bw:L - c ~ ~ - c ~ L ~ E I w ~ ~ & ~ ficvo
(If you simply swallow what other people say, you won't come up with
any interesting ideas.)

1. Tada is a device to emphasize such ideas as "only," "just," and "simply."
As a matter of fact, a sentence with tada and one without tada mean the
same thing unless tada is followed by One + Counter no Noun (e.g.,
hito-ri no otoko 'a man,' ichi-dai no kuruma 'a car'). For example, the
two sentences in (1) and (2) are semantically equivalent. The addition of
tada however, makes the (a) sentences more emphatic.

When tada is followed by One + Counter no Noun, the meaning
changes, as in [3].
(3) a. %EOkt~-7013r;,~i2@Bw'1G:~L-~Ifkb~~ Z 2 Ifo
(His only (one) defect is that he is not punctual.)
448 tada

2. Tada can be used in a variety of sentence patterns. Those presented in
KS and in Formation are not exhaustive. (See Exs.(g) and (h).)

[Related ~xpressiod
Tatta can be used instead of tada when One + Counter immediately follows,
as in KS(A) and Ex.(a).

However, tatta cannot replace tada in its other uses, as in [2].

On the other hand, tada cannot be used to modify a number beyond one or
to mo'dify an adverb, as in [3] and [4].

[4] Ya2i;t. { k ~ f ~ / * 4 !~
9IE z i 2l@ 1 3 T - i f O
(John has just leftkome back (lit. leftlcome back just now).)
tada no 449

usual; ordinary; plain, com-
mon; rank-and-file
[REL. futsii no; ni suginai]

+Key Sentence

I (I'm only an ordinary employee, so I'm not aware of that.)

I: ED%& (an ordinary teacher)

d . F Hb ItkliL
fzf?0rn%f?k,F,9-cb>f:b9 f l $ % f ? ~ f : ~
(I thought it was an ordinary cold, but it was pneumonia.)
& 0 ~ i i f : f ? D $ @ T t i h b l d : 5 T f h,
(He doesn't appear to be an ordinary scholar, does he?)

but to my surprise there were big shots attending.)
A: % % & i % @ b + % f:? 5 T T h o
(I heard that your father was a great man.)
B: ~ ; i 2 ,m e & f:mkyan-wf:o
T%V< SriL

(No, not at all. He was an ordinary college professor.)
450 tada no / tashikani ga -
t r i LL
(e) f:fa)Z 3Pt d:,
(I'm just kidding, you know.)

Tada no N is used when the speaker makes nothing out of s.t. I s.0. There-
fore, it can be used as a humble expression as in KS and Ex.(d).

Tada no N is similar in meaning to futsij no N which means 'ordinary N.'
The latter does not carry the former's emotive overtone of 'making nothing
out of s.t. 1s.o.'; it is, rather a neutral term to mean 'not special,' or 'stan-
dard.' So when the emotive overtone is strong (including a case of humble
expression) tada no can hardly be replaced by futsO no, as shown below.
[I] a. 5 ~ 1 2{ t z t : / ? i & ~ ~ w L R T - F ~ ' ~.t-bazkt;faba*
/Lo (=KS)

tashikani - ga @M'C;--fif stz

- -
indeed but; certainly but;
idea "indeed - but" - -
truly but; it is true that but;
I admit that but; definitely -
[REL. koto wa -
tashikani ga 45 1

+Key Sentence

Topic Commentl Comment2


(This car is certainly attractive, but the price is too high.)

TO+-? > SI
- D z 2 i ~ ~ w $ j w w: v~. . 9, r : e , ~ , ~ & + m b ~ o
(I certainly heard about the party, but I don't remember when it is
going to be.)
B W ~ K CL A
~S, %-
~2 i k + ; h w 9 ~ : ,
(It's true that I promised (to do it), but I didn't say that I would do it
right now.)
&BWB--EP g g <~a
i ? b w d b ~ LL r 3 IiLt 3
w , ;iPt~ii~a$h'a~,rz~~
(He definitely makes a bad first impression, but actually he is a nice
Z D $ $ @ C A B ~ G : W L + ~~E~~: , i & ~ ~ a - c w a b ~ ,
(Iadmit that this is a good school, but it's not suitable for me.)
a$jtr'b~#-h'$$d'31:d, TX,~~G:E~Z~G~GI,~IZ
(I admit that it was my fault (lit. I was bad.), but you shouldn't be that

- (It it true that many Japanese go abroad now. There are also many who
speak other languages (lit. foreign languages) well. However, there are
still few who can be called "true internationalists.")

