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KAPFERER represents brand identity diagrammatically as a six-sided prism as shown below:
Constructed Source/Sender E x t e r n a l i s a t i o n Constructed Receiver I n t e r n a l i s a t i o n
Physique according to him is the basis of the brand.
± E.G. the physique of Philips is ³technology and reliability´ while for the brand Tata it is ³trust´
Personality is same as Aaker, it answers the question ³what happens to this brand when it becomes a person?´ Culture symbolizes the organization, its country-of-origin and the values it stands for.
± E.G. traditional brands like balsara, dabur and zandu.
± E. Reflection is the consumer¶s perception for what the brands stands for. ± E. coke¶s image more attract youth. Self-image is what the consumer think of himself.G. ± E.G. Relationship is the handshake between consumer and the organisation. the relationship with ³safola´ is safety.G. . benz Car owner think that since he has bought the car he is treating himself to one of the best car in the world.
Let us understand the model in detail« .
its name. as well as their own experience ´ . reputation. its history.What is a Brand??? ³ A Brand is a complex symbol.David Ogilvy . packaging and price. A brand is also defined by consumer¶s impression of people who use it. It is the intangible sum of a product¶s attributes. and the way it¶s advertised.
Now let us look at how Brand Experience is differentiated« .
Brand Experience are of Two types Brand Experience External Internal .
The External Brand Experience include Name Logo Advertising Brand Identity Environments Products & Service .
..The Internal Brand Experience include Business Process Customer Relations Brand Values Training Quality Staff Motivation Recruitment Policies Technology etc.
Now let us look at the Brand Identity Prism based on Kapferer model and the 6 key dimensions in it .
Constructed Source E x t e r n a l i s a t i o n Constructed Receiver I n t e r n a l i s a t i o n .-Name -Advertising -Environments -Logo -Brand Identity -Products & Service -Business Process -Brand Values -Quality -Recruitment Policies -Customer Relations -Training -Staff Motivation -Technology etc..
symbols & attributes Personality ± Character & attitude Relationship ± Beliefs & association Culture ± Set of Values Reflection ± Customer¶s view of the brand Self-Image ± Internal mirror of customer as user of brand . Physical ± Product features.
Let us now understand the prism with some examples« .
For Sify India let us look at how they have built the brand basis the Kapferer Model .
Online Access Personality ± Innovative & Tech savvy Culture ± Customer centric & Indian Self -image ± "net" way of life empowered Reflection ± Consistent & dependable performer Relationship ± Best guide to the net .Sify India Physical ± Kite Symbol.
Let us now understand the prism in more detail with a case study« Adidas .
The most important marketing breakthrough was the active promotion of global sporting events. irons and accessories . At the 1972 Olympic game in Munich. The family company split in 1948. Mavic ±Cycle components.Footwear. inline skates. Salomon .Golf balls. skis. apparel. and hardware such as bags and balls. Bonfire ± Snowboard apparel. golf apparel. Activities: manufacture and distribution of textiles. Taylor Made-Adidas Golf . shoes and appliances for sport and related products. apparel. snowblades. in Herzogenaurach in Germany. hiking. Adi Dassler registered more than seven hundred patents. especially the Olympics.Case Study ± Adidas (1) The company Adidas was founded in the early 1920s as Gebruder Dassler Schuhfabrik. Adidas has 107 subsidiaries in 20 countries. Germany. Adidas began selling its shoes in the United States after 1968 and in few years the company dominated the American market. Arc'Teryx . and exports to 160 countries.Outdoor apparel. The strength of Adidas was its product innovation. Adolf (Adi) Dassler founded Adidas and his brother Rudolph founded Puma. After the split. Maxfli .Winter sports incl.Golf equipment. Products: Adidas . footwear and apparel. Cliché ± Skateboard equipment. Exploitation of the registered trademark ³Adidas´ is made where ever it is an opportunity. The connection of Adidas to the Olympics has a rich heritage. climbing equipment. snowboards. The three-stripe logo was designed in 1941 by Adi Dassler and he registered it as a trademark for Adidas after the split. golf shoes and finally. Activities of the company and its subsidiaries are directed from Adidas-Salomon AG's headquarters in Herzogenaurach. Adolf Dassler designed a pair of sport shoes in 1925 and few years later he and his brother Rudolph were selling special shoes for tennis players and began design specific shoes for different sports. ski boots and bindings. every official wore Adidas.