Tashikani - ga is usually used when the speaker admits that something is
certain or true but wants to say something in opposition to what is admitted.
452 tashikani - ga / ta tokoro de
[Related ~ x ~ r e s s i o n ]
- -
- koto wa ga can replace tashikani ga, as seen in [I]; however, the sen-
tence with tashikani - ga sounds more subjective.

ta tokoro de 7: 2 L 3 T conj.

even if an action or a state were even if

+Key Sentence

I (No matter how low we estimate the construction expense it will go I
I beyond 500 million yen.) I
Vinf.past 2 Z 6T
& h E 2 2 6 T (even if S.O. read s.t.)
&&7?tZST (evenif s.o.dranks.t.)
ta tokoro de 453

(a) 20'g%&IW7?2~6~, k%7Ff ~%6htf~cG-b1,
(Even if you took this medicine, it would not be the case that your cold
would be cured right away.)
1: 1% Y*~SW (LLV
(b) Z O % % % A ~ Z? 6~ T , € l $ O @ j % ~ ~ @ t k & ~ b G - b 1 7-j. 6
(Even if you read this book, you wouldn't understand the entire econ-
omy of Japan.)
V,9 Le5 * L b,% ?
(c) - % b 9 ~ : - b ~ b b ~ % ~ ~ 7 : k Z 5&;s:
~ , 9 % k t k G - b a ~ L d rj o
(Even if you exercise once a week, it won't be very effective.)

(d) !f/v7'hC:%&= 7: k Z 6 T , 2O&!dTtk@fl&k~ZIt$.q;t)%b1,
(No matter how much I worked, it would be impossible to get an A in
this course.)

(e) &+G:%&~F&<~-97:k Z ~ T ,P Z ~ - & ~ ~ I ~ Z I t&c T~ & 1~
(Even if the weather gets better on the holiday, there is no particular
place to go.)
- If*
(f) E & ~ S W ~ : ~ Z S T , B * - & < ? $ & ~ L . ~ T ,?&:~a1;G-~a,
(Even if I were able to speak Japanese, it wouldn't amount to anything,

because I cannot afford to go to Japan.)
b 5 C r i I*
(g) L ~ L H ~ & L & Q ~ $~ $Z$ ~< ~T &, T L L ~ ,
(Even if we discussed it more, it would probably be futile.)
$LCw 8
(h) B07Efl&t97:k 2 6 T , $$b:t$.%%bkM~\bG-ba,
(Even if a problem arises, it will not cause you any trouble.)

1. The conjunction tokoro de is used with Vinf.past. The past form is used
here not as the past tense marker but as the counterfactual marker. So in
every case what is expressed in the tokoro de clause has not taken place
yet. What the conjunction really means is: 'even if one supposes an
action or a state in the clause has already taken place.'
2. The main clause usually takes an explicit negative marker nai, but there
454 ta tokoro de
are cases like KS and Ex.(g) in which the main clauses express some
thing undesirable.

elated Expression]
Vinf .past tokoro de can always be replaced by Vte mo.

However, there is a crucial difference between Vinf . past tokoro da and Vte
rno. The former has a clear counterfactual meaning, but the latter does not
have a clear counterfactual meaning.
There are a lot of cases where Vte rno cannot be replaced by Vinf . past
tokoro de owing to the crucial difference. Notice that in [2] below Vte mo
clearly expresses not something counterfactual but something factual.
LwCL b t L QL ?%*iW
[2] a. 2ACS.NNE?3& I L T S / * L f ~ t L 3 T f:C%Z%FkbQ
(My husband won't quit smoking no matter how many times I
advise him.)

Another crucial difference is that the main clause for Vinf - past tokoro de
has to be negative either explicitly or implicitly; whereas the main clause for
te mo can be affirmative. (See Note 2.)
t7 S l . 3
[31 a. $$XH-H% I B % & < T & / ? ? B % & f i 3 7 f c t L 3$%Ck
(I can graduate even if I don't take this course.)
ta tokoro de / te 455
c. %dr-2 {i5EA.Tif /*%A.EL:L?iTl ~ ~ I ; G - L G F . ~ ' ? ~ - F C
(Even if you read a little you can tell that it is a boring book.)
(+te mo (DBJG: 468-70))

and; since; having done s.t.
which s.t. takes place (REL. te kara]

+Key Sentence

(How long have you been here / How many years is it since you came

Vte N (duration)


bt: 0
(it has been two years since S.O. came)

(The couple got married and two years later they got divorced.)
Z L *

(It has been a long time since I quit the company.)
Lf di.3'
(c) CDE%33j;k-C$54DJ$C:G-&7'?55 $,
(I wonder how many years have already passed since I last visited this
456 te / te hajimete

lti;5 ItC
(d) Z ~ ) M ~ T ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ T Z ; L13 a*,
L T ~ I + G = . ~
(It's been four years since I began to work at this company.)
(el a E-

(It's my first week in this town.)