Taylor Made.7 billion. Mostly therefore Adidas was overtaken by Nike at that time. From being the U. Traditionally. In the same period.S. and they had a long supply chain . Mavic and Bonfire.g. Nike had built a successful business in part of riding the explosive growth of running and jogging among casual users. the company have their own factories and wholly owned subsidiaries.4 billion. Adidas was holding on to just a two to three percent share of the U.Case Study ± Adidas (2) In the early 1980s Adidas has sales of $1 billion. and their brand-building model began to lose power.2 billion to more than $3. In America. market. The new company is named Adidas-Salomon AG. Nike¶s sales went from $1.S. In 1990. Methods used are e. during the Adidas recession.it took 18 months to get a new shoe into the market. Between 1988 and 1992 Adidas total sales dropped from nearly $2 billion to $1. market leader in the late 1970s. In 1997Adidas AG acquired the Salomon Group with the brands Salomon. The European market shares dropped while Nike¶s shares grew. This time is now reduced by 50%. was that Adidas was unable to ship products when it was needed. Adidas also have had problems with the upstream value activities in their value chain. Adidas focused mainly on athletes in team sports so they did not participate in the boom of the 1980s. . Adidas¶s market share dropped to 3 percent in 1992. the largest sports market. reducing transporting times trough bypassing warehouses and deliver directly to retailers. What happened in the '70s and forward. Today Adidas aims to have new products closer to the market.
and which roll did it play in the competition between Adidas and Nike? The strategies of Adidas were based on advertising.000 participants In the finals in Germany it attracted 3200 players and 40.Research Problem How have Adidas used the instrument branding. this exercise led to a focusing of the brand and initiatives that built the brand in new directions . sports associations. focuses on individual athletes and their success While Nike have Nike Town shops in the bigger cities in the world. sponsorship programs for team end events and sub-brands Among the similarities between the campaigns for Adidas and Nike we can see their strategies to advertise in a huge scale One difference is that Adidas Endorsement program is focusing on major global events.000 spectators Both Nike and Adidas began their turnarounds by developing a brand identity In each case. and Nike. Adidas have created ³The Adidas Streetball Challenge´ which started out in Germany 1992 and five years later it had over 500. in contrast. and teams.
Now let us do a Comparative analysis through Kapferer¶s Prism model .
Two aspects of Brand Identity Sender Receiver Physique Kapferer means what the central purpose of the brand is (that is what the brand does) Personality Kapferer means the soul of the brand Reflection Kapferer means how the individual in the targeted group identify himself as a person in relation to the brand Self-Image Kapferer means how the individual in the targeted group identify the brand in relation to himself Two dimensions are still left to be explained in the prism. the Relationship and the Culture .
the strongest dimension in the prism. It represents the difference between one brand and another Now let us look at the prism of Adidas and Nike . externalizing the brand from the company outwards. and the culture is an aid for internalizing the brand in the organization and in to the conscious of the customer The Culture is. according to Kapferer. according to Kapferer.The Relationship is.
Adidas Picture of Sender Physique Sports and fitness E x t e r n a l i z a t i o n Personality Traditional. conservative. collective I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n Relationship Quality and heritage Culture European. Strong work ethic Picture of Receiver Self Image Relates more to competing than to winning . Traditional Reflection True sportsmanship. A good team player.
provocation.Nike Picture of Sender Physique Sports and fitness E x t e r n a l i z a t i o n Personality Like Jordan. I am an athlete Picture of Receiver . Woods« I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n Relationship Sponsorship. Just do it! Reflection Aggressive. in. ethics Culture American.your face Self Image Cool.
I am an athlete Personality Like Jordan. Just do l i it! z a t i o Self Image n Cool. Strong work ethic Self Image Relates more to competing than to winning I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n E x t e r n a l i z a t i o n Physique Sports and fitness Relationship Sponsorship. inyour face I n t e r n a Culture American. conservative.Adidas Nike Picture of Sender Picture of Sender E x t e r n a l i z a t i o n Physique Sports and fitness Personality Traditional. ethics Reflection Aggressive. collective Relationship Quality and heritage Culture European. Woods« Picture of Receiver Picture of Receiver Comparative Analysis . A good team player. Traditional Reflection True sportsmanship. provocation.