1. The te form in question is followed by a duration.
(+-te (DBJG: 464-67))

2. The antonym for Vte + N(duration) is Vinf.nonpast + N(duration) mae
ni as in (1) below.
(1) ~ A ~ ~ ~ ~ T Q =
LIL,~ ~ c ~ B ~ &
(The couple met by arrangement two years before they got mar-

All the te forms in KS and Exs. can be replaced by te kara. The only differ-
ence is that te kara focuses on the point in time at which s.t. takes place;
whereas te focuses on the duration of time following te.
(ekaraZ(DBJG: 177-78))

te hajimete T#l@T ph,:

not until; only after; for the
that s.0. does s.t. or s.t. happens .first time
only after s.t. else happens or s.t. 1
te hajirnete 457

+Key Sentence

1 (It was not until I came to America that I saw a tornado.) I

V t e 8Jtb-C
%/vTa bT (only after you read)

L:ltL -2b+= K UAtA +Ad* 6.1;
~ ~ a - c $ ~ o o o * 9 - c ? i t : ,
(It was not until I lived in Japan that I started to understand how Japa-
nese people thihk.)
KI%+ <AS;? dV:<Z i B HbLh L
El$&%% 5'&LT8JtbTfiHB%YSEiBS %5n31:0
(Ididn't realize how interesting learning a foreign language was until I
studied Japanese.)
g;icik$~L - c ~ T ~3 ~ O-TF ~zck-n'Zf~1,
~ ~

(It is often not until you write down your idea that it becomes clear.)
(It is only after you become ill that you realize the value of health.)
& a h T a b T S Lke&<f:,
(I ate sashimi for the first time in my life.)

Umarete hajirnete in Ex.(e) is an idiomatic phrase which means 'for the first
time in one's life.' Note that it does not mean 'only after one was born' or
'not until one was born.' This phrase also appears in the structure in (1)
458 te hajimete / ten (de)
(1) [Before, while, or just after eating sashimi]
3 LJ+(%?&460)Ckik%h-ic#J@-ic-C-.f.
(This is the first time I've had sashimi.)

t e n (de) &(TI n.

point; respect; regard; aspect;
"a point of argument; a point of way; in terms of; -wise; in that;
as far as is concerned
[REL. -men]
+Key Sentences


Dictionary in terms of ease of use.)
ten (de) 459

Noun Adj (i1ria) stem

3% (,, jg,, P k b > i ,6 TI& +a)71\"-
I (In terms of commuting convenience, the present apartment is the best.) /

(This table is valuable in that it is handmade.)
~ - - - - - - - - - -

(i ) {DemonstrativeI Quantifier) ,6(T)
Z a),6T (in this regard)

-, za),6T (on a couple of points)
(ii) {N I Adj(i 1na)stem 3 } a),6(T)
&@D,~T (in terms of price)
3 3 a),6T (in terms of size)
%& 3 D,&T (in terms of quietness)
(iii) N a) Adj(i 1na)stem 3 t bl5,6(T)
So>d: 3 k b > 5,6T (in terms of brightness)
d. r L*? A
Ah& $k3 Ir b > j,6T (in terms of body flexibility)
(iv) Sinf Ir b l 5.6(T)
T 2 q b > b > Ir b > 5 ,6T (in that the performance is good)
i < f W 4WC
f&md&"h-& dr b &h-CbG:,.
(Our product is superior to similar foreign products in every way.)
f <1 z < f <Qbr *.r?lfL
f fJa,6Tkt =l a5%k75'--%7?.5 5
(With regard to scholarship, this student is probably the best.)
I E ~ . ~ . . ~ P o , ~ T ~ I ~ ~v~&G=.X~
=.o~D% ~ 1 . 1

(In terms of livability I like this city better than the one where I lived
before (this one).)
t Z ~ L rw+( I- &t/u +7r Q ~ b w t ,
B * O ~ $ C & ~ R - Td:L5.
WADEAS 2b l i ,GT:-~&
(In terms of punctuality the railway systems in Japan are probably the
best in the world.)
t v r w 17
4 ~ b ft&$$$??$&-2~5
i a&&g$@~dr (I &$~&a 2%
(Dolphins can be said to be superior to other aquatic animals in that
they speak (language).)
(She and I share the same taste in that both of us like classical music.)
C f2l.r Pa r Lq623 TSKL
A < x&rtwwmm &&a 2blj,6~;i:t E1~3%E7'?~
(Mr. Smith is the right person for president in that he can anticipate the
trends of the times.)

Ten can be followed by particles other than de, as in (1).

(1) a. ~EXOT5 ba5 ,wXC:&~~L~
(It is that aspect which people dislike about her.)
K l5L -
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ f s ~ ~ d r ~ f f i ~
(I value (lit. I'd like to value) the fact (lit. the point) that he is
very good at Japanese.)
ten (de) / te wa 461

c. mza)gg~ae%%e&%
am attracted by this product in that it is future-oriented.)

d. + a > a ~ ~ ~ \ - ( r BEe4mo
(I was asked questions on that point by some people.)
[Related Expression]
The suffix -men and the noun ten express a similar idea. As their original
meanings (i.e., men 'face, side'; ten 'point') suggest, however, -men reflects
a more general, broader viewpoint than ten does, as in [I] and [2].
s c*2*/,
[I] a. w 02Xi;t:IB R EI / *WRDAI C P J ~6,~ W
(That company has problems in terms of technology.)
b. %~i;t:4?a)i.dl3\~:8~.3-c {ibi@(DA/ *ibi&EIl ~&hli%fb~>
9 kc,

(In that business deal we couldn't agree in terms of the price.)

[2] a. <
z a)'$& {M%H/ *BP(DAl 9% RlrHiSk L k 0
(This car was highly regarded in terms of performance.)
b. Za)$ii%k&WiEkLTb~& {A / *HI <RiEiSkLf&
(This car was highly regarded in terms of its excellent per-
formance (lit. the point that the performance is excellent).)

te wa Tlt conj.

if; when; because
tion 1state as a topic about which a
+Key Sentences

1 (If you study that hard, you will ruin your health.)

1 (We cannot go out in this cold weather (lit. when it is this cold).)

1 (It's too bad that you hate your work that much.)

Vte bk
&dT bb (when I if one eats; to eat)
(ii) Adj(i l na)te Ck
% 3 < Tbk (when I if s.t. I s.0. is big)
%%Tl;f: (when / if s.t. is inconvenient)
(iii) N Tdb
%%,~bk(@&Qbb) (if s.0. is ill (I can't ask him to do s.t.))
- &D y& T i i &1=
h 6 h b\)

L lWh.
?Lts t = % / v T b m , %,%b=%%L3%.lo
(that teacher (would be out of the

(If you are fooling around like that, you will fail the examination.)
;tjn%'j5'&-c ia3bc:as.
(If he comes he will get in our way.)
z/vact'&;trl~h-cia, ~ Z ~ = ~ 5 io ~ T L L
(If I'm forced to work like this, I will end up by becoming ill.)
Z Lh1=gi3E$&
<Tii, 8%SLd."fi;i1:k!b:&f ;trlLb>,
(Because the room is messy like this, I feel ashamed when I have a
Xd."@&K$&$jTGi, r c i ~ ~ ~ b 1 ~ f h b ~ ~
(If everybody is individualistic, a country cannot get along well.)
z/vac::jF'~<-cia, kji%k&&a~,
(When one is this busy, one cannot read even the newspaper.)
h/vtsZE;3f7- I - D B F T ~ ~f $, i i X k < t s 9 - w a m 5.
(If a woman like her is his date, he must feel intimidated.)

1. The conjunction te wa is used to connect an action or state presented as
a topic and a negative comment. The information of the te wa clause is
shared information and often includes the demonstrative adjective ko-, b
so-, a-, as shown in KS, Exs.(a) - (d), (f) and (g).

2. te wa is etymologically V t e + wa (topic marker), but it is used like a
3. Vte wa ikenai, a phrase which indicates prohibition, is a special case of
the te wa construction. -
(+ wa ikenai (DBJG: 528))
to t: prt.

a particle which makes an adver-
bial clause, with a verb of saying /
thinking 1 understood after it
(thinking / saying) that -; be-
cause; like; in such a way

+Key Sentences

I (Yukio is very happy that he can buy a house next year.) I

1 (Wondering if the museum is open I called them.)

(With the intention of playing tennis (lit. Thinking that I will play ten-
nis) I went out, but on my way it started to rain.)
! Tiib?z$&~d:j~
%&LTD?zfl, 5353K$59T3?:0
(I felt at ease, thinking that my father still looked healthy, but suddenly
he began to grow weak.)

Vb,:< c' 03 ?A< t;L c'
i~raril.i%g& t , 1bo-c~ <.
(Foreign language proficiency develops from words to sentences, from
1 sentences to paragraphs, and then from paragraphs to complex paragraphs.) I
I6 *,
( i ) {V/Adj(i/na)}inf t ( E g T / 8 9 T ) Vofpsychology
& & b2 (,KcJ T / S9 T) 5 kLLfl9 T b ~ b (LO. is happy thinking
1 saying that s h e can read it)
fib Lh Ah:
Q 2( 9 T / 8 T) L Tb 6 (s.0. is happy thinking I
saying that s.t. is interesting)

I saying that s.t. is convenient)

(ii) S (internal monologue) t (,E9 T)
b 5 4 5 3 L.> IS, %&
97 : (thinking that s.0. would not see s.0.
else, he severed the relationship)
8 % ~b f i b : & ~ 5 73.2 2, ffiil.V?: (wondering if I should go see
a movie I left home)
(iii) Vvol k ( E 9 T / LT)
&4d: j t (B9 T / LT) (thinking that s h e would eat it)
466 to

(iv) { V I Adj(i / na)} inf (conjectural) 2 (1
9T )

&aba f 2 6 5 2 (E T ) 9 (thinking that s h e might not come)
7 2 I ; a w i t ~ k ~ a v( t, R
: ~T)
(thinking that s.t. might be boring)
%&,f.65 2 (,K?= T ) (thinking that s.0. might be healthy)