sponsorship programs focusing on major global events. they made an impact with brilliant executions. the endorsement focus strategy. They made TV and other advertising campaigns. advertising. national teams and big sport events like the Olympic Games and different World Championship events. The company communicate their heritage of innovation.we know now´ and ³There is nothing between you and success. so exceed your own expectations and limitations´ and ³ Earn it´ The success was obvious and after hard work and striving toward a top position in the industry Adidas was back in business. . Mohammad Ali Adidas tried to spread meanings like ³We know then. and teams. but real drivers were huge oversized billboards and murals on buildings that blanketed cities with messages featuring key Nike-sponsored athletes. endorsement focus strategy. not products Adidas took up the competition with Nike through raising their advertising budget to a level that made it possible to compete with Nike on the same conditions and the same strength as Nike did to capture the consumer interest Adidas did not just spend more money. Nike Town and sub-branding The Adidas strategies were based on. advertising« Nike¶s advertising strategy was to create dominant presence in media. sports associations.g. Jordan and T. creating a dominant media presence. Woods and their success stories About the second strategy. and sub-brands To create brand awareness both companies have been using endorsement strategies in their brand-building programs What differs is that Adidas focuses on sponsorship of teams and events e. technology and big success stories with personalities like Emil Zatopek. Nike created media presence in several trend setting United States cities. development of Flagship stores.Comparative Analysis (1) Nike centred their brand equity model on the platforms. This will help them to create awareness with help from different types of media In contrast Nike has their focus on individuals like M. TV ads linking Nike to a city were used.
Nike Town shops in bigger city¶s. For Adidas one image study of consumers found the brand very trendy.Comparative Analysis (2) Nike¶s third strategy was to develop. The ³Equipment´ sub-brand would represent the best. with which they made great success. Reasons for that is one can relate to or identify one self to Nike¶s marketing campaigns like ³Just do it´ and the companies front athletes like Michael Jordan and Tiger Woods. emotion and performance . attitudes and life style. flag ship stores. All marketing actions that both companies are implementing will hopefully result in loyal customers Adidas introduced a sub-brand in 1990 to serve the high-end products for all categories of shoes and apparel.000 spectators Adidas made hereby a brand-building success The Nike customer associated the Nike brand with words like sports. and then abroad Nike was the first company to establish flagship stores and it turned out to be a sensation Adidas choice was to experiment with sport events. it still meant participation. whatever the product was The low-end products.000 participants all over the bigger cities in Europe In the finals in Germany it attracted 3200 players and 40. first national. this event started out as a trail in Berlin in the beginning of the 1990s as one time occasion In the mid 1990s it had become a huge sport event with about 500. Examples of that is the Adidas Streetball Challenge a local three-person team basketball tournament. for the ³normal consumer´ still have a high technology and level of innovation because of their inheritance of the older innovations and technology from the Equipment line This strategy made the Adidas brand take on a different meaning. modern and cool The survey was made in late 1990s.
it seems that both Nike and Adidas companies have succeeded to create a brand loyal customer who perceives the Nike and Adidas products as top quality .7 billion in 1992 to $4.8 billion in 1998 According to sales figures for the both companies.Comparative Analysis (3) This was a success strategy for Adidas so successful that Nike copied their idea and introduced their own line. based on the same idea Nike advanced from $1 billion dollars in 1986 to $ 9.9 billion in 2002. the Alpha line. Adidas advanced from $1.
using the techniques from each others successes. But they created a differentiation in identity of the brand (as seen comparing analysis in the Kapferer Prism Model above) compared to Nike . and Nike stands for a winning over everyone attitude The differentiation is based on the differences in culture between the two companies and between Europe and USA As an overall reflection one can see that Adidas had to overcome.Conclusion (1) Both Adidas and Nike have used the same theoretical systems to create their brand building programs The companies are benchmarking each other. while Nike have their center of attention on stars in specific sport like basketball and Michael Jordan or in golf and Tiger Woods About advertising both companies have about the same scale and scope of advertising but they try to communicate different messages The messages from Adidas is. when Nike launched their sub-brand product Alpha line which was benchmarked on Adidas already launched sub-brand of the Equipment product line for the elite of sports men We can find many similarities like endorsements strategies and the companies advertising strategies but what differs in the endorsement strategies is that Adidas focuses in sponsoring teams and global events. aggressive winner attitude which can be related to the American sports attitude ³You don¶t win silver. that the both companies had the same target group. Adidas choose a brand-building strategy that built on the same theoretical criteria¶s as Nike. the only one you compete with is your self whereas Nike communicate a provocative. you lose gold´ As we can understand the two companies are aiming at nearly the same targeted customer group but with a slightly differentiation of attitude Adidas stand for a competing and winning over your self-attitude.
On top of that they made it so good that they are used as models in higher education. and in advertising. . Events like those communicated the Adidas brand around the world According to the results and positions the brand-building programs have given both Adidas and Nike in the sport industry. events like Adidas Streetball Challenge was created. by doing it trough the same medias.Conclusion (2) Adidas had the same strategy within creating equity value to their brand They challenged Nike in endorsement strategy. one can say that branding have been a totally determining factor. To differentiate them self and make totally own awareness activities. but with a slight difference in communicated message.
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