(v) N P r t N , . . .N P r t N ( + L T ) N P r t N t : ( b a i I l i / % l b:)V
92: *&ti
K dW
I ~ I B k,t k - ~ g t : ( ~ lI iL i / E L I I:), iii&~&a
(s.0. divides the rooms in such a way that men are placed upstairs and
women in the first floor)

tbt:;'b tra hww +tr
Z ~ ~ ~ E ~ ~ F A B ~ T ~ ~ ~ : % P~ &LA$T ~L ~
~ ~
T TP :~~ L: ,
(My friend looked sad, saying that a cat, which she kept for a long
time, had died.)
@kt$/vc=.fb9f:$it ~ k L a b ~ t : ~ & ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ a .
(He is worried that he may have cancer.)
Oa( K L (9
5 ~ 1 Y & i iti i 6 t; 9 t:T T B 1: 2, ,E~ $ f:,9
(That student felt chagrined that he could almost get 100 points.)
@ % k % i C I i t ~ k L $ f % & ~ > t :g, ~ f i 9 f : C I - F ~ ~
(Thinking that this would be the last time to see her, I felt lonely.)
H t tt tr L
%aS$Lf;a 2 , %Kffi-Cdt.f:P, m T 9 , 72$7f:,
(Wondering what the strange noise was, I went outside, but it was
%ti%$i&b&itra~~t:, 39~~z~:ft9f:o
(I came straight home, thinking that I would not drink tonight.)
bL*V h/rJ/r It/ulhb> Ell L <
i t:, % ~ G : %LBT & \ t:~ Z G T T ,
(Thinking that I should complete the paper before the end of the year,
I am right now doing my very best.)
@t:&B~&i 2+bT$fCI1:, E$wIZ t:t f s l 7 B L - c , k;+L?i-
(I came here intending to thank him, but I just talked about something
else, and forgot to thank him.)

(i) $ L i $ ~ ~ : b l b \ j ? 6 5 t , ~hit#g~
~ ~ b 1 a . f ~
(I thought it would make a small improvent to my body, so I am taking
walks these days.)

(j) # B i e s t ~ ~ : o ) ~ = i : % r ; ; k ~ $ h L ~ L Q L \V~ <, V < LT~~T:,
(I forgot my homework so I feared that I might be scolded by my
o h P o $ b i Ct ,* 3 c Oia?i;n.eda, fit% $ s X a , $htAjq$c,T
-8, & i i + I f l $ b I B a T k , P O @ ~ G ~ C P ~ C $ $ ~ E G ~
(In Japan the four seasons are of approximately equal length, in such a
way that spring is from March through May, summer from June
through August, autumn from September through November, and win-
ter from December through February.)
b L < L l h
(1) ma@ii+a k,~ b t ) ~ ~&i t,$ ~ t , % + m 1 ~ 9 - - ; . 7 ~ & ag ~w.
(His eating pattern is fmed so that he has a Japanese style dish for

breakfast, noodles for lunch, and a western style dish for dinner.)
L r $23 *&IT9 Lo-Gr-5 Sf
, x 9 r 7 , ~ ~ ~ ; t . ; ) ~%1:s&
(m) + t ~ i t ~ ~ t m ; . y~E; i .i % / ~ t ,
(The president is busy making business trips, to London last month, to
Moscow this month, to Seoul next month, and so on.) -
- i


1. For all the sentences given in KS and Exs, the verbs of saying, think-
ing, feeling or doing are ellipted, except KS(E) and Exs.(k) - (m) in
which the entire iu y6ni / iu fU ni is deleted.
KS(A) type, i.e., Exs.(a) - (c), KS(B) type, i.e., Exs.(d) - (f), KS(C)
type, i.e., Exs.(g), (h), and KS(D) type, i.e., Exs.(i) and (j),usually take.
omoffe. They can take iffe, if the to-clause can be interpreted as a quote,
as in KS(A) and Ex.(a). Notice that Ex.(a) may take omoffe, but the
meaning is not the same as the original ellipted one. It means 'My
friend looked sad, wrongly assuming that a cat which she kept for a
long time died.' For that matter, one of the interpretations of KS(A) is
'Yukio is very happy assuming wrongly that he can buy a house next
year.' KS(C) type, i.e., Exs.(g) and (h), usually take omoffe and shite.
KS@) type, i.e., E x s . 0 - (m), take iu {ydni 1 fii ni}.
(ct> to3 (DBJG: 478-80))
2. In KS(A) type, the only type which allows ellipsis of iffe the main verb
is usually a psychological verb such as yorokobu 'rejoice' of KS(A),
kanashigam 'deplore' of Ex.(a), shinpaisom 'worry' of Ex.@), and
kuyashigam 'feel chagrined' of Ex.(c). Another notable thing about this
type is that the whole sentence refers not to the speaker's but to a third
person's psychological state.
(2) a. k;
*#Ci%Pr$G&Zjjr.F Ei&
S / v T b > & (cf. KS(A))
= (I'm very happy that I can buy a house next year.)
b. *&kfb>Bn?@J9Tb1l:B;tr'EATL3
77: 2 , %L$9l:,
(cf. Ex.(a))
(I was sad that the cat I kept for a long time died.)
The acceptable versions of (2a) and (2b) are (3a) and (3b), respectively.
3. The omotte-ellipsis is possible when the preceding verb expresses the
speaker's volition with Vvol as in KS(C), Exs.(g) and (h) or his 1 her
conjecture as in KS(D), Exs.(i) and (j). However, if the preceding verb
does not express either volition or conjecture by means of dare (as
in Ex.(i)), kamoshirenai (as in Ex.(j)) and ydda (as in KS(D)), the
omotte-ellipsis does not usually occur.

(4) a.
:1 lmL--
B ~ ~ ~ & Q B3 &
*L 3 ~ 3
~ tT& a%> B E 3 O b > 2~ . 7 /*@I,
7 2%
(Thinking that it would be interesting to study Japanese in
Japan, last summer I studied Japanese in Japan.)
a! B$%Q8$T%3$-if&oBE3Obatf3it { l 7 7/ @ I ,
w a > z a $ ~ s m e % ~LT:
(Thinking that it might be interesting to study Japanese in
Japan, last summer I studied Japanese in Japan.)
fi h 3 he f d.bWbl rL i L r i
(5) a. ft&~ti&k&C:%%k'r'iTBLf:b>l:
~ : 3 t 3 %0 T L {,53.~7/*01, bb:
i&DE< oh'i4€B~C:ffi&lf f i ,
(Taro suddenly went to a travel agent near his house, want-
ing to make a trip abroad during the winter break.)
a'. k&Bii&%&b:%%%f'iTBLk32 ( ! 3 7 7 / * 0 1 , LC=
%a>% < a>Kfil€BEb:ffi;fr>lf 7'2,
(Taro suddenly went to a travel agent near his house, wish-
ing to make a trip abroad during the winter break.)
4. The shite-ellipsis out of Vvol to shite is possible only when the Vvol to
shite clause appears in a larger construction, as in KS(C), Exs.(g) and
(h). For example, in (6a) below, no action is described, so the shite-
ellipsis is impossible, whereas in (6a') an action is explicitly mentioned,
so the ellipsis is possible.

(6) a. $&??&3 5 2 ( L 7 /*@I, & $ ? C a b a ~ 2 K&'~~9ba7':~
(When I tried to pay, I realized that I didn't have my purse.)
470 20

a'. %&??#L%5k { L 7 / @ I , $!TY bKg%%~h.E?~
W*ffijtr.'tsblZ2 b:%7F9b~jzo
(I tried to pay and put my hand into my pocket, but I real-
ized that I didn't have my purse.)
5. The iu {yo I M } ni-ellipsis is possible when N Prt + N, . . . N Prt + N
(soshite) N(Prt) precedes to iu { y 6 / f U } ni, as in KS(E) and Exs.
(k) - (m). Otherwise the ellipsis is impossible unless the main verb is a
verb of saying or thinking.
(7) a. I k i /&I KEgT%baT
(Please tell the president that there were no particular prob-
lems with it.)
-- +kj?ZC:lLf@Bi&2d~~
boi+frl v3 LrW, hi L
b. 2 0 % Zi&.?O+fGBJ!%$B
LTbl6 t:L\3 { k j / &I tz
C $ ~ RC;;k3-t?&7PO
(Can't we regard this story as mocking contemporary soci-
-+ ZO~Zi&+O+fG%J!%~U
LTbl6 ti&%LC;fL3-t?&
7 P O

(eto iu fii ni)
*'*L T ?3
a. pi21 iRBffijtr.'asabltc\i /BI K$YL < 6%
h F 9 72,
(He stood up abruptly in a way that showed he could no
longer stand it.)
B 53?187Fffl%ablt:, Rk L < %%_tffijtr.'~I:,
b. %JiliY5LL 5 Btsb1t~15I k i /&I Kg%&gfzo
(He shook his head in such a fashion as to suggest that
there was no way out.)
4 *4Jil&PiLL 5 B a b a t : , E??E-?zo
to d6ji ni 2 FM$CZ cornp. prt. / conj.

at the same time (as); at the
the idea that s.0. does s.t. or s.t. time; when; as; while; as well
takes place at the same time as an- as -
other action or event, or that s.0. or [REL. to torno ni; totan (ni)]
s.t. is in two states simultaneously

+Key Sentences

C b W < .t3 5 s i

(He got a job at a bank at the time of (lit. at the same time as) his grad-
uation from college.)

Vinf - nonpast


(The telephone rang (lit. at the same time) as I entered the room.)
g&'tH@b: (at the same time as s.o.3 arrival)

(ii) Vinf .nonpast k H@:b
$ ( t R@t: (at the same time as s.0. arrives)
(iii) {Adj(na)stem1N] Tdi 2 Fl@:t {Adj(na)stem1N] T $ di 21,
-1L 1 psb,T$
E m d i a t F ~ R c : ~ wh~a -OF ~
(S.t. is economical as well as convenient.)
77 ~ ~ - I L G ~ ~ $ T ~ ~ ~ ~ @ ~ : &
(S.O. is a baseball player as well as a football player.)

mimm il'rnCt IflLL
(a) % ~ k i 2 %H@b:&&9&&tc0
(She quit her company at the time of (lit. at the same time as) her mar-
(b) ~ ~ ~ W ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c r ) ~ t ~ p ~ ; t z . j
(We heard the shot and saw one of the policemen fall. (lit. One of the
policemen fell at the same time as the sound of a gun.))
hfi5 fiL-r %< Lwi SLlZi b.< L l i 17f
(c) %Lba$;3Dq 8 kH@t:*&7la 8 h S t L T ( 2 26 a k a o
(You mustn't forget grammar review as well as new vocabulary study.)
(d) FG~IL-X
t mt: E I
l:l%Lr -1LSi3
WB %~& ~ ,
(I started my Japanese study when (lit. at the same time as) Ruth did.)
(el %&FL%QTFTP%<
(The train came to a halt and as the doors opened the passengers rushed
into the train (lit. the passengers rushed into the train at the same time
as the doors opened).)
L1*W -L:3
(f) %+w&%taat R E ! + ~ : + ~ ~ E L I Z ,
(The new president changed the company's name when (lit. at the same
time as) he assumed the presidency.)
drv: < : ILltba :i t i fiL L w 3
(g) f i E l ~ B ~ ~ & 3 - & 8 *&B&hh-if&
bi, t R@KfcB0UBiFil Fi! & L
h Cf ;kC%@ 1;8 w 0
(When you study a foreign language, while you learn (lit. understand)
grammar, you must also practice sentence patterns orally.)
+it, hL<L
(h) Z 0 % Lb+mwi&T&& tR@d&$bW0
(This new equipment is safe and, at the same time, its performance is
L r ? + t - d.
(i) ~ & { b i & $ T d j b tR@k:/l\ % S T & $9 k ,
(Mori Ogai was a novelist as well as a doctor.)

1. Na-adjectives and nouns with to d6ji ni (e.g., KS(C), Ex.(h)) usually
appear in written language or formal speech.
2. I-adjectives are usually not used with to d6ji ni, as in (1).
hb: *b
(1) Z0%$ii IJ!%T&~/ *%*t\l 2 W E F E $ W P E b ~ ,
(This equipment is dangerous and, at the same time, its per-
formance is bad.)

To torno ni can replace to d6ji ni when a noun immediately precedes to dcii
ni, as in [I].

To tomo ni can also replace to d6ji ni when {Adj(na)stem / N) de am pre-
cedes to d6ji ni, as in [2].

When a verb precedes to d6ji ni, to tomo ni can replace to d6ji ni only if the
474 to doji ni / to itte rno

two actions or events are not momentary actions or events. Thus, to torno ni
is acceptable in [3] but not acceptable in [4].

Note that if a noun precedes to d6ji ni, to torno ni can replace to d6ji ni even
if the two actions or events are momentary, as in [I]. Compare [I] to [5]
where verbs precede to d6ji ni.
[5] a. %$%-if6t
@iikf {ARC: /*#[:I WTI:E% L I Z ,
(cf. KS(A))
(He got a job at a bank when (lit. at the same time as) he grad-
uated from college.)
b. % & F % a t IHRCZ / *#Kl %ED-A7F@J1BlkLIc0 (cf. EX.@))
(We heard the shot and saw one of the policemen fall. (lit. One
of the policemen fell at the same time as the sound of a gun.))
Note also that to torno ni is usually used in written language.
(6to tomo ni)

toittemo &a976 phr.

although -say / said that -;
statement in the preceding dis- -
even though say / said that -
course which might be misleading
to itte mo 475
4Key Sentences
r sentence,
I1 Sentencez

be^ fwa(aw
% ~ u t + % m > a . t ,3% 2 5 . t $so

(I have a child. Well, although I said, "child," he is already a college
student (lit..he is already a college student, though).)


/ (You are busy every day, aren't you?)

Adj .inf
Lei 3 3
b>k, ftL~\ & iH~bi&/v~b~a.t~b.
I (No, although people may say that I'm busy, I do not work on week- 1
I ends, so . . .) I
(i) N kS7Tb
%& 2 S7 T & (although (I) say, "teacher")

(ii) {V I Adj(i) I Adj(na) I N+Cop.}inf 2 S 7 T &
{ < / 7 7 1 27 T& ) that s.0. {will go 1
(although (Isay
{ b / 7 7 I 2 7 T& (although (I) say that it is 1was
476 to itte mO

{ k (although(I)saythatitis/was
j / @&7?9 ?:I k S- T & (although (I) say that s.0. is / was

PLfF-3 -4 ItJ
(a) & i387?o Ljt)lL, 38 k B 9 T & Z02ikt37?%b~0
(It's already March. But even though I say, "March," it is still cold
around here.)
:tail frx
(b) xl&Lkb&3l?$3%b1~-ifk~ & 6 6 t Y , 5 b > k B 3 T & h f ( t T - $
(Prof. Yarnazaki is still young. Of course, even though I said, "young,"
he is in his fifties (lit. he is in his fifties, though).)

(c) &37$!,9$3
~L k 0 k S = T & I $ - l- GtYT-iffF0
(I've found a job. Well, although I said, "job," it is a part-time job (lit.
it is a part-time job, though).)
6L;< E
(d) A: % ~ B ~ % G ~ Y LTi L ?
(You know Korean, right?)
1: hLx.4. S i 3
B: b.9, & q T b a & k g 3 T & I ~ $&LI:I?~~
@ T$$L;%L?zz
(No, even though people say that I know it, my knowledge is
limited because I studied it only two years.)

heard that Mr. Tsujimura will help us.)
); 2L lf *L
T&, ~(ZqT<fihakg~T&*b~@b~ a I ,% B P L L ~ ~
(But, even though he says that he will help us, it will probably be
for a couple of hours at most.)
(That boy is strong, you know.)
LIP, $&bat: f 4T-5k.
Sq T &1~7j.;3r4\
toitterno 477

(Well, even though you say he is strong, he is only an elementary
school kid.)

1. X in X to itte rno can be dropped, as in Ex.(c), when the preceding sen-
tence containing X is uttered by the same speaker and to itte rno imrne-
diately follows thepreceding sentence- If to itte rno does not immedi-
ately follow the preceding sentence, X cannot be dropped, as in (1).

2. X to itte rno can be used without a preceding discourse containing X, as
in (2).
(2) %e2 9 f z t ~ 7 ~ ~ ~ ~ v i i % ~ L~T$I $&r- ?c ~o N ? ~
(Although (people may say that) Bill has gotten old, (he is still
strong because) he used to be a professional athlete. I won't be
able to beat him.)
In this instance, people may or may not actually be saying that Bill has
gotten old, but by using to itte mo the speaker can avoid making a direct
statement like that in (3).
$e tr -c b F ~ ~ Z Y U B F R ' , -
(Although Bill has gotten old, (he is still strong because) he -T
used to be a professional athlete.)
in such a way that; in such a
ner or a way in which S.O. does s.t. fashion to suggest I show (etc.)
that; as if to say I show (etc.)
(REL. to iu y6ni]

+ ~ Sentences
e ~

1 (He shook his head as if to say that there was no way out.)

(Ihave been informed that Mr. Kawarnura cannot come. (lit. I have
been informed in such a way that I understand that Mr. Kawarnura can-
not come.))

(Each of them ordered the (different) things they liked-Hiroshi, eel,
Tomoko, tempura, and so on.)
to iu fi7 ni 479

( i ) Sinf kb\jEkC:
:L htf 6.6.
:2 b>iEkC:4Q+Qkk (So. held his head in such a fashion as
to suggest that he didn't know what to do.)
(ii) X C i A, Y C i B 2 b~ &K 7
I f 3 l 5 t* 9. L 3 V
angaiav7/, A E ~ B ~ ; ~ : T Y j ~X~ ~
c g~+>i a & ' $ ~ y x Y - n f b j
a, (Yoshiko has a lesson every day-piano on Monday, dance on
Tuesday, and so on.)

j g t i b i &~&F&&cL> 2 L>j H C Z ~ AL: 1 d <3
f i ~ ~ ~
(He stood up in a violent manner showing that he could no longer bear
gzii b 5 Z f L U k M 3 :7 < 8 b l 2 b > j)i&1?#+~?$?$$-3
(She covered her ears as if to say that she didn't want to listen to it any
L* $ A ? t< &/.fib>
?k EKii, @ l : ~ ~ 7 ~ i i 8 d . - 3 ? : 2 b ~ i ) i & 1 = ~ - 3 7 ~ b ~ 7 ~ ~ b > ,
(Please tell the president that (lit. tell it to the president in such a way
to convey that) there were no particular problems with it.)
6o)@&oIig yev h? L
,a, r t e ~ ~ k t l 2b>i)i&1=~&&
u, ~ ~ m a ~;f~3*~,i51~
(Can't we think that (lit. think in such a way that) this story mocks con-
temporary society?) -
- =
- -
I t It&
- T
b > jZ 2
-?j c ~ ~ ~ z w ~ c : ~ ~ & ~ ~ \ L ; ~ ~ ~ L ~ ~ iLf b b> ~ A-= c :
(You can explain that (lit. explain it in a way to mean that) we cannot
do things like that because they are against the rules.)
It h A - tL
x' ;J%;$~+ Y , $ + i i l a - 3 - 3 ku>im1:, ~a)*&&
(This association's convention is held in a big city on the East Coast
every year: last year Boston; this year New York; and so on.)
to iu fg ni / to iu koto wa

(g) Y a 7y.Z- b 2, ?1'3diY77i'l'-2